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Sample records for carbon nanotube magnet

  1. Flightweight Carbon Nanotube Magnet Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. N.; Schmidt, H. J.; Ruoff, R. S.; Chandrasekhar, V.; Dikin, D. A.; Litchford, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Virtually all plasma-based systems for advanced airborne/spaceborne propulsion and power depend upon the future availability of flightweight magnet technology. Unfortunately, current technology for resistive and superconducting magnets yields system weights that tend to counteract the performance advantages normally associated with advanced plasma-based concepts. The ongoing nanotechnology revolution and the continuing development of carbon nanotubes (CNT), however, may ultimately relieve this limitation in the near future. Projections based on recent research indicate that CNTs may achieve current densities at least three orders of magnitude larger than known superconductors and mechanical strength two orders of magnitude larger than steel. In fact, some published work suggests that CNTs are superconductors. Such attributes imply a dramatic increase in magnet performance-to-weight ratio and offer real hope for the construction of true flightweight magnets. This Technical Publication reviews the technology status of CNTs with respect to potential magnet applications and discusses potential techniques for using CNT wires and ropes as a winding material and as an integral component of the containment structure. The technology shortfalls are identified and a research and technology strategy is described that addresses the following major issues: (1) Investigation and verification of mechanical and electrical properties, (2) development of tools for manipulation and fabrication on the nanoscale, (3) continuum/molecular dynamics analysis of nanotube behavior when exposed to practical bending and twisting loads, and (4) exploration of innovative magnet fabrication techniques that exploit the natural attributes of CNTs.

  2. Magnetic characterization of ferrocene derived carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Johnathan

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized/embedded with ferromagnetic particles have several important advantages as materials for magnetic applications. The presence of ferromagnetic particles in a carbon matrix can substantially change the magnetic properties of CNT-based composites. For example, iron filled CNTs have been used as probes in magnetic force microscopy (MFM), and have potential in magnetic data storage applications. In addition, encapsulation in nanotubes provides iron nanoparticles with resistance to oxidation and mechanical damage. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is one of the most common single-step processes for the fabrication of high quality carbon nanotubes containing varying amounts of embedded ferromagnetic particles. This process results in the effective magnetic functionalization of CNTs and opens the door to numerous new applications. However, in order to optimize these materials for any application, their properties need to be understood. This study explores the ferromagnetic properties of carbon nanotubes containing nano-scaled iron particles which were derived from thermal decomposition of ferrocene. Both room temperature as well as low-temperature magnetic measurements will be presented and the results analyzed in the light of available theory.

  3. Magnetically Active Carbon Nanotubes at Work.

    PubMed

    Stopin, Antoine; Pineux, Florent; Marega, Riccardo; Bonifazi, Davide

    2015-06-22

    Endohedral and exohedral assembly of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) recently gave birth to a large body of new hybrid nanomaterials (MNPs-CNTs) featuring properties that are otherwise not in reach with only the graphitic or metallic cores themselves. These materials feature enhanced magnetically guided motions (rotation and translation), magnetic saturation and coercivity, large surface area, and thermal stability. By guiding the reader through the most significant examples in this Concept paper, we describe how researchers in the field engineered and exploited the synergistic combination of these two types of nanoparticles in a large variety of current and potential applications, such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia therapeutics and in magnetic resonance imaging to name a few. PMID:26017389

  4. Magnetically Controlled Terahertz Absorption and Emission in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoi, M. E.; Rosenau da Costa, M.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    We show that an experimentally attainable magnetic field applied along the axis of a metallic carbon nanotube not only opens the gap in the nanotube energy spectrum but also allows optical transitions, which are forbidden in the absence of the field. Possible terahertz applications of this effect are discussed.

  5. Preparation and characterization of biocompatible magnetic carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yan; Chen, Kezheng; Yu, Xuegang; Gao, Lian

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic carbon nanotubes consisting of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) core and Fe3O4 shell were successfully prepared by in situ thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 or FeCl3 or Fe(CO)5 in 2-pyrrolidone containing acid treated MWNTs at 240 °C with the protection of nitrogen gas. The samples were characterized by TEM, XRD, SEAD, XPS and superconducting quantum interference device. Also, their biocompatibility was compared with naked carbon nanotubes. The results showed that after coated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the obtained magnetic carbon nanotubes show superparamagnetic characteristic at room temperature, and their blocking temperature is about 80 K. The magnetic properties of the nanotubes are relevant to the content of magnetic particles, increasing content of magnetic nanoparticles leads to higher blocking temperature and saturation magnetization. The results of antimicrobial activities to bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) showed that the MWNTs have antimicrobial activity, while the magnetic nanotubes are biocompatible even with a higher concentration than that of MWNTs.

  6. Nickel clusters embedded in carbon nanotubes as high performance magnets.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Briones-Leon, Antonio; Domanov, Oleg; Zechner, Georg; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Saito, Takeshi; Eisterer, Michael; Weschke, Eugen; Lang, Wolfgang; Peterlik, Herwig; Pichler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ensembles of fcc nickel nanowires have been synthesized with defined mean sizes in the interior of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The method allows the intrinsic nature of single-domain magnets to emerge with large coercivity as their size becomes as small as the exchange length of nickel. By means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism we probe electronic interactions at nickel-carbon interfaces where nickel exhibit no hysteresis and size-dependent spin magnetic moment. A manifestation of the interacting two subsystems on a bulk scale is traced in the nanotube's magnetoresistance as explained within the framework of weak localization. PMID:26459370

  7. Nickel clusters embedded in carbon nanotubes as high performance magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Briones-Leon, Antonio; Domanov, Oleg; Zechner, Georg; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Saito, Takeshi; Eisterer, Michael; Weschke, Eugen; Lang, Wolfgang; Peterlik, Herwig; Pichler, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Ensembles of fcc nickel nanowires have been synthesized with defined mean sizes in the interior of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The method allows the intrinsic nature of single-domain magnets to emerge with large coercivity as their size becomes as small as the exchange length of nickel. By means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism we probe electronic interactions at nickel-carbon interfaces where nickel exhibit no hysteresis and size-dependent spin magnetic moment. A manifestation of the interacting two subsystems on a bulk scale is traced in the nanotube’s magnetoresistance as explained within the framework of weak localization.

  8. Nickel clusters embedded in carbon nanotubes as high performance magnets

    PubMed Central

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Briones-Leon, Antonio; Domanov, Oleg; Zechner, Georg; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Saito, Takeshi; Eisterer, Michael; Weschke, Eugen; Lang, Wolfgang; Peterlik, Herwig; Pichler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ensembles of fcc nickel nanowires have been synthesized with defined mean sizes in the interior of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The method allows the intrinsic nature of single-domain magnets to emerge with large coercivity as their size becomes as small as the exchange length of nickel. By means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism we probe electronic interactions at nickel-carbon interfaces where nickel exhibit no hysteresis and size-dependent spin magnetic moment. A manifestation of the interacting two subsystems on a bulk scale is traced in the nanotube’s magnetoresistance as explained within the framework of weak localization. PMID:26459370

  9. Carbon nanotubes and magnetic nanomaterials as substratum for neuroscience applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aatre, Kiran R.

    Nanomaterials have, for the last 10-15 years, been seriously researched for applications ranging from conducting polymers, composites, chemical, biological sensors, etc. Carbon nanotubes have been researched for incorporation with biological sensors and delivery systems. Researchers have shown that their compatible size, bio-friendly inert nature, non-fouling, multiple functional chemistries, and excellent conducting properties give rise to a possibility of utilizing them as scaffold material for the growth and proliferation of biological cells, like neurons. Neurons damaged as part of gradual degradation or through impact injuries leave patients with severely debilitating conditions. The use of Carbon Nanotubes as a substratum to support neural growth has been studied, while the development of magnetic nanotubes opens the possibility of developing a non-invasive method using magnetic fields and for therapeutic/restorative devices for alleviating nervous system disorders. A combination of nanomaterials coupled with magnetic fields can be utilized for the development of such devices. The research described in this dissertation details the experiments conducted to compare carbon nanotubes, hematite nanotubes and magnetite nanowires as a substratum for neuronal growth. The effect of low magnetic fields (23.7 Ga) in combination with the various nanomaterials on the growth of neurites was also studied. The growth characteristics were compared against a standard control sample without the influence of nanomaterial substrates and magnetic fields. The levels of cell death caused by each kind of nanomaterial were also examined to ascertain a suitable material for the future development of a therapeutic/restorative neural probe/sensor.

  10. Microwave absorption in nanocomposite material of magnetically functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labunov, V. A.; Danilyuk, A. L.; Prudnikava, A. L.; Komissarov, I.; Shulitski, B. G.; Speisser, C.; Antoni, F.; Le Normand, F.; Prischepa, S. L.

    2012-07-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic radiation in X and Ka bands with magnetic nanocomposite of disordered carbon nanotubes arrays has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Samples were synthesized on the quartz reactor walls by decomposition of ferrocene and xylene which provided random intercalation of iron phase nanoparticles in carbon nanotube array. The exhaustive characterization of the samples by means of the scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy was performed. It was found that the absorption of the electromagnetic wave monotonically increases with the frequency. To describe these experimental data, we extended the Bruggeman effective medium theory to a more complex case of a magnetic nanocomposite with randomly distributed spherical ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a conducting medium. The essential feature of the developed model is the consideration of the complex nature of the studied material. In particular, such important parameters as magnetic and dielectric properties of both the carbon nanotube medium and the nanoparticles, the volume concentration and the dimensions of the nanoparticles, the wave impedance of the resistive-capacitive shells of the conductive nanoparticles are explicitly taken into account in our model. Moreover, analysing the experimental results, we were able to obtain the frequency dependencies of permittivity and permeability of the studied nanocomposite.

  11. Magnetorheological properties of a magnetic nanofluid with dispersed carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felicia, Leona J.; Philip, John

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the magnetorheological properties of an oil based magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid). The shear resistant plateau observed in a pure ferrofluid disappears when 0.5 wt % of MWCNT is incorporated. The yield stress values of the composite system are slightly smaller than that of the pure system. This shows that the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) weakens the magnetic field induced microstructure of the ferrofluid due to their interaction that affects the hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between the dispersed nanoparticles. Interestingly, the Mason number plots for both the pure and composite system show scaling of the viscosity curves onto a single master curve for magnetic fields of 80 mT and above while deviations are observed for lower magnetic fields. The weakening of the ferrofluid microstructure in the presence of CNTs is further evident in the amplitude sweep measurements where the linear viscoelastic region develops only at a higher magnetic field strength compared to lower magnetic fields in pure ferrofluids. These results are useful for tailoring ferrofluids with a faster response for various applications.

  12. Magnetic nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-11-16

    A magnetic nanotube includes bacterial magnetic nanocrystals contacted onto a nanotube which absorbs the nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are contacted on at least one surface of the nanotube. A method of fabricating a magnetic nanotube includes synthesizing the bacterial magnetic nanocrystals, which have an outer layer of proteins. A nanotube provided is capable of absorbing the nanocrystals and contacting the nanotube with the nanocrystals. The nanotube is preferably a peptide bolaamphiphile. A nanotube solution and a nanocrystal solution including a buffer and a concentration of nanocrystals are mixed. The concentration of nanocrystals is optimized, resulting in a nanocrystal to nanotube ratio for which bacterial magnetic nanocrystals are immobilized on at least one surface of the nanotubes. The ratio controls whether the nanocrystals bind only to the interior or to the exterior surfaces of the nanotubes. Uses include cell manipulation and separation, biological assay, enzyme recovery, and biosensors.

  13. Sensitive magnetic force detection with a carbon nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Willick, Kyle; Haapamaki, Chris; Baugh, Jonathan

    2014-03-21

    We propose a technique for sensitive magnetic point force detection using a suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) mechanical resonator combined with a magnetic field gradient generated by a ferromagnetic gate electrode. Numerical calculations of the mechanical resonance frequency show that single Bohr magneton changes in the magnetic state of an individual magnetic molecule grafted to the CNT can translate to detectable frequency shifts, on the order of a few kHz. The dependences of the resonator response to device parameters such as length, tension, CNT diameter, and gate voltage are explored and optimal operating conditions are identified. A signal-to-noise analysis shows that, in principle, magnetic switching at the level of a single Bohr magneton can be read out in a single shot on timescales as short as 10 μs. This force sensor should enable new studies of spin dynamics in isolated single molecule magnets, free from the crystalline or ensemble settings typically studied.

  14. Anisotropic conductivity of magnetic carbon nanotubes embedded in epoxy matrices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Tae; Tannenbaum, Allen; Tannenbaum, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid-materials were synthesized and their anisotropic electrical conductivities as a result of their alignment in a polymer matrix under an external magnetic field were investigated. The tethering of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on the surface of MWCNT was achieved by a modified sol-gel reaction, where sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS) was used in order to inhibit the formation of a 3D iron oxide gel. These hybrid-materials, specifically, magnetized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs) were readily aligned parallel to the direction of a magnetic field even when using a relatively weak magnetic field. The conductivity of the epoxy composites formed in this manner increased with increasing m-MWCNT mass fraction in the polymer matrix. Furthermore, the conductivities parallel to the direction of magnetic field were higher than those in the perpendicular direction, indicating that the alignment of the m-MWCNT contributed to the enhancement of the anisotropic electrical properties of the composites in the direction of alignment. PMID:23019381

  15. Imaging Carbon Nanotubes in High Performance Polymer Composites via Magnetic Force Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillehei, Peter T.; Park, Cheol; Rouse, Jason H.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Application of carbon nanotubes as reinforcement in structural composites is dependent on the efficient dispersion of the nanotubes in a high performance polymer matrix. The characterization of such dispersion is limited by the lack of available tools to visualize the quality of the matrix/carbon nanotube interaction. The work reported herein demonstrates the use of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) as a promising technique for characterizing the dispersion of nanotubes in a high performance polymer matrix.

  16. Magnetic brightening of carbon nanotube photoluminescence through symmetry breaking.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Jonah; Kono, Junichiro; Portugall, Oliver; Krstić, Vojislav; Rikken, Geert L J A; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Maruyama, Shigeo; Perebeinos, Vasili

    2007-07-01

    We report that symmetry breaking by a magnetic field can drastically increase the photoluminescence quantum yield of single-walled carbon nanotubes, by as much as a factor of 6, at low temperatures. To explain this we have developed a theoretical model based on field-dependent exciton band structure and the interplay of Coulomb interactions and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. This conclusively explains our data as the first experimental observation of dark excitons 5-10 meV below the bright excitons. PMID:17542638

  17. Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes: Materials Development and Property Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifu, Dereje; Karna, Shashi

    2009-03-01

    A versatile chemical method was used to fill multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with ferromagnetic nanoparticles [1]. For the first time, pulsed laser deposition and magnetron DC sputtering were used to fill vertically aligned MWCNTs. The later approaches gave high-yield nanoparticle filling of MWCNTs. Samples were characterized by Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, M"ossbauer Spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. M"ossbauer measurements on chemically impregnated MWCNTs clearly show the presence of atomic Fe as well as mixed phases of Fe nano-particles inside the tubes. Magnetization measurements on PLD-filled vertically aligned MWCNTs indicate reasonable coercivity. However, the magnetic anisotropy appears to be randomly oriented, suggesting polycrystalline sample. Acknowledgement: The research at Morgan State University was partially supported by the US ARL-WMRD (W1813LT-5006-7056). [1] D. Seifu, Y. Hijji, G. Hirsch, and S. P. Karna, J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 320, 312 (2008).

  18. Synthesis of magnetic carbon nanotube and photocatalytic dye degradation ability.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, magnetic carbon nanotube (M-CNT) was synthesized. The photocatalytic dye degradation ability of M-CNT in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from colored wastewater was studied. Manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) was synthesized in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotube. Direct Red 23 (DR23), Direct Red 31 (DR31), and Direct Red 81 (DR81) were used as anionic dyes. The characteristics of M-CNT were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic dye degradation using M-CNT was studied by UV-vis spectrophotometer and ion chromatography (IC). The effects of M-CNT dosage, initial dye concentration, and salt on the degradation of dye were evaluated. Formate, acetate, and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates. Inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate anions) were detected and quantified as the mineralization products of dyes during the degradation process. The results indicated that the M-CNT could be used as a magnetic catalyst to degrade anionic dyes from colored wastewater. PMID:24838801

  19. Magnetic field induced by the carbon nanotubes current by magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-04-01

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are reported to be able to generate large magnetic field because of their nanometer-size-diameter [K. Tsubaki, H. Yamaguchi, J. Phys. C 38 (2006) 49]. The magnetic fields around CNTs current path are investigated by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Under the consideration of the magnetic properties of magnetically coated tip of MFM, tip heights, current directions, and background magnetic field, etc., the magnetic field distribution are analyzed. The distribution of the magnetic field generated by the CNTs current is found to be asymmetric, and its distribution anomaly is found to be a kind of hysteresis effect of the MFM cantilever materials.

  20. Lipase immobilized on magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huishan; Feng, Wei; Ji, Peijun

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were loaded onto the surfaces of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by the impregnation method. The obtained magnetic nanotubes were characterized with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Yarrowia lipolytica lipase was covalently immobilized on the magnetic MWNTs (M-MWNTs). M-MWNT-lipase was characterized with XPS spectra and XRD patterns. The structural change of the immobilized lipase was analyzed through circular dichroism spectroscopy. M-MWNT-lipase was utilized for the resolution of (R, S)-1-phenyl ethanol in the organic solvent of heptane. Compared to the native lipase, the lipase immobilized on M-MWNTs has significantly improved its enzymatic activity for the resolution of (R, S)-1-phenyl ethanol in heptane. M-MWNT-lipase can be easily recovered after catalysis. In addition, the effect of sonication time on the catalytic activity was also investigated. It is found that, up to 30min sonication, the catalysis by M-MWNT-lipase is almost not affected. While, the catalytic activity of the native lipase is decreased with sonication time. PMID:22115533

  1. Magnetic properties of iron particles embedded in multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Arya, Ved Prakash; Prasad, V; Kumar, P S Anil

    2009-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles are embedded in multiwall carbon nanotubes by the chemical vapor deposition, where benzene and ferrocene are taken as precursor materials. Varying quantity of iron particles are embedded in these tubes by taking different amount of ferrocene. These particles exhibit a magnetic moment up to 98 emu/g and an enhanced coercivity in the range of 500-2000 Oe. Negative magnetoresistance approximately 10% is observed in the presence of magnetic field up to 11 T applied at various temperatures in the range of 1.3 K-300 K. It is argued that the enhanced coercivity is due to the shape anisotropy. The negative magnetoresistance is believed to be due to the weak localization and spin dependent scattering of electrons by the ferromagnetic particles. In addition we also observe a dependence of the magnetoresistance on the direction of applied field and this is correlated with the shape anisotropy of the Fe particles. PMID:19928233

  2. Increasing the length of single-wall carbon nanotubes in a magnetically enhanced arc discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Keidar, Michael; Levchenko, Igor; Ostrikov, Kostya; Arbel, Tamir; Alexander, Myriam; Waas, Anthony M.

    2008-01-28

    It is demonstrated that a magnetic field has a profound effect on the length of a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesized in the arc discharge. The average length of SWCNT increases by a factor of 2 in discharge with magnetic field as compared with the discharge without magnetic field, and the yield of long nanotubes with lengths above 5 {mu}m also increases. A model of SWCNT growth on metal catalyst in arc plasma was developed. Monte-Carlo simulations confirm that the increase of the plasma density in the magnetic field leads to an increase in the nanotube growth rate and thus leads to longer nanotubes.

  3. Electrostatic waves in carbon nanotubes with an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Abdikian, Alireza; Bagheri, Mehran

    2013-10-15

    Based on a linearized hydrodynamic model and within the quasi-static approximation, the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating through single-walled carbon nanotubes subject to an axial magnetic field is theoretically explored. In the classical limit, we obtain two main possible waves which in turn are divided into two branches, a low-frequency acoustical and a high-frequency optical plasmon branch. In the quantum case, we have found that the dispersion relation is substantially modified when the electron wavelength becomes large enough compared to the propagation wavelength of the electrostatic waves in the quantum plasma. We also show that the axial magnetic field manifest itself on the perturbed electron density through the quantum term and gives rise to the propagation of the electrostatic waves within the quantum plasma. As a result, the effect of the magnetic field is pronounced in the plasma dispersion relations in such a way that their curves approach to zero when the magnetic field is weak; and for the strong magnetic field, they asymptotically meet the constant lines.

  4. Magnetic Property Measurements on Single Wall Carbon Nanotube-Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Keun J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Park, Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Temperature and magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements were performed on polyimide nanocomposite samples, synthesized with various weight percentages of single wall carbon nanotubes. It was found that the magnetization of the composite, normalized to the mass of nanotube material in the sample, decreased with increasing weight percentage of nanotubes. It is possible that the interfacial coupling between the carbon nanotube (CNT) fillers and the polyimide matrix promotes the diamagnetic response from CNTs and reduces the total magnetization of the composite. The coercivity of the samples, believed to originate from the residual magnetic catalyst particles, was enhanced and had a stronger temperature dependence as a result of the composite synthesis. These changes in magnetic properties can form the basis of a new approach to investigate the interfacial properties in the CNT nanocomposites through magnetic property measurements.

  5. Coherent Transport on Carbon Nanotube Junctions under a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Monica; Rosales, Luis; Barticevic, Zdenka; Rocha, Claudia; Latge, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    In this work we study the effects of a magnetic field on the electronic and transport properties of different carbon-nanotube based heterostructures (CNHs) like single junctions and single and double quantum dots [1]. All of them are formed by joining two zigzag tubes using a single pentagon-heptagon pair defect. Emphasis is put on the analysis of the local density of states (LDOS), the conductance, and on the characteristic curves of current versus voltage of the CNHs. We described the system by means of a tight-binding Hamiltonian and the LDOS is calculated using real-space renormalization techniques [2]. The conductance is calculated using the Landauer formula in the Green functions formalism and the characteristic curves of current is calculated numerically through the Landauer- B"uttiker formalism. All the Green functions are obtained numerically and the effects of the magnetic field are described within the Peierls phase approximation. [1] L. Rosales, C. Rocha, A. Latg'e, M. Pacheco and Z. Barticevic, cond-mat/0611380, submitted to Phys. Rev. B (2006). [2] M. Ferreira, A. Latg'e, R. Muniz, T. Dargam, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16040 (2000).

  6. Magnetic configuration dependence of magnetoresistance in a Fe-porphyrin-like carbon nanotube spintronic device

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jing; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2014-01-20

    By using nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density functional theory, we investigate the spin-dependent transport properties in a Fe-porphyrin-like carbon nanotube spintronic device. The results show that magnetoresistance ratio is strongly dependent on the magnetic configuration of the Fe-porphyrin-like carbon nanotube. Under the application of the external magnetic field, the magnetoresistance ratio of the device can be increased from about 19% to about 1020% by tuning the magnetic configuration in the device. Our results confirm that the magnetic configuration is a key factor for obtaining a high-performance spintronic device.

  7. Magnetic carbon nanotubes: synthesis by electrostatic self-assembly approach and application in biomanipulations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Li, Wenwen; Morimoto, Hisao; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Maekawa, Toru

    2006-04-13

    Magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were facilely prepared by the electrostatic self-assembly approach. Poly(2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEMA) was covalently grafted onto the surfaces of MWNTs by MWNT-initiated in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA). The PDEAEMA-grafted MWNTs were quaternized with methyl iodide (CH(3)I), resulting in cationic polyelectrolyte-grafted MWNTs (MWNT-PAmI). Magnetic iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles were loaded onto the MWNT surfaces by electrostatic self-assembling between MWNT-PAmI and Fe(3)O(4), affording magnetic nanotubes. The assembled capability of the nanoparticles can be adjusted to some extent by changing the feed ratio of Fe(3)O(4) to MWNT-PAmI. The obtained magnetic nanotubes were characterized with TEM, EDS, STEM, and element mapping analyses. TEM and EDS measurements confirmed the nanostructures and the components of the resulting nanoobjects. The magnetic nanotubes were assembled onto sheep red blood cells in a phosphate buffer solution, forming magnetic cells. The blood cells attached with or without magnetic nanotubes can be selectively manipulated in a magnetic field. These results promise a general and efficient strategy to magnetic nanotubes and the fascinating potential of such magnetic nanoobjects in applications of bionanoscience and technology. PMID:16599489

  8. Magnetization for lower temperature, selective diamond and carbon nanotube formation: A milestone in carbon physicochemical condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Reginald B.; Goddard, Robert

    2004-03-01

    Diamonds and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have extraordinary properties with the potential for vast technological and scientific advancements. However, the syntheses of these super materials have required extreme conditions. Recent synthetic developments surrounding catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) have contributed to more suitable, practical and economical preparations, but more progress is needed for better selectivity, purity, and mass production of CNTs and diamonds. Such synthetic advancements require a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of formation on the atomic scale. A recent comprehensive mechanism of Little suggests the importance of high-spin electronic states and the rehybridization mechanics of carbon atoms and metal atoms (for catalytic synthesis) during the nucleation and growth of CNTs and diamonds. The significance of these predictions is demonstrated in this work by using an intense, static magnetic field of several teslas to influence carbon fixation events during carbon CCVD. Single crystalline diamonds are discovered to nucleate and grow under the influence of the static magnetic field (19.3 T) under catalytic CVD conditions that normally result in carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, this technique results in a bottom-up approach for creating diamond nucleation sites on the basis of a so-called chemical preabrasion of the silicon substrate with the potential advantage of the control of seeding nucleation-site density and nonrandom patterning for larger single crystal diamond syntheses. This technique also provides a basis for diamond-CNT composite super materials. Moreover, the observed influence of high magnetic field on diamond formation provides implications concerning natural diamond genesis in the earth's mantle and core in comparison to celestial diamond formation. Furthermore, these findings suggest uses of polarized and nonpolarized neutron irradiation for static and dynamic magnetic interactions, leading to diamond and CNT productivity, respectively.

  9. Endowing carbon nanotubes with superparamagnetic properties: applications for cell labeling, MRI cell tracking and magnetic manipulations.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Garofalo, Antonio; Popa, Gabriela; Wilhelm, Claire; Bgin-Colin, Sylvie; Felder-Flesch, Delphine; Bianco, Alberto; Gazeau, Florence; Mnard-Moyon, Ccilia

    2013-05-21

    Coating of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) imparts novel magnetic, optical, and thermal properties with potential applications in the biomedical domain. Multi-walled CNTs have been decorated with iron oxide superparamagnetic NPs. Two different approaches have been investigated based on ligand exchange or "click chemistry". The presence of the NPs on the nanotube surface allows conferring magnetic properties to CNTs. We have evaluated the potential of the NP/CNT hybrids as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their interactions with cells. The capacity of the hybrids to magnetically monitor and manipulate cells has also been investigated. The NP/CNTs can be manipulated by a remote magnetic field with enhanced contrast in MRI. They are internalized into tumor cells without showing cytotoxicity. The labeled cells can be magnetically manipulated as they display magnetic mobility and are detected at a single cell level through high resolution MRI. PMID:23579421

  10. Nonlocal elasticity based magnetic field affected vibration response of double single-walled carbon nanotube systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, T.; McCarthy, M. A.; Adhikari, S.

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of carbon nanotubes in a magnetic field has attracted considerable attention in the scientific community. This paper reports the effects of a longitudinal magnetic field on the vibration of a magnetically sensitive double single-walled carbon nanotube system (DSWNTS). The two nanotubes of the DSWNTS are coupled by an elastic medium. The dynamical equations of the DSWNTS are derived using nonlocal elasticity theory. The two nanotubes are defined as an equivalent nonlocal double-Euler-Bernoulli beam system. Governing equations for nonlocal bending-vibration of the DSWNTS under a longitudinal magnetic field are derived considering the Lorentz magnetic force obtained from Maxwell's relation. An analytical method is proposed to obtain nonlocal natural frequencies of the DSWNTS. The influence of (i) nanoscale effects and (ii) strength of longitudinal magnetic field on the synchronous and asynchronous vibration phase of the DSWNTS is examined. Nonlocal effects with and without the effect of magnetic field are illustrated. Results reveal the difference (quantitatively) by which the longitudinal magnetic field affects the nonlocal frequency in the synchronous and asynchronous vibration modes of a DSWNTS.

  11. Dual modality photothermal OCT and magnetic resonance imaging with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Hong, Tu; Colvin, Daniel C.; Xu, Yaqiong; Skala, Melissa C.

    2012-03-01

    Preclinical molecular imaging of cancer has the potential to increase the understanding of fundamental cancer biology, elucidate mechanisms of cancer treatment resistance, and increase effectiveness of drug candidates. Optical and magnetic resonance imaging contain complementary strengths, suitable for gaining a wealth of knowledge when combined. Here, we demonstrate the inherent contrast sensitivity of single walled carbon nanotubes to absorption based photothermal optical coherence tomography (PT-OCT), and magnetic resonance imaging spin dephasing contrast (T2). A spectral-domain OCT system was interfaced with an amplitude-modulated (100 Hz) titanium sapphire pump beam for PT-OCT imaging. MRI was performed with a commercial 4.7 T animal scanner. With both imaging tools, contrast agent signal linearity (r2 > 0.95) and nM sensitivity over background (p < 0.05) was experimentally determined with serially dilute solutions of carbon nanotubes coated in amine-terminated polyethylene glycol. The surface functionalization chemistry for carbon nanotubes is well understood, and molecular targeting has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, making carbon nanotubes an attractive agent for molecular imaging in preclinical models. We have demonstrated the initial characterization steps for using carbon nanotubes for multi-modality imaging with PT-OCT and MRI.

  12. Endowing carbon nanotubes with superparamagnetic properties: applications for cell labeling, MRI cell tracking and magnetic manipulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Garofalo, Antonio; Popa, Gabriela; Wilhelm, Claire; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Felder-Flesch, Delphine; Bianco, Alberto; Gazeau, Florence; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia

    2013-05-01

    Coating of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) imparts novel magnetic, optical, and thermal properties with potential applications in the biomedical domain. Multi-walled CNTs have been decorated with iron oxide superparamagnetic NPs. Two different approaches have been investigated based on ligand exchange or ``click chemistry''. The presence of the NPs on the nanotube surface allows conferring magnetic properties to CNTs. We have evaluated the potential of the NP/CNT hybrids as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their interactions with cells. The capacity of the hybrids to magnetically monitor and manipulate cells has also been investigated. The NP/CNTs can be manipulated by a remote magnetic field with enhanced contrast in MRI. They are internalized into tumor cells without showing cytotoxicity. The labeled cells can be magnetically manipulated as they display magnetic mobility and are detected at a single cell level through high resolution MRI.Coating of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) imparts novel magnetic, optical, and thermal properties with potential applications in the biomedical domain. Multi-walled CNTs have been decorated with iron oxide superparamagnetic NPs. Two different approaches have been investigated based on ligand exchange or ``click chemistry''. The presence of the NPs on the nanotube surface allows conferring magnetic properties to CNTs. We have evaluated the potential of the NP/CNT hybrids as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their interactions with cells. The capacity of the hybrids to magnetically monitor and manipulate cells has also been investigated. The NP/CNTs can be manipulated by a remote magnetic field with enhanced contrast in MRI. They are internalized into tumor cells without showing cytotoxicity. The labeled cells can be magnetically manipulated as they display magnetic mobility and are detected at a single cell level through high resolution MRI. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM image, DLS diagram, and FT-IR data. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00636k

  13. Fe3C-filled carbon nanotubes: permanent cylindrical nanomagnets possessing exotic magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Reetu; Krishnia, Lucky; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, H. K.; Kotnala, R. K.; Juluri, R. R.; Bhatta, U. M.; Satyam, P. V.; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Naqvi, Zainab; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to deduce the confinement effect on the magnetic properties of iron carbide (Fe3C) nanorods filled inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and to document any structural phase transitions that can be induced by compressive/tensile stress generated within the nanorod. Enhancement in the magnetic properties of the nanorods is attributed to tensile stress as well as to compression, present in the radial direction and along the nanotube axis, respectively. Finally, the growth of permanent cylindrical nanomagnets has been optimized by applying a field gradient. Besides presenting the growth model of in situ filling, we have also proposed the mechanism of magnetization of the nanotubes. Magnetization along the tube axis has been probed by confirming the pole formation. Fe3C has been selected because of its ease of formation, low TC and incompressibility.

  14. In vivo detection of magnetic labeled oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruibin; Wu, Ren'an; Zhao, Liang; Qin, Hongqiang; Wu, Jianlin; Zhang, Jingwen; Bao, Ruyi; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-12-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) have been widely used in bio-medicine as drug carriers, bio-sensors, imaging agents and tissue engineering additives, which demands better understanding of their in vivo behavior because of the increasing exposure potential to humans. However, there are limited studies to investigate the in vivo biodistribution and elimination of f-CNTs. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) were used to label oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) for in vivo distribution study of o-MWCNTs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). SPIO labeled o-MWCNTs ((SPIO)o-MWCNTs) were prepared by a hydrothermal reaction process, and characterized by TEM, XRD and magnetometer. (SPIO)o-MWCNTs exhibited superparamagnetic property, excellent biocompatibility and stability. The intravenously injected (SPIO)o-MWCNTs were observed in liver, kidney and spleen, while the subcutaneously injected (SPIO)o-MWCNTs could be only detected in sub mucosa. Most of the intravenously injected (SPIO)o-MWCNTs could be eliminated from liver, spleen, kidney and sub mucosa on 4 d post injection (P.I.). However, the residual o-MWCNTs could induce 30-40% MRI signal-to-noise ratio changes in these tissues even on 30 d P.I. This in vivo biodistribution and elimination information of o-MWCNTs will greatly facilitate the application of f-CNT based nanoproducts in biomedicine. In addition, the magnetic labeling method provides an approach to investigate the in vivo biodistribution and clearance of other nanomaterials.

  15. Single-step synthesis and magnetic separation of graphene and carbon nanotubes in arc discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotskova, O.; Levchenko, I.; Shashurin, A.; Raitses, Y.; Ostrikov, K.; Keidar, M.

    2010-10-01

    The unique properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes made them the most promising nanomaterials attracting enormous attention, due to the prospects for applications in various nanodevices, from nanoelectronics to sensors and energy conversion devices. Here we report on a novel deterministic, single-step approach to simultaneous production and magnetic separation of graphene flakes and carbon nanotubes in an arc discharge by splitting the high-temperature growth and low-temperature separation zones using a non-uniform magnetic field and tailor-designed catalyst alloy, and depositing nanotubes and graphene in different areas. Our results are very relevant to the development of commercially-viable, single-step production of bulk amounts of high-quality graphene.The unique properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes made them the most promising nanomaterials attracting enormous attention, due to the prospects for applications in various nanodevices, from nanoelectronics to sensors and energy conversion devices. Here we report on a novel deterministic, single-step approach to simultaneous production and magnetic separation of graphene flakes and carbon nanotubes in an arc discharge by splitting the high-temperature growth and low-temperature separation zones using a non-uniform magnetic field and tailor-designed catalyst alloy, and depositing nanotubes and graphene in different areas. Our results are very relevant to the development of commercially-viable, single-step production of bulk amounts of high-quality graphene. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the setup and process; details on the micro-Raman, TEM, SEM, AFM, and characterization of the carbon deposits in different collection areas; detailed description of the results obtained by micro-Raman, AFM and electron diffraction techniques. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00416b

  16. Zeeman effect on the electronic spectral properties of carbon nanotubes in an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jie; Dong, Jinming; Xing, D. Y.

    2000-11-01

    The density-of-states (DOS) near Fermi level of a single-wall carbon nanotube is studied in the presence of a magnetic field (B) parallel to the nanotube axis. Expressions of the band gap and the DOS near the Fermi level are derived in the case of with and without spin-B interaction. A magnetic-field-induced metal-insulator transition is indicated in the variation of the band gap and the DOS. Zeeman effect on the band gap and the DOS is obvious from the derived expressions. These results may be observed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements.

  17. Magneto-Coulomb effect in carbon nanotube quantum dots filled with magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Datta, S; Marty, L; Cleuziou, J P; Tilmaciu, C; Soula, B; Flahaut, E; Wernsdorfer, W

    2011-10-28

    Electrical transport measurements of carbon nanotubes filled with magnetic iron nanoparticles are reported. Low-temperature (40 mK) magnetoresistance measurements showed conductance hysteresis with sharp jumps at the switching fields of the nanoparticles. Depending on the gate voltage, positive or negative hysteresis was observed. The results are explained in terms of a magneto-Coulomb effect: The spin flip of the iron island at a nonzero magnetic field causes a shift of the chemical potential induced by the change of Zeeman energy; i.e., an effective charge variation is detected by the nanotube quantum dot. PMID:22107663

  18. Tuning electronic transport in cobalt-filled carbon nanotubes using magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Rossella, Francesco; Soldano, Caterina; Onorato, Pasquale; Bellani, Vittorio

    2014-01-21

    Metal-filled and decorated carbon nanotubes represent a class of quasi one-dimensional hybrid systems with enormous potential for applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. Here we show that is possible to control the electrical conduction in ferromagnetic metal-filled carbon nanotubes by means of external magnetic fields, suggesting specific dimensionality-dependent conduction regimes. By increasing the magnetic field, we drive the charge flow from a positive to a negative magneto-conductance, revealing channel-selective conduction. Furthermore, the zero-field current temperature dependence shows different regimes, suggesting that the inter-shell hopping, assisted by the cobalt clusters, plays a key role in the dimensional crossover. The possibility of engineering and controlling the nature and size of the conducting shells and the filling with magnetic materials can allow the implementation of these systems in tunable hybrid nano-sensors and multifunctional magnetic devices. PMID:24257837

  19. Magnetic properties and transmission electron microscopy studies of Ni nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon nanocages and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    He Chunnian; Zhao Naiqin Shi Chunsheng; Li Jiajun; Li Haipeng

    2008-08-04

    Three types of carbon nanomaterials, including bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes with Ni encapsulated and hollow and Ni catalytic particles filled carbon nanocages, have been prepared by methane catalytic decomposition at a relatively low temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed that fascinating fullerene-like Ni-C (graphitic) core-shell nanostructures predominated. Detailed examination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that the walls of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes with quasi-cone catalytic particles encapsulated consisted of oblique graphene planes with respect to the tube axis. The Ni particles encapsulated in the carbon nanocages were larger than that encapsulated in carbon nanotubes, but the diameters of the cores of hollow carbon nanocages were less than that of Ni particles encapsulated in carbon nanotubes, suggesting that the sizes of catalyst particles played an important role during carbon nanomaterial growth. The magnetic properties of the carbon nanomaterials were measured, which showed relatively large coercive force (H{sub c} = 138.4 O{sub e}) and good ferromagnetism (M{sub r}/M{sub s} = 0.325)

  20. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  1. Preparation of Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes (Mag-CNTs) for Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Masotti, Andrea; Caporali, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely studied for their potential applications in many fields from nanotechnology to biomedicine. The preparation of magnetic CNTs (Mag-CNTs) opens new avenues in nanobiotechnology and biomedical applications as a consequence of their multiple properties embedded within the same moiety. Several preparation techniques have been developed during the last few years to obtain magnetic CNTs: grafting or filling nanotubes with magnetic ferrofluids or attachment of magnetic nanoparticles to CNTs or their polymeric coating. These strategies allow the generation of novel versatile systems that can be employed in many biotechnological or biomedical fields. Here, we review and discuss the most recent papers dealing with the preparation of magnetic CNTs and their application in biomedical and biotechnological fields. PMID:24351838

  2. Mechanical Measurement of Magnetization Reversal in a Single Iron Filled Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Palash; Herman, M.; Fong, K. C.; Pelekhov, D. V.; Obukhov, Yu.; Hammel, P. Chris; Wolny, F.; Weissker, U.; Mühl, T.; Leonhardt, A.; Büchner, Bernd

    2009-03-01

    The hysteresis loop and switching behavior of an individual Fe-filled carbon nanotube (FeCNT) has been measured at low temperatures using cantilever magnetometry. From the magnetometry data, we are able to extract the total moment of the nanotube and the effective anisotropy field arising from the extreme aspect ratio of the nanotube (length ˜13 μm, diameter ˜ 25 nm). We find the magnetization reversal in the FeCNT occurs at a well defined switching field Hsw and in a single step. These switching fields (Hsw = 2245 G at 4.2 K) are characterized by a narrow distribution (σsw<= 1 G) and their measured temperature dependence is consistent with a thermally activated process of magnetization reversal. This work was supported by the NSF Materials World Network grant DMR-0807093 and a NSF I2CAM Grant DMR-0645461. P.B. acknowledges support of the ICAM Branches Cost Sharing Fund for a postdoctoral fellowship.

  3. Fast Characterization of Magnetic Impurities in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Feng; Xue, Y. Y.; Hadijiev, Viktor G.; Chu, C. W.; Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the magnetic susceptibility measurement is a non-destructive, fast and accurate method to determine the residual metal catalysts in a few microgram single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) sample. We have studied magnetic impurities in raw and purified SWCNT by magnetic susceptibility measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry. The data suggest that the saturation magnetic moment and the effective field, which is caused by the interparticle interactions, decreases and increases respectively with the decrease of the particle size. Methods are suggested to overcome the uncertainty associated.

  4. Progammed synthesis of magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes for organic pollutant adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yue; Zhang, Min; Xia, Peixiong; Wang, Linlin; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weizhen; Xu, Jingli

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes were produced from hydrophilic monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes using well controlled programmed synthesis method and were characterized by TEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, N2 adsorption-desorption and VSM. The well-designed mesoporous magnetic nanotubes had a large specific area, a highly open mesoporous structure and high magnetization. Firstly, SiO2-coated maghemite/CNTs nanoparticles (CNTs/Fe3O4@SiO2 composites) were synthesized by the combination of high temperature decomposition process and an sol-gel method, in which the iron acetylacetonate as well as TEOS acted as the precursor for maghemite and SiO2, respectively. The CNTs/Fe3O4@SiO2 composites revealed a core-shell structure, Then, CNTs/Fe3O4@mSiO2 was obtained by extracting cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) via an ion-exchange procedure. The resulting composites show not only a magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field, but also can be a good adsorbent for the organic pollutant in the ambient temperature.

  5. Magnetic solid-phase extraction using carbon nanotubes as sorbents: a review.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Latorre, C; Barciela-García, J; García-Martín, S; Peña-Crecente, R M; Otárola-Jiménez, J

    2015-09-10

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE) is a procedure based on the use of magnetic sorbents for the separation and preconcentration of different organic and inorganic analytes from large sample volumes. The magnetic sorbent is added to the sample solution and the target analyte is adsorbed onto the surface of the magnetic sorbent particles (M-SPs). Analyte-M-SPs are separated from the sample solution by applying an external magnetic field and, after elution with the appropriate solvent, the recovered analyte is analyzed. This approach has several advantages over traditional solid phase extraction as it avoids time-consuming and tedious on-column SPE procedures and it provides a rapid and simple analyte separation that avoids the need for centrifugation or filtration steps. As a consequence, in the past few years a great deal of research has been focused on M-SPE, including the development of new sorbents and novel automation strategies. In recent years, the use of magnetic carbon nanotubes (M-CNTs) as a sorption substrate in M-SPE has become an active area of research. These materials have exceptional mechanical, electrical, optical and magnetic properties and they also have an extremely large surface area and varied possibilities for functionalization. This review covers the synthesis of M-CNTs and the different approaches for the use of these compounds in M-SPE. The performance, general characteristics and applications of M-SPE based on magnetic carbon nanotubes for organic and inorganic analysis have been evaluated on the basis of more than 110 references. Finally, some important challenges with respect the use of magnetic carbon nanotubes in M-SPE are discussed. PMID:26388472

  6. Pumping of water through carbon nanotubes by rotating electric field and rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Peng; Kong, Gao-Pan; Zhang, Xing; He, Guo-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate pumping of water through a carbon nanotube by applying the combination of a rotating electric field and a rotating magnetic field. The driving force is a Lorentz force generated from the motion of charges in the magnetic field, and the motion is caused by the rotation of the electric field. We find that there exits a linear relationship between the average pumping velocity v and magnetic field strength B, which can be used to control the flux of the continuous unidirectional water flow. This approach is expected to be used in liquid circulation without a pressure gradient.

  7. Microwave response of magnetized hydrogen plasma in carbon nanotubes: multiple reflection effects.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Afshin

    2010-04-01

    We derived simple sets of equations to describe the microwave response of the magnetized hydrogen plasma slab embedded inside carbon nanotubes, which were grown by iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation. These equations, which are useful when interference effects due to multiple reflections between plasma film interfaces are small, were used to analyze the reflection, absorption, and transmission coefficients of the magnetized hydrogen plasma slab. A discussion on the effects of the continuously changing external magnetic field and hydrogen plasma parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power in the system is presented. PMID:20357852

  8. Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Abdikian, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined.

  9. Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Mehran; Abdikian, Alireza

    2014-04-15

    We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined.

  10. Magnetic-field-induced diameter-selective synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Su, Yanjie; Zhang, Yaozhong; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Liling; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yafei

    2012-03-01

    We report a facile and scalable approach to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with selected diameter distribution by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field in the arc plasma region. It is found that this magnetic field-induced diameter-selectivity strategy enables the control of the SWNTs with different diameter distributions in different regions, and the diameter-selective efficiency could be enhanced by modifying the direction of magnetic field. Our results indicate that the motions of the catalysts with different particle sizes, positive carbon ions and electrons are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and electromagnetic force, resulting in the different nucleation and growth processes of SWNTs due to the collective interactions between the magnetic field and arc plasma. This approach would enable a viable route towards the synthesis of SWNTs with desired diameter through the tuning of arc parameters in the arc discharge process. PMID:22301844

  11. Nontrivial magnetoresistive behavior of a single-wall carbon nanotube with an attached molecular magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płomińska, Anna; Weymann, Ireneusz

    2015-11-01

    The spin-resolved transport properties of a single-wall carbon nanotube quantum dot, with an attached single molecular magnet, are studied theoretically. With the aid of the real-time diagrammatic technique in the lowest-order perturbation expansion with respect to the tunnel coupling, the current, differential conductance, and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) are determined in both the linear and nonlinear response regimes. It is shown that transport properties depend greatly on both the shell filling sequence of the carbon nanotube and the type of exchange interaction between the molecular magnet and nanotube. This results in highly nontrivial behavior of the TMR, which is especially visible in the low bias voltage regime. Depending on the gate voltage and parameters of the system, we find transport regimes where either a greatly enhanced or negative TMR develops. The mechanism leading to such behavior is associated with nonequilibrium spin accumulation, which builds up in the antiparallel magnetic configuration of the device. We show that it is crucial whether the spin accumulation occurs in the highest-weight spin states or in states with lower spin values. While in the former case it leads to enhanced TMR, in the latter case it may result in negative tunnel magnetoresistance. In addition, we analyze how the above effects depend on the magnitude of the molecular magnet's spin, and show that this dependence is generally nonmonotonic.

  12. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  13. Selective extraction of gallic acid in pomegranate rind using surface imprinting polymers over magnetic carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2015-10-01

    A novel surface imprinting polymer based on magnetic carbon nanotubes was prepared using dendritic polyethyleneimine as functional monomer to amplify the number of imprinted cavities. The characteristics of resulting polymers were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Results suggest that magnetic nanoparticles are deposited onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and the imprinted shell is coated on the surface of magnetic carbon nanotubes with a thickness of approximately 8 nm. Magnetic imprinted polymers are sensitive to magnetic fields and can be easily separated within 3 s using an external magnet. The adsorption results indicate that the obtained imprinted polymers have fast kinetics, an ultrahigh adsorption capacity of 479.9 mg g(-1), and satisfactory selectivity towards the template molecule. The prepared materials have excellent stability with no obvious deterioration after six adsorption-regeneration cycles. In addition, a method for determination of gallic acid (GA) in pomegranate rind was developed, using a combination of the prepared polymers used as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for rapid isolation and determination of GA. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 0.001 μg mL(-1), and the intra and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) are lower than 3.8% and 5.3%, respectively. The recoveries of GA from pomegranate rind extract are in the range 98.2-103.6% with RSDs lower than 4.3%. PMID:26297456

  14. Low temperature magnetic phase transition and interlayer coupling in double-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamantopoulou, A.; Glenis, S.; Likodimos, V.; Guskos, N.

    2014-08-28

    The magnetic properties of double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) were investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. An asymmetric resonance line of low intensity was identified and analyzed by the superimposition of a narrow and a broad metallic lineshape, attributed to the distinct contributions of defect spins located on the inner and outer DWCNTs shells. The spin susceptibilities of both ESR components revealed a ferromagnetic phase transition at low temperatures (T < 10 K) with small variation in the corresponding Curie-Weiss temperatures, approaching closely that of metallic single wall carbon nanotubes. Interlayer coupling between the DWCNT layers is suggested to effectively reduce the difference between the transition temperatures for the inner and outer shells and enhance spin-spin interactions between defect spins via the RKKY-type interaction of localized spins with conduction electrons.

  15. Electronic structure, bonding and magnetic properties of transition metals in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen-Manh, Duc; Kenny, Steven; Pettifor, David; Cockayne, David

    2003-03-01

    A detailed knowledge of interaction between transition metals and graphitic lattice is very crucial for understanding metal-carbon nanosystems which have potential applications in quantum computing and magnetic data storage devices. In this talk, we first identify the shortcomings of orthogonal tight-binding representation in describing electronic structure of graphitic systems. The standard minimum basis set in this scheme is not sufficient to generate peculiar nearly free electron states see in these systems; whose amplitudes are not near atomic sites but in the region between graphitic units. By using an efficient ab-intio tight-binding formalism with double numeric with polarization basis set implemented in the program PLATO (Package for Linear-combination of Atomic Type Orbitals), we compute significantly more accurate electronic structures and bonding properties of new materials but similar to that of graphite such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Benchmark calculations for molecules and for phase transformation paths in solids are found to be comparable to those obtained from typical plane-wave techniques showing that the PLATO technique can be used to perform large scale total energy minimizations and molecular dynamic simulations. This novel technique is then applied to study of transition metal (TM) atoms (Fe, Co, Ni) encapsulated inside single wall carbon nanotubes of different chiralities. For zigzag nanotubes, it is found that the encapsulating process of TM is energetically favorable for (5,0) situation which in turn has a strong link with bonding properties of ferocene-type (C_10H_10Fe) molecules. The TM atoms are found to be stable inside the armchair (3,3) tube with a local environment surrounding by 6 C atoms in similarity with the most stable position of Fe, Co and Ni on graphite sheet. Finally, spin-polarized local density functional calculations are performed for all the studied systems in order to determine the magnetic moments of TM atoms in carbon nanotubes.

  16. Uraemic Toxins Generated in the Presence of Fullerene C60, Carbon-Encapsulated Magnetic Nanoparticles, and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Popławska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Uraemic toxins—creatol and N-methylguanidine—are generated in conversion of creatinine in water in the presence of various forms of carbon such as fullerene C60, carbon-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes and oxygen. The conversion degree for creatinine was different for fullerene C60, CEMNPs, and MWCNTs and was 9% (3.6% creatol, 5.4% N-methylguanidine), 35% (12% creatol, 23% N-methylguanidine), and 75% (16% creatol, 59% N-methylguanidine), respectively. PMID:24078905

  17. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polydopamine nanolayer on multiwalled carbon nanotubes surface for protein capture.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    A novel, facile and low cost process for imprinting protein on the surface of magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MMWNTs) was developed using human serum albumin (HSA) as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized with transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in detail. The maximum adsorption capacity of the magnetic imprinted polymers toward HSA was 66.23 mg g(-1) and it took 20 min to achieve the adsorption equilibrium. The magnetic imprinted polymers exhibited the specific selective adsorption toward HSA. Coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, the magnetic imprinted polymers were used to solid-phase extract and detect HSA in urine samples successfully with the recoveries of 91.95-97.8%. PMID:26452876

  18. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with magnetic nanoparticles: general nonaqueous synthesis and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Du, Ning; Wu, Ping; Chen, Bingdi; Yang, Deren

    2008-08-01

    A novel approach has been developed to synthesize magnetic nanoparticle and carbon nanotube (CNT) core-shell nanostructures, such as CoO/CNTs and Mn3O4/CNTs, by the nonaqueous solvothermal treatment of metal carbonyl on CNT templates using hexane as the solvent. The morphological and structural characterizations indicate that numerous cubic CoO or tetragonal Mn3O4 nanoparticles are deposited on the surfaces of the CNTs to form CNT-based core-shell nanostructures. It is revealed that the hydrophobic interaction between nanoparticles and CNTs in hexane plays the critical role for the formation of CNT-based core-shell nanostructures. A physical property measurement system (PPMS-9, Quantum Design) analysis indicates that the CoO/CNT core-shell nanostructures show weak ferromagnetic performance at 300 K due to the ferromagnetic Co clusters and the uncompensated surface spin states, while the Mn3O4/CNT core-shell nanostructures display ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature (34.5 K), which transforms into paramagnetic behavior with increasing temperature.

  19. Plumbing carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chuanhong; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, the possibility of connecting carbon nanotubes together like water pipes has been an intriguing prospect for these hollow nanostructures. The serial joining of carbon nanotubes in a controlled manner offers a promising approach for the bottom-up engineering of nanotube structures-from simply increasing their aspect ratio to making integrated carbon nanotube devices. To date, however, there have been few reports of the joining of two different carbon nanotubes. Here we demonstrate that a Joule heating process, and associated electro-migration effects, can be used to connect two carbon nanotubes that have the same (or similar) diameters. More generally, with the assistance of a tungsten metal particle, this technique can be used to seamlessly join any two carbon nanotubes-regardless of their diameters-to form new nanotube structures.

  20. Plumbing carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chuanhong; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, the possibility of connecting carbon nanotubes together like water pipes has been an intriguing prospect for these hollow nanostructures. The serial joining of carbon nanotubes in a controlled manner offers a promising approach for the bottom-up engineering of nanotube structures--from simply increasing their aspect ratio to making integrated carbon nanotube devices. To date, however, there have been few reports of the joining of two different carbon nanotubes. Here we demonstrate that a Joule heating process, and associated electro-migration effects, can be used to connect two carbon nanotubes that have the same (or similar) diameters. More generally, with the assistance of a tungsten metal particle, this technique can be used to seamlessly join any two carbon nanotubes--regardless of their diameters--to form new nanotube structures. PMID:18654444

  1. Structure and magnetic properties of FeCo nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon nanotubes grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisada, Daijiro; Fujiwara, Yuji; Sato, Hideki; Jimbo, Mutsuko; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Hata, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a simple technique for preparing magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. We employed alloy catalysts when growing carbon nanotubes to control the composition and magnetic properties of encapsulated nanoparticles. Single-crystal nanoparticles were successfully encapsulated in carbon nanotubes, and their crystal structure varied depending on the composition of the alloy catalysts. The coercive force of nanoparticles also varied according to the composition of the catalysts.

  2. Magnetic impurities in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene: a review.

    PubMed

    Vejpravova, J; Pacakova, B; Kalbac, M

    2016-04-25

    Control over magnetism in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene is of fundamental importance. Creation and manipulation using the unpaired spins without the need for archetypal magnetic elements results in sp(2)-hybridised nanocarbons being at the forefront of applications in both spintronics and nanoelectronics. The crucial limitation for the experimental observation of the intrinsic carbon magnetism stems from the presence of magnetic impurities, from which a magnetic response usually dominates. Thus, the rigorous identification of such magnetic impurities and their efficient removal is of enormous importance. The present review reports on the current state-of-the-art methodology for the detection and quantification of magnetic impurities in SWCNTs and graphene, reflecting both the preparation and subsequent purification procedures. First, the most common techniques for the preparation of SWCNTs (i.e., arc discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapour deposition) and the corresponding magnetic impurities are reviewed. Then, the available volume, surface and local probes for the identification and quantification of the impurities are discussed, and their efficiency and limitations are evaluated for the given cases. A summary of the current understanding of graphene-related magnetism in the context of the identified impurities is also given. Finally, the key knowledge is reviewed with respect to future prospects in the field. PMID:26938351

  3. Effect of magnetic field on Mott's variable-range hopping parameters in multiwall carbon nanotube mat.

    PubMed

    Arya, Ved Prakash; Prasad, V; Kumar, P S Anil

    2012-06-20

    We report the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the conductivity of multiwall carbon nanotube mat in the temperature range 1.4-150 K and in magnetic fields up to 10 T. It is observed that charge transport in this system is governed by Mott’s variable-range hopping of three-dimensional type in the higher temperature range and two-dimensional type in the lower temperature range. Mott’s various parameters, such as localization length, hopping length, hopping energy and density of states at the Fermi level are deduced from the variable-range hopping fit. The resistance of the sample decreases with the magnetic field applied in the direction of tube axis of the nanotubes. The magnetic field gives rise to delocalization of states with the well-known consequence of a decrease in Mott’s T0 parameter in variable-range hopping. The application of magnetic field lowers the crossover temperature at which three-dimensional variable-range hopping turns to two-dimensional variable-range hopping. The conductivity on the lower temperature side is governed by the weak localization giving rise to positive magnetoconductance. Finally, a magnetic field-temperature diagram is proposed showing different regions for different kinds of transport mechanism. PMID:22627115

  4. Quick and selective extraction of Z-ligustilide from Angelica sinensis using magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiong; Jia, Yan-Wei; Xu, Pei-Li; Xiao, Meng-Wei; Liu, Yi-Ming; Peng, Shu-Lin; Liao, Xun

    2015-12-01

    A facile and highly efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction method has been developed for Z-ligustilide, the major therapeutic agent in Angelica sinensis. The solid-phase adsorbent material used was prepared by conjugating carbon nanotubes with magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles via a hydrothermal reaction. The magnetic material showed a high affinity toward Z-ligustilide due to the π-π stacking interaction between the carbon nanotubes and Z-ligustilide, allowing a quick and selective exaction of Z-ligustilide from complex sample matrices. Factors influencing the magnetic solid-phase extraction such as the amount of the added adsorbent, adsorption and desorption time, and desorption solvent, were investigated. Due to its high extraction efficiency, this method was proved highly useful for sample cleanup/enrichment in quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The proposed method had a linear calibration curve (R(2) = 0.9983) over the concentration between 4 ng/mL and 200 μg/mL Z-ligustilide. The accuracy of the method was determined by the recovery, which was from 92.07 to 104.02%, with the relative standard deviations >4.51%. PMID:26496363

  5. Functionalization and magnetization of carbon nanotubes using Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. Y.; Fu, M. J.; Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, F. H.; Chen, K. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used in the biological and biomedical fields as biosensors, drug delivery systems, etc., which makes research into processes for manufacturing modified CNTs quite important. In this paper, Co-60 gamma irradiation is shown to be an effective tool for fabricating functionalized and magnetized CNTs. After the Co-60 gamma irradiation, the presence of carboxylic functional groups on the CNT walls was confirmed by their Fourier transform infrared spectra, and the presence of Fe3O4 was verified by the X-ray diffraction patterns. The functionalized and magnetized CNTs produced using Co-60 gamma irradiation have excellent dispersion properties. The techniques for functionalizing and magnetizing CNTs are introduced in this paper, and applications of the modified CNTs will be reported after more data are gathered.

  6. Hyperspectral imaging of exciton photoluminescence in individual carbon nanotubes controlled by high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Webber, Jack A; Faugeras, Clement; Kossacki, Piotr; Potemski, Marek; Wang, Xu; Kim, Hee Dae; Stranks, Samuel D; Taylor, Robert A; Nicholas, Robin J

    2014-09-10

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) provide an exceptional platform for studying one-dimensional excitons (bound electron-hole pairs), but the role of defects and quenching centers in controlling emission remains controversial. Here we show that, by wrapping the CNT in a polymer sheath and cooling to 4.2 K, ultranarrow photoluminescence (PL) emission line widths below 80 μeV can be seen from individual solution processed CNTs. Hyperspectral imaging of the tubes identifies local emission sites and shows that some previously dark quenching segments can be brightened by the application of high magnetic fields, and their effect on exciton transport and dynamics can be studied. Using focused high intensity laser irradiation, we introduce a single defect into an individual nanotube which reduces its quantum efficiency by the creation of a shallow bound exciton state with enhanced electron-hole exchange interaction. The emission intensity of the nanotube is then reactivated by the application of the high magnetic field. PMID:25158099

  7. Magnetic poly(vinylpyridine)-coated carbon nanotubes: an efficient supramolecular tool for wastewater purification.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Laura; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Marega, Riccardo; Jensen Ahrens, Jennifer; Pineux, Florent; Meyer, Franck; Dubois, Philippe; Bonifazi, Davide

    2013-02-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a supramolecular carbon nanotube (CNT)-based magnetic depolluting agent for divalent metal ion (M(2+)) removal from aqueous solutions. In particular, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs) coated with poly(vinylpyridine) (PVPy) self-aggregate in aqueous solutions that contain divalent metal ions (such as Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+)) to form tight insoluble bundles in which the M(2+) ions remain trapped through pyridyl-M(2+)-pyridyl interactions. Magnetic filtration ultimately affords the efficient separation of the depolluted solution from the precipitated M(2+)-CNT agglomerates. Upon acid treatment, the supramolecular threads could be disassembled to afford the free CNT-polymer hybrid, thus allowing recycling of the depolluting agent. All materials and complexation/decomplexation steps were thoroughly characterised by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively). The quantification of the M(2+) residual concentrations in water was evaluated by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which showed that, depending on the metal cation, this material can remove up to 99% of the contaminant. PMID:23239590

  8. Water confined in carbon nanotubes: Magnetic response and proton chemical shieldings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Patrick; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia

    2009-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) provide a well-defined environment for the study of confined water, whose behavior can differ markedly from bulk water. The application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to probe the local water structure and dynamics in these cases is hindered by ambiguities in the interpretation of the NMR spectra. We employ linear response theory to evaluate the ^1H chemical shieldings of liquid water in semiconducting CNTs, where the electronic structure is derived from density functional theory with periodic boundary conditions. The shieldings are sampled from trajectories generated via first-principles molecular dynamics simulations at ambient conditions, for water in CNTs with diameters d=11 åand 14.9 å@. We find a large (˜-23 ppm) upfield shift relative to bulk liquid water, which is a consequence of strongly anisotropic magnetic fields induced in the CNT by the applied magnetic field.

  9. Magnetic amphiphilic hybrid carbon nanotubes containing N-doped and undoped sections: powerful tensioactive nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Purceno, Aluir D; Machado, Bruno F; Teixeira, Ana Paula C; Medeiros, Tayline V; Benyounes, Anas; Beausoleil, Julien; Menezes, Helvecio C; Cardeal, Zenilda L; Lago, Rochel M; Serp, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen. PMID:25408246

  10. Water confined in carbon nanotubes: Magnetic response and proton chemical shieldings

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P; Schwegler, E; Galli, G

    2008-11-14

    We study the proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) of a model system consisting of liquid water in infinite carbon nanotubes (CNT). Chemical shieldings are evaluated from linear response theory, where the electronic structure is derived from density functional theory (DFT) with plane-wave basis sets and periodic boundary conditions. The shieldings are sampled from trajectories generated via first-principles molecular dynamics simulations at ambient conditions, for water confined in (14,0) and (19,0) CNTs with diameters d = 11 {angstrom} and 14.9 {angstrom}, respectively. We find that confinement within the CNT leads to a large ({approx} -23 ppm) upfield shift relative to bulk liquid water. This shift is a consequence of strongly anisotropic magnetic fields induced in the CNT by an applied magnetic field.

  11. Silicon nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic nanocrystals: Synthesis, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Doh Chang

    Central to the practical use of nanoscale materials is the controlled growth in technologically meaningful quantities. Many of the proposed applications of the nanomaterials potentially require inexpensive production of the building blocks. Solution-based synthetic approach offers controllability, high throughput, and scalability, which make the process attractive for the potential scale-up. Growth kinetics could be readily influenced by chemical interactions between the precursor and the solvent. In order to fully utilize its benefits, it is therefore pivotal to understand the decomposition chemistry of the precursors used in the reactions. Supercritical fluids were used as solvent in which high temperature reactions could take place. Silicon nanowires with diameters of 20˜30 nm was synthesized in supercritical fluids with metal nanocrystals as seeds for the nanowire growth. To unravel the effect of silicon precursors, several silicon precursors were reacted and the resulting products were investigated. The scalability of the system is discussed based on the experimental data. The nanowires were characterized with various characterization tools, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The crystallographic signatures were analyzed through the transmission electron microscopic study, and fundamental electrical and optical properties were probed by electron energy loss spectroscopy. Carbon nanotubes were prepared by reacting carbon-containing chemicals in supercritical fluids with organometallic compounds that form metal seed particles in-situ. A batch reaction, in which the temperature control was relatively poor, yielded a mixture of multiwall nanotubes and amorphous carbon nanofilaments with a low selectivity of nanotubes in the product. When reaction parameters were translated into a continuous flow-through reaction, nanotube selectivity as well as the throughput of the total product significantly improved. Magnetic properties of various metal nanocrystals were also studied. Colloidal synthesis enables the growth of FePt and MnPt3 nanocrystals with size uniformity. The as-synthesized nanocrystals, however, had compositionally disordered soft-magnetic phases. To obtain hard magnetic layered phase, the nanocrystals must be annealed at high temperatures, which led to sintering of the inorganic cores. To prevent sintering, the nanocrystals were encapsulated with silica layer prior to annealing. Interparticle magnetic interactions were also explored using particles with varying silica thickness.

  12. Magnetic amphiphilic hybrid carbon nanotubes containing N-doped and undoped sections: powerful tensioactive nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purceno, Aluir D.; Machado, Bruno F.; Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Medeiros, Tayline V.; Benyounes, Anas; Beausoleil, Julien; Menezes, Helvecio C.; Cardeal, Zenilda L.; Lago, Rochel M.; Serp, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen.In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04005h

  13. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Mintz, Eric; Meador, Michael A.; Hull, David R.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Willis, Peter; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have created a great deal of excitement in the Materials Science community because of their outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Use of carbon nanotubes as reinforcements for polymers could lead to a new class of composite materials with properties, durability, and performance far exceeding that of conventional fiber reinforced composites. Organized arrays of carbon nanotubes, e.g., nanotube monolayers, could find applications as thermal management materials, light emitting devices, and sensor arrays. Carbon nanotubes could also be used as templates upon which nanotubes from other materials could be constructed. Successful use of carbon nanotubes in any of these potential applications requires the ability to control the interactions of nanotubes with each other and with other materials, e.g., a polymer matrix. One approach to achieving this control is to attach certain chemical groups to the ends and/or side-walls of the nanotubes. The nature of these chemical groups can be varied to achieve the desired result, such as better adhesion between the nanotubes and a polymer. Under a joint program between NASA Glenn, Clark Atlanta University, and Rice University researchers are working on developing a chemistry "tool-kit" that will enable the functionalization of carbon nanotubes with a variety of chemical groups. Recent results of this effort will be discussed.

  14. On the synthesis and magnetic properties of multiwall carbon nanotube-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, T. N.; Reena Mary, A. P.; Shaijumon, M. M.; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, P. M.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2009-02-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) possessing an average inner diameter of 150 nm were synthesized by template assisted chemical vapor deposition over an alumina template. Aqueous ferrofluid based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was prepared by a controlled co-precipitation technique, and this ferrofluid was used to fill the MWCNTs by nanocapillarity. The filling of nanotubes with iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by electron microscopy. Selected area electron diffraction indicated the presence of iron oxide and graphitic carbon from MWCNTs. The magnetic phase transition during cooling of the MWCNT-SPION composite was investigated by low temperature magnetization studies and zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled experiments. The ZFC curve exhibited a blocking at ~110 K. A peculiar ferromagnetic ordering exhibited by the MWCNT-SPION composite above room temperature is because of the ferromagnetic interaction emanating from the clustering of superparamagnetic particles in the constrained volume of an MWCNT. This kind of MWCNT-SPION composite can be envisaged as a good agent for various biomedical applications.

  15. Design of covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes filled with metal oxide nanoparticles for imaging, therapy, and magnetic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojie; Marangon, Iris; Melinte, Georgian; Wilhelm, Claire; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Pichon, Benoit P; Ersen, Ovidiu; Aubertin, Kelly; Baaziz, Walid; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Bianco, Alberto; Gazeau, Florence; Bégin, Dominique

    2014-11-25

    Nanocomposites combining multiple functionalities in one single nano-object hold great promise for biomedical applications. In this work, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were filled with ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) to develop the magnetic manipulation of the nanotubes and their theranostic applications. The challenges were both the filling of CNTs with a high amount of magnetic NPs and their functionalization to form biocompatible water suspensions. We propose here a filling process using CNTs as nanoreactors for high-yield in situ growth of ferrite NPs into the inner carbon cavity. At first, NPs were formed inside the nanotubes by thermal decomposition of an iron stearate precursor. A second filling step was then performed with iron or cobalt stearate precursors to enhance the encapsulation yield and block the formed NPs inside the tubes. Water suspensions were then obtained by addition of amino groups via the covalent functionalization of the external surface of the nanotubes. Microstructural and magnetic characterizations confirmed the confinement of NPs into the anisotropic structure of CNTs making them suitable for magnetic manipulations and MRI detection. Interactions of highly water-dispersible CNTs with tumor cells could be modulated by magnetic fields without toxicity, allowing control of their orientation within the cell and inducing submicron magnetic stirring. The magnetic properties were also used to quantify CNTs cellular uptake by measuring the cell magnetophoretic mobility. Finally, the photothermal ablation of tumor cells could be enhanced by magnetic stimulus, harnessing the hybrid properties of NP loaded-CNTs. PMID:25343751

  16. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2005-06-28

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  17. Manifestation of coherent magnetic anisotropy in a carbon nanotube matrix with low ferromagnetic nanoparticle content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyuk, A. L.; Komissarov, I. V.; Labunov, V. A.; Le Normand, F.; Derory, A.; Hernandez, J. M.; Tejada, J.; Prischepa, S. L.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the magnetic medium can lead to peculiar interaction between ferromagnetic nanoparticles (NPs). Most research in this area involves analysis of the interplay between magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling. Increasing the average interparticle distance leads to the dominant role of the random magnetic anisotropy. Here we study the interparticle interaction in a carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix with low ferromagnetic NP content. Samples were synthesized by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition. We found that below some critical NP concentration, when NPs are intercalated only inside CNTs, and at low temperatures, the extended magnetic order, of up to 150 nm, presents in our samples. It is shown by analyzing the correlation functions of the magnetic anisotropy axes that the extended order is not simply due to random anisotropy but is associated with the coherent magnetic anisotropy, which is strengthened by the CNT alignment. With increasing temperature the extended magnetic order is lost. Above the critical NP concentration, when NPs start to be intercalated not only into inner CNT channels, but also outside CNTs, the coherent anisotropy weakens and the exchange coupling dominates in the whole temperature range. We can make a connection with the various correlation functions using the generalized expression for the law of the approach to saturation and show that these different correlation functions reflect the peculiarities in the interparticle interaction inside CNTs. Moreover, we can extract such important micromagnetic parameters like the exchange field, local fields of random and coherent anisotropies, as well as their temperature and NP concentration dependencies.

  18. Electron field emission from magnetic nanomaterial encapsulated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhi, R. B.; Lim, X.; Gao, X.; Wang, Y.; Wee, A. T. S.; Sethupathi, K.; Ramaprabhu, S.; Sow, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    The present work describes the field emission characteristics of nanoscale magnetic nanomaterial encapsulated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) fabricated over flexible graphitized carbon cloth. Ni/MWNTs, NiFe/MWNTs and NiFeCo/MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor decomposition of methane over Mischmetal (Mm)-based AB3 (MmNi3, MmFe1.5Ni1.5 and MmFeCoNi) alloy hydride catalysts. Metal-encapsulated MWNTs exhibited superior field emission performance than pure MWNT-based field emitters over the same substrate. The results indicate that a Ni-filled MWNT field emitter is a promising material for practical field emission application with a lowest turn-on field of 0.6 V/μm and a high emission current density of 0.3 mA/cm2 at 0.9 V/μm.

  19. Magnetic and highly recyclable macroporous carbon nanotubes for spilled oil sorption and separation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Xuchun; Zeng, Zhiping; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gan, Qiming; Xiang, Rong; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

    2013-06-26

    Development of sorbent materials with high selectivity and sorption capacity, easy collection and recyclability is demanding for spilled oil recovery. Although many sorption materials have been proposed, a systematic study on how they can be reused and possible performance degradation during regeneration remains absent. Here we report magnetic carbon nanotube sponges (Me-CNT sponge), which are porous structures consisting of interconnected CNTs with rich Fe encapsulation. The Me-CNT sponges show high mass sorption capacity for diesel oil reached 56 g/g, corresponding to a volume sorption capacity of 99%. The sponges are mechanically strong and oil can be squeezed out by compression. They can be recycled using through reclamation by magnetic force and desorption by simple heat treatment. The Me-CNT sponges maintain original structure, high capacity, and selectivity after 1000 sorption and reclamation cycles. Our results suggest that practical application of CNT macrostructures in the field of spilled oil recovery is feasible. PMID:23721652

  20. Tailored distribution of single-wall carbon nanotubes from arc plasma synthesis using magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Volotskova, Olga; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Huh, Ji Yeon; Phelan, Frederick R; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael

    2010-09-28

    We report a method for tuning the distribution of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) produced by the anodic arc production method via the application of nonuniform magnetic fields to the gap region during synthesis. Raman, ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared absorbance and near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopies were used to characterize samples together with scanning electron microscopy. Application of the nonuniform magnetic field 0.2-2 kG results in a broadening of the diameter range of SWCNTs produced toward decreased diameters, with substantial fractions of produced SWCNTs being of small diameter, less than ∼1.3 nm, at the highest field. The ability to tune production of the arc production method may allow for improvement in achievable SWCNT properties. PMID:20707323

  1. Effect of sulfur on enhancing nitrogen-doping and magnetic properties of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur (S) is introduced as an additive in the growth atmosphere of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the range of 940-1020°C. CNT products with distorted sidewalls can be obtained by S-assisted growth. Moreover, many fascinating CNT structures can also be found in samples grown with S addition, such as bamboo-like CNTs, twisted CNTs, arborization-like CNTs, and bead-like CNTs. Compared with CNTs grown without S, more nitrogen-doping content is achieved in CNTs with S addition, which is beneficial for the properties and applications of nitrogen-doped CNTs. In addition, S can also enhance the encapsulation of ferromagnetic materials and thus improve the soft magnetic properties of CNTs, which is favorable to the applications of CNTs in the electromagnetic wave-absorbing and magnetic data storage areas. PMID:21711610

  2. Determination of puerarin in rat plasma using PEGylated magnetic carbon nanotubes by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Panfeng; Wang, Qi; Ma, Hongwei; Wu, Ji; Shen, Shun

    2014-05-15

    This paper described a novel application of PEGylated magnetic carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction nanosorbents for the determination of puerarin in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A solvothermal method was employed for the synthesis of monodisperse magnetites anchored onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs@Fe3O4). In order to enhance the water solubility of MWCNTs@Fe3O4 that ensured sufficient contact between nanosorbents and analytes in the sampling procedure, the obtained nanomaterials were further noncovalently functionalized using a phospholipids-polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG). The PEGylated MWCNTs@Fe3O4 nanomaterials had an extremely large surface area and exhibit a strong interaction capability for puerarin with π-π stacking interactions. The captured puerarin/nanosorbents were easily isolated from the plasma by placing a magnet, and desorbed by acetonitrile. The experimental variables affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated. The calibration curve of puerarin was linear from 0.01 to 20 μg/ml, and the limit of detection was 0.005 μg/ml. The precisions ranged from 2.7% to 3.5% for within-day measurement, and for between-day variation was in the range of 3.1-5.9%. The method recoveries were acquired from 95.2% to 98.0%. Moreover, the analytical performance obtained by PEGylated magnetic MWCNTs was also compared with that of magnetic MWCNTs. All results showed that our proposed method was an excellent alternative for the analysis of puerarin in rat plasma. PMID:24768919

  3. Simultaneous synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene in a magnetically-enhanced arc plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Shashurin, Alexey; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Keidar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanostructures such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and graphene attract a deluge of interest of scholars nowadays due to their very promising application for molecular sensors, field effect transistor and super thin and flexible electronic devices(1-4). Anodic arc discharge supported by the erosion of the anode material is one of the most practical and efficient methods, which can provide specific non-equilibrium processes and a high influx of carbon material to the developing structures at relatively higher temperature, and consequently the as-synthesized products have few structural defects and better crystallinity. To further improve the controllability and flexibility of the synthesis of carbon nanostructures in arc discharge, magnetic fields can be applied during the synthesis process according to the strong magnetic responses of arc plasmas. It was demonstrated that the magnetically-enhanced arc discharge can increase the average length of SWCNT (5), narrow the diameter distribution of metallic catalyst particles and carbon nanotubes (6), and change the ratio of metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes (7), as well as lead to graphene synthesis (8). Furthermore, it is worthwhile to remark that when we introduce a non-uniform magnetic field with the component normal to the current in arc, the Lorentz force along the J×B direction can generate the plasmas jet and make effective delivery of carbon ion particles and heat flux to samples. As a result, large-scale graphene flakes and high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes were simultaneously generated by such new magnetically-enhanced anodic arc method. Arc imaging, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to analyze the characterization of carbon nanostructures. These findings indicate a wide spectrum of opportunities to manipulate with the properties of nanostructures produced in plasmas by means of controlling the arc conditions. PMID:22330847

  4. Simultaneous Synthesis of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in a Magnetically-enhanced Arc Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Shashurin, Alexey; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Keidar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanostructures such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and graphene attract a deluge of interest of scholars nowadays due to their very promising application for molecular sensors, field effect transistor and super thin and flexible electronic devices1-4. Anodic arc discharge supported by the erosion of the anode material is one of the most practical and efficient methods, which can provide specific non-equilibrium processes and a high influx of carbon material to the developing structures at relatively higher temperature, and consequently the as-synthesized products have few structural defects and better crystallinity. To further improve the controllability and flexibility of the synthesis of carbon nanostructures in arc discharge, magnetic fields can be applied during the synthesis process according to the strong magnetic responses of arc plasmas. It was demonstrated that the magnetically-enhanced arc discharge can increase the average length of SWCNT 5, narrow the diameter distribution of metallic catalyst particles and carbon nanotubes 6, and change the ratio of metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes 7, as well as lead to graphene synthesis 8. Furthermore, it is worthwhile to remark that when we introduce a non-uniform magnetic field with the component normal to the current in arc, the Lorentz force along the J×B direction can generate the plasmas jet and make effective delivery of carbon ion particles and heat flux to samples. As a result, large-scale graphene flakes and high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes were simultaneously generated by such new magnetically-enhanced anodic arc method. Arc imaging, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to analyze the characterization of carbon nanostructures. These findings indicate a wide spectrum of opportunities to manipulate with the properties of nanostructures produced in plasmas by means of controlling the arc conditions. PMID:22330847

  5. Influence of Magnetic Losses on Microwave Absorption by Carbon-Nanotube Nanocomposites with a Low Concentration of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramchuk, A. V.; Kasperovich, M. M.; Pevneva, N. A.; Gusinsky, A. V.; Korolik, O. V.; Tivanov, M. S.; Shulitski, B. G.; Labunov, V. A.; Danilyuk, A. L.; Komissarov, I. V.; Prischepa, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The absorption properties of magnetic nanocomposites based on carbon nanotubes with a low concentration of ferromagnetic nanoparticles have been investigated in the 78-118 GHz frequency range. A correlation was established between the absorption properties of the nanocomposites and the character of the magnetostatic interaction between nanoparticles.

  6. Surfactant free magnetic nanofluids based on core-shell type nanoparticle decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theres Baby, Tessy; Sundara, Ramaprabhu

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic nanofluids consisting of fluids suspended with magnetic materials are of current interest and have potential applications in both energy related and biomedical fields. In this paper, we present a novel magnetic nanofluid obtained by dispersing silicon dioxide (SiO2) coated on magnetite (Fe3O4) particle decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) (Fe3O4@SiO2/MWNTs) in de-ionized water. As compared to a magnetite decorated MWNT based nanofluid, the present system shows better stability and thermal properties without the use of any surfactants. Fe3O4/MWNTs and Fe3O4@SiO2/MWNTs have been synthesized via a simple chemical reduction technique and dispersed in de-ionized water via ultrasonication. Dispersed de-ionized water based nanofluids containing Fe3O4/MWNTs with surfactant and Fe3O4@SiO2/MWNTs without surfactant show a thermal conductivity enhancement of 20% and 24.5%, respectively, for a volume fraction of 0.03% in the presence of magnetic field. The enhancement in the thermal conductivity has been observed for other volume fractions also. The increase in the thermal conductivity of these nanofluids can be attributed to the chain formation of magnetic nanomaterials in the base fluid in the presence of magnetic field.

  7. Kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of methylene blue by a magnetic graphene-carbon nanotube composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peifang; Cao, Muhan; Wang, Chao; Ao, Yanhui; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2014-01-01

    A solvothermal method was employed to prepare a novel magnetic composite adsorbent composed of graphene, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The prepared adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the particle size distribution of the samples before and after adsorption was also carried out. The performance of as-prepared composites was investigated by the adsorption of dye methylene blue. Results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of the samples was up to 65.79 mg g-1, which was almost equal to the sum of magnetic graphene and magnetic MWCNTs. The effect of pH and temperature on the adsorption performance of methylene blue onto the magnetic adsorbents was investigated. The kinetic was well-described by pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model, while the isotherm obeyed the Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, the as-prepared composites were found to be regenerative and reusable. The application in the treatment of an artificial dye wastewater and its cost estimation were also discussed. Therefore, the as-prepared magnetic composites can be severed as a potential adsorbent for removal of dye pollutant, owing to its high adsorption performance, magnetic separability and efficient recyclable property.

  8. Magnetically anisotropic additive for scalable manufacturing of polymer nanocomposite: iron-coated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Namiko; Manohara, Harish; Platzman, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Novel nanoparticles additives for polymer nanocomposites were prepared by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with ferromagnetic iron (Fe) layers, so that their micro-structures can be bulk-controlled by external magnetic field application. Application of magnetic fields is a promising, scalable method to deliver bulk amount of nanocomposites while maintaining organized nanoparticle assembly throughout the uncured polymer matrix. In this work, Fe layers (˜18 nm thick) were deposited on CNTs (˜38 nm diameter and ˜50 μm length) to form thin films with high aspect ratio, resulting in a dominance of shape anisotropy and thus high coercivity of ˜50-100 Oe. The Fe-coated CNTs were suspended in water and applied with a weak magnetic field of ˜75 G, and yet preliminary magnetic assembly was confirmed. Our results demonstrate that the fabricated Fe-coated CNTs are magnetically anisotropic and effectively respond to magnetic fields that are ˜103 times smaller than other existing work (˜105 G). We anticipate this work will pave the way for effective property enhancement and bulk application of CNT-polymer nanocomposites, through controlled micro-structure and scalable manufacturing.

  9. Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthioux, Marc; Serp, Philippe; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Razafinimanana, Manitra; Laurent, Christophe; Peigney, Alain; Bacsa, Wolfgang; Broto, Jean-Marc

    Carbon nanotubes are among the amazing objects that science sometimes creates by accident, without meaning to, but that will likely revolutionize the technological landscape of the century ahead. Our society stands to be significantly influenced by carbon nanotubes, shaped by nanotube applications in every aspect, just as silicon-based technology still shapes society today. The world already dreams of space-elevators tethered by the strongest of cables, hydrogen-powered vehicles, artificial muscles, and so on - feasts that would be made possible by the emerging carbon nanotube science.

  10. Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthioux, Marc; Serp, Philippe; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Razafinimanana, Manitra; Laurent, Christophe; Peigney, Alain; Bacsa, Wolfgang; Broto, Jean-Marc

    Carbon nanotubes are remarkable objects that look set to revolutionize the technological landscape in the near future. Tomorrow's society will be shaped by nanotube applications, just as silicon-based technologies dominate society today. Space elevators tethered by the strongest of cables; hydrogen-powered vehicles; artificial muscles: these are just a few of the technological marvels that may be made possible by the emerging science of carbon nanotubes.

  11. Nanomanipulation and Lithography: The Building (and Modeling) of Carbon Nanotube Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Richard Nam

    2002-12-01

    Aircraft fuselages suffer alternating stress during takeoffs and landings, and fatigue cracks begin to grow, usually at rivet holes. The detection of these fatigue cracks under installed fasteners in aging aircraft is a major goal of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. The use of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors in electromagnetic (EM) NDE has been increasing rapidly. For example, here at Langley Research Center, a Rotating Probe System (RPS) containing a GMR element has been incorporated into a product to detect deeply buried flaws in aerospace structures. In order to advance this eddy current probe application and many similar ones, research to create smaller, more sensitive and energy-efficient EM sensors has been aggressively pursued. Recent theoretical and experimental work on spin coherent transport supports the feasibility of carbon nanotube (CNT) based magnetic tunnel junctions. In this study, a spatial filtering scheme is presented that improves the signal to noise ratio of the RPS and does not significantly impact the number of false alarms. Signals due to buried flaws occur at higher frequencies than do signals due to rivet tilt or probe misalignment, and the strategy purposefully targets this fact. Furthermore, the spatial filtering scheme exploits decreases in the probe output that are observed immediately preceding and following the peak in output due to a fatigue crack. Using the new filters, an enhanced probability of flaw detection is expected. In the future, even tinier, more sensitive, low-power sensors are envisioned for the rotating probe and other nondestructive inspection systems. These may be comprised of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that connect two ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes. Theoretical work has been done at Langley to model the electrical and magnetoconductance behavior of such junctions, for systems containing short "armchair" nanotubes. The present work facilitates the modeling of more realistic system sizes, through the re-writing of a critical code segment that gives a hundredfold improvement in speed. Furthermore, the tight-binding model calculations are now generalized to include all types of nanotubes, not merely armchair tubes. On the experimental side, innovative junction fabrication procedures are investigated, including diamond-tip scanning probe lithography and e-beam lithography. Programs are written for the Nanometer Pattern Generation System to effect the creation of many junctions at once, to increase the chances of a CNT connecting two FM electrodes. As it is not prudent to rely solely on luck, the capability for tube nanomanipulation with an unprecedented level of control is also shown, and a procedure for controlled deposition upon chemically functionalized lithographic patterns is discussed. All of the techniques demonstrated can be used to create a magnetic tunnel junction to be refrigerated for extensive magnetoconductance studies.

  12. A comparison between magnetic and reflection loss characteristics of substituted strontium ferrite and nanocomposites of ferrite/carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Ali; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Liu, Xiaoxi; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/substituted strontium ferrite nanocomposites have been fabricated by hetero-coagulation. The structure and morphology of nanoparticles and nanocomposites were evaluated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). HRTEM confirmed that strontium ferrite was successfully attached to carbon nanotubes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) confirmed the relatively strong dependence of saturation magnetization with the volume percentage of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Reflection loss of nanocomposites at 12-18 GHz was evidently enhanced, as compared to that of strontium ferrite nanoparticles. The maximum reflection loss increased significantly with an increase in volume percentage of MWCNTs. It was proved that the microwave absorbing bandwidth was modulated simply by manipulating the thickness of nanocomposites. Reflection loss evaluations indicate that the nanocomposites display a great potential application as wide-band electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  13. Magnetoelectronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, F. L.; Chang, C. P.; Chen, R. B.; Chiu, C. W.; Lin, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetoelectronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes are, respectively, studied within the sp3 tight-binding model and the gradient approximation. They strongly depend on the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field, the nanotube geometry (radius and chiral angle), and the Zeeman splitting. The magnetic field would lead to the change of energy gap, the destruction of state degeneracy, and the coupling of different angular momenta. Hence there are magnetic-field-dependent absorption frequencies and more absorption peaks. The types of carbon nanotubes predominate in the band structure and thus the range of absorption frequencies and the number of absorption peaks. The Zeeman splitting makes the semiconductor-metal transition occur at lower magnetic flux. It metalizes armchair carbon nanotubes in the presence of the perpendicular magnetic field. However, it does not affect the optical excitations except for metallic carbon nanotubes.

  14. Phosphorus-doped graphene and (8, 0) carbon nanotube: Structural, electronic, magnetic properties, and chemical reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-mei; Wang, Hong-xia; Chen, Ying; Liu, Yue-jie; Zhao, Jing-xiang; Cai, Qing-hai; Wang, Xuan-zhang

    2013-05-01

    Recently, doping non-carbon atoms into graphene or carbon nanotube (CNT) has attracted considerable attention due to its effectiveness to change or tailor their electronic and magnetic properties as well as chemical reactivity. In this work, we present a density functional theory study of the recently synthesized phosphorus (P) doped graphene and CNT. Particular attention is paid to studying the effects of P-doping on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties as well as chemical reactivity of graphene or CNT. The results show that P dopant drastically changes the geometrical structure of graphene or CNT, rendering P and its neighboring C atoms protrude from the sidewall of CNT and graphene. Moreover, P-doping induces localized electronic states into graphene and CNTs, thus modifying the electronic properties by producing n-type behavior. Meanwhile, due to P doping, the graphene and CNT exhibit magnetic nature with spin net moment of 1.02 and 0.99 μB, respectively. In order to evaluate the chemical reactivity of the two nanostructures, their interactions with several gas molecules, including NH3, H2O, O2, NO2, and NO, are further calculated. Our results may be useful not only for deeply understanding the properties of CNTs and graphenes, but also for developing various novel nanodevices.

  15. Low temperature magnetoresistance and magnetization studies of iron encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotube/polyvinyl chloride composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthkumar, M. S.; Sameera, I.; Bhatia, Ravi; Prasad, V.; Jayanna, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the experimental results of temperature dependent magnetoresistance (MR) and the magnetization studies of iron encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites with different wt% of MWCNTs. Transmission electron microscopy characterization shows that MWCNTs are encapsulated with rod-shaped iron nanoparticles of aspect ratio of ~3. The MR behavior of 1.9 wt% MWCNT/PVC sample shows dominance of forward scattering and wave function shrinkage whereas, weak localization and electron-electron interactions explain the MR data of higher wt% samples (9.1, 16.6 and 44.4 wt%). The composites of 4.7 and 9.1 wt% exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at all temperatures with room temperature coercivities of ~1036 and 628 Oe, respectively.

  16. Novel polydopamine imprinting layers coated magnetic carbon nanotubes for specific separation of lysozyme from egg white.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruixia; Zhang, Lili; Hao, Yi; Cui, Xihui; Liu, Dechun; Zhang, Min; Tang, Yuhai

    2015-11-01

    Novel core-shell nanocomposites, consisting of magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) core surrounded by a thin polydopamine (PDA) imprinting shell for specific recognition of lysozyme (Lyz), were fabricated for the first time. The obtained products were characterized and the results showed that the PDA layer was successfully attached onto the surface of MCNTs and the corresponding thickness of imprinting layer was just about 10nm which could enable the template access the recognition cavities easily. The polymerization conditions and adsorption performance of the resultant nanomaterials were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the obtained imprinted polymers showed fast kinetic and high affinity towards Lyz and could be used to specifically separate Lyz from real egg white. In addition, the prepared materials had excellent stability and no obvious deterioration after five adsorption-regeneration cycles. Easy preparation, rapid separation, high binding capacity, and satisfactory selectivity for the template protein make this polymer attractive in biotechnology and biosensors. PMID:26452937

  17. Removal of oil droplets from contaminated water using magnetic carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Lin, Kun-Yi; Jing, Benxin; Krylova, Galyna; Sigmon, Ginger E; McGinn, Paul; Zhu, Yingxi; Na, Chongzheng

    2013-08-01

    Water contaminated by oil and gas production poses challenges to the management of America's water resources. Here we report the design, fabrication, and laboratory evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for oil-water separation. As revealed by confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy, the magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) remove oil droplets through a two-step mechanism, in which MCNTs are first dispersed at the oil-water interface and then drag the droplets with them out of water by a magnet. Measurements of removal efficiency with different initial oil concentration, MCNT dose, and mixing time show that kinetics and equilibrium of the separation process can be described by the Langmuir model. Separation capacity qt is a function of MCNT dose m, mixing time t, and residual oil concentration Ce at equilibrium: [Formula in text] where qmax, kw, and K are maximum separation capacity, wrapping rate constant, and equilibrium constant, respectively. Least-square regressions using experimental data estimate qmax = 6.6(± 0.6) g-diesel g-MCNT(-1), kw = 3.36(± 0.03) L g-diesel(-1) min(-1), and K = 2.4(± 0.2) L g-diesel(-1). For used MCNTs, we further show that over 80% of the separation capacity can be restored by a 10 min wash with 1 mL ethanol for every 6 mg MCNTs. The separation by reusable MCNTs provides a promising alternative strategy for water treatment design complementary to existing ones such as coagulation, adsorption, filtration, and membrane processes. PMID:23582309

  18. Reinforcement of epoxy-based composites by magnetically aligned multi walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xianjuan; Lin, Song; Li, Moyu; Li, Wusheng; Jia, Xiaolong; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-07-01

    Multi walled carbon nanotubes decorated with ferriferrous oxide nanoparticle (MWCNTs-Fe3O4) complex was used as an effective reinforcement in the polymer composites. The MWCNTs-Fe3O4 with various grafting contents of Fe3O4 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by combining in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and coprecipitation process, which was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The MWCNTs-Fe3O4 complex showed the strong magnetic response behavior, which could be easily aligned in an external magnetic field. The alignment state of MWCNTs-Fe3O4 complex could be modulated by adjusting the intensity of external magnetic field, grafting content of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and viscosity of the solvent. Moreover, with the addition of MWCNTs-Fe3O4, tensile strength and modulus of epoxy composites were enhanced by 12.3 and 10.9%, respectively, which was due to the reinforcing effect of the aligned MWCNTs-Fe3O4 within magnetic field.

  19. D{sup 0} magnetism in Ca doped narrow carbon nanotubes: First principle chirality effect study

    SciTech Connect

    Hajiheidari, F.; Khoshnevisan, B.; Hashemifar, S. J.

    2014-06-21

    Curvature has always had crucial effects on the physical properties of narrow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and here spin-polarized density functional calculations were employed to study electronic and magnetic properties of calcium-decorated narrow (5,5) and (9,0)CNTs with close diameters (∼7 Å) and different chiralities. Our results showed that chirality had great impact on the electronic structure and magnetization of the doped CNTs. In addition, internally or externally doping of the calcium atoms was studied comparatively and although for the (9,0)CNT the internal doping was the most stable configuration, which involves a novel kind of spin-polarization originated from Ca-4s electrons, but for the (5,5)tube the external doping was the most stable one without any spin-polarization. On the other hand, calcium doping in the center of the (5,5)CNT was an endothermic process and led to the spin-polarization of unoccupied Ca-3d orbitals via direct exchange interaction between adjacent Ca atoms. In the considered systems, the existence of magnetization in the absence of any transition-metal elements was an example of valuable d{sup 0} magnetism title.

  20. Magnetic properties of core-shell catalyst nanoparticles for carbon nanotube growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleaca, C. T.; Morjan, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Dumitrache, F.; Soare, I.; Gavrila-Florescu, L.; Le Normand, F.; Derory, A.

    2009-03-01

    Two types of core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by laser pyrolysis using Fe(CO) 5 and C 2H 2 or [(CH 3) 3Si] 2O as precursors and C 2H 4 as sensitizer. The first type (about 4 nm diameter) - produced by the decomposition of Fe(CO) 5 in the presence of C 2H 4 and C 2H 2 - consists of Fe cores protected by graphenic layers. The second type (mean particle size of about 14 nm) consists also of Fe cores, yet covered by few nm thick γ-Fe 2O 3/porous polycarbosiloxane shells resulted from the [(CH 3) 3Si] 2O decomposition and superficial oxidation after air exposure. The hysteresis loops suggest a room temperature superparamagnetic behavior of the Fe-C nanopowder and a weak ferromagnetic one for larger particles in the Fe-Fe 2O 3-polymer sample. Both types of nanoparticles were finally used as a catalyst for the carbon nanotube growth by seeding Si(100) substrates via drop-casting method. CNTs were grown by Hot-Filament Direct. Current PE CVD technique from C 2H 2 and H 2 at 980 K. It is suggested that the increased density and orientation degree observed for the multiwall nanotubes grown from Fe-Fe 2O 3-polymer nanoparticles could be due to their magnetic behavior and surface composition.

  1. Magnetic graphene-carbon nanotube iron nanocomposites as adsorbents and antibacterial agents for water purification.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virender K; McDonald, Thomas J; Kim, Hyunook; Garg, Vijayendra K

    2015-11-01

    One of the biggest challenges of the 21st century is to provide clean and affordable water through protecting source and purifying polluted waters. This review presents advances made in the synthesis of carbon- and iron-based nanomaterials, graphene-carbon nanotubes-iron oxides, which can remove pollutants and inactivate virus and bacteria efficiently in water. The three-dimensional graphene and graphene oxide based nanostructures exhibit large surface area and sorption sites that provide higher adsorption capacity to remove pollutants than two-dimensional graphene-based adsorbents and other conventional adsorbents. Examples are presented to demonstrate removal of metals (e.g., Cu, Pb, Cr(VI), and As) and organics (e.g., dyes and oil) by grapheme-based nanostructures. Inactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species (e.g., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) is also shown. A mechanism involving the interaction of adsorbents and pollutants is briefly discussed. Magnetic graphene-based nanomaterials can easily be separated from the treated water using an external magnet; however, there are challenges in implementing the graphene-based nanotechnology in treating real water. PMID:26498500

  2. The effects of a static magnetic field on the microwave absorption of hydrogen plasma in carbon nanotubes: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhi-Hua; Gong, Xue-Yu; Peng, Yan-Feng; Guo, Yan-Chun; Ning, Yan-Tao

    2012-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the microwave absorption properties of hydrogen plasma in iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation-grown carbon nanotubes under an external static magnetic field in the frequency range 0.3 GHz to 30 GHz, using the Maxwell equations in conjunction with a general expression for the effective complex permittivity of magnetized plasma known as the Appleton—Hartree formula. The effects of the external static magnetic field intensity and the incident microwave propagation direction on the microwave absorption of hydrogen plasma in CNTs are studied in detail. The numerical results indicate that the microwave absorption properties of hydrogen plasma in iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation-grown carbon nanotubes can be obviously improved when the external static magnetic field is applied to the material. It is found that the specified frequency microwave can be strongly absorbed by the hydrogen plasma in iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation-grown carbon nanotubes over a wide range of incidence angles by adjusting the external magnetic field intensity and the parameters of the hydrogen plasma.

  3. Controlling the magnetic state of a carbon nanotube Josephson junction with the superconducting phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delagrange, Raphaelle; Weil, R.; Kasumov, A.; Bouchiat, H.; Deblock, R.; Luitz, D. J.; Meden, V.

    The Kondo effect is a many-body phenomenon that screens the magnetic moment of an impurity in a metal. The associated singlet state can be probed in a single impurity by electronic transport in a quantum dot (QD), here made of a carbon nanotube (CNT), which provides a localized electron between the two contacts. Using superconducting leads, one can investigate the competition between the Kondo effect and the superconductivity induced in the CNT. The superconductivity can destroy the Kondo singlet in favor of a magnetic doublet, leading to a sign reversal of the supercurrent in the S-CNT-S junction. This singlet-doublet transition depends on the Kondo temperature and the superconducting gap, as well as the position of the impurity level. We demonstrate experimentally that the superconducting phase difference across the QD can also control this magnetic transition. We use the measurement of the relation between the supercurrent and this superconducting phase as a tool to probe the transition. We show that it has a distinctly anharmonic behavior, that reveals the phase-mediated singlet to doublet transition, in good agreement with finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo calculations. We extract as well a phase diagram of the phase-controlled quantum transition at zero temperature.

  4. Study of the thermo-magnetic fluctuations in carbon nano-tubes added Bi-2223 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saoudel, A.; Amira, A.; Boudjadja, Y.; Mahamdioua, N.; Amirouche, L.; Varilci, A.; Altintas, S. P.; Terzioglu, C.

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of addition of carbon nano-tubes (CNT) on the properties of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy superconductors. The samples are prepared from commercial powders with addition of 0.1 wt% of CNT. They are characterized by XRD, SEM and magneto-resistivity in the transition region. As it was reported for CNT added Y-123 compounds, the refined cell parameters are practically independent of this kind of addition. Under applied magnetic field, a large broadening of resistive transition is observed. The dissipative behavior of resistivity can be explained using the well known expression, ρ=ρ0(T/Tg-1)S. The modified vortex-glass to liquid transition theory is used to calculate the values of the glass-transition temperature Tg and the temperature and magnetic field dependent activation energy U0(B,T). These parameters are seen to decrease with CNT addition and applied magnetic field. Also, we have found that the undoped sample proves a better transition width, residual resistivity (ρ0) and a higher onset critical transition temperature of about 117.75 K. Also, the appearance of a double resistive transition for both samples is a confirmation of the existence of a secondary phase which plays the role of the weak links at the grain boundaries.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic carbon nanotubes/silsesquioxane nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Alice Gonçalves; Machado, Geraldo Beyer; Pereira, Marcelo Barbalho; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Bergmann, Carlos Perez; Oliveira, Artur Harres de; Costa, Tania Maria Haas

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/silsesquioxane nanocomposites were produced by sol-gel method and deposited as thin film by dip-coating process. Blank films and films with CNTs were characterized in order to evaluate their chemical composition and morphology. Profilometry technique showed the formation of films with 305 ± 22 nm of thickness for blank samples (without CNTs) and 173 ± 05 nm thickness for samples with CNTs. Microscopy techniques indicated the presence of CNTs well dispersed in the films and, with the aid of Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, chemical composition of silsesquioxane matrix was evidenced and the presence of CNTs was confirmed in the films. Finally, the magnetic response of the deposited films was analyzed by Alternating Gradient-Field Magnetometer and results indicated that films reinforced with CNTs showed a hysteresis loop that indicates a coercivity of 103 Oe and the blank film did not show any significant response to the field applied. Hence, the authors suggest that this hybrid organic-inorganic material has potential to be applied as a new material for magnetic storage.

  6. Molecular Quantum Spintronics: Supramolecular Spin Valves Based on Single-Molecule Magnets and Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Urdampilleta, Matias; Nguyen, Ngoc-Viet; Cleuziou, Jean-Pierre; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We built new hybrid devices consisting of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors, decorated with TbPc2 (Pc = phthalocyanine) rare-earth based single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The drafting was achieved by tailoring supramolecular π-π interactions between CNTs and SMMs. The magnetoresistance hysteresis loop measurements revealed steep steps, which we can relate to the magnetization reversal of individual SMMs. Indeed, we established that the electronic transport properties of these devices depend strongly on the relative magnetization orientations of the grafted SMMs. The SMMs are playing the role of localized spin polarizer and analyzer on the CNT electronic conducting channel. As a result, we measured magneto-resistance ratios up to several hundred percent. We used this spin valve effect to confirm the strong uniaxial anisotropy and the superparamagnetic blocking temperature (TB ~ 1 K) of isolated TbPc2 SMMs. For the first time, the strength of exchange interaction between the different SMMs of the molecular spin valve geometry could be determined. Our results introduce a new design for operable molecular spintronic devices using the quantum effects of individual SMMs. PMID:22072910

  7. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using magnetic carbon nanotube improved with tartaric acid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Boron removal capacity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified with tartaric acid was investigated in this study. Modification of MWCNTs with tartaric acid was confirmed by Boehm surface chemistry method and fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Experiments were performed to determine the adsorption isotherm and adsorption thermodynamic parameters of boron adsorption on tartaric acid modified MWCNTs (TA-MWCNTs). The effect of variables including initial pH, dosage of adsorbent, contact time and temperature was investigated. Analysis of data showed that adsorption equilibrium could be better described by Freundlich isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacities obtained at the pH of 6.0 was 1.97 mg/g. The estimated thermodynamic values of free energy (ΔG°), entropy (ΔS°) and enthalpy (ΔH°) indicated a spontaneous and an endothermic process. Furthermore, the TA-MWCNTs was magnetized for separation of boron-contaminated adsorbent from aqueous solution by applying magnetic field. The results showed that magnetic TA-MWCNTs particles were separated effectively after adsorption from contaminated water. PMID:24393401

  8. Ab initio studies of mechanical, electric, and magnetic properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milowska, Karolina; Birowska, Magdalena; Majewski, Jacek A.

    2012-02-01

    We present results of extensive theoretical studies of mechanical, electric, and magnetic properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Our studies are based on the ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory. We have performed calculations for various metallic and semiconductor single wall CNTs, functionalized with simple organic molecules such as OH, COOH, NHn, CHn and metals, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pd. We have determined the stability of the functionalized CNTs, their elastic moduli, conductance, and magnetic moments (in the case of CNTs decorated with magnetic ions). These studies shed light on physical mechanisms governing the binding of the adsorbed molecules and also provide valuable quantitative predictions that are of importance for design of novel composite materials and functional devices. In particular, we find out that the Young's modulus of functionalized CNTs is smaller than in the case of bare CNTs, however it is large enough to provide a strong enforcement of composites. The functionalization with molecules leads also to the metallization of semiconducting CNTs, being relevant in the context of CNT interconnects, whereas the functionalization with metals might be used to cut CNTs into ribbons.

  9. Covalent enzyme immobilization onto carbon nanotubes using a membrane reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Nechifor, Aurelia Cristina; Gales, Ovidiu; Nechifor, Gheorghe

    2011-05-01

    Composite porous polysulfone-carbon nanotubes membranes were prepared by dispersing carbon nanotubes into a polysulfone solution followed by the membrane formation by phase inversion-immersion precipitation technique. The carbon nanotubes with amino groups on surface were functionalized with different enzymes (carbonic anhydrase, invertase, diastase) using cyanuric chloride as linker between enzyme and carbon nanotube. The composite membrane was used as a membrane reactor for a better dispersion of carbon nanotubes and access to reaction centers. The membrane also facilitates the transport of enzymes to active carbon nanotubes centers for functionalization (amino groups). The functionalized carbon nanotubes are isolated by dissolving the membranes after the end of reaction. Carbon nanotubes with covalent immobilized enzymes are used for biosensors fabrications. The obtained membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and functionalized carbon nanotubes were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy.

  10. Carbon nanotubes: Fibrillar pharmacology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostarelos, Kostas

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms by which chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes flow in blood and are excreted through the kidneys illustrate the unconventional behaviour of these fibrillar nanostructures, and the opportunities they offer as components for the design of advanced delivery vehicles.

  11. Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, S.; Xue, Yong-Qinag; Anantram, M. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses coupling between carbon nanotubes (CNT), simple metals (FEG) and a graphene sheet. The graphene sheet did not couple well with FEG, but the combination of a graphene strip and CNT did couple well with most simple metals.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Memory Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are among the most cited prototypical materials for nanoelectronics and information storage devices, a dominant position that originates from their intrinsic structural and electronic properties. In this chapter we review the developments in memory elements that directly exploit the unique properties of carbon nanotubes. Fundamental operational principles and characteristics are examined for the different types of carbon nanotube-based memory devices along with the current status of experimental fabrication and scalability. These include memory elements based on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFET), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and electromigration. Many of these devices show tremendous promise for providing enhanced densities, lower power requirements, more efficient read/write processes, and non-volatility of data.

  13. Dynamics of multiple viscoelastic carbon nanotube based nanocomposites with axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karličić, Danilo; Murmu, Tony; Cajić, Milan; Kozić, Predrag; Adhikari, Sondipon

    2014-06-01

    Nanocomposites and magnetic field effects on nanostructures have received great attention in recent years. A large amount of research work was focused on developing the proper theoretical framework for describing many physical effects appearing in structures on nanoscale level. Great step in this direction was successful application of nonlocal continuum field theory of Eringen. In the present paper, the free transverse vibration analysis is carried out for the system composed of multiple single walled carbon nanotubes (MSWCNT) embedded in a polymer matrix and under the influence of an axial magnetic field. Equivalent nonlocal model of MSWCNT is adopted as viscoelastically coupled multi-nanobeam system (MNBS) under the influence of longitudinal magnetic field. Governing equations of motion are derived using the Newton second low and nonlocal Rayleigh beam theory, which take into account small-scale effects, the effect of nanobeam angular acceleration, internal damping and Maxwell relation. Explicit expressions for complex natural frequency are derived based on the method of separation of variables and trigonometric method for the "Clamped-Chain" system. In addition, an analytical method is proposed in order to obtain asymptotic damped natural frequency and the critical damping ratio, which are independent of boundary conditions and a number of nanobeams in MNBS. The validity of obtained results is confirmed by comparing the results obtained for complex frequencies via trigonometric method with the results obtained by using numerical methods. The influence of the longitudinal magnetic field on the free vibration response of viscoelastically coupled MNBS is discussed in detail. In addition, numerical results are presented to point out the effects of the nonlocal parameter, internal damping, and parameters of viscoelastic medium on complex natural frequencies of the system. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested methodology to find the closed form solutions for the free vibration response of multiple nanostructure systems under the influence of magnetic field.

  14. Dynamics of multiple viscoelastic carbon nanotube based nanocomposites with axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Karličić, Danilo; Cajić, Milan; Murmu, Tony; Kozić, Predrag; Adhikari, Sondipon

    2014-06-21

    Nanocomposites and magnetic field effects on nanostructures have received great attention in recent years. A large amount of research work was focused on developing the proper theoretical framework for describing many physical effects appearing in structures on nanoscale level. Great step in this direction was successful application of nonlocal continuum field theory of Eringen. In the present paper, the free transverse vibration analysis is carried out for the system composed of multiple single walled carbon nanotubes (MSWCNT) embedded in a polymer matrix and under the influence of an axial magnetic field. Equivalent nonlocal model of MSWCNT is adopted as viscoelastically coupled multi-nanobeam system (MNBS) under the influence of longitudinal magnetic field. Governing equations of motion are derived using the Newton second low and nonlocal Rayleigh beam theory, which take into account small-scale effects, the effect of nanobeam angular acceleration, internal damping and Maxwell relation. Explicit expressions for complex natural frequency are derived based on the method of separation of variables and trigonometric method for the “Clamped-Chain” system. In addition, an analytical method is proposed in order to obtain asymptotic damped natural frequency and the critical damping ratio, which are independent of boundary conditions and a number of nanobeams in MNBS. The validity of obtained results is confirmed by comparing the results obtained for complex frequencies via trigonometric method with the results obtained by using numerical methods. The influence of the longitudinal magnetic field on the free vibration response of viscoelastically coupled MNBS is discussed in detail. In addition, numerical results are presented to point out the effects of the nonlocal parameter, internal damping, and parameters of viscoelastic medium on complex natural frequencies of the system. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested methodology to find the closed form solutions for the free vibration response of multiple nanostructure systems under the influence of magnetic field.

  15. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, Stephen E.

    2003-01-01

    These project will explore the functionalization of carbon nanotubes via the formation of molecular complexes with perylene diimide based systems. It is anticipated that these complexes would be soluble in organic solvent and enable the homogenous dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polymer films. Molecular complexes will be prepared and characterized using standard spectroscopic and thermal analytical techniques. Polymer films will be prepared with these complexes and their properties (electrical and thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, stability) evaluated.

  16. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement. PMID:22655070

  17. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  18. Reversible immobilization of glucoamylase onto magnetic carbon nanotubes functionalized with dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guanghui; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Jianzhi; Zhu, Hao

    2011-08-01

    Magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) with necklace-like nanostructures was prepared via hydrothermal method, and hyperbranched poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) was grafted on the surface of MCNTs on the basis of the Michael addition of methyl acrylate and the amidation of the resulting ester with a large excess of ethylenediamine (EDA), which could achieve generational growth under such uniform stepwise reactions. The terminal -NH(2) groups from the dendritic PAMAM were reacted with differently functionalized groups to form functionalized MCNTs. Subsequently, enzyme was immobilized on the functionalized MCNTs through adsorption, covalent bond, and metal-ion affinity interactions. The immobilization of glucoamylase, hereby chosen as model enzyme, onto the differently functionalized MCNTs is further demonstrated and assessed based on its activity, thermal stability, as well as reusability. Besides ease in recovery by magnetic separation, the immobilized glucoamylase on functionalized MCNTs offers superior stability and reusability, without compromising the substrate specificity of free glucoamylase. Furthermore, the results indicate that the metal-chelate dendrimer offers an efficient route to immobilize enzymes via metal-ion affinity interactions. The applicability of the regenerated supports in the current study is relevant for the conjugation of other enzymes beyond glucoamylase. PMID:21538110

  19. Sensitive and high-fidelity electrochemical immunoassay using carbon nanotubes coated with enzymes and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Piao, Yunxian; Jin, Zongwen; Lee, Dohoon; Lee, Hye-Jin; Na, Hyon-Bin; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Oh, Min-Kyu; Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2011-03-15

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on the combined use of substrate recycling and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with tyrosinase (TYR) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). Both TYR and MNP were immobilized on the surface of CNTs by covalent attachment, followed by additional cross-linking via glutaraldehyde treatment to construct multi-layered cross-linked TYR-MNP aggregates (M-EC-CNT). Magnetically capturable, highly active and stable M-EC-CNT were further conjugated with primary antibody against a target analyte of hIgG, and used for a sandwich-type immunoassay with a secondary antibody conjugated with alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In the presence of a target analyte, a sensing assembly of M-EC-CNT and ALP-conjugated antibody was attracted onto a gold electrode using a magnet. On an electrode, ALP-catalyzed hydrolysis of phenyl phosphate generated phenol, and successive TYR-catalyzed oxidation of phenol produced electrochemically measurable o-quinone that was converted to catechol in a scheme of substrate recycling. Combination of highly active M-EC-CNT and substrate recycling for the detection of hIgG resulted in a sensitivity of 27.6 nA ng(-1) mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.19 ng mL(-1) (1.2 pM), respectively, representing better performance than any other electrochemical immunosensors relying on the substrate recycling with the TYR-ALP combination. The present immunosensing system also displayed a long-term stability by showing a negligible loss of electrochemical detection signal even after reagents were stored in an aqueous buffer at 4°C for more than 6 months. PMID:21242086

  20. Templated Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochik Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of growing carbon nanotubes uses a synthesized mesoporous si lica template with approximately cylindrical pores being formed there in. The surfaces of the pores are coated with a carbon nanotube precu rsor, and the template with the surfaces of the pores so-coated is th en heated until the carbon nanotube precursor in each pore is convert ed to a carbon nanotube.

  1. Carbon nanotube array based sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Christopher L.; Noy, Aleksandr; Swierkowski, Stephan P.; Fisher, Karl A.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2005-09-20

    A sensor system comprising a first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and a second electrode. The first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode are positioned to produce an air gap between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode. A measuring device is provided for sensing changes in electrical capacitance between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode.

  2. Structural dependence of carbon nanotube orbital magnetic susceptibility: tight binding calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrens, O. N.; Kikkawa, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    Recent ab initio calculations of the orbital magnetic susceptibility anisotropies in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown large, systematic differences among zigzag CNTs of similar diameters [1]. We theoretically investigate the origin of these trends by applying the zone-folding method within the nearest-neighbor tight-binding approximation to all chiral and achiral semiconducting CNT species with diameters between 0.6 nm and 1.7 nm. Our results show qualitative agreement with the ``mod 1'' and ``mod 2'' trends of the ab initio theory and additionally distinguish between trigonal warping and curvature-related effects as physical reasons for the predicted species-dependent spread. Our calculations show (2n+m) patterns similar to those in a recent, experimentally-motivated ``fan-out'' diagram [2] and can be likewise fit to an analytical four-term chirality expansion. [1] Marques, M. A. L.; d'Avezac, M. & Mauri, F., Phys. Rev. B, 2006, 73, 125433 [2] Torrens, O. N.; Milkie, D. E.; Ban, H. Y.; Zheng, M.; Onoa, G. B.; Gierke, T. D. & Kikkawa, J. M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 252-253

  3. Artifact properties of carbon nanotube yarn electrode in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. Q.; Hao, H. W.; Li, L. M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulating (DBS) is a rapidly developing therapy that can treat many refractory neurological diseases. However, the traditional DBS electrodes which are made of Pt-Ir alloy may induce severe field distortions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which leads to artifacts that will lower the local image quality and cause inconvenience or interference. A novel DBS electrode made from carbon nanotube yarns (CNTYs) is brought up to reduce the artifacts. This study is therefore to evaluate the artifact properties of the novel electrode. Approach. We compared its MR artifact characteristics with the Pt-Ir electrode in water phantom, including its artifact behaviors at different orientations as well as at various off-center positions, using both spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GE) sequences, and confirmed its performance in vivo. Main results. The results in phantom showed that the CNTY electrode artifacts reduced as much as 62% and 74% on GE and SE images, respectively, compared to the Pt-Ir one. And consistent behaviors were confirmed in vivo. The susceptibility difference was identified as the dominant cause in producing artifacts. Significance. Employing the CNTY electrode may generate much less field distortion in the vicinity, improve local MR image quality and possibly be beneficial in various aspects.

  4. Properties of K,Rb-intercalated C60 encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes called peapods derived from nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R.; Bouhrara, M.; Kim, Y.; Wgberg, T.; Goze-Bac, C.; Abou-Hamad, E.

    2015-09-01

    We present a detailed experimental study on how magnetic and electronic properties of Rb,K-intercalated C60 encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes called peapods can be derived from 13C nuclear magnetic resonance investigations. Ring currents do play a basic role in those systems; in particular, the inner cavities of nanotubes offer an ideal environment to investigate the magnetism at the nanoscale. We report the largest diamagnetic shifts down to -68.3 ppm ever observed in carbon allotropes, which is connected to the enhancement of the aromaticity of the nanotube envelope upon intercalation. The metallization of intercalated peapods is evidenced from the chemical shift anisotropy and spin-lattice relaxation (T1) measurements. The observed relaxation curves signal a three-component model with two slow and one fast relaxing components. We assigned the fast component to the unpaired electrons charged C60 that show a phase transition near 100 K. The two slow components can be rationalized by the two types of charged C60 at two different positions with a linear regime following Korringa behavior, which is typical for metallic system and allow us to estimate the density of sate at Fermi level n(EF).

  5. Facile synthesis of boronic acid-functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rongna; Hu, Junjie; Cai, Zongwei; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-02-01

    A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) via an amide reaction. The introduction of PASE could bridge the MCNT and APBA, suppress the nonspecific adsorption and reduce the steric hindrance among the bound molecules. Due to the excellent structure of the MCNTs, the functionalization of PASE and then APBA on MCNTs was quite simple, specific and effective. The glycopeptides enrichment and separation with a magnetic field could be achieved by their reversible covalent binding with the boronic group of APBA-MCNTs. The exceptionally large specific surface area and the high density of boronic acid groups of APBA-MCNTs resulted in rapid and highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides, even in the presence of large amounts of interfering nonglycopeptides. The functional MCNTs possessed high selectivity for enrichment of 21 glycopeptides from the digest of horseradish peroxidase demonstrated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis showing more glycopeptides detected than the usual 9 glycopeptides with commercially available APBA-agarose. The proposed system showed better specificity for glycopeptides even in the presence of non-glycopeptides with 50 times higher concentration. The boronic acid functionalized MCNTs provide a promising selective enrichment platform for precise glycoproteomic analysis.A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) via an amide reaction. The introduction of PASE could bridge the MCNT and APBA, suppress the nonspecific adsorption and reduce the steric hindrance among the bound molecules. Due to the excellent structure of the MCNTs, the functionalization of PASE and then APBA on MCNTs was quite simple, specific and effective. The glycopeptides enrichment and separation with a magnetic field could be achieved by their reversible covalent binding with the boronic group of APBA-MCNTs. The exceptionally large specific surface area and the high density of boronic acid groups of APBA-MCNTs resulted in rapid and highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides, even in the presence of large amounts of interfering nonglycopeptides. The functional MCNTs possessed high selectivity for enrichment of 21 glycopeptides from the digest of horseradish peroxidase demonstrated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis showing more glycopeptides detected than the usual 9 glycopeptides with commercially available APBA-agarose. The proposed system showed better specificity for glycopeptides even in the presence of non-glycopeptides with 50 times higher concentration. The boronic acid functionalized MCNTs provide a promising selective enrichment platform for precise glycoproteomic analysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: EDX spectra, MALDI-TOF MS and data summary. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05367a

  6. Carbon Nanotubes for Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As an electrical energy storage device, supercapacitor finds attractive applications in consumer electronic products and alternative power source due to its higher energy density, fast discharge/charge time, low level of heating, safety, long-term operation stability, and no disposable parts. This work reviews the recent development of supercapacitor based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their composites. The purpose is to give a comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of carbon nanotubes-related supercapacitor materials and to find ways for the improvement in the performance of supercapacitor. We first discussed the effects of physical and chemical properties of pure carbon nanotubes, including size, purity, defect, shape, functionalization, and annealing, on the supercapacitance. The composites, including CNTs/oxide and CNTs/polymer, were further discussed to enhance the supercapacitance and keep the stability of the supercapacitor by optimally engineering the composition, particle size, and coverage. PMID:20672061

  7. Proposal of Carbon Nanotube Inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Hanajiri, T.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2006-05-01

    The inductors made of carbon Nanotube (CNT) have been proposed. Though the fabrication of the proposed inductor is still challenging and has many problems, merits of the proposed inductor are following, (i)The magnetic field induced by the current in CNT is about one thousand times larger than that induced by the current in normal copper wire. (ii)The large magnetic field results in the large inductance, according to the relation between magnetic field and inductance. (iii)The inductor made of CNT is smaller than the inductor in IC circuits, because CNT can be bent with small curvature.

  8. Chlorination of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbahar, Dogan; Berber, Savas

    2012-02-01

    We report ab initio density functional theory calculations for chlorinated single-wall carbon nanotubes and investigate the atomic structure, energetics, and electronic structure of the chlorinated nanotubes, as well as the energetics of the desorption reaction. We find that the Cl atoms should be adsorbed in pairs and thus focus on doubly chlorinated nanotubes. Using the terminology of arene substitution patterns, ortho and para configurations are the most stable. The physisorption is preferable to the chemisorption in large-diameter nanotubes. The impurity states appear near the Fermi level EF in the electronic structure and may alter the electronic properties considerably. The bonding character for adsorption outside the nanotube is mainly covalent, but inside it consists of physical bonding. The adsorption of several Cl atoms inside a carbon nanotube leads to the formation of a charged Cl chain. Our calculated desorption barrier of ⩽1.4 eV per Cl atom pair indicates that the cleansing by chlorination is a less damaging alternative with removable residue.

  9. Copper-philic carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgamwar, Sachin U.; Sharma, Niti Nipun

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanotube is having poor wet-ability with copper metal. Wet-ability of carbon nanotube was improved by exposing and creating more active sites on the surface of carbon nanotube. Carbon nanotubes were subjected to the prolong ultrasonication treatment of 20×103 Hz and 500W, which helped in disentanglement of carbon nanotube agglomerates and in breaking the weak bonds like pentagonal or heptagonal structure on the surface and on the CNT cap. Disentanglement of the carbon nanotube, resulted in exposing the defective sites on the surface and breaking of weak bonds, which assisted in creating the new defects on the surface. This process results in generates more active sites on the surface and it helps in improving the wet-ability of the carbon nanotube in copper.

  10. Stable confinement of positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance agents within carbon nanotubes for bimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Brandon T; Law, Justin J; Matson, Michael L; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Wilson, Lon J

    2014-01-01

    Aims Simultaneous positron emission tomography/MRI has recently been introduced to the clinic and dual positron emission tomography/MRI probes are rare and of growing interest. We have developed a strategy for producing multimodal probes based on a carbon nanotube platform without the use of chelating ligands. Materials & methods Gd3+ and 64Cu2+ ions were loaded into ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes by sonication. Normal, tumor-free athymic nude mice were injected intravenously with the probe and imaged over 48 h. Results & conclusion The probe was stable for up to 24 h when challenged with phosphate-buffered saline and mouse serum. Positron emission tomography imaging also confirmed the stability of the probe in vivo for up to 48 h. The probe was quickly cleared from circulation, with enhanced accumulation in the lungs. Stable encapsulation of contrast agents within ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes represents a new strategy for the design of advanced imaging probes with variable multimodal imaging capabilities. PMID:24628687

  11. Polarized light transmission in ferrofluids loaded with carbon nanotubes in the presence of a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vales-Pinzón, C.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Medina-Esquivel, R.; Martínez-Torres, P.

    2014-11-01

    Magneto-optic phenomena in ferrofluids have been shown to be related to the formation of chain structures, due to the arrangement of the ferromagnetic particles, induced by an applied magnetic field. In this work, the effects on transmission of polarized light due to anisotropic effects induced by an external magnetic field in ferrofluids with carbon nanotubes are studied. The time response of the system presents two well defined stages, in the first one, which is very short, the fluid behaves as a polarizer. In contrast in the second stage, the effects of light transmission dominate. In this stage the transmitted light intensity grows with time and after a long time reaches a constant stable value. It is shown that these phenomena depend on the carbon nanotubes concentration as well as on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Using a simple model that considers a chain-like structure formation, it is possible to determine the rate of agglomeration of the formed structures and the attenuation coefficient of the transmitted light. The formation of nanostructures leads to variation in the transmitted light, depending on the polarization of the incident light. These magnetic nanostructures can find numerous applications in nanotechnology, optical devices and medicine.

  12. Separation and enrichment of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyls from real waters using a novel magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiabin; Gan, Ning; Pan, Muyun; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Wu, Dazhen; Long, Nengbing

    2015-03-01

    A novel and effective magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite for the separation and enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyls was developed. Fe3 O4 @SiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles were first synthesized, then the poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) was laid on its surface to prepare the polyanionic magnetic nanoparticles. The above materials were then grafted with polycationic multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which were modified by polydiallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride through the layer-by-layer self-assembly approach. Its performance was tested by magnetic solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples. Under optimal conditions, the spiked recoveries of several real samples for six kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180) were in the range of 73.4-99.5% with relative standard deviations varying from 1.5 to 8.4%. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls were between 0.018 and 0.039 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze polychlorinated biphenyls in real water samples. Satisfactory results were obtained using the effective magnetic absorbent. PMID:25556922

  13. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  14. Carbon nanotube filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  15. Carbon nanotube filters.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Srivastava, O N; Talapatra, S; Vajtai, R; Ajayan, P M

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus ( approximately 25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially. PMID:15286755

  16. The Toxicology of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, Ken; Poland, Craig; Duffin, Rodger; Bonner, James

    2012-06-01

    1. Carbon nanotube structure, synthesis and applications C. Singh and W. Song; 2. The aerodynamic behaviour and pulmonary deposition of carbon nanotubes A. Buckley, R. Smith and R Maynard; 3. Utilising the concept of the biologically effective dose to define the particle and fibre hazards of carbon nanotubes K. Donaldson, R. Duffin, F. Murphy and C. Poland; 4. CNT, biopersistence and the fibre paradigm D. Warheit and M. DeLorme; 5. Length-dependent retention of fibres in the pleural space C. Poland, F. Murphy and K. Donaldson; 6. Experimental carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes in the context of other fibres K. Unfried; 7. Fate and effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. Ryman-Rasmussen, M. Andersen and J. Bonner; 8. Responses to pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes V. Castranova and R. Mercer; 9. Genotoxicity of carbon nanotubes R. Schins, C. Albrecht, K. Gerloff and D. van Berlo; 10. Carbon nanotube-cellular interactions; macrophages, epithelial and mesothelial cells V. Stone, M. Boyles, A. Kermanizadeh, J. Varet and H. Johnston; 11. Systemic health effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. McDonald; 12. Dosimetry and metrology of carbon nanotubes L. Tran, L. MacCalman and R. Aitken; Index.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Purification and Functionalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Mintz, Eric; Smalley, Richard E.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have the potential to significantly enhance the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of polymers. However, dispersion of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix is hindered by the electrostatic forces that cause them to agglomerate. Chemical modification of the nanotubes is necessary to minimize these electrostatic forces and promote adhesion between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix. In a collaborative research program between Clark Atlanta University, Rice University, and NASA Glenn Research Center several approaches are being explored to chemically modify carbon nanotubes. The results of this research will be presented.

  18. Preparation of novel curcumin-imprinted polymers based on magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the rapid extraction of curcumin from ginger powder and kiwi fruit root.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Chen, Xing; Rao, Wei; Long, Fang; Yan, Liang; Yin, Yuli

    2015-01-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer based on magnetic phenyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes was synthesized using curcumin as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The phenyl groups contained in the magnetic imprinted polymers acted as the assisting functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Adsorption studies demonstrated that the magnetic imprinted polymers possessed excellent selectivity toward curcumin with a maximum capacity of 16.80 mg/g. Combining magnetic extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography technology, the magnetic imprinted polymer based on magnetic phenyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes was applied for the rapid separation and enrichment of curcumin from ginger powder and kiwi fruit root successfully. PMID:25358961

  19. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  20. Carbon nanotubes on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA

    2002-03-26

    The present invention includes carbon nanotubes whose hollow cores are 100% filled with conductive filler. The carbon nanotubes are in uniform arrays on a conductive substrate and are well-aligned and can be densely packed. The uniformity of the carbon nanotube arrays is indicated by the uniform length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes, both which vary from nanotube to nanotube on a given array by no more than about 5%. The alignment of the carbon nanotubes is indicated by the perpendicular growth of the nanotubes from the substrates which is achieved in part by the simultaneous growth of the conductive filler within the hollow core of the nanotube and the densely packed growth of the nanotubes. The present invention provides a densely packed carbon nanotube growth where each nanotube is in contact with at least one nearest-neighbor nanotube. The substrate is a conductive substrate coated with a growth catalyst, and the conductive filler can be single crystals of carbide formed by a solid state reaction between the substrate material and the growth catalyst. The present invention further provides a method for making the filled carbon nanotubes on the conductive substrates. The method includes the steps of depositing a growth catalyst onto the conductive substrate as a prepared substrate, creating a vacuum within a vessel which contains the prepared substrate, flowing H2/inert (e.g. Ar) gas within the vessel to increase and maintain the pressure within the vessel, increasing the temperature of the prepared substrate, and changing the H2/Ar gas to ethylene gas such that the ethylene gas flows within the vessel. Additionally, varying the density and separation of the catalyst particles on the conductive substrate can be used to control the diameter of the nanotubes.

  1. Defect-Free Carbon Nanotube Coils.

    PubMed

    Shadmi, Nitzan; Kremen, Anna; Frenkel, Yiftach; Lapin, Zachary J; Machado, Leonardo D; Legoas, Sergio B; Bitton, Ora; Rechav, Katya; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Galvão, Douglas S; Jorio, Ado; Novotny, Lukas; Kalisky, Beena; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2016-04-13

    Carbon nanotubes are promising building blocks for various nanoelectronic components. A highly desirable geometry for such applications is a coil. However, coiled nanotube structures reported so far were inherently defective or had no free ends accessible for contacting. Here we demonstrate the spontaneous self-coiling of single-wall carbon nanotubes into defect-free coils of up to more than 70 turns with identical diameter and chirality, and free ends. We characterize the structure, formation mechanism, and electrical properties of these coils by different microscopies, molecular dynamics simulations, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical and magnetic measurements. The coils are highly conductive, as expected for defect-free carbon nanotubes, but adjacent nanotube segments in the coil are more highly coupled than in regular bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes, owing to their perfect crystal momentum matching, which enables tunneling between the turns. Although this behavior does not yet enable the performance of these nanotube coils as inductive devices, it does point a clear path for their realization. Hence, this study represents a major step toward the production of many different nanotube coil devices, including inductors, electromagnets, transformers, and dynamos. PMID:26708150

  2. Method of manufacturing carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jeanette M. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor); Frazier, Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A process for manufacturing carbon nanotubes, including a step of inducing electrical current through a carbon anode and a carbon cathode under conditions effective to produce the carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon cathode is larger than the carbon anode. Preferably, a welder is used to induce the electrical current via an arc welding process. Preferably, an exhaust hood is placed on the anode, and the process does not require a closed or pressurized chamber. The process provides high-quality, single-walled carbon nanotubes, while eliminating the need for a metal catalyst.

  3. Carbon nanotube network varactor.

    PubMed

    Generalov, A A; Anoshkin, I V; Erdmanis, M; Lioubtchenko, D V; Ovchinnikov, V; Nasibulin, A G; Räisänen, A V

    2015-01-30

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) varactors based on a freestanding layer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films were designed, fabricated and tested. The freestanding SWCNT film was employed as a movable upper patch in the parallel plate capacitor of the MEMS. The measurements of the SWCNT varactors show very high tunability, nearly 100%, of the capacitance with a low actuation voltage of 10 V. The functionality of the varactor is improved by implementing a flexible nanocellulose aerogel filling. PMID:25556375

  4. Carbon nanotube network varactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generalov, A. A.; Anoshkin, I. V.; Erdmanis, M.; Lioubtchenko, D. V.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Räisänen, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) varactors based on a freestanding layer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films were designed, fabricated and tested. The freestanding SWCNT film was employed as a movable upper patch in the parallel plate capacitor of the MEMS. The measurements of the SWCNT varactors show very high tunability, nearly 100%, of the capacitance with a low actuation voltage of 10 V. The functionality of the varactor is improved by implementing a flexible nanocellulose aerogel filling.

  5. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes Based Quantum Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jian-Ping

    1999-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the NASA cooperative agreement which studied the application of carbon nanotubes. The accomplishments are reviewed: (1) Wrote a review article on carbon nanotubes and its potentials for applications in nanoscale quantum devices. (2) Extensive studies on the effects of structure deformation on nanotube electronic structure and energy band gaps. (3) Calculated the vibrational spectrum of nanotube rope and the effect of pressure. and (4) Investigate the properties of Li intercalated nanotube ropes and explore their potential for energy storage materials and battery applications. These studies have lead to four publications and seven abstracts in international conferences.

  7. Optoelectronics with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Megumi

    2011-12-01

    The carbon nanotube is a promising material for future micro- and nano-scale electronics because of its unique electronic properties, high carrier mobility and extraordinary capacity for high current density. In particular, semiconducting carbon nanotubes are direct bandgap materials with a typical energy gap in the order of 1 eV, which means they emit light in the near-infrared range, making them an attractive option in telecommunications applications. However, there have been few systematic investigations of electrically-induced light emission (i.e. electroluminescence) from carbon nanotubes, and their emission properties are not well understood. In this dissertation, we explore the characteristics of electroluminescence in three different types of carbon-nanotube devices. The first is a single-tube field-effect transistor (CNTFET), whose emission has previously been found to have a very broad spectral shape and low emission efficiency. We analyze the spectral shape in detail, which reveals that a high electric field near metal contacts contributes most to the bias-dependent component of broadening, in addition to smaller contributions from tube nonuniformity, inelastic scattering of phonons, high temperature, etc. In the second part of the study, single-tube light-emitting diodes are constructed by employing a split top-gate scheme. The split gate creates p- and n-doped regions electrostatically, so that electrons and holes combine between the two sections and can decay radiatively. This configuration creates electron-hole pairs under much lower electric fields and gives us a greater control over carrier distribution in the device channel, resulting in much narrower spectral linewidths and an emission intensity several orders of magnitude larger than that of CNTFETs. The much better signal-to-noise also leads to the observation of emission from defect-induced states. Finally, we extend the idea of the single-tube p-n diode and fabricate CNT film diodes from many purified tubes aligned in parallel. While the operating principle is somewhat different from that of single-tube diodes because of the presence of metallic tubes in the material, the film diodes nonetheless show a rectifying behavior and much greater light intensity than single-tube devices. With their superior light output and robustness, they bring us one step closer to a real-world application of carbon nanotubes optoelectronics.

  8. Electroless Co-P-Carbon Nanotube composite coating to enhance magnetic properties of grain-oriented electrical steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Vishu; Anderson, Philip; Hall, Jeremy; Robinson, Fiona; Bohm, Siva

    2016-06-01

    The effect of Co-P-CNT coating on the magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel was investigated. To analyse the coating, Raman spectroscopy, Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID), single strip testing, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and talysurf surface profilometry were performed. Raman spectra showed the D and G band which corroborates the presence of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) in the coating. The magnetic nature of the coating was confirmed by SQUID results. Power loss results show an improvement ranging 13-15% after coating with Co-P-CNT. The resistivity of the coating was measured to be 104 μΩ cm. Loss separation graphs were plotted before and after coating to study the improvement in power loss. It was found that the coating helps in reducing the hysteresis loss. The thickness of the coating was found to be 414±40 nm. The surface profilometry results showed that the surface roughness improved after coating the sample.

  9. Magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes modified with dual hydroxy functional ionic liquid for the solid-phase extraction of protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian; Zhou, Yigang

    2015-05-21

    A novel adsorbent based on silica-coated magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface modified by dual hydroxy functional ionic liquid (FIL) ([OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2) has been designed and used for the purification of lysozyme (Lys) by magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize [OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2. After extraction, the concentration of Lys was determined by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 278 nm. A series of single-factor experiments were carried out to identify the optimal conditions of the extraction and the extraction amount could reach up to 94.6 mg g(-1). The RSD of the precision, the repeatability and the stability experiments were 0.37% (n = 3), 0.47% (n = 3) and 0.52% (n = 3), respectively. Comparison of [OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2 with silica-coated magnetic Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@SiO2), silica-coated magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs@SiO2) and alkyl quaternary ammonium ionic liquid-modified on m-MWCNTs@SiO2 was carried out by extracting Lys. The extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA), trypsin (Try) and ovalbumin (OVA) was also done by the proposed method. Desorption of Lys was carried out by 0.005 mol L(-1) Na2HPO4-1 mol L(-1) NaCl as the eluent solution and the desorption ratio reached 91.6%. Nearly 97.8% of the [OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2 could be recovered from each run, and the extraction amount decreased less after five runs. The circular dichroism spectral experiment analysis indicated that the secondary structure of Lys was unchanged after extraction. PMID:25826781

  10. Carbon nanotube actuators

    PubMed

    Baughman; Cui; Zakhidov; Iqbal; Barisci; Spinks; Wallace; Mazzoldi; De Rossi D; Rinzler; Jaschinski; Roth; Kertesz

    1999-05-21

    Electromechanical actuators based on sheets of single-walled carbon nanotubes were shown to generate higher stresses than natural muscle and higher strains than high-modulus ferroelectrics. Like natural muscles, the macroscopic actuators are assemblies of billions of individual nanoscale actuators. The actuation mechanism (quantum chemical-based expansion due to electrochemical double-layer charging) does not require ion intercalation, which limits the life and rate of faradaic conducting polymer actuators. Unlike conventional ferroelectric actuators, low operating voltages of a few volts generate large actuator strains. Predictions based on measurements suggest that actuators using optimized nanotube sheets may eventually provide substantially higher work densities per cycle than any previously known technology. PMID:10334985

  11. Carbon nanotube Archimedes screws.

    PubMed

    Oroszlány, László; Zólyomi, Viktor; Lambert, Colin J

    2010-12-28

    Recently, nanomechanical devices composed of a long stationary inner carbon nanotube and a shorter, slowly rotating outer tube have been fabricated. In this paper, we study the possibility of using such devices as nanoscale transducers of motion into electricity. When the outer tube is chiral, we show that such devices act like quantum Archimedes screws, which utilize mechanical energy to pump electrons between reservoirs. We calculate the pumped charge from one end of the inner tube to the other, driven by the rotation of a chiral outer nanotube. We show that the pumped charge can be greater than one electron per 360° rotation, and consequently, such a device operating with a rotational frequency of 10 MHz, for example, would deliver a current of ≈1 pAmp. PMID:21126086

  12. CARBON NANOTUBES AS MULTIPOLLUTANT SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exploratory Research Program Project - Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are formed from graphite (or graphene) sheets rolled into tubes, typically with diameters of 1 - 10 nm and lengths of 200 - 500 nm. Carbon nanotubes have unique electrical properties that have led to interest in thei...

  13. Solvothermal synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles loaded on multiwalled carbon nanotubes for magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huixia; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Jiamin; Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Yang, Hong; Hu, He; Yang, Shiping

    2011-09-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/cobalt ferrite (CoFe(2)O(4)) magnetic hybrids were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The reaction temperature significantly affected the structure of the resultant MWCNT/CoFe(2)O(4) hybrids, which varied from 6nm CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles uniformly coated on the nanotubes at 180°C to agglomerated CoFe(2)O(4) spherical particles threaded by MWCNTs and forming necklace-like nanostructures at 240°C. Based on the superparamagnetic property at room temperature and high hydrophilicity, the MWCNT/CoFe(2)O(4) hybrids prepared at 180°C (MWCNT/CoFe(2)O(4)-180) were further investigated for biomedical applications, which showed a high T(2) relaxivity of 152.8 Fe mM(-1)s(-1) in aqueous solutions, a significant negative contrast enhancement effect on cancer cells and, more importantly, low cytotoxicity and negligible hemolytic activity. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) can be loaded onto the hybrids and subsequently released in a sustained and pH-responsive way. The DOX-loaded hybrids exhibited notable cytotoxicity to HeLa cancer cells due to the intracellular release of DOX. These results suggest that MWCNT/CoFe(2)O(4)-180 hybrids may be used as both effective magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and anticancer drug delivery systems for simultaneous cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy. PMID:21664499

  14. Impact of carbondiimide crosslinker used for magnetic carbon nanotube mediated GFP plasmid delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yuzhi; Xu, Peng; He, Chuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Min; Xing, James; Chen, Jie

    2011-07-01

    1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbondiimide hydrochloride (EDC) is commonly used as a crosslinker to help bind biomolecules, such as DNA plasmids, with nanostructures. However, EDC often remains, after a crosslink reaction, in the micro-aperture of the nanostructure, e.g., carbon nanotube. The remaining EDC shows positive green fluorescent signals and makes a nanostructure with a strong cytotoxicity which induces cell death. The toxicity of EDC was confirmed on a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and two leukemic cell lines (THP-1 and KG-1). The MCF-7 cells mainly underwent necrosis after treatment with EDC, which was verified by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) annexin V staining, video microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). If the EDC was not removed completely, the nanostructures with remaining EDC produced a green fluorescent background that could interfere with flow cytometry (FACS) measurement and result in false information about GFP plasmid delivery. Effective methods to remove residual EDC on macromolecules were also developed.

  15. Structural, Electronic, and Magnetic Features of Platinum Alloy Strings Templated on A Boron-Doped Carbon Nanotube

    SciTech Connect

    An, Wei; Turner, C. H.

    2010-05-25

    We present density-functional-theory calculations of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of platinum-alloy strings templated on a boron-doped single-wall carbon nanotube (6,6) model, B-SWCNT(6,6). Our calculations show that the alloy strings demonstrate strong molecular recognition, forming well-defined covalent bonds with the substrate and lead to the self-assembly of stable monatomic chains. The electronic and magnetic features of the Pt-alloy string/B-SWCNT(6,6)composite systems are mainly controlled by the presence of a magnetic alloying element (i.e., Fe, Co, and Ru). By changing the composition of the Pt alloy, the easy magnetization axis of the system can oscillate between the directions parallel and perpendicular to the tube axis. Our studies suggest that pure transition-metal (TM) or TM-alloy strings anchored on a substrate via strong molecular interactions can still possess sizable magnetic anisotropy due to spin-orbital coupling effects.

  16. Studies of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caneba, Gerard T.

    2005-01-01

    The fellowship experience for this summer for 2004 pertains to carbon nanotube coatings for various space-related applications. They involve the following projects: (a) EMI protection films from HiPco-polymers, and (b) Thermal protection nanosilica materials. EMI protection films are targeted to be eventually applied onto casings of laptop computers. These coatings are composites of electrically-conductive SWNTs and compatible polymers. The substrate polymer will be polycarbonate, since computer housings are typically made of carbon composites of this type of polymer. A new experimental copolymer was used last year to generate electrically-conductive and thermal films with HiPco at 50/50 wt/wt composition. This will be one of the possible formulations. Reference films will be base polycarbonate and neat HiPco onto polycarbonate films. Other coating materials that will be tried will be based on HiPco composites with commercial enamels (polyurethane, acrylic, polyester), which could be compatible with the polycarbonate substrate. Nanosilica fibers are planned for possible use as thermal protection tiles on the shuttle orbiter. Right now, microscale silica is used. Going to the nanoscale will increase the surface-volume-per-unit-area of radiative heat dissipation. Nanoscale carbon fibers/nanotubes can be used as templates for the generation of nanosilica. A sol-gel operation is employed for this purpose.

  17. Teslaphoresis of Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R; Castillo, Aida C; Smalley, Preston R; Kittrell, Carter; James, Dustin K; Brinson, Bruce E; Rybolt, Thomas R; Johnson, Bruce R; Cherukuri, Tonya K; Cherukuri, Paul

    2016-04-26

    This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil's antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (>30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale. PMID:27074626

  18. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2, or F2, or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target particles are directed toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec.

  19. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H.sub.2 or F.sub.2 or C.sub.nH.sub.m) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target particles are directed toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Interconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for fabricating an electrical interconnect capable of supporting very high current densities ( 10(exp 6)-10(exp 10) Amps/sq cm), using an array of one or more carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNT array is grown in a selected spaced apart pattern, preferably with multi-wall CNTs, and a selected insulating material, such as SiOw, or SiuNv is deposited using CVD to encapsulate each CNT in the array. An exposed surface of the insulating material is planarized to provide one or more exposed electrical contacts for one or more CNTs.

  1. SiO2 coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes based amperometric glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Baby, Tessy Theres; Ramaprabhu, S

    2010-03-15

    A new type of amperometric glucose biosensor based on silicon dioxide coated magnetic nanoparticle decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)/MWNTs) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been developed. MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapour decomposition (CCVD) of acetylene over rare earth (RE) based AB(3) alloy hydride catalyst. The as-grown MWNTs have been purified and further functionlized. Functionalized MWNTs have been decorated with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles which have been uniformly coated with biocompatible SiO(2) using a simple chemical reduction method. The characterization of magnetic nanoparticle modified MWNTs have been done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Amperometric biosensor has been fabricated by the deposition of glucose oxidase (GOD) over Nafion-solubilized Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)/MWNTs electrode. The resultant bioelectrode retains its biocatalytic activity and offers fast and sensitive glucose quantification. The performance of the biosensor has been studied using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry and the results have been discussed. The fabricated glucose biosensor exhibits a linear response from 1 microM to 30 mM with an excellent detection limit of 800 nM indicating the potential applications in food industries. PMID:20152447

  2. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  3. Carbon nanotube biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Tîlmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites, or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we describe their structural and physical properties, functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers. PMID:26579509

  4. Boron carbide nanolumps on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, J. Y.; Li, W. Z.; Wen, J. G.; Ren, Z. F.

    2002-01-01

    Boron carbide nanolumps are formed on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes by a solid-state reaction between boron and carbon nanotubes. The reaction is localized so that the integrity of the structure of carbon nanotubes is maintained. Inner layers of multiwall carbon nanotubes are also bonded to boron carbide nanolumps. These multiwall carbon nanotubes with boron carbide nanolumps are expected to be the ideal reinforcing fillers for high-performance composites because of the favorable morphology.

  5. Selective Adsorption of Gd(3+) on a Magnetically Retrievable Imprinted Chitosan/Carbon Nanotube Composite with High Capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Gao, Qiang; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Shen, Xiang; Lei, Hanwu; Han, Bo; Xia, Kaisheng; Zhou, Chenggang

    2015-09-30

    A novel magnetic imprinting nanotechnology for selective capture of Gd(3+) from a mixed solution of rare earth ions was developed by simply adding Gd(3+)-imprinted chitosan/carbon nanotube nanocomposite (IIP-CS/CNT) and silica-coated magnetite nanoparticle (SiO2@Fe3O4). The IIP-CS/CNT was prepared for the first time via a facile "surface deposition-crosslinking" method, exhibiting a well-defined coating structure. Interestingly, the neighboring IIP-CS/CNT monomers were held together as bundles, like a network, containing abundant interstitial spaces. When IIP-CS/CNT and SiO2@Fe3O4 were dispersed in a mixed solution of rare earth ions, the magnetic SiO2@Fe3O4 submicrospheres would be trapped in or adhere to the IIP-CS/CNT network, leading to the magnetization of IIP-CS/CNT; meanwhile, Gd(3+) ions could be selectively captured by the magnetized IIP-CS/CNT. Saturation adsorption capacity for Gd(3+) was up to 88 mg g(-1) at 303.15 K, which is significantly higher than the Gd(3+) adsorption capacities for the reported rare earth ion-imprinted adsorbents over recent years. The selectivity coefficients relative to La(3+) and Ce(3+) were 3.50 and 2.23, respectively, which are very similar to those found for other reported CS-based imprinted materials. Moreover, the imprinted adsorbents could be easily and rapidly retrieved by an external magnetic field without the need of additional centrifugation or filtration, greatly facilitating the separation process. Test of reusability demonstrated that the magnetized IIP-CS/CNT could be repeatedly used without any significant loss in binding capacity. Overall, this work not only provides new insights into the fabrication of magnetic imprinted CS-based composite, but also highlights its application for selective adsorption toward rare earth ions. PMID:26355685

  6. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  7. Carbon nanotubes as vaccine scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.; Dao, Tao; Mulvey, Justin J.; Feinberg, Evan; Alidori, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes display characteristics that are potentially useful in their development as scaffolds for vaccine compositions. These features include stability in vivo, lack of intrinsic immunogenicity, low toxicity, and the ability to be appended with multiple copies of antigens. In addition, the particulate nature of carbon nanotubes and their unusual properties of rapid entry into antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, make them especially useful as carriers of antigens. Early attempts demonstrating carbon nanotube-based vaccines can be used in both infectious disease settings and cancer are promising. PMID:23899863

  8. Carbon nanotubes in hyperthermia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravi; Torti, Suzy V.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal tumor ablation therapies are being developed with a variety of nanomaterials, including single-and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted interest due to their potential for simultaneous imaging and therapy. In this review, we highlight in vivo applications of carbon nanotube-mediated thermal therapy (CNMTT) and examine the rationale for use of this treatment in recurrent tumors or those resistant to conventional cancer therapies. Additionally, we discuss strategies to localize and enhance the cancer selectivity of this treatment and briefly examine issues relating the toxicity and long term fate of CNTs. PMID:23933617

  9. Greater osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation on titanium with hydrothermally treated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite/magnetically treated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian; Castro, Nathan J; Li, Jian; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2012-10-01

    With an increasingly active and aging population, a growing number of orthopedic procedures are performed annually. However, traditional orthopedic implants face many complications such as infection, implant loosening, and poor host tissue integration leading to implant failure. Metal implant materials such as titanium and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic applications mainly based on their excellent mechanical properties and biological inertness. Since human bone extracellular matrix is nanometer in dimension comprised of rich nanostructured hydroxyapatite particles and collagen nanofibers, it is highly desirable to design a biologically-inspired nanostructured coating which renders the biocompatible titanium surface into a biomimetic and bioactive interface, thus enhancing osteoblast adhesion and promoting osseointegration. For this purpose, a biomimetic nanostructured coating based on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and single wall carbon nanotubes was designed. Specifically, nano hydroxyapatites with good crystallinity and biomimetic dimensions were prepared via a wet chemistry method and hydrothermal treatment. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite with larger grain sizes can be obtained without hydrothermal treatment. The carbon nanotubes with different diameter and length were synthesized via an arc plasma method in the presence or absence of a magnetic field. Transmission electron microscopy images illustrate the regular, rod-like nanocrystalline and biomimetic nanostructure of hydrothermally treated nano hydroxyapatite. In addition, the length of carbon nanotubes can be significantly increased under external magnetic fields when compared to nanotubes produced without a magnetic field. More importantly, the in vitro study demonstrated for the first time that osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation were greater on titanium with hydrothermally treated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatites/magnetically treated carbon nanotubes, which suggests the potential of these novel nanostructured materials for orthopedic applications. PMID:23421129

  10. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  11. Preparation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nickel–phosphorous layers of high magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Qi, Shuhua; Zhang, Fan

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Impurities in crude MWNTs were effectively removed after purification treatment. ► Many Ni nanoparticles were homogenously coated on the purified MWNTs. ► The saturation magnetization (Ms) of the MWNTs with Ni–P layers is 91.5 emu/g. -- Abstract: The multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with nickel–phosphorous (Ni–P) layers were prepared by electroless plating method. To obtain the MWNTs with Ni–P layers of high magnetic properties, an effective purification treatment and a pre-treatment procedure were developed. The crude MWNTs, the purified MWNTs and the MWNTs with Ni–P layers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). SEM results, TEM images and XRD results indicate that impurities in the crude MWNTs were effectively removed after the purification treatment and a large number of Ni nanoparticles were homogenously coated on the surface of the purified MWNTs. According to the VSM test, the saturation magnetization (Ms) of the MWNTs with Ni–P layers is 91.5 emu/g which is higher than results of other researchers.

  12. Magnetic carbon nanotubes synthesis by Fenton's reagent method and their potential application for removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Chen, Junhong; Chen, Lu; Huai, Jing; Gong, Wenyi; Yuan, Zhiwen; Wang, Jinhe; Ma, Jie

    2012-07-15

    We report a simple and easy method to fabricate magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Fenton's reagent method without the addition of any cations. H(2)O(2) was added slowly into the FeSO(4) solution mixed with purified CNTs, and the resulting reactants were placed into a quartz tube to undergo heat treatment under a nitrogen/hydrogen flow. Iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on CNTs without any pretreatment such as strong acid or covalent functionalization processes. The as-produced magnetic CNTs were used as an adsorbent for removal of methyl orange (MO) dye from aqueous solutions. Adsorption experiments indicated that the magnetic CNTs have good adsorption capacity (q(e)) of MO (28 mg/g). The Freundlich isotherm model fitted the experiment data better than the Langmuir isotherm mode. The mean energy of adsorption was calculated as 3.72 kJ/mol based on the Dubinin-Radushkevich model, which suggests that the removal process was dominated by physical adsorption. Kinetic regression results showed that the adsorption kinetics was more accurately represented by a pseudo second-order model. Intra-particle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process, but it was not the only rate-controlling step. More importantly, a new photocatalytic regeneration technology can be enabled by the high nanoscale iron oxide loading (50%). The magnetic CNT adsorbents could be effectively and quickly separated by applying an external magnetic field and regenerated by UV photocatalysis. Therefore, CNTs/λ-Fe(2)O(3) hybrid is a promising magnetic nanomaterial for preconcentration and separation of organic pollutants for environmental remediation. PMID:22564767

  13. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 65: Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... materials. Results from recent animal studies indicate that carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF) may pose a ...

  14. Torsional Electromechanics of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joselevich, Ernesto; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Segev, Lior; Srur-Lavi, Onit; Cohen, Sidney R.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are known to be distinctly metallic or semiconducting depending on their diameter and chirality. Here we show that continuously varying the chirality by mechanical torsion can induce conductance oscillations, which can be attributed to metal-semiconductor periodic transitions. The phenomenon is observed in multi-walled carbon nanotubes, where both the torque and the current are shown to be carried predominantly by the outermost wall. The oscillation period with torsion is consistent with the theoretical shifting of the corners of the first Brillouin zone of graphene across different subbands allowed in the nanotube. Beyond a critical torsion, the conductance irreversibly drops due to torsional failure, allowing us to determine the torsional strength of carbon nanotubes. Our experiments indicate that carbon nanotubes could be used as self-sensing torsional springs for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). [1] E. Joselevich, Twisting nanotubes: From torsion to chirality, ChemPhysChem 2006, 7, 1405. [2] T. Cohen-Karni, L. Segev, O. Srur-Lavi, S. R. Cohen, E. Joselevich, Torsional electromechanical quantum oscillations in carbon nanotubes, Nature Nanotechnology, 2006, 1, 36.

  15. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce T lymphocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Massimo; Bruckner, Shane; Nika, Konstantina; Bottini, Nunzio; Bellucci, Stefano; Magrini, Andrea; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Mustelin, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a man-made form of carbon that did not exist in our environment until very recently. Due to their unique chemical, physical, optical, and magnetic properties, carbon nanotubes have found many uses in industrial products and in the field of nanotechnology, including in nanomedicine. However, very little is yet known about the toxicity of carbon nanotubes. Here, we compare the toxicity of pristine and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes on human T cells and find that the latter are more toxic and induce massive loss of cell viability through programmed cell death at doses of 400 microg/ml, which corresponds to approximately 10 million carbon nanotubes per cell. Pristine, hydrophobic, carbon nanotubes were less toxic and a 10-fold lower concentration of either carbon nanotube type were not nearly as toxic. Our results suggest that carbon nanotubes indeed can be very toxic at sufficiently high concentrations and that careful toxicity studies need to be undertaken particularly in conjunction with nanomedical applications of carbon nanotubes. PMID:16125885

  16. Carbon nanotube optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes (CNT) embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation. Moreover, as the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and three-dimensional printing. Therefore, the technology holds promise for the development of a new generation of lightweight, compact "smart" telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics, active optics experiments, and numerical modeling. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  17. Carbon nanotube terahertz detector.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaowei; Fujimura, Naoki; Lloyd, J Meagan; Erickson, Kristopher J; Talin, A Alec; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Jiang, Qijia; Kawano, Yukio; Hauge, Robert H; Lonard, Franois; Kono, Junichiro

    2014-07-01

    Terahertz (THz) technologies are promising for diverse areas such as medicine, bioengineering, astronomy, environmental monitoring, and communications. However, despite decades of worldwide efforts, the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum still continues to be elusive for solid state technology. Here, we report on the development of a powerless, compact, broadband, flexible, large-area, and polarization-sensitive carbon nanotube THz detector that works at room temperature. The detector is sensitive throughout the entire range of the THz technology gap, with responsivities as high as ?2.5 V/W and polarization ratios as high as ?5:1. Complete thermoelectric and opto-thermal characterization together unambiguously reveal the photothermoelectric origin of the THz photosignal, triggered by plasmonic absorption and collective antenna effects, and suggest that judicious design of thermal management and quantum engineering of Seebeck coefficients will lead to further enhancement of device performance. PMID:24875576

  18. Cantilevered carbon nanotube hygrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroyanagi, Toshinori; Terada, Yuki; Takei, Kuniharu; Akita, Seiji; Arie, Takayuki

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the effects of humidity on the vibrations of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using two types of CNT cantilevers: open-ended and close-ended CNT cantilevers. As the humidity increases, the resonant frequency of the open-ended CNT cantilever decreases due to the adsorption of water molecules onto the CNT tip, whereas that of the close-ended CNT cantilever increases probably due to the change in the viscosity of the air surrounding the CNT cantilever, which is negatively correlated with the humidity of air. Our findings suggest that a close-ended CNT cantilever is more suitable for a quick-response and ultrasensitive hygrometer because it continuously reads the viscosity change of moist air in the vicinity of the CNT.

  19. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, Haider; Yetisen, Ali K.; Ahmed, Rajib; Yun, Seok Hyun; Dai, Qing

    2015-03-01

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2-3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  20. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, Haider Ahmed, Rajib; Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun; Dai, Qing

    2015-03-23

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2–3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  1. Carbon nanotube electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  3. Oscillating carbon nanotori along carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A.; Hill, James M.

    2007-03-01

    The discovery of carbon nanostructures, such as nanotubes and C60 fullerenes, has given rise to a number of potential nanoscale devices. One such device is the gigahertz oscillator, comprising an inner shell sliding inside an outer shell of a multiwalled carbon nanotube, and which, at least theoretically, generates oscillatory frequencies in the gigahertz range. Following the concept of these gigahertz oscillators and the recent discovery of “fullerene crop circles,” here we propose the notion of a nanotorus-nanotube oscillator comprising a carbon nanotorus which is sucked by the van der Waals force onto the carbon nanotube, and subsequently oscillates along the nanotube axis due to the equal and opposite pulselike forces acting at either end of the nanotube. Assuming a continuum approach, where the interatomic interactions are replaced by uniform atomic surface densities, and assuming that the geometry of the nanotube and nanotorus is such that the nanotorus always remains symmetrically situated around the nanotube, we present the basic mechanics of such a system, including the determination of the suction and acceptance energies, and the frequency of the resulting oscillatory motion. In contrast to the previously studied gigahertz nanoscale oscillators, here the oscillatory frequencies are shown to be in the megahertz range. Our study, although purely theoretical must necessarily precede any experimental implementation of such oscillatory systems.

  4. Carbon nanotubes: Captured on camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matt W.

    2013-12-01

    Images of individual carbon nanotubes with their respective optical spectra for chirality characterization are acquired directly on devices and growth substrates using a reflective polarized light microscopy set-up.

  5. Carbon Nanotube-Nanocrystal Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, X.; Wong, S.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of generating carbon nanotube-nanoparticle heterostructures is that these composites ought to take advantage of and combine the unique physical and chemical properties of both carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in one discrete structure. These materials have potential applicability in a range of diverse fields spanning heterogeneous catalysis to optoelectronic device development, of importance to chemists, physicists, materials scientists, and engineers. In this critical review, we present a host of diverse, complementary strategies for the reliable synthesis of carbon nanotube-nanoparticle heterostructures using both covalent as well as non-covalent protocols, incorporating not only single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes but also diverse classes of metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Defects and Carbon Nanotube Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Deng

    A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is a one-dimensional (1D) conductor that has been proposed as an ideal element for novel, nanoscale electronics. This dissertation studies the properties of individual SWCNTs in the near-pristine limit where the SWCNT conductor contains one or more defects. The presence of defects significantly modifies the electronic and chemical properties of a SWCNT, with positive and negative impacts on different potential applications. This dissertation completed three different types of experiments to explore these modified properties. In the first section, SWCNTs with defects were studied during high temperature annealing. Annealing rearranged and diminished the scattering from defects, even to a point where pristine SWCNT conductances were recovered. In the limit of single defects on single SWCNTs, the annealing of one defect was resolved in real time by using electrical conductance as the probe. The work proved that conductance in 1D is sufficiently sensitive to see the annealing of one defect. The resistance associated with single SWCNT defect was also studied as a function of bias and temperature at low temperature. A singe point defect surrounded on either side by quasi-ballistic, semi-metallic SWCNT was a nearly ideal system for understanding the influence of functional groups on 1D conductors and comparing experiment to theory. Here, transport and local Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) independently demonstrated high-resistance depletion regions over 2.0 micron wide surrounding a point defect in a SWCNT. A defect assisted tunneling through this depletion region via a modified, 1D version of Poole-Frenkel conduction. Given the breadth of theory dedicated to the possible effects of disorder in 1D systems, it was surprising to find that a Poole-Frenkel model could successfully describe defect scattering in SWCNTs. Finally, the third experiment investigated SWCNTs that had been non-covalently modified with a thin coating of Cu. Bulk CNT/Cu composites have been reported to have surprisingly high conductance and ampacity. Consequently, CNT/Cu composites are a novel conductor with many potential applications. Here, individual SWCNTs were coated with Cu by electrodepotion for electrical studies. Due to SWCNT's hydrophobic and inert surface, achieving conformal Cu coatings was very difficult, but successful results were obtained using both aqueous and non-aqueous Cu electrolytes. The thinnest conformal Cu coatings (40nm) were obtained from electrodeposition in non-aqueous Cu electrolyte. Electrical measurement of Cu-coated SWCNTs revealed a similar temperature dependent to the bulk composite, indicating that the SWCNT plays an essential role in the composite conductance's temperature dependence. However, unlike the preliminary reports, Cu films at these thicknesses could only achieve a fraction of the conductivity of bulk Cu. Therefore, the research was unable to fully test the mechanisms of the improvements reported for bulk CNT/Cu composites.

  7. PECVD Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAninch, Ian; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), using inductively coupled plasma, has been used to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic carbon fibers (GCF) on substrates sputtered with aluminum and iron catalyst. The capacitive plasma's power has been shown to cause a transition from nanotubes to nanofibers, depending on the strength of the plasma. The temperature, placement, and other factors have been shown to affect the height and density of the tube and fiber growth.

  8. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  9. Nanotechnology with Carbon Nanotubes: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Nanotechnology of carbon nanotubes. The contents include: 1) Nanomechanics examples; 2) Experimental validation of nanotubes in composites; 3) Anisotropic plastic collapse; 4) Spatio-temporal scales, yielding single-wall nanotubes; 5) Side-wall functionalization of nanotubes; 6) multi-wall Y junction carbon nanotubes; 7) Molecular electronics with Nanotube junctions; 8) Single-wall carbon nanotube junctions; welding; 9) biomimetic dendritic neurons: Carbon nanotube, nanotube electronics (basics), and nanotube junctions for Devices,

  10. Optically encoded nanoprobes using single walled carbon nanotube as the building scaffold for magnetic field guided cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Ye, Minglang; Zong, Shenfei; Li, Mingyue; Chen, Peng; Ma, Xueqin; Cui, Yiping

    2014-02-01

    We construct a novel fluorescent, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) encoded and magnetic nanoprobe for live cell imaging. To fabricate this nanoprobe, single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is used as the building scaffold while gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and quantum dots (QDs) are employed as the building blocks. Here, Au NPs serve as the SERS substrate and QDs act as the fluorescent agent. Au NPs and SPIONs are first adsorbed on the SWNT via electrostatic interactions. Then a silica layer is coated on the SWNT. Finally, QDs are attached on the silica shell. With such a structure, various optical signals can be readily encoded to the nanoprobe simply by using different Raman molecules and QDs with different emission wavelengths. Experimental results show that the as-prepared nanoprobe exhibits well fluorescence and SERS performance. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrate that the nanoprobe can fulfill magnetic field guided fluorescence and SERS dual mode imaging of live cells. As a fascinating optical encoding material and a multifunctional nanoplatform, the presented nanoprobe holds genuine potential in future biosensing applications. PMID:24401396

  11. Carbon Nanotube Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Delzeit, Clement J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method for cleaning or otherwise removing amorphous carbon and other residues that arise in growth of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array. The CNT array is exposed to a plurality of hydroxyls or hydrogen, produced from a selected vapor or liquid source such as H2O or H2O2. and the hydroxyls or hydrogen (neutral or electrically charged) react with the residues to produce partly or fully dissolved or hydrogenated or hydroxylizated products that can be removed or separated from the CNT array. The hydroxyls or hydrogen can be produced by heating the CNT array, residue and selected vapor or liquid source or by application of an electromagnetic excitation signal with a selected frequency or range of frequencies to dissociate the selected vapor or liquid. The excitation frequency can be chirped to cover a selected range of frequencies corresponding to dissociation of the selected vapor or liquid. Sonication may be uscd to supplement dissociation of the H2O and/or H2O2.

  12. Properties of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Samina; Bullmore, Daniel; Duran, Michael; Jacobs, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Different synthesizing methods are used to create various nanostructures of carbon; we are mainly interested in single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, (SWCNTs) and (MWCNTs) respectively. The properties of these tubes are related to their synthetic methods, chirality, and diameter. The extremely sturdy structure of CNTs, with their distinct thermal and electromagnetic properties, suggests a tremendous use of these tubes in electronics and medicines. Here, we analyze various physical properties of SWCNTs with a special emphasis on electromagnetic and chemical properties. By examining their electrical properties, we demonstrate the viability of discrete CNT based components. After considering the advantages of using CNTs over microstructures, we make a case for the advancement and development of nanostructures based electronics. As for current CNT applications, it's hard to overlook their use and functionality in the development of cancer treatment. Whether the tubes are involved in chemotherapeutic drug delivery, molecular imaging and targeting, or photodynamic therapy, we show that the remarkable properties of SWCNTs can be used in advantageous ways by many different industries.

  13. Carbon Nanotubes for Polymer Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anctil, Annick; Dileo, Roberta; Schauerman, Chris; Landi, Brian; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being investigated for optical absorption, exciton dissociation, and carrier transport in polymer photovoltaic devices. In the present work, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized by an Alexandrite pulsed laser vaporization reactor at standard conditions and purified based upon our previously reported TOP procedure. The SWNTs were dispersed in polymer composites for pure MEH-PPV, pure P3HT, and [C60]-PCBM-P3HT (1:1 by weight) as a function of nanotube weight loading (0.1 -- 5% w/w). The AM0 current-voltage measurements for structures sandwiched between PEDOT/PSS coated ITO substrates and an evaporated aluminum contact demonstrate the dramatic effect of SWNT content on the short circuit current density, with conversions efficiencies consistently greater than 1%. The temperature coefficient for nanotube-containing polymer photovoltaics has been compared to conventional PCBM-P3HT devices, and the general relationship of increasing efficiency with increasing temperature is observed. However, the necessity to control nanotube percolation to prevent device shunting has led to recent developments which focus on controlling nanotube length through oxidative cutting, the deposition of intrinsic polymer layers, and the use of aligned carbon nanotube arrays for preferential charge transport.

  14. Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) photosensitize the production of reactive oxygen species that can damage organisms by biomembrane oxidation or mediate CNTs' environmental transformations. The photosensitized nature of derivatized carbon nanotubes from various synthetic methods, and thus ...

  15. Synthesis and properties of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes for magnetic extraction of bisphenol A from water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Chen, Xing; Rao, Wei; Chen, Hongjun; Cai, Rong

    2014-08-15

    Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs@MMIPs) with specific selectivity toward bisphenol A were synthesized using bisphenol A as the template molecule, methacrylic acid, and β-cyclodextrin as binary functional monomers and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The MWNTs@MMIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, vibrating sample magnetometer, and transmission electron microscopy. Batch mode adsorption experiment was carried out to investigate the specific adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of the MWNTs@MMIPs. The MWNTs@MMIPs exhibited good affinity with a maximum adsorption capacity of 49.26 μmol g(-1) and excellent selectivity toward bisphenol A. Combined with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the MWNTs@MMIPs were employed to extract bisphenol A in tap water, rain water, and lake water successfully with the recoveries of 89.8-95.4, 89.9-93.4, and 87.3-94.1%, respectively. PMID:25043281

  16. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and the nanotube heterojunctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for nanoscale molecular electronic device components. Experimental measurements on the conductivity, rectifying behavior and conductivity-chirality correlation have also been made. While quasi-one dimensional simple heterojunctions between nanotubes with different electronic behavior can be generated by introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise all hexagon graphene sheet. Other complex 3- and 4-point junctions may require other mechanisms. Structural stability as well as local electronic density of states of various nanotube junctions are investigated using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GDBMD) scheme that incorporates non-orthogonality of the orbitals. The junctions investigated include straight and small angle heterojunctions of various chiralities and diameters; as well as more complex 'T' and 'Y' junctions which do not always obey the usual pentagon-heptagon pair rule. The study of local density of states (LDOS) reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap. The proposed three and four pointjunctions are one of the smallest possible tunnel junctions made entirely of carbon atoms. Furthermore the electronic behavior of the nanotube based device components can be taylored by doping with group III-V elements such as B and N, and BN nanotubes as a wide band gap semiconductor has also been realized in experiments. Structural properties of heteroatomic nanotubes comprising C, B and N will be discussed.

  17. Multiscale Modeling with Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, A

    2006-02-21

    Technologically important nanomaterials come in all shapes and sizes. They can range from small molecules to complex composites and mixtures. Depending upon the spatial dimensions of the system and properties under investigation computer modeling of such materials can range from equilibrium and nonequilibrium Quantum Mechanics, to force-field-based Molecular Mechanics and kinetic Monte Carlo, to Mesoscale simulation of evolving morphology, to Finite-Element computation of physical properties. This brief review illustrates some of the above modeling techniques through a number of recent applications with carbon nanotubes: nano electromechanical sensors (NEMS), chemical sensors, metal-nanotube contacts, and polymer-nanotube composites.

  18. Universally dispersible carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Prevoteau, Alexandre; Soulié-Ziakovic, Corinne; Leibler, Ludwik

    2012-12-12

    We show that supramolecular chemistry provides a convenient tool to prepare carbone nanotubes (CNTs) that can be dispersed in solvents of any chemical nature, easily recovered and redispersed. Thymine-modified CNTs (CNT-Thy) can be dispersed in solution in the presence of diaminotriazine (DAT) end-functionalized polymers, through supramolecular Thy/DAT association. DAT-polymer chains are selected according to the solvent chemical nature: polystyrene (PS) for hydrophobic/low polarity solvents and a propylene oxide/ethylene oxide copolymer (predominantly propylene oxide based, PPO/PEO) for polar solvents or water. Long-term stable supramolecular CNT dispersions are reversibly aggregated by adding a few droplets of a selective dissociating agent of the Thy/DAT association (DMSO). CNT-Thy, simply recycled by centrifugation or filtration, can be redispersed in another solvent in presence of a suitable soluble DAT-polymer. Dispersion and aggregation can also be switched on and off by choosing a polymer for which a given solvent is close to Θ-conditions, e.g., PS in cyclohexane or PPO/PEO in water. PMID:23171241

  19. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Ma, Jie; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Mingzheng; Zheng, Jie

    2016-03-01

    An effectively and functionally magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) nano-composite (APCNT-KOH) was synthesized by a one-pot and facile method. The residual Fe catalyst particles of the as-prepared MWCNTs were utilized as magnetic materials through KOH activation. The resulting APCNT-KOH exhibited very high adsorption capacities for toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylene (X) (TEX) pollutants than many other adsorbents, because of their large specific surface area and high degree of surface activity. The adsorption process was found to be pH, ionic strength, and temperature dependent, and the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 6 for TEX pollutants. The adsorption isotherm data were analyzed by applying the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isothermal models. The Langmuir model showed the best fit to the experimental isotherm data with a maximum adsorption capacity(qm,toluene = 63.34 mg/g, qm, ethylbenzene = 249.44 mg/g, qm,m-xylene = 227.05 mg/g, qm,o-xylene = 138.04 mg/g, qm,p-xylene = 105.59 mg/g). Adsorption kinetics of TEX on APCNT-KOH was appropriately described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. The desorption experiments revealed the typical adsorption-desorption hysteresis, indicating that the adsorption and desorption processes of TEX undergo different pathways due to porous structure changes before and after adsorption and desorption. Collective results demonstrate that the functionalized magnetic APCNT-KOH composites are highly-effective adsorbents for TEX removal, which provides a promising and green route for MWCNTs in wastewater treatment. PMID:26714299

  20. Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Hydrogels in Drug Delivery: A Perspective Review

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Silke; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review. PMID:24587993

  1. In-plane-aligned membranes of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, D. A.; Casavant, M. J.; Qin, X. C.; Huffman, C. B.; Boul, P. J.; Ericson, L. M.; Haroz, E. H.; O'Connell, M. J.; Smith, K.; Colbert, D. T.; Smalley, R. E.

    2001-04-01

    We have produced the first macroscopic objects comprised of highly aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). These objects are thin membranes prepared by producing a suspension of SWNT segments, introducing the suspension to a strong magnetic field to align the segments, and filtering the suspension in the magnetic field to produce an aligned membrane of SWNT. These membranes exhibited natural cleavage planes parallel to the magnetic field. This preparation of macroscopic samples of aligned single-wall nanotubes permits exploitation of their highly anisotropic properties, and will enable measurement of the electronic, thermal, magnetic, mechanical, and optical properties of bulk nanotube materials.

  2. Carbon nanotube: A low-loss spin-current waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, F. S. M.; Kirwan, D. F.; Costa, A. T.; Muniz, R. B.; Mills, D. L.; Ferreira, M. S.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate with a quantum-mechanical approach that carbon nanotubes are excellent spin-current waveguides and are able to carry information stored in a precessing magnetic moment for long distances with very little dispersion and with tunable degrees of attenuation. Pulsed magnetic excitations are predicted to travel with the nanotube Fermi velocity and are able to induce similar excitations in remote locations. Such an efficient way of transporting magnetic information suggests that nanotubes are promising candidates for memory devices with fast magnetization switchings.

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents <;A article="1367-2630/5/1/117">Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end planes to stable loops caused by annealing M Endo, B J Lee, Y A Kim, Y J Kim, H Muramatsu, T Yanagisawa, T Hayashi, M Terrones and M S Dresselhaus Energetics and electronic structure of C70-peapods and one-dimensional chains of C70 Susumu Okada, Minoru Otani and Atsushi Oshiyama Theoretical characterization of several models of nanoporous carbon F Valencia, A H Romero, E Hernández, M Terrones and H Terrones First-principles molecular dynamics study of the stretching frequencies of hydrogen molecules in carbon nanotubes Gabriel Canto, Pablo Ordejón, Cheng Hansong, Alan C Cooper and Guido P Pez The geometry and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes: beyond the ideal behaviour Jeno Kürti, Viktor Zólyomi, Miklos Kertesz and Sun Guangyu Curved nanostructured materials Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones A one-dimensional Ising model for C70 molecular ordering in C70-peapods Yutaka Maniwa, Hiromichi Kataura, Kazuyuki Matsuda and Yutaka Okabe Nanoengineering of carbon nanotubes for nanotools Yoshikazu Nakayama and Seiji Akita Narrow diameter double-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, electron microscopy and inelastic light scattering R R Bacsa, E Flahaut, Ch Laurent, A Peigney, S Aloni, P Puech and W S Bacsa Sensitivity of single multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the environment M Krüger, I Widmer, T Nussbaumer, M Buitelaar and C Schönenberger Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonance Raman scattering A Jorio, M A Pimenta, A G Souza Filho, R Saito, G Dresselhaus and M S Dresselhaus FTIR-luminescence mapping of dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes Sergei Lebedkin, Katharina Arnold, Frank Hennrich, Ralph Krupke, Burkhard Renker and Manfred M Kappes Structural properties of Haeckelite nanotubes Ph Lambin and L P Biró Structural changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes under non-hydrostatic pressures: x-ray and Raman studies Sukanta Karmakar, Surinder M Sharma, P V Teredesai, D V S Muthu, A Govindaraj, S K Sikka and A K Sood Novel properties of 0.4 nm single-walled carbon nanotubes templated in the channels of AlPO4-5 single crystals Z K Tang, N Wang, X X Zhang, J N Wang, C T Chan and Ping Sheng Lattice dynamics and symmetry of double wall carbon nanotubes M Damnjanovic, E Dobardzic, I Milosevic, T Vukovic and B Nikolic Optical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic decomposition of alcohol Shigeo Maruyama, Yuhei Miyauchi, Yoichi Murakami and Shohei Chiashi Christian Thomsen, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany Hiromichi Kataura, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan

  4. Large-Scale Processing of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John; Sridhar, K. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Scale-up difficulties and high energy costs are two of the more important factors that limit the availability of various types of nanotube carbon. While several approaches are known for producing nanotube carbon, the high-powered reactors typically produce nanotubes at rates measured in only grams per hour and operate at temperatures in excess of 1000 C. These scale-up and energy challenges must be overcome before nanotube carbon can become practical for high-consumption structural and mechanical applications. This presentation examines the issues associated with using various nanotube production methods at larger scales, and discusses research being performed at NASA Ames Research Center on carbon nanotube reactor technology.

  5. Directed assembly of carbon nanotube electronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Y. Y.; Eres, Gyula

    2000-06-19

    We report on a method for directed assembly of integrated carbon nanotube circuits using selective area chemical vapor deposition on prepatterned catalyst electrodes. The circuits consist of a multiwall carbon nanotube bridging a pair of electrodes, forming a metal/carbon nanotube/metal structure. Electron-beam lithography was used to define electrode sets separated by a desired distance on a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. Following metal evaporation and lift-off, molecular jet chemical vapor deposition was used for selective growth of carbon nanotubes on the catalyst electrodes. The carbon nanotubes eventually form a bridge between nearby electrodes consisting of one, or in some cases more than one multiwall nanotubes. The room temperature resistance of the carbon nanotube circuits measured at the electrode leads is typically less than 100 k{omega}. The carbon nanotube circuits were characterized by electronic transport measurements in the temperature range from room temperature to 2 K. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  7. Characterization of magnetic soluble starch-functionalized carbon nanotubes and its application for the adsorption of the dyes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peter R; Zheng, Pengwu; Liu, Baoxiang; Anderson, Debbie P; Yu, Jiugao; Ma, Xiaofei

    2011-02-28

    Soluble starch-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube composites (MWCNT-starch) were prepared to improve the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of MWCNTs. Characterization of the MWCNT-starch by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), showed that the starch component (about 14.3 wt%) was covalently grafted onto the surface of MWCNT. MWCNT-starch-iron oxide composites, intended for use as adsorbents for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions, were prepared by synthesizing iron oxide nanoparticles at the surface of MWCNT-starch. Starch acts as a template for growth of iron oxide nanoparticles which are uniformly dispersed on the surface of the MWCNT-starch. MWCNT-starch-iron oxide exhibits superparamagnetic properties with a saturation magnetization (23.15 emu/g) and better adsorption for anionic methyl orange (MO) and cationic methylene blue (MB) dyes than MWCNT-iron oxide. PMID:21255925

  8. Properties of K,Rb-intercalated C{sub 60} encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes called peapods derived from nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Mahfouz, R.; Bouhrara, M.; Kim, Y.; Wågberg, T.; Goze-Bac, C.; Abou-Hamad, E.

    2015-09-21

    We present a detailed experimental study on how magnetic and electronic properties of Rb,K-intercalated C{sub 60} encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes called peapods can be derived from {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance investigations. Ring currents do play a basic role in those systems; in particular, the inner cavities of nanotubes offer an ideal environment to investigate the magnetism at the nanoscale. We report the largest diamagnetic shifts down to −68.3 ppm ever observed in carbon allotropes, which is connected to the enhancement of the aromaticity of the nanotube envelope upon intercalation. The metallization of intercalated peapods is evidenced from the chemical shift anisotropy and spin-lattice relaxation (T{sub 1}) measurements. The observed relaxation curves signal a three-component model with two slow and one fast relaxing components. We assigned the fast component to the unpaired electrons charged C{sub 60} that show a phase transition near 100 K. The two slow components can be rationalized by the two types of charged C{sub 60} at two different positions with a linear regime following Korringa behavior, which is typical for metallic system and allow us to estimate the density of sate at Fermi level n(E{sub F})

  9. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  10. The fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube/polyelectrolyte multilayer composites by layer-by-layer assembly and magnetic field assisted alignment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying; Park, Jin Gyu; Cheng, Qunfeng; Liang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben

    2009-08-19

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/polymer composites are widely studied because of their potential for high mechanical performance and multifunctional applications. In order to realize highly ordered multilayer nanostructures, we combined the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly method with magnetic force-induced alignment to fabricate SWNT/poly(ethylamine) (PEI) multilayer composites. The SWNTs were functionalized with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDDBS) to realize negative charge at pH>7, while the PEI is positively charged at pH<7. The LBL method is based on the electrostatic absorption between the charged SWNTs and PEI resin to form multilayer composites on a solid substrate polydimethylsiloxane. Since the fabricated thickness of each SWNT-NaDDBS/PEI bilayer is uniform ( approximately 150 nm), the multilayer film thickness can be strictly controlled via the number of deposition cycles. A high magnetic field (8.5 Tesla) was used to align the SWNTs during the LBL process. The resultant LBL composite samples demonstrated high SWNT loading of approximately 50 wt% and uniform distribution of SWNTs in the multilayer structures, which was verified using a quartz crystal microbalance. Good alignment was also realized and observed through using high magnetic fields to align the nanotubes during the LBL deposition process. The results indicate that the LBL/magnetic alignment approach has potential for fabricating nanotube composites with highly ordered nanostructures for multifunctional materials and device applications. PMID:19636092

  11. Magnetically aligned iron oxide/gold nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotube hybrid structure as a humidity sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewook; Mulmi, Suresh; Thangadurai, Venkataraman; Park, Simon S

    2015-07-22

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), particularly CNTs decorated with nanoparticles (NPs), are of great interest because of their synergic effects, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering, plasmonic resonance energy transfer, magnetoplasmonic, magnetoelectric, and magnetooptical effects. In general, research has focused on a single type of NP, such as a metal or metal oxide, that has been modified on a CNT surface. In this study, however, a new strategy is introduced for the decoration of two different NP types on CNTs. In order to improve the functionality of modified CNTs, we successfully prepared binary NP-decorated CNTs, namely, iron oxide/gold (Au) NP-decorated CNTs (IA-CNTs), which were created through two simple reactions in deionized water, without high temperature, high pressure, or harsh reducing agents. The physicochemical properties of IA-CNTs were characterized by ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a superconducting quantum interference device, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In this study, IA-CNTs were utilized to detect humidity. Magnetic IA-CNTs were aligned on interdigitated platinum electrodes under external magnetic fields to create a humidity-sensing channel, and its electrical conductivity was monitored. As the humidity increased, the electrical resistance of the sensor also increased. In comparison with various gases, for example, H2, O2, CO, CO2, SO2, and dry air, the IA-CNT-based humidity sensor exhibited high-selectivity performances. IA-CNTs also responded to heavy water (D2O), and it was established that the humidity detection mechanism had D2O-sensing capabilities. Further, the humidity from human out-breathing was also successfully detected by this system. In conclusion, these unique IA-CNTs exhibited potential application as gas detection materials. PMID:26112318

  12. Gears Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Deardorff, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Gears based on carbon nanotubes (see figure) have been proposed as components of an emerging generation of molecular- scale machines and sensors. In comparison with previously proposed nanogears based on diamondoid and fullerene molecules, the nanotube-based gears would have simpler structures and are more likely to be realizable by practical fabrication processes. The impetus for the practical development of carbon-nanotube- based gears arises, in part, from rapid recent progress in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes with prescribed diameters, lengths, chiralities, and numbers of concentric shells. The shafts of the proposed gears would be made from multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The gear teeth would be rigid molecules (typically, benzyne molecules), bonded to the nanotube shafts at atomically precise positions. For fabrication, it may be possible to position the molecular teeth by use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) or other related techniques. The capability to position individual organic molecules at room temperature by use of an STM tip has already been demonstrated. Routes to the chemical synthesis of carbon-nanotube-based gears are also under investigation. Chemical and physical aspects of the synthesis of molecular scale gears based on carbon nanotubes and related molecules, and dynamical properties of nanotube- based gears, have been investigated by computational simulations using established methods of quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics. Several particularly interesting and useful conclusions have been drawn from the dynamical simulations performed thus far: The forces acting on the gears would be more sensitive to local molecular motions than to gross mechanical motions of the overall gears. Although no breakage of teeth or of chemical bonds is expected at temperatures up to at least 3,000 K, the gears would not work well at temperatures above a critical range from about 600 to about 1,000 K. Gear temperature could probably be controlled by use of coolant gases. For a given application, the gears would work well at temperatures below the critical range, provided that the rotational energy was less than the energy required to tilt the teeth through an angle of 20 . The predominant mechanism of gear failure would be slippage caused by tilting of teeth. Gears would resume functioning if the slipping gears were decelerated sufficiently.

  13. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-05-23

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  14. Photodetector based on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A.; Kitsyuk, E.; Ryazanov, R.; Timoshenkov, V.; Adamov, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Photodetector based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) was investigated. Sensors were done on quartz and silicon susbtrate. Samples of photodetectors sensors were produced by planar technology. This technology included deposition of first metal layer (Al), lithography for pads formation, etching, and formation of local catalyst area by inverse lithography. Vertically-aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes were directly synthesized on substrate by PECVD method. I-V analysis and spectrum sensitivity of photodetector were investigated for 0.4 μm - 1.2 μm wavelength. Resistivity of CNT layers over temperature was detected in the range of -20°C to 100°C.

  15. One pot synthesis of magnetic graphene/carbon nanotube composites as magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction adsorbent for rapid determination of oxytetracycline in sewage water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yunyun; Tian, Jing; Wang, Lu; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Fengxia; Qiao, Xiaoqiang

    2015-11-27

    A simple and time-saving one pot synthesis of magnetic graphene/carbon nanotube composites (M-G/CNTs) was developed that could avoid the tedious drying process of graphite oxide, and G/CNTs were modified by Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the reduction procedure. It contributed to a shorten duration of the synthesis process of M-G/CNTs. The obtained M-G/CNTs were characterized and the results indicated that CNTs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were served as spacer distributing to the layers of graphene, which was beneficial for enlarging surface area and improving extraction efficiency. Moreover, M-G/CNTs showed good magnetic property and outstanding thermal stability. Then M-G/CNTs were applied as adsorbent of magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction for rapid extraction and determination of oxytetracycline in sewage water. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained in the range of 20-800ngmL(-1) and the recoveries were ranged from 95.5% to 112.5% with relative standard deviations less than 5.8%. PMID:26518491

  16. All carbon nanotubes are not created equal

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, David B; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents the various factors that enter into consideration when choosing the source of carbon nanotubes for a specific application. Carbon nanotubes are giant molecules made of pure carbon. They have captured the imagination of the scientific community by the unique structure that provides superior physical, chemical, and electrical properties. However, a surprisingly wide disparity exists between the intrinsic properties determined under ideal conditions and the properties that carbon nanotubes exhibit in real world situations. The lack of uniformity in carbon nanotube properties is likely to be the main obstacle holding back the development of carbon nanotube applications. This tutorial addresses the nonuniformity of carbon nanotube properties from the synthesis standpoint. This synthesis-related nonuniformity is on top of the intrinsic chirality distribution that gives the ~1:2 ratio of metallic to semiconducting nanotubes. From the standpoint of carbon bonding chemistry the variation in the quality and reproducibility of carbon nanotube materials is not unexpected. It is an intrinsic feature that is related to the metastability of carbon structures. The extent to which this effect is manifested in carbon nanotube formation is governed by the type and the kinetics of the carbon nanotube synthesis reaction. Addressing this variation is critical if nanotubes are to live up to the potential already demonstrated by their phenomenal physical properties.

  17. Materials made of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotube forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, Eduard G.

    2013-06-01

    Publications concerning research on unique material made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) aligned perpendicular to the substrate surface, namely, CNT forest, are analyzed and summarized. The morphology, volume and surface density of CNT forest, methods of its synthesis and modification, as well as the properties and potential fields of application are considered. The bibliography includes 679 references.

  18. Novel magnetic SPE method based on carbon nanotubes filled with cobalt ferrite for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in honey and tea.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhuo; Liu, Miao; Li, Gongke

    2013-10-01

    A novel magnetic SPE method based on magnetic cobalt ferrite filled carbon nanotubes (MFCNTs) coupled with GC with electron capture detection was developed to determine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tea and honey samples. The MFCNTs were prepared through the capillarity of carbon nanotubes for drawing mixed cobalt and iron nitrates solution into their inner cavity followed by heating to 550°C under Ar to form the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. SEM images provided visible evidence of the filled cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in the multiwalled nanotubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated no adhesion of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and metal salts on the outer surface of the MFCNTs. Eight OCPs were extracted with the MFCNTs. The enrichment factors were in the range of 52-68 for eight OCPs. The LODs for the eight OCPs were in the range of 1.3-3.6 ng/L. The recoveries of the OCPs for honey and tea samples were 83.2-128.7 and 72.6-111.0%, respectively. The RSDs for these samples were below 6.8%. The new method is particularly suited to extract nonpolar and weakly polar analytes from a complex matrix and could potentially be extended to other target analytes. PMID:23926126

  19. Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Mammalian Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michelle; Ahmed, Asma; Black, Melanie; Kawamoto, Nicole; Lucas, Jessica; Pagala, Armie; Pham, Tram; Stankiewicz, Sara; Chen, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Carbon Nanotubes possess extraordinary electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Research on applying the carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive detection, disease diagnosis, and drug delivery is rapidly developing. While the fundamental and technological findings on carbon nanotubes show great promise, it is extremely important to investigate the effect of the carbon nanotubes on human health. In our experiments, we introduce purified carbon nanotubes in suspension to ovary cells cultured from Hamsters. These cells are chosen since they show robust morphological changes associated with cytotoxicity that can easily be observed under a light microscope. We will discuss the toxicity of carbon nanotubes by characterizing the cell morphology and viability as a function of time and the concentration of carbon nanotube suspension.

  20. Analysis of carbon nanotubes using nanoelectromechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aykol, Mehmet

    In this thesis the thermo-mechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated utilizing carbon nanotube based nanoelectromechanical oscillators. These resonator devices are highly sensitive to changes in tension on the carbon nanotube. In Chapters 4 the coefficient of thermal expansion of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube is measured in the range 4K - 475K. Experimental observation of this parameter has not been reported before this work and the calculations give different results depending on the models used. The observed negative thermal expansion is attributed to the free configurational space around the carbon atoms of the nanotube. When the nanotube is cooled, the entropy of the system is lowered by expanding the volume of the nanotube through various changes in the structure like pinching twisting or bending. The minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is measured as -4.5 ppm·K-1 at 100K. The coefficient of thermal expansion remains negative throughout the entire range. The mechanical response of carbon nanotube electromechanical oscillators at elevated temperatures is studied in Chapter 5. The weak interaction forces between the carbon nanotube and underlying platinum electrodes limit the performance of carbon nanotube electromechanical oscillators, where the devices are built as described in Chapter 3. Van der Waals bond between the carbon nanotube and the platinum electrode weaken as the temperature increases. At a critical temperature the nanotube delaminates from the surface completely and a sudden drop is observed in the mechanical resonance frequency of the oscillator. Using the results obtained, the clamping force between the carbon nanotube and the underlying platinum electrode is measured to be around 3 pN. The small value obtained for the clamping force shows that quality factor of carbon nanotube electromechanical resonators is affected by the clamping efficiency of the nanotube ends. Carbon nanotubes have unique electron ransport properties at high bias voltages. Due to their one dimensional nature, scattering of electrons by phonon are highly nonlinear. At low bias voltages (across the nanotube) phonon scattering is suppressed and the electrons exhibit ballistic transport. At higher bias voltages optical phonon scattering dominates, and subsequently nanotubes heat suddenly. In Chapter 6, the heating of nanotubes is probed using the mechanical vibrations of a carbon nanotube based nanoelectromechanical oscillator. Since the substrate temperature is constant the change in mechanical resonance frequency is attributed to the contraction of the nanotube due to its negative thermal expansion. The bias voltage, at which the mechanical resonance shows a sudden drop, corresponds to experimentally observed optical phonon emission onset voltage for single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Material Quality Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yowell, Leonard; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Niolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga

    2006-01-01

    The nanomaterial activities at NASA Johnson Space Center focus on carbon nanotube production, characterization and their applications for aerospace systems. Single wall carbon nanotubes are produced by arc and laser methods. Characterization of the nanotube material is performed using the NASA JSC protocol developed by combining analytical techniques of SEM, TEM, UV-VIS-NIR absorption, Raman, and TGA. A possible addition of other techniques such as XPS, and ICP to the existing protocol will be discussed. Changes in the quality of the material collected in different regions of the arc and laser production chambers is assessed using the original JSC protocol. The observed variations indicate different growth conditions in different regions of the production chambers.

  2. Plasma CVD of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Cruden, B.; Hash, D.; Meyyappan, M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes(CNT) exhibit remarkable mechanical and unique electronic properties and thus have created excitement in the research community about their potential in electronics, computing, sensor and structural applications. Realization of these applications critically depends on the ability to control the properties(such as diameter, chirality) as well purity. We have investigated CNT growth using an inductively coupled plasma(ICP) process using hydrocarbon feedstock. The catalyst required for nanotube growth consists of thin sputtered layers of aluminum and iron(10 nm each) and aligned carbon nanotubes have been obtained. Optical emission diagnostics as well as a plasma modeling effort have been undertaken to understand growth mechanisms. This presentation will discuss growth characteristics under various pressure, power and feedgas compositions and our understanding from modeling and diagnostics.

  3. Conductance Oscillations in Squashed Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrez, H.; Anantram, M. P.; Svizhenko, A.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of molecular dynamics and electrical conductance calculations are used to probe the electromechanical properties of squashed metallic carbon nanotubes. We find that the conductance and bandgap of armchair nanotubes show oscillations upon squashing. The physical origin of these oscillations is attributed to interaction of carbon atoms with a fourth neighbor. Squashing of armchair and zigzag nanotubes ultimately leads to metallic behavior.

  4. Supported lipid bilayer/carbon nanotube hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.; Craighead, Harold G.; McEuen, Paul L.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotube transistors combine molecular-scale dimensions with excellent electronic properties, offering unique opportunities for chemical and biological sensing. Here, we form supported lipid bilayers over single-walled carbon nanotube transistors. We first study the physical properties of the nanotube/supported lipid bilayer structure using fluorescence techniques. Whereas lipid molecules can diffuse freely across the nanotube, a membrane-bound protein (tetanus toxin) sees the nanotube as a barrier. Moreover, the size of the barrier depends on the diameter of the nanotube-with larger nanotubes presenting bigger obstacles to diffusion. We then demonstrate detection of protein binding (streptavidin) to the supported lipid bilayer using the nanotube transistor as a charge sensor. This system can be used as a platform to examine the interactions of single molecules with carbon nanotubes and has many potential applications for the study of molecular recognition and other biological processes occurring at cell membranes.

  5. Redox sorting of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gui, Hui; Streit, Jason K; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Hight Walker, Angela R; Zhou, Chongwu; Zheng, Ming

    2015-03-11

    This work expands the redox chemistry of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by investigating its role in a number of SWCNT sorting processes. Using a polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (DX) aqueous two-phase system, we show that electron-transfer between redox molecules and SWCNTs triggers reorganization of the surfactant coating layer, leading to strong modulation of nanotube partition in the two phases. While the DX phase is thermodynamically more favored by an oxidized SWCNT mixture, the mildly reducing PEG phase is able to recover SWCNTs from oxidation and extract them successively from the DX phase. Remarkably, the extraction order follows SWCNT bandgap: semiconducting nanotubes of larger bandgap first, followed by semiconducting nanotubes of smaller bandgap, then nonarmchair metallic tubes of small but nonvanishing bandgap, and finally armchair metallic nanotubes of zero bandgap. Furthermore, we show that redox-induced surfactant reorganization is a common phenomenon, affecting nanotube buoyancy in a density gradient field, affinity to polymer matrices, and solubility in organic solvents. These findings establish redox modulation of surfactant coating structures as a general mechanism for tuning a diverse range of SWCNT sorting processes and demonstrate for the first time that armchair and nonarmchair metallic SWCNTs can be separated by their differential response to redox. PMID:25719939

  6. Towards Carbon Nanotube In-plane Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, P. W.; Duesberg, G. S.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.

    2002-10-01

    Intermolecular carbon nanotube junctions were formed by coupling chemically functionalized nanotubes with molecular linkers. A T-shape heterojunction can be formed by reacting chloride terminated nanotubes with aliphatic diamine. Electronic devices were prepared by adsorption of functionalized nanotube junctions on Si/SiO2 substrate followed by standard e-beam lithography. The charge transport through the junction was fund to be strongly modified by the in-plane nanotube mechanically, leading to pronounced metal-insulator transition.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes and Human Cells?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, G. Angela

    2005-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes that were chemically altered to be water soluble are shown to enter fibroblasts, T cells, and HL60 cells. Nanoparticles adversely affect immortalized HaCaT human keratinocyte cultures, indicating that they may enter cells.

  8. Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Francois

    2014-06-11

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

  9. Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes

    ScienceCinema

    Leonard, Francois

    2014-06-13

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

  10. Thermoelectrics: Carbon nanotubes get high

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispin, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Waste heat can be converted to electricity by thermoelectric generators, but their development is hindered by the lack of cheap materials with good thermoelectric properties. Now, carbon-nanotube-based materials are shown to have improved properties when purified to contain only semiconducting species and then doped.

  11. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Chungui; Ji Lijun; Liu Huiju; Hu Guangjun; Zhang Shimin; Yang Mingshu . E-mail: yms@iccas.ac.cn; Yang Zhenzhong . E-mail: yangzz@iccas.ac.cn

    2004-12-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups can extend the nanotube chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized carbon nanotubes containing highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface via the reaction between toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and carboxylated carbon nanotubes. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to carbon nanotubes. The content of isocyanate groups were determined by chemical titration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  12. Carbon nanotubes by the metallocene route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Rahul; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C. N. R.

    1997-03-01

    Pyrolysis of metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and nickelocene, is shown to yield carbon nanotubes and metal-filled onion-like structures. Pyrolysis of benzene in the presence of a metallocene gives high yields of nanotubes, the wall thickness of the nanotubes depending on the metallocene content. Pyrolysis of benzene in the absence of any metal however gives monodispersed nanospheres of carbon rather than nanotubes.

  13. Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes Comprising Magnetically Sensitive Metal Oxides in Nanofluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G. P. 'Bud' (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a nanoparticle mixture or suspension or nanofluid comprising nonmagnetically sensitive nanoparticles, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles, and surfactant(s). The present invention also relates to methods of preparing and using the same.

  14. From carbon nanotubes to carbon atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas Garca, Gilberto; Zhang, Weijia; Jos-Yacamn, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Carbyne is a linear allotrope of carbon. It is formed by a linear arrangement of carbon atoms with sp-hybridization. We present a reliable and reproducible experiment to obtain these carbon atomic chains using few-layer-graphene (FLG) sheets and a HRTEM. First the FLG sheets were synthesized from worm-like exfoliated graphite and then drop-casted on a lacey-carbon copper grid. Once in the TEM, two holes are opened near each other in a FLG sheet by focusing the electron beam into a small spot. Due to the radiation, the carbon atoms rearrange themselves between the two holes and form carbon fibers. The beam is concentrated on the carbon fibers in order excite the atoms and induce a tension until multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is formed. As the radiation continues the MWCNT breaks down until there is only a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Then, when the SWCNT breaks, an atomic carbon chain is formed, lasts for several seconds under the radiation and finally breaks. This demonstrates the stability of this carbon structure.

  15. Carbon-Nanotube Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Wong, Eric; Schlecht, Erich; Hunt, Brian; Siegel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Schottky diodes based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes are being developed as essential components of the next generation of submillimeter-wave sensors and sources. Initial performance predictions have shown that the performance characteristics of these devices can exceed those of the state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes that have been the components of choice for room-temperature submillimeter-wave sensors for more than 50 years. For state-of-the-art Schottky diodes used as detectors at frequencies above a few hundred gigahertz, the inherent parasitic capacitances associated with their semiconductor junction areas and the resistances associated with low electron mobilities limit achievable sensitivity. The performance of such a detector falls off approximately exponentially with frequency above 500 GHz. Moreover, when used as frequency multipliers for generating signals, state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes exhibit extremely low efficiencies, generally putting out only micro-watts of power at frequencies up to 1.5 THz. The shortcomings of the state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes can be overcome by exploiting the unique electronic properties of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. A single-walled carbon nanotube can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on its chirality, and exhibits high electron mobility (recently reported to be approx.= 2x10(exp 5)sq cm/V-s) and low parasitic capacitance. Because of the narrowness of nanotubes, Schottky diodes based on carbon nanotubes have ultra-small junction areas (of the order of a few square nanometers) and consequent junction capacitances of the order of 10(exp -18) F, which translates to cutoff frequency >5 THz. Because the turn-on power levels of these devices are very low (of the order of nano-watts), the input power levels needed for pumping local oscillators containing these devices should be lower than those needed for local oscillators containing state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes.

  16. Designing an optimum pulsed magnetic field by a resistance/self-inductance/capacitance discharge system and alignment of carbon nanotubes embedded in polypyrrole matrix.

    PubMed

    Kazemikia, Kaveh; Bonabi, Fahimeh; Asadpoorchallo, Ali; Shokrzadeh, Majid

    2015-02-01

    In this work, an optimized pulsed magnetic field production apparatus is designed based on a RLC (Resistance/Self-inductance/Capacitance) discharge circuit. An algorithm for designing an optimum magnetic coil is presented. The coil is designed to work at room temperature. With a minor physical reinforcement, the magnetic flux density can be set up to 12 Tesla with 2 ms duration time. In our design process, the magnitude and the length of the magnetic pulse are the desired parameters. The magnetic field magnitude in the RLC circuit is maximized on the basis of the optimal design of the coil. The variables which are used in the optimization process are wire diameter and the number of coil layers. The coil design ensures the critically damped response of the RLC circuit. The electrical, mechanical, and thermal constraints are applied to the design process. A locus of probable magnetic flux density values versus wire diameter and coil layer is provided to locate the optimum coil parameters. Another locus of magnetic flux density values versus capacitance and initial voltage of the RLC circuit is extracted to locate the optimum circuit parameters. Finally, the application of high magnetic fields on carbon nanotube-PolyPyrrole (CNT-PPy) nano-composite is presented. Scanning probe microscopy technique is used to observe the orientation of CNTs after exposure to a magnetic field. The result shows alignment of CNTs in a 10.3 Tesla, 1.5 ms magnetic pulse. PMID:25725890

  17. Designing an optimum pulsed magnetic field by a resistance/self-inductance/capacitance discharge system and alignment of carbon nanotubes embedded in polypyrrole matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemikia, Kaveh; Bonabi, Fahimeh; Asadpoorchallo, Ali; Shokrzadeh, Majid

    2015-02-01

    In this work, an optimized pulsed magnetic field production apparatus is designed based on a RLC (Resistance/Self-inductance/Capacitance) discharge circuit. An algorithm for designing an optimum magnetic coil is presented. The coil is designed to work at room temperature. With a minor physical reinforcement, the magnetic flux density can be set up to 12 Tesla with 2 ms duration time. In our design process, the magnitude and the length of the magnetic pulse are the desired parameters. The magnetic field magnitude in the RLC circuit is maximized on the basis of the optimal design of the coil. The variables which are used in the optimization process are wire diameter and the number of coil layers. The coil design ensures the critically damped response of the RLC circuit. The electrical, mechanical, and thermal constraints are applied to the design process. A locus of probable magnetic flux density values versus wire diameter and coil layer is provided to locate the optimum coil parameters. Another locus of magnetic flux density values versus capacitance and initial voltage of the RLC circuit is extracted to locate the optimum circuit parameters. Finally, the application of high magnetic fields on carbon nanotube-PolyPyrrole (CNT-PPy) nano-composite is presented. Scanning probe microscopy technique is used to observe the orientation of CNTs after exposure to a magnetic field. The result shows alignment of CNTs in a 10.3 Tesla, 1.5 ms magnetic pulse.

  18. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in sesame oil using LC-MS/MS combined with magnetic carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rao; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiuping

    2016-08-01

    A novel magnetic carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT-MNPs) was proposed for magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine phenolic compounds in sesame oil. In this study, c-MWCNT-MNPs were acquired by simply dispersing Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The major parameters affecting extraction efficiency were optimized, including the type and volume of desorption solvents, extraction and desorption time, washing solution, and sorbent amount. The limit of quantifications and limit of detections were from 0.03μg/kg to 43.00μg/kg and from 0.01μg/kg to 13.60μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of phenolic compounds in vegetable oils were in the range of 83.8-125.9% with inter-day and intra-day precisions of less than 13.2%. It was confirmed that this method was simple, rapid and reliable with an excellent potential for routine analysis of phenolic compounds in oil samples. PMID:26988510

  19. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    DOEpatents

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  20. Phonon Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, G.; Kilpatrick, S. J.; Wickenden, A. E.

    2008-03-01

    An understanding of phonon transport in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is important considering potential electronic and thermal management applications. Weak intrinsic phonon scattering in these quasi-one-dimensional materials allows unique properties including high thermal conductivity. Thus CNTs may provide novel thermal management solutions critical for many emerging electronics technologies, including the development of high-power, high-temperature transistors/lasers and the continued scaling down of feature sizes in high-performance microelectronics. Carbon nanotubes are also expected to exhibit relatively large optical phonon decay times. It is widely believed that non-equilibrium phonons lead to conductance degradation, negative differential conductance, and enhanced thermal breakdown of suspended CNTs.[1] Furthermore, absorption of hot optical phonons by conducting carriers would significantly alter device characteristics in the low-field ballistic limit. Thermal properties are also affected as the slow decay of hot optical phonons is expected to lead to reduced thermal diffusivity, and the development of inhomogeneous heating within a nanotube. In this talk, we discuss simulations of CNT phonon transport based on Monte Carlo solution of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation. [1] E. Pop, D. Mann, J. Cao, Q. Wang, K. Goodson, and H. Dai, ``Negative Differential Conductance and Hot Phonons in Suspended Nanotube Molecular Wires,'' Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 95, pp. 155505-8, October 2005.

  1. High frequency carbon nanotube devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffman, M. F.; Chimot, N.; Mile, E.; Monteverde, M. C.; Bourgoin, J.-P.; Derycke, V.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate high frequency electrical and mechanical performances of carbon nanotube based devices. Using configurations with multiple single-wall nanotubes in parallel, we show that HF nanotube transistors with intrinsic cut-off frequencies as high as 30 GHz can be obtained on rigid substrates. Adapting our process to plastic substrates, we also obtained highly flexible HF transistors showing constant transconductances up to at least 6 GHz, as-measured cut-off frequencies as high as 1 GHz (5-8 GHz after de-embedding) and stable DC performances upon bending. We probed electromechanical properties of individual suspended carbon multiwall nanotubes by using a modified AFM. DC deflection measurements on different devices are in agreement with a continuum model prediction and consistent with a Young's modulus of 0.4 TPa. Preliminary HF measurements on a doubly clamped device showed a resonant frequency of 200MHz consistent with a Young's modulus of 0.43 TPa. This implies that built-in mechanical stress in the case of MWNTs is negligeable.

  2. Wave propagation in viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes with surface effect under magnetic field based on nonlocal strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Hu, Yujin; Ling, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The governing equation of wave motion of viscoelastic SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes) with surface effect under magnetic field is formulated on the basis of the nonlocal strain gradient theory. Based on the formulated equation of wave motion, the closed-form dispersion relation between the wave frequency (or phase velocity) and the wave number is derived. It is found that the size-dependent effects on the phase velocity may be ignored at low wave numbers, however, is significant at high wave numbers. Phase velocity can increase by decreasing damping or increasing the intensity of magnetic field. The damping ratio considering surface effect is larger than that without considering surface effect. Damping ratio can increase by increasing damping, increasing wave number, or decreasing the intensity of magnetic field.

  3. Polyethylene glycol modified magnetic carbon nanotubes as nanosorbents for the determination of methylprednisolone in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Panfeng; Ma, Hongwei; Shang, Yong; Wu, Ji; Shen, Shun

    2014-06-27

    In this paper, polyethylene glycol modified (PEGylated) magnetic carbon nanotubes were developed as solid-phase extraction nanosorbents for the determination of methylprednisolone in rat plasma. The procedure mainly involved two steps including preparation of PEGylated magnetic nanosorbents and bioanalysis. Monodisperse magnetites (Fe3O4) anchored onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by a facile solvothermal synthesis method. The obtained MWCNTs-Fe3O4 nanomaterials were further non-covalently functionalized by a surfactant phospholipids-polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG). Owing to dispersibility and high enrichment ability, water-soluble PEGylated MWCNTs-Fe3O4 nanomaterials can provide more efficient way for the extraction of methylprednisolone than only MWCNTs-Fe3O4 used. The methylprednisolone could be easily extracted via π-π stacking interactions with PEGylated MWCNTs-Fe3O4. The captured methylprednisolone/nanosorbents were isolated from the matrix by placing a magnet, and desorbed by the elution solvent composed of acetonitrile. Extraction conditions such as amount of nanosorbents added, adsorption time, desorption solvent, and desorption time were investigated and optimized. The method recoveries were obtained from 88.2% to 92.9%. Limits of quantification and limits of detection of 0.01 and 0.005μg/mL were acquired, respectively. The precision ranged from 4.2% to 7.8% for within-day measurement, and for between-day variation was in the range of 5.5-9.0%. Moreover, the analytical performance obtained by PEGylated magnetic MWCNTs was compared with that of magnetic MWCNTs. The results indicated that the approach based on PEGylated magnetic MWCNTs was useful for the analysis of methylprednisolone in the complex plasma. PMID:24837418

  4. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

  5. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-10-01

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes: Molecular Electronic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1997-01-01

    The carbon Nanotube junctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for use as the building blocks in the formation of nanoscale molecular electronic networks. While the simple joint of two dissimilar tubes can be generated by the introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise perfect hexagonal graphene sheet, more complex joints require other mechanisms. In this work we explore structural characteristics of complex 3-point junctions of carbon nanotubes using a generalized tight-binding molecular-dynamics scheme. The study of pi-electron local densities of states (LDOS) of these junctions reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap.

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Development and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Based Superstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wainwright, Elliot; Williams, Phillip; Siochi, Emile J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, multiple commercial vendors have developed capability for the production of large-scale quantities of high-quality carbon nanotube sheets and yarns. While the materials have found use in electrical shielding applications, development of structural systems composed of a high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes is still lacking. A recent NASA program seeks to address this by prototyping a structural nanotube composite with strength-toweight ratio exceeding current state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites. Commercially available carbon nanotube sheets, tapes, and yarns are being processed into high volume fraction carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites. Nondestructive evaluation techniques have been applied throughout this development effort for material characterization and process control. This paper will report on the progress of these efforts, including magnetic characterization of residual catalyst content, Raman scattering characterization of nanotube diameter, defect ratio, and nanotube strain, and polarized Raman scattering for characterization of nanotube alignment.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for development and characterization of carbon nanotube based superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wainwright, Elliot; Williams, Phillip; Siochi, Emile J.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, multiple commercial vendors have developed capability for the production of large-scale quantities of high-quality carbon nanotube sheets and yarns [1]. While the materials have found use in electrical shielding applications, development of structural systems composed of a high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes is still lacking [2]. A recent NASA program seeks to address this by prototyping a structural nanotube composite with strength-to-weight ratio exceeding current state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites. Commercially available carbon nanotube sheets, tapes, and yarns are being processed into high volume fraction carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites. Nondestructive evaluation techniques have been applied throughout this development effort for material characterization and process control. This paper will report on the progress of these efforts, including magnetic characterization of residual catalyst content, Raman scattering characterization of nanotube diameter and nanotube strain, and polarized Raman scattering for characterization of nanotube alignment.

  9. Carbon nanotubes in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Susanna; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their peculiar features, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging in many areas of nanotechnology applications. CNT-based technology has been increasingly proposed for biomedical applications, to develop biomolecule nanocarriers, bionanosensors and smart material for tissue engineering purposes. In the following chapter this latter application will be explored, describing why CNTs can be considered an ideal material able to support and boost the growth and the proliferation of many kinds of tissues. PMID:24072586

  10. From carbon nanobells to nickel nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, S.; Srikanth, V. V. S. S.; Maik, D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Staedler, T.; Jiang, X.

    2009-01-05

    A generic strategy is proposed to prepare one dimensional (1D) metallic nanotubes by using 1D carbon nanostructures as the initial templates. Following the strategy, nickel (Ni) nanotubes are prepared by using carbon nanobells (CNBs) as the initial templates. CNBs are first prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Carbon/nickel core/shell structures are then prepared by electroplating the CNBs in a nickel-Watts electrolytic cell. In the final step, the carbon core is selectively removed by employing hydrogen plasma etching to obtain Ni nanotubes. The mechanism leading to Ni nanotubes is briefly discussed.

  11. Rapid determination of trans-resveratrol in vegetable oils using magnetic hydrophilic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Yu, Li; Zhang, Liangxiao

    2015-07-01

    In the present work, a rapid and simple procedure was developed and validated for the analysis of trans-resveratrol in vegetable oils based on magnetic hydrophilic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (h-MWCNT-MNPs) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). h-MWCNT-MNPs were simply obtained by wrapping amine-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into previously oxidized hydrophilic multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The major parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated, including the type and volume of desorption solvents, extraction and desorption time, washing solution, and sorbent amount. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated as 0.6 and 2.0 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of trans-resveratrol in oil samples were in the range of 90.0-110.0% with RSDs of less than 17.5%. The results showed that only peanut oil contained trans-resveratrol, ranging from 8 ± 1 to 103 ± 12 μg/kg. The proposed method is reliable and robust, having an excellent potential for the analysis of trans-resveratrol in edible oils. PMID:25704710

  12. Engineering carbon nanotubes and nanotube circuits using electrical breakdown.

    PubMed

    Collins, P G; Arnold, M S; Avouris, P

    2001-04-27

    Carbon nanotubes display either metallic or semiconducting properties. Both large, multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), with many concentric carbon shells, and bundles or "ropes" of aligned single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), are complex composite conductors that incorporate many weakly coupled nanotubes that each have a different electronic structure. Here we demonstrate a simple and reliable method for selectively removing single carbon shells from MWNTs and SWNT ropes to tailor the properties of these composite nanotubes. We can remove shells of MWNTs stepwise and individually characterize the different shells. By choosing among the shells, we can convert a MWNT into either a metallic or a semiconducting conductor, as well as directly address the issue of multiple-shell transport. With SWNT ropes, similar selectivity allows us to generate entire arrays of nanoscale field-effect transistors based solely on the fraction of semiconducting SWNTs. PMID:11326094

  13. Improved Process for Fabricating Carbon Nanotube Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, R.; Nguyen, C.; Cassell, A.; Delzeit, L.; Meyyappan, M.; Han, Jie

    2003-01-01

    An improved process has been developed for the efficient fabrication of carbon nanotube probes for use in atomic-force microscopes (AFMs) and nanomanipulators. Relative to prior nanotube tip production processes, this process offers advantages in alignment of the nanotube on the cantilever and stability of the nanotube's attachment. A procedure has also been developed at Ames that effectively sharpens the multiwalled nanotube, which improves the resolution of the multiwalled nanotube probes and, combined with the greater stability of multiwalled nanotube probes, increases the effective resolution of these probes, making them comparable in resolution to single-walled carbon nanotube probes. The robust attachment derived from this improved fabrication method and the natural strength and resiliency of the nanotube itself produces an AFM probe with an extremely long imaging lifetime. In a longevity test, a nanotube tip imaged a silicon nitride surface for 15 hours without measurable loss of resolution. In contrast, the resolution of conventional silicon probes noticeably begins to degrade within minutes. These carbon nanotube probes have many possible applications in the semiconductor industry, particularly as devices are approaching the nanometer scale and new atomic layer deposition techniques necessitate a higher resolution characterization technique. Previously at Ames, the use of nanotube probes has been demonstrated for imaging photoresist patterns with high aspect ratio. In addition, these tips have been used to analyze Mars simulant dust grains, extremophile protein crystals, and DNA structure.

  14. Dispersion and alignment of carbon nanotubes in polymer based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camponeschi, Erin Lynn

    This research is intended to create usable carbon nanotube polymer based composites for structural applications by effectively aligning and dispersing the carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix. The motivation for this research is to create very lightweight, high strength materials that will surpass their predecessors: carbon fibers. The final product then can be used in applications across the industries. This research determined the effect of three different surface-active agents and two different aligning methods on the structural features and mechanical properties of the polymer-based composite. The three types of surface-active agents used in this research are a surfactant and two different block copolymers. From this research, it will be determined how different surface-active agents adequately disperse the carbon nanotube, and the effects the dispersing agent have on a final dispersed product. In addition, the dispersing agent effects on the alignment of the carbon nanotubes and the final product can be compared. The two alignment techniques used in this research were alignment via shear flow and tethering iron oxide particles to the carbon nanotubes to induce alignment in a magnetic field. The method of shear aligning carbon nanotubes is very simplistic in theory, but actual application becomes much more challenging. This research illustrates the effects on shear alignment in a viscous polymer flow and then applies those theories to polymers. This work then compares the different alignment techniques to determine the overall increase of properties and the effective carbon nanotube alignment. This research provides a framework for the creation of dispersed and aligned composites that can be expanded upon and improved to further develop the carbon nanotubes as possible replacement fillers for composite materials.

  15. Plasticity and Kinky Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Dzegilenko, Fedor

    2000-01-01

    Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes have been the subject of intense research interest based on early predictions of their unique mechanical, electronic, and chemical properties. Materials with the predicted unique properties of carbon nanotubes are of great interest for use in future generations of aerospace vehicles. For their structural properties, carbon nanotubes could be used as reinforcing fibers in ultralight multifunctional composites. For their electronic properties, carbon nanotubes offer the potential of very high-speed, low-power computing elements, high-density data storage, and unique sensors. In a continuing effort to model and predict the properties of carbon nanotubes, Ames accomplished three significant results during FY99. First, accurate values of the nanomechanics and plasticity of carbon nanotubes based on quantum molecular dynamics simulations were computed. Second, the concept of mechanical deformation catalyzed-kinky-chemistry as a means to control local chemistry of nanotubes was discovered. Third, the ease of nano-indentation of silicon surfaces with carbon nanotubes was established. The elastic response and plastic failure mechanisms of single-wall nanotubes were investigated by means of quantum molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. CARBON NANOTUBES: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, John, E.

    2009-07-24

    Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 as a minority byproduct of fullerene synthesis. Remarkable progress has been made in the ensuing years, including the discovery of two basic types of nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall), great strides in synthesis and purification, elucidation of many fundamental physical properties, and important steps towards practical applications. Both the underlying science and technological potential of SWNT can profitably be studied at the scale of individual tubes and on macroscopic assemblies such as fibers. Experiments on single tubes directly reveal many of the predicted quantum confinement and mechanical properties. Semiconductor nanowires have many features in common with nanotubes, and many of the same fundamental and practical issues are in play – quantum confinement and its effect on properties; possible device structures and circuit architectures; thermal management; optimal synthesis, defect morphology and control, etc. In 2000 we began a small effort in this direction, conducted entirely by undergraduates with minimal consumables support from this grant. With DOE-BES approval, this grew into a project in parallel with the carbon nanotube work, in which we studied of inorganic semiconductor nanowire growth, characterization and novel strategies for electronic and electromechanical device fabrication. From the beginnings of research on carbon nanotubes, one of the major applications envisioned was hydrogen storage for fuel-cell powered cars and trucks. Subsequent theoretical models gave mixed results, the most pessimistic indicating that the fundamental H2-SWNT interaction was similar to flat graphite (physisorption) with only modest binding energies implying cryogenic operation at best. New material families with encouraging measured properties have emerged, and materials modeling has gained enormously in predictive power, sophistication, and the ability to treat a realistically representative number of atoms. One of the new materials, highly porous carbide-derived carbons (CDC), is the subject of an add-on to this grant awarded to myself and Taner Yildirim (NIST). Results from the add-on led eventually to a new 3-year award DE-FG02-08ER46522 “From Fundamental Understanding to Predicting New Nanomaterials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage”, $1000K, (05/31/2008 - 05/01/2011) with Taner Yildirim and myself as co-PI’s.

  17. Longitudinal solitons in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Astakhova, T. Yu.; Gurin, O. D.; Menon, M.; Vinogradov, G. A.

    2001-07-15

    We present results on soliton excitations in carbon nanotubes (CNT's) using Brenner's many-body potential. Our numerical simulations demonstrate high soliton stability in (10,10) CNT's. The interactions of solitons and solitary excitation with CNT defect are found to be inelastic if the excitations and defects length scales are comparable, resulting in a substantial part of soliton energy being distributed inhomogeneously over the defect bonds. In these solitary-excitation--cap collisions the local energy of a few bonds in the cap can exceed the average energy by an order of magnitude and more. This phenomenon, denoted the ''Tsunami effect,'' can contribute dynamically to the recently proposed ''kinky chemistry.'' We also present results of changes in the local density of states and variations in the atomic partial charges estimated at different time instants of the solitary-excitation Tsunami at the nanotube cap.

  18. Covalent Sidewall Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, I.W.; Saini, R. K.; Mickelson, E. T.; Billups, W. E.; Hauge, R. H.; Margrave, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Progress of fluorination of single-wall carbon nanotubes is being reported. Covalent attachment of alkyl groups including methyl, n-butyl and n-hexyl groups to the sidewalls of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been achieved. Quantitative measurement of the alkylation was done by thermal gravimetric analysis. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis-NIR were used to characterize these alkylated SWNTs. Application of these nanotubes are being investigated-fibers, composites, batteries, lubricants, etc.

  19. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  20. Neat macroscopic membranes of aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casavant, M. J.; Walters, D. A.; Schmidt, J. J.; Smalley, R. E.

    2003-02-01

    Thick macroscopic membranes of magnetically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have been produced via high pressure filtration of aqueous surfactant-suspended SWNT in a magnetic field, resulting in membrane thicknesses of 10 μm and surface areas of 125 cm2. Field strengths of 7 and 25 T were used. Polarized Raman spectroscopy shows an anisotropy of (2.5±0.5), indicating good alignment. A similar degree of alignment was seen at both intensities of magnetic field. Furthermore, the degree of alignment is comparable to that achieved in previous work that produced smaller and thinner membranes at 25 T. The membranes also exhibit uniform anisotropy across their surface and throughout their thickness.

  1. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Naab, Fabian; Savage, Lauren; Holland, Wayne; Duggan, Jerome; McDaniel, Floyd

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen as a fuel source is an attractive, relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a major limitation in its use for the application of automobiles has been the requirement for an efficient hydrogen storage medium. Current hydrogen storage systems are: physical storage in high pressure tanks, metal hydride, and gas-on-solid absorption. However, these methods do not fulfill the Department of Energy's targeted requirements for a usable hydrogen storage capacity of 6.5 wt.%, operation near ambient temperature and pressure, quick extraction and refueling, reliability and reusability.Reports showing high capacity hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes originally prompted great excitement in the field, but further research has shown conflicting results. Results for carbon nanostructures have ranged from less than 1 wt.% to 70 wt.%. The wide range of adsorption found in previous experiments results from the difficulty in measuring hydrogen in objects just nanometers in size. Most previous experiments relied on weight analysis and residual gas analysis to determine the amount of hydrogen being adsorbed by the CNTs. These differing results encouraged us to perform our own analysis on single-walled (SWNTs), double-walled (DWNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as carbon fiber. We chose to utilize direct measurement of hydrogen in the materials using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates and the University of North Texas.

  2. Ophthalmologial Applications of Carbon Nanotube Nanotechology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, David; Girten, Beverly (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The development of an implantable device consisting of an array of carbon nanotubes on a silicon chip for restoration of vision in patients with macular degeneration and other retinal disorders is presented. The use of carbon nanotube bucky paper for retinal cell transplantation is proposed. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  3. Synthesis of magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite adsorbent and its application in cationic Methylene Blue dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Duman, Osman; Tunç, Sibel; Polat, Tülin Gürkan; Bozoğlan, Bahar Kancı

    2016-08-20

    In this study, magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube (OMWCNT)-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized and used as adsorbent for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by using of specific surface area, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope measurements. The results of characterization analyses exhibited that OMWCNT was successfully modified with κ-carrageenan. Furthermore, OMWCNT-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were of a super-paramagnetic property. Adsorption studies revealed that the data of adsorption kinetics and isotherm were well fitted by the pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The adsorption amounts of magnetic adsorbents increased with contact time and initial dye concentration. Compared with magnetic OMWCNT-Fe3O4 nanocomposite, magnetic OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite showed a better adsorption performance for the removal of MB from aqueous solution. Therefore, OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite may be used as a magnetic adsorbent to remove the cationic dyes from wastewaters. PMID:27178911

  4. γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticle functionalized with carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotube: Synthesis, characterization, analytical and biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılınç, Ersin

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, magnetic nanoparticles attained special interest in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine due to their uniqe properties and biocompatibilities. From this perspective, hybride nanostructure composed from γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticle and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotube was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, VSM, SEM, HR-TEM and ICP-OES. Microscopy images showed that magnetic nanoparticles were nearly spherical structure that arranged on the axis of carboxylated MWCNT. Particle size was found lower than 10 nm. VSM results showed that the obtained magnetic nanoparticles presented superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. The magnetic saturation value was determined as 35.2 emu/g. It was used for the adsorption and controlled release of harmane, a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin. Maximum adsorption capacity was calculated as 151.5 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. Concentration of harmane was determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The antimicrobial activity of synthesized magnetic nanoparticle was investigated against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. However, no activity was observed.

  5. Characterization of carbon nanotubes decorated with NiFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles as a novel electrochemical sensor: application for highly selective determination of sotalol using voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Allafchian, Ali R; Rezaei, B; Mohammadzadeh, R

    2013-01-01

    A magnetic nano-composite of multiwall carbon nanotube, decorated with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, was synthesized with citrate sol-gel method. The multiwall carbon nanotubes decorated with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NiFe2O4-MWCNTs) were characterized with different methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The new nano-composite acts as a suitable electrocatalyst for the oxidation of sotalol at a potential of 500 mV at the surface of the modified electrode. Linear sweep voltammetry exhibited two wide linear dynamic ranges of 0.5-1000 μmol L(-1) sotalol with a detection limit of 0.09 μmol L(-1). The modified electrode was used as a novel electrochemical sensor for the determination of sotalol in real samples such as pharmaceutical, patient and safe human urine. PMID:25428063

  6. Nanocapillarity and chemistry in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarte, D.; Chatelain, A.; Heer, W.A. de

    1996-12-13

    Open carbon nanotubes were filled with molten silver nitrate by capillary forces. Only those tubes with inner diameters of 4 nanometers or more were filled, suggesting a capillarity size dependence as a result of the lowering of the nanotube-salt interface energy with increasing curvature of the nanotube walls. Nanotube cavities should also be less chemically reactive than graphite and may serve as nanosize test tubes. This property has been illustrated by monitoring the decomposition of silver nitrate within nanotubes in situ in an electron microscope, which produced chains of silver nanobeads separated by high-pressure gas pockets. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Supported Lipid Bilayer/Carbon Nanotube Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Moran-Mirabal, Jose; Craighead, Harold; McEuen, Paul

    2007-03-01

    We form supported lipid bilayers on single-walled carbon nanotubes and use this hybrid structure to probe the properties of lipid membranes and their functional constituents. We first demonstrate membrane continuity and lipid diffusion over the nanotube. A membrane-bound tetanus toxin protein, on the other hand, sees the nanotube as a diffusion barrier whose strength depends on the diameter of the nanotube. Finally, we present results on the electrical detection of specific binding of streptavidin to biotinylated lipids with nanotube field effect transistors. Possible techniques to extract dynamic information about the protein binding events will also be discussed.

  8. Making Macroscopic Assemblies of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Richard E.; Colbert, Daniel T.; Smith, Ken A.; Walters, Deron A.; Casavant, Michael J.; Qin, Xiaochuan; Yakobson, Boris; Hauge, Robert H.; Saini, Rajesh Kumar; Chiung, Wan-Ting; Huffman, Charles B.

    2005-01-01

    A method of aligning and assembling single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to fabricate macroscopic structures has been invented. The method entails suspending SWNTs in a fluid, orienting the SWNTs by use of a magnetic and/or electric field, and then removing the aligned SWNTs from suspension in such a way as to assemble them while maintaining the alignment. SWNTs are essentially tubular extensions of fullerene molecules. It is desirable to assemble aligned SWNTs into macroscopic structures because the common alignment of the SWNTs in such a structure makes it possible to exploit, on a macroscopic scale, the unique mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties that individual oriented SWNTs exhibit at the molecular level. Because of their small size and high electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes, and especially SWNTs, are useful for making electrical connectors in integrated circuits. Carbon nanotubes can be used as antennas at optical frequencies, and as probes in scanning tunneling microscopes, atomic-force microscopes, and the like. Carbon nanotubes can be used with or instead of carbon black in tires. Carbon nanotubes are useful as supports for catalysts. Ropes of SWNTs are metallic and, as such, are potentially useful in some applications in which electrical conductors are needed - for example, they could be used as additives in formulating electrically conductive paints. Finally, macroscopic assemblies of aligned SWNTs can serve as templates for the growth of more and larger structures of the same type. The great variety of tubular fullerene molecules and of the structures that could be formed by assembling them in various ways precludes a complete description of the present method within the limits of this article. It must suffice to present a typical example of the use of one of many possible variants of the method to form a membrane comprising SWNTs aligned substantially parallel to each other in the membrane plane. The apparatus used in this variant of the method (see figure) includes a reservoir containing SWNTs dispersed in a suspending agent (for example, dimethylformamide) and a reservoir containing a suitable solvent (for example, water mixed with a surfactant). By use of either pressurized gas supplied from upstream or suction from downstream, the suspension of SWNTs and the solvent are forced to mix and flow into a tank. A filter inside the tank contains pores small enough to prevent the passage of most SWNTs, but large enough to allow the passage of molecules of the solvent and suspending agent. The filter is oriented perpendicular to the flow path. A magnetic field parallel to the plane of the filter is applied. The success of the method is based on the tendency of SWNTs to become aligned with their longitudinal axes parallel to an applied magnetic field. The alignment energy of an SWNT increases with the length of the SWNT and the magnetic-field strength. In order to obtain an acceptably small degree of statistical deviation of SWNTs of a given length from alignment with a magnetic field, one must make the field strong enough so that the thermal energy associated with rotation of an SWNT away from alignment is less than the alignment energy.

  9. Neat macroscopic membranes of aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casavant, Michael John

    This work reports the successful production of neat macroscopic membranes of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) via filtration in intense magnetic fields of 25 Tesla and 7 Tesla. These membranes comprise a novel material that allows an unprecedented capability to characterize and manipulate aligned SWNTs, providing access to the more remarkable properties of SWNTs. Surface areas in excess of 100 cm 2 and thickness in excess of seven microns were produced. A density within a factor of two of close packing was achieved. These assemblies exhibit anisotropy in Raman resonance, electrical transport, thermal transport, and reflection of polarized light. These samples provide a macroscopic window to exploring the properties of SWNTs and pave the way for many potential applications. The successful extension of this process to 7 Tesla provides a more pragmatic path towards aligned assemblies of carbon nanotubes. Variations in the properties of the materials made under different magnetic field intensities were observed.* *This dissertation includes a CD that is compound (contains both a paper copy and a CD as part of the dissertation). The CD requires the following application: Notepad.

  10. Carbon nanotube growth density control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for combined coarse scale control and fine scale control of growth density of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a substrate, using a selected electrical field adjacent to a substrate surface for coarse scale density control (by one or more orders of magnitude) and a selected CNT growth temperature range for fine scale density control (by multiplicative factors of less than an order of magnitude) of CNT growth density. Two spaced apart regions on a substrate may have different CNT growth densities and/or may use different feed gases for CNT growth.

  11. Inelastic buckling of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Duan, W. H.; Liew, K. M.; He, X. Q.

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid continuum mechanics and molecular mechanics model is developed in this letter to predict the critical strain of the inelastic buckling of armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTS) with beamlike buckle shapes. The explicit analytical buckling results of the hybrid model are verified by molecular dynamics simulations via the MATERIALS STUDIO software package and by available research findings. The simplicity and effectiveness of the model make it possible to further predict and produce benchmark solutions for the size-dependent buckling results of CNTs. The hybrid model enables thorough understanding of the stability behavior of CNTs and is useful for their applications.

  12. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  13. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  14. Strain-modified RKKY interaction in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, P. D.; Duffy, J. M.; Power, S. R.; Ferreira, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    For low-dimensional metallic structures, such as nanotubes, the exchange coupling between localized magnetic dopants is predicted to decay slowly with separation. The long-range character of this interaction plays a significant role in determining the magnetic order of the system. It has previously been shown that the interaction range depends on the conformation of the magnetic dopants in both graphene and nanotubes. Here we examine the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in carbon nanotubes in the presence of uniaxial strain for a range of different impurity configurations. We show that strain is capable of amplifying or attenuating the RKKY interaction, significantly increasing certain interaction ranges, and acting as a switch: effectively turning on or off the interaction. We argue that uniaxial strain can be employed to significantly manipulate magnetic interactions in carbon nanotubes, allowing an interplay between mechanical and magnetic properties in future spintronic devices. We also examine the dimensional relationship between graphene and nanotubes with regards to the decay rate of the RKKY interaction.

  15. Ballistic conduction in multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Claire; Poncharal, Philippe; Yi, Yan; de Heer, Walt

    2003-01-01

    The electrical transport in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is shown to be ballistic at room temperature with mean free paths on the order of tens of microns. The measurements are performed both in air and in the transmission electron microscope by contacting the free end of a nanotube pointing out of a fiber to a liquid metal and measuring the dependence of the nanotube resistance between the contacts. For a specific representative nanotube the resistance per unit length is found to be Rt = 31 +/- 61 omega/micron and the contact resistance with the liquid metal, Rc = 165 +/- 55 omega microns, corresponding to a mean free path l = 200 microns. Current-to-voltage characteristics are in accord with the electronic structure. The nanotubes survive high currents (up to 1 mA, i.e., current density on the order of 10(9) A/cm2). In situ electron microscopy shows that a relatively large fraction of the nanotubes do not conduct (even at high bias), consistent with the existence of semiconducting nanotubes. Discrepancies with other measurements are most likely due to damage caused to the outer layer(s) of the nanotubes during processing. The measured mean free path of clean, undamaged arc-produced multiwalled carbon nanotubes is several orders of magnitude greater than that for metals, making this perhaps the most significant property of carbon nanotubes. PMID:12908247

  16. A density functional theory study of the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Fe(1-x)Cox alloy nanowires encapsulated in (10,0) carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, You; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2011-12-01

    Under the generalized gradient approximation, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Fe(1-x)Cox alloy nanowires encapsulated inside zigzag (10,0) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated systematically using first-principle density functional theory calculations. For the fully relaxed Fe(1-x)Cox/CNT structures, all the C atoms relax outwards, and thus the diameters of the CNTs are slightly increased. Formation energy analysis shows that the combining processes of all Fe(1-x)Cox/CNT systems are exothermic, and therefore the Fe(1-x)Cox alloy nanowires can be encapsulated into semiconducting zigzag (10,0) CNTs and form stable hybrid structures. The charges are transferred from the Fe(1-x)Cox nanowires to the more electronegative CNTs, and the Fe—C/Co—C bonds formed have polar covalent bond characteristics. Both the spin polarization and total magnetic moment of the Fe(1-x)Cox/CNT system are smaller than those of the corresponding freestanding Fe(1-x)Cox nanowire, and the magnetic moment of the Fe(1-x)Cox/CNT system decreases monotonously with increasing Co concentration, but the Fe(1-x)Cox/CNT systems still have a large magnetic moment, implying that they can be utilized in high-density magnetic recording devices.

  17. Carbon nanotube materials characterization and devices design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng

    The objective of this research is to characterize the electrical and mechanical properties of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) materials, and explore possible device applications for these materials. In order to achieve this goal, different forms of Carbon Nanotube materials---including Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nanotube Arrays, Carbon Nanotube Ribbon, Carbon Nanotube Thread, and sub-micrometer Carbon Nanotube Thread---were tested under a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) using a Micromanipulator (MM). Video and sound recording of the testing in the microscope provided new understanding how thread is formed and how nanotube materials fail. As-produced and thermally treated nanotubes were also tested. The main electrical parameters measured were electrical resistivity and maximum current density. The main mechanical property measured was strength. Together, these parameters are helping to determine the strongest and most conductive forms of CNT material. Putting nanotube materials into application is the ultimate goal of this continuing research. Several aggressive application ideas were investigated in a preliminary way in this work. In biomedical applications, a bundle of CNTs was formed for use as an electrode for accurate biosensing. A simple robot was designed using CNT electrical fiber. The robot was powered by two solenoids and could act as an in-body sensor and actuator to perform some impossible tasks from the viewpoint of current medical technology. In aerospace engineering, CNT materials could replace copper wire to reduce the weight of aircraft. Based on the excellent mechanical properties of CNT materials, a challenging idea is to use CNT material to build elevators to move payloads to outer space without using rockets. This dissertation makes contributions in the characterization of nanotube materials and in the design of miniature electromagnetic devices.

  18. Carbon-based sorbents: carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaojing; Liu, Shujuan; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Yong; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2014-08-29

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), as an advanced material, have been widely used in various fields since its discovery in 1991. In recent years, as an excellent adsorption material, the pure and modified CNTs are successfully used for the purification and enrichment of food, medicine, environmental samples and so on. In this review, we focus on the detailed description of different CNTs-based extraction modes such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) (including cartridge and disk SPE, dispersive SPE, and μ-SPE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) (including fiber SPME, electrosorption-enhanced SPME, stir bar sorptive extraction, needle trap SPME, and hollow fiber SPME). PMID:24792692

  19. Cutting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Kirk J.; Gu, Zhenning; Shaver, Jonah; Chen, Zheyi; Flor, Erica L.; Schmidt, Daniel J.; Chan, Candace; Hauge, Robert H.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2005-07-01

    A two-step process is utilized for cutting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The first step requires the breakage of carbon-carbon bonds in the lattice while the second step is aimed at etching at these damage sites to create short, cut nanotubes. To achieve monodisperse lengths from any cutting strategy requires control of both steps. Room-temperature piranha and ammonium persulfate solutions have shown the ability to exploit the damage sites and etch SWNTs in a controlled manner. Despite the aggressive nature of these oxidizing solutions, the etch rate for SWNTs is relatively slow and almost no new sidewall damage is introduced. Carbon-carbon bond breakage can be introduced through fluorination to ~C2F, and subsequent etching using piranha solutions has been shown to be very effective in cutting nanotubes. The final average length of the nanotubes is approximately 100 nm with carbon yields as high as 70-80%.

  20. ESR and conductivity of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouguelet, E.; Petit, P.; Fischer, J. E.; Thess, A.; Smalley, R. E.

    1998-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes obtained by laser ablation self-organise in crystalline ropes which are some tens micrometers long. These ropes contain hundreds of closed packed nanotubes on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. In this paper, we present our ESR and conductivity measurements on the bulk unoriented material. The results confirm the theoretical previsions about a metallic behaviour of achiral nanotubes. Les nanotubes de carbone obtenus par ablation laser s'auto-organisent en fibres cristallines de quelques dizaines de microns de long. Ces fibres contiennent des centaines de nanotubes formant un réseau triangulaire bidimensionnel. Dans cette communication, nous présentons nos résultats de RPE et de mesures de conductivité. Ils confirment les théories prédisant un comportement métallique des nanotubes non-chiraux.

  1. Development of Carbon-Nanotube/Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a short discussion of one company's effort to develop composites of carbon nanotubes in epoxy and other polymer matrices. The focus of the discussion is on the desirability of chemically modifying carbon nanotubes to overcome their inherent chemical nonreactivity and thereby enable the formation of strong chemical bonds between nanotubes and epoxies (or other polymeric matrix materials or their monomeric precursors). The chemical modification is effected in a process in which discrete functional groups are covalently attached to the nanotube surfaces. The functionalization process was proposed by the company and demonstrated in practice for the first time during this development effort. The covalently attached functional groups are capable of reacting with the epoxy or other matrix resin to form covalent bonds. Furthermore, the company uses this process to chemically modify the nanotube surfaces, affording tunable adhesion to polymers and solubility in select solvents. Flat-sheet composites containing functionalized nanotubes demonstrate significantly improved mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties.

  2. Magnetic nanocomposite of anti-human IgG/COOH-multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Fe₃O₄ as a platform for electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Hajar; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Eskandari, Khadijeh; Zeinali, Majid

    2012-02-15

    An electrochemical immunosensing method was developed based on a magnetic nanocomposite. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were treated with nitric acid to produce carboxyl groups at the open ends. Then, Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles were deposited on COOH-MWCNTs by chemical coprecipitation of Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ salts in an alkaline solution. Goat anti-human IgG (anti-hIgG) was covalently attached to magnetic nanocomposite through amide bond formation between the carboxylic groups of MWCNTs and the amine groups of anti-hIgG. The prepared bio-nanocomposite was used for electrochemical sensing of human tetanus IgG (hIgG) as a model antigen. The anti-hIgG magnetic nanocomposite was fixed on the surface of a gold plate electrode using a permanent magnet. The hIgG was detected using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-hIgG in a sandwich model. Electrochemical detection of hIgG was carried out in the presence of H₂O₂ and KI as substrates of HRP. Using this method, hIgG was detected in a concentration range from 30 to 1000 ng ml⁻¹ with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 25 ng ml⁻¹ (signal/noise=3). The designed immunosensor was stable for 1 month. PMID:22245258

  3. Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Hansel; Hudson, Steve; Bhat, Biliyar; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules composed of carbon atoms in a regular hexagonal arrangement. If nanotubes can be uniformly dispersed in a supporting matrix to form structural materials, the resulting structures could be significantly lighter and stronger than current aerospace materials. Work is currently being done to develop an electrolyte-based self-assembly process that produces a Carbon Nanotube/Nickel composite material with high specific strength. This process is expected to produce a lightweight metal matrix composite material, which maintains it's thermal and electrical conductivities, and is potentially suitable for applications such as advanced structures, space based optics, and cryogenic tanks.

  4. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  5. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Files, Brad; Yowell, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes offer the promise of a new class of revolutionary materials for space applications. The Carbon Nanotube Project at NASA Johnson Space Center has been actively researching this new technology by investigating nanotube production methods (arc, laser, and HiPCO) and gaining a comprehensive understanding of raw and purified material using a wide range of characterization techniques. After production and purification, single wall carbon nanotubes are processed into composites for the enhancement of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. This "cradle-to-grave" approach to nanotube composites has given our team unique insights into the impact of post-production processing and dispersion on the resulting material properties. We are applying our experience and lessons-learned to developing new approaches toward nanotube material characterization, structural composite fabrication, and are also making advances in developing thermal management materials and electrically conductive materials in various polymer-nanotube systems. Some initial work has also been conducted with the goal of using carbon nanotubes in the creation of new ceramic materials for high temperature applications in thermal protection systems. Human space flight applications such as advanced life support and fuel cell technologies are also being investigated. This discussion will focus on the variety of applications under investigation.

  7. Terahertz Science and Technology of Macroscopically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Junichiro

    One of the outstanding challenges in nanotechnology is how to assemble individual nano-objects into macroscopic architectures while preserving their extraordinary properties. For example, the one-dimensional character of electrons in individual carbon nanotubes leads to extremely anisotropic transport, optical, and magnetic phenomena, but their macroscopic manifestations have been limited. Here, we describe methods for preparing macroscopic films, sheets, and fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes and their applications to basic and applied terahertz studies. Sufficiently thick films act as ideal terahertz polarizers, and appropriately doped films operate as polarization-sensitive, flexible, powerless, and ultra-broadband detectors. Together with recently developed chirality enrichment methods, these developments will ultimately allow us to study dynamic conductivities of interacting one-dimensional electrons in macroscopic single crystals of single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  8. Quantum conductance of carbon nanotube peapods

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Mazzoni, Mario S.C.; Louie, Steven G.

    2003-08-01

    We present a first-principles study of the quantum conductance of hybrid nanotube systems consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) encapsulating either an isolated single C60 molecule or a chain of C60 molecules (nanotube peapods). The calculations show a rather weak bonding interaction between the fullerenes and the SWCNTs. The conductance of a (10,10) SWCNT with a single C60 molecule is virtually unaffected at the Fermi level, but exhibits quantized resonant reductions at the molecular levels. The nanotube peapod arrangement gives rise to high density of states for the fullerene highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital bands.

  9. Multiwall carbon nanotube microcavity arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Rifat, Ahmmed A.; Yetisen, Ali K.; Dai, Qing; Yun, Seok Hyun; Butt, Haider

    2016-03-01

    Periodic highly dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays can act as photonic materials exhibiting band gaps in the visible regime and beyond terahertz range. MWCNT arrays in square arrangement for nanoscale lattice constants can be configured as a microcavity with predictable resonance frequencies. Here, computational analyses of compact square microcavities (≈0.8 × 0.8 μm2) in MWCNT arrays were demonstrated to obtain enhanced quality factors (≈170-180) and narrow-band resonance peaks. Cavity resonances were rationally designed and optimized (nanotube geometry and cavity size) with finite element method. Series (1 × 2 and 1 × 3) and parallel (2 × 1 and 3 × 1) combinations of microcavities were modeled and resonance modes were analyzed. Higher order MWCNT microcavities showed enhanced resonance modes, which were red shifted with increasing Q-factors. Parallel microcavity geometries were also optimized to obtain narrow-band tunable filtering in low-loss communication windows (810, 1336, and 1558 nm). Compact series and parallel MWCNT microcavity arrays may have applications in optical filters and miniaturized optical communication devices.

  10. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with silver clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, Jelena; Krkljes, Aleksandra; Kacarevic-Popovic, Zorica; Mitric, Miodrag; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Trpkov, Djordje; Neskovic, Olivera

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, an advanced method of one-step functionalization of single and multi walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) using γ-irradiation was described. Two synthesis procedures, related with different reduction species, were employed. For the first time, poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA is successfully utilized as a source to reduce silver (Ag) metal ions without having any additional reducing agents to obtain Ag nanoparticles on CNTs. The decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles takes place through anchoring of (PVA) on nanotube's surface. Optical properties of as-prepared samples and mechanism responsible for the functionalization of carbon nanotubes were investigated using UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. Decorated carbon nanotubes were visualized using microscopic techniques: transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Also, the presence of Ag on the nanotubes was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This simple and effective method of making a carbon nanotube type of composites is of interest not only for an application in various areas of technology and biology, but for investigation of the potential of radiation technology for nanoengineering of materials.

  11. Double-walled carbon nanotube solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jinquan; Jia, Yi; Shu, Qinke; Gu, Zhiyi; Wang, Kunlin; Zhuang, Daming; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Zhicheng; Luo, Jianbin; Cao, Anyuan; Wu, Dehai

    2007-08-01

    We directly configured double-walled carbon nanotubes as energy conversion materials to fabricate thin-film solar cells, with nanotubes serving as both photogeneration sites and a charge carriers collecting/transport layer. The solar cells consist of a semitransparent thin film of nanotubes conformally coated on a n-type crystalline silicon substrate to create high-density p-n heterojunctions between nanotubes and n-Si to favor charge separation and extract electrons (through n-Si) and holes (through nanotubes). Initial tests have shown a power conversion efficiency of >1%, proving that DWNTs-on-Si is a potentially suitable configuration for making solar cells. Our devices are distinct from previously reported organic solar cells based on blends of polymers and nanomaterials, where conjugate polymers generate excitons and nanotubes only serve as a transport path. PMID:17608444

  12. Carbon Nanotube Composites: Strongest Engineering Material Ever?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeaux, Brian; Nikolaev, Pavel; Proft, William; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of the carbon nanotube project at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to fabricate structural materials with a much higher strength-to-weight ratio than any engineered material today, Single-wall nanotubes present extraordinary mechanical properties along with new challenges for materials processing. Our project includes nanotube production, characterization, purification, and incorporation into applications studies. Now is the time to move from studying individual nanotubes to applications work. Current research at JSC focuses on structural polymeric materials to attempt to lower the weight of spacecraft necessary for interplanetary missions. These nanoscale fibers present unique new challenges to composites engineers. Preliminary studies show good nanotube dispersion and wetting by the epoxy materials. Results of tensile strength tests will also be reported. Other applications of nanotubes are also of interest for energy storage, gas storage, nanoelectronics, field emission, and biomedical uses.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Based Light Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, russell A. (Inventor); Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A light sensor substrate comprises a base made from a semi-conductive material and topped with a layer of an electrically non-conductive material. A first electrode and a plurality of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based conductors are positioned on the layer of electrically non-conductive material with the CNT-based conductors being distributed in a spaced apart fashion about a periphery of the first electrode. Each CNT-based conductor is coupled on one end thereof to the first electrode and extends away from the first electrode to terminate at a second free end. A second or gate electrode is positioned on the non-conductive material layer and is spaced apart from the second free end of each CNT-based conductor. Coupled to the first and second electrode is a device for detecting electron transfer along the CNT-based conductors resulting from light impinging on the CNT-based conductors.

  14. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Ero?lu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  15. Carbon Nanotube Based Nanofluidic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Pei

    Nanofluidic devices in which one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs were constructed, enabling direct electrical measurement of the transport of ions and molecules. Ion current through these devices is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than that predicted from the bulk resistivity of the electrolyte. Electroosmosis drives excess current, carried by cations, and is found to be the origin of giant ionic current through SWCNT as shown by building an ionic field-effect transistor with a gate electrode embedded in the fluid barrier. Wetting of inside of the semi-conducting SWCNT by water showed the change of its electronic property, turning the electronic SWCNT field-effect transistor to "on" state. These findings provide a new method to investigate and control the ion and molecule behavior at nanoscale.

  16. Multi-walled carbon nanotube modified dummy-template magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres as solid-phase extraction material for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaowen; Lin, Saichai; Gan, Ning; Chen, Xidong; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Zhan, Pan

    2014-07-01

    Novel multi-walled carbon nanotube modified dummy-template molecularly imprinted microspheres (MWCNTs@DMMIPs) were successfully synthesized as adsorbents for six kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). MWCNTs@DMMIPs were prepared by a surface molecular imprinting technique. Core-shell Fe3 O4 @SiO2 nanoparticles were employed as magnetic support. 3,4-Dichlorobenzene acetic acid was used as a dummy template instead of PCBs, methacrylic acid was used as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was used as the cross-linker. The resulting absorbent was characterized by various methods. The adsorbent was employed for extracting PCBs and exhibited good selectivity and high adsorption efficiency. Furthermore, it was reusable and capable of magnetic separation. Adsorption kinetics fit well with a pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and also exhibited a three-stage intra-particle diffusion model. The Freundlich model was used to describe the adsorption isotherms. The materials were successfully applied to the magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction of six kinds of PCBs followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry determination in fish samples, the limit of detection of six kinds of PCBs were 0.0028-0.0068 μg/L and spiked recoveries ranged between 73.41 and 114.21%. The prepared adsorbent was expected to be a new material for the removal and recovery of PCBs from contaminated foods. PMID:24737691

  17. Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of chitosan modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for highly effective removal of a carcinogenic dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, HuaYue; Fu, YongQian; Jiang, Ru; Yao, Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, YanWen; Xiao, Ling; Zeng, GuangMing

    2013-11-01

    Novel chitosan-modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CS-m-GMCNTs) were synthesized via a suspension cross-linking method. Composition, morphology and magnetic properties of as-prepared CS-m-GMCNTs were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDS, BET and VSM. The large saturation magnetization (12.27 emu g-1) allows fast separation of CS-m-GMCNTs from treated aqueous solution. The adsorption of congo red (CR) on CS-m-GMCNTs was strongly dependent on pH, temperature of the aqueous phase and adsorbent dosage. Up to 100 and 94.58% color removal could be achieved in 100 min contact time with 10 and 50 mg L-1 of initial concentrations, respectively. The adsorption capacity of CR onto CS-m-GMCNTs could reach 262.9 mg g-1. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.999) was suitable to describe the process of CR adsorption onto CS-m-GMCNTs. The Langmuir model fitted the adsorption isotherm data better than the Freundlich model. Values of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) indicated that the adsorption process was strongly dependent on temperature of the aqueous phase, and spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. Therefore, CS-m-GMCNTs adsorbent displays main advantages of excellent dispersion, convenience separation and high adsorption capacity, which implies their potential application in the environmental cleanup.

  18. Preparation of High-Efficiency Cytochrome c-Imprinted Polymer on the Surface of Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes by Epitope Approach via Metal Chelation and Six-Membered Ring.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ya-Ping; Li, Dong-Yan; He, Xi-Wen; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2016-04-27

    A novel epitope molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs@EMIP) was successfully fabricated to specifically recognize target protein cytochrome c (Cyt C) with high performance. The peptides sequences corresponding to the surface-exposed C-terminus domains of Cyt C was selected as epitope template molecule, and commercially available zinc acrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were employed as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively, to synthesize MIP via free radical polymerization. The epitope was immobilized via metal chelation and six-membered ring formed between the functional monomer and the hydroxyl and amino groups of the epitope. The resulting MCNTs@EMIP exhibited specific recognition ability toward target Cyt C including more satisfactory imprinting factor (about 11.7) than that of other reported imprinting methods. In addition, the MCNTs@EMIP demonstrated a high adsorption amount (about 780.0 mg g(-1)) and excellent selectivity. Besides, the magnetic property of the support material made the processes easy and highly efficient by assistance of an external magnetic field. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of Cyt C in bovine blood real sample and protein mixture indicated that the specificity was not affected by other competitive proteins, which forcefully stated that the MCNTs@EMIP had potential to be applied in bioseparation area. In brief, this study provided a new protocol to detect target protein in complex sample via epitope imprinting approach and surface imprinting strategy. PMID:27049646

  19. Fabrication of a magnet-assisted alignment device for the amperometric detection of capillary electrophoresis using a carbon nanotube/polypropylene composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junchao; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2013-07-01

    A magnet-assisted alignment device was designed and fabricated for the amperometric detection of CE. It mainly consisted of a magnet-containing electrode holder, a capillary-based microdisc detection electrode, a detection cell, and a micrometer adjuster. To demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the alignment device, it was used in combination with a carbon nanotube/polypropylene (CNT/PP) composite electrode for the determination of p-phenylenediamine, m-aminophenol, and m-dihydroxybenzene in commercial hair dye by CE. The CNT-based electrode was fabricated by packing a melt mixture of CNTs and PP in a piece of fused silica capillary under heat, offering significantly lower operating potentials, substantially enhanced signal-to-noise characteristics, and high resistance to surface fouling. Because magnetic force was employed to move the detection electrode, the alignment system was significantly simplified. It is characterized by simple design and fabrication, high alignment reproducibility, reduced alignment time, and low cost. Both the alignment device and the CNT/PP composite electrode should find a wide range of applications in microchip CE, flowing injection analysis, and other microfluidic analysis systems. PMID:23161656

  20. Calculating Young's modulus for a carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzubi, Feras; Cosby, Ronald

    2008-10-01

    Young's modulus for an armchair single-wall carbon nanotube was calculated using an atomistic approach and density functional theory (DFT). Atomic forces and total energies for strained carbon nanotube segments were computed using Atomistix's Virtual NanoLab (VNL) and ToolKit (ATK) software. For a maximum strain of one percent, elastic moduli were calculated using both force-strain and energy-strain data. The average values found for Young's modulus were in the range 1.2 to 3.9 TPa depending on the cross-sectional area taken for the carbon nanotube, consideration of Poisson's ratio, and the calculation method used. Three possible choices of cross-sectional area for the carbon nanotube are discussed and parameter and convergence tests for the DFT computations are described.

  1. Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-11-11

    A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

  2. Carbon nanotube polymer composition and devices

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Johnson, Stephen; Kerr, John B.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2011-06-14

    A thin film device and compound having an anode, a cathode, and at least one light emitting layer between the anode and cathode, the at least one light emitting layer having at least one carbon nanotube and a conductive polymer.

  3. Chemistry in the nanospace of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Zujin; Gu, Zhennan

    2010-05-01

    Owing to the hollow structure of carbon nanotubes, they could be filled with various kinds of molecules, providing opportunities for studying the properties of molecules confined in nanospace. On the one hand, the spatial confinement imparts novel and distinct properties to the encapsulated species from their counterparts in bulk. On the other hand, the properties of the carbon nanotubes are modified as a result of the interaction between the carbon nanotubes and the encapsulated molecules. In this Focus Review, we summarize the recent advances in this field, including structure, phase transition, and chemical transformation of the encapsulated molecules as well as tuning of carbon nanotubes' properties, with special emphasis on the relation between these properties and the size of the confined space. PMID:20229569

  4. Theory of quadruple plasmon in doped carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken-Ichi; Murakami, Shuichi

    A single-wall carbon nanotube possesses two different types of plasmons specified by wavenumbers in the azimuthal and axial directions. In this presentation we show that the azimuthal plasmons consist of underdamped oscillations forming electric dipoles inside a nanotube and overdamped oscillations forming magnetic dipoles. These, originating from the surface plasmons of graphene, are of prime importance in the optical properties of doped ''metallic'' tubes, such as depolarization effect and relaxation of photo-excited carriers. The axial plasmons also consist of underdamped and overdamped oscillations which are inherent in the cylindrical waveguide-structures of nanotubes and relevant to optics and transport. We discuss the exact configurations of the electromagnetic fields in connection with Aharonov-Bohm effect and point out a possibility of the generation of transient energy band gaps in metallic nanotubes.

  5. Fundamental optical processes in armchair carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hároz, Erik H.; Duque, Juan G.; Tu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ming; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Hauge, Robert H.; Doorn, Stephen K.; Kono, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes provide ideal model one-dimensional (1-D) condensed matter systems in which to address fundamental questions in many-body physics, while, at the same time, they are leading candidates for building blocks in nanoscale optoelectronic circuits. Much attention has been recently paid to their optical properties, arising from 1-D excitons and phonons, which have been revealed via photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and ultrafast optical spectroscopy of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, dynamical properties of metallic nanotubes have been poorly explored, although they are expected to provide a novel setting for the study of electron-hole pairs in the presence of degenerate 1-D electrons. In particular, (n,n)-chirality, or armchair, metallic nanotubes are truly gapless with massless carriers, ideally suited for dynamical studies of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids. Unfortunately, progress towards such studies has been slowed by the inherent problem of nanotube synthesis whereby both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes are produced. Here, we use post-synthesis separation methods based on density gradient ultracentrifugation and DNA-based ion-exchange chromatography to produce aqueous suspensions strongly enriched in armchair nanotubes. Through resonant Raman spectroscopy of the radial breathing mode phonons, we provide macroscopic and unambiguous evidence that density gradient ultracentrifugation can enrich ensemble samples in armchair nanotubes. Furthermore, using conventional, optical absorption spectroscopy in the near-infrared and visible range, we show that interband absorption in armchair nanotubes is strongly excitonic. Lastly, by examining the G-band mode in Raman spectra, we determine that observation of the broad, lower frequency (G-) feature is a result of resonance with non-armchair ``metallic'' nanotubes. These findings regarding the fundamental optical absorption and scattering processes in metallic carbon nanotubes lay the foundation for further spectroscopic studies to probe many-body physical phenomena in one dimension.

  6. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the . substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carver liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to The CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  7. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  8. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  9. Amino and thiol modified magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the simultaneous removal of lead, zinc, and phenol from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lili; Li, Shujun; Yu, Haitao; Zou, Zongshu; Hou, Xingang; Shen, Fengman; Li, Chuantong; Yao, Xiayan

    2016-04-01

    The novel functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was synthesized by reacting trimethoxysilylpropanethiol (MPTs), hydrazine, ammonium ferrous sulfate, and ammonium ferric sulfate in sequence as efficient ways to introduce Fe3O4, amino and thiol groups onto the nanotubes sidewalls. The magnetic MWCNTs composite material (N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs) was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and magnetization curve. The results revealed that MPTs and hydrazine were coated on the surface of N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs. A series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the experimental conditions, such as pH, contact time, initial concentrations and temperatures, which affected the adsorption process. The adsorption experiment results showed that the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs for lead, zinc and phenol was 195.81 mg/g, 169.89 mg/g and 38.97 mg/g at pH 6, respectively. The adsorption isotherm was better fitted by the Freundlich model, and the adsorption kinetics was consistent with pseudo-second order kinetics model. Furthermore, thermodynamic data showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. These results indicated that N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs may be promising surface modified materials for removing heavy metal ions and phenol from aqueous solutions.

  10. Interfaces Between Carbon Nanotubes and Nickel Nanoparticles in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bai; Liu, Lirui

    2013-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with metals can be used in capacitors, sensors, rechargeable batteries, and so on. Their interface significantly affects the properties of the composites. Here, we show that three kinds of interfaces between crystalline Ni and CNTs exist, namely, ordered, distorted, and disordered. They presented lattice states of Ni atoms near the interface, whereas the (111)Ni plane was parallel to the CNTs' surface and appeared apart in a smaller or bigger angle. The coherent face-centered cubic (f.c.c)/hexagonal close-packed structure (h.c.p) boundary was formed between the crystalline Ni and CNTs at the ordered interface, in which the match was (111)Ni//(0001)Carbon. We suggested a dislocation model for the coherent interface. The model explained why the angle between (200)Ni and the CNTs' inner surface was 52.9 rather than the theoretical value of 54.75. The (1)/(2)[11\\bar {1}] dislocation was formed to fit the coherent relationship. Thus, Ni lattice shrinkage occurred. Further study indicated that the formation mechanism of crystalline Ni in CNTs was through heterogeneous nucleation on the inner wall surface and growth of the crystal nucleus.

  11. Quantum electron transport in toroidal carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Mark; Encinosa, Mario

    2008-03-01

    Electron transport under bias is treated in tight-binding approximation using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach. Density-of-states D(E), transmissivity T(E), and current ISD are calculated through a (3,3) armchair nanotorus with laterally attached metallic leads and a magnetic field penetrating the toroidal plane. Plateaus in T(E) through the torus are observed as a function of both the relative angle between leads and magnetic flux. Initial computational studies performed with 1800 atoms and attached leads show substantial computational slowdown when increasing the system size by a factor of two. Results are generated by inverting the device Hamiltonian with a standard recursion method extended to account for unit cell toroidal closure. Significant computational speed-up is expected for a parallelized code on a multiprocessor computer cluster. The dependence of electronic features on torus size and torus curvature is tested for three tori with 900, 1800 and 3600 carbon atoms, respectively. References: 1. M. Jack and M. Encinosa, Quantum electron transport in toroidal carbon nanotubes with metallic leads. ArXiv: quant-ph/0709.0760. 2. M. Encinosa and M. Jack, Dipole and solenoidal magnetic moments of electronic surface currents on toroidal nanostructures. J. Comp.-Aided Mat. Design (Springer), 14 (1) (2007) 65 -- 71.

  12. Filling of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres

    PubMed Central

    Gately, Reece D

    2015-01-01

    Summary The reliable production of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres is a relatively new development, and due to their unique structure, there has been much interest in filling their hollow interiors. In this review, we provide an overview of the most common approaches for filling these carbon nanostructures. We highlight that filled carbon nanostructures are an emerging material for biomedical applications. PMID:25821693

  13. Filling of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Gately, Reece D; In Het Panhuis, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The reliable production of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres is a relatively new development, and due to their unique structure, there has been much interest in filling their hollow interiors. In this review, we provide an overview of the most common approaches for filling these carbon nanostructures. We highlight that filled carbon nanostructures are an emerging material for biomedical applications. PMID:25821693

  14. Method for manufacturing high quality carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jeanette M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A non-catalytic process for the production of carbon nanotubes includes supplying an electric current to a carbon anode and a carbon cathode which have been securely positioned in the open atmosphere with a gap between them. The electric current creates an electric arc between the carbon anode and the carbon cathode, which causes carbon to be vaporized from the carbon anode and a carbonaceous residue to be deposited on the carbon cathode. Inert gas is pumped into the gap to flush out oxygen, thereby preventing interference with the vaporization of carbon from the anode and preventing oxidation of the carbonaceous residue being deposited on the cathode. The anode and cathode are cooled while electric current is being supplied thereto. When the supply of electric current is terminated, the carbonaceous residue is removed from the cathode and is purified to yield carbon nanotubes.

  15. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  16. Electronic properties of carbon nanotube structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maarouf, Ahmed Abdel-Hameed

    An individual single-wall carbon nanotube has a periodic structure. Despite that, and because nanotubes can have different chiralities, systems of nanotubes can be highly non-periodic. This implies some difficulty in studying the electronic properties of nanotube structures. In this thesis, three nanotube systems are studied. The first problem presented in this thesis is that of a compositionally disordered nanotube rope. Using a tight binding approach, we derive a tunneling matrix element that couples low-energy electronic states of carbon nanotubes. The matrix element Dependence on chiral angles and intratube crystal momenta is explicitly shown. We find that conservation of crystal momentum along the tube direction suppresses interwall coherence in a carbon nanorope containing tubes with random chiralities. Numerical calculations are presented which indicate that electronic states in a rope are localized in the transverse direction with a coherence length corresponding to a tube diameter. The second problem we study is that of a junction made of two crossed metallic nanotubes of general chiralities. We derive a tunneling matrix element that couples low-energy states on the two tubes, allowing us to calculate the contact conductance of the junction. We systematic study the dependence of the junction conductance on different junction parameters, and find that the crossing angle has the dominant effect on the conductance magnitude. Furthermore, and because of the intrinsic asymmetries of the junction, forward and backward hopping probabilities from one nanotube to another are different. As a result, passing a current in one tube leads to a finite voltage drop across the other, thereby ascribing a zero-field Hall-like resistance to the junction. We find that this Hall resistance and the contact resistance of the junction are simply related. Our third problem is aimed at understanding the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) energy-resolved images of finite chiral metallic nanotubes. The STM technique is a powerful one, as it allows for the study of the electronic and structural properties of carbon nanotubes. Of recent interest is the STM imaging of discrete states of finite metallic nanotubes. In order to understand such images, we consider two effects. The first is that the reflection at the ends of the nanotube mixes the two nanotube bands in a non-universal way, yielding two families of eigenstates. The second effect is that of the STM tip. Images of the wavefunctions can be dramatically changed by the STM tip. We show that by analyzing the STM images of the two families of states, one can extract the tip effects and obtain information about the wavefunctions of the two families.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Based Microfluidic Elements for Filtration and Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Bakajin, O; Ben-Barak, N; Peng, J; Noy, A

    2003-06-25

    We have developed a method for integration of patterned arrays of carbon nanotubes or the ''nanotube mesh'' into microfabricated channels. The method includes standard lithographic methods for patterning and etching the substrate, followed by catalyst patterning, CVD deposition of nanotubes, and anodic bonding of coverslip top. We will describe a carbon nanotube filtering device fabricated using this method and discuss the use of carbon nanotube arrays as molecular concentration and separation media.

  18. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  19. Mechanical instabilities in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Hsao W.

    2007-12-01

    We managed to observe consistent negative stiffness when multi -- walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and multi -- walled carbon nanofibers (MWCNFs) were axially compressed. Negative stiffness is a form of mechanical instability and when constrained, offers novel and enhanced viscoelastic properties to a system or composite. Lakes et al. showed that if composites comprise of a small percentage of negative stiffness inclusions, the overall viscoelastic damping increases dramatically under torsion. Most recently, they also showed that the viscoelastic or dynamic modulus of composites with negative stiffness inclusions exceeded that of diamond on several occasions. We postulate that the observed negative stiffness in MWCNT/MWCNFs is a result of shell buckling. This is based upon the observation that the experimentally determined axial critical buckling forces match well with predictions from elastic continuum models. These MWCNT/MWCNFs are compressed with an AFM probe. In a simplistic way, the AFM probe - MWCNT/F configuration could be viewed as a "composite". We then performed linear viscoelastic measurements on these "composites". It turned out that under cyclic axial compression, they exhibited enhanced viscoelastic damping too, not unlike what Lakes et al. observed on the larger scale.

  20. Superconducting diamagnetic fluctuations in ropes of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, M.; Ladieu, F.; Ocio, M.; Sacépé, B.; Vaugien, T.; Pichot, V.; Launois, P.; Bouchiat, H.

    2006-03-01

    We report low-temperature magnetization measurements on a large number of purified ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes. In spite of a superparamagnetic contribution due to the small ferromagnetic catalytical particles still present in the sample, at low temperature (T<0.5K) and low magnetic field (H<80Oe) , a diamagnetic signal is detectable with an amplitude equal to (1)/(3) of the total magnetization signal. This low-temperature diamagnetism can be interpreted as the Meissner effect in ropes of carbon nanotubes which have previously been shown to exhibit superconductivity from transport measurements [M. Kociak, A. Y. Kasumov, S. Guéron, B. Reulet, I. I. Khodos, Y. B. Gorbatov, V. T. Kolkov, L. Vaccarini, and H. Bouchiat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2416 (2001)]. Its amplitude corresponds to a field expulsion of the order 10-3 and is in agreement with simple expectations taking into account the intertube Josephson coupling.

  1. Synthesis and Application of Novel 3D Magnetic Chlorogenic Acid Imprinted Polymers Based on a Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Composite.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Yin, Yuli; Lv, Piaopiao; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Long, Fang

    2016-04-20

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) magnetic chlorogenic acid (CGA) imprinted polymer (MMIP) was prepared with novel carbon hybrid nanocomposite as the carrier, chlorogenic acid as the template molecule, and methacrylic acid as the functional monomer. The 3D MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer, and UV spectrometry in detail. The results showed that the imprinted layer was attached successfully on the surface of a 3D magnetic carbon hybrid nanocomposite. The adsorption performance of the 3D MMIPs was investigated, and the results showed that the 3D MMIPs exhibited high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate toward CGA with a maximum adsorption capacity of 10.88 mg g(-1). The extraction conditions involving washing solvent, the pH of eluent solvent, elution volume, and desorption time were also investigated in detail. Combined with high-performance liquid chromatography, the 3D MMIPs have been applied to successfully extract CGA from Eucommia leaf extract samples. PMID:27049929

  2. Application of Laplace Transform for the Exact Effect of a Magnetic Field on Heat Transfer of Carbon Nanotubes-Suspended Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebaid, Abdelhalim; Al Sharif, Mohammed A.

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), there is an increasing interest in their applications in industry and medical fields. Attempts of using such CNTs as drug carriers and in cancer therapy in the presence of a magnetic field are now undertaken because of their direct impacts on increasing the thermal conductivity of base fluids. Two types of CNTs are well known for the researchers, the single-walled CNT (SWCNTs) and the multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs); however, the subject of which one is more effective in treatment of cancer deserves more investigations. The present article discusses the effect of such types of CNTs on the flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in the presence of a magnetic field. Exact analytical solution for the heat equation has been obtained by using the Laplace transform, where the solution is expressed in terms of a new special function, the generalised incomplete gamma function. The effects of various parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, and heat transfer rates have been introduced. Details of possible applications of the current results in the treatment of cancer have been also discussed.

  3. Solid phase extraction of amoxicillin using dibenzo-18-crown-6 modified magnetic-multiwalled carbon nanotubes prior to its spectrophotometric determination.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mazaher; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas

    2016-02-01

    This work reports on a method for selective extraction and sensitive determination of amoxicillin drug (AMX). The method is based on solid phase extraction of AMX by a novel modified magnetic nanoadsorbent prior to spectrophotometric determination of AMX using a procedure based on formation a colored azo-derivative of the investigated drug. The nanoadsorbent has been synthesized by modification of magnetic-multiwalled carbon nanotube with dibenzo-18-crown-6 moieties. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using TEM, XRD and FT-IR measurements. At the next step, various factors that could potentially affect adsorption and desorption efficiencies of AMX, have been optimized. The results showed that under the optimized conditions, sensitive and selective determination of the investigated drug in concentration range of 5.0-1000.0ngmL(-1) with the limit of detection of 3.0ngmL(-1) was achievable. Furthermore, the real sample analysis (i.e. amoxicillin capsules and human urine samples) results indicated that a reliable promising candidate method has been developed for the determination of AMX in the investigated real samples. PMID:26653432

  4. Synthesis and application of novel ion-imprinted polymer coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for selective solid phase extraction of lead(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Fayazi, Maryam; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Afzali, Daryoush; Mostafavi, Ali; Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    In this study, novel magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (MIIP) nanoparticles were utilized for the sensitive and selective detection of Pb(II) ions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The Pb(II)-imprinted polymer was synthesized by using 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,3,5,6-tetra(2-pyridyl) pyrazine (TPPZ) as the chelating agent and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MMWCNTs) as the carrier. The synthesized MIIP materials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Various analytical parameters such as extraction and desorption time, eluent type and concentration, pH and sample volume were systematically examined. The selectivity of MIIP sorbent for Pb(II) ions in the presence of some cations was also evaluated. The limit of detection (LOD, 3S(b)) and the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=8, c=25 ng L(-1)) were found to be 2.4 ng L(-1) and 5.6%, respectively. The maximum sorption capacity of the MIIP for Pb(II) was found to be 48.1 mg g(-1). Finally, the proposed analytical procedure was successfully applied to monitoring lead in human hair and water samples with satisfactory results for the spiked samples. PMID:26706542

  5. Microwave characteristics of nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, S.; Babaei, Sh

    2009-04-01

    Absorption, reflection and transmission of microwaves (MWs) from nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes immersed by an ambient uniform magnetic field of various strengths are studied in this paper. The effects of the hydrogen parameters and the magnetic field strength on the absorbed, reflected and transmitted powers are discussed. The hydrogen slab is modelled by a series of uniform hydrogen subslabs. The calculation results show that the effects of the magnetic field strength and the density gradient on the absorbed power, as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption, are significant. Broadband absorption of MWs can be achieved by changing the magnetic field strength and hydrogen density.

  6. Modeling of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, G.; Kumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet stringent environmental, safety and performance requirements from respective regulatory bodies, various technology-based industries are promoting the use of advanced carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced lightweight and high strength polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) as a substitute to conventional materials both in structural and non-structural applications. The superior mechanical properties of PNCs made up of CNTs or bundles of CNTs can be attributed to the interfacial interaction between the CNTs and matrix, CNT's morphologies and to their uniform dispersion in the matrix. In PNCs, CNTs physically bond with polymeric matrix at a level where the assumption of continuum level interactions is not applicable. Modeling and prediction of mechanical response and failure behavior of CNTs and their composites becomes a complex task and is dealt with the help of up-scale modeling strategies involving multiple spatial and temporal scales in hierarchical or concurrent manner. Firstly, the article offers an insight into various modeling techniques in studying the mechanical response of CNTs; namely, equivalent continuum approach, quasi-continuum approach and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In the subsequent steps, these approaches are combined with analytical and numerical micromechanics models in a multiscale framework to predict the average macroscopic response of PNCs. The review also discusses the implementation aspects of these computational approaches, their current status and associated challenges with a future outlook.

  7. Carbon nanotube biocompatibility with cardiac muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, Silvano; Brunelli, Claudio; Bavastrello, Valter; Ghigliotti, Giorgio; Nicolini, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    Purified carbon nanotubes are new carbon allotropes, sharing similarities with graphite, that have recently been proposed for their potential use with biological systems as probes for in vitro research and for diagnostic and clinical purposes. However the biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes with cells represents an important problem that, so far, remains largely uninvestigated. The objective of this in vitro study is to explore the cytocompatibility properties of purified carbon nanofibres with cardiomyocytes. Cardiac muscle cells from a rat heart cell line H9c2 (2-1) have been used. Highly purified single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) were suspended at the concentration of 0.2 mg ml-1 by ultrasound in complete Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, and administered to cells to evaluate cell proliferation and shape changes by light microscopy, cell viability by trypan blue exclusion, and apoptosis, determined flow cytometrically by annexin/PI staining. Microscopic observation evidenced that carbon nanotubes bind to the cell membrane, causing a slight modification in cell shape and in cell count only after three days of treatment. Cell viability was not affected by carbon nanotubes in the first three days of culture, while after this time, cell death was slightly higher in nanotube-treated cells (p = ns). Accordingly, nanotube treatment induced little and non-significant change in the apoptotic cell number at day 1 and 3. The effect of nanotubes bound to cells was tested by reseeding treated cardiomyocytes. Cells from a trypsinized nanotube-treated sample showed a limited ability to proliferate, and a definite difference in shape, with a high degree of cell death: compared to reseeded untreated ones, in SWNT-treated samples the annexin-positive/PI-negative cells increased from 2.9% to 9.3% in SWNT (p<0.05, where p<0.05 defines a statistically significant difference with a probability above 95%), and the annexin-positive/PI-positive cells increased from 5.2% to 18.7% (p<0.05). However, overtime cells from a trypsinized nanotube-treated sample continued to grow, and partially recovered the original shape. In conclusion our results demonstrate that highly purified carbon nanotubes possess no evident short-term toxicity and can be considered biocompatible with cardiomyocytes in culture, while the long-term negative effects, that are evidenced after reseeding, are probably due to physical rather than chemical interactions.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Templated Microfabrication of Porous Silicon-Carbon Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun; Jensen, David; Dadson, Andrew; Vail, Michael; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Carbon nanotube templated microfabrication (CNT-M) of porous materials is demonstrated. Partial chemical infiltration of three dimensional carbon nanotube structures with silicon resulted in a mechanically robust material, precisely structured from the 10 nm scale to the 100 micron scale. Nanoscale dimensions are determined by the diameter and spacing of the resulting silicon/carbon nanotubes while the microscale dimensions are controlled by lithographic patterning of the CNT growth catalyst. We demonstrate the utility of this hierarchical structuring approach by using CNT-M to fabricate thin layer chromatography (TLC) separations media with precise microscale channels for fluid flow control and nanoscale porosity for high analyte capacity.

  9. The diffusion of carbon atoms inside carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yanjie; Kotakoski, J.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Nordlund, K.; Banhart, F.

    2008-02-01

    We combine electron irradiation experiments in a transmission electron microscope with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to determine the mobility of interstitial carbon atoms in single-walled carbon nanotubes. We measure the irradiation dose necessary to cut nanotubes repeatedly with a focused electron beam as a function of the separation between the cuts and at different temperatures. As the cutting speed is related to the migration of displaced carbon atoms trapped inside the tube and to their recombination with vacancies, we obtain information about the mobility of the trapped atoms and estimate their migration barrier to be about 0.25 eV. This is an experimental confirmation of the remarkably high mobility of interstitial atoms inside carbon nanotubes, which shows that nanotubes have potential applications as pipelines for the transport of carbon atoms.

  10. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  11. 75 FR 56880 - Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes; Significant New Use Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 721 RIN 2070-AB27 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Single-Walled Carbon...). The two chemical substances are identified generically as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (PMN P-08-177) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) (PMN P-08-328). This action requires persons...

  12. Selective Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Khare, Bishun

    2010-01-01

    An alternative method of low-temperature plasma functionalization of carbon nanotubes provides for the simultaneous attachment of molecular groups of multiple (typically two or three) different species or different mixtures of species to carbon nanotubes at different locations within the same apparatus. This method is based on similar principles, and involves the use of mostly the same basic apparatus, as those of the methods described in "Low-Temperature Plasma Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes" (ARC-14661-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 45. The figure schematically depicts the basic apparatus used in the aforementioned method, with emphasis on features that distinguish the present alternative method from the other. In this method, one exploits the fact that the composition of the deposition plasma changes as the plasma flows from its source in the precursor chamber toward the nanotubes in the target chamber. As a result, carbon nanotubes mounted in the target chamber at different flow distances (d1, d2, d3 . . .) from the precursor chamber become functionalized with different species or different mixtures of species. In one series of experiments to demonstrate this method, N2 was used as the precursor gas. After the functionalization process, the carbon nanotubes from three different positions in the target chamber were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the molecular groups that had become attached. On carbon nanotubes from d1 = 1 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-N and C=N. On carbon nanotubes from d2 = 2.5 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-(NH)2 and/or C=NH2. (The H2 was believed to originate as residual hydrogen present in the nanotubes.) On carbon nanotubes from d3 = 7 cm no functionalization could be detected - perhaps, it was conjectured, because this distance is downstream of the plasma source, all of the free ions and free radicals of the plasma had recombined into molecules.

  13. A carbon nanotube wall membrane for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeongho; Baek, Youngbin; Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong; Lee, Hong H.; Yoon, Jeyong; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2015-05-01

    Various forms of carbon nanotubes have been utilized in water treatment applications. The unique characteristics of carbon nanotubes, however, have not been fully exploited for such applications. Here we exploit the characteristics and corresponding attributes of carbon nanotubes to develop a millimetre-thick ultrafiltration membrane that can provide a water permeability that approaches 30,000 l m-2 h-1 bar-1, compared with the best water permeability of 2,400 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 reported for carbon nanotube membranes. The developed membrane consists only of vertically aligned carbon nanotube walls that provide 6-nm-wide inner pores and 7-nm-wide outer pores that form between the walls of the carbon nanotubes when the carbon nanotube forest is densified. The experimental results reveal that the permeance increases as the pore size decreases. The carbon nanotube walls of the membrane are observed to impede bacterial adhesion and resist biofilm formation.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymers for Radiation Shielding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibeault, S. (Technical Monitor); Vaidyanathan, Ranji

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the use of Extrusion Freeform Fabrication (EEF) for the fabrication of carbon nanotubes. The presentation addresses TGA analysis, Raman spectroscopy, radiation tests, and mechanical properties of the carbon nanotubes.

  15. Methods for Gas Sensing with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.

  16. A carbon nanotube wall membrane for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeongho; Baek, Youngbin; Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong; Lee, Hong H; Yoon, Jeyong; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2015-01-01

    Various forms of carbon nanotubes have been utilized in water treatment applications. The unique characteristics of carbon nanotubes, however, have not been fully exploited for such applications. Here we exploit the characteristics and corresponding attributes of carbon nanotubes to develop a millimetre-thick ultrafiltration membrane that can provide a water permeability that approaches 30,000 l m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1), compared with the best water permeability of 2,400 l m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1) reported for carbon nanotube membranes. The developed membrane consists only of vertically aligned carbon nanotube walls that provide 6-nm-wide inner pores and 7-nm-wide outer pores that form between the walls of the carbon nanotubes when the carbon nanotube forest is densified. The experimental results reveal that the permeance increases as the pore size decreases. The carbon nanotube walls of the membrane are observed to impede bacterial adhesion and resist biofilm formation. PMID:25971895

  17. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  18. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  19. Biocompatibility of immobilized aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, David A X; Williams, Richard A; Chen, Jun; Magee, Kylie A; Irwin, Jennifer; Tan, Justin; Innis, Peter; Leung, Ronald T; Finch, Sue; Williams, Chris E; Clark, Graeme M; Wallace, Gordon G

    2011-04-18

    In vivo host responses to an electrode-like array of aligned carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) embedded within a biopolymer sheet are reported. This biocompatibility study assesses the suitability of immobilized carbon nanotubes for bionic devices. Inflammatory responses and foreign-body histiocytic reactions are not substantially elevated when compared to negative controls following 12 weeks implantation. A fibrous capsule isolates the implanted ACNTs from the surrounding muscle tissue. Filamentous nanotube fragments are engulfed by macrophages, and globular debris is incorporated into the fibrous capsule with no further reaction. Scattered leukocytes are observed, adherent to the ACNT surface. These data indicate that there is a minimal local foreign-body response to immobilized ACNTs, that detached fragments are phagocytosed into an inert material, and that ACNTs do not attract high levels of surface fouling. Collectively, these results suggest that immobilized nanotube structures should be considered for further investigation as bionic components. PMID:21374804

  20. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes by water plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S.; Amade, R.; Jover, E.; Bertran, E.

    2012-09-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were functionalized by H2O plasma treatment. Through a controlled functionalization process of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) we were able to modify and tune their chemical reactivity, expanding the range of potential applications in the field of energy and environment. In particular, different oxygen groups were attached to the surfaces of the nanotubes (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl), which changed their physicochemical properties. In order to optimize the main operational parameters of the H2O plasma treatment, pressure and power, a Box-Wilson experimental design was adopted. Analysis of the morphology, electrochemical properties and functional groups attached to the surfaces of the CNTs allowed us to determine which treatment conditions were suitable for different applications. After water plasma treatment the specific capacitance of the nanotubes increased from 23 up to 68 F g-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1.

  1. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes by water plasma.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Amade, R; Jover, E; Bertran, E

    2012-09-28

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were functionalized by H(2)O plasma treatment. Through a controlled functionalization process of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) we were able to modify and tune their chemical reactivity, expanding the range of potential applications in the field of energy and environment. In particular, different oxygen groups were attached to the surfaces of the nanotubes (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl), which changed their physicochemical properties. In order to optimize the main operational parameters of the H(2)O plasma treatment, pressure and power, a Box-Wilson experimental design was adopted. Analysis of the morphology, electrochemical properties and functional groups attached to the surfaces of the CNTs allowed us to determine which treatment conditions were suitable for different applications. After water plasma treatment the specific capacitance of the nanotubes increased from 23 up to 68 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1). PMID:22947598

  2. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barna, Barbara P.; Judson, Marc A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis. PMID:25525507

  3. Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Steini Moura, Cassio; Balzaretti, Naira Maria; Amaral, Livio; Gribel Lacerda, Rodrigo; Pimenta, Marcos A.

    2012-03-15

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

  4. Electromagnetic SERS effect in carbon nanotube systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, I. V.; Gulyuk, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Quantum electrodynamics theory of the resonance Raman scattering is developed for an atom in a close proximity to a carbon nanotube. The theory describes both weak and strong atomic coupling to nanotube plasmon near fields, and predicts a dramatic enhancement of the Raman intensity in the strong coupling regime. This resonance scattering is a manifestation of the surface enhanced Raman scattering effect, and can be used in designing efficient nanotube based optical sensing substrates for single atom detection, precision spontaneous emission control, and manipulation.

  5. Fluorination of carbon nanotubes with xenon difluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, E.; Liebau, M.; Duesberg, G. S.; Graham, A. P.; Kreupl, F.; Seidel, R.; Hoenlein, W.

    2004-11-01

    The reaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with xenon difluoride has been studied and compared with the results from experiments with elemental fluorine. A low level fluorination of MWCNTs was achieved at ambient temperature under the influence of light. The outer shells of the nanotubes were converted into a fluorine containing coating that did not significantly affect the electrical conductivity. Fluorination with xenon difluoride was found to be partly irreversible, contrary to previous findings.

  6. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    PubMed

    Bell, Robert A; Payne, Michael C; Mostofi, Arash A

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 Å, highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10(-4) e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells. PMID:25362328

  7. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, Ahmed; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C.; Heimbeck, Martin S.; Everitt, Henry O.; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro

    2016-04-01

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ˜-30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2-1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  8. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  9. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C.; Mostofi, Arash A.

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 Å, highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup −4} e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  10. Electron-ion quantum plasma excitations in single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Afshin

    2009-01-28

    The effect of a uniform static external magnetic field in the Voigt configuration on electron-ion quantum plasma oscillations in single-walled carbon nanotubes is discussed using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic model in conjunction with Maxwell's equations. Transverse magnetic waves which propagate parallel to the surface of the nanotubes, in the presence of an external magnetic field, yield a spectrum containing a quantum magnetosonic branch in addition to the magnetoplasmon branch. PMID:21715799

  11. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, S.; Al-Marzouki, F.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Daiem, A.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc. For commercial applications, large quantities and high purity of carbon nanotubes are needed. Different types of carbon nanotubes can be synthesized in various ways. The most common techniques currently practiced are arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition and flame synthesis. The purification of CNTs is carried out using various techniques mainly oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering chemical functionalization, etc. However, high-purity purification techniques still have to be developed. Real applications are still under development. This paper addresses the current research on the challenges that are associated with synthesis methods, purification methods, and dispersion and toxicity of CNTs within the scope of different engineering applications, energy, and environmental impact.

  12. Modeling and simulation of carbon nanotube interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkash, Vidur

    It has been long predicted that as semiconductor processes scale down in accordance with Moore's Law, integrated circuits will soon hit a performance roadblock due to the several issues of manufacturability and material properties of traditional interconnect wiring. The biggest bottleneck in current generation semiconductors are the problems in IC power dissipation and the huge slowdown seen in the interconnect network. It is possible to work around this problem though the use of nanoscale circuitry which would not only reduce the average distance a signal has to travel on a chip but also allow for an unparalleled scale of systems integration into a single chip. This may be possible though the use of molecular interconnect networks such as carbon nanotubes. In recent times carbon nanotubes have emerged as an exciting new material that holds a lot of promise to shape tomorrow's microelectronics. In our research we have endeavored to evaluate the suitability of carbon nanotubes as a candidate for the interconnect material on a chip. We have calibrated RF models for different carbon nanotube morphologies based on the Tomonaga Luttinger theory. Through a combination of ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations and custom developed transport simulation software based on Non Equilibrium Green's Functions, we have been able to reduce arbitrary carbon nanotube microstrip lines to an equivalent R,L,C network. These parameters were then used to simulate signal propagation using a Fourier Space transmission line equation solver.

  13. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, S; Al-Marzouki, F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Abdel-Daiem, A

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc. For commercial applications, large quantities and high purity of carbon nanotubes are needed. Different types of carbon nanotubes can be synthesized in various ways. The most common techniques currently practiced are arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition and flame synthesis. The purification of CNTs is carried out using various techniques mainly oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering chemical functionalization, etc. However, high-purity purification techniques still have to be developed. Real applications are still under development. This paper addresses the current research on the challenges that are associated with synthesis methods, purification methods, and dispersion and toxicity of CNTs within the scope of different engineering applications, energy, and environmental impact. PMID:26377211

  14. Measurement Challenges for Carbon Nanotube Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pasha; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    The advances in large scale applications of carbon nanotubes demand a reliable supply of raw and processed materials. It is imperative to have a consistent quality control of these nanomaterials to distinguish material inconsistency from the modifications induced by processing of nanotubes for any application. NASA Johnson Space Center realized this need five years back and started a program to standardize the characterization methods. The JSC team conducted two workshops (2003 and 2005) in collaboration with NIST focusing on purity and dispersion measurement issues of carbon nanotubes [1]. In 2004, the NASA-JSC protocol was developed by combining analytical techniques of SEM, TEM, UV-VIS-NIR absorption, Raman, and TGA [2]. This protocol is routinely used by several researchers across the world as a first step in characterizing raw and purified carbon nanotubes. A suggested practice guide consisting of detailed chapters on TGA, Raman, electron microscopy and NIR absorption is in the final stages and is undergoing revisions with input from the nanotube community [3]. The possible addition of other techniques such as XPS, and ICP to the existing protocol will be presented. Recent activities at ANSI and ISO towards implementing these protocols as nanotube characterization standards will be discussed.

  15. Bulk Cutting of Carbon Nanotubes Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, Kirk J. (Inventor); Rauwald, Urs (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Schmidt, Howard K. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Gu, Zhenning (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for attaining short carbon nanotubes utilizing electron beam irradiation, for example, of a carbon nanotube sample. The sample may be pretreated, for example by oxonation. The pretreatment may introduce defects to the sidewalls of the nanotubes. The method is shown to produces nanotubes with a distribution of lengths, with the majority of lengths shorter than 100 tun. Further, the median length of the nanotubes is between about 20 nm and about 100 nm.

  16. A comparative study on the lithium-ion storage performances of carbon nanotubes and tube-in-tube carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi-Jun; Liu, Xi; Cui, Guanglei; Zhu, Bo; Weinberg, Gisela; Schlögl, Robert; Maier, Joachim; Su, Dang Sheng

    2010-03-22

    A comparative study of the electrochemical performances of carbon nanotubes and tube-in-tube carbon nanotubes reveals a dependence effect of lithium-ion storage behavior on the detailed nanostructure of carbon nanotubes. In particular, the impurity that graphitic particles or graphene fragments inherently present in carbon nanotubes plays a crucial role in the lithium-ion storage capacity of the carbon nanotubes. Compared to acid-washed carbon nanotubes, the assembly of graphitic impurity fragments in the tube-in-tube structures hinders lithium-ion diffusion, thus drastically decreasing the rate performance of lithium-ion storage. Significantly, our results indicate that the lithium-ion storage capacity of carbon nanotubes as anode electrodes can be improved or controlled by optimizing the microstructure composition of impurity graphitic nanoparticles or graphene fragments in the matrix of the carbon nanotubes. PMID:20029929

  17. Composition, Electronic and Magnetic Investigation of the Encapsulated ZnFe2O 4 Nanoparticles in Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Containing Ni Residuals.

    PubMed

    Al Khabouri, Saja; Al Harthi, Salim; Maekawa, Toru; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Elzain, Mohamed E; Al Hinai, Ashraf; Al-Rawas, A D; Gismelseed, A M; Yousif, Ali A

    2015-12-01

    We report investigation on properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (mCNTs) containing Ni residuals before and after encapsulation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles. The pristine tubes exhibit metallic character with a 0.3 eV reduction in the work function along with ferromagnetic behavior which is attributed to the Ni residuals incorporated during the preparation of tubes. Upon encapsulation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles, 0.5 eV shift in Fermi level position and a reduction in both the π band density of state along with a change in the hybridized sp(2)/sp(3) ratio of the tubes from 2.04 to 1.39 are observed. As a result of the encapsulation, enhancement in the σ bands density of state and coating of the zinc ferrite nanoparticles by the internal layers of the CNTs in the direction along the tube axis is observed. Furthermore, Ni impurities inside the tubes are attracted to the encapsulated zinc ferrite nanoparticles, suggesting the possibility of using these particles as purifying agents for CNTs upon being synthesized using magnetic catalyst particles. Charge transfer from Ni/mCNTs to the ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles is evident via reduction of the density of states near the Fermi level and a 0.3 eV shift in the binding energy of C 1 s core level ionization. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that encapsulated zinc ferrite nanoparticles in mCNTs resulted in two interacting sub-systems featured by distinct blocking temperatures and enhanced magnetic properties; i.e., large coercivity of 501 Oe and saturation magnetization of 2.5 emu/g at 4 K. PMID:26068078

  18. Composition, Electronic and Magnetic Investigation of the Encapsulated ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles in Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Containing Ni Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Khabouri, Saja; Al Harthi, Salim; Maekawa, Toru; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Elzain, Mohamed E.; Al Hinai, Ashraf; Al-Rawas, AD; Gismelseed, AM; Yousif, Ali A.

    2015-06-01

    We report investigation on properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (mCNTs) containing Ni residuals before and after encapsulation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles. The pristine tubes exhibit metallic character with a 0.3 eV reduction in the work function along with ferromagnetic behavior which is attributed to the Ni residuals incorporated during the preparation of tubes. Upon encapsulation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles, 0.5 eV shift in Fermi level position and a reduction in both the π band density of state along with a change in the hybridized sp2/sp3 ratio of the tubes from 2.04 to 1.39 are observed. As a result of the encapsulation, enhancement in the σ bands density of state and coating of the zinc ferrite nanoparticles by the internal layers of the CNTs in the direction along the tube axis is observed. Furthermore, Ni impurities inside the tubes are attracted to the encapsulated zinc ferrite nanoparticles, suggesting the possibility of using these particles as purifying agents for CNTs upon being synthesized using magnetic catalyst particles. Charge transfer from Ni/mCNTs to the ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles is evident via reduction of the density of states near the Fermi level and a 0.3 eV shift in the binding energy of C 1 s core level ionization. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that encapsulated zinc ferrite nanoparticles in mCNTs resulted in two interacting sub-systems featured by distinct blocking temperatures and enhanced magnetic properties; i.e., large coercivity of 501 Oe and saturation magnetization of 2.5 emu/g at 4 K.

  19. Mechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and their Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Cho, K. J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Tang, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the folloving: carbon nanotube (CNT): structures, application of carbon nanotubes, simulation method, Elastic properties of carbon nanotubes, yield strain of CNT, yielding under tensile stress, yielding: strain-rate and temperature dependence, yield strain under tension, yielding at realistic conditions, nano fibers, polymer CNT composite, force field, density dependency on temperature, diffusion coefficients, young modulus, and conclusions.

  20. Carbon nanotube suspensions, dispersions, & composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Trevor John

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are amazing structures that hold the potential to revolutionize many areas of scientific research. CNTs can be behave both as semiconductors and metals, can be grown in highly ordered arrays and patterns or in random orientation, and can be comprised of one graphene cylinder (single wall nanotube, SWNT) or several concentric graphene cylinders (multi-wall nanotube, MWNT). Although these structures are usually only a few nanometers wide, they can be grown up to centimeter lengths, and in massive quantities. CNTs can be produced in a variety of processes ranging from repeated combustion of organic material such as dried grass, arc-discharge with graphite electrodes, laser ablation of a graphitic target, to sophisticated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. CNTs are stronger than steel but lighter than aluminum, and can be more conductive than copper or semiconducting like silicon. This variety of properties has been matched by the wide variety of applications that have been developed for CNTs. Many of these applications have been limited by the inability of researchers to tame these structures, and incorporating CNTs into existing technologies can be exceedingly difficult and prohibitively expensive. It is therefore the aim of the current study to develop strategies for the solution processing and deposition of CNTs and CNT-composites, which will enable the use of CNTs in existing and emerging technologies. CNTs are not easily suspended in polar solvents and are extremely hydrophobic materials, which has limited much of the solution processing to organic solvents, which also cannot afford high quality dispersions of CNTs. The current study has developed a variety of aqueous CNT solutions that employ surfactants, water-soluble polymers, or both to create suspensions of CNTs. These CNT 'ink' solutions were deposited with a variety of techniques that have afforded many interesting structures, both randomly oriented as well as highly ordered CNT architectures, and electroactive devices such as sensors were subsequently produced from these materials. The aqueous solutions developed contain some of the longest CNTs to be suspended in water, which have many benefits for electronic and mechanical properties of the resultant composite materials. A non-covalent alternative to standard oxidative acid treatment was developed that has an equal ability to suspend CNTs in various solvents, but does not damage the CNT structure like the covalent functionalization with acids. This strategy has the potential to supplant a widely used method with improved CNT properties, faster and safer processing, and reduced environmental impact of waste materials. The results of this work also suggest that the conductivity of the CNTs may actually be improved by the processing, maximizing the utility if these materials. Electroactive devices have been successfully developed that exploit the unique electrical and physical properties of CNTs. Sensitive moisture sensors, which can possibly out-perform existing part per million sensors, have been developed with CNT inks and alumina nanoparticles. These sensor materials can be easily deposited on a wide variety of substrate materials and have an increased resistance to fouling compared to mesoporous sensors currently available. Electric double-layer supercapacitors based on novel cellulose-CNT composites have also been developed, and have commercially viable capacitance values, which make them a competitive technology with applications such as cell phones, computers, hand-held electronics, and possibly even electric automobiles. These supercapacitors employ less hazardous materials than competing technologies, and the ease of production of these devices could enable large-scale production of these materials.

  1. Fast determination of catecholamines in human plasma using carboxyl-functionalized magnetic-carbon nanotube molecularly imprinted polymer followed by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Bo; Qiu, Hai-Wen; Rui, Qiu-Hong; Liao, Yu-Feng; Chen, Yan-Min; Xu, Jin; Zhan, Ping-Ping; Zhao, Yong-Gang

    2016-01-15

    A novel, simple and sensitive method based on the use of dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (d-μ-SPE) procedure combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the determination of catecholamines, i.e., dopamine (DA), norepinephrine(NE) and epinephrine (E), was developed and validated. The novel catecholamines molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) on the surface of carboxyl-functionalized magnetic-carbon nanotube (CF@m-CNTs-MIP) was synthesized and characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The CF@m-CNTs-MIP was used as the d-μ-SPE sorbent to extract catecholamines from human plasma samples. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of CF@m-CNTs-MIP with recoveries between 87.5-110%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for NE, E and DA were 76ng/L, 18ng/L and 10ng/L, respectively. Validation results on linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision and stability, as well as on application to the analysis of catecholamines in 120 healthy volunteers demonstrated the applicability to clinical studies. PMID:26718182

  2. Rapid and effective sample clean-up based on magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaojuan; Guo, Qianjin; Chen, Xiaoping; Xue, Tao; Wang, Hui; Yao, Pei

    2014-02-15

    In this work, amine-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MNPs/MWCNTs) composites were synthesised by a simple method and applied as an adsorbent for rapid clean-up of acetonitrile extracts of tea samples prior to analysing eight pesticide residues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several parameters affecting the sampling and treatment efficiency were investigated, including extraction solvent, sonication time, weight ratio of MWCNTs to MNPs in the composites, amount of adsorbent, clean-up time and washing solution. Under the optimised conditions, the recoveries obtained for each pesticide ranged from 72.5% to 109.1% with relative standard deviations lower than 12.6%. Limit of quantification ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg kg⁻¹. The established method was successfully applied to the analysis of pesticide residues in real tea samples. The results indicated that the use of MNPs/MWCNTs composites allowed the simple and expeditious clean-up of complex tea samples for subsequent determination of pesticide residues. PMID:24128556

  3. Modified Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes with Nanolumps for Nanocomposite Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J. G.; Lao, J. Y.; Li, W. Z.; Ren, Z. F.; Department Of Physics Team

    2002-03-01

    The quality of the bonding between a polymer matrix and carbon nanotubes is critical in the development of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites. In this paper, we modified multiwall carbon nanotubes by growing boron carbide (a covalent bonding compound) nanolumps on carbon nanotubes to enhance load transfer from matrix to carbon nanotubes. Experimental results demonstrated that boron carbide nanolumps with the required morphology were formed on multiwall carbon nanotubes by a solid state reaction between boron and carbon nanotubes. The reaction is localized so that the integrity of the structure of carbon nanotubes is maintained. We also found that inner layers of multiwall carbon nanotubes are bonded to boron carbide nanolumps probably through covalent bonding. Therefore, these multiwall carbon nanotubes with boron carbide nanolumps are expected to be the ideal nano-scale reinforcement to improve load transfer between carbon nanotubes and the polymer matrix. For comparison, other nanolumps such as crystalline MgO, amorphous B2O3 are also grown on nanotubes.

  4. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases. A sensitivity index based on wave velocity shifts in a single-walled carbon nanotube, induced by surrounding gas atoms, is defined to explore the efficiency of the nano-sensor. The simulation results indicate that the nano-sensor is able to differentiate distinct noble gases at the same environmental temperature and pressure. The inertia and the strengthening effects by the gases on wave characteristics of carbon nanotubes are particularly discussed, and a continuum mechanics shell model is developed to interpret the effects.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Bolometer for Absolute FTIR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Solomon; Neira, Jorge; Tomlin, Nathan; Lehman, John

    We have developed and calibrated planar electrical-substitution bolometers which employ absorbers made from vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The nearly complete absorption of light by the carbon nanotubes from the visible range to the far-infrared can be exploited to enable a device with read-out in native units equivalent to optical power. Operated at cryogenic temperatures near 4 K, these infrared detectors are designed to have time constant near 10 ms and a noise floor of about 10 pW. Built upon a micro-machined silicon platform, each device has an integrated heater and thermometer, either a carbon nanotube thermistor or superconducting transition edge sensor, for temperature control. We are optimizing temperature-controlled measurement techniques to enable high resolution spectral calibrations using these devices with a Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  6. Nanocrystalline cobalt oxides for carbon nanotube growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kun; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2007-09-01

    Thin Films of nanocrystalline cobalt oxide were formed by sol-gel method. Structure, optical properties and surface properties of these films were investigated by numerous characterization techniques. These films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates below 500°C. . Micropatterns of cobalt oxide thin films were also fabricated on glass and silicon substrates by employing a lift-off method. Crystal size of these nanocrystalline cobalt films could be successfully controllable by varying the amount of cobalt precursors and number of layers. These films were used as the seeding layers for carbon nanotube growth in a CVD process By changing the concentration of monomer precursors in the solgel coating solutions, different size nanoclusters hence different size carbon nanotubes could be synthesized in CVD process. This method can be used for controlled growth of carbon nanotubes for many different applications. In this paper, detail of these experimental results will be presented.

  7. Modelling Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mediatorless Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Petrauskas, Karolis; Razumiene, Julija

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments): a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate. PMID:23012537

  8. A review on protein functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, Kathyayini; Reddy, Roopa; Reddy, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely recognized and used for controlled drug delivery and in various other fields due to their unique properties and distinct advantages. Both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwalled (MWCNTs) carbon nanotubes are used and/or studied for potential applications in medical, energy, textile, composite, and other areas. Since CNTs are chemically inert and are insoluble in water or other organic solvents, they are functionalized or modified to carry payloads or interact with biological molecules. CNTs have been preferably functionalized with proteins because CNTs are predominantly used for medical applications such as delivery of drugs, DNA and genes, and also for biosensing. Extensive studies have been conducted to understand the interactions, cytotoxicity, and potential applications of protein functionalized CNTs but contradicting results have been published on the cytotoxicity of the functionalized CNTs. This paper provides a brief review of CNTs functionalized with proteins, methods used to functionalize the CNTs, and their potential applications. PMID:26660626

  9. Orientational Growth of Carbon Nanotube for Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky, S.; Cui, Y.; Burger, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the superior properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) could improve numerous devices such as electronics and sensors, many efforts have been made in investigating the growth mechanism of MWCNT to synthesize high quality MWCNT. Most applications require uniform aligned CNT. In this presentation, a directional growth of CNT will be reported. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Temperature and pressure are two important growth parameters for fabricating carbon nanotubes. It is found that the nanotube diameter distribution mainly depends on the growth-temperature. With the substrate surface normal either along or against the gravity vector, different growth orientations of MWCNT are observed by scanning electron microscopy although the Raman spectra are similar for samples synthesized at different locations. The sizes of these carbon nanotubes in each sample are quite uniform and the length of the tube is up to several tens of micrometers. These results suggest the gravitation effects in the growth of long and small diameter CNT.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis Through Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirado, Pablo; Garcia, Rafael; Montes, Jorge; Melendrez, Rodrigo; Barboza, Marcelino; Contreras, Oscar

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes show a great potential of applications since there discovery by Iijima in 1991[1] due to their numerous physical-chemical properties such as their high weight to strength relationship, which make them ideal to use in high resistance compound materials, and in many other applications[2] In this work, a novel method for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes is presented, starting from an ultra-thin sheet of graphite synthesized by the chemical vapor decomposition technique (CVD), using ultra high purity methane and hydrogen at 1200°C in a horizontal quartz reactor. For the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, the graphite sheets were exposed to different doses of radiation, with the objective of breaking the graphite bonds and form carbon nanotubes; a Gammacell equipment model 220 Excel was used for the purpose, which counts with a radiation source of cobalt 60, and a current radiation rate of 0.9 Gy/seconds. The time of exposure to radiation was varied in each sample, according to the desired dose of radiation in each case, afterwards the samples were characterized using the Raman spectroscopy and TEM microscopy techniques with the objective of observing the kind of nanotubes formed, their morphology and their number of defects. Results will be shown during the poster session.

  11. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the the current carrying capacity of nanotube wires. Information is given on the motivation for the research, models and assumptions, Bragg reflection and Zener tunneling effects, and the influence of defects. Results show that dI/dv versus V does not increase in a manner commensurate with the increase in the number of subbands; in small diameter nanotubes, Zener tunneling is ineffective; Zener tunneling contributes to current with increase in nanotube diameter; and the increase in dI/dV with bias is much smaller than the increase in the number of subbands.

  12. Propagative Landau States and Fermi Level Pinning in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanot, Sébastien; Avriller, Rémi; Escoffier, Walter; Broto, Jean-Marc; Roche, Stephan; Raquet, Bertrand

    2009-12-01

    We present strong evidence of Landau states formation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes with metallic or semiconducting outer shells, under magnetic fields as high as 60 T. Magnetoconductance data are found to converge to a gate-independent value for semiconducting shells, whereas for metallic shells, the Landau states introduce a strong reintroduction of backscattering and Fermi level pinning close to the charge neutrality point. Electronic band structure and transport calculations provide a consistent interpretation of the experimental data.

  13. Macroscopic fibers and ribbons of oriented carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, B; Pénicaud, A; Coulon, C; Sauder, C; Pailler, R; Journet, C; Bernier, P; Poulin, P

    2000-11-17

    A simple method was used to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes into indefinitely long ribbons and fibers. The processing consists of dispersing the nanotubes in surfactant solutions, recondensing the nanotubes in the flow of a polymer solution to form a nanotube mesh, and then collating this mesh to a nanotube fiber. Flow-induced alignment may lead to a preferential orientation of the nanotubes in the mesh that has the form of a ribbon. Unlike classical carbon fibers, the nanotube fibers can be strongly bent without breaking. Their obtained elastic modulus is 10 times higher than the modulus of high-quality bucky paper. PMID:11082056

  14. DC Anhydrous Electrodeposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Masahito; Matsumoto, Takanori

    2008-03-01

    Electrodeposition is a versatile technique to fabricate carbon nanotube films on conducting substrates. Due to different responses of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes against electric field in solution, it can be used to discriminate nanotubes based on these types. Depending on whether the applied field is ac or dc, nanotubes are moved across electrodes by either dielectrophoresis or electrophoresis. In ordinary dc electrodeposition, water has been used as a solvent. We have found that, using organic solvents from which water is carefully removed, low dc fields electrodeposit nanotubes quite efficiently [1]. A millimeter thick film can be obtained within a minute with 15V/cm. Furthermore, the process is highly selective; the films are adhered so strongly that it requires scratching the substrate to remove, all nanotubes form thin straight bundles that lie parallel to the substrate, the films show no metallic Raman peaks and have 4 order of magnitude higher resistivity than the original sample [2]. A recent study shows that the electric field is not responsible for adhesion. Other than the first layer that is directly on the substrate surface, the van der Waals force dominates adhesion of nanotubes. [1] Y. Abe, R. Tomuro, M. Sano, Adv. Mater. 17, 2192 (2005). [2] R. Tomuro, T. Matsumoto, M. Sano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L578 (2006).

  15. Lipid nanoscaffolds in carbon nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukner, Catharina; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.; Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V.

    2013-09-01

    We present the fabrication of lipid nanoscaffolds inside carbon nanotube arrays by employing the nanostructural self-assembly of lipid molecules. The nanoscaffolds are finely tunable into model biomembrane-like architectures (planar), soft nanochannels (cylindrical) or 3-dimensionally ordered continuous bilayer structures (cubic). Carbon nanotube arrays hosting the above nanoscaffolds are formed by packing of highly oriented multiwalled carbon nanotubes which facilitate the alignment of lipid nanostructures without requiring an external force. Furthermore, the lipid nanoscaffolds can be created under both dry and hydrated conditions. We show their direct application in reconstitution of egg proteins. Such nanoscaffolds find enormous potential in bio- and nano-technological fields.We present the fabrication of lipid nanoscaffolds inside carbon nanotube arrays by employing the nanostructural self-assembly of lipid molecules. The nanoscaffolds are finely tunable into model biomembrane-like architectures (planar), soft nanochannels (cylindrical) or 3-dimensionally ordered continuous bilayer structures (cubic). Carbon nanotube arrays hosting the above nanoscaffolds are formed by packing of highly oriented multiwalled carbon nanotubes which facilitate the alignment of lipid nanostructures without requiring an external force. Furthermore, the lipid nanoscaffolds can be created under both dry and hydrated conditions. We show their direct application in reconstitution of egg proteins. Such nanoscaffolds find enormous potential in bio- and nano-technological fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data on the alignment of lipid nanostructures, control and time resolved 2-d images of egg ovalbumin encapsulation and a summary picture of the present work. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02068a

  16. Carbon nanotube-clamped metal atomic chain

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Yin, Li-Chang; Li, Feng; Liu, Chang; Yu, Wan-Jing; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Wu, Bo; Lee, Young-Hee; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Metal atomic chain (MAC) is an ultimate one-dimensional structure with unique physical properties, such as quantized conductance, colossal magnetic anisotropy, and quantized magnetoresistance. Therefore, MACs show great potential as possible components of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices. However, MACs are usually suspended between two macroscale metallic electrodes; hence obvious technical barriers exist in the interconnection and integration of MACs. Here we report a carbon nanotube (CNT)-clamped MAC, where CNTs play the roles of both nanoconnector and electrodes. This nanostructure is prepared by in situ machining a metal-filled CNT, including peeling off carbon shells by spatially and elementally selective electron beam irradiation and further elongating the exposed metal nanorod. The microstructure and formation process of this CNT-clamped MAC are explored by both transmission electron microscopy observations and theoretical simulations. First-principles calculations indicate that strong covalent bonds are formed between the CNT and MAC. The electrical transport property of the CNT-clamped MAC was experimentally measured, and quantized conductance was observed. PMID:20427743

  17. A carbon nanotube optical rectenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Asha; Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L.; Cola, Baratunde A.

    2015-12-01

    An optical rectenna—a device that directly converts free-propagating electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies to direct current—was first proposed over 40 years ago, yet this concept has not been demonstrated experimentally due to fabrication challenges at the nanoscale. Realizing an optical rectenna requires that an antenna be coupled to a diode that operates on the order of 1 PHz (switching speed on the order of 1 fs). Diodes operating at these frequencies are feasible if their capacitance is on the order of a few attofarads, but they remain extremely difficult to fabricate and to reliably couple to a nanoscale antenna. Here we demonstrate an optical rectenna by engineering metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes, with a junction capacitance of ˜2 aF, at the tip of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (˜10 nm in diameter), which act as the antenna. Upon irradiation with visible and infrared light, we measure a d.c. open-circuit voltage and a short-circuit current that appear to be due to a rectification process (we account for a very small but quantifiable contribution from thermal effects). In contrast to recent reports of photodetection based on hot electron decay in a plasmonic nanoscale antenna, a coherent optical antenna field appears to be rectified directly in our devices, consistent with rectenna theory. Finally, power rectification is observed under simulated solar illumination, and there is no detectable change in diode performance after numerous current-voltage scans between 5 and 77 °C, indicating a potential for robust operation.

  18. A carbon nanotube optical rectenna.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Asha; Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L; Cola, Baratunde A

    2015-12-01

    An optical rectenna--a device that directly converts free-propagating electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies to direct current--was first proposed over 40 years ago, yet this concept has not been demonstrated experimentally due to fabrication challenges at the nanoscale. Realizing an optical rectenna requires that an antenna be coupled to a diode that operates on the order of 1 PHz (switching speed on the order of 1 fs). Diodes operating at these frequencies are feasible if their capacitance is on the order of a few attofarads, but they remain extremely difficult to fabricate and to reliably couple to a nanoscale antenna. Here we demonstrate an optical rectenna by engineering metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes, with a junction capacitance of ∼2 aF, at the tip of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (∼10 nm in diameter), which act as the antenna. Upon irradiation with visible and infrared light, we measure a d.c. open-circuit voltage and a short-circuit current that appear to be due to a rectification process (we account for a very small but quantifiable contribution from thermal effects). In contrast to recent reports of photodetection based on hot electron decay in a plasmonic nanoscale antenna, a coherent optical antenna field appears to be rectified directly in our devices, consistent with rectenna theory. Finally, power rectification is observed under simulated solar illumination, and there is no detectable change in diode performance after numerous current-voltage scans between 5 and 77 °C, indicating a potential for robust operation. PMID:26414198

  19. Quantum oscillations and ferromagnetic hysteresis observed in iron filled multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Barzola-Quiquia, J; Klingner, N; Krüger, J; Molle, A; Esquinazi, P; Leonhardt, A; Martínez, M T

    2012-01-13

    We report on the electrical transport properties of single multiwall carbon nanotubes with and without an iron filling as a function of temperature and magnetic field. For the iron filled nanotubes the magnetoresistance shows a magnetic behavior induced by iron, which can be explained by taking into account a contribution of s-d hybridization. In particular, ferromagnetic-like hysteresis loops were observed up to 50 K for the iron filled multiwall carbon nanotubes. The magnetoresistance shows quantum interference phenomena such as universal conductance fluctuations and weak localization effects. PMID:22155967

  20. Gigahertz frequency flexible carbon nanotube transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimot, N.; Derycke, V.; Goffman, M. F.; Bourgoin, J. P.; Happy, H.; Dambrine, G.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the high frequency performances of flexible field-effect transistors based on carbon nanotubes. A large density of mostly aligned carbon nanotubes deposited on a flexible substrate by dielectrophoresis serves as the channel. The transistors display a constant transconductance up to at least 6GHz and a current gain cutoff frequency (fT) as high as 1GHz at VDS=-700mV. Bending tests show that the devices can withstand a high degree of flexion characterized by a constant transconductance for radius of curvature as small as 3.3mm.

  1. Laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2010-03-02

    An improved method for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes that utilizes an RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of such. Such a method, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently permits the use of a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization. The method of the present invention utilizes a free electron laser operating at high average and peak fluence to illuminate a rotating and translating graphite/catalyst target to obtain high yields of SWNTs without the use of a vacuum chamber.

  2. Mechanically interlocked single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    de Juan, Alberto; Pouillon, Yann; Ruiz-González, Luisa; Torres-Pardo, Almudena; Casado, Santiago; Martín, Nazario; Rubio, Ángel; Pérez, Emilio M

    2014-05-19

    Extensive research has been devoted to the chemical manipulation of carbon nanotubes. The attachment of molecular fragments through covalent-bond formation produces kinetically stable products, but implies the saturation of some of the C-C double bonds of the nanotubes. Supramolecular modification maintains the structure of the SWNTs but yields labile species. Herein, we present a strategy for the synthesis of mechanically interlocked derivatives of SWNTs (MINTs). In the key rotaxane-forming step, we employed macrocycle precursors equipped with two π-extended tetrathiafulvalene SWNT recognition units and terminated with bisalkenes that were closed around the nanotubes through ring-closing metathesis (RCM). The mechanically interlocked nature of the derivatives was probed by analytical, spectroscopic, and microscopic techniques, as well as by appropriate control experiments. Individual macrocycles were observed by HR STEM to circumscribe the nanotubes. PMID:24729452

  3. Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Carbon-Phenenolic Ablator Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kikolaev, P.; Stackpoole, M.; Fan, W.; Cruden, B. A.; Waid, M.; Moloney, P.; Arepalli, S.; Arnold, J.; Partridge, H.; Yowell, L.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of PICA (phenolic impregnated carbon ablator) as the selected material for heat shielding for future earth return vehicles. It briefly reviews the manufacturing of PICA and the advantages for the use of heat shielding, and then explains the reason for using Carbon Nanotubes to improve strength of phenolic resin that binds carbon fibers together. It reviews the work being done to create a carbon nanotube enhanced PICA. Also shown are various micrographic images of the various PICA materials.

  4. Computational Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomechanics of individual carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes and their application as reinforcing fibers in polymer composites has been reviewed with interplay of theoretical modeling, computer simulations and experimental observations. The emphasis in this work is on elucidating the multi-length scales of the problems involved, and of different simulation techniques that are needed to address specific characteristics of individual nanotubes and nanotube polymer-matrix interfaces. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are shown to be sufficient to describe the generic behavior such as strength and stiffness modulus but are inadequate to describe elastic limit and nature of plastic buckling at large strength. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations are shown to bring out explicit atomic nature dependent behavior of these nanoscale materials objects that are not accessible either via continuum mechanics based descriptions or through classical molecular dynamics based simulations. As examples, we discus local plastic collapse of carbon nanotubes under axial compression and anisotropic plastic buckling of boron-nitride nanotubes. Dependence of the yield strain on the strain rate is addressed through temperature dependent simulations, a transition-state-theory based model of the strain as a function of strain rate and simulation temperature is presented, and in all cases extensive comparisons are made with experimental observations. Mechanical properties of nanotube-polymer composite materials are simulated with diverse nanotube-polymer interface structures (with van der Waals interaction). The atomistic mechanisms of the interface toughening for optimal load transfer through recycling, high-thermal expansion and diffusion coefficient composite formation above glass transition temperature, and enhancement of Young's modulus on addition of nanotubes to polymer are discussed and compared with experimental observations.

  5. Simulation and modeling of carbon nanotube devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shu

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are molecular wires that exhibit a number of exceptional chemical, electronic, and mechanical properties. Investigating on these properties and exploring conceptual usages of these properties in devices are conducted by using simulation tools ranging from molecular dynamics, tight-binding, to ab-initio simulations. Four major aspects of carbon nanotube devices are studied. First, we investigate the mechanism of using CNTs to detect the presence of chemical gases such as NO2, NH3, and O2. We discover that the process of NO2 gas sensing is not simply the process of adsorption and desorption of NO2 gas on the CNT surface, but rather it involves the complex process of NO2 gas molecule's reaction on the CNTs surface, which produce NO and NO3 molecules. These findings show that NO3 is the real agent behind the slow recovery of SWCNTs as sensing devices. We also conduct analysis on molecular adsorption on charged SWCNT by electric field manipulation. Secondly, to detect the presence of CO and water molecules that have long evaded the detection of intrinsic carbon nanotubes as sensing devices, we propose the design of a new breed of nanotube based sensor devices. These devices are developed by substitutional doping of the so-called impurity atoms (such as Boron, Nitrogen atoms) into intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes, or by using composite BxCyNz nanotubes. Thirdly, the effects of flattening and bending on the size of the band gap in CNT are examined. Increasing cross-sectional flattening is found to initially close the band gap in semiconducting tubes, while ultimately re-opening the gap at high degrees of flattening. Using the properties of deformed nanotubes, a simple design for a CNT based quantum well device is proposed. Finally, interactions of metal atoms (Al, Ti) with semiconducting single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are investigated. Comparison of the energetics of these metal atoms on (8,0) CNT surface shows significant differences in binding energy and diffusion barriers. These differences provide us with an explanation of why most of metal atoms (such as Al) form discrete particles on nanotube, while titanium atoms form continuous nanowires.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Based Deuterium Ion Source for Improved Neutron Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R. L.; Jiang, N.; Thuesen, L.; Leung, K. N.; Antolak, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Field ionization uses high electric fields to cause the ionization and emission of ions from the surface of a sharp electrode. We are developing a novel field ionization neutron generator using carbon nanotubes (CNT) to produce the deuterium ion current. The generator consists of three major components: a deuterium ion source made of carbon nanotubes, a smooth negatively-biased target electrode, and a secondary electron suppression system. When a negative high voltage is applied on the target electrode, a high gradient electric field is formed at the tips of the carbon nanotubes. This field is sufficiently strong to create deuterium (D) ions at or near the nanotubes which are accelerated to the target causing D-D reactions to occur and the production of neutrons. A cross magnetic field is used to suppress secondary emission electrons generated on the target surface. We have demonstrated field ionization currents of 70 nA (1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) at hydrogen gas pressure of 10 mTorr. We have found that the current scales proportionally with CNT area and also with the gas pressure in the range of 1 mTorr to 10 mTorr. We have demonstrated pulse cut-off times as short as 2 {mu}sec. Finally, we have shown the feasibility of generating neutrons using deuterium gas.

  7. Improved Method of Purifying Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance D.

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of removing the residues of fabrication from carbon nanotubes has been invented. These residues comprise amorphous carbon and metal particles that are produced during the growth process. Prior methods of removing the residues include a variety of processes that involved the use of halogens, oxygen, or air in both thermal and plasma processes. Each of the prior methods entails one or more disadvantages, including non-selectivity (removal or damage of nanotubes in addition to removal of the residues), the need to dispose of toxic wastes, and/or processing times as long as 24 hours or more. In contrast, the process described here does not include the use of toxic chemicals, the generation of toxic wastes, causes little or no damage to the carbon nanotubes, and involves processing times of less than 1 hour. In the improved method, purification is accomplished by flowing water vapor through the reaction chamber at elevated temperatures and ambient pressures. The impurities are converted to gaseous waste products by the selective hydrogenation and hydroxylation by the water in a reaction chamber. This process could be performed either immediately after growth or in a post-growth purification process. The water used needs to be substantially free of oxygen and can be obtained by a repeated freeze-pump-thaw process. The presence of oxygen will non-selectively attach the carbon nanotubes in addition to the amorphous carbon.

  8. Charge-induced actuation in carbon nanotubes and resistance changes in carbon nanotube networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel-Oakley, Jennifer Ann

    In 1999 it was demonstrated that macroscopic films comprised of single wall carbon nanotubes exhibited dimensional changes with charge injection onto the films. A fundamental mechanism was proposed for this effect related to the dimensional changes observed in graphite intercalation complexes upon charge transfer doping with the intercalant species. The major fraction of this thesis concerns experiments at the single nanotube level designed to test the validity of this mechanism. The metals compatible with our fabrication processes inevitably p-dope the nanotubes resulting in smaller dimensional changes. Additionally, there are contact barriers that prevent the injection of electrons onto the nanotubes. Although the proposed mechanism may still be responsible for the results seen in the nanotube films, the effect is too small to be consistently measured in individual nanotubes. The conductivity of a carbon nanotube can be varied by exposure to various chemicals having utility in chemical sensing applications. We use thin films of carbon nanotubes to exploit this effect. The films are made sensitive to hydrogen by association with palladium metal. Such sensors operate at room temperature with very low power dissipation of ˜0.25 mV.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Porifera is developing carbon nanotube membranes that allow more efficient removal of CO2 from coal plant exhaust. Most of today’s carbon capture methods use chemical solvents, but capture methods that use membranes to draw CO2 out of exhaust gas are potentially more efficient and cost effective. Traditionally, membranes are limited by the rate at which they allow gas to flow through them and the amount of CO2 they can attract from the gas. Smooth support pores and the unique structure of Porifera’s carbon nanotube membranes allows them to be more permeable than other polymeric membranes, yet still selective enough for CO2 removal. This approach could overcome the barriers facing membrane-based approaches for capturing CO2 from coal plant exhausts.

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations for carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Thomas; Lähde, Timo A.

    2016-04-01

    We show how lattice quantum Monte Carlo can be applied to the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes in the presence of strong electron-electron correlations. We employ the path-integral formalism and use methods developed within the lattice QCD community for our numerical work. Our lattice Hamiltonian is closely related to the hexagonal Hubbard model augmented by a long-range electron-electron interaction. We apply our method to the single-quasiparticle spectrum of the (3,3) armchair nanotube configuration, and consider the effects of strong electron-electron correlations. Our approach is equally applicable to other nanotubes, as well as to other carbon nanostructures. We benchmark our Monte Carlo calculations against the two- and four-site Hubbard models, where a direct numerical solution is feasible.

  11. Facile synthesis of multifunctional multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles/polyaniline composite nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lirong; Lu Xiaofeng; Zhang Wanjin

    2008-03-15

    With an average diameter of 100-150 nm, composite nanotubes of polyaniline (PANI)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) containing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a two-step method. First, we synthesized monodispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs (d=17.6 nm, {sigma}=1.92 nm) on the surface of MWNTs and then decorated the nanocomposites with a PANI layer via a self-assembly method. SEM and TEM images indicated that the obtained samples had the morphologies of nanotubes. The molecular structure and composition of MWNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs/PANI nanotubes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra. UV-vis spectra confirmed the existence of PANI and its response to acid and alkali. As a multifunctional material, the conductivity and magnetic properties of MWNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs/PANI composites nanotubes were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: The work on preparing nanocomposites has been too much, but few reports were about synthesizing one-dimensional nanocomposite of three different nanoscale materials. In our work, we prepared one-dimensional multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles/polyaniline composite nanotubes and studied their conductive and magnetic properties.

  12. Nanotube wall thickness dependent magnetization reversal properties of NiFe nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, R.; Shamaila, S.; Shaheen, F.; Naseem, S.; Chen, J. Y.; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Hussain, K.; Han, X. F.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotube wall thickness dependent magnetization properties of NiFe nanotube arrays electrodeposited in polycarbonate membranes are investigated. A systematic variation of nanotube wall thickness (tw) has been investigated. The magnetization reversal properties are strongly influenced by the variation of tw keeping length and external radius constant.

  13. Microwave assisted formation of magnetic carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerra, Narendranath

    Magnetic epoxy carbon nanostructures from microwave energy assisted- and conventional-pyrolysis processes are compared. Unlike graphitized carbon shell in the conventional heating, different carbon shell morphologies including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoflakes and amorphous carbon were observed. Crystalline metallic iron and cementite were observed in the magnetic core, different from a single cementite produced in the conventional process. Carbon coated magnetic nanostructures as well as dielectric semiconductors can be produced using this process. Microwave assisted pyrolysis process is also used to form the magnetic core-shell carbon nanostructure from polyaniline (PANI)-magnetite (Fe 3O4) nanocomposites. The amorphous combined with graphitized carbon shell is observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystalline metallic iron, cementite, Fe3O4 and iron oxide (Fe2O 3) are observed in the magnetic core in the Mossbauer spectra measurements. The increased magnetic properties are observed in the formed core-shell carbon nanostructure after microwave annealing compared with PANI-Fe3O 4 nanocomposites. The formed solid carbon nanostructure can protect the material from the acid dissolution and magnetic core favors the recycling of material. This magnetic carbon nanostructure has the potential application in the removal of heavy metals from waste water.

  14. CARBON NANOTUBES IN MICROWAVE ENVIRONMENT-IGNITION AND RECONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The unusual property of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-wall (MWNT) nanotubes and Buckminsterfullerene (C-60) is observed upon exposure to microwave-assisted ignition. Carbon nanotubes known for a range of mechanical and electronic properties because of their unique...

  15. Sodium insertion/extraction from single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes: The differences and similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goonetilleke, Damian; Pramudita, James C.; Choucair, Mohammad; Rawal, Aditya; Sharma, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    A comparative study on the sodium-ion insertion and extraction of commercially-available multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes is reported. Single-wall carbon nanotubes exhibit charge/discharge capacities of 126 mA h g-1 and multi-wall carbon nanotubes produce a lower capacity of 28 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at 25 mA g-1. To understand these differences, a combination of X-ray diffraction and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were performed at various states of sodium insertion and extraction.23Na nuclear magnetic resonance studies, a technique previously rarely used for characterising electrodes from sodium-ion batteries, shows differences in the sodium chemical environment near multi-wall compared to single-wall carbon nanotubes with distinct sodium sites found to be active during sodium insertion and extraction for the carbon nanotubes. Both types of carbon nanotubes show a similar amount of reversible sodium available for insertion/extraction reactions, but multi-wall carbon nanotubes feature half the initial insertion capacity relative to single-wall carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube electrodes are discussed in relation to the observed mechanism of sodium insertion.

  16. Photothermal effects of immunologically modified carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Ryan T.; Henderson, Brock; Goddard, Jessica; Tan, Yongqiang; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes have a great potential in the biomedical applications. To use carbon nanotubes in the treatment of cancer, we synthesized an immunologically modified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) using a novel immunomodifier, glycated chitosan (GC), as an effective surfactant for SWNT. This new composition SWNT-GC was stable due to the strong non-covalent binding between SWNT and GC. The structure of SWNT-GC is presented in this report. The photothermal effect of SWNT-GC was investigated under irradiation of a near-infrared laser. SWNT-GC retained the optical properties of SWNT and the immunological properties of GC. Specifically, the SWNT-GC could selectively absorb a 980-nm light and induce desirable thermal effects in tissue culture and in animals. It could also induce tumor cell destruction, controlled by the laser settings and the doses of SWNT and GC. Laser+SWNT-GC treatment could also induce strong expression of heat shock proteins on the surface of tumor cells. This immunologically modified carbon nanotube could be used for selective photothermal interactions in noninvasive tumor treatment.

  17. Carbon nanotubes: A bright future for defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Strano, Michael S.

    2013-10-01

    Covalently bonding groups to the walls of carbon nanotubes has been previously observed to quench their photoluminescence. Now, it has been shown that, if you get the chemistry just right, their photoluminescence can in fact be significantly brightened by introducing defects through functionalization.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Segments.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Yasutomo; Yagi, Akiko; Matsui, Katsuma; Itami, Kenichiro

    2016-04-18

    The selective and predictable synthesis of structurally uniform carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represents a long-standing goal in both nanocarbon science and synthetic organic chemistry. This Review focuses on synthetic studies toward the controlled synthesis of CNTs with single chirality through the organic synthesis of CNT segments and the organic template assisted growth of CNTs. PMID:26890967

  19. Functionalized carbon nanotubes for potential medicinal applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Yuhong; Yan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes display unique properties that enable a variety of medicinal applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and central nervous system disorders, and applications in tissue engineering. These potential applications are particularly encouraged by their ability to penetrate biological membranes and relatively low toxicity. PMID:20451656

  20. Reactions over catalysts confined in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiulian; Bao, Xinhe

    2008-12-21

    We review a new concept for modifying the redox properties of transition metals via confinement within the channels of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and thus tuning their catalytic performance. Attention is also devoted to novel techniques for homogeneous dispersion of metal nanoparticles inside CNTs since these are essential for optimization of the catalytic activity. PMID:19048128

  1. Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Minus, Marilyn L.; Jain, Rahul; Nepal, Dhriti; Kumar, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the extraordinary potential to change our lives by improving existing products and enabling new ones. Current and future research and industrial workforce professionals are very likely to encounter some aspects of nanotechnology including CNT science and technology in their education or profession. The simple structure…

  2. In-line manufacture of carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Brambilla, Nicol Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo; Martini, Fabrizio; Corripio Luna, Oscar Enrique

    2015-04-28

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are facilitated by methods and apparatus disclosed herein. Advantageously, the methods and apparatus make use of a single production unit, and therefore provide for uninterrupted progress in a fabrication process. Embodiments of control systems for a variety of CNT production apparatus are included.

  3. Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Minus, Marilyn L.; Jain, Rahul; Nepal, Dhriti; Kumar, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the extraordinary potential to change our lives by improving existing products and enabling new ones. Current and future research and industrial workforce professionals are very likely to encounter some aspects of nanotechnology including CNT science and technology in their education or profession. The simple structure

  4. Selecting fruits with carbon nanotube sensors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mengning; Star, Alexander

    2012-07-27

    Sensor strategy bears fruit: A nature-inspired Cu(I) complex was employed to fabricate single-walled carbon nanotube sensors that can selectively detect ethylene gas at concentrations as low as 0.5?ppm. Such nanosensors may be used to monitor ethylene gas emitted from fruits to monitor their ripening. PMID:22711246

  5. Heat Transport in Liquid Polyester Resin with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vales-Pinzón, C.; Quiñones-Weiss, G.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Medina-Esquivel, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent one of the most important materials in nanoscience and nanotechnology, due to their outstanding structural, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. It has been shown that when incorporated in a polymeric matrix, carbon nanotubes can improve its physical properties. In this work, thermal-diffusivity measurements of composite materials, prepared by mixing carbon nanotubes in liquid polyester resin, were performed by means of the thermal-wave resonant cavity. The results show an increase of the thermal diffusivity when the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes grows. It is also shown that this increase depends strongly on the diameter of the nanotubes.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of texture composite materials based on hexagonal ferrites/multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotsenko, O. A.; Frolov, K. O.; Wagner, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient and electromagnetic losses of the composite based on ferrite powder and / or multi-walled carbon nanotubes are presented. The dielectric and magnetic losses in the composite were measured in the range of 0.01 - 20 GHz. It has been found to increase the absorption of electromagnetic radiation and increased losses in the samples containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  7. Pure carbon nanoscale devices: Nanotube heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Chico, L.; Crespi, V.H.; Benedict, L.X.; Louie, S.G.; Cohen, M.L.

    1996-02-01

    Introduction of pentagon-heptagon pair defects into the hexagonal network of a single carbon nanotube can change the helicity of the tube and alter its electronic structure. Using a tight-binding method to calculate the electronic structure of such systems we show that they behave as nanoscale metal/semiconductor or semiconductor/semiconductor junctions. These junctions could be the building blocks of nanoscale electronic devices made entirely of carbon. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Polarized spectroscopy of aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.; Gommans, H. H.; Ugawa, A.; Tashiro, H.; Haggenmueller, R.; Winey, K. I.; Fischer, J. E.; Tanner, D. B.; Rinzler, A. G.

    2000-11-15

    Polarized resonant Raman and optical spectroscopy of aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes show that the optical transitions are strongly polarized along the nanotubes axis. This behavior is consistent with recent electronic structure calculations.

  9. Hysteresis modeling in ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yian; Moura, Mateus S; Costa, Ademir J; de Almeida, Luiz Alberto L; Paranjape, Makarand; Fontana, Marcio

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models are adapted to describe the hysteresis effects seen in the electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The ballistic transport model describes the contributions of conduction energy sub-bands over carbon nanotube field-effect transistor drain current as a function of drain-source and gate-source voltages as well as other physical parameters of the device. The limiting-loop proximity model, originally developed to understand magnetic hysteresis, is also utilized in this work. The curves obtained from our developed model corroborate well with the experimentally derived hysteretic behavior of the transistors. Modeling the hysteresis behavior will enable designers to reliably use these effects in both analog and memory applications. PMID:25187698

  10. Multifunctional and recollectable carbon nanotube ponytails for water purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Ma, Hanyu; Zheng, Wen; An, Dingding; Na, Chongzheng

    2014-06-25

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising nanomaterials that have the potential to revolutionize water treatment practices in the future. The direct use of unbounded CNTs, however, poses health risks to humans and ecosystems because they are difficult to separate from treated water. Here, we report the design and synthesis of carbon nanotube ponytails (CNPs) by integrating CNTs into micrometer-sized colloidal particles, which greatly improves the effectiveness of post-treatment separation using gravitational sedimentation, magnetic attraction, and membrane filtration. We further demonstrate that CNPs can effectively perform major treatment tasks including adsorption, disinfection, and catalysis. Using model pollutants such as methylene blue, Escherichia coli, and p-nitrophenol, we show that all the surfaces of individual CNTs in CNPs are accessible during water treatment. Our results suggest that the rational design of hierarchical structures represents a feasible approach to develop nanomaterials for engineering applications such as water and wastewater treatment. PMID:24806877

  11. Carbon nanotube oscillators for applications as nanothermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, Fainida; Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2010-10-01

    Nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes have a broad range of potential applications such as nanomotors, nano-oscillators and electromechanical nanothermometers, and a proper understanding of the molecular interaction between nanostructures is fundamentally important for these applications. In this paper, we determine the molecular interaction potential of interacting carbon nanotubes for two configurations. The first is a shuttle configuration involving a short outer tube sliding on a fixed inner tube, and the second involves a telescopic configuration for which an inner tube moves both in the region between two outer tubes and through the tubes themselves. For the first configuration we examine two cases of semi-infinite and finite inner carbon nanotubes. We employ the continuum approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential for non-bonded molecules to determine the molecular interaction potential and the resulting van der Waals force, and we evaluate the resulting surface integrals numerically. We also investigate the acceptance condition and suction energy for the first configuration. Our results show that for the shuttle configuration with a semi-infinite inner tube, the suction energy is maximum when the difference between the outer and inner tubes radii is approximately 3.4 Å, which is the ideal inter-wall spacing between graphene sheets. For the finite inner tube, the potential energy is dependent on both the inner and outer tube lengths as well as on the inter-wall spacing. In terms of the oscillating frequency, the critical issue is the length of the moving outer tube, and the shorter the length, the higher the frequency. Further, for the telescopic configuration with two semi-infinite outer nanotubes of different radii, we find that the interaction energy also depends on the difference of the tube radii. For two outer nanotubes of equal radii we observe that the shorter the distance between the two outer nanotubes, the higher the magnitude of the interaction potential around the origin.

  12. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Mixed Matrix Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanip, Suhaila Mohd.; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Aziz, Madzlan; Soga, Tetsuo

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have generated great interest within the many areas of nanotechnology due to their superior and outstanding physical properties. However effective dispersion in many solvents has imposed limitations upon the use of CNTs in a number of novel applications. Functionalization presents a solution for CNTs to be more soluble which make them integrate well into any organic, inorganic or biological systems. CNTs can be easily functionalized using cyclodextrin (CD) treatment. The CD modification of carbon nanotubes is both simple and effective. It requires no prolonged heating, filtration and washing which can severely damage the small diameter nanotubes. The formation of surface functional groups and changes of nanotubes structures of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) were monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), respectively. From the TGA results, the amount of weight loss of the f-CNTs in varying ratios indicated the amount of CD that was functionalized. It was also noted that the FTIR spectra showed the presence of functional groups associated with CD in the f-CNTs. As a result, the cyclodextrin groups were found to be possibly adsorbed at the surface of the nanotubes walls. The f-CNTs showed substantial solubility in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) which helps in a better distribution of the CNTs in the mixed matrix membrane (MMM) prepared. Hence, the influence of the f-CNTs in the polymer matrix will give rise to enhanced physical properties of the MMM suitable for applications in gas separations.

  13. A seamless three-dimensional carbon nanotube graphene hybrid material.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Zhang, Chenguang; Casillas, Gilberto; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Kittrell, Carter; Hauge, Robert H; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes are carbon materials that exhibit excellent electrical conductivities and large specific surface areas. Theoretical work suggested that a covalently bonded graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid material would extend those properties to three dimensions, and be useful in energy storage and nanoelectronic technologies. Here we disclose a method to bond graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes seamlessly during the growth stage. The hybrid material exhibits a surface area >2,000 m(2) g(-1) with ohmic contact from the vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes to the graphene. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we observed the covalent transformation of sp(2) carbon between the planar graphene and the single-walled carbon nanotubes at the atomic resolution level. These findings provide a new benchmark for understanding the three-dimensional graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube-conjoined materials. PMID:23187625

  14. Biomolecules Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Daxiang

    In recent years, functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with biomolecules such as nucleotide acids, proteins, and artificial polymers have emerged as a new exciting field. Theoretical and experimental studies of structure and function of bio-inspired CNT composites have made great advances. The importance of nucleic acids, proteins, and synthesized polymers to the fundamental developments in CNT-based bio-nano-composites or devices has been recognized. In particular, biomechanics, biochemistry, thermodynamics, electronic, optical and magnetic properties, and biocompatibility and toxicology of the bio-inspired CNT composites have become a new interdisciplinary frontier in life science and nanomaterial science. Bio-inspired CNT composites have been actively exploited potentials in applications such as gene/drug delivery system, tissue engineering scaffolds, hydrogen storage, molecular imaging, biocatalyst systems, biosensors, and antifouling films. Here we review the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore their application prospects, and discuss the issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of improving and developing CNT-based bio-nanotechnology.

  15. Porous carbon nanotubes: Molecular absorption, transport, and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yzeiri, Irena; Patra, Niladri; Král, Petr

    2014-03-01

    We use classical molecular dynamics simulations to study nanofluidic properties of porous carbon nanotubes. We show that saturated water vapor condenses on the porous nanotubes, can be absorbed by them and transported in their interior. When these nanotubes are charged and placed in ionic solutions, they can selectively absorb ions in their interior and transport them. Porous carbon nanotubes can also be used as selective molecular sieves, as illustrated on a room temperature separation of benzene and ethanol.

  16. Carbon nanotubes on a spider silk scaffold.

    PubMed

    Steven, Eden; Saleh, Wasan R; Lebedev, Victor; Acquah, Steve F A; Laukhin, Vladimir; Alamo, Rufina G; Brooks, James S

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the compatibility between spider silk and conducting materials is essential to advance the use of spider silk in electronic applications. Spider silk is tough, but becomes soft when exposed to water. Here we report a strong affinity of amine-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for spider silk, with coating assisted by a water and mechanical shear method. The nanotubes adhere uniformly and bond to the silk fibre surface to produce tough, custom-shaped, flexible and electrically conducting fibres after drying and contraction. The conductivity of coated silk fibres is reversibly sensitive to strain and humidity, leading to proof-of-concept sensor and actuator demonstrations. PMID:24022336

  17. Carbon nanotubes on a spider silk scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Eden; Saleh, Wasan R.; Lebedev, Victor; Acquah, Steve F. A.; Laukhin, Vladimir; Alamo, Rufina G.; Brooks, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the compatibility between spider silk and conducting materials is essential to advance the use of spider silk in electronic applications. Spider silk is tough, but becomes soft when exposed to water. Here we report a strong affinity of amine-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for spider silk, with coating assisted by a water and mechanical shear method. The nanotubes adhere uniformly and bond to the silk fibre surface to produce tough, custom-shaped, flexible and electrically conducting fibres after drying and contraction. The conductivity of coated silk fibres is reversibly sensitive to strain and humidity, leading to proof-of-concept sensor and actuator demonstrations. PMID:24022336

  18. A novel redox-sensitive system based on single-walled carbon nanotubes for chemo-photothermal therapy and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lin; Yang, Xiaomin; Ren, Junxiao; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Huijuan; Feng, Qianhua; Shi, Yuyang; Shan, Xiaoning; Yuan, Yujie; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, nanomaterials with multiple functions, such as drug carrier, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, and photothermal therapy, have become more and more popular in cancer research. In this work, a novel redox-sensitive system constructed from hyaluronic acid (HA), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), doxorubicin (DOX), and gadolinium (Gd) was successfully developed. Herein, HA-modified SWCNTs (SWCNTs-HA) was first synthesized, and then DOX was conjugated with HA by disulfide bond (SWCNTs-HA-ss-DOX). Finally, MRI contrast agents, Gd3+-ion loading occurred through the sidewall defects of SWCNTs, whose cytotoxicity could be sequestered within the SWCNTs. In vitro release of DOX showed that this system accomplished much faster drug release under reducing condition. Confocal microscopy analysis confirmed that Gd/SWCNTs-HA-ss-DOX were capable of simultaneously delivering DOX and SWCNTs into Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 cells via HA receptor-mediated endocytosis followed by rapid transport of cargoes into the cytosol. Enhanced cytotoxicity of Gd/SWCNTs-HA-ss-DOX further proved that the sensitive system was more potent for intracellular drug delivery as compared with the insensitive control. Meanwhile, tumor cell killing potency was improved when Gd/SWCNTs-HA-ss-DOX were combined with near-infrared irradiation, with IC50 of 0.61 µg/mL at 48 hours. In vivo investigation demonstrated that Gd/SWCNTs-HA-ss-DOX could effectively accumulate in tumor sites and possessed the greatest synergistic antitumor efficacy, especially under the 808 nm laser irradiation. More importantly, this system could be used as a contrast agent for MRI to identify the location and extent of tumor tissues. These results suggested that Gd/SWCNTs-HA-ss-DOX might be a promising system for targeting chemo-photothermal therapy and MRI diagnosis in future clinical anticancer applications. PMID:26917960

  19. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Bittencourt, Carla; Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs. PMID:23504581

  20. Transmission Through Carbon Nanotubes with Polyhedral Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    We study electron transport between capped carbon nanotubes and a substrate, and relate this transport to the local density of states in the cap. Our results show that that the transmission probability mimics the behavior of the density of states at all energies except those that correspond to localized states. For a capped carbon nanotube that is not connected to a substrate, the localized states do not couple to the coexisting continuum states. However, close proximity of a substrate causes hybridization between these states. As a result, new transmission paths open from substrate states to nanotube continuum states via the localized states in the cap. We show that the interference between various paths gives rise to transmission antiresonances with the minimum equal to zero at the energy of the localized state. The presence of defects in the tube places close to the cap transforms antiresonances into resonances. Depending on the spatial position of defects, these resonant states are capable of carrying a large current. The results of this paper are of relevance to carbon nanotube based studies on molecular electronics and probe tip applications.

  1. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs. PMID:23504581

  2. Investigation of magnetism in aluminum-doped silicon carbide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad

    2013-11-01

    The effect of aluminum doping on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of (8,0) silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) is investigated using spin-polarized density functional theory. It is found from the calculation of the formation energies that aluminum substitution for silicon atom is preferred. Our results show that the magnetization depends on the substitutional site, aluminum substitution at silicon site does not introduce any spin-polarization, whereas the aluminum substitution for carbon atom yields a spin polarized, almost dispersionless π band within the original band gap.

  3. Purification Procedures for Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorelik, Olga P.; Nikolaev, Pavel; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the comparison of a variety of procedures used to purify carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotube material is produced by the arc process and laser oven process. Most of the procedures are tested using laser-grown, single-wall nanotube (SWNT) material. The material is characterized at each step of the purification procedures by using different techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identified impurities are amorphous and graphitic carbon, catalyst particle aggregates, fullerenes, and hydrocarbons. Solvent extraction and low-temperature annealing are used to reduce the amount of volatile hydrocarbons and dissolve fullerenes. Metal catalysts and amorphous as well as graphitic carbon are oxidized by reflux in acids including HCl, HNO3 and HF and other oxidizers such as H2O2. High-temperature annealing in vacuum and in inert atmosphere helps to improve the quality of SWNTs by increasing crystallinity and reducing intercalation.

  4. Carbon nanotubes degraded by neutrophil myeloperoxidase induce less pulmonary inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Valerian E.; Konduru, Nagarjun V.; Feng, Weihong; Allen, Brett L.; Conroy, Jennifer; Volkov, Yuri; Vlasova, Irina I.; Belikova, Natalia A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Kapralov, Alexander; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Shi, Jingwen; Kisin, Elena R.; Murray, Ashley R.; Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, Donna; Gou, Pingping; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Fadeel, Bengt; Star, Alexander; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2010-05-01

    We have shown previously that single-walled carbon nanotubes can be catalytically biodegraded over several weeks by the plant-derived enzyme, horseradish peroxidase. However, whether peroxidase intermediates generated inside human cells or biofluids are involved in the biodegradation of carbon nanotubes has not been explored. Here, we show that hypochlorite and reactive radical intermediates of the human neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyse the biodegradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes in vitro, in neutrophils and to a lesser degree in macrophages. Molecular modelling suggests that interactions of basic amino acids of the enzyme with the carboxyls on the carbon nanotubes position the nanotubes near the catalytic site. Importantly, the biodegraded nanotubes do not generate an inflammatory response when aspirated into the lungs of mice. Our findings suggest that the extent to which carbon nanotubes are biodegraded may be a major determinant of the scale and severity of the associated inflammatory responses in exposed individuals.

  5. Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Semipermeable membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bakajin, O

    2006-02-13

    The goal of this project is to measure transport through CNTs and study effects of confinement at molecular scale. This work is motivated by several simulation papers in high profile journals that predict significantly higher transport rates of gases and liquids through carbon nanotubes as compared with similarly-sized nanomaterials (e.g. zeolites). The predictions are based on the effects of confinement, atomically smooth pore walls and high pore density. Our work will provide the first measurements that would compare to and hopefully validate the simulations. Gas flux is predicted to be >1000X greater for SWNTs versus zeolitesi. A high flux of 6-30 H2O/NT/ns {approx} 8-40 L/min for a 1cm{sup 2} membrane is also predicted. Neutron diffraction measurements indicate existence of a 1D water chain within a cylindrical ice sheet inside carbon nanotubes, which is consistent with the predictions of the simulation. The enabling experimental platform that we are developing is a semipermeable membrane made out of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with gaps between nanotubes filled so that the transport occurs through the nanotubes. The major challenges of this project included: (1) Growth of CNTs in the suitable vertically aligned configuration, especially the single wall carbon nanotubes; (2) Development of a process for void-free filling gaps between CNTs; and (3) Design of the experiments that will probe the small amounts of analyte that go through. Knowledge of the behavior of water upon nanometer-scale confinement is key to understanding many biological processes. For example, the protein folding process is believed to involve water confined in a hydrophobic environment. In transmembrane proteins such as aquaporins, water transport occurs under similar conditions. And in fields as far removed as oil recovery and catalysis, an understanding of the nanoscale molecular transport occurring within the nanomaterials used (e.g. zeolites) is the key to process optimization. Furthermore, advancement of many emerging nanotechnologies in chemistry and biology will undoubtedly be aided by an understanding confined water transport, particularly the details of hydrogen bonding and solvation that become crucial on this length scale. We can envision several practical applications for our devices, including desalination, gas separations, dialysis, and semipermeable fabrics for protection against CW agents etc. The single wall carbon nanotube membranes will be the key platform for applications because they will allow high transport rates of small molecules such as water and eliminate solvated ions or CW agents.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes: Measuring Dispersion and Length

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Barry J.; Hobbie, Erik K.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Chun, Jaehun; Obrzut, Jan; Bajpai, Vardhan; Phelan, Fred R.; Simien, Daneesh; Yeon Huh, Ji; Migler, Kalman B.

    2011-03-01

    Advanced technological uses of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rely on the production of single length and chirality populations that are currently only available through liquid phase post processing. The foundation of all of these processing steps is the attainment of individualized nanotube dispersion in solution; an understanding of the collodial properties of the dispersed SWCNTs can then be used to designed appropriate conditions for separations. In many instances nanotube size, particularly length, is especially active in determining the achievable properties from a given population, and thus there is a critical need for measurement technologies for both length distribution and effective separation techniques. In this Progress Report, we document the current state of the art for measuring dispersion and length populations, including separations, and use examples to demonstrate the desirability of addressing these parameters.

  7. Adsorption Isotherm Studies on Catalytic Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, E. B.; Lafdi, K.; Migone, A. D.

    1997-03-01

    Ar, CH4 and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured on 4 sets of catalytically produced carbon nanotubes. Two of the sets were activated (with CO_2, and with HNO_3), while the other two were not activated. Data for the activated nanotubes displays hysteresis loops in adsorption-desorption isothermal cycles. On the other hand, adsorption-desorption cycles measured on the non-activated nanotubes show, within our experimental resolution, no evidence of hysteresis. CH4 adsorption isotherms measured at 77.3 and 85 K (well below the triple point) reveal film thicknesses of approximately three layers at saturation. Thus, solid CH4 incompletely wets these catalytically-produced nanutubes. This behavior is quite different from that exhibited by CH4 on graphite; there, the solid CH4 films completely wet the substrate.

  8. Ag-catalysed cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Rance, G A; Miners, S A; Lucas, C Herreros; Smith, E F; Fay, M W; Zoberbier, T; Giménez-López, M C; Kaiser, U; Brown, P D; Khlobystov, A N

    2016-04-29

    In this work, the cutting of carbon nanotubes is investigated using silver nanoparticles deposited on arc discharge multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The composite is subsequently heated in air to fabricate shortened multi-walled nanotubes. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques shed light on the cutting mechanism. The nanotube cutting is catalysed by the fundamental mechanism based on the coordination of the silver atoms to the π-bonds of carbon nanotubes. As a result of the metal coordination, the strength of the carbon-carbon bond is reduced, promoting the oxidation of carbon at lower temperature when heated in air, or lowering the activation energy required for the removal of carbon atoms by electron beam irradiation, assuring in both cases the cutting of the nanotubes. PMID:26987452

  9. Ag-catalysed cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Torre, A.; Rance, G. A.; Miners, S. A.; Herreros Lucas, C.; Smith, E. F.; Fay, M. W.; Zoberbier, T.; Giménez-López, M. C.; Kaiser, U.; Brown, P. D.; Khlobystov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the cutting of carbon nanotubes is investigated using silver nanoparticles deposited on arc discharge multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The composite is subsequently heated in air to fabricate shortened multi-walled nanotubes. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques shed light on the cutting mechanism. The nanotube cutting is catalysed by the fundamental mechanism based on the coordination of the silver atoms to the π-bonds of carbon nanotubes. As a result of the metal coordination, the strength of the carbon-carbon bond is reduced, promoting the oxidation of carbon at lower temperature when heated in air, or lowering the activation energy required for the removal of carbon atoms by electron beam irradiation, assuring in both cases the cutting of the nanotubes.

  10. Electrochemical Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cell MEA's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagaris, Jael; Loyselle, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from different sources have been evaluated before and after sonication to identify structural differences and evaluate electrochemical performance. Raman spectral analysis and cyclic voltammetry in situ with QCM were the principle means of evaluating the tubes. The raman data indicates that sonication in toluene modifies the structural properties of the nanotubes. Sonication also affects the electrochemical performance of single-walled nanotubes and the multi-walled tubes differently. The characterization of different types of carbon nanotubes leads up to identifying a potential candidate for incorporating carbon nanotubes for fuel cell MEA structures.

  11. Inhaled carbon nanotubes reach the subpleural tissue in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Cesta, Mark F.; Brody, Arnold R.; Shipley-Phillips, Jeanette K.; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Tewksbury, Earl W.; Moss, Owen R.; Wong, Brian A.; Dodd, Darol E.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Bonner, James C.

    2009-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes are shaped like fibres and can stimulate inflammation at the surface of the peritoneum when injected into the abdominal cavity of mice, raising concerns that inhaled nanotubes may cause pleural fibrosis and/or mesothelioma. Here, we show that multiwalled carbon nanotubes reach the subpleura in mice after a single inhalation exposure of 30 mg m-3 for 6 h. Nanotubes were embedded in the subpleural wall and within subpleural macrophages. Mononuclear cell aggregates on the pleural surface increased in number and size after 1 day and nanotube-containing macrophages were observed within these foci. Subpleural fibrosis unique to this form of nanotubes increased after 2 and 6 weeks following inhalation. None of these effects was seen in mice that inhaled carbon black nanoparticles or a lower dose of nanotubes (1 mg m-3). This work suggests that minimizing inhalation of nanotubes during handling is prudent until further long-term assessments are conducted.

  12. Coupling of Carbon Nanotubes to Metallic Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Datta, S.; Xue, Yong-Xiang; Govindan, T. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The modeling of carbon nanotube-metal contacts is important from both basic and applied view points. For many applications, it is important to design contacts such that the transmission is dictated by intrinsic properties of the nanotube rather than by details of the contact. In this paper, we calculate the electron transmission probability from a nanotube to a free electron metal, which is side-contacted. If the metal-nanotube interface is sufficiently ordered, we find that k-vector conservation plays an important role in determining the coupling, with the physics depending on the area of contact, tube diameter, and chirality. The main results of this paper are: (1) conductance scales with contact length, a phenomena that has been observed in experiments and (2) in the case of uniform coupling between metal and nanotube, the threshold value of the metal Fermi wave vector (below which coupling is insignificant) depends on chirality. Disorder and small phase coherence length relax the need for k-vector conservation, thereby making the coupling stronger.

  13. Mesoscale mechanics of twisting carbon nanotube yarns.

    PubMed

    Mirzaeifar, Reza; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-03-12

    Fabricating continuous macroscopic carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns with mechanical properties close to individual CNTs remains a major challenge. Spinning CNT fibers and ribbons for enhancing the weak interactions between the nanotubes is a simple and efficient method for fabricating high-strength and tough continuous yarns. Here we investigate the mesoscale mechanics of twisting CNT yarns using full atomistic and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations, considering concurrent mechanisms at multiple length-scales. To investigate the mechanical response of such a complex structure without losing insights into the molecular mechanism, we applied a multiscale strategy. The full atomistic results are used for training a coarse grained model for studying larger systems consisting of several CNTs. The mesoscopic model parameters are updated as a function of the twist angle, based on the full atomistic results, in order to incorporate the atomistic scale deformation mechanisms in larger scale simulations. By bridging across two length scales, our model is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical behavior of twisted yarns while the atomistic level deformations in individual nanotubes are integrated into the model by updating the parameters. Our results focused on studying a bundle of close packed nanotubes provide novel mechanistic insights into the spinning of CNTs. Our simulations reveal how twisting a bundle of CNTs improves the shear interaction between the nanotubes up to a certain level due to increasing the interaction surface. Furthermore, twisting the bundle weakens the intertube interactions due to excessive deformation in the cross sections of individual CNTs in the bundle. PMID:25732328

  14. Mesoscale mechanics of twisting carbon nanotube yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaeifar, Reza; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2015-03-01

    Fabricating continuous macroscopic carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns with mechanical properties close to individual CNTs remains a major challenge. Spinning CNT fibers and ribbons for enhancing the weak interactions between the nanotubes is a simple and efficient method for fabricating high-strength and tough continuous yarns. Here we investigate the mesoscale mechanics of twisting CNT yarns using full atomistic and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations, considering concurrent mechanisms at multiple length-scales. To investigate the mechanical response of such a complex structure without losing insights into the molecular mechanism, we applied a multiscale strategy. The full atomistic results are used for training a coarse grained model for studying larger systems consisting of several CNTs. The mesoscopic model parameters are updated as a function of the twist angle, based on the full atomistic results, in order to incorporate the atomistic scale deformation mechanisms in larger scale simulations. By bridging across two length scales, our model is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical behavior of twisted yarns while the atomistic level deformations in individual nanotubes are integrated into the model by updating the parameters. Our results focused on studying a bundle of close packed nanotubes provide novel mechanistic insights into the spinning of CNTs. Our simulations reveal how twisting a bundle of CNTs improves the shear interaction between the nanotubes up to a certain level due to increasing the interaction surface. Furthermore, twisting the bundle weakens the intertube interactions due to excessive deformation in the cross sections of individual CNTs in the bundle.

  15. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Using Sol Gel Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

    2002-12-01

    Since 1990, carbon nanotubes were discovered and they have been the object of intense scientific study ever since. A carbon nanotube is a honeycomb lattice rolled into a cylinder. The diameter of a carbon nanotube is of nanometer size and the length is in the range of micrometer. Many of the extraordinary properties attributed to nanotubes, such as tensile strength and thermal stability, have inspired predictions of microscopic robots, dent-resistant car bodies and earthquake-resistant buildings. The first products to use nanotubes were electrical. Some General Motors cars already include plastic parts to which nanotubes were added; such plastic can be electrified during painting so that the paint will stick more readily. Two nanotube-based lighting and display products are well on their way to market. In the long term, perhaps the most valuable applications will take further advantage of nanotubes' unique electronic properties. Carbon nanotubes can in principle play the same role as silicon does in electronic circuits, but at a molecular scale where silicon and other standard semiconductors cease to work. There are several routes to synthesize carbon nanotubes; laser vaporization, carbon arc and vapor growth. We have applied a different route using sol gel chemistry to obtain carbon nanotubes. This work is patent-pending.

  16. Spectroscopic study of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, Seamus; Weldon, Declan N.; Blau, Werner J.; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Kastner, J.; Kuzmany, Hans

    1994-11-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental study of the vibrational spectra of nanotubes. There are two main lines observed in the Raman spectrum, one positioned at 1350 cm-1, the D line, and the other at 1580 cm-1, the G line. Both these lines are very similar to those seen with disordered graphite. The disorder induced D line is very weak compared to the G line which is indicative of high crystalline materials. The position and intensity of the D line strongly depends on the energy of the exciting laser. This dispersion effect was also observed for graphitic particles and may be explained by a photoselective resonance process of nanotubes with different sizes. There are two optically active modes in the Infrared spectrum for highly orientated polycrystalline graphite which are the E1u and A2u modes. The E1u mode is positioned at 1587 cm-1 while the A2u mode is positioned at 868 cm-1. The Infrared spectrum of the nanotubes shows both modes although the E1u mode is downshifted to 1575 cm-1.

  17. Use of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Covalent Attachment of Nanotubes to Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M.; Dyke, Christopher A.; Maya, Francisco; Stewart, Michael P.; Chen, Bo; Flatt, Austen K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to covalently attach functionalized carbon nanotubes to silicon. This step allows for the introduction of carbon nanotubes onto all manner of silicon surfaces, and thereby introduction of carbon nano - tubes covalently into silicon-based devices, onto silicon particles, and onto silicon surfaces. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed as individuals in surfactant were functionalized. The nano - tube was first treated with 4-t-butylbenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate to give increased solubility to the carbon nanotube; the second group attached to the sidewall of the nanotube has a silyl-protected terminal alkyne that is de-protected in situ. This gives a soluble carbon nanotube that has functional groups appended to the sidewall that can be attached covalently to silicon. This reaction was monitored by UV/vis/NJR to assure direct covalent functionalization.

  18. Carbon nanotube formation by laser direct writing

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.-T.; Su, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-M.; Liu, K.-L.; Chen, G.-D.; Huang, R.-H.; Yew, T.-R.

    2008-07-14

    This letter presents carbon nanotube (CNT) formation by laser direct writing using 248 nm KrF excimer pulsed laser in air at room temperature, which was applied to irradiate amorphous carbon (a-C) assisted by Ni catalysts underneath for the transformation of carbon species into CNTs. The CNTs were synthesized under appropriate combination of laser energy density and a-C thickness. The growth mechanism and key parameters to determine the success of CNT formation were also discussed. The demonstration of the CNT growth by laser direct writing in air at room temperature opens an opportunity of in-position CNT formation at low temperatures.

  19. 77 FR 39236 - Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Decabromodiphenyl Ether...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AGENCY Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Decabromodiphenyl Ether... Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Decabromodiphenyl Ether Flame-Retardant Coatings... ``Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Decabromodiphenyl Ether...

  20. Remote Joule heating by a carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloch, Kamal H.; Voskanian, Norvik; Bronsgeest, Merijntje; Cumings, John

    2012-05-01

    Minimizing Joule heating remains an important goal in the design of electronic devices. The prevailing model of Joule heating relies on a simple semiclassical picture in which electrons collide with the atoms of a conductor, generating heat locally and only in regions of non-zero current density, and this model has been supported by most experiments. Recently, however, it has been predicted that electric currents in graphene and carbon nanotubes can couple to the vibrational modes of a neighbouring material, heating it remotely. Here, we use in situ electron thermal microscopy to detect the remote Joule heating of a silicon nitride substrate by a single multiwalled carbon nanotube. At least 84% of the electrical power supplied to the nanotube is dissipated directly into the substrate, rather than in the nanotube itself. Although it has different physical origins, this phenomenon is reminiscent of induction heating or microwave dielectric heating. Such an ability to dissipate waste energy remotely could lead to improved thermal management in electronic devices.

  1. Harmonic oscillators of carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Zalamea, Luis; Pipes, R Byron

    2006-04-01

    The harmonic properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (10, 10) arrays in cantilever geometry of lengths, L = 1,000 to 10,000 nm and diameters, D = 15 to 70 nm have been measured recently, and a linear relationship between the first natural frequency and the ratio of array diameter and the square of the span length, D/L2 was postulated. In the present work the authors show that this relationship is highly nonlinear, especially for large values of the ratio, D/L2. In addition, for a given array length, L = 1000 nm, the first natural frequency of the cantilever is shown to vary little with diameters more than 30 nm and to become asymptotic to a value of 22 MHz as it is further increased. The present study is based on earlier work of the authors wherein the flexural stiffness of the single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) array of hexagonal symmetry and of non-covalent bonding, due to van der Waals interactions, was predicted in terms of the chirality of the nanotubes and the shearing transfer efficiency between nanotubes when subjected to flexural deformation. In addition, predictions are shown to be in agreement with the experimental evidence wherein the flexural modulus of the CNT array decreases with an increase in array diameter. PMID:16736785

  2. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs (Ref.1). The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST (Ref.2). Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  3. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  4. Method of making carbon nanotubes on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Yufei; Liu, Jun

    2006-03-14

    The present invention includes carbon nanotubes whose hollow cores are 100% filled with conductive filler. The carbon nanotubes are in uniform arrays on a conductive substrate and are well-aligned and can be densely packed. The uniformity of the carbon nanotube arrays is indicated by the uniform length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes, both which vary from nanotube to nanotube on a given array by no more than about 5%. The alignment of the carbon nanotubes is indicated by the perpendicular growth of the nanotubes from the substrates which is achieved in part by the simultaneous growth of the conductive filler within the hollow core of the nanotube and the densely packed growth of the nanotubes. The present invention provides a densely packed carbon nanotube growth where each nanotube is in contact with at least one nearest-neighbor nanotube. The substrate is a conductive substrate coated with a growth catalyst, and the conductive filler can be single crystals of carbide formed by a solid state reaction between the substrate material and the growth catalyst. The present invention further provides a method for making the filled carbon nanotubes on the conductive substrates. The method includes the steps of depositing a growth catalyst onto the conductive substrate as a prepared substrate, creating a vacuum within a vessel which contains the prepared substrate, flowing H2/inert (e.g. Ar) gas within the vessel to increase and maintain the pressure within the vessel, increasing the temperature of the prepared substrate, and changing the H2/Ar gas to ethylene gas such that the ethylene gas flows within the vessel. Additionally, varying the density and separation of the catalyst particles on the conductive substrate can be used to control the diameter of the nanotubes.

  5. Carbon nanotube catalysts: recent advances in synthesis, characterization and applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yibo; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Zhihong; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Yang, Hong Bin; Liu, Bin; Yang, Yanhui

    2015-05-21

    Carbon nanotubes are promising materials for various applications. In recent years, progress in manufacturing and functionalizing carbon nanotubes has been made to achieve the control of bulk and surface properties including the wettability, acid-base properties, adsorption, electric conductivity and capacitance. In order to gain the optimal benefit of carbon nanotubes, comprehensive understanding on manufacturing and functionalizing carbon nanotubes ought to be systematically developed. This review summarizes methodologies of manufacturing carbon nanotubes via arc discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapor deposition and functionalizing carbon nanotubes through surface oxidation and activation, doping of heteroatoms, halogenation, sulfonation, grafting, polymer coating, noncovalent functionalization and nanoparticle attachment. The characterization techniques detecting the bulk nature and surface properties as well as the effects of various functionalization approaches on modifying the surface properties for specific applications in catalysis including heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis and electrocatalysis are highlighted. PMID:25855947

  6. Automated manipulation of carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Sen; Fu, Xing

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of carbon nanotubes is an important and essential step for carbon-based nanodevice or nanocircuit assembly. However, the conventional push-and-image approach of manipulating carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscopy has low efficiency on account of the reduplicated scanning process during manipulation. In this article, an automated manipulation system is designed and tested. This automated manipulation system, which includes an atomic force microscope platform and a self-developed computer program for one-dimensional manipulation, is capable of automatically moving any assigned individual carbon nanotube to a defined target location without any intermediate scanning procedure. To demonstrate the high-efficiency of this automated manipulation system and its potential applications in nanoassembly, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment used this system to manipulate a carbon nanotube to a defined target location. In the second experiment, this system was used to automatically manipulate several carbon nanotubes for generating and translating a defined pattern of nanotubes. PMID:23646781

  7. Double Layer Charging for Conductivity Enhancement of Pure Metallic and Semiconducting Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Nathanael; Kuznetsov, Alexander; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2011-03-01

    Injecting high electronic charge densities can profoundly change the optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of materials. Evidence suggests a possibility of significantly improving conductivity of carbon nanotubes through double layer charge injection. Double layer charge injection can prove to be a powerful method when applied to carbon nanotubes because of theirs high surface area and chemical stability. Investigation has commenced on the effect of charging on various types of carbon nanotubes, specifically 99% purified single wall semiconducting and single wall metallic tubes. An electrical double layer is electrochemically introduced upon a sheet of carbon nanotubes via application of potential (up to +/- 5 volts) to a sample immersed in ionic-liquid-based electrolyte. Resistance of carbon nanotube as a function of applied charging voltage is recorded to determine the effects of charge injection. Results show that the electrical double layer considerably reduces the resistance across both samples. ESR/LFMA studies combined with low temperature magnetic and transport measurements are conducted to search for charge injection induced superconductivity in carbon nanotubes. Supported by AFOSR grant FA 9550-09-1-0384.

  8. Process for derivatizing carbon nanotubes with diazonium species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Bahr, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Yang, Jiping (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention incorporates new processes for the chemical modification of carbon nanotubes. Such processes involve the derivatization of multi- and single-wall carbon nanotubes, including small diameter (ca. 0.7 nm) single-wall carbon nanotubes, with diazonium species. The method allows the chemical attachment of a variety of organic compounds to the side and ends of carbon nanotubes. These chemically modified nanotubes have applications in polymer composite materials, molecular electronic applications and sensor devices. The methods of derivatization include electrochemical induced reactions thermally induced reactions (via in-situ generation of diazonium compounds or pre-formed diazonium compounds), and photochemically induced reactions. The derivatization causes significant changes in the spectroscopic properties of the nanotubes. The estimated degree of functionality is ca. 1 out of every 20 to 30 carbons in a nanotube bearing a functionality moiety. Such electrochemical reduction processes can be adapted to apply site-selective chemical functionalization of nanotubes. Moreover, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the derivatized nanotubes are chemically compatible with a polymer matrix, allowing transfer of the properties of the nanotubes (such as, mechanical strength or electrical conductivity) to the properties of the composite material as a whole. Furthermore, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the groups can be polymerized to form a polymer that includes carbon nanotubes ##STR00001##.

  9. Local electronic functionality in carbon nanotube devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Marcus

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are unique molecular conductors that can act as quantum wires or field-effect transistors. Theory gives us detailed understanding about their one-dimensional electronic structure, but very little is known about the internal functioning of real-world devices made of nanotubes. In particular the role of defects and electronic contacts is poorly understood. Here, we use scanning probe techniques to measure electronic properties of SWNTs on nanometer lengthscales. Atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) shows standing waves that form due to backscattering and interference of electrons. Different patterns are ascribed to scattering with large and small momentum transfer. Electronic transport through SWNT bundles is analyzed locally by tunneling AFM (T-AFM) and scanning gate microscopy (SGM). We resolve the electrochemical potential of individual nanotubes within bundles and find that electron hopping between nanotubes limits the conductivity in metallic bundles. Semiconducting bottlenecks have a profound influence on transport along thin bundles. Electronic devices at junctions between two one-dimensional wires are the ultimate goal in miniaturization. We characterize the 1D Schottky barrier at a metal-semiconductor nanotube cross junction by SGM and find a 10 nm depletion width in reverse bias. Nanotube field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibit two back-to-back Schottky barriers at the contacts to Cr/Au leads. They are responsible for the p-type character of the device. Potential modulations due to disorder along the nanotube length determine the turn-off potential for the FET. We are able to characterize defects one by one and find turn-off surface potentials between 250 mV and 800 mV, corresponding to local Fermi levels between 20 meV and 65 meV. Cobalt-contacted nanotube FETs are found to be n-type due to small Schottky barriers for electrons. They behave complementary to the Cr/Au contacted p-type FETs and have experimentally observable conduction band modulations. Finally, CVD-grown metallic SWNTs have a high contact transparency T ˜ 1/2 and large mean-free path lm ˜ 0.43 mum. At high bias we observe energy dissipation along the nanotube, supporting the theory of optical phonon emission.

  10. Soliton collisions in soft magnetic nanotube with uniaxial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, N. A.

    2016-05-01

    The structure of stable magnetic solitons of various orders in soft magnetic nanotube with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy has been studied using numerical simulation. Solitons of even order are immobile in axially applied magnetic field. Odd solitons show decreased mobility with respect to that of head-to head domain wall. Solitons of various orders can participate in nanotube magnetization reversal process. Various coalescence and decomposition processes in soliton assembly are considered. It is shown that the general magnetization state of magnetic nanotube consists of chains of magnetic solitons of various orders.

  11. Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as Substrates for Neuronal Growth.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui; Ni, Yingchun; Montana, Vedrana; Haddon, Robert C; Parpura, Vladimir

    2004-03-01

    We report the use of chemically modified carbon nanotubes as a substrate for cultured neurons. The morphological features of neurons that directly reflect their potential capability in synaptic transmission are characterized. The chemical properties of carbon nanotubes are systematically varied by attaching different functional groups that confer known characteristics to the substrate. By manipulating the charge carried by functionalized carbon nanotubes we are able to control the outgrowth and branching pattern of neuronal processes. PMID:21394241

  12. Varied morphology carbon nanotubes and method for their manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Li, Wenzhi; Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Zhi Feng

    2007-01-02

    The present invention describes the preparation of carbon nanotubes of varied morphology, catalyst materials for their synthesis. The present invention also describes reactor apparatus and methods of optimizing and controlling process parameters for the manufacture carbon nanotubes with pre-determined morphologies in relatively high purity and in high yields. In particular, the present invention provides methods for the preparation of non-aligned carbon nanotubes with controllable morphologies, catalyst materials and methods for their manufacture.

  13. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arepalli, Sivram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga

    2010-01-01

    An improved protocol for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of samples of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material has been developed to increase the degree of consistency among results so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different samples. This improved TGA protocol is suitable for incorporation into the protocol for characterization of carbon nanotube material. In most cases, TGA of carbon nanotube materials is performed in gas mixtures that contain oxygen at various concentrations. The improved protocol is summarized.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  15. Analysis of Silicon Carbide Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konneker, Adam; Song, Jun; Wyman, Ricky; Vanfleet, Richard; Allred, David; Davis, Robert

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the use of silicon carbide coated carbon nanotubes in microelectromechanical systems or MEMS. In our research group at Brigham Young University, we are developing a method of MEMS fabrication through the use of carbon nanotube (abbreviated CNT) ``scaffolds.'' Traditional MEMS fabrication techniques are use chemical etching to create three dimensional structures. Our group is seeking to overcome some of the shortcomings of this method by using patterned vertically aligned CNT's filled with bulk materials to create new MEMS devices. This technique allows the creation of MEMS devices with geometries that cannot be created using standard methods. This research focuses on the use of chemical vapor deposition to fill the CNT arrays with silicon carbide, which is a very durable and robust material that could have a wide range of applications in MEMS. We will report on preliminary results of silicon carbide production as determined by electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy.

  16. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng F.; Tu, Yi

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  17. Aqueous nanosilica dispersants for carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takafumi; Minami, Daiki; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Sunaga, Motoo; Nakamura, Masahiro; Utsumi, Shigenori; Itoh, Tsutomu; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takuya; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Endo, Morinobu; Isobe, Hiroshi; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2015-03-17

    Nanosilicas can disperse single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) in aqueous solution efficiently; SWCNTs are stably dispersed in aqueous media for more than 6 months. The SWCNT dispersing solution with nanosilica can produce highly conductive transparent films which satisfy the requirements for application to touch panels. Even multiwall carbon nanotube can be dispersed easily in aqueous solution. The highly stable dispersion of SWCNTs in the presence of nanosilica is associated with charge transfer interaction which generates effective charges on the SWCNT particles, giving rise to electrostatic repulsion between the SWCNTs in the aqueous solution. Adhesion of charged nanosilicas on SWCNTs in the aqueous solution and a marked depression of the S11 peak of optical absorption spectrum of the SWCNT with nanosilicas suggest charge transfer interaction of nanosilicas with SWCNT. Thus-formed isolated SWCNTs are fixed on the flexible three-dimensional silica jelly structure in the aqueous solution, leading to the uniform and stable dispersion of SWCNTs. PMID:25706991

  18. Aerosol printed carbon nanotube strain sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bradley; Yoon, Hwan-Sik

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, printed electronics have received attention as a method to produce low-cost macro electronics on flexible substrates. In this regard, inkjet and aerosol printing have been the primary printing methods for producing passive electrical components, transistors, and a number of sensors. In this research, a custom aerosol printer was utilized to create a strain sensor capable of measuring static and dynamic strain. The proposed sensor was created by aerosol printing a multiwall carbon nanotube solution onto an aluminum beam covered with an insulating layer. After printing the carbon nanotube-based sensor, the sensor was tested under quasi-static and vibration strain conditions, and the results are presented. The results show that the printed sensor could potentially serve as an effective method for measuring dynamic strain of structural components.

  19. Biomedical Applications of Functionalised Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Alberto; Sainz, Raquel; Li, Shouping; Dumortier, Hlne; Lacerda, Lara; Kostarelos, Kostas; Giordani, Silvia; Prato, Maurizio

    This chapter describes the developing potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biomedicine. Methodologies to render nanotubes biocompatible, the related studies on cell uptake, applications in vaccine delivery, interaction with nucleic acids and impact on health will be described. The use of CNTs for biomedical applications is acquiring more and more substantiating evidence for efficient development. It is clear that some important issues related to the health impact including the biodistribution, accumulation and elimination have to be addressed more thoroughly before CNTs can be proposed for clinical trials. However, CNTs show remarkable carrier properties, with a very strong tendency to cross cell membranes. Although, the toxicological studies on pristine CNTs are contradictory, showing a certain degree of risk, it is becoming evident that functionalised CNTs have reduced toxic effects. Therefore, the combination of cell uptake capacity with high loading of cargo molecules achievable with CNTs makes this new carbon nanomaterial a promising candidate for innovative therapies.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail. PMID:26264684

  1. Physical and electronic structure in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, R. R.; Jin, H. Z.; Zhu, Jing; Yan, Y. J.; Chen, X. H.

    1998-12-01

    Electron nanodiffraction patterns and high-resolution images from bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been obtained to determine the helicity and the packing of tubes. It is found that there is no predominating helicity, only a weak tendency of being of `armchair' structure; the inter-tube spacing is close to 0.34 nm and several packing orientations may coexist in a single bundle. Electron energy loss spectra from the bundles of SWNTs and multi-walled carbon nanotubes are used to study electronic structure. The ?-bonding is proposed as inter-tube bonding in the bundles. The plasmon energy Ep depends on the diameter and inter-tube (or inter-walled) spacing.

  2. Carbon nanotube alignment in a thermosetting resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Greco, Antonio; Pisignano, Dario; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    Engineering aspects associated with nanocomposite development involves either their final properties either their processability. Both are affected by the distribution of nanofiller in the matrix, or in other words by its dispersion. Mechanical and rheological properties of nanocomposites are directly affected by the aspect ratio of the nanofiller. A nanofilled thermosetting polymer can be exploited as a matrix for continuous fibers when alignment of a high aspect ratio nanofiller is achieved: in this case a hierarchical composite is obtained. A new approach base in two-step is proposed. First the alignment of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is achieved in a fiber spinning process where an amorphous thermoplastic polymer filled with carbon nanotubes or graphene stacks is used. Then these fibers are aligned and impregnated with the target thermosetting matrix where they ar soluble. After dissolution the nanofillers remained oriented in the thermosetting matrix.

  3. A Carbon Nanotube Cable for a Space Elevator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed in connection with the possibility to use them for the construction of a space elevator. From the fundamental information about the structure of a carbon nanotube and the chemical bond between carbon atoms, Young's modulus and the ultimate tensile strength are…

  4. A Carbon Nanotube Cable for a Space Elevator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochncek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed in connection with the possibility to use them for the construction of a space elevator. From the fundamental information about the structure of a carbon nanotube and the chemical bond between carbon atoms, Young's modulus and the ultimate tensile strength are

  5. Fabrication of field effect transistor based on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, P.; Dussoni, S.; Gatti, F.; Pergolesi, D.; Gastaldo, L.; Valle, R.; Gomes, M. R.

    2004-03-01

    In this work, we present the results in the production of single wall carbon nanotubes and their assembling in a prototype of field effect transistor. We have used techniques such as microlithography and thin films evaporation to prepare the circuit pattern, laser ablation to produce nanotubes, and a self-assembling method to obtain a good placement of nanotubes on the circuit. We have obtained a good connection between contacts by ropes of nanotubes, which enables us to measure the influence of gate electrical field on electrical transport in nanotubes. Using ropes of semiconductor nanotubes we obtain values of transconductance of about 10-4 S. All measurements were taken at room temperature.

  6. Electrical properties of carbon nanotube FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, T.; Ohno, Y.; Kishimoto, S.

    2008-08-01

    The electrical properties of carbon nanotube FETs (CNTFETs) have been studied in detail. The conduction type of the CNTFETs was dependent on the work function of the contact metal, which suggests that Fermi level pinning at the metal/nanotube interface is not strong. Based on the two-probe and four-probe resistance measurements, it has been shown that the carrier transport at the contact is explained by the edge contact model even in the diffusive regime. The chemical doping using F4TCNQ was effective in reducing not only the channel resistance but also the contact resistance. In the CNTFETs fabricated using plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD-grown nanotubes, the drain current of the most of the devices could be modulated by the gate voltage with small OFF current suggesting the preferential growth of the nanotubes with semiconducting behavior. Multichannel top-gate CNTFETs with horizontally-aligned nanotubes as channels have been successfully fabricated using CNT growth on the ST-cut quartz substrate, arc-discharge plasma deposition of the catalyst metal, and ALD gate insulator deposition. The devices show normally-on and n-type conduction property with a relatively-high ON current of 13 mA/mm. CNTFETs with nanotube network have also been fabricated by direct growth on the SiO2/Si substrate using grid-inserted PECVD and using catalyst formed on the channel area of the FETs. The uniformity of the electrical properties of the network channel CNTFETs were very good. Finally, it has been shown that the surface potential profile measurement based on the electrostatic force detection in the scanning probe microscopy was effective in studying the behavior of the CNTFETs such as the transient behavior and the effect of the defects.

  7. Excited State Dynamics in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2004-03-01

    Carbon nanotube, one of the most promising materials for nano-technology, still suffers from its imperfection in crystalline structure that will make performance of nanotube behind theoretical limit. From the first-principles simulations, I propose efficient methods to overcome the imperfection. I show that photo-induced ion dynamics can (1) identify defects in nanotubes, (2) stabilize defected nanotubes, and (3) purify contaminated nanotubes. All of these methods can be alternative to conventional heat treatments and will be important techniques for realizing nanotube-devices. Ion dynamics under electronic excitation has been simulated with use of the computer code FPSEID (First-Principles Simulation tool for Electron Ion Dynamics) [1], which combines the time-dependent density functional method [2] to classical molecular dynamics. This very challenging approach is time-consuming but can automatically treat the level alternation of differently occupied states, and can observe initiation of non-adiabatic decay of excitation. The time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation has been solved by using the Suzuki-Trotter split operator method [3], which is a numerically stable method being suitable for plane wave basis, non-local pseudopotentials, and parallel computing. This work has been done in collaboration with Prof. Angel Rubio, Prof. David Tomanek, Dr. Savas Berber and Mina Yoon. Most of present calculations have been done by using the SX5 Vector-Parallel system in the NEC Fuchu-plant, and the Earth Simulator in Yokohama Japan. [1] O. Sugino and Y. Miyamoto, Phys. Rev. B59, 2579 (1999); ibid, B66 089901(E) (2001) [2] E. Runge and E. K. U. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 997 (1984). [3] M. Suzuki, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, L3015 (1992).

  8. Octagonal Defects at Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Jaskólski, W.; Pelc, M.; Chico, Leonor; Ayuela, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate knee-shaped junctions of semiconductor zigzag carbon nanotubes. Two dissimilar octagons appear at such junctions; one of them can reconstruct into a pair of pentagons. The junction with two octagons presents two degenerate localized states at Fermi energy (EF). The reconstructed junction has only one state near EF, indicating that these localized states are related to the octagonal defects. The inclusion of Coulomb interaction splits the localized states in the junction with two octagons, yielding an antiferromagnetic system. PMID:24089604

  9. Carbon Nanotubes by CVD and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Alan; Delzeit, Lance; Nguyen, Cattien; Stevens, Ramsey; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) exhibits extraordinary mechanical and unique electronic properties and offers significant potential for structural, sensor, and nanoelectronics applications. An overview of CNT, growth methods, properties and applications is provided. Single-wall, and multi-wall CNTs have been grown by chemical vapor deposition. Catalyst development and optimization has been accomplished using combinatorial optimization methods. CNT has also been grown from the tips of silicon cantilevers for use in atomic force microscopy.

  10. Synthesis of monochiral multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xuedong; Xu, Zhi; Golberg, Dmitri

    2005-03-01

    So far, it remains a challenge to obtain multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with the same chirality for all of the shells, i.e., monochiral MWCNTs. Here we report the synthesis of the monochiral MWCNT, with all of the concentric cylinders of a MWCNT exhibiting nearly identical chiral angle, by using microwave plasma assisted CVD method. Among the all kinds of monochiral MWCNTs, several chiral angles are found to be statistically dominant.

  11. Quantum conductance of carbon nanotubes with defects

    SciTech Connect

    Chico, L.; Benedict, L.X.; Louie, S.G.; Cohen, M.L.

    1996-07-01

    We study the conductance of metallic carbon nanotubes with vacancies and pentagon-heptagon pair defects within the Landauer formalism. Using a tight-binding model and a Green{close_quote}s function technique to calculate the scattering matrix, we examine the one-dimensional to two-dimensional crossover in these systems and show the existence of metallic tube junctions in which the conductance is suppressed for symmetry reasons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. An ultrafast carbon nanotube terahertz polarisation modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docherty, Callum J.; Stranks, Samuel D.; Habisreutinger, Severin N.; Joyce, Hannah J.; Herz, Laura M.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast modulation of terahertz radiation by unaligned optically pumped single-walled carbon nanotubes. Photoexcitation by an ultrafast optical pump pulse induces transient terahertz absorption in nanowires aligned parallel to the optical pump. By controlling the polarisation of the optical pump, we show that terahertz polarisation and modulation can be tuned, allowing sub-picosecond modulation of terahertz radiation. Such speeds suggest potential for semiconductor nanowire devices in terahertz communication technologies.

  13. Physisorption kinetics in carbon nanotube bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burde, Jared T.

    Carbon nanotube bundles hold great promise for adsorption applications. However, most of the work done thus far has focused on the equilibrium properties of adsorption; the kinetics of adsorption is still not well understood. There also exist large discrepancies in the reported uptake of particles in the internal adsorption sites of carbon nanotube bundles. The purpose of this project was to elucidate the kinetics of adsorption in carbon nanotube bundles and to determine what kinetic factors, if any, may have caused the variations in experimental results. We studied the adsorption of particles in carbon nanotube bundles using analytical and computational techniques. By employing these separate but parallel methods, we were able to constantly compare and verify our results. We calculated and simulated the behavior of the system throughout its evolution and then analyzed our results to determine which system parameters had the greatest effect on the kinetics of adsorption. Our analytical and computational results showed good agreement with each other and with the experimental isotherm data provided by our collaborators. As a result of this project, we now know that the equilibration time of a system depends primarily on the binding energy of the adsorbates and the temperature. Specifically, the highest adsorption rates and shortest equilibration times are observed in systems with low binding energies and high temperatures. We also discovered that equilibration time for internal adsorption phases can be several orders of magnitude larger than those for external phases, which may have led to the disagreements in reported experimental results. Because of this work, we now better understand the process of equilibration.

  14. Identification of Complex Carbon Nanotube Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A variety of complex carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been observed experimentally. These include sharp bends, branches, tori, and helices. They are believed to be formed by using topological defects such as pentagons and heptagons to connect different CNT. The effects of type, number, and arrangement (separation and orientation) of defects on atomic structures and energetics of complex CNT are investigated using topology, quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations. Energetically stable models are derived for identification of observed complex CNT structures.

  15. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  16. An ultrafast carbon nanotube terahertz polarisation modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Docherty, Callum J.; Stranks, Samuel D.; Habisreutinger, Severin N.; Joyce, Hannah J.; Herz, Laura M.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2014-05-28

    We demonstrate ultrafast modulation of terahertz radiation by unaligned optically pumped single-walled carbon nanotubes. Photoexcitation by an ultrafast optical pump pulse induces transient terahertz absorption in nanowires aligned parallel to the optical pump. By controlling the polarisation of the optical pump, we show that terahertz polarisation and modulation can be tuned, allowing sub-picosecond modulation of terahertz radiation. Such speeds suggest potential for semiconductor nanowire devices in terahertz communication technologies.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Water Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakajin, Olgica

    2009-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are an excellent platform for the fundamental studies of transport through channels commensurate with molecular size. Water transport through carbon nanotubes is also believed to be similar to transport in biological channels such as aquaporins. I will discuss the transport of gas, water and ions through microfabricated membranes with sub-2 nanometer aligned carbon nanotubes as ideal atomically-smooth pores. The measured gas flow through carbon nanotubes exceeded predictions of the Knudsen diffusion model by more than an order of magnitude. The measured water flow exceeded values calculated from continuum hydrodynamics models by more than three orders of magnitude and is comparable to flow rates extrapolated from molecular dynamics simulations and measured for aquaporins. More recent reverse osmosis experiments reveal ion rejection by our membranes. Based on our experimental findings, the current understanding of the fundamentals of water and gas transport and of ion rejection will be discussed. The potential application space that exploits these unique nanofluidic phenomena will be explored. The extremely high permeabilities of these membranes, combined with their small pore size will enable energy efficient filtration and eventually decrease the cost of water purification.[4pt] In collaboration with Francesco Fornasiero, Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PLS, LLNL, Livermore, CA 94550; Sangil Kim, NSF Center for Biophotonics Science & Technology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento CA 95817; Jung Bin In, Mechanical Engineering Department, UC Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720; Hyung Gyu Park, Jason K Holt, and Michael Stadermann, Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PLS, LLNL; Costas P. Grigoropoulos, Mechanical Engineering Department, UC Berkeley; Aleksandr Noy, Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PLS, LLNL and School of Natural Sciences, University of California at Merced.

  18. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future. PMID:26827920

  19. New Insight into Carbon Nanotube Electronic Structure Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Jiang, Deen

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental role of aryl diazonium salts for post synthesis selectivity of carbon nanotubes is investigated using extensive electronic structure calculations. The resulting understanding for diazonium salt based selective separation of conducting and semiconducting carbon nanotubes shows how the primary contributions come from the interplay between the intrinsic electronic structure of the carbon nanotubes and that of the anion of the salt. We demonstrate how the electronic transport properties change upon the formation of charge transfer complexes and upon their conversion into covalently attached functional groups. Our results are found to correlate well with experiments and provide for the first time an atomistic description for diazonium salt based chemical separation of carbon nanotubes

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Suspended Carbon Nanotube Devices in Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukhin, A; Stadermann, M; Stroeve, P; Bakajin, O; Noy, A

    2006-10-30

    Suspended carbon nanotube devices are a promising platform for future bio-electronic applications. Suspended carbon nanotube transistors have been previously fabricated in air; however all previous attempts to bring them into liquid failed. We analyze forces acting on the suspended nanotube devices during immersion into liquids and during device operation and show that surface tension forces acting on the suspended nanotubes during transfer into the liquid phase are responsible for the nanotube damage. We have developed a new strategy that circumvents these limitations by coating suspended nanotubes with a rigid inorganic shell in the gas phase. The coating reinforces the nanotubes and allows them to survive transfer through the interface. Subsequent removal of the coating in the solution phase restores pristine suspended nanotubes. We demonstrate that devices fabricated using this technique preserve their original electrical characteristics.

  1. Fano Antiresonance and Kondo Resonance for Electronic Transport Through a Laterally Coupled Carbon-Nanotube Quantum-Dot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Dong-Ming

    2015-10-01

    We present nonequilibrium Green function calculations for electronic transport through a laterally coupled carbon-nanotube quantum-dot system. In this system, a one-dimensional double carbon nanotube quantum dot attached to polarised electrodes forms a main channel for electronic tunnelling. Each carbon nanotube quantum dot in the main channel couples to a dangling carbon nanotube quantum dot. Then, the conductance spectrum is calculated. The insulating band and resonance peak in this spectrum, due to Fano antiresonance and Kondo resonance, are discussed. The intradot electron's Coulomb interaction effect on the insulating band is also investigated. By controlling the coupling coefficient between the quantum dots, we can realise mutual transformation between Kondo resonance and Fano antiresonance at the Fermi level. The spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field's influence on the Kondo resonance peak are discussed in detail. Finally, spin magnetic moment and orbital magnetic moment of electrons in the quantum dot by applying parallel magnetic field are also predicted.

  2. Fast Electromechanical Switches Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama; Wong, Eric; Epp, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated nanoelectromechanical switches based on carbon nanotubes have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop high-speed switches for a variety of stationary and portable electronic equipment. As explained below, these devices offer advantages over electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical switches, which, heretofore, have represented the state of the art of rapid, highly miniaturized electromechanical switches. Potential applications for these devices include computer memories, cellular telephones, communication networks, scientific instrumentation, and general radiation-hard electronic equipment. A representative device of the present type includes a single-wall carbon nanotube suspended over a trench about 130 nm wide and 20 nm deep in an electrically insulating material. The ends of the carbon nanotube are connected to metal electrodes, denoted the source and drain electrodes. At bottom of the trench is another metal electrode, denoted the pull electrode (see figure). In the off or open switch state, no voltage is applied, and the nanotube remains out of contact with the pull electrode. When a sufficiently large electric potential (switching potential) is applied between the pull electrode and either or both of the source and drain electrodes, the resulting electrostatic attraction bends and stretches the nanotube into contact with the pull electrode, thereby putting the switch into the "on" or "closed" state, in which substantial current (typically as much as hundreds of nanoamperes) is conducted. Devices of this type for use in initial experiments were fabricated on a thermally oxidized Si wafer, onto which Nb was sputter-deposited for use as the pull-electrode layer. Nb was chosen because its refractory nature would enable it to withstand the chemical and thermal conditions to be subsequently imposed for growing carbon nanotubes. A 200- nm-thick layer of SiO2 was formed on top of the Nb layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. In the device regions, the SiO2 layer was patterned to thin it to the 20-nm trench depth. The trenches were then patterned by electron- beam lithography and formed by reactive- ion etching of the pattern through the 20-nm-thick SiO2 to the Nb layer.

  3. Transparent and Electrically Conductive Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposite Materials for Electrostatic Charge Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervishi, E.; Biris, A. S.; Biris, A. R.; Lupu, D.; Trigwell, S.; Miller, D. W.; Schmitt, T.; Buzatu, D. A.; Wilkes, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, nanocomposite materials have been extensively studied because of their superior electrical, magnetic, and optical properties and large number of possible applications that range from nano-electronics, specialty coatings, electromagnetic shielding, and drug delivery. The aim of the present work is to study the electrical and optical properties of carbon nanotube(CNT)-polymer nanocomposite materials for electrostatic charge dissipation. Single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes were grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) on metal/metal oxide catalytic systems using acetylene or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. After the purification process, in which amorphous carbon and non-carbon impurities were removed, the nanotubes were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups in order to achieve a good dispersion in water and various other solvents. The carbon nanostructures were analyzed, both before and after functionalization by several analytical techniques, including microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Solvent dispersed nanotubes were mixed (1 to 7 wt %) into acrylic polymers by sonication and allowed to dry into 25 micron thick films. The electrical and optical properties of the films were analyzed as a function of the nanotubes' concentration. A reduction in electrical resistivity, up to six orders of magnitude, was measured as the nanotubes' concentration in the polymeric films increased, while optical transparency remained 85 % or higher relative to acrylic films without nanotubes.

  4. Deformations and nanomechanical energy storage in twisted carbon nanotube ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanek, David; Fthenakis, Zacharias G.; Seifert, Gotthard; Teich, David

    2013-03-01

    We determine the deformation energetics and energy density of twisted carbon nanotube ropes that effectively constitute a torsional spring. Due to the unprecedented stiffness and resilience of constituent carbon nanotubes, a twisted nanotube rope becomes an efficient energy carrier. Using ab initio and parameterized density functional calculations, we identify structural changes in these systems and determine their elastic limits. The deformation energy of twisted nanotube ropes contains contributions associated not only with twisting, but also with stretching, bending and compression of individual nanotubes. We quantify these energy contributions and show that their relative role changes with the number of nanotubes in the rope. The calculated reversible nanomechanical energy storage capacity of carbon nanotube ropes surpasses that of advanced Li-ion batteries by up to a factor of ten. Supported by the National Science Foundation Cooperative Agreement #EEC-0832785, titled ``NSEC: Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing''.

  5. Studies of DNA-carbon nanotube interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Mary Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Recently a new biomaterial consisting of a DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotube, and known as a DNA/SWNT, has been discovered. The possible applications of this hybrid are varied and range from genomic sequencing to nanoscale electronics to molecular delivery. The realization of these potential applications requires more knowledge about the microscopic properties of this material. In this thesis, I present studies of: the orientation of nucleobases on the nanotube sidewall; the sequence and length dependence of the DNA-nanotube interaction; and solution conditions to manipulate the DNA/SWNT hybrid. The measurement of the UV optical absorbance of DNA/SWNT and the nucleotide absorbance from DNA/SWNT provide the first experimental confirmation that DNA binds to nanotubes through pi-stacking. Because the hypochromic absorbance typical of pi-stacked structures are expected to occur primarily for DNA dipole transitions that lie along the axis of the optically anisotropic SWNTs, the absorbance changes following binding of DNA to the nanotubes reveals the preferred orientation assumed by each of the four bound nucleotides with respect to the nanotube's long axis. The first observations of pronounced sequence- and length-dependent variations in the binding between ssDNA and SWNTs in aqueous solution are presented. These observations rely on the discovery that there exists a range of DNA lengths able to hybridize with SWNTs that can nevertheless be dissociated at temperatures below the boiling point of water. Quantitative results comparing the isochronal dissociation temperatures and binding energies of DNA/SWNT composed of differing DNA sequences and lengths are given. These results indicate variability and complexity in the binding mechanism responsible for the stability of the hybrid system that transcends simple models based on the sum of independent base-nanotube interactions. Binding energies between a DNA base and nanotube (0.05 to 0.09 eV per base) are similar to stacking energies in the native dsDNA structure (0.04 to 0.08 eV per base), as well as recent computational results (0.09 to 0.13 eV per base). Solution conditions and experiments manipulating the DNA/SWNT, such as removal of bound DNA and the separation of DNA from DNA/SWNTs, are also discussed. These results increase the utility of DNA/SWNTs for researchers in diverse fields.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes Used in Electroanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, C. G.; Feng, B.

    The fabrication of the carboxyl-modified CNT electrode was described. The electroanalytical investigation of sulfadiazine has been conducted in alkaline aqueous solution at the CNT electrode by voltammetry. Highly reproducible and well-defined cyclic voltammograms were obtained for sulfadiazine with a very good signal to background (S/B) ratio. However, no fouling of the electrode was observed at the CNT electrode within the experimental period of several hours, which illustrated that the CNT electrode was much better than traditional electrodes. Meanwhile, the detection of trace sulfadiazine in milk was also conducted by cyclic voltammetry with satisfactory ratio of recovery, indicating that the nanotube electrode can be used in routine monitoring of sulfadiazine residues in food.

  7. Fluid flow in carbon nanotubes and nanopipes.

    PubMed

    Whitby, M; Quirke, N

    2007-02-01

    Nanoscale carbon tubes and pipes can be readily fabricated using self-assembly techniques and they have useful electrical, optical and mechanical properties. The transport of liquids along their central pores is now of considerable interest both for testing classical theories of fluid flow at the nanoscale and for potential nanofluidic device applications. In this review we consider evidence for novel fluid flow in carbon nanotubes and pipes that approaches frictionless transport. Methods for controlling such flow and for creating functional device architectures are described and possible applications are discussed. PMID:18654225

  8. Fluid flow in carbon nanotubes and nanopipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, M.; Quirke, N.

    2007-02-01

    Nanoscale carbon tubes and pipes can be readily fabricated using self-assembly techniques and they have useful electrical, optical and mechanical properties. The transport of liquids along their central pores is now of considerable interest both for testing classical theories of fluid flow at the nanoscale and for potential nanofluidic device applications. In this review we consider evidence for novel fluid flow in carbon nanotubes and pipes that approaches frictionless transport. Methods for controlling such flow and for creating functional device architectures are described and possible applications are discussed.

  9. Electron transport through single carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Chai, G.; Heinrich, H.; Chow, L.; Schenkel, T.

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transport of energetic electrons through single, well aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). Embedding of CNTs in a protective carbon fiber coating enables the application of focused ion beam based sample preparation techniques for the non-destructive isolation and alignment of individual tubes. Aligned tubes with lengths of 0.7 to 3 mu m allow transport of 300 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope through their hollow cores at zero degree incident angles and for a misalignment of up to 1 degree.

  10. Terahertz Response of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Yukio

    2015-12-01

    The terahertz (THz) research field is expected to serve as a new platform for studying low-energy excitation in solids and higher-order structures in large molecules, and for realizing applications in medicine, agriculture, security, and high-capacity communications. The THz frequency region, however, is located between the electronic and photonic bands, hampering the development of basic components like detectors and sources. This article presents an overview of basic background information about THz waves and THz detector applications and describes the THz response of carbon-based low-dimensional systems, such as single carbon nanotubes (CNT), CNT-array films, and graphene.

  11. Effect of Alignment on Transport Properties of Carbon Nanotube/Metallic Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Namkung, Min; Smits, Jan; Williams, Phillip; Harvey, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Ballistic and spin coherent transport in single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are predicted to enable high sensitivity single-nanotube devices for strain and magnetic field sensing. Based upon these phenomena, electron beam lithography procedures have been developed to study the transport properties of purified HiPCO single walled carbon nanotubes for development into sensory materials for nondestructive evaluation. Purified nanotubes are dispersed in solvent suspension and then deposited on the device substrate before metallic contacts are defined and deposited through electron beam lithography. This procedure produces randomly dispersed ropes, typically 2 - 20 nm in diameter, of single walled carbon nanotubes. Transport and scanning probe microscopy studies have shown a good correlation between the junction resistance and tube density, alignment, and contact quality. In order to improve transport properties of the junctions a technique has been developed to align and concentrate nanotubes at specific locations on the substrate surface. Lithographic techniques are used to define local areas where high frequency electric fields are to be concentrated. Application of the fields while the substrate is exposed to nanotube-containing solution results in nanotube arrays aligned with the electric field lines. A second electron beam lithography layer is then used to deposit metallic contacts across the aligned tubes. Experimental measurements are presented showing the increased tube alignment and improvement in the transport properties of the junctions.

  12. Functionalization of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with gallium to form Ga-CNx-multi-wall carbon nanotube hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Trevor J.; Hashim, Daniel P.; Zhan, Xiaobo; Bravo-Sanchez, Mariela; Hahm, Myung Gwan; López-Luna, Edgar; Linhardt, Robert J.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Navarro-Contreras, Hugo; Vidal, Miguel A.

    2012-08-01

    In an effort to combine group III-V semiconductors with carbon nanotubes, a simple solution-based technique for gallium functionalization of nitrogen-doped multi-wall carbon nanotubes has been developed. With an aqueous solution of a gallium salt (GaI3), it was possible to form covalent bonds between the Ga3+ ion and the nitrogen atoms of the doped carbon nanotubes to form a gallium nitride-carbon nanotube hybrid at room temperature. This functionalization was evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy

  13. Optimized fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotube spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samm, J.; Gramich, J.; Baumgartner, A.; Weiss, M.; Schönenberger, C.

    2014-05-01

    We report an improved fabrication scheme for carbon based nanospintronic devices and demonstrate the necessity for a careful data analysis to investigate the fundamental physical mechanisms leading to magnetoresistance. The processing with a low-density polymer and an optimised recipe allows us to improve the electrical, magnetic, and structural quality of ferromagnetic Permalloy contacts on lateral carbon nanotube (CNT) quantum dot spin valve devices, with comparable results for thermal and sputter deposition of the material. We show that spintronic nanostructures require an extended data analysis, since the magnetization can affect all characteristic parameters of the conductance features and lead to seemingly anomalous spin transport. In addition, we report measurements on CNT quantum dot spin valves that seem not to be compatible with the orthodox theories for spin transport in such structures.

  14. Optimized fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotube spin valves

    SciTech Connect

    Samm, J.; Gramich, J.; Baumgartner, A. Weiss, M.; Schönenberger, C.

    2014-05-07

    We report an improved fabrication scheme for carbon based nanospintronic devices and demonstrate the necessity for a careful data analysis to investigate the fundamental physical mechanisms leading to magnetoresistance. The processing with a low-density polymer and an optimised recipe allows us to improve the electrical, magnetic, and structural quality of ferromagnetic Permalloy contacts on lateral carbon nanotube (CNT) quantum dot spin valve devices, with comparable results for thermal and sputter deposition of the material. We show that spintronic nanostructures require an extended data analysis, since the magnetization can affect all characteristic parameters of the conductance features and lead to seemingly anomalous spin transport. In addition, we report measurements on CNT quantum dot spin valves that seem not to be compatible with the orthodox theories for spin transport in such structures.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Based Devices for Intracellular Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Riju Mohan

    Scientific investigations on individual cells have gained increasing attention in recent years as efforts are being made to understand cellular functioning in complex processes, such as cell division during embryonic development, and owing to realization of heterogeneity amongst a population of a single cell type (for instance, certain individual cancer cells being immune to chemotherapy). Therefore devices enabling electrochemical detection, spectroscopy, optical observations, and separation techniques, along with cell piercing and fluid transfer capabilities at the intra-cellular level, are required. Glass pipettes have conventionally been used for single cell interrogation, however their poor mechanical properties and an intrusive conical geometry have led to limited precision and frequent cell damage or death, justifying research efforts to develop novel, non-intrusive cell probes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for their superior physical properties and tunable chemical structure. They possess a high aspect ratio and offer minimally invasive thin carbon walls and tubular geometry. Moreover, possibility of chemical functionalization of CNTs enables multi-functional probes. In this dissertation, novel nanofluidic instruments that have nanostructured carbon tips will be presented along with techniques that utilize the exceptional physical properties of carbon nanotubes, to take miniature biomedical instrumentation to the next level. New methods for fabricating the probes were rigorously developed and their operation was extensively studied. The devices were mechanically robust and were used to inject liquids to a single cell, detect electrochemical signals and enable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) while inducing minimal harm to the cell. Particular attention was focused on the CVD process-which was used to deposit carbon, fluid flow through the nanotubes, and separation of chemical species (atto-liter chromatography) at the nanometer scale that would potentially lead to the highly sought after "selective component extraction" and analysis from a single cell. These multi-functional devices therefore provide a picture of the physiological state of a living cell and function as endoscopes for single cell analysis.

  16. Carbon Nanotube-enhanced Carbon-phenolic Ablator Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolaev, P.; Stackpoole, M.; Fan, W.; Cruden, B.; Waid, M.; Maloney, P.; Arepalli, S.; Arnold, J.; Partridge, H.; Yowell, L.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) is a thermal protection system (TPS) material developed at NASA Ames Research Center in the mid-90 s for Discovery missions. It was used on the Stardust return capsule heat shield which successfully executed the highest speed Earth entry to date on January 15, 2006. PICA is a porous fibrous carbon insulation infiltrated with phenolic resin, and is an excellent ablator that is effective for heating rates up to 1000 W/sq cm. It is one of several candidate TPS materials for the next generation of crewed spacecraft for Lunar and Mars missions. We will describe an ongoing research effort at NASA to improve mechanical properties of the phenolic matrix with carbon nanotubes. The aim is two-fold: to increase overall TPS strength during reentry and to improve Micrometeoroid/Orbital Debris (MMOD) protection in space. The former requires at least a good dispersion of nanotubes in phenolic, while the latter also requires covalent bonding between them to couple and transfer impact energy effectively from matrix to nanotubes. We will discuss the required chemical functionalization of nanotubes, processing issues and test results.

  17. Optical and mechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Matthew S.

    The experiments presented in this thesis provide insight into the optical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes. In the process of studying the properties of carbon nanotube structures we also discovered some interesting features of intermittent contact atomic force microscopy. Phase data from non-contact AFM reveals in-plane material properties . In the process of characterizing carbon nanotubes with an intermittent contact AFM (ICAFM), we discovered something quite interesting: ICAFM is sensitive to in-plane properties. We found that phase contrast in ICAFM reveals in-plane mechanical properties of the poly-di-acetylene films. Our measurements are possible because, during ICAFM, the cantilever tip oscillates not just perpendicular but also parallel to the sample surface along the long axis of the cantilever. Understanding photo-induced conductivity changes in carbon nanotubes . The basic process for using a nanotube as a photo-detector involves using light to change the conductivity of the nanotube, typically measured as a change in current. We review the different mechanisms for how light changes the conductivity of a nanotube, and then focus on a photo-gating mechanism. In a photo-gating mechanism, light interacts with the nanotube's environment changing the conductivity of the nanotube. Thermally driven oscillations play a significant role in chemical vapor deposition growth. The elevated temperatures during the CVD growth thermally drive nanotube oscillations with amplitudes on the order of 80nm. Nanotubes suspended a small distance above the substrate will often oscillate with an amplitude as large as the suspension height and interact with the substrate. The large binding energy between the nanotube and the substrate causes the nanotube to become stuck: the nanotube is no longer suspended. Using data from CVD growths on our suspended structures we are able to extract a Young's modulus value for our nanotubes which both validates the thermally driven oscillation picture, as well as provides another method for modulus measurement.

  18. Stretchable Conductive Networks of Carbon Nanotubes Using Plasticised Colloidal Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worajittiphon, Patnarin; Large, Matthew; King, Alice; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan

    2015-03-01

    We present a study of the behavior of highly ordered, segregated single-wall carbon nanotube networks under applied strain. Polymer latex templates induce self-assembly of carbon nanotubes into hexagonal (2D) and honeycomb (3D) networks within the matrix. Using mechanical and spectroscopic analysis, we have studied the strain transfer mechanisms between the carbon nanotube network and the polymer matrix. Axial deformation of the nanotube network under applied strain is indicated by downshifts in the 2D mode in the Raman spectra, as well as variation in the Radial Breathing modes. The slippage within nanotube bundles at high strain is indicated by a reduction in the 2D mode rate of change. The fractional resistance change of the composites with strain obeys power law dependence. We present a model for the behavior of carbon nanotube bundles under strain informed by these measurements, and potential applications for such composite materials in elastic electronic devices that can tolerate high strain.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Electrical, dielectric and surface wetting properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/nylon-6 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yun-Ze; Li, Meng-Meng; Sui, Wan-Mei; Kong, Qing-Shan; Zhang, Lei

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports that the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/nylon-6 (PA6) nanocomposites with different MWCNT loadings have been prepared by a simple melt-compounding method. The electrical, dielectric, and surface wetting properties of the CNT/PA6 composites have been studied. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the CNT/PA6 composite with 10.0 wt% CNT loading (σRT ~ 10-4 S/cm) are measured, and afterwards a charge-energy-limited tunnelling model (ln σ(T) ~ T-1/2) is found. With increasing CNT weight percentage from 0.0 to 10.0 wt%, the dielectric constant of the CNT/PA6 composites enhances and the dielectric loss tangent increases two orders of magnitude. In addition, water contact angles of the CNT/PA6 composites increase and the composites with CNT loading larger than 2.0 wt% even become hydrophobic. The obtained results indicate that the electrical and surface properties of the composites have been significantly enhanced by the embedded carbon nanotubes.

  20. Single carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yuichiro K.

    2015-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have unique optical properties as a result of their one-dimensional structure. Not only do they exhibit strong polarization for both absorption and emission, large exciton binding energies allow for room-temperature excitonic luminescence. Furthermore, their emission is in the telecom-wavelengths and they can be directly synthesized on silicon substrates, providing new opportunities for nanoscale photonics and optoelectronics. Here we discuss the use of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes for generation, manipulation, and detection of light on a chip. Their emission properties can be controlled by coupling to silicon photonic structures such as photonic crystal microcavities and microdisk resonators. Simultaneous photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements show that excitons can dissociate spontaneously, enabling photodetection at low bias voltages despite the large binding energies. More recently, we have found that alternating gate-voltages can generate optical pulse trains from individual nanotubes. Ultimately, these results may be combined to achieve further control over photons at the nanoscale. Work supported by KAKENHI, The Canon Foundation, The Asahi Glass Foundation, and JSPS Open Partnership Joint Projects, as well as the Nanotechnology Platform and Photon Frontier Network Program of MEXT, Japan.