Science.gov

Sample records for carbon sequestration measures

  1. Measuring Carbon Sequestration in Pasture Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of croplands to pasture can greatly increase sequestration of carbon in soil organic matter, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and helping to reduce the impacts of climate change. The measurement of soil carbon, and its limitations, could impact future carbon credit programs. ...

  2. Measurement of carbon for carbon sequestration and site monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Wullschleger, Stan D; Garten Jr, Charles T; Palumbo, Anthony Vito

    2007-01-01

    A 2 to 6 degree C increase in global temperature by 2050 has been predicted due to the production of greenhouse gases that is directly linked to human activities. This has encouraged an increase in the international efforts on ways to reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as evidence for the link between atmospheric greenhouse gases and climate change has been established. Suggestion that soils and vegetation could be managed to increase their uptake and storage of CO{sub 2}, and thus become 'land carbon sinks' is an incentive for scientists to undertake the ability to measure and quantify the carbon in soils and vegetation to establish base-line quantities present at this time. The verification of the permanence of these carbon sinks has raised some concern regarding the accuracy of their long-term existence. Out of the total percentage of carbon that is potentially sequestered in the terrestrial land mass, only 25% of that is sequestered above ground and almost 75% is hypothesized to be sequestered underground. Soil is composed of solids, liquids, and gases which is similar to a three-phase system. The gross chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) consists of 65% humic substances that are amorphous, dark-colored, complex, polyelectrolyte-like materials that range in molecular weight from a few hundred to several thousand Daltons. The very complex structure of humic and fulvic acid makes it difficult to obtain a spectral signature for all soils in general. The humic acids of different soils have been observed to have polymeric structure, appearing as rings, chains and clusters as seen in electron microscope observations. The humification processes of the soils will decide the sizes of their macromolecules that range from 60-500 angstroms. The percentage of the humus that occurs in the light brown soils is much lower than the humus present in dark brown soils. The humus of forest soils is characterized

  3. Measuring and Monitoring Soil Carbon Sequestration at the Project Level

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2005-05-26

    This paper presents an overview of the status of soil carbon sequestration (SCS) and discusses methods for measuring and monitoring carbon changes in agricultural and grassland soils. The topics reviewed include: soil sampling, analysis, models and remote sensing. Significant scientific and technological advances in the area of SCS have been achieved during the last 15 years. A number of feasibility or pilot projects are underway worldwide under a variety of environmental and socioeconomic situations. To further advance the field of SCS, more projects like these will have to be implemented in order to develop an internationally-accepted and adaptable framework that can guide landowner, energy, and government groups in the development of SCS projects. The formation of a collaborative network for this type of SCS projects can be very helpful to compare the methodologies in use across diverse environments and to exchange data for laboratory quality controls and verification of simulation models among other purposes. These projects will also be useful to advance new methodologies that integrate many of the novel concepts discussed in the previous sections as well as many yet to be discovered.

  4. Soil sustainability as measured by carbon sequestration using carbon isotopes from crop-livestock management systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is an integral part of maintaining and measuring soil sustainability. This study was undertaken to document and better understand the relationships between two livestock-crop-forage systems and the sequestration of SOC with regards to soil sustainability and was conducted o...

  5. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  6. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  7. A Survey of Measurement, Mitigation, and Verification Field Technologies for Carbon Sequestration Geologic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, K. K.; Klara, S. M.; Srivastava, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE's) Carbon Sequestration Program is developing state-of-the-science technologies for measurement, mitigation, and verification (MM&V) in field operations of geologic sequestration. MM&V of geologic carbon sequestration operations will play an integral role in the pre-injection, injection, and post-injection phases of carbon capture and storage projects to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Effective MM&V is critical to the success of CO2 storage projects and will be used by operators, regulators, and stakeholders to ensure safe and permanent storage of CO2. In the U.S. DOE's Program, Carbon sequestration MM&V has numerous instrumental roles: Measurement of a site's characteristics and capability for sequestration; Monitoring of the site to ensure the storage integrity; Verification that the CO2 is safely stored; and Protection of ecosystems. Other drivers for MM&V technology development include cost-effectiveness, measurement precision, and frequency of measurements required. As sequestration operations are implemented in the future, it is anticipated that measurements over long time periods and at different scales will be required; this will present a significant challenge. MM&V sequestration technologies generally utilize one of the following approaches: below ground measurements; surface/near-surface measurements; aerial and satellite imagery; and modeling/simulations. Advanced subsurface geophysical technologies will play a primary role for MM&V. It is likely that successful MM&V programs will incorporate multiple technologies including but not limited to: reservoir modeling and simulations; geophysical techniques (a wide variety of seismic methods, microgravity, electrical, and electromagnetic techniques); subsurface fluid movement monitoring methods such as injection of tracers, borehole and wellhead pressure sensors, and tiltmeters; surface/near surface methods such as soil gas monitoring and infrared

  8. Total carbon measurement in soils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy : Results from the field and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M. H.; Breshears, D. D.; Unkefer, P. J.; Cremers, D. A.; Kammerdiener, S. A.; Ferris, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Rapid measurement of total carbon in soils is an important factor in modeling the effects of global change and carbon sequestration in soils. Conventional methods of carbon analysis such as dry combustion are relatively slow, and reliable estimation of carbon concentrations at the landscape scale is practically impossible because of the need for many replicate measurements. A new spectroscopic method, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), provides rapid carbon analysis with little or no sample preparation time. LIBS is portable and can be used for carbon analysis in the field or even in situ, such as inside a soil borehole. Data from LIBS analyses can be used to monitor small changes in soil carbon at different times, a critical component in many global climate models and terrestrial carbon sequestration strategies. We present a comparison of dry combustion measurements with LIBS analyses using several agricultural and woodland soils. The LIBS data are highly reproducible, are not affected by differences in soil types, and there is a strong correlation with dry combustion measurements. We further show the results of carbon measurements in different parts of a pinon-juniper woodland in semiarid New Mexico. Our results highlight soil carbon concentrations under tree canopies, in intercanopy spaces, and in small-scale catchments within the woodland. The latter measurements show an important, but until use of LIBS, overlooked store of carbon in semiarid areas. The use of LIBS data shows many benefits including reducing the uncertainty inherent in measurements of soil carbon in different environments, the speed with which LIBS analyses can be obtained (minutes) compared to dry combustion (days), and in modeling the global cycling of carbon in terrestrial settings. LIBS analyses make possible the estimation of landscape-scale carbon inventories that require large sample numbers as well as detailed quantification of carbon concentrations in soils under canopies or

  9. Integrated Estimates of Global Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

    2008-02-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. As part of a scenario analysis for the US Climate Change Technology Program, measurements and geographic data were used to develop terrestrial carbon sequestration estimates for agricultural soil carbon, reforestation and pasture management. These estimates were then applied in the MiniCAM integrated assessment model to evaluate mitigation strategies within policy and technology scenarios aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. Terrestrial sequestration reach a peak combined rate of 0.5 to 0.7 Gt carbon yr-1 in mid-century with contributions from agricultural soil (0.21 Gt carbon yr-1), reforestation (0.31 Gt carbon yr-1) and pasture (0.15 Gt carbon yr-1). Sequestration rates vary over time period and with different technology and policy scenarios. The combined contribution of terrestrial sequestration over the next century ranges from 31 to 41 GtC. The contribution of terrestrial sequestration to mitigation is highest early in the century, reaching up to 20% of total carbon mitigation. This analysis provides insight into the behavior of terrestrial carbon mitigation options in the presence and absence of climate change mitigation policies.

  10. Correspondence Between Long Term Carbon Sequestration and Measurable Variables in a Global Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, S.; Muller, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The response of net atmosphere-land carbon exchange under future warming and increasing CO2 is key to the projection of future climate change. However, current land-surface model differ widely in their prediction of the land carbon sink by 2100. These models are increasingly complex and entail a large array of mechanisms. Consequently, the number of "knobs"(i.e. model parameters) available to tune model results has increased drastically. In principal, objectively tuning all parameters of a model to the measurements at hand should yield a best configuration. But in practice, it is important to know structure of data that helps best to improve a model's long-term carbon sink trajectory; or alternatively whether there are variables where a model data mismatch would not necessarily compromise the model outcome. We performed a sensitivity analysis of LM3VN, a land surface model with a prognostic nitrogen cycle, by varying 60 parameters, and checked for correspondence between the sensitivity of the model's long-term (1850-2100) carbon sink and contemporary (1980-2006) calibration variables. We found, that few parameters had a strong impact on the long term carbon sequestration, showing that the model entails a number of negative feedbacks. Importantly, the parameters to which the model was most sensitive were found to vary between individual gridcells, supporting the idea of point-specific and regional model assessment. The model's prediction of the current total carbon inventory correlated well with the prediction of the long term carbon sink, indicating that evaluation of models against current carbon inventories could improve their prediction of carbon sequestration over the this century, although the aggregation of such data is challenging. A promising correspondence is that of the interannual variability of net carbon exchange, we found this the correlation to be significant in a majority of gridcells (73%) but weak if globally aggregated. Overall, such targeted

  11. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  12. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best

  13. CARBON SEQUESTRATION SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-07-24

    Over 160 acres of tree seedlings were planted during the last quarter. This quarter marked the beginning of the installation of new instrumentation and the inspection and calibration of previously installed recording devices. Sampling systems were initiated to quantify initial seedling success as well as height measurements. Nursery seedlings have been inoculated to produce mycorrhizal treated stock for 2004 spring plantings to determine the effects on carbon sequestration. All planting areas in western Kentucky have been sampled with the recording cone penetrometer and the nuclear density gauge to measure soil density.

  14. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  15. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  16. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  18. Scenarios of forestry carbon sequestration measures in the Russian Federation and priorities for action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kokorin, A.O.

    1996-12-31

    Development of forestry mitigation strategy under Russian transition economy conditions has many difficulties and specific features. The most important factors are: shortage in funds; absence of well defined legislation, rules and standards; absence of adequate control systems; weak transport infrastructure and export problems. Assessment of economic possibilities, potential, short- and middle-term measures show that strategies have to be focused on improvement and promotion of current carbon sequestration activity. Five baseline forestry scenario (No. 1) and four other scenarios (No. 2 - No. 5) for 2000-2040 were developed. Each scenario covers all forested area but provides separate analysis of 30 `forestry ecoregions`. Three types of forestry management were included in scenarios: clear-cut logging and reforestation (by scenarios No. 2 and No. 3); selective logging and thinning (No. 4); measures to prevent and manage fires (No. 5). The baseline scenario results in a constant net-sink of about 150 MtC/yr. An increase in clear-cut logging on the basis of current forestry practice will cause a rapid drop of net-sink. Implementation of a modest increase in clear-cut logging with active forest fire and selective logging measures could provide with a slight increase of net-sink. Consideration of scenarios helps identify regional forestry priorities for Russian Climate Change Action Plan. The priorities by region include: European-Ural: (1) creation of economy mechanism to increase forestry effectiveness on the same cutting areas, (2) assistance to natural reforestation. Central and North-East Siberia: promotion of forest fire protection system. South Siberia and Primorie and Priamurie: limit of clear-cut logging and creation market situation for better forestry efficiency. The proposed Joint Implementation Vologda reforestation project which is being considered now by special bodies of the USA and the Russian Federation is in good agreement with these priorities.

  19. mineral sequestration by wollastonite carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenjin; Fu, Liangjie; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Huaming

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a new approach to CO2 mineral sequestration using wollastonite carbonation assisted by sulfuric acid and ammonia. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance. The change in Gibbs free energy from -223 kJ/mol for the leaching reaction of wollastonite to -101 kJ/mol for the carbonation reaction indicated that these two reactions can proceed spontaneously. The leached and carbonated wollastonite showed fibrous bassanite and granular calcium carbonate, respectively, while the crystal structure of pristine wollastonite was destroyed and the majority of the Ca2+ in pristine wollastonite leached. The chemical changes in the phases were monitored during the whole process. A high carbonation rate of 91.1 % could be obtained under the action of sulfuric acid and ammonia at 30 °C at normal atmospheric pressure, indicating its potential use for CO2 sequestration.

  20. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C

  1. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION/MARKETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands in the conterminous United States include about 212 of which about ~48 million hectares (Mha) of pasture and 164 Mha of rangeland. Rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration can range from none to approaching 1 metric ton (mt) SOC/year. Climate and management influence potential i...

  2. Soil Carbon Sequestration/Markets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands in the conterminous United States include about 212 of which about ~48 million hectares (Mha) of pasture and 164 Mha of rangeland. Rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration can range from none to approaching 1 metric ton (mt) SOC/year. Climate and management influence potential i...

  3. Carbon sequestration and land degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and fo...

  4. Carbon sequestration in reclaimed minesoils

    SciTech Connect

    Ussiri, D.A.N.; Lal, R.

    2005-07-01

    Minesoils are drastically influenced by anthropogenic activities. They are characterized by low soil organic matter (SOM) content, low fertility, and poor physicochemical and biological properties, limiting their quality, capability, and functions. Reclamation of these soils has potential for resequestering some of the C lost and mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates in minesoils are high in the first 20 to 30 years after reclamation in the top 15 cm soil depth. In general, higher rates of SOC sequestration are observed for minesoils under pasture and grassland management than under forest land use. Observed rates of SOC sequestration are 0.3 to 1.85 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for pastures and rangelands, and 0.2 to 1.64 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for forest land use. Proper reclamation and postreclamation management may enhance SOC sequestration and add to the economic value of the mined sites. Management practices that may enhance SOC sequestration include increasing vegetative cover by deep-rooted perennial vegetation and afforestation, improving soil fertility, and alleviation of physical, chemical and biological limitations by fertilizers and soil amendments such as biosolids, manure, coal combustion by-products, and mulches. Soil and water conservation are important to SOC sequestration. The potential of SOC sequestration in minesoils of the US is estimated to be 1.28 Tg C yr{sup -1}, compared to the emissions from coal combustion of 506 Tg C yr{sup -1}.

  5. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  6. The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-04-15

    The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

  7. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  8. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  9. Carbon Sequestration in Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, R.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils and forests is an important strategy of reducing the net increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration by fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, biomass burning, soil cultivation and accelerated erosion. Further, the so-called "missing or fugitive CO2" is also probably being absorbed in a terrestrial sink. Three of the 15 strategies proposed to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 2054, with each one to sequester 1 Pg Cyr-1, include: (i) biofuel plantations for bioethanol production, (ii) reforestation, afforestation and establishment of new plantations, and (iii) conversion of plow tillage to no-till farming. Enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is an important component in each of these three options, but especially so in conversion of degraded/marginal agricultural soils to short rotation woody perennials, and establishment of plantations for biofuel, fiber and timber production. Depending upon the prior SOC loss because of the historic land used and management-induced soil degradation, the rate of soil C sequestration in forest soils may be 0 to 3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Tropical forest ecosystems cover 1.8 billion hectares and have a SOC sequestration potential of 200 to 500 Tg C yr-1 over 59 years. However, increasing production of forest biomass may not always increase the SOC pool. Factors limiting the rate of SOC sequestration include C: N ratio, soil availability of N and other essential nutrients, concentration of recalcitrant macro-molecules (e.g., lignin, suberin), soil properties (e.g., clay content and mineralogy, aggregation), soil drainage, and climate (mean annual precipitation and temperature). The SOC pool can be enhanced by adopting recommended methods of forest harvesting and site preparation to minimize the "Covington effect," improving soil drainage, alleviating soil compaction, growing species with a high NPP, and improving soil fertility including the availability of micro-nutrients. Soil fertility

  10. Mechanisms of Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soil is one of the several strategies of reducing the net emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Of the two components, soil organic C (SOC) and soil inorganic C (SIC), SOC is an important control of edaphic properties and processes. In addition to off-setting part of the anthropogenic emissions, enhancing SOC concentration to above the threshold level (~1.5-2.0%) in the root zone has numerous ancillary benefits including food and nutritional security, biodiversity, water quality, among others. Because of its critical importance in human wellbeing and nature conservancy, scientific processes must be sufficiently understood with regards to: i) the potential attainable, and actual sink capacity of SOC and SIC, ii) permanence of the C sequestered its turnover and mean residence time, iii) the amount of biomass C needed (Mg/ha/yr) to maintain and enhance SOC pool, and to create a positive C budget, iv) factors governing the depth distribution of SOC, v) physical, chemical and biological mechanisms affecting the rate of decomposition by biotic and abiotic processes, vi) role of soil aggregation in sequestration and protection of SOC and SIC pool, vii) the importance of root system and its exudates in transfer of biomass-C into the SOC pools, viii) significance of biogenic processes in formation of secondary carbonates, ix) the role of dissolved organic C (DOC) in sequestration of SOC and SIC, and x) importance of weathering of alumino-silicates (e.g., powered olivine) in SIC sequestration. Lack of understanding of these and other basic processes leads to misunderstanding, inconsistencies in interpretation of empirical data, and futile debates. Identification of site-specific management practices is also facilitated by understanding of the basic processes of sequestration of SOC and SIC. Sustainable intensification of agroecosystems -- producing more from less by enhancing the use efficiency and reducing losses of inputs, necessitates thorough

  11. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  12. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  13. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  14. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-10-02

    During this quarter a general forest monitoring program was conducted to measure treatment effects on above ground and below ground carbon C and Nitrogen (N) pools for the tree planting areas. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to Carbon cycling was initiated with the development of plots to examine the influence of mycorrhizae, spoil chemical and mineralogical properties, and use of amendment on forest establishment and carbon sequestration. Efforts continued during this period to examine decomposition and heterotrophic respiration on C cycling in the reforestation plots. Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed surface mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. New plantings required the modification and design and installation on monitoring equipment. Maintenance and data monitoring on past and present installations are a continuing operation. The Department of Mining Engineering continued the collection of penetration resistance, penetration depth, and bulk density on both old and new treatment areas. Data processing and analysis is in process for these variables. Project scientists and graduate students continue to present results at scientific meetings, tours and field days presentations of the research areas are being conducted on a request basis.

  15. Assessing The Effectiveness Of Soil Carbon Sequestration In North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A. K.; Yang, X.; Post, W.

    2006-12-01

    Soil carbon sequestration has been shown to be an important part of a portfolio of carbon sequestration strategies in the U.S. and Canada, and one that can be implemented at relatively low costs. This analysis focuses on the estimate of carbon sequestration in soil as a result of a change from conventional plow tillage (CT) to no-till (NT) in North America and the resulting uptake of CO2 from 1981-2000. We use the terrestrial component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM-2), which simulates carbon and nitrogen fluxes as well as the interactions between carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle within the terrestrial biosphere at a 0.5o x 0.5o spatial resolution. To estimate carbon sequestration in soils, following a change in cropland management from CT to NT, we implement empirically-based sequestration estimates, or CMR curves in the ISAM. The CMR curves are based on the mean annual change in soil carbon over the expected duration of active sequestration. These empirical relationships have been developed for changes from CT to NT for five different climate regions, which are consistent with those used in the IPCC guidelines for carbon accounting. To calculate sequestration rates in North America, we use the measured area under NT over the period 1981- 2000. Cropland management (CT to NT) is accompanied by changes in CO2 concentration, climate, land use and land cover, and nitrogen deposition. Since these changes affect carbon and nitrogen cycles, and the interaction between them, which could augment or lessen carbon sequestration, we take a holistic approach to study carbon sequestration by incorporating major environmental changes.

  16. Role of Biofilms in Geological Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Robin; Mitchell, Andrew C.; Spangler, Lee H.; Cunningham, Al B.

    2010-05-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 involves injection into underground formations including oil beds, deep un-minable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers with temperature and pressure conditions such that CO2 will likely be in the supercritical state. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is only slightly soluble in water (approximately 4%) and it is therefore likely that two fluid phases will develop in the subsurface, an aqueous and a supercritical phase. Supercritical CO2 is less dense and much less viscous than water therefore creating the potential for upward leakage of CO2 through fractures, disturbed rock, or cement lining near injection wells. Our research focuses on microbially-based strategies for controlling leakage of CO2 during geologic sequestration and enhancing the process of CO2 trapping. We have demonstrated that engineered microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation, mineral, and solubility trapping in carbon sequestration-relevant formation materials. Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and high pressures (> 74 bar) have shown the ability of microbial biofilms to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media, survive the exposure to scCO2, and facilitate the conversion of gaseous and supercritical CO2 into long-term stable carbonate phases as well as increase the solubility of CO2 in brines. Successful development of these biologically-based concepts could result in microbially enhanced carbon sequestration strategies as well as CO2 leakage mitigation technologies which can be applied either before CO2 injection or as a remedial measure. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) program (U.S. DOE Award No. DE-FC26-04NT42262). However any opinions, conclusions, findings or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of DOE.

  17. [Seagrass ecosystems: contributions to and mechanisms of carbon sequestration].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guang-Long; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Li, Zong-Shan; Fan, Hang-Qing; Zhou, Hao-Lang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2014-06-01

    The ocean's vegetated habitats, in particular seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes, each capture and store a comparable amount of carbon per year, forming the Earth's blue carbon sinks, the most intense carbon sinks on the planet. Seagrass meadows, characterized by high primary productivity, efficient water column filtration and sediment stability, have a pronounced capacity for carbon sequestration. This is enhanced by low decomposition rates in anaerobic seagrass sediments. The carbon captured by seagrass meadows contributes significantly to the total blue carbon. At a global scale, seagrass ecosystems are carbon sink hot spots and have profound influences on the global carbon cycle. This importance combined with the many other functions of seagrass meadows places them among the most valuable ecosystems in the world. Unfortunately, seagrasses are declining globally at an alarming rate owing to anthropogenic disturbances and climate change, making them also among the most threatened ecosystems on the Earth. The role of coastal systems in carbon sequestration has received far too little attention and thus there are still many uncertainties in evaluating carbon sequestration of global seagrass meadows accurately. To better assess the carbon sequestration of global seagrass ecosystems, a number of scientific issues should be considered with high priorities: 1) more accurate measurements of seagrass coverage at national and global levels; 2) more comprehensive research into species- and location-specific carbon sequestration efficiencies; 3) in-depth exploration of the effects of human disturbance and global climate change on carbon capture and storage by seagrass ecosystems. PMID:25223044

  18. Sub-Surface Carbon Dioxide Concentration Measurement Using a Fiber Based Sensor in a Call/Return Geometry for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, G. R.; Soukup, B.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J.; Barr, J. L.; Dobeck, L.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is a means to mitigate the increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) by capturing the CO2 at a source such as a power generation facility and storing the captured CO2 in geologic formations. Many technologic advances will need to occur for successful carbon sequestration including near surface monitoring tools and techniques to ensure site integrity and public safety. Researchers at Montana State University (MSU) are developing a scalable fiber sensor array in a call/return configuration for monitoring near sub-surface CO2 concentrations. The low cost fiber sensor array being developed at MSU for sub-surface CO2 detection for monitoring carbon sequestration sites will utilize a series of fiber probes connected to a two detectors and a 1 x N fiber switch that can direct the light to one of N fiber probes. The fiber sensor array will utilize a single tunable distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser with a center wavelength of 2.004 μm to access CO2 absorption features. The output from the DFB laser is incident on an inline fiber splitter that directs part of the light to a reference detector while the remaining light is directed to a fiber probe where the laser light interacts with the CO2. The light from the fiber probe is directed back through the switch and is incident on a transmission detector. The transmission as a function of wavelength is measured and a CO2 concentration is calculated. The fiber sensor array can easily be reconfigured by simply moving the fiber probes. Low cost is achieved by using inexpensive passive components in the fiber probes while limiting the number of the more expensive components including the DFB laser, the two detectors, and the single fiber switch. The fiber sensor was tested over a thirty day period at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) facility that was developed for testing surface and near surface carbon sequestration monitoring instrumentation using a controlled

  19. How to Enhance Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimizing crop yields and reducing soil erosion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. The influence of management practices on crop residue C and N inputs to the soil, SOC sequestration, and NO3-N leaching potential under irrigated, continuous crop production in northern Texas was e...

  20. Trade-based carbon sequestration accounting.

    PubMed

    King, Dennis M

    2004-04-01

    This article describes and illustrates an accounting method to assess and compare "early" carbon sequestration investments and trades on the basis of the number of standardized CO2 emission offset credits they will provide. The "gold standard" for such credits is assumed to be a relatively riskless credit based on a CO2 emission reduction that provides offsets against CO2 emissions on a one-for-one basis. The number of credits associated with carbon sequestration needs to account for time, risk, durability, permanence, additionality, and other factors that future trade regulators will most certainly use to assign "official" credits to sequestration projects. The method that is presented here uses established principles of natural resource accounting and conventional rules of asset valuation to "score" projects. A review of 20 "early" voluntary United States based CO2 offset trades that involve carbon sequestration reveals that the assumptions that buyers, sellers, brokers, and traders are using to characterize the economic potential of their investments and trades vary enormously. The article develops a "universal carbon sequestration credit scoring equation" and uses two of these trades to illustrate the sensitivity of trade outcomes to various assumptions about how future trade auditors are likely to "score" carbon sequestration projects in terms of their "equivalency" with CO2 emission reductions. The article emphasizes the importance of using a standard credit scoring method that accounts for time and risk to assess and compare even unofficial prototype carbon sequestration trades. The scoring method illustrated in this article is a tool that can protect the integrity of carbon sequestration credit trading and can assist buyers and sellers in evaluating the real economic potential of prospective trades. PMID:15453408

  1. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the fifth and sixth project

  2. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  3. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Reitze, Arnold W.

    2011-04-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  4. CO2 sequestration in basalts: laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; van Wijk, K.; McLing, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is proposed as the only promising large-scale method to help reduce CO2 gas emission by its capture at large point sources and subsequent long-term storage in deep geologic formations. Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be important aspect of ensuring geological sequestration is a safe, effective, and acceptable method for CO2 emissions mitigation. Once CO2 injection starts, seismic methods can be used to monitor the migration of the carbon dioxide plume. To calibrate changes in rock properties from field observations, we propose to first analyze changes in elastic properties on basalt cores. Carbon dioxide sequestration in basalt rocks results in fluid substitution and mixing of CO2 with water and rock mineralizations. Carbon dioxide sequestration in mafic rocks creates reactions such as Mg2SiO 4 + CaMgSi2O 6 + 4CO2 = Mg 3Ca(CO 3) 4 + 3SiO2 whereby primary silicate minerals within the basalt react with carbonic acid laden water to creating secondary carbonate minerals and silicates. Using time-lapse laboratory scale experiments, such as laser generated ultrasonic wave propagation; it is possible to observe small changes in the physical properties of a rock. We will show velocity and modulus measurements on three basalt core samples for different saturation. The ultimate goal of the project is to track seismic changes due to fluid substitution and mineralization. The porosity of our basalts ranges from 8% to 12%, and the P-wave velocity increases by 20% to 40% from dry to water saturated conditions. Petrographic analysis (CT-scans, thin sections, XRF, XRf) will aid in the characterization of the mineral structure in these basalts and its correlation to seismic properties changes resulting from fluid substitution and mineralization.

  5. Insights into the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Rangelands Through Measurement and Modeling of Differently Managed Pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J. J.; Hartman, M.; Parton, W. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Poor management of rangelands has led to significant soil organic matter losses globally, and contributed to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Restoring and increasing soil carbon (C) content in rangelands offers an opportunity to mitigate climate change while improving soil conditions and increasing forage production. Organic matter amendments are used to improve soil properties, but predicting the resulting changes in soil C is challenging due to the interactions between amendment characteristics, climate, and soil characteristics. We used data from 10 pasture-based dairies in California and the DayCent model to test the impact of long-term (>30 year) manure additions on soil C pools and fluxes. Soils were sampled from 26 fields which had solid, liquid, solid and liquid, or no manure additions. These field data and management information provided by the ranchers were used to model the effects of manure amends on soil C storage and loss. Soil C was significantly greater in manured fields than non-manured fields when corrected for clay content and slope. Fields with higher clay had more soil C, as did those with lower slopes, and these effects were large enough to confound the manuring effect. DayCent was able to accurately estimate total soil C when parameterized with field-specific management practices, averaging only a 10±1% difference between measurement and modeled values. Using generalized management histories for manured and non-manured fields, as would be used for regional-scale estimates, produced less accurate results with a 24±3% average difference between measurement and modeled values. Modeling alternate scenarios for each field suggested that manure amendment increased soil C and forage production by 0.6 Mg ha-1 y-1 and 0.3 Mg ha-1 y-1, respectively. Forecasting to 2100 showed that in manure-amended fields, soil C increased until 2080 before stabilization, mostly through gains in the pool with slow turnover. The "passive soil C" pool

  6. Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengxiang X.; Lindner, Jeff S.; Wang, Chuji

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO2 is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO2 hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO2 loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of 11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration options

  7. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Socioeconomic Characteristics and Landowner Acceptance of Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfomak, Elizabeth C.

    This study explores public acceptance of carbon dioxide sequestration sites through a mail survey of 4,001 landowners in central Illinois and Indiana, a region with high sequestration potential and recent siting proposals for FutureGen (an integrated power plant and sequestration demonstration project). The individuals sampled in this study include landowners both informed and uninformed about carbon sequestration, comparing groups based on ecological concern, economic conditions, views about the energy industry, environmental justice, familiarity with sequestration, and demographics. Of the survey respondents, 27% reported an understanding of carbon sequestration prior to receiving the survey, 2.5 times more than would be expected in the general U.S. population. Overall, 47% of survey respondents would oppose a local sequestration site while 30% would support one. The results suggest that greater familiarity with geologic sequestration has little influence on local site acceptance. Multivariate analysis found that landowner acceptance of sequestration sites derives primarily from gender, concern for the local environment, trust in government, experience with industrial activity, and belief in the potential of conservation/renewables. Because views on these issues are persistent, it may be difficult to overcome landowner opposition through education. Policy makers may, therefore, need to lower expectations for sequestration deployment in the United States and revisit other options for meeting the nation's CO2 emissions goals.

  8. Quantitative laboratory measurements of biogeochemical processes controlling biogenic calcite carbon sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Zendejas, Frank; Lane, Todd W.; Lane, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to generate data that could be used to populate and thereby reduce the uncertainty in global carbon cycle models. These efforts were focused on developing a system for determining the dissolution rate of biogenic calcite under oceanic pressure and temperature conditions and on carrying out a digital transcriptomic analysis of gene expression in response to changes in pCO2, and the consequent acidification of the growth medium.

  9. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2005-08-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of October 1, 2004--March 31, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Action plans for possible Phase 2 carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are completed, and a proposal was developed and submitted describing how the Partnership may develop and carry out appropriate pilot tests. The content of this report focuses on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period.

  10. Fact Sheet: Soil Carbon Sequestration in Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sequestration of carbon as soil organic matter is one way to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and lower the potential for global climate change. Cultivation typically caused the loss of 20 to 50% the native soil organic matter. Establishing pasture on former croplands is expected to a...

  11. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  12. Laboratory measurements of large-scale carbon sequestration flows in saline reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N

    2010-01-01

    Brine saturated with CO{sub 2} is slightly denser than the original brine causing it to sink to the bottom of a saline reservoir where the CO{sub 2} is safely sequestered. However, the buoyancy of pure CO{sub 2} relative to brine drives it to the top of the reservoir where it collects underneath the cap rock as a separate phase of supercritical fluid. Without additional processes to mix the brine and CO{sub 2}, diffusion in this geometry is slow and would require an unacceptably long time to consume the pure CO{sub 2}. However, gravity and diffusion-driven convective instabilities have been hypothesized that generate enhanced CO{sub 2}-brine mixing promoting dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the brine on time scale of a hundred years. These flows involve a class of hydrodynamic problems that are notoriously difficult to simulate; the simultaneous flow of mUltiple fluids (CO{sub 2} and brine) in porous media (rock or sediment). The hope for direct experimental confirmation of simulations is dim due to the difficulty of obtaining high resolution data from the subsurface and the high pressures ({approx}100 bar), long length scales ({approx}100 meters), and long time scales ({approx}100 years) that are characteristic of these flows. We have performed imaging and mass transfer measurements in similitude-scaled laboratory experiments that provide benchmarks to test reservoir simulation codes and enhance their predictive power.

  13. Purple fingers: convection in carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slim, Anja; Bandi, Mahesh; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-11-01

    In geological carbon sequestration, CO2 injected into a saline formation is less dense than the resident brine and floats above it. It is slightly soluble in brine and progressively dissolves. Brine with dissolved CO2 is slightly denser than ``pure'' brine giving the potential for convective overturning. We experimentally study the dissolution process from first contact between CO2 and brine through onset of convection to almost complete saturation for Rayleigh numbers between 80 and 1200. We present an analogue experiment using potassium permanganate as our solute, which closely mimics relevant CO2 properties. We describe the different dynamical regimes and connect these with trends in several global measures, including the dissolution flux. We find onset of convection using both amplitude and flux deviations from pure diffusion.

  14. CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-05-19

    The January-March 2004 Quarter was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During year one of this project there was no available mine land to plant in the Hazard area so 107 acres were planted in the Martin county mine location. This year 120 acres was planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres was planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. An additional set of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for special carbon sequestration determinations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on two newly established areas as well as confirmed measurements on the first years plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 tree seedlings.

  15. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were extracted

  16. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing and setting up

  17. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: An Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Oelkers, Dr. Eric; Cole, David R

    2008-01-01

    The success of human and industrial development over the past hundred years has lead to a huge increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission to the atmosphere leading to an unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. This increased CO2 content is believed to be responsible for a significant increase in global temperature over the past several decades. Global-scale climate modeling suggests that this temperature increase will continue at least over the next few hundred years leading to glacial melting, and raising seawater levels. In an attempt to attenuate this possibility, many have proposed the large scale sequestration of CO2 from our atmosphere. This introduction presents a summary of some of the evidence linking increasing atmosphere CO2 concentration to global warming and our efforts to stem this rise though CO2 sequestration.

  18. Growing cover crops to improve carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different cover crops were grown and evaluated for improving carbon sequestration. The cover crops in the study include not only winter and summer types but also legumes and non-legumes, respectively. Winter legumes are white clover, bell beans, and purple vetch, and winter non-legumes are triticale...

  19. Grass roots of soil carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils rooted with perennial grasses have high organic matter content, and therefore, can contribute to an agricultural future with high soil quality; a condition that can help to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through soil carbon sequestration and improve a multitude of other ecosystem responses,...

  20. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine

  2. Carbon sequestration and its role in the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Brian J.; Sundquist, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

  3. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  4. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: Science for enhancement and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Wilfred M.; Amonette, James E.; Birdsey, Richard; Garten, Charles T., Jr.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar; Jardine, Philip M.; Jastrow, Julie; Lal, Rattan; Marland, Gregg; McCarl, Bruce A.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, Tristram O.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Metting, F. Blaine

    The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration and evaluate the potential carbon storage capacity if present and new techniques are more aggressively utilized. Photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in aboveground and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms can be exploited for safe and affordable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation [Watson et al., 2000]. Nevertheless, C sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere has not been seriously pursued since its introduction in the Kyoto Protocol over a decade ago. Concerns have been raised that C sequestration in the biosphere is finite and not permanent, that it is difficult to measure and monitor, that there would be "carbon leakage" outside of the mitigation activity, and that any attention paid to environmental sequestration would be a distraction from the central issue of reducing GHG emissions from energy production and use. International accord and success in reducing emissions from the energy system are not coming easily, and concerns about climate change are growing. It is time to reevaluate all available options that might not be permanent yet have the potential to buy time, bridging to a future when new energy system technologies and a transformed energy infrastructure can fully address the climate challenge. Terrestrial sequestration is one option large enough to make a contribution in the coming decades using proven land management methods and with the possibility that new technologies could significantly enhance the opportunity.

  5. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2004-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes five states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah) and contiguous areas from three adjacent states (west Texas, south Wyoming, and west Kansas). This energy-rich region exhibits some of the largest growth rates in the nation, and it contains two major CO{sub 2} pipeline networks that presently tap natural subsurface CO{sub 2} reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery at a rate of 30 million tons per year. The ten largest coal-fired power plants in the region produce 50% (140 million tons CO{sub 2}/y) of the total CO{sub 2} from power-plant fossil fuel combustion, with power plant emissions close to half the total CO{sub 2} emissions. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, the five major electric utility industries, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs including the Western Governors Association, and data sharing agreements with four other surrounding states. The Partnership is developing action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region, as well as the non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. The establishment of a website network to facilitate data storage and information sharing, decision-making, and future management of carbon sequestration in the region is a priority. The Southwest Partnership's approach includes (1) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, (2) assessing and initiating public acceptance of possible sequestration approaches, and (3) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. The Partnership will also identify potential gaps in

  6. Cascade enzymatic reactions for efficient carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shunxiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zheng, Wenyun; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Thermochemical processes developed for carbon capture and storage (CCS) offer high carbon capture capacities, but are generally hampered by low energy efficiency. Reversible cascade enzyme reactions are examined in this work for energy-efficient carbon sequestration. By integrating the reactions of two key enzymes of RTCA cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase, we demonstrate that intensified carbon capture can be realized through such cascade enzymatic reactions. Experiments show that enhanced thermodynamic driving force for carbon conversion can be attained via pH control under ambient conditions, and that the cascade reactions have the potential to capture 0.5 mol carbon at pH 6 for each mole of substrate applied. Overall it manifests that the carbon capture capacity of biocatalytic reactions, in addition to be energy efficient, can also be ultimately intensified to approach those realized with chemical absorbents such as MEA. PMID:25708541

  7. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2011-04-01

    Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an immobile form. Until recently the scientific focus of mineralization reactions with reservoir rocks has been those that follow an aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation mechanism, driven by the sharp reduction in pH that occurs with CO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase. For sedimentary basin formations the kinetics of aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation reactions are sufficiently slow to make the role of mineralization trapping insignificant over a century period. For basaltic saline formations aqueous-phase mineralization progresses at a substantially higher rate, making the role of mineralization trapping significant, if not dominant, over a century period. The overlooked mineralization reactions for both sedimentary and basaltic saline formations, however, are those that occur in liquid or supercritical CO2 phase; where, dissolved water appears to play a catalyst role in the formation of carbonate minerals. A model is proposed in this paper that describes mineral carbonation over sequestration reservoir conditions ranging from dissolved CO2 in aqueous brine to dissolved water in supercritical CO2. The model theory is based on a review of recent experiments directed at understanding the role of water in mineral carbonation reactions of interest in geologic sequestration systems occurring under low water contents.

  8. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  9. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state

  10. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-09-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing

  11. Marine sequestration of carbon in bacterial metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Hertkorn, Norbert; Shen, Yuan; Witt, Matthias; Benner, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Linking microbial metabolomics and carbon sequestration in the ocean via refractory organic molecules has been hampered by the chemical complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Here, using bioassay experiments and ultra-high resolution metabolic profiling, we demonstrate that marine bacteria rapidly utilize simple organic molecules and produce exometabolites of remarkable molecular and structural diversity. Bacterial DOM is similar in chemical composition and structural complexity to naturally occurring DOM in sea water. An appreciable fraction of bacterial DOM has molecular and structural properties that are consistent with those of refractory molecules in the ocean, indicating a dominant role for bacteria in shaping the refractory nature of marine DOM. The rapid production of chemically complex and persistent molecules from simple biochemicals demonstrates a positive feedback between primary production and refractory DOM formation. It appears that carbon sequestration in diverse and structurally complex dissolved molecules that persist in the environment is largely driven by bacteria.

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  13. MIDWEST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect

    David Ball; Judith Bradbury; Rattan Lal; Larry Wickstrom; Neeraj Gupta; Robert Burns; Bob Dahowski

    2004-04-30

    This is the first semiannual report for Phase I of the Midwest Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The project consists of nine tasks to be conducted over a two year period that started in October 2003. The makeup of the MRCSP and objectives are described. Progress on each of the active Tasks is also described and where possible, for those Tasks at some point of completion, a summary of results is presented.

  14. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of April 1, 2005-September 30, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. While Phase 2 planning is well under way, the content of this report focuses exclusively on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period. Progress during this period was focused in the three areas: geological carbon storage capacity in New Mexico, terrestrial sequestration capacity for the project area, and the Integrated Assessment Model efforts. The geologic storage capacity of New Mexico was analyzed and Blanco Mesaverde (which extends into Colorado) and Basin Dakota Pools were chosen as top two choices for the further analysis for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the system dynamics model preliminary analysis. Terrestrial sequestration capacity analysis showed that the four states analyzed thus far (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) have relatively limited potential to sequester carbon in terrestrial systems, mainly due to the aridity of these areas, but the large land area offered could make up for the limited capacity per hectare. Best opportunities were thought to be in eastern Colorado/New Mexico. The Integrated Assessment team expanded the initial test case model to include all New Mexico sinks and sources in a new, revised prototype model in 2005. The allocation mechanism, or ''String of Pearls'' concept, utilizes potential pipeline routes as the links between all combinations of the source to various sinks. This technique lays the groundwork for future, additional ''String of Pearls'' analyses throughout the SW Partnership and other regions as well.

  15. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on

  16. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Initiatives review meeting. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    A total of 32 papers were presented at the review meeting in sessions entitled: updates on regional characterization activities; CO{sub 2} sequestration with EOR; CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline formations I and II; and terrestrial carbon sequestration field projects. In addition are five introductory papers. These are all available on the website in slide/overview/viewgraph form.

  17. Erosion of soil organic carbon: implications for carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oost, Kristof; Van Hemelryck, Hendrik; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural activities have substantially increased rates of soil erosion and deposition, and these processes have a significant impact on carbon (C) mineralization and burial. Here, we present a synthesis of erosion effects on carbon dynamics and discuss the implications of soil erosion for carbon sequestration strategies. We demonstrate that for a range of data-based parameters from the literature, soil erosion results in increased C storage onto land, an effect that is heterogeneous on the landscape and is variable on various timescales. We argue that the magnitude of the erosion term and soil carbon residence time, both strongly influenced by soil management, largely control the strength of the erosion-induced sink. In order to evaluate fully the effects of soil management strategies that promote carbon sequestration, a full carbon account must be made that considers the impact of erosion-enhanced disequilibrium between carbon inputs and decomposition, including effects on net primary productivity and decomposition rates.

  18. Carbon dioxide sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, J.; Dixon, R.K.; Kinsman, J.D.; Sampson, R.N.; Lugo, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a prominent role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Terrestrial ecosystems are currently accumulating C and it appears feasible to manage existing terrestrial (forest, agronomic, desert) ecosystems to maintain or increase C storage. Forest ecosystems can be managed to sequester and store globally significant amounts of C. Agroecosystems and arid lands could be managed to conserve existing terrestrial C but CO2 sequestration rates by vegetation in these systems is relatively low. Biomass from forest agroecosystems has the potential to be used as an energy source and trees could be used to conserve energy in urban environments. Some ecosystem management practices that result in C sequestration and conservation provide ancillary benefits.

  19. Carbon Sequestration Atlas and Interactive Maps from the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer

    McPherson, Brian

    In November of 2002, DOE announced a global climate change initiative involving joint government-industry partnerships working together to find sensible, low cost solutions for reducing GHG emissions. As a result, seven regional partnerships were formed; the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is one of those. These groups are utilizing their expertise to assess sequestration technologies to capture carbon emissions, identify and evaluate appropriate storage locations, and engage a variety of stakeholders in order to increase awareness of carbon sequestration. Stakeholders in this project are made up of private industry, NGOs, the general public, and government entities. There are a total of 44 current organizations represented in the partnership including electric utilities, oil and gas companies, state governments, universities, NGOs, and tribal nations. The SWP is coordinated by New Mexico Tech and encompasses New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and portions of Kansas, Nevada, Texas, and Wyoming. Field test sites for the region are located in New Mexico (San Juan Basin), Utah (Paradox Basin), and Texas (Permian Basin).[Taken from the SWP C02 Sequestration Atlas] The SWP makes available at this website their CO2 Sequestration Atlas and an interactive data map.

  20. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  1. Predicting and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by Direct Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K; Herzog, H J; Wickett, M E

    2001-04-24

    Direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the effectiveness of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one dimensional and three dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in a leaky reservoir, which we denote sequestration potential. The sequestration potential is the fraction of global warning cost avoided by sequestration in a reservoir. We show how these measures apply to permanent sequestration and sequestration in leaky reservoirs, such as the oceans, terrestrial biosphere, and some geologic formations. Under the assumptions of a constant cost of carbon emission and a 4% discount rate, injecting 900 m deep in the ocean avoids {approx}90% of the global warming cost associated with atmospheric emission; an injection 1700 m deep would avoid > 99 % of the global warming cost. Hence, for discount rates in the range commonly used by commercial enterprises, oceanic direct injection may be nearly as economically effective as permanent sequestration at avoiding global warming costs.

  2. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential to permanently store CO2 for

  3. The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-02-23

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into deep geologic formations where the CO{sub 2} is intended to remain indefinitely. If successfully implemented, geologic carbon sequestration will have little or no impact on terrestrial ecosystems aside from the mitigation of climate change. However, failure of a geologic carbon sequestration site, such as large-scale leakage of CO{sub 2} into a potable groundwater aquifer, could cause impacts that would require costly remediation measures. Governments are attempting to develop regulations for permitting geologic carbon sequestration sites to ensure their safety and effectiveness. At present, these regulations focus largely on decreasing the probability of failure. In this paper we propose that regulations for the siting of early geologic carbon sequestration projects should emphasize limiting the consequences of failure because consequences are easier to quantify than failure probability.

  4. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-06-22

    An area planted in 2004 on Bent Mountain in Pike County was shifted to the Department of Energy project to centralize an area to become a demonstration site. An additional 98.3 acres were planted on Peabody lands in western Kentucky and Bent Mountain to bring the total area under study by this project to 556.5 acres as indicated in Table 2. Major efforts this quarter include the implementation of new plots that will examine the influence of differing geologic material on tree growth and survival, water quality and quantity and carbon sequestration. Normal monitoring and maintenance was conducted and additional instrumentation was installed to monitor the new areas planted.

  5. Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Deborah N. Huntzinger; John S. Gierke; S. Komar Kawatra; Timothy C. Eisele; Lawrence L. Sutter

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation. The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) under ambient temperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO{sub 2} with Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaCO{sub 3} was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Sequestration of Soil Carbon as Secondary Carbonates (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Rattan Lal Carbon Management and Sequestration Center The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA Abstract World soils, the major carbon (C) reservoir among the terrestrial pools, contain soil organic C (SOC) and soil inorganic C (SIC). The SIC pool is predominant in soils of arid and semi-arid regions. These regions cover a land area of about 4.9x109 ha. The SIC pool in soils containing calcic and petrocalcic horizons is estimated at about 695-748 Pg (Pg = 1015 g = 1 gigaton) to 1-m depth. There are two types of carbonates. Lithogenic or primary carbonates are formed from weathering of carbonaceous rocks. Pedogenic or secondary carbonates are formed by dissolution of CO2 in the soil air to form carbonic acid and precipitation as carbonates of Ca+2 or Mg+2. It is the availability of Ca+2 or Mg+2 from outside the ecosystem that is essential to sequester atmospheric CO2. Common among outside sources of Ca+2 or Mg+2 are irrigation water, aerial deposition, sea breeze, fertilizers, manure and other amendments. The decomposition of SOC and root respiration may increase the partial pressure of CO2 in the soil air and lead to the formation of HCO_3^- upon dissolution in H20. Precipitation of secondary carbonates may result from decreased partial pressure of CO2 in the sub-soil, increased concentration of Ca+2, Mg+2 and HCO_3^- in soil solution, and decreased soil moisture content by evapotranspiration. Transport of bicarbonates in irrigated soils and subsequent precipitation above the ground water (calcrete), activity of termites and other soil fauna, and management of urban soils lead to formation of secondary carbonates. On a geologic time scale, weathering of silicate minerals and transport of the by-products into the ocean is a geological process of sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Factors affecting formation of secondary carbonates include land use, and soil and crop management including application of biosolids, irrigation and the quality of irrigation water

  7. Long term yields and soil carbon sequestration from Miscanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael; Zimmerman, Jesko

    2016-04-01

    Perennial rhizomatous grasses such as Miscanthus have been assumed to give sustainable biomass yields over many years but there have been few productivity trials that have tested this assumption. In addition it has been suggested that soil carbon sequestration increases linearly over time. We review field trials of Miscanthus, established on former grassland and tilled land, that have been harvested annually for up to twenty years and in which changes in soil organic matter content have been measured. Yields of Miscanthus follow an establishment phase, a ceiling phase and then a phase of decline. The lengths of these phases are strongly influenced by climate, soils and management but it is likely that Miscanthus plantations can produce commercially acceptable yield beyond 20 years. Net soil carbon sequestration depends on previous land use and is strongly influenced by the soil carbon stocks at the time of planting. Under Miscanthus a large fraction of the accumulated carbon is labile and would be rapidly lost if Miscanthus plantations were reconverted to cropland. Currently it is not possible to derive a reliable default sequestration rate for land use change from cropland to Miscanthus energy crop.

  8. Carbon Sequestration: Enhanced Evaluation of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeish, J. A.; Wang, Y.; Dewars, T.; Hadgu, T.; Jove Colon, C. F.; Sun, A.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Initial studies indicate that for long-term geologic storage of carbon to be effective, the leakage rates must be less than 0.1 - 0.01%/yr. Recent efforts have been made to apply the existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage. However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the design and operational phases. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). This study formulates the advanced PA concept for CS systems and establishes a prototype PA framework for the concept. The new PA framework includes a built-in optimization capability for model parameterization and monitoring system design. The capabilities of this framework will be demonstrated with a hypothetical CS system. The work lays the foundation for the development of a new generation of PA tools for effective management of CS activities. The work supports energy security and climate change/adaptation by furthering the capability to effectively manage proposed carbon capture

  9. Carbon dynamics and sequestration in urban turfgrass ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urbanization is a global trend. Turfgrass covers 1.9% of land in the continental US. Here we review existing literature associated with carbon (C) pools, sequestration, and nitrous oxide emission of urban turfgrass ecosystems. Turfgrasses exhibit significant carbon sequestration (0.34–1.4 Mg ha-1 ye...

  10. Carbon capture and sequestration: integrating technology, monitoring, regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Wilson; David Gerard

    2007-03-15

    This book is a first systematic presentation of the technical, legal, and economic forces that must coalesce to realize carbon dioxide capture and geologic sequestration as a viable CO{sub 2} reduction strategy. It synthesizes key engineering data and explains the technological and legal conditions that must be in place for carbon sequestration to be realized. 49 ills.

  11. Carbon sequestration and estimated carbon credit values as measured using 13C labelling and analysis by means of an optical breath test analyser.

    PubMed

    Hood, R C; Khan, M; Haque, A; Khadir, M; Bonetto, J P; Syamsul, R; Mayr, L; Heiling, M

    2004-05-01

    Recent developments in optical systems (isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry) for breath testing have provided a robust, low-cost option for undertaking (13)C analysis. Although these systems were initially developed for breath testing for Helicobacter pylori, they have an enormous potential as a soil science research tool. The relatively low cost of the equipment, US$15,000-25,000, is within the research budgets of most institutes or universities. The simplicity of the mechanisms and optical nature mean that the equipment requires relatively low maintenance and minimal training. Thus methods were developed to prepare soil and plant materials for analysis using the breath test analyser. Results that compare conventional mass spectrometric methods with the breath test analyser will be presented. In combination with simple (13)C-plant-labeling techniques it is possible to devise methods for estimating carbon sequestration under different agronomic management practices within a short time frame. This enables assessment of the carbon credit value of a particular agronomic practice, which can in turn be used by policy makers for decision-making purposes. For global understanding of the effect of agricultural practices on the carbon cycle, data are required from a range of cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The method and the approach described will enable collection of hard data within a reasonable time. PMID:14963630

  12. Investigations into Wetland Carbon Sequestration as Remediation for Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of carbon. However, over 50% of wetlands globally have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of carbon. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric carbon sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that carbon can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.

  13. Extending measurements in long-term permanent sites using a mobile observation system: Tradeoffs between carbon sequestration and radiation budget across a climatic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramati, Efrat; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Recent observations from the semi-arid region in Israel showed that conversion of the local sparse shrubland to pine forest resulted in greatly increased surface radiation load due to reduced canopy albedo combined with reduced emission of thermal radiations, which overwhelmed the beneficial effects of the relatively high rates of the forest carbon sequestration. Here we extend this study across the local climatic gradient, and test the hypothesis that increased carbon sequestration and reduced differences in surface radiation budgets along the precipitation gradient, diminish the surface effects of forestation while enhancing the benefits of carbon sequestration. We used a custom-built mobile laboratory (for eddy-flux and surface radiation measurements) on a campaign basis (about two weeks per site repeated along the seasonal cycle) to compare surface-atmosphere radiative (short- and long-wave radiation) and non-radiative (net carbon uptake, NEE, evapotranspiration, ET, and sensible heat, H) fluxes in three paired sites of pine forest (Pinus halepensis) and nearby non-forested ecosystems with mean annual precipitation/temperature of 291/19.5, 543/20.8, and 755/16.4 mm/˚C, respectively. Forests NEE and ET increased with increasing precipitation along the gradient from 0.8, to 1.5 gC m-2d-1, and 0.7 to 1.3 mmol H2O m-2s-1. Forests albedo did not changed along the gradient or along the seasonal cycle (αF ~0.12), while shrub land albedo (αS) varied along the gradient and the seasonal cycle due in part to variability in soil types (from 0.31 to 0.19, on average for dry and wet sites). Sensible heat flux did not markedly changed (HF~110 Wm-2 and HS~60 Wm-2), and the net thermal radiation emission along the climatic gradient increased in the forests (-90, to -105 Wm-2) and decreased in the shrub land (-112 to -104 Wm-2). The results showed, on average, enhanced carbon sink associated with forestation of shrub land (ΔNEEF-S) increased with precipitation (from near

  14. Evaluating the seismic risk of mineral carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration, in which carbon is captured and stored underground, has been proposed as one way to mitigate the climatic effects of carbon dioxide emissions. One method of geologic carbon sequestration is to inject carbon dioxide in aqueous solution into rocks. However, as the solution fills the pore space in the rocks, the fluid pressure on the rocks increases, potentially increasing the risk of earthquakes. Another option would be to inject carbon dioxide solutions into mafic rocks; the silicate minerals in these rocks react with the carbon dioxide, leaving solid carbonate reaction products, which decrease the amount of pore fluid.

  15. An Experimental Study of CO2 Exsolution and Relative Permeability Measurements during CO2 Saturated Water Depressurization Relevant to Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, L.; Krevor, S. C.; Falta, R. W.; Benson, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas fields have been considered as preferred geological sequestration options for carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Given the high solubility of CO2 in water, over time, the fraction of CO2 in the subsurface may be dominated by dissolved CO2. CO2 laden brine may permeate cap rocks and carry dissolved CO2 to shallower depths, if there is an upward pressure gradient from the reservoir to the overlying groundwater aquifers. This kind of non-hydrostatic pressure gradients can be caused by gas injection in deeper formations, or groundwater depletion. Such upward flows will depressurize the brine and the dissolved CO2 will come out of solution as pressure drops. We present the results of an experimental investigation into the effects of CO2 exsolution on multiphase flow properties in a CO2-water system with various reservoir rocks and a risk assessment of CO2 leakage due to exsolution in carbon sequestration. The relative permeability of exsolved CO2 and water was measured in a core-flooding apparatus during depressurization with X-ray computed tomography. Very low relative permeabilities of CO2 and water are measured in the exsolution experiments, compared to the relative permeabilities derived from steady-state drainage measurements in the same cores, even when the CO2 saturation is as high as 40%. The large relative permeability reduction in both the CO2 and water phases is hypothesized to result from the presence of a disconnected exsolution gas phase in this flow system. After the CO2 was exsolved, a CO2-saturated water flooding experiment demonstrated the durability and the stability of the low water mobility in the presence of the exsolution gas phase, while the water mobility returned to normal after all of the exsolved CO2 dissolved by a fresh water. A large pressure drop across the core, which is 4~5 times higher than the pressure drop predicted by the drainage relative permeability, was maintained over 120

  16. Considerations in forecasting the demand for carbon sequestration and biotic storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified forestry and other land-use based mitigation measures as possible sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. An overview of sequestration and biotic storage is presented, and the potential impacts of the use of carbon sequestration as a mitigation technology are briefly noted. Carbon sequestration is also compare to other mitigation technologies. Biotic mitigation technologies are concluded to be a legitimate and potentially important part of greenhouse gas mitigation due to their relatively low costs, ancillary benefits, and climate impact. However, not all biotic mitigation techniques perfectly match the idealized definition of a mitigation measure, and policies are becoming increasingly biased against biotic technologies.

  17. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are faced with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually into the atmosphere. A possible way to mitigate the effects is to store CO2 in large porous reservoirs within the Earth. Fluid mechanics plays a key role in determining both the feasibility and risks involved in this geological sequestration. We review current research efforts looking at the propagation of CO2 within the subsurface, the possible rates of leakage, the mechanisms that act to stably trap CO2, and the geomechanical response of the crust to large-scale CO2 injection. We conclude with an outline for future research.

  18. An Alternative Mechanism for Accelerated Carbon Sequestration in Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Haselbach, Liv M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2014-07-01

    The increased rate of carbon dioxide sequestration (carbonation) is desired in many primary and secondary life applications of concrete in order to make the life cycle of concrete structures more carbon neutral. Most carbonation rate studies have focused on concrete exposed to air under various conditions. An alternative mechanism for accelerated carbon sequestration in concrete was investigated in this research based on the pH change of waters in contact with pervious concrete which have been submerged in carbonate laden waters. The results indicate that the concrete exposed to high levels of carbonate species in water may carbonate faster than when exposed to ambient air, and that the rate is higher with higher concentrations. Validation of increased carbon dioxide sequestration was also performed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is theorized that the proposed alternative mechanism reduces a limiting rate effect of carbon dioxide dissolution in water in the micro pores of the concrete.

  19. [Estimation of soil carbon sequestration potential in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia and associated uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Han, Xing-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the measurements in the enclosure and uncontrolled grazing plots in the typical steppe of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration in the grasslands dominated by Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis, and Stipa krylovii, respectively, and estimated the regional scale soil carbon sequestration potential in the heavily degraded grassland after restoration. At local scale, the annual soil carbon sequestration in the three grasslands all decreased with increasing year of enclosure. The soil organic carbon storage was significantly higher in the grasslands dominated by L. chinensis and Stipa grandis than in that dominated by Stipa krylovii, but the latter had much higher soil carbon sequestration potential, because of the greater loss of soil organic carbon during the degradation process due to overgrazing. At regional scale, the soil carbon sequestration potential at the depth of 0-20 cm varied from -0.03 x 10(4) to 3.71 x 10(4) kg C x a(-1), and the total carbon sequestration potential was 12.1 x 10(8) kg C x a(-1). Uncertainty analysis indicated that soil gravel content had less effect on the estimated carbon sequestration potential, but the estimation errors resulted from the spatial interpolation of climate data could be about +/- 4.7 x 10(9) kg C x a(-1). In the future, if the growth season precipitation in this region had an average variation of -3.2 mm x (10 a)(-1), the soil carbon sequestration potential would be de- creased by 1.07 x 10(8) kg C x (10 a)(-1). PMID:22489476

  20. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership--Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-10-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts); and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  1. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership--Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2006-01-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts); and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  2. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  3. Trace metal source terms in carbon sequestration environments.

    PubMed

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO(2) or CO(2)-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO(2). Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality. PMID:23215015

  4. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  5. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2012-02-05

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO₂ or CO₂-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO₂, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO₂. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  6. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Geophysical, Geochemical and Geomechanical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.

    In the face of the environmental challenges presented by the acceleration of global warming, carbon capture and storage, also called carbon sequestration, may provide a vital option to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, while meeting the world's energy demands. To operate on a global scale, carbon sequestration would require thousands of geologic repositories that could accommodate billions of tons of carbon dioxide per year. In order to reach such capacity, various types of geologic reservoirs should be considered, including unconventional reservoirs such as volcanic rocks, fractured formations, and moderate-permeability aquifers. Unconventional reservoirs, however, are characterized by complex pore structure, high heterogeneity, and intricate feedbacks between physical, chemical and mechanical processes, and their capacity to securely store carbon emissions needs to be confirmed. In this dissertation, I present my contribution toward the understanding of geophysical, geochemical, hydraulic, and geomechanical properties of continental basalts and fractured sedimentary formations in the context of their carbon storage capacity. The data come from two characterization projects, in the Columbia River Flood Basalt in Washington and the Newark Rift Basin in New York, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and TriCarb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration. My work focuses on in situ analysis using borehole geophysical measurements that allow for detailed characterization of formation properties on the reservoir scale and under nearly unaltered subsurface conditions. The immobilization of injected CO2 by mineralization in basaltic rocks offers a critical advantage over sedimentary reservoirs for long-term CO2 storage. Continental flood basalts, such as the Columbia River Basalt Group, possess a suitable structure for CO2 storage, with extensive reservoirs in the interflow zones separated by massive impermeable

  7. The nuts and bolts of carbon sequestration in forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading as an incentive for conserving private forest lands. The presentation addresses carbon sequestration in forests and its significance for global warming. Carbon inventories, specifically in the are...

  8. Accelerated carbonation of brucite in mine tailings for carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Anna L; Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric CO(2) is sequestered within ultramafic mine tailings via carbonation of Mg-bearing minerals. The rate of carbon sequestration at some mine sites appears to be limited by the rate of CO(2) supply. If carbonation of bulk tailings were accelerated, large mines may have the capacity to sequester millions of tonnes of CO(2) annually, offsetting mine emissions. The effect of supplying elevated partial pressures of CO(2) (pCO(2)) at 1 atm total pressure, on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)(2)], a tailings mineral, was investigated experimentally with conditions emulating those at Mount Keith Nickel Mine (MKM), Western Australia. Brucite was carbonated to form nesquehonite [MgCO(3) · 3H(2)O] at a rate that increased linearly with pCO(2). Geochemical modeling indicated that HCO(3)(-) promoted dissolution accelerated brucite carbonation. Isotopic and aqueous chemistry data indicated that equilibrium between CO(2) in the gas and aqueous phases was not attained during carbonation, yet nesquehonite precipitation occurred at equilibrium. This implies CO(2) uptake into solution remains rate-limiting for brucite carbonation at elevated pCO(2), providing potential for further acceleration. Accelerated brucite carbonation at MKM offers the potential to offset annual mine emissions by ~22-57%. Recognition of mechanisms for brucite carbonation will guide ongoing work to accelerate Mg-silicate carbonation in tailings. PMID:22770473

  9. Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F.; Dame, Lauren E.; Burke, Roger A.; Wu, Jianping; Neher, Deborah A.; Li, Jianxiong; Shao, Yuanhu; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-10-01

    A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms’ contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated ‘carbon trap’. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO2 emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

  10. NATIVE PLANTS FOR OPTIMIZING CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    P. UNKEFER; M. EBINGER; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Carbon emissions and atmospheric concentrations are expected to continue to increase through the next century unless major changes are made in the way carbon is managed. Managing carbon has emerged as a pressing national energy and environmental need that will drive national policies and treaties through the coming decades. Addressing carbon management is now a major priority for DOE and the nation. One way to manage carbon is to use energy more efficiently to reduce our need for major energy and carbon source-fossil fuel combustion. Another way is to increase our use of low-carbon and carbon free fuels and technologies. A third way, and the focus of this proposal, is carbon sequestration, in which carbon is captured and stored thereby mitigating carbon emissions. Sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere has emerged as the principle means by which the US will meet its near-term international and economic requirements for reducing net carbon emissions (DOE Carbon Sequestration: State of the Science. 1999; IGBP 1998). Terrestrial carbon sequestration provides three major advantages. First, terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes are of sufficient magnitude to effectively mitigate national and even global carbon emissions. The terrestrial biosphere stores {approximately}2060 GigaTons of carbon and transfers approximately 120 GigaTons of carbon per year between the atmosphere and the earth's surface, whereas the current global annual emissions are about 6 GigaTons. Second, we can rapidly and readily modify existing management practices to increase carbon sequestration in our extensive forest, range, and croplands. Third, increasing soil carbon is without negative environment consequences and indeed positively impacts land productivity. The terrestrial carbon cycle is dependent on several interrelationships between plants and soils. Because the soil carbon pool ({approximately}1500 Giga Tons) is approximately three times that in terrestrial vegetation

  11. Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Particles for Ocean Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Aaron C.; Adams, E. Eric; Israelsson, P. H.; Tsouris, Costas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents strategies for producing negatively buoyant CO{sub 2} hydrate composite particles for ocean carbon sequestration. Our study is based on recent field observations showing that a continuous-jet hydrate reactor located at an ocean depth of 1500 m produced curved negatively buoyant cylindrical particles with diameters {approx} 2.5 cm and lengths up to {approx} 1 m. Accordingly we performed new laboratory experiments to determine the drag coefficient of such particles and, based on the measured drag coefficient and the initial settling velocity observed in the field, have concluded that the reactor efficiency (percentage of liquid CO{sub 2} converted to hydrate) in the field was {approx} 16%. Using the dissolution rates observed in the field, we conclude that such particles would ultimately sink to depth below discharge of {approx} 115 m. We have also predicted the sinking depth of particles potentially produced from various scaled-up reactors and have shown that, for example, a 10 cm diameter particle produced with a hydrate conversion of 50% could reach the ocean bottom before completely dissolving. In a real sequestration scenario, we are interested in following large groups of hydrate particles released continuously. We have previously shown that increasing particle size and hydrate conversion efficiency enhances the sinking of hydrate particle plumes produced by the continuous release of CO{sub 2} in a quiescent ambient, but that a sufficiently strong current will cause the entrained particles to separate from the plume and settle discretely. In the latter case, particles of different sizes and hydrate conversions (hence different settling velocities) will follow different settling trajectories as they dissolve. This particle fractionation, if employed deliberately, spreads the discharged CO{sub 2} in the down current and vertical directions, enhancing mixing, while turbulent diffusion helps spread the CO{sub 2} in the third direction. A

  12. Agricultural Liming, Irrigation, and Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, B. M.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Row crop farmers routinely add inorganic carbon to soils in the form of crushed lime (e.g., calcite or dolomite minerals) and/or inadvertently as bicarbonate alkalinity naturally dissolved in groundwater used for irrigation. In the soil these carbonates can act as either a source or sink of carbon dioxide, depending in large part on nitrogen fertilization and nitrification. The potentially variable fate of lime carbon is not accounted for in the IPCC greenhouse gas inventory model for lime emissions, which assumes that all lime carbon becomes carbon dioxide (irrigation additions are not accounted for). In a corn-soybean-wheat crop rotation at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in southwest Michigan, we are collecting soil porewater from several depths in the vadose zone across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient with and without groundwater irrigation. The soil profile in this region is dominated by carbonate rich glacial outwash that lies 1.5 m below a carbonate-leached zone. We analyze the porewater stoichiometry of calcium, magnesium, and carbonate alkalinity in a conceptual model to reveal the source/sink fate of inorganic carbon. High nitrate porewater concentrations are associated with net carbon dioxide production in the carbonate-leached zone, according to our model. This suggests that the acidity associated with nitrification of the nitrogen fertilizer, which is evident from soil pH measurements, is driving the ultimate fate of lime carbon in the vadose zone. Irrigation is a significant source of both alkalinity and nitrate in drier years, compared to normal rates of liming and fertilization. We will also explore the observed dramatic changes in porewater chemistry and the relationship between irrigation and inorganic carbon fate above and within the native carbonate layer.

  13. NATCARB Interactive Maps and the National Carbon Explorer: a National Look at Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer

    NATCARB is a national look at carbon sequestration. The NATCARB home page, National Carbon Explorer (http://www.natcarb.org/) provides access to information and interactive maps on a national scale about climate change, DOE's carbon sequestration program and its partnerships, CO2 emissions, and sinks. This portal provides access to interactive maps based on the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada.

  14. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  15. Northeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, A. J.; Trautz, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Geologic carbon storage is a viable option for the electric power industry in the "Northeast" region to meet regional and forthcoming federal CO2 cap-and-trade programs. Capturing CO2 emissions and storing the gas in underground geological formations could significantly reduce the amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. However, before this can be implemented, site-specific geological research needs to be conducted to determine which formations are potentially capable of storing the quantity of CO2 emitted by power plants in the Northeast region. While the target geosequestration formations in the Northeast may have less storage capacity than those in the Midwest, Southeast or Southwest, the available capacities may be large enough to sequester a significant fraction of the CO2 produced by some regional power plants (which are also smaller, individually and in total, than those in the other regions). The study will also conduct baseline assessments of electric power producer plants and CO2 emission estimates and create first level screening on potential geologic structures for CO2 sequestration. The work will establish a general database of "Other Uses" (current industrial and technological innovations/options), characterize transport issues, both on land and offshore, and, provide general guidance on the physical and land-use constraint factors of "add-on" capture technologies at existing power plants.

  16. Terrestrial Biological Carbon Sequestration: Science for Enhancement and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W. M.; Amonette, James E.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Garten, Jr, C. T.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Jardine, Philip M.; Jastrow, Julie D.; Lal, Rattan; Marland , G.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, T. O.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Metting, F. Blaine

    2009-12-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change have elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations from 280 ppmv at the beginning of the industrial era to more than 381 ppmv in 2006. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and cement rose 71% during 1970–2000 to a rate of 7.0 PgC/y (1). Canadell et al. (2) estimated that CO2 emissions rose at a rate at 1.3% per year during 1990–1999, but since 2000 it has been growing at 3.3% per year. Emissions reached 8.4 PgC/y in 2006. It is likely that the current 2-ppm annual increase will accelerate as the global economy expands, increasing the risk of climate system impacts. There is good agreement that photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in above- and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms could be exploited for safe and affordable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation (3). Nevertheless, C sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere has been a source of contention before and since the drafting of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. Concerns have been raised that C sequestration in the biosphere is not permanent, that it is difficult to measure and monitor, that there would be “carbon leakage” outside of the mitigation activity, and that any attention paid to environmental sequestration would be a distraction from the central issue of reducing GHG emissions from energy production and use. A decade after drafting the Kyoto Protocol, it is clear that international accord and success in reducing emissions from the energy system are not coming easily and concerns about climate change are growing. It is time to re-evaluate all available options that might not be permanent yet have the potential to buy time, bridging to a future when new energy system technologies and a transformed energy infrastructure can fully address the climate challenge. Terrestrial sequestration is one option large enough to make a contribution in the coming decades using proven land-management methods and with the

  17. Soil Carbon Sequestration in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terrestrial carbon sequestration has a potential role in reducing the increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) that is, in part, mitigates global warming. The path to stabilization of the carbon cycle and, ultimately, reduction in the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is though a regime of carbo...

  18. Biogeologic Carbon Sequestration - a Cost-Effective Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, G. H.; Kuhns, R.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon sequestration has been proposed as a strategy for reducing the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from burning of fossil fuels. There are two main routes: 1) capture CO2 emissions from power plants or other large point sources followed by some form of "burial/sequestration", and 2) extraction of CO2 from the ambient atmosphere (involving substantial concentration relative to atmospheric levels) also followed by burial/sequestration. In either case the goal is to achieve significant long-term isolation of CO2 at an economically sustainable price, perhaps measured by some "market price" for CO2, such as the European carbon futures market, where the price is now (2/3/09) about 14-15/tonne of CO2. The second approach, removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, has the potential benefit of reversing the previous buildup of atmospheric CO2, and perhaps even providing a means to "adjust" terrestrial climate by regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. For the present, ideas of planetary "geo-engineering" are not as popular as reducing the impact of continued CO2 emissions. In fact, the energy and capital costs of extraction from a dilute atmosphere appear to make this approach uneconomical. Proposals to fertilize the open ocean suffer from concerns about long term ecosystem effects, to say nothing of a lack of verifiability. There is, however, an approach using biological systems that can not only extract significant amounts of CO2, but can do so cost-effectively. Lakes are known in which primary productivity approaches or exceeds 1gm C/cm2-yr. This equates to removal of 35,000 tonnes of CO2 per km2 per year, with a "market value" of about 500,000/yr. Such productivity only occurs under highly eutrophic conditions, and presumably requires significant nutrient additions. As such it would be unthinkable to pursue this technique on a large scale in extant lakes. If, however, it is possible to produce one or more large artificial lakes under acceptable conditions it is

  19. CRADA Carbon Sequestration in Soils and Commercial Products

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, G.K.

    2002-01-31

    ORNL, through The Consortium for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE), collaborated with The Village Botanica, Inc. (VB) on a project investigating carbon sequestration in soils and commercial products from a new sustainable crop developed from perennial Hibiscus spp. Over 500 pre-treated samples were analyzed for soil carbon content. ORNL helped design a sampling scheme for soils during the planting phase of the project. Samples were collected and prepared by VB and analyzed for carbon content by ORNL. The project did not progress to a Phase II proposal because VB declined to prepare the required proposal.

  20. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  1. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Reitze, Arnold; Durrant, Marie

    2011-03-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­and-trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  2. High resolution modeling of direct ocean carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Follows; John Marshall

    2004-04-22

    This work has followed two themes: (1) Developing and using the adjoint of the MIT ocean biogeochemistry model to examine the efficiency of carbon sequestration in a global configuration. We have demonstrated the power of the adjoint method for systematic ocean model sensitivity studies. We have shown that the relative efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Atlantic and Pacific basins changes with the period of interest. For decadal to centennial scales, the Pacific is more efficient. On longer timescales the Atlantic is more efficient . (2) We have developed and applied a high-resolution, North Atlantic circulation and tracer model to investigate the role of the mesoscale in controlling sequestration efficiency. We show that the mesoscale eddy field, and its explicit representation, significantly affects the estimated sequestration efficiency for local sources on the Eastern US seaboard.

  3. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

  5. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    James Rutledge

    2011-02-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 455 million barrels of oil (72 million m3). Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Because it represents an archetype oil field of the western U.S., Greater Aneth was selected as one of three geologic pilots to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration under the auspices of the SWP on Carbon Sequestration, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The pilot demonstration focuced on the western portion of the Aneth Unit as this area of the field was converted from waterflood production to CO2 EOR starting in late 2007. The Aneth Unit is in the northwestern part of the field and has produced 149 million barrels (24 million m3) of the estimated 450 million barrels (71.5 million m3) of the original oil in place - a 33% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil makes the Aneth Unit ideal to demonstrate both CO2 storage capacity and EOR by CO2 flooding. This report summarizes the geologic characterization research, the various field monitoring tests, and the development of a geologic model and numerical simulations conducted for the Aneth demonstration project. The Utah Geological Survey (UGS), with contributions from other Partners, evaluated how the surface and subsurface geology of the Aneth Unit demonstration site will affect sequestration operations and engineering strategies. The UGS-research for the project are summarized in Chapters 1 through 7, and includes (1) mapping the surface geology including stratigraphy, faulting, fractures, and deformation bands, (2) describing the local Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy, (3) mapping the Desert

  6. Biochar: A synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar has been recently heralded as an amendment to revitalize degraded soils, improve soil carbon sequestration, increase agronomic productivity and enter into future carbon trading markets. However, scientific and economic technicalities may limit the ability of biochar to consistently deliver o...

  7. Carbon sequestration potential for forage and pasture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grassland soils represent a large reservoir of organic and inorganic carbon. Regionally, grasslands are annual CO2 sources or sinks depending on crop and soil management, current soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and climate. Land management changes (LMC) impact SOC sequestration rate, the du...

  8. HOW TO HARVEST TREES WHILE MAXIMIZING CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected result of this project is a methodology to increase carbon sequestration through forest management and policy analysis. The decision analysis model will demonstrate tradeoffs between carbon storage and net present value through a joint productions possibilities c...

  9. Carbon Sequestration Potential of a Switchgrass Bioenergy Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is an important bioenergy crop with the potential to provide a reliable supply of renewable energy while also removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequestering it in the soil. We conducted a four-year study to quantify carbon dioxide sequestration during the establishment and ...

  10. Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Kenneth

    Carbon sequestration, the extraction and storage of carbon from the atmosphere by biomass, could potentially provide a cost-effective means to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. The claims on behalf of carbon sequestration may be inadvertently overstated, however. Several key observations emerge from this study. First, although carbon sequestration studies all report results in terms of dollars per ton, the definition of that term varies significantly, meaning that the results of various analyses can not be meaningfully compared. Second, when carbon sequestration is included in an energy-economy model of climate change policy, it appears that carbon sequestration could play a major, if not dominant role in a national carbon emission abatement program, reducing costs of emissions stabilization by as much as 80 percent, saving tens of billions of dollars per year. However, the results are very dependant upon landowners' perceived risk. Studies may also have overstated the potential for carbon sequestration because they have not considered the implementation process. This study demonstrates that three factors will reduce the cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration. First, the implementation costs associated with measurement and governance of the government-private sector relation are higher than in the case of carbon source control. Second, legal constraints limit the range of instruments that the government can use to induce private landowners to expand their carbon sinks. The government will likely have to pay private parties to expand their sinks, or undertake direct government production. In either case, additional revenues will be required, introducing social costs associated with excess burden. Third, because of the very long time involved in developing carbon sinks (up to several decades) the government may not be able to make credible commitments against exactions of one type or another that would effectively reduce the value of private sector investments

  11. Soil Carbon Sequestration - Science for Enhancement and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metting, F. B.; Post, W. M.; Amonette, J. E.; Bailey, V. L.; Garten, C. T.; Graham, R. L.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Jardine, P. M.; Jastrow, J.; Lal, R.; Marland, G.; McCarl, B. A.; Sands, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Tyler, D.; West, T. O.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    Introduction Fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change have elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations from 280 ppmv at the beginning of the industrial era to more than 381 ppmv in 2006. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and cement rose 71% during 1970-2000 to a rate of 7.0 PgC/y. It is estimated that CO2 emissions rose at a rate at 1.3% per year during 1990-1999, but have been growing since 2000 at a rate of3.3% per year, reaching 8.4 PgC in 2006. It is likely that the current 2-ppm annual increase will accelerate as the global economy expands, increasing the risk of climate system impacts. There is good agreement that photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in above- and belowground biomass and in soil could be exploited for safe and affordable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Nevertheless, soil C sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere has been a source of contention before and since the drafting of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Concerns have been raised that soil C sequestration is not permanent, that it is difficult to measure and monitor, that there would be "carbon leakage" outside of the mitigation activity, and that it is a distraction from the central issue of reducing GHG emissions from energy production and use. A decade after drafting the Kyoto Protocol, it is clear that international accord and success in reducing emissions from the energy system are not coming easily and concerns about climate change are growing. It is time to re-evaluate options with potential to buy time, bridging to a future when new energy system technologies and a transformed energy infrastructure can fully address the climate challenge. Soil sequestration is one option large enough to make a difference in the coming decades using proven land management methods and with the possibility that new technologies could significantly enhance the opportunity. This presentation will review progress on key scientific, economic, and social issues, postulate

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration by ex-situ mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Turner, P.C.; and Walters, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The process developed for carbon dioxide sequestration utilizes a slurry of water mixed with olivine- forsterite end member (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), which is reacted with supercritical CO{sub 2} to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Carbon dioxide is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid, which likely dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. The H{sup +} hydrolyzes the silicate mineral, freeing the cation (Mg{sup 2+}), which reacts with the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} to form the solid carbonate. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural mineral, have demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction are slow at ambient temperature (22 degrees C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 7.4 MPa). However, at elevated temperature and pressure, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant conversion to the carbonate occurs. Extent of reaction is roughly 90% within 24 h, at 185 degrees C and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 11.6 MPa. Current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, and/or solution modification. Subsequent tests are intended to examine these options, as well as other mineral groups.

  13. Stuffing Carbon Away: Mechanisms of Carbon Sequestration in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, P J; Masiello, C A; Southon, J R; Trumbore, S E; Harden, J W; White, A F; Chadwick, O A; Torn, M S

    2003-01-24

    Soils offer the potential to sequester large quantities of carbon from the atmosphere for decades to millennia and so may ameliorate the anthropogenic influence of fossil fuel release. However changes in climate can drastically affect the soil's ability to store carbon through changes mineralogy on time scales of human interest. It is essential to understand the major controls on soil carbon dynamics before we attempt to manage sequestration to control atmospheric CO{sub 2} buildup. Models of the terrestrial carbon cycle often use clay content to parameterize soil carbon turnover. Evidence from volcanic soils suggests that soil mineralogy is a major control on a soil's ability to store carbon, because different types of minerals have widely varying abilities to physically and chemically isolate soil organic matter from decomposition, however volcanic soils represent only a small percentage of the earth's soils. The relationship between precipitation and soil carbon storage is also complex and poorly constrained. Significantly, precipitation changes predicted as a result of atmospheric CO{sub 2} doubling include increased rainfall throughout California. We utilized {sup 14}C, {delta}{sup 13}C, and the total organic carbon, iron, and aluminum contents to address the question of the importance of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage in soils formed on a globally representative parent material. The California coastal terraces, formed over the last 500 thousand years as a result of tectonic uplift and sea level change, provide a natural laboratory to examine the effect of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage. We have focused on two terraces sequences, one near Eureka and one near Santa Cruz. Within each set of terraces only soil mineral development varies; all other variables are constant (rainfall, plant systems, and soil parent material, and land management). Annual precipitation at Eureka is twice that at Santa Cruz, allowing us to examine its role in the

  14. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    reclamation practice. In addition, experiments were integrated within the reforestation effort to address specific questions pertaining to sequestration of carbon (C) on these sites.

  15. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Mangrove Wetlands of Southern of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokkalingam, L.; Ponnambalam, K.; Ponnaiah, J. M.; Roy, P.; Sankar, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forest and the soil on which it grows are major sinks of atmospheric carbon. We present the results of a study on the carbon sequestration in the ground biomass of Avicennia marina including the organic carbon deposition, degradation and preservation in wetland sediments of Muthupet mangrove forest (southeast coast of India) in order to evaluate the influence of forests in the global carbon cycle. The inventory for estimating the ground biomass of Avicennia marina was carried out using random sampling technique (10 m × 10 m plot) with allometric regression equation. The carbon content in different vegetal parts (leaves, stem and root) of mangrove species and associated marshy vegetations was estimated using the combustion method. We observe that the organic carbon was higher (ca. 54.8%) recorded in the stems of Aegiceras corniculatum and Salicornia brachiata and lower (ca. 30.3%) in the Sesuvium portulacastrum leaves. The ground biomass and carbon sequestration of Avicennia marina are 58.56±12.65 t/ ha and 27.52±5.95 mg C/ha, respectively. The depth integrated organic carbon model profiles indicate an average accumulation rate of 149.75gC/m2.yr and an average remineralization rate of 32.89gC/m2.yr. We estimate an oxidation of ca. 21.85% of organic carbon and preservation of ca. 78.15% of organic carbon in the wetland sediments. Keywords: Above ground biomass, organic carbon, sequestration, mangrove, wetland sediments, Muthupet.

  16. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five management systems: continuous corn (CC), cropland to woodland (CW), cropland to pastures (CP), no-till (NT), and conservation reserve program (CRP), were selected to evaluate their long-term impacts (5, 10 and 15 yr) on soil C sequestration. Nine soil cores from each system were randomly colle...

  17. Carbon Sequestration under Irrigated Switchgrass Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative strategies to mitigate threats of global climate change warrant evaluation of crops capable of producing high biomass for both energy generation and promotion of soil organic matter through C sequestration. Bioenergy crops have the potential to reduce the rate of atmospheric CO2 enrichmen...

  18. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  19. Barriers and Prospects of Carbon Sequestration in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anjali; Nema, Arvind K

    2014-04-01

    Carbon sequestration is considered a leading technology for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity generating power plants and could permit the continued use of coal and gas whilst meeting greenhouse gas targets. India will become the world's third largest emitter of CO2 by 2015. Considering the dependence of health of the Indian global economy, there is an imperative need to develop a global approach which could address the capturing and securely storing carbon dioxide emitted from an array of energy. Therefore technology such as carbon sequestration will deliver significant CO2 reductions in a timely fashion. Considerable energy is required for the capture, compression, transport and storage steps. With the availability of potential technical storage methods for carbon sequestration like forest, mineral and geological storage options with India, it would facilitate achieving stabilization goal in the near future. This paper examines the potential carbon sequestration options available in India and evaluates them with respect to their strengths, weakness, threats and future prospects. PMID:26563072

  20. Animals as an indicator of carbon sequestration and valuable landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Szyszko, Jan; Schwerk, Axel; Malczyk, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Possibilities of the assessment of a landscape with the use of succession development stages, monitored with the value of the Mean Individual Biomass (MIB) of carabid beetles and the occurrence of bird species are discussed on the basis of an example from Poland. Higher variability of the MIB value in space signifies a greater biodiversity. Apart from the variability of MIB, it is suggested to adopt the occurrence of the following animals as indicators, (in the order of importance), representing underlying valuable landscapes: black stork, lesser spotted eagle, white-tailed eagle, wolf, crane and white stork. The higher number of these species and their greater density indicate a higher value of the landscape for biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially carbon sequestration. All these indicators may be useful to assess measures for sustainable land use. PMID:21738434

  1. Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Tommy Joe; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul; Cho, Kyu Seong

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of metal ions leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals.

  2. Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Cho, Kyu-Seong; Moberly, James G; Roh, Yul; Phelps, Tommy J

    2011-12-01

    The behavior of metal ions' leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals. PMID:21246259

  3. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. PMID:24283921

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct aqueous mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration by an ex-situ, direct aqueous mineral carbonation process has been investigated over the past two years. This process was conceived to minimize the steps in the conversion of gaseous CO2 to a stable solid. This meant combining two separate reactions, mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation, into a single unit operation. It was recognized that the conditions favorable for one of these reactions could be detrimental to the other. However, the benefits for a combined aqueous process, in process efficiency and ultimately economics, justified the investigation. The process utilizes a slurry of water, dissolved CO2, and a magnesium silicate mineral, such as olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. These minerals were selected as the reactants of choice for two reasons: (1) significant abundance in nature; and (2) high molar ratio of the alkaline earth oxides (CaO, MgO) within the minerals. Because it is the alkaline earth oxide that combines with CO2 to form the solid carbonate, those minerals with the highest ratio of these oxides are most favored. Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride additions to the solution, and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Future studies are intended to investigate various mineral pretreatment options, the carbonation solution characteristics, alternative reactants, scale-up to a continuous process, geochemical modeling, and process economics.

  5. Comparison of Potential of Two High Spatial Resolution Optical Remote Sensing Data in Estimation of Carbon Sequestration of Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Arun; Singh Rana, Sumit; Lakshmanan, Gnanappazham

    2012-07-01

    The estimation of biomass is one of the hot topics in the present scenario to unveil the quest that how much Carbon dioxide could be sequestrated by vegetation. Climate change modelling requires the rate of terrestrial carbon sequestration. The conventional methods of quantifying carbon sink in forest ecosystem are difficult and time consuming due to its topography and inaccessibility. Advances in Remote sensing and Image Processing have improvised the indirect estimation methods to estimate the amount of carbon stored in soil. The present study aims at the estimation of carbon sequestrated by the rubber plantation of Valiamala area, Thiruvananthapuram. Indirect method of estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) from two high resolution satellite data, IKONOS and Geoeye-1 image is followed by correlating Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) and field based LAI values measured by Plant Canopy Analyzer instrument from the study area. An allometric equation is derived to estimate LAI for the whole study area. The estimated LAI is highly correlated with NDVI map generated. Moreover, soil samples have been collected from equally distributed 15 sample points in the study area for the direct estimation of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) using elemental analysis. Carbon sequestration data for the 12 of the sample location data are used to derive the function of LAI for carbon estimation using multiple linear regression analysis. Remaining 3 sample location data are used to validate the equation derived. The results of the analysis of satellite data are compared for the carbon sequestration. Keywords: Carbon Sequestration, Leaf Area Index, Total Organic Carbon

  6. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, Erhun; Gunalay, Yavuz

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  7. Genome-enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Tongming; Yang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Xinye; Engle, Nancy L; Ranjan, Priya; Basu, Manojit M; Gunter, Lee E; Jawdy, Sara; Martin, Madhavi Z; Campbell, Alina S; DiFazio, Stephen P; Davis, John M; Hinchee, Maud; Pinnacchio, Christa; Meilan, R; Busov, V.; Strauss, S

    2009-01-01

    The fate of carbon below ground is likely to be a major factor determining the success of carbon sequestration strategies involving plants. Despite their importance, molecular processes controlling belowground C allocation and partitioning are poorly understood. This project is leveraging the Populus trichocarpa genome sequence to discover genes important to C sequestration in plants and soils. The focus is on the identification of genes that provide key control points for the flow and chemical transformations of carbon in roots, concentrating on genes that control the synthesis of chemical forms of carbon that result in slower turnover rates of soil organic matter (i.e., increased recalcitrance). We propose to enhance carbon allocation and partitioning to roots by 1) modifying the auxin signaling pathway, and the invertase family, which controls sucrose metabolism, and by 2) increasing root proliferation through transgenesis with genes known to control fine root proliferation (e.g., ANT), 3) increasing the production of recalcitrant C metabolites by identifying genes controlling secondary C metabolism by a major mQTL-based gene discovery effort, and 4) increasing aboveground productivity by enhancing drought tolerance to achieve maximum C sequestration. This broad, integrated approach is aimed at ultimately enhancing root biomass as well as root detritus longevity, providing the best prospects for significant enhancement of belowground C sequestration.

  8. Potential for Carbon Sequestration in Transplanted Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, C.; Davis, J.; Currin, C.

    2014-12-01

    The photosynthetic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by tidal salt marshes results in the long-term storage of carbon in the sediment. In recent decades, pressures such as land-use change and sea level rise have significantly reduced the global extent of salt marshes and increased the need for restoration projects. Restored salt marshes have been shown to provide many of the same ecological and economic benefits as natural marshes, including fish habitat, pollution filtration, and shoreline stabilization. Given the high carbon sequestration capacity of tidal marshes, carbon storage is likely an additional benefit of restoration; however, the degree to which restored marshes achieve equivalency with natural marshes in terms of carbon burial has not been well-defined. In this study, annual carbon sequestration rates in transplanted marshes were estimated and belowground carbon stocks were compared in transplanted versus natural marshes. Sediment cores were collected from five transplanted Spartina alterniflora marshes of known age (12-38 years old) in the Newport River Estuary, NC and from two natural marshes of unknown age. Organic matter content was estimated using the loss on ignition method and carbon content was estimated based on previously established relationships. In transplanted marshes, the rate of carbon sequestration in the top 30 cm decreased with marsh age and ranged from 76.70 g C/m2/yr (38 year old marsh) to 212.83 g C/m2/yr (12 year old marsh). The natural marshes contained significantly larger carbon stocks in the top 30 cm (4534.61 - 7790.18 g C m-2) than the transplanted marshes (1822.97 - 3798.62 g C m-2). However, the annual sequestration rates in the transplanted marshes are similar to those observed by others in natural marshes, and therefore it is likely that over time restored marshes are capable of accreting belowground carbon stocks equivalent to those found in natural marshes.

  9. Carbon sequestration in two alpine soils on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Xing-Liang; Song, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Cai-Ping; Gao, Qiong; Ouyang, Hua

    2009-09-01

    Soil carbon sequestration was estimated in a conifer forest and an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau using a carbon-14 radioactive label provided by thermonuclear weapon tests (known as bomb-(14)C). Soil organic matter was physically separated into light and heavy fractions. The concentration spike of bomb-(14)C occurred at a soil depth of 4 cm in both the forest soil and the alpine meadow soil. Based on the depth of the bomb-(14)C spike, the carbon sequestration rate was determined to be 38.5 g C/m(2) per year for the forest soil and 27.1 g C/m(2) per year for the alpine meadow soil. Considering that more than 60% of soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in the heavy fraction and the large area of alpine forests and meadows on the Tibetan Plateau, these alpine ecosystems might partially contribute to "the missing carbon sink". PMID:19723249

  10. Biomass Crop Production: Benefits for Soil Quality and Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaranayake, W.; Bock, B.R.; Houston, A.; Joslin, J.D.; Pettry, D.E.; Schoenholtz, S.; Thornton, F.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Tyler, D.

    1999-08-29

    Research at three locations in the southeastern US is quantifying changes in soil quality and soil carbon storage that occur during production of biomass crops compared with row crops. After three growing seasons, soil quality improved and soil carbon storage increased on plots planted to cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum with a cover crop, switchgrass, and no-till corn. For tree crops, sequestered belowground carbon was found mainly in stumps and large roots. At the TN site, the coarse woody organic matter storage belowground was 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}yr{sup {minus}1}, of which 79% was stumps and large roots and 21% fine roots. Switchgrass at the AL site also stored considerable carbon belowground as coarse roots. Most of the carbon storage occurred mainly in the upper 30 cw although coarse roots were found to depths of greater than 60 cm. Biomass crops contributed to improvements in soil physical quality as well as increasing belowground carbon sequestration. The distribution and extent of carbon sequestration depends on the growth characteristics and age of the individual biomass crop species. Time and increasing crop maturity will determine the potential of these biomass crops to significantly contribute to the overall national goal of increasing carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Carbon sequestration under irrigated switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial herbaceous bioenergy crops have the potential to improve soil quality, sequester soil C, enhance nutrient cycling, improve wildlife habitat and supply a portion of U.S. energy needs when used as a fuel. Enhanced carbon sequestration combined with bioenergy based cropping systems could pot...

  12. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect (2nd Edition)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This volume is a second edition of the book “Soil Carbon Sequestration and The Greenhouse Effect”. The first edition was published in 2001 as SSSA Special Publ. #57. The present edition is an update of the concepts, processes, properties, practices and the supporting data. All chapters are new co...

  13. Potential for Soil Carbon Sequestration in Central Kazakhstan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The World Bank Kazakhstan Drylands Management Project has the goal of restoring degraded soils associated with abandoned croplands in Kazakhstan. Global markets for carbon sequestration are likely to grow with continued implementation of international agreements such as Kyoto as well as those expec...

  14. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  15. Carbon sequestration and environmental benefits from no-till systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming. Information is needed on the mechanism and magnitude of gas generation and emission from agricultural soils with specific emphasis on tillage mechanisms. This work reviews the scient...

  16. Climate change and terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia is extremely relevant and timely due to the increasing problem of land degradation and desertification in this region. Serious problems of soil and environmental degradation in general and that in Central Asia in particular exacerbated b...

  17. Microbial Contribution to Organic Carbon Sequestration in Mineral Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil productivity and sustainability are dependent on soil organic matter (SOM). Our understanding on how organic inputs to soil from microbial processes become converted to SOM is still limited. This study aims to understand how microbes affect carbon (C) sequestration and the formation of recalcit...

  18. Modeling carbon sequestration potential in Mollisols under climate change scenarios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils, besides its importance in mitigating global climate change, impacts and will be impacted by provisioning, regulating and supporting agroecosystem services. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide an improved understanding of the role of projected ...

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION BY MECHANOCHEMICAL CARBONATION OF MINERAL SILICATES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Nelson

    2004-04-01

    The University of Utah and the University of Idaho investigated the carbonation of silicate minerals by mechanochemical processing. This method uses intense grinding, and has the potential of being much less expensive than other methods of mineral sequestration. Tests were conducted in three types of grinding devices. In these tests, natural and synthetic silicate compounds were ground for varying times in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. A significant change takes place in the lizardite variety of serpentine after 15 to 20 minutes of intense grinding in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of lizardite thus treated was much different than that of the untreated mineral. This spectrum could not be identified as that of any natural or synthetic material. Laboratory analyses showed that small amounts of carbon are fixed by grinding lizardite, forsterite, and wollastonite (all naturally-occurring minerals), and synthetic magnesium silicate, in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. It was thus concluded that further investigation was warranted, and a follow-up proposal was submitted to the Department of Energy under solicitation number.

  20. Applications of mineral carbonation to geological sequestration of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. However, migration of the CO2 beyond the natural reservoir seals could become problematic, thus the identification of means to enhance the natural seals could prove beneficial. Injection of a mineral reactant slurry could provide a means to enhance the natural reservoir seals by supplying the necessary cations for precipitation of mineral carbonates. The subject study evaluates the merit of several mineral slurry injection strategies by conduct of a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin.

  1. Mineland reclamation and soil organic carbon sequestration in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Akala, V.A.; Lal, R.

    1999-07-01

    The mining industry has been continuously involved in initiatives to reduce the emission of green house gases in to atmosphere. Control measures have been introduced in all steps starting from the mining of coal to energy production. Reclamation of mined land was and is one of the eco-friendly measures adopted by the industry. Apart from the inherent benefits of reclamation to improve on and offsite environmental quality, its potential to produce biomass and enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) has not been addressed. Reclamative effects of establishing forest and pasture with (graded) and without topsoil (ungraded) application on soil quality and soil carbon sequestration was studied on mine land in Ohio. The SOC pool for 0--30 cm depth for the undisturbed control sites was 56.6 MgC/ha for forest and 66.3 MgC/ha for pasture. In comparison, the SOC pool in the forest and pasture of graded mineland for 0--30 cm depth after 25 years of reclamation was 58.9 MgC/ha and 62.7 MgC/ha respectively. In ungraded mineland, the SOC pool in the 0--30 cm depth after 30 years of reclamation was 51.5 MgC/ha in forest and 58.9 MgC/ha in the pasture.

  2. Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function

    SciTech Connect

    Lubowski, Ruben N.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Increased attention by policy makers to the threat of global climate change has brought with it considerable interest in the possibility of encouraging the expansion of forest area as a means of sequestering carbon dioxide. The marginal costs of carbon sequestration or, equivalently, the carbon sequestration supply function will determine the ultimate effects and desirability of policies aimed at enhancing carbon uptake. In particular, marginal sequestration costs are the critical statistic for identifying a cost-effective policy mix to mitigate net carbon dioxide emissions. We develop a framework for conducting an econometric analysis of land use for the forty-eight contiguous United States and employing it to estimate the carbon sequestration supply function. By estimating the opportunity costs of land on the basis of econometric evidence of landowners' actual behavior, we aim to circumvent many of the shortcomings of previous sequestration cost assessments. By conducting the first nationwide econometric estimation of sequestration costs, endogenizing prices for land-based commodities, and estimating land-use transition probabilities in a framework that explicitly considers the range of land-use alternatives, we hope to provide better estimates eventually of the true costs of large-scale carbon sequestration efforts. In this way, we seek to add to understanding of the costs and potential of this strategy for addressing the threat of global climate change.

  3. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-02-25

    The October-December Quarter was dedicated to analyzing the first two years tree planting activities and evaluation of the results. This included the analyses of the species success at each of the sites and quantifying the data for future year determination of research levels. Additional detailed studies have been planned to further quantify total carbon storage accumulation on the research areas. At least 124 acres of new plantings will be established in 2005 to bring the total to 500 acres or more in the study area across the state of Kentucky. During the first 2 years of activities, 172,000 tree seedlings were planted on 257 acres in eastern Kentucky and 77,520 seedlings were planted on 119 acres in western Kentucky. The quantities of each species was discussed in the first Annual Report. A monitoring program was implemented to measure treatment effects on above and below ground C and nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes. A sampling strategy was devised that will allow for statistical comparisons of the various species within planting conditions and sites. Seedling heights and diameters are measured for initial status and re-measured on an annual basis. Leaves were harvested and leaf area measurements were performed. They were then dried and weighed and analyzed for C and N. Whole trees were removed to determine biomass levels and to evaluate C and N levels in all components of the trees. Clip plots were taken to determine herbaceous production and litter was collected in baskets and gathered each month to quantify C & N levels. Soil samples were collected to determine the chemical and mineralogical characterization of each area. The physical attributes of the soils are also being determined to provide information on the relative level of compaction. Hydrology and water quality monitoring is being conducted on all areas. Weather data is also being recorded that measures precipitation values, temperature, relative humidity wind speed and direction and solar radiation

  4. Impact of parameter uncertainty on carbon sequestration modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration through injection of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface is one option to reduce anthropogenic CO¬2 emissions. Widespread industrial-scale deployment, on the order of giga-tonnes of CO2 injected per year, will be necessary for carbon sequestration to make a significant contribution to solving the CO2 problem. Deep saline formations are suitable targets for CO2 sequestration due to their large storage capacity, high injectivity, and favorable pressure and temperature regimes. Due to the large areal extent of saline formations, and the need to inject very large amounts of CO2, multiple sequestration operations are likely to be developed in the same formation. The injection-induced migration of both CO2 and resident formation fluids (brine) needs to be predicted to determine the feasibility of industrial-scale deployment of carbon sequestration. Due to the larger spatial scale of the domain, many of the modeling parameters (e.g., permeability) will be highly uncertain. In this presentation we discuss a sensitivity analysis of both pressure response and CO2 plume migration to variations of model parameters such as permeability, compressibility and temperature. The impact of uncertainty in the stratigraphic succession is also explored. The sensitivity analysis is conducted using a numerical vertically-integrated modeling approach. The Illinois Basin, USA is selected as the test site for this study, due to its large storage capacity and large number of stationary CO2 sources. As there is currently only one active CO2 injection operation in the Illinois Basin, a hypothetical injection scenario is used, where CO2 is injected at the locations of large CO2 emitters related to electricity generation, ethanol production and hydrocarbon refinement. The Area of Review (AoR) is chosen as the comparison metric, as it includes both the CO2 plume size and pressure response.

  5. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  6. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through proper management, agricultural systems (cropland, pasture, and forest) have the ability to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequester it in soils and wood products. The carbon thus sequestered can help slow the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide currently occurring as a res...

  7. Ocean sequestration of crop residue carbon: recycling fossil fuel carbon back to deep sediments.

    PubMed

    Strand, Stuart E; Benford, Gregory

    2009-02-15

    For significant impact any method to remove CO2 from the atmosphere must process large amounts of carbon efficiently, be repeatable, sequester carbon for thousands of years, be practical, economical and be implemented soon. The only method that meets these criteria is removal of crop residues and burial in the deep ocean. We show here that this method is 92% efficient in sequestration of crop residue carbon while cellulosic ethanol production is only 32% and soil sequestration is about 14% efficient. Deep ocean sequestration can potentially capture 15% of the current global CO2 annual increase, returning that carbon backto deep sediments, confining the carbon for millennia, while using existing capital infrastructure and technology. Because of these clear advantages, we recommend enhanced research into permanent sequestration of crop residues in the deep ocean. PMID:19320149

  8. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to <2 °C relative to the preindustrial era. Most recent scenarios from integrated assessment models require large-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs) to reach the 2 °C target. A recent analysis of NETs, including direct air capture, enhanced weathering, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. PMID:26732128

  9. Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

  10. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric; Burruss, Robert; Faulkner, Stephen; Gleason, Robert; Harden, Jennifer; Kharaka, Yousif; Tieszen, Larry; Waldrop, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This increase in atmospheric CO2 - from about 280 to more than 380 parts per million (ppm) over the last 250 years - is causing measurable global warming. Potential adverse impacts include sea-level rise; increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, floods, droughts, and tropical storms; changes in the amount, timing, and distribution of rain, snow, and runoff; and disturbance of coastal marine and other ecosystems. Rising atmospheric CO2 is also increasing the absorption of CO2 by seawater, causing the ocean to become more acidic, with potentially disruptive effects on marine plankton and coral reefs. Technically and economically feasible strategies are needed to mitigate the consequences of increased atmospheric CO2. The United States needs scientific information to develop ways to reduce human-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.

  11. The value of carbon sequestration and storage in coastal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, N. J.; Jones, L.; Garbutt, A.; Hansom, J. D.; Toberman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal margin habitats are globally significant in terms of their capacity to sequester and store carbon, but their continuing decline, due to environmental change and human land use decisions, is reducing their capacity to provide this ecosystem service. In this paper the UK is used as a case study area to develop methodologies to quantify and value the ecosystem service of blue carbon sequestration and storage in coastal margin habitats. Changes in UK coastal habitat area between 1900 and 2060 are documented, the long term stocks of carbon stored by these habitats are calculated, and the capacity of these habitats to sequester CO2 is detailed. Changes in value of the carbon sequestration service of coastal habitats are then projected for 2000-2060 under two scenarios, the maintenance of the current state of the habitat and the continuation of current trends of habitat loss. If coastal habitats are maintained at their current extent, their sequestration capacity over the period 2000-2060 is valued to be in the region of £1 billion UK sterling (3.5% discount rate). However, if current trends of habitat loss continue, the capacity of the coastal habitats both to sequester and store CO2 will be significantly reduced, with a reduction in value of around £0.25 billion UK sterling (2000-2060; 3.5% discount rate). If loss-trends due to sea level rise or land reclamation worsen, this loss in value will be greater. This case study provides valuable site specific information, but also highlights global issues regarding the quantification and valuation of carbon sequestration and storage. Whilst our ability to value ecosystem services is improving, considerable uncertainty remains. If such ecosystem valuations are to be incorporated with confidence into national and global policy and legislative frameworks, it is necessary to address this uncertainty. Recommendations to achieve this are outlined.

  12. Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data.

  13. Common Scientific Challenges in Carbon Sequestration and Geothermal Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBonte, A.; Groat, C. G.; Schwartz, L.

    2011-12-01

    In June of 2010, DOE convened a Carbon Sequestration- Geothermal Energy--Science Joint Workshop composed of academic, industry, and government experts. Participants were charged with looking beyond needs unique to either geothermal energy or carbon storage to identify common research needs. The expectation is greater collaboration in the identified common research areas will accelerate understanding of scientific processes critical to scaling up Carbon Sequestration and Geothermal Energy Systems. The major topic areas of the workshop include: Assessment and Characterization, to aide preliminary screening for prospective sites at the regional scale and subsurface characterization to assess feasibility at the site scale, Reservoir Sustainability, such as understanding evolution of pore and fracture structure to determine storage or production capacity and integrity of the reservoir over its intended lifetime, Modeling, a key element to conceptualizing, predicting, and managing the effects of reservoir processes over a wide variety of temporal and spatial scales when subjected to perturbations, Monitoring, requiring improvements to sensors, and data collection and interpretation methods to track changes in the reservoir and seal properties, and Performance Assessment, as a critical component to both optimize economic aspects and minimize health and environmental risks of a project. Workshop outcomes detailing research to enable scale-up of both carbon sequestration and geothermal energy applications will be presented.

  14. Saharan dust enhances carbon sequestration in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Lampitt, Richard; Le Moigne, Frederic; Sanders, Richard; Statham, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We present unique time-series data from sediment traps deployed at 3000 m depth in the subtropical North (NOG) and South (SOG) Atlantic oligotrophic gyres during 2007-2010. The sampling sites have similar physical properties and carbon fixation rates but different surface ocean biogeochemistry owing to enhanced input of Saharan dust in the North. NOG and SOG sites are thus ideal to investigate the effects of dust input on carbon sequestration in low-nutrient low-chlorophyll oceans. Analyses of the trap material (chemical, microscopic and stable isotope) revealed significant inter-basin differences in the downward particle flux and its composition, showing that biogeochemical differences at the surface have major effects on deep ocean sequestration scenarios. Particulate organic carbon flux in the dustier Northern gyre was twice that in the dust-poor Southern gyre. We conclude that this is a consequence of tight coupling between fertilization and ballasting due to dust deposition. We suggest that excess of micronutrient Fe from the dust increased phytoplankton biomass by stimulating di-nitrogen fixation, while dust particles caused rapid and more efficient transport to depth via ballasting. These findings present compelling direct evidence of two distinct biogeochemical provinces in the subtropical oligotrophic Atlantic not only with respect to surface nutrient biogeochemistry but also with respect to carbon sequestration.

  15. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition enhances carbon sequestration in boreal soils.

    PubMed

    Maaroufi, Nadia I; Nordin, Annika; Hasselquist, Niles J; Bach, Lisbet H; Palmqvist, Kristin; Gundale, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    It is proposed that carbon (C) sequestration in response to reactive nitrogen (Nr ) deposition in boreal forests accounts for a large portion of the terrestrial sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While studies have helped clarify the magnitude by which Nr deposition enhances C sequestration by forest vegetation, there remains a paucity of long-term experimental studies evaluating how soil C pools respond. We conducted a long-term experiment, maintained since 1996, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) in the boreal zone of northern Sweden to understand how atmospheric Nr deposition affects soil C accumulation, soil microbial communities, and soil respiration. We hypothesized that soil C sequestration will increase, and soil microbial biomass and soil respiration will decrease, with disproportionately large changes expected compared to low levels of N addition. Our data showed that the low N addition treatment caused a non-significant increase in the organic horizon C pool of ~15% and a significant increase of ~30% in response to the high N treatment relative to the control. The relationship between C sequestration and N addition in the organic horizon was linear, with a slope of 10 kg C kg(-1) N. We also found a concomitant decrease in total microbial and fungal biomasses and a ~11% reduction in soil respiration in response to the high N treatment. Our data complement previous data from the same study system describing aboveground C sequestration, indicating a total ecosystem sequestration rate of 26 kg C kg(-1) N. These estimates are far lower than suggested by some previous modeling studies, and thus will help improve and validate current modeling efforts aimed at separating the effect of multiple global change factors on the C balance of the boreal region. PMID:25711504

  16. Impacts of crop rotations on soil organic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Vos, Johan; Joris, Ingeborg; Van De Vreken, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural land use and crop rotations can greatly affect the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. We developed a framework for modelling the impacts of crop rotations on soil carbon sequestration at the field scale with test case Flanders. A crop rotation geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System) to elicit the most common crop rotation on major soil types in Flanders. In order to simulate the impact of crop cover on carbon sequestration, the Roth-C model was adapted to Flanders' environment and coupled to common crop rotations extracted from the IACS geodatabases and statistical databases on crop yield. Crop allometric models were used to calculate crop residues from common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil (REGSOM). The REGSOM model was coupled to Roth-C model was run for 30 years and for all combinations of seven main arable crops, two common catch crops and two common dosages of organic manure. The common crops are winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, grain maize, silage maize and winter rapeseed; the catch crops are yellow mustard and Italian ryegrass; the manure dosages are 35 ton/ha cattle slurry and 22 ton/ha pig slurry. Four common soils were simulated: sand, loam, sandy loam and clay. In total more than 2.4 million simulations were made with monthly output of carbon content for 30 years. Results demonstrate that crop cover dynamics influence carbon sequestration for a very large percentage. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute largely to the total carbon sequestered. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil carbon sequestration for a large percentage. The framework is therefore

  17. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  18. Carbon sequestration in grasslands: grazing versus fire under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, D. M.; Kelly, R.; Parton, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    We simulated different levels of grazing and frequencies of fire using the biogeochemical model DAYCENT across a climate gradient from Montana to New Mexico to look at their long-term implications on carbon sequestration in grasslands. We also used 3 future climate scenarios and 2 CO2 emission levels to estimate interactions between disturbance and climate. In all cases, total ecosystem carbon was driven by grazing pressure with carbon stocks declining by 15-35% under moderate to heavy grazing. Fire frequency had no effect on carbon levels when 50% of the aboveground biomass was consumed by grazers and has the most impact when no grazing occurred. Warmer drier climate scenarios increased the stress to growth and caused declines in carbon stocks unless a CO2 fertilization effect increased the water use efficiency. Again, under future climate change scenario, grazing had a greater impact than fire frequency in defining the overall levels of total ecosystem carbon. Potential woody plant invasion of grasslands would alter the role of disturbance on carbon sequestration potential since frequent fires would remove shrubs from the landscape reducing the potential for increased aboveground carbon stocks with lower palatability to grazers than grasses.

  19. Carbonic anhydrase mediated carbon dioxide sequestration: promises, challenges and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Raju R; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Mudliar, Sandeep N; Devi, S Saravana; Naoghare, Pravin K; Bafana, Amit; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2014-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities have substantially increased the level of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere and are contributing significantly to the global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is one of the major GHGs which plays a key role in the climate change. Various approaches and methodologies are under investigation to address CO2 capture and sequestration worldwide. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) mediated CO2 sequestration is one of the promising options. Therefore, the present review elaborates recent developments in CA, its immobilization and bioreactor methodologies towards CO2 sequestration using the CA enzyme. The promises and challenges associated with the efficient utilization of CA for CO2 sequestration and scale up from flask to lab-scale bioreactor are critically discussed. Finally, the current review also recommends the possible future needs and directions to utilize CA for CO2 sequestration. PMID:24740638

  20. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. PMID:27317133

  1. NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr

    2006-01-09

    This report provides a brief summary of the milestone for Quarter 1 of 2006 of the NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB) This milestone assigns consistent symbology to the ''National CO{sub 2} Facilities'' GIS layer on the NATCARB website. As a default, CO{sub 2} sources provided by the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and the National Group are now all one symbol type. In addition for sinks such as oil and gas fields where data is drawn from multiple partnerships, the symbology is given a single color. All these modifications are accomplished as the layer is passed through the national portal (www.natcarb.org). This documentation is sent to National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a Topical Report and will be included in the next Annual Report.

  2. Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Flood Basalts

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. PETER; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ho, Anita M.; Chien, Yi-Ju; Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2006-12-01

    Flood basalts are a potentially important host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Most lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have enormous capacity for storage of CO2. Interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock overlying sequential flows may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Laboratory experiments confirm relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. Calculations suggest a sufficiently short time frame for onset of carbonate precipitation after CO2 injection that verification of in situ mineralization rates appears feasible in field pilot studies. If proven viable, major flood basalts in the U.S. and India would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in certain regions where more conventional storage options are limited.

  3. Biochar for soil fertility and natural carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Rutherford, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Biochar is charcoal (similar to chars generated by forest fires) that is made for incorporation into soils to increase soil fertility while providing natural carbon sequestration. The incorporation of biochar into soils can preserve and enrich soils and also slow the rate at which climate change is affecting our planet. Studies on biochar, such as those cited by this report, are applicable to both fire science and soil science.

  4. Molecular and Metabolic Mechanisms of Carbon Sequestration in Marine Thrombolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobberley, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of my dissertation project has been to examine the molecular processes underlying carbon sequestration in lithifying microbial ecosystems, known as thrombolitic mats, and assess their feasibility for use in bioregenerative life support systems. The results of my research and education efforts funded by the Graduate Student Researchers Program can be summarized in four peer-reviewed research publication, one educational publication, two papers in preparation, and six research presentations at local and national science meetings (see below for specific details).

  5. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Mesoscale carbon sequestration site screening and CCS infrastructure analysis.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gordon N; Middleton, Richard S; Stauffer, Philip H; Viswanathan, Hari S; Letellier, Bruce C; Pasqualini, Donatella; Pawar, Rajesh J; Wolfsberg, Andrew V

    2011-01-01

    We explore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) at the meso-scale, a level of study between regional carbon accounting and highly detailed reservoir models for individual sites. We develop an approach to CO(2) sequestration site screening for industries or energy development policies that involves identification of appropriate sequestration basin, analysis of geologic formations, definition of surface sites, design of infrastructure, and analysis of CO(2) transport and storage costs. Our case study involves carbon management for potential oil shale development in the Piceance-Uinta Basin, CO and UT. This study uses new capabilities of the CO(2)-PENS model for site screening, including reservoir capacity, injectivity, and cost calculations for simple reservoirs at multiple sites. We couple this with a model of optimized source-sink-network infrastructure (SimCCS) to design pipeline networks and minimize CCS cost for a given industry or region. The CLEAR(uff) dynamical assessment model calculates the CO(2) source term for various oil production levels. Nine sites in a 13,300 km(2) area have the capacity to store 6.5 GtCO(2), corresponding to shale-oil production of 1.3 Mbbl/day for 50 years (about 1/4 of U.S. crude oil production). Our results highlight the complex, nonlinear relationship between the spatial deployment of CCS infrastructure and the oil-shale production rate. PMID:20698546

  7. Implementation of Emission Trading in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Optimization Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Duncan, I.

    2013-12-01

    As an effective mid- and long- term solution for large-scale mitigation of industrial CO2 emissions, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) has been paid more and more attention in the past decades. A general CCS management system has complex characteristics of multiple emission sources, multiple mitigation technologies, multiple sequestration sites, and multiple project periods. Trade-off exists among numerous environmental, economic, political, and technical factors, leading to varied system features. Sound decision alternatives are thus desired for provide decision supports for decision makers or managers for managing such a CCS system from capture to the final geologic storage phases. Carbon emission trading has been developed as a cost-effective tool for reducing the global greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, a carbon capture and sequestration optimization management model is proposed to address the above issues. The carbon emission trading is integrated into the model, and its impacts on the resulting management decisions are analyzed. A multi-source multi-period case study is provided to justify the applicability of the modeling approach, where uncertainties in modeling parameters are also dealt with.

  8. Impact of soil movement on carbon sequestration in agricultural ecosystems.

    PubMed

    McCarty, G W; Ritchie, J C

    2002-01-01

    Recent modeling studies indicate that soil erosion and terrestrial sedimentation may establish ecosystem disequilibria that promote carbon (C) sequestration within the biosphere. Movement of upland eroded soil into wetland systems with high net primary productivity may represent the greatest increase in storage capacity potential for C sequestration. The capacity of wetland systems to capture sediments and build up areas of deposition has been documented as well as the ability of these ecosystems to store substantial amounts of C. The purpose of our work was to assess rates of sediment deposition and C storage in a wetland site adjacent to a small first-order stream that drains an agricultural area. The soils of the wetland site consist of a histosol buried by sediments from the agricultural area. Samples of deposited sediments in the riparian zone were collected in 5 cm increments and the concentration of 137Cs was used to determine the 1964 and 1954 deposition layers. Agricultural activity in the watershed has caused increased sediment deposition to the wetland. The recent upland sediment is highly enriched in organic matter indicating that large amounts of organic C have been sequestered within this zone of sediment deposition. Rates of sequestration are much higher than rates that have occurred over the pre-modern history of the wetland. These data indicate the increased sedimentation rates in the wetland ecosystem are associated with increased C sequestration rates. PMID:11822721

  9. A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2009-01-01

    Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

  10. A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garten, Charles T., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

  11. Sequestration of CO2 by concrete carbonation.

    PubMed

    Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Mora, Pedro; Sanjuan, Miguel A

    2010-04-15

    Carbonation of reinforced concrete is one of the causes of corrosion, but it is also a way to sequester CO2. The characteristics of the concrete cover should ensure alkaline protection for the steel bars but should also be able to combine CO2 to a certain depth. This work attempts to advance the knowledge of the carbon footprint of cement. As it is one of the most commonly used materials worldwide, it is very important to assess its impact on the environment. In order to quantify the capacity of cement based materials to combine CO2 by means of the reaction with hydrated phases to produce calcium carbonate, Thermogravimetry and the phenolphthalein indicator have been used to characterize several cement pastes and concretes exposed to different environments. The combined effect of the main variables involved in this process is discussed. The moisture content of the concrete seems to be the most influential parameter. PMID:20225850

  12. Carbon Sequestration in Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay and the Ebro River Delta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaway, J.; Fennessy, S.; Ibanez, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. Because of the rapid rates of carbon sequestration, there is growing interest in evaluating carbon dynamics in tidal wetlands around the world; however, few measurements have been completed for mediterranean-type tidal wetlands, which tend to have relatively high levels of soil salinity, likely affecting both plant productivity and decomposition rates. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at tidal wetlands in two mediterranean regions: the San Francisco Bay Estuary (California, USA) and the Ebro River Delta (Catalonia, Spain). Sampling sites within each region represented a range of conditions in terms of soil salinity and plant communities, and these sites serve as potential analogs for long-term carbon sequestration in restored wetlands, which could receive credits under emerging policies for carbon management. Within San Francisco Bay, we collected six sediment cores per site at four salt marshes and two brackish tidal wetlands (two transects with three stations per transect at each site) in order to identify spatial variation both within and among wetlands in the Estuary. At the Ebro Delta, individual sediment cores were collected across 14 tidal wetland sites, including salt and brackish marshes from impounded areas, river mouths, coastal lagoon, and open bay settings. Cores were collected to 50 cm, and cores were dated using 137Cs and 210Pb. Most sites within San Francisco accreted 0.3-0.5 cm/yr, with slightly higher rates of accretion at low marsh stations; accretions rates based on 137Cs were slightly higher than those based on 210Pb, likely because of the shorter time frame covered by 137Cs dating. Accretion rates from the Ebro Delta sites were similar although more variable, with rates based on 137Cs ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 cm/yr and reflecting the wide range of conditions and management

  13. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R.; Mark, Darren F.; Smith, Caroline L.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth’s crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars’ history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2. PMID:24149494

  14. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation.

    PubMed

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R; Mark, Darren F; Smith, Caroline L

    2013-01-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth's crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars' history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2. PMID:24149494

  15. Reduced environmental emissions and carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural ecosystems can play a significant role in the production and consumption of greenhouse gases, specifically, carbon dioxide. Information is needed on the mechanism and magnitude of gas generation and emission from agricultural soils with specific emphasis on tillage mechanisms. The objec...

  16. Soil carbon sequestration: Quantifying this ecosystem service

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils have a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis. These include food and fiber production, water cleansing and supply, nutrient cycling, waste isolation and degradation. Soils also provide a significant amount of carbon s...

  17. Science of Geological Carbon Sequestration: Integration of Experimentation and Simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Hall, M. L.; Higdon, D.; Hollis, W. K.; Kaszuba, J.; Lichtner, P.; Pawar, R.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, S.; Grigg, R.

    2003-08-04

    This LDRD-DR will develop and enhance the science and technology needed to safely and effectively sequester carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) in geologic formations for the long term. There is consensus in the scientific community that increased levels of greenhouse gases such as CO[sub 2] are adversely affecting the global environment as evidenced by recent trends in global warming and dramatic changes in weather patterns. Geologic sequestration represents an immediately available, low-cost option for mitigating the global environmental impact of C0[sub 2] by removing large amounts of the gas from the atmosphere. The main limitation of this approach is the limited knowledge of the fundamental science that governs the physical and chemical behavior of (supercritical) CO[sub 2] during and after injection into the host geologic environment. Key scientific issues revolve around determination of the ultimate fate of injected CO[sub 2] which is governed by permeability/porosity relations in the multi-phase CO[sub 2]-brine(-oil) systems as well as the reactivity and integrity of the host rock. We propose a combined experimental and theoretical investigation to determine key parameters and incorporate them into coupled microscopic and macroscopic numerical CO[sub 2] flow and reaction models. This problem provides an excellent opportunity to utilize unique LANL resources including the Supercritical Fluids Facility (SCRUB) for dynamic (flow-through) studies of supercritical CO[sub 2] (scCO[sub 2]); LANSCE for microscale investigation of pore structure and reaction products; and hydrothermal reaction laboratories for long-term flow and reaction studies. These facilities will allow us to obtain crucial experimental data that could not be easily obtained at any other research facility in the world. The experimental data will be used to develop and validate coupled flow and reaction models that build on existing state-of-the-art modeling capabilities in EES, T and D Divisions. Carbon

  18. Analysis and Comparison of Carbon Capture & Sequestration Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, E.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Reed, J.; Beyer, J. H.; Wagoner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Several states and countries have adopted or are in the process of crafting policies to enable geologic carbon sequestration projects. These efforts reflect the recognition that existing statutory and regulatory frameworks leave ambiguities or gaps that elevate project risk for private companies considering carbon sequestration projects, and/or are insufficient to address a government’s mandate to protect the public interest. We have compared the various approaches that United States’ state and federal governments have taken to provide regulatory frameworks to address carbon sequestration. A major purpose of our work is to inform the development of any future legislation in California, should it be deemed necessary to meet the goals of Assembly Bill 1925 (2006) to accelerate the adoption of cost-effective geologic sequestration strategies for the long-term management of industrial carbon dioxide in the state. Our analysis shows a diverse issues are covered by adopted and proposed carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) legislation and that many of the new laws focus on defining regulatory frameworks for underground injection of CO2, ambiguities in property issues, or assigning legal liability. While these approaches may enable the progress of early projects, future legislation requires a longer term and broader view that includes a quantified integration of CCS into a government’s overall climate change mitigation strategy while considering potentially counterproductive impacts on CCS of other climate change mitigation strategies. Furthermore, legislation should be crafted in the context of a vision for CCS as an economically viable and widespread industry. While an important function of new CCS legislation is enabling early projects, it must be kept in mind that applying the same laws or protocols in the future to a widespread CCS industry may result in business disincentives and compromise of the public interest in mitigating GHG emissions. Protection of the

  19. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    PubMed

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements. PMID:24206564

  20. Climate Controls on Carbon Sequestration in Eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Renik, B.; Maenza-Gmeich, T.; Kurdyla, D.; Guilderson, T.

    2002-01-01

    Mid-latitude forest ecosystems have been proposed as a "missing sink" today. The role of soils (including wetlands) in this proposed sink is a very important unknown. In order to make estimates of future climate change effects on carbon storage, we can examine past wetland carbon sequestration. How did past climate change affect net wetland carbon storage? We present long-term data from existing wetland sites used for paleoclimate reconstruction to assess the net carbon storage in wetland over the last 15000 years. During times of colder and wetter climate, many mid-latitude sites show increases in carbon storage, while past warmer, drier climates produced decreases in storage. Comparison among bog, fen, swamp, and tidal marsh are demonstrated for the Hudson Valley region.

  1. Measurement of nitrosamine and nitramine formation from NOx reactions with amines during amine-based carbon dioxide capture for postcombustion carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Shah, Amisha D; Hu, Lanhua; Plewa, Michael J; McKague, Bruce; Mitch, William A

    2012-09-01

    With years of full-scale experience for precombustion CO(2) capture, amine-based technologies are emerging as the prime contender for postcombustion CO(2) capture. However, concerns for postcombustion applications have focused on the possible contamination of air or drinking water supplies downwind by potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines released following their formation by NO(x) reactions with amines within the capture unit. Analytical methods for N-nitrosamines in drinking waters were adapted to measure specific N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines and total N-nitrosamines in solvent and washwater samples. The high levels of amines, aldehydes, and nitrite in these samples presented a risk for the artifactual formation of N-nitrosamines during sample storage or analysis. Application of a 30-fold molar excess of sulfamic acid to nitrite at pH 2 destroyed nitrite with no significant risk of artifactual nitrosation of amines. Analysis of aqueous morpholine solutions purged with different gas-phase NO and NO(2) concentrations indicated that N-nitrosamine formation generally exceeds N-nitramine formation. The total N-nitrosamine formation rate was at least an order of magnitude higher for the secondary amine piperazine (PZ) than for the primary amines 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) and monoethanolamine (MEA) and the tertiary amine methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Analysis of pilot washwater samples indicated a 59 μM total N-nitrosamine concentration for a system operated with a 25% AMP/15% PZ solvent, but only 0.73 μM for a 35% MEA solvent. Unfortunately, a greater fraction of the total N-nitrosamine signal was uncharacterized for the MEA-associated washwater. At a 0.73 μM total N-nitrosamine concentration, a ~25000-fold reduction in concentration is needed between washwater units and downwind drinking water supplies to meet proposed permit limits. PMID:22831707

  2. Evidence for carbon sequestration by agricultural liming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Stephen K.; Kurzman, Amanda L.; Arango, Clay; Jin, Lixin; Robertson, G. Philip

    2007-06-01

    Agricultural lime can be a source or a sink for CO2, depending on whether reaction occurs with strong acids or carbonic acid. Here we examine the impact of liming on global warming potential by comparing the sum of Ca2+ and Mg2+ to carbonate alkalinity in soil solutions beneath unmanaged vegetation versus limed row crops, and of streams and rivers in agricultural versus forested watersheds, mainly in southern Michigan. Soil solutions sampled by tension indicated that lime can act as either a source or a sink for CO2. However, infiltrating waters tended to indicate net CO2 uptake, as did tile drainage waters and streams draining agricultural watersheds. As nitrate concentrations increased in infiltrating waters, lime switched from a net CO2 sink to a source, implying nitrification as a major acidifying process. Dissolution of lime may sequester CO2 equal to roughly 25-50% of its C content, in contrast to the prevailing assumption that all of the carbon in lime becomes CO2. The ˜30 Tg/yr of agricultural lime applied in the United States could thus sequester up to 1.9 Tg C/yr, about 15% of the annual change in the U.S. CO2 emissions (12 Tg C/yr for 2002-2003). The implications of liming for atmospheric CO2 stabilization should be considered in strategies to mitigate global climate change.

  3. Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chmura, G.L.; Anisfeld, S.C.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbon-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4??S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5??N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil carbon density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ?? 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ?? 0.003 g cm-3). Soil carbon density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, carbon sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of carbon sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. Globally, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as carbon sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Nitrogen input effectiveness on carbon sequestration in rainfed cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Poma, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The combined effect of total N and C/N ratio had a large influence on the decomposition rate and consequently on potential soil organic carbon sequestration. The aim of the work was to evaluate Carbon sequestration potentiality under three mineral N fertilization levels in interaction with two cropping systems characterized by addition of N input due to leguminous species in the rotation. The study was carried out in the semiarid Mediterranean environment in a 18years long-term experiment. Is well know that in the semiarid environment the excess of N fertilization reduces biomass yield and the consequent C input. On the contrary, both N and C input determine high difference in C/N input ratio and faster organic matter mineralization. Results showed no influence of N fertilization on SOC sequestration and a reduction of SOC stock due to crop rotation due to lower C input. Crop residue quality of durum wheat-pea crop rotation characterized by a faster decomposition rate could explain the lower ability of crop rotation to sequester C in the semiarid environment.

  5. Community perceptions of carbon sequestration: insights from California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Ray, Isha

    2009-07-01

    Over the last decade, many energy experts have supported carbon sequestration as a viable technological response to climate change. Given the potential importance of sequestration in US energy policy, what might explain the views of communities that may be directly impacted by the siting of this technology? To answer this question, we conducted focus groups in two communities who were potentially pilot project sites for California's DOE-funded West Coast Regional Partnership (WESTCARB). We find that communities want a voice in defining the risks to be mitigated as well as the justice of the procedures by which the technology is implemented. We argue that a community's sense of empowerment is key to understanding its range of carbon sequestration opinions, where 'empowerment' includes the ability to mitigate community-defined risks of the technology. This sense of empowerment protects the community against the downside risk of government or corporate neglect, a risk that is rarely identified in risk assessments but that should be factored into assessment and communication strategies.

  6. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  7. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2007-12-31

    This research project was aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of RMS and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. Restoration of disturbed land is followed by the application of nutrients to the soil to promote the vegetation development. Reclamation is important both for preserving the environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. Since reclamation treatments have significant influence on the rate of soil development, a study on subplots was designed with the objectives of assessing the potential of different biosolids on soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate, soil development, and changes in soil physical and water transmission properties. All sites are owned and maintained by American Electric Power (AEP). These sites were reclaimed by two techniques: (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover.

  8. The ecological and economic potential of carbon sequestration in forests: examples from South America.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Free; Olschewski, Roland; Veldkamp, Edzo; Benítez, Pablo; López-Ulloa, Magdalena; Schlichter, Tomás; de Urquiza, Mercedes

    2005-05-01

    Costs of reforestation projects determine their competitiveness with alternative measures to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We quantify carbon sequestration in above-ground biomass and soils of plantation forests and secondary forests in two countries in South America-Ecuador and Argentina-and calculate costs of temporary carbon sequestration. Costs per temporary certified emission reduction unit vary between 0.1 and 2.7 USD Mg(-1) CO2 and mainly depend on opportunity costs, site suitability, discount rates, and certification costs. In Ecuador, secondary forests are a feasible and cost-efficient alternative, whereas in Argentina reforestation on highly suitable land is relatively cheap. Our results can be used to design cost-effective sink projects and to negotiate fair carbon prices for landowners. PMID:16042281

  9. The role of renewable bioenergy in carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1993-12-31

    The use of renewable resources represents a sound approach to producing clean energy and reducing the dependence on diminishing reserves of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the widespread interest in renewable energy in the 1970s, spurred by escalating fossil fuel prices, subsided with the collapse of energy prices in the mid 1980s. Today, it is largely to reverse alarming environmental trends, particularly the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than to reduce the cost of energy, that renewable energy resources are being pursued. This discussion focuses on a specific class of renewable energy resources - biomass. Unlike most other classes of renewable energy touted for controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, e.g., hydro, direct solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal, which produce usable forms of energy while generating little or no carbon dioxide emissions, bioenergy almost always involves combustion and therefore generates carbon dioxide; however, if used on a sustained basis, bio-energy would not contribute to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide because the amount released in combustion would be balanced by that taken up via photosynthesis. It is in that context, i.e., sustained production of biomass as a modern energy carrier, rather than reforestation for carbon sequestration, that biomass is being discussed here, since biomass can play a much greater role in controlling global warming by displacing fossil fuels than by being used strictly for carbon sequestration (partly because energy crop production can reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions indefinitely, whereas under the reforestation strategy, carbon dioxide abatement ceases at forest maturity).

  10. Deep horizons: Soil Carbon sequestration and storage potential in grassland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Sallan, Gemma; Schulte, Rogier; Lanigan, Gary J.; Byrne, Kenneth A.; Reidy, Brian; Creamer, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) enhances soil fertility, holding nutrients in a plant-available form. It also improves aeration and water infiltration. Soils are considered a vital pool for C (Carbon) sequestration, as they are the largest pool of C after the oceans, and contain 3.5 more C than the atmosphere. SOC models and inventories tend to focus on the top 30 cm of soils, only analysing total SOC values. Association of C with microaggregates (53-250 μm) and silt and clay (<53 μm) is considered C sequestration as these fractions offer the greatest protection against mineralization. This study assessed the role of aggregation in C sequestration throughout the profile, down to 1 m depth, of 30 grassland sites divided in 6 soil types. One kg sample was collected for each horizon, sieved at 8 mm and dried at 40 °C. Through a wet sieving procedure, four aggregate sizes were isolated: large macroaggregates (>2000 μm); macroaggregates (250-2000 μm); microaggregates and silt & clay. Organic C associated to each aggregate fraction was analysed on a LECO combustion analyser. Sand-free C was calculated for each aggregate size. For all soil types, 84% of the SOC located in the first 30 cm was contained inside macroaggregates and large macroaggregates. Given that this fraction has a turnover time of 1 to 10 years, sampling at that depth only provides information on the labile fraction in soil, and does not consider the longer term C sequestration potential. Only when looking at the whole profile, two clear trends could be observed: 1) soils with a clay increase at depth had most of their C located in the silt and clay fractions, which indicate their enhanced C sequestration capacity, 2) free-draining soils had a bigger part of their SOC located in the macroaggregate fractions. These results indicate that current C inventories and models that focus on the top 30 cm, do not accurately measure soil C sequestration potential in soils, but rather the more labile fraction. However

  11. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2008-08-07

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) could become an instrumental part of a future carbon trading system in the US. If the US starts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similar to that of the European Union's then limits on CO{sub 2} emissions will be conservative in the beginning stages. The government will most likely start by distributing most credits for free; these free credits are called allowances. The US may follow the model of the EU ETS, which during the first five-year phase distributed 95% of the credits for free, bringing that level down to 90% for the second five-year phase. As the number of free allowances declines, companies will be forced to purchase an increasing number of credits at government auction, or else obtain them from companies selling surplus credits. In addition to reducing the number of credits allocated for free, with each subsequent trading period the number of overall credits released into the market will decline in an effort to gradually reduce overall emissions. Companies may face financial difficulty as the value of credits continues to rise due to the reduction of the number of credits available in the market each trading period. Governments operating emissions trading systems face the challenge of achieving CO{sub 2} emissions targets without placing such a financial burden on their companies that the country's economy is markedly affected.

  12. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-08-02

    The April-June 2004 quarter was dedicated to the establishment of monitoring systems for all the new research areas. Hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas as does weather data pertinent to the research. Studies assessing specific questions pertaining to carbon flux has been established and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals is being quantified. The approval of two experimental practices associated with this research by the United States Office of Surface Mining was a major accomplishment during this period of time. These experimental practices will eventually allow for tree planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and for the use of loose dumped spoil on mountain top removal areas with no grading in the final layer of rooting material for tree establishment.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration, Weathering Approaches to

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuiling, R. D.

    The aim of enhanced weathering is to capture CO2 by the carbonation of silicates, or by dissolution of these silicates during which the greenhouse gas CO2 is converted to bicarbonate in solution. Research in this field is still focused on increasing the rate of reaction, but the required additional technologies add considerably to the cost of the process. In this entry, the focus is on the optimization of the weathering conditions, by selecting the most reactive abundantly available minerals, grinding them, and spreading the grains over land. Thereafter nature takes its course. Since its formulation in the late 1990s, more and more people realize that this simple and natural approach may well turn out to be one of the most promising and environmentally friendliest ways to counteract climate change and ocean acidification

  14. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  15. Phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Li, Zimin; Wang, Hailong; Gui, Renyi; Song, Ruisheng

    2014-01-01

    Phytoliths, the amorphous silica deposited in plant tissues, can occlude organic carbon (phytolith-occluded carbon, PhytOC) during their formation and play a significant role in the global carbon balance. This study explored phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos. The phytolith content in bamboo varied substantially from 4.28% to 16.42%, with the highest content in Sasa and the lowest in Chimonobambusa, Indocalamus and Acidosasa. The mean PhytOC production flux and rate in China's bamboo forests were 62.83 kg CO2 ha−1 y−1 and 4.5 × 108 kg CO2 y−1, respectively. This implies that 1.4 × 109 kg CO2 would be sequestered in world's bamboo phytoliths because the global bamboo distribution area is about three to four times higher than China's bamboo. Therefore, both increasing the bamboo area and selecting high phytolith-content bamboo species would increase the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 within bamboo phytoliths. PMID:24736571

  16. Phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos.

    PubMed

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Li, Zimin; Wang, Hailong; Gui, Renyi; Song, Ruisheng

    2014-01-01

    Phytoliths, the amorphous silica deposited in plant tissues, can occlude organic carbon (phytolith-occluded carbon, PhytOC) during their formation and play a significant role in the global carbon balance. This study explored phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos. The phytolith content in bamboo varied substantially from 4.28% to 16.42%, with the highest content in Sasa and the lowest in Chimonobambusa, Indocalamus and Acidosasa. The mean PhytOC production flux and rate in China's bamboo forests were 62.83 kg CO2 ha(-1) y(-1) and 4.5 × 10(8)kg CO2 y(-1), respectively. This implies that 1.4 × 10(9) kg CO2 would be sequestered in world's bamboo phytoliths because the global bamboo distribution area is about three to four times higher than China's bamboo. Therefore, both increasing the bamboo area and selecting high phytolith-content bamboo species would increase the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 within bamboo phytoliths. PMID:24736571

  17. Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

  18. Carbon sequestration from boreal wildfires via Pyrogenic Carbon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Preston, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    allowed, for the first time, quantifying the whole range of PyC components found in-situ immediately after a typical boreal forest fire. The fire examined had a fireline intensity of ~8000 kw/m, which is typical of boreal fires in NW Canada and we found that more than 18% of the fuel consumed was converted to PyC. This rate by far exceeds previous estimates (1-3%) and suggests that PyC production has indeed been substantially underestimated. As boreal forests are the world's largest terrestrial biome and contain half of the forest ecosystem C with a third its net primary productivity being consumed by fire every year, our findings could imply that PyC production from wildfires is a potential carbon sequestration mechanism of sufficient magnitude that warrants inclusion in boreal and perhaps global C budget estimations.

  19. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala-Luque, Rosa

    This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a

  20. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  1. Carbon sequestration and plant nutrients in soil in different land types in Thingvellir Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svavarsdóttir, María; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Mankasingh, Utra

    2015-04-01

    Special properties of volcanic soils (andisol) that is most common in Iceland can sequestrate considerably more carbon (C) that other types of soils. A mellow developed andisol with natural ecosystem such as birch forest or grass- and heathland is presumably to be fertile and sequestrate a lot of carbon. Coniferous tree species have been imported to Iceland for large scale utilisation in Icelandic forestry and is therefore an imported species/ecosystem. Abroad it has been noticed that coniferous trees acidify soil and change the properties of the soil so other species cannot thrive in it. The Icelandic Forest service is aiming tenfold the coverage of forests in Iceland before the year 2100 but about 50% of tree species that the institution uses is coniferous species. It is therefore important to research the soil due to the plant types that are planted in the soil. The aim of this project is to compare soil properties, soil nutrients and soil sequestration in heathland, birch forest and coniferous forest in Thingvellir national park in Iceland. Heathland and birch forest represent the natural ecosystem but coniferous forest imported ecosystem. Carbon (C) in soil will be measured, proportion of carbon and nitrogen (C:N), respiration from soil (CO2) and live green biomass and organic matter in the soil. The speed of decomposition of organic matter will be estimated. Important nutrients, pH and cation exchange capacity will be measured among other physical properties as bulk density, grain size and water holding capacity of the soil.

  2. Carbon Stocks and Sequestration: How much do we know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathabane, N.; Kelsey, K.; Neff, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    As anthropogenic CO¬¬2 emissions in America increase, both Washington D.C. and state governments look for ways to offset those carbon increases. Our forests provide an opportunity for carbon sequestration, assuming well-informed and deliberate management practices. Accurate spatial and temporal estimates of carbon stocks are integral to developing wise management practices. Spatial carbon stock estimates are often represented in carbon maps while temporal estimates are calculated using computer models. These maps and models come from a variety of sources such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Forest Service (FS), and independent researchers. Here we evaluate the Forest Service's Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) to determine its sensitivity to input changes as well as its predictive ability over time. We analyze field data collected from a site in the San Juan National Forest. This site was clearcut in 1920, allowing us to model a complete regrowth over 90 years. Using biomass-to-carbon equations, we compare present-day carbon storage to FVS model projections. Finally, we look at the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database and a spatial carbon map developed by researchers at the University of Colorado to assess the validity of landscape-scale estimates. Results indicate that the four spatial carbon estimates we use vary by only 25% while the temporal carbon estimates diverge radically from field data. Knowledge of carbon uptake rates is one of the most pressing questions in atmospheric and ecological science. It is imperative that carbon models be improved to achieve this goal. Spatial and temporal comparisons such as the one conducted here are needed to provide the groundwork for model development. Carbon estimates for Shearer Creek in the San Juan National Forest based on four different methods: the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis Database, a spatial carbon map from the University of Colorado

  3. The Deep Carbon Cycle and CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovitch, N. B.; Mao, W. L.; Chou, I.; Mu, K.

    2009-12-01

    Increased understanding of the Earth’s carbon cycle may provide insight for future carbon storage. Long term geologic sequestration of CO2 occurs in the earth via exothermic reactions between CO2 and silicate minerals to form carbonate minerals. It has been shown that while there is a large enough supply of ultra mafic igneous rock to sequester the CO2 [1], the kinetics of this natural process are too slow to effectively manage our CO2 output. Most studies have focused on studying reaction kinetics at relatively low temperatures and pressures [2,3], and have found that the reaction kinetics are either too slow or (in the case of serpentine) necessitate an uneconomical heat pretreatment [3,4]. Our experiments expand the pressures and temperatures (up to 500 bars and exceeding 200 °C) at which the CO2 + silicate reaction is studied using fused silica capillary cells and Raman and XRD analysis. By increasing our understanding of the kinetics of this process and providing a valuable input for reactive flow and transport models, these results may guide approaches for practical CO2 sequestration in carbonate minerals as a way to manage atmospheric CO2 levels. High pressure and temperature results on carbonates have implications for understanding the deep carbon cycle. Most of the previous high pressure studies on carbonates have concentrated on magnesite (MgCO3), calcite (CaCO3), or dolomite ((Ca,Mg)CO3) [5,6]. While the Mg and Ca carbonates are the most abundant, iron-rich siderite (FeCO3) may be a significant player at greater depths within the earth. We performed XRD and Raman spectroscopy experiments on siderite to lower mantle pressures (up to 40 GPa) and observed a possible phase change around 13 GPa. References 1. Lackner, Klaus S., Wendt, Christopher H., Butt, Darryl P., Joyce, Edward L., Sharp, David H., 1995, Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals, Energy, Vol.20, No. 11, pp. 1153-1170 2. Bearat, Hamdallah, McKelvy, Michael J., Chizmeshya, Andrew V

  4. Soil organic carbon sequestration and tillage systems in Mediterranean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Di Bene, Claudia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Farina, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon sequestration is of special interest in Mediterranean areas, where rainfed cropping systems are prevalent, inputs of organic matter to soils are low and mostly rely on crop residues, while losses are high due to climatic and anthropic factors such as intensive and non-conservative farming practices. The adoption of reduced or no tillage systems, characterized by a lower soil disturbance in comparison with conventional tillage, has proved to be positively effective on soil organic carbon (SOC) conservation and other physical and chemical processes, parameters or functions, e.g. erosion, compaction, ion retention and exchange, buffering capacity, water retention and aggregate stability. Moreover, soil biological and biochemical processes are usually improved by the reduction of tillage intensity. The work deals with some results available in the scientific literature, and related to field experiment on arable crops performed in Italy, Greece, Morocco and Spain. Data were organized in a dataset containing the main environmental parameters (altitude, temperature, rainfall), soil tillage system information (conventional, minimum and no-tillage), soil parameters (bulk density, pH, particle size distribution and texture), crop type, rotation, management and length of the experiment in years, initial SOCi and final SOCf stocks. Sampling sites are located between 33° 00' and 43° 32' latitude N, 2-860 m a.s.l., with mean annual temperature and rainfall in the range 10.9-19.6° C and 355-900 mm. SOC data, expressed in t C ha‑1, have been evaluated both in terms of Carbon Sequestration Rate, given by [(SOCf-SOCi)/length in years], and as percentage change in comparison with the initial value [(SOCf-SOCi)/SOCi*100]. Data variability due to the different environmental, soil and crop management conditions that influence SOC sequestration and losses will be examined.

  5. An Integrated Functional Genomics Consortium to Increase Carbon Sequestration in Poplars: Optimizing Aboveground Carbon Gain

    SciTech Connect

    Karnosky, David F; Podila, G Krishna; Burton, Andrew J

    2009-02-17

    This project used gene expression patterns from two forest Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Aspen FACE in northern Wisconsin and POPFACE in Italy) to examine ways to increase the aboveground carbon sequestration potential of poplars (Populus). The aim was to use patterns of global gene expression to identify candidate genes for increased carbon sequestration. Gene expression studies were linked to physiological measurements in order to elucidate bottlenecks in carbon acquisition in trees grown in elevated CO2 conditions. Delayed senescence allowing additional carbon uptake late in the growing season, was also examined, and expression of target genes was tested in elite P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids. In Populus euramericana, gene expression was sensitive to elevated CO2, but the response depended on the developmental age of the leaves. Most differentially expressed genes were upregulated in elevated CO2 in young leaves, while most were downregulated in elevated CO2 in semi-mature leaves. In P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids, leaf development and leaf quality traits, including leaf area, leaf shape, epidermal cell area, stomatal number, specific leaf area, and canopy senescence were sensitive to elevated CO2. Significant increases under elevated CO2 occurred for both above- and belowground growth in the F-2 generation. Three areas of the genome played a role in determining aboveground growth response to elevated CO2, with three additional areas of the genome important in determining belowground growth responses to elevated CO2. In Populus tremuloides, CO2-responsive genes in leaves were found to differ between two aspen clones that showed different growth responses, despite similarity in many physiological parameters (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf area index). The CO2-responsive clone shunted C into pathways associated with active defense/response to stress, carbohydrate/starch biosynthesis and subsequent growth. The CO2

  6. Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Meganck, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration; sustainable development; and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives, and is centered around: preservation of primary forests; intensified use of non-timber resources; agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.

  7. Contribution of Doñana Wetlands to Carbon Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward P.; Flecha, Susana; Figuerola, Jordi; Costas, Eduardo; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier; Rodriguez, Pablo; Huertas, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Inland and transitional aquatic systems play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. Yet, the C dynamics of wetlands and floodplains are poorly defined and field data is scarce. Air-water fluxes in the wetlands of Doñana Natural Area (SW Spain) were examined by measuring alkalinity, pH and other physiochemical parameters in a range of water bodies during 2010–2011. Areal fluxes were calculated and, using remote sensing, an estimate of the contribution of aquatic habitats to gaseous transport was derived. Semi-permanent ponds adjacent to the large Guadalquivir estuary acted as mild sinks, whilst temporal wetlands were strong sources of (−0.8 and 36.3 ). Fluxes in semi-permanent streams and ponds changed seasonally; acting as sources in spring-winter and mild sinks in autumn (16.7 and −1.2 ). Overall, Doñana's water bodies were a net annual source of (5.2 ). Up–scaling clarified the overwhelming contribution of seasonal flooding and allochthonous organic matter inputs in determining regional air-water gaseous transport (13.1 ). Nevertheless, this estimate is about 6 times < local marsh net primary production, suggesting the system acts as an annual net sink. Initial indications suggest longer hydroperiods may favour autochthonous C capture by phytoplankton. Direct anthropogenic impacts have reduced the hydroperiod in Doñana and this maybe exacerbated by climate change (less rainfall and more evaporation), suggesting potential for the modification of C sequestration. PMID:23977044

  8. Carbon Sequestration and Energy Balance of Turf in the Denver Urban Ecosystem and Adjacent Tallgrass Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienelt, T.; Anderson, D. E.; Powell, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are currently characterized by rapid growth and are expected to continually expand. They represent an important driver of land use change. A significant component of urban ecosystems is lawns, potentially the single largest irrigated "crop" in the U.S. Between March and October of 2011 and 2012, eddy covariance measurements of net carbon dioxide exchange and evapotranspiration along with energy balance fluxes were conducted for an irrigated, fertilized lawn (rye-bluegrass-mix) in metropolitan Denver and for a nearby tallgrass prairie (big bluestem, switchgrass, cheatgrass, blue grama). Due to the semi-arid climate conditions of the Denver region, differences in management (i.e., irrigation and fertilization) are expected to have a discernible impact on ecosystem productivity and thus on carbon sequestration rates, evapotranspiration, and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. Data for the 2011 season showed that cumulative evapotranspiration was approximately 600 mm for the urban lawn and 305 mm for the tallgrass prairie; cumulative carbon sequestration was calculated to be 172 and 85 g C/m2, respectively. Also, patterns of carbon exchange differed between the grasslands. In 2011, both sites showed daily net uptake of carbon starting in late May, but the urban lawn displayed greater diurnal variability as well as greater uptake rates in general, especially following fertilization in mid-June. In contrast, the trend of carbon uptake at the prairie site was occasionally reversed following strong convective precipitation events, resulting in a temporary net release of carbon. Preliminary data for the 2012 season (up to early July) indicated an earlier start of net carbon uptake and higher cumulative evapotranspiration for both locations, likely due to a warm spring. The continuing acquisition of data and investigation of these relations will help assess the potential impact of urban growth on regional carbon sequestration.

  9. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II. PMID:20036053

  10. Ocean carbon sequestration by fertilization: An integrated bioeochemical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, N.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Gnandesikan, A.

    2005-05-31

    Under this grant, the authors investigated a range of issues associated with the proposal to fertilize the ocean with nutrients (such as iron) in order to increase the export of organic matter from the ocean's near surface waters and consequently increase the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. There are several critical scientific questions that have the potential to be make-or-break issues for this proposed carbon sequestration mechanism: (1) If iron is added to the ocean, will export of organic carbon from the surface actually occur? Clearly, if no export occurs, then there will be no sequestration. (2) if iron fertilization does lead to export of organic carbon from the surface of the ocean, how much CO{sub 2} will actually be removed from the atmosphere? Even if carbon is removed from the surface of the ocean, this does not guarantee that there will be significant removal of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere, since the CO{sub 2} may be supplied by a realignment of dissolved inorganic carbon within the ocean. (3) What is the time scale of any sequestration that occurs? If sequestered CO{sub 2} returns to the atmosphere on a relatively short time scale, iron fertilization will not contribute significantly to slowing the growth of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. (4) Can the magnitude of sequestration be verified? If verification is extremely difficult or impossible, this option is likely to be viewed less favorably. (5) What unintended consequences might there be from fertilizing the ocean with iron? If these are severe enough, they will be a significant impact on policy decisions. Most research on carbon sequestration by fertilization has focused on the first of these issues. Although a number of in situ fertilization experiments have successfully demonstrated that the addition of iron leads to a dramatic increase in ocean productivity, the question of whether this results in enhanced export remains an open one. The primary focus of the research was on the development

  11. Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.; Mladenoff, David J.; Clayton, Murray K.

    2009-01-01

    One-third of net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere since 1850 are the result of land-use change, primarily from the clearing of forests for timber and agriculture, but quantifying these changes is complicated by the lack of historical data on both former ecosystem conditions and the extent and spatial configuration of subsequent land use. Using fine-resolution historical survey records, we reconstruct pre-EuroAmerican settlement (1850s) forest carbon in the state of Wisconsin, examine changes in carbon after logging and agricultural conversion, and assess the potential for future sequestration through forest recovery. Results suggest that total above-ground live forest carbon (AGC) fell from 434 TgC before settlement to 120 TgC at the peak of agricultural clearing in the 1930s and has since recovered to approximately 276 TgC. The spatial distribution of AGC, however, has shifted significantly. Former savanna ecosystems in the south now store more AGC because of fire suppression and forest ingrowth, despite the fact that most of the region remains in agriculture, whereas northern forests still store much less carbon than before settlement. Across the state, continued sequestration in existing forests has the potential to contribute an additional 69 TgC. Reforestation of agricultural lands, in particular, the formerly high C-density forests in the north-central region that are now agricultural lands less optimal than those in the south, could contribute 150 TgC. Restoring historical carbon stocks across the landscape will therefore require reassessing overall land-use choices, but a range of options can be ranked and considered under changing needs for ecosystem services. PMID:19369213

  12. Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Rhemtulla, Jeanine M; Mladenoff, David J; Clayton, Murray K

    2009-04-14

    One-third of net CO(2) emissions to the atmosphere since 1850 are the result of land-use change, primarily from the clearing of forests for timber and agriculture, but quantifying these changes is complicated by the lack of historical data on both former ecosystem conditions and the extent and spatial configuration of subsequent land use. Using fine-resolution historical survey records, we reconstruct pre-EuroAmerican settlement (1850s) forest carbon in the state of Wisconsin, examine changes in carbon after logging and agricultural conversion, and assess the potential for future sequestration through forest recovery. Results suggest that total above-ground live forest carbon (AGC) fell from 434 TgC before settlement to 120 TgC at the peak of agricultural clearing in the 1930s and has since recovered to approximately 276 TgC. The spatial distribution of AGC, however, has shifted significantly. Former savanna ecosystems in the south now store more AGC because of fire suppression and forest ingrowth, despite the fact that most of the region remains in agriculture, whereas northern forests still store much less carbon than before settlement. Across the state, continued sequestration in existing forests has the potential to contribute an additional 69 TgC. Reforestation of agricultural lands, in particular, the formerly high C-density forests in the north-central region that are now agricultural lands less optimal than those in the south, could contribute 150 TgC. Restoring historical carbon stocks across the landscape will therefore require reassessing overall land-use choices, but a range of options can be ranked and considered under changing needs for ecosystem services. PMID:19369213

  13. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, Robin L.; Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-04-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the “capture penalty” for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use.

  14. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-06-01

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg-1) > granite (1.6 g kg-1) > basalt (1.3 g kg-1) > shale (0.7 g kg-1). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO2 ha-1 yr-1, thus a net 4.7 × 106 -310.8 × 106 kg CO2 yr-1 would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants.

  15. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the “capture penalty” for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use. PMID:20127328

  16. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-01-01

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg(-1)) > granite (1.6 g kg(-1)) > basalt (1.3 g kg(-1)) > shale (0.7 g kg(-1)). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO₂ ha(-1) yr(-1), thus a net 4.7 × 10(6) -310.8 × 10(6) kg CO₂ yr(-1) would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants. PMID:24918576

  17. Brines as Possible Cation Sources for Biomimetic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, G. M.; Abel, A.; McPherson, B. J.; Stringer, J.

    2002-12-01

    The utility industry is currently producing 2.1 x 109 tonnes of CO2 per year from burning coal. The amounts of CO2 produced by a single coal-burning station are typically around 0.1 tonnes/MW/h for a coal burn of 0.04 tonnes/MW/h. These large fixed sources of CO2 constitute an obvious target for carbon sequestration to minimize greenhouse-gas emissions. The generally favored approach in present sequestration research is to achieve a CO2 stream that is highly concentrated, compress it, and transport it to geologic sequestration sites, such as deep saline aquifers. The volume of the CO2 is of some interest here. Supercritical CO2, as supplied for example from natural wells to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites, has a density of approximately 0.9, and is relatively incompressible, which means that the volume of sequestered supercritical CO2 will be somewhat greater than that of the coal from which it was formed. The volume of water displaced by CO2 injection into aquifers would be closely comparable to the volume of the CO2 itself. An alternative path, which we have been following, would capture the gas as calcium carbonate, CaCO3, in a biomimetic approach that offers some obvious advantages. Sequestration, in this case, is in the form of a safe, stable, environmentally benign product. On a geologic timeframe, considerable amounts of CO2 have been sequestered as, for example, oolitic limestone deposits and dolomite deposits, suggesting that very long-lived or even permanent sequestration is possible in solid carbonate form. Not only would our approach remove the costly steps of concentrating and compressing the CO2, but also it is anticipated that it would remove the need for long-term monitoring to check for CO2 leakage. In a separate collaborative study detailed by Abel and others (this volume), ramifications of geologic sequestration of CO2 and/or bicarbonate-enriched brines are evaluated with laboratory flow experiments and computer model simulations. Porosity and

  18. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  19. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-12-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  20. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  1. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  2. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  3. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  4. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  5. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation on a landscape

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik; Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Lonsdorf, Eric; White, Denis; Bael, David; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop an integrated model to predict private land-use decisions in response to policy incentives designed to increase the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation across heterogeneous landscapes. Using data from the Willamette Basin, Oregon, we compare the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation under five simple policies that offer payments for conservation. We evaluate policy performance compared with the maximum feasible combinations of carbon sequestration and species conservation on the landscape for various conservation budgets. None of the conservation payment policies produce increases in carbon sequestration and species conservation that approach the maximum potential gains on the landscape. Our results show that policies aimed at increasing the provision of carbon sequestration do not necessarily increase species conservation and that highly targeted policies do not necessarily do as well as more general policies. PMID:18621703

  6. Comparing carbon sequestration potential of pyrogenic carbon from natural and anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Merino, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    The enhanced resistance to environmental degradation of Pyrogenic Carbon (PyC), both produced in wildfires (charcoal), and man-made (biochar), gives it the potential to sequester carbon by preventing it to be released into the atmosphere. Sustainable addition of biochar to soils is seen as a viable global approach for carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Also the role of its 'natural counterpart', i.e. wildfire charcoal, as a long-term carbon sink in soils is widely recognized. However, in spite of their fundamental similarities, research on the potential of 'man-made' biochar and wildfire charcoal for carbon sequestration has been carried out essentially in isolation as analogous materials for accurate comparison are not easily available. Here we assess the carbon sequestration potential of man-made biochar and wildfire charcoal generated from the same material under known production conditions: (i) charcoal from forest floor and down wood produced during an experimental boreal forest fire (FireSmart, June 2012, NWT- Canada) and (ii) biochar produced from the same feedstock by slow pyrolysis [three treatments: 2 h at 350, 500 and 650°C, respectively]. The carbon sequestration potential of these PyC materials is given by the recalcitrance index, R50, proposed by Harvey et al. (2012). R50 is based on the relative thermal stability of a given PyC material to that of graphite and is calculated using thermogravimetric analyses. Our results show highest R50 for PyC materials produced from down wood than from forest floor, which points to the importance of feedstock chemical composition in determining the C sequestration potential of PyC both from natural (charcoal) and anthropogenic (biochar) sources. Moreover, production temperature is also a major factor affecting the carbon sequestration potential of the studied PyC materials, with higher R50 for PyC produced at higher temperatures. Further investigation on the similarities and differences between man

  7. Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for

  8. Quantifying Sequestration of Carbon in the Ocean following Addition of Macronutrient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, D. P.; Lawrence, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    The effects of addition of limiting nutrients to the surface waters of the deep ocean has been investigated for the last twenty years, partly to explore ocean biogeochemical processes and partly because of the potential for sequestration of carbon in the deep ocean. Investigations have been performed for micronutrients (iron) and macronutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous). A methodology of estimating carbon stored is introduced here based on fertilization with nitrogen in those regions in which nitrogen is the limiting nutrient. The basis of the methodology is a combination of measurements in the photic zone and numerical modelling of the biogeochemical cycle. The calculation of the quantity of sequestered carbon is, after allowance for losses, equal to the carbon that is taken up by photosynthesis (new primary production equals export production) resulting from the added nitrogen. An essential feature of the biogeochemical process is that the added nitrogen is not lost from the upper waters by export to the deep ocean unless accompanied by carbon, in approximately the Redfield ratio. Determination of the quantity of carbon sequestered consists of three steps: (1.) Determination of the quantity of carbon converted by photosynthesis to biological form (new primary production). (2.) Allowance for factors potentially affecting carbon sequestration, such as: Loss of reactive nitrogen from the ocean; Greenhouse Gas (GHG) production by photosynthesis; GHG production by denitrification; GHG production following upwelling; Air-sea carbon transfer efficiency; Calcium carbonate production; Alkalinity change; and Respiration. (3.) Allowance for carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere during the manufacture and transport processes involved in providing added nutrients to the ocean. With these three steps, the net quantity of carbon sequestered by fertilisation may be determined.

  9. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved (< 250 μm) soil and prepared four treatments: (I) soil only; (II) soil and plant material; (III) soil, plant material and Diplocardia sp.; (IV) soil, plant material and L. rubellus. All treatments were at 30% water content and temperature was maintained at 20°C. The incubation period lasted 26 days. We measured aggregate size distribution, total aggregate carbon content and 13C and 15N to elucidate aggregate carbon source. Newly formed soil macroaggregates (> 250 μm) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding

  10. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    PubMed

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature. PMID:25846002

  11. Carbon sequestration in California agriculture, 1980-2000.

    PubMed

    Kroodsma, David A; Field, Christopher B

    2006-10-01

    To better understand agricultural carbon fluxes in California, USA, we estimated changes in soil carbon and woody material between 1980 and 2000 on 3.6 x 10(6) ha of farmland in California. Combining the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) model with data on harvest indices and yields, we calculated net primary production, woody production in orchard and vineyard crops, and soil carbon. Over the 21-yr period, two trends resulted in carbon sequestration. Yields increased an average of 20%, corresponding to greater plant biomass and more carbon returned to the soils. Also, orchards and vineyards increased in area from 0.7 x 10(6) ha to 1.0 x 10(6) ha, displacing field crops and sequestering woody carbon. Our model estimates that California's agriculture sequestered an average of 19 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1). Sequestration was lowest in non-rice annual cropland, which sequestered 9 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1) of soil carbon, and highest on land that switched from annual cropland to perennial cropland. Land that switched from annual crops to vineyards sequestered 68 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1), and land that switched from annual crops to orchards sequestered 85 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1). Rice fields, because of a reduction in field burning, sequestered 55 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1) in the 1990s. Over the 21 years, California's 3.6 x 10(6) ha of agricultural land sequestered 11.0 Tg C within soils and 3.5 Tg C in woody biomass, for a total of 14.5 Tg C statewide. This is equal to 0.7% of the state's total fossil fuel emissions over the same time period. If California's agriculture adopted conservation tillage, changed management of almond and walnut prunings, and used all of its orchard and vineyard waste wood in the biomass power plants in the state, California's agriculture could offset up to 1.6% of the fossil fuel emissions in the state. PMID:17069388

  12. Biochar: a synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Spokas, Kurt A; Cantrell, Keri B; Novak, Jeffrey M; Archer, David W; Ippolito, James A; Collins, Harold P; Boateng, Akwasi A; Lima, Isabel M; Lamb, Marshall C; McAloon, Andrew J; Lentz, Rodrick D; Nichols, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    Biochar has been heralded as an amendment to revitalize degraded soils, improve soil carbon sequestration, increase agronomic productivity, and enter into future carbon trading markets. However, scientific and economic technicalties may limit the ability of biochar to consistently deliver on these expectations. Past research has demonstrated that biochar is part of the black carbon continuum with variable properties due to the net result of production (e.g., feedstock and pyrolysis conditions) and postproduction factors (storage or activation). Therefore, biochar is not a single entity but rather spans a wide range of black carbon forms. Biochar is black carbon, but not all black carbon is biochar. Agronomic benefits arising from biochar additions to degraded soils have been emphasized, but negligible and negative agronomic effects have also been reported. Fifty percent of the reviewed studies reported yield increases after black carbon or biochar additions, with the remainder of the studies reporting alarming decreases to no significant differences. Hardwood biochar (black carbon) produced by traditional methods (kilns or soil pits) possessed the most consistent yield increases when added to soils. The universality of this conclusion requires further evaluation due to the highly skewed feedstock preferences within existing studies. With global population expanding while the amount of arable land remains limited, restoring soil quality to nonproductive soils could be key to meeting future global food production, food security, and energy supplies; biochar may play a role in this endeavor. Biochar economics are often marginally viable and are tightly tied to the assumed duration of agronomic benefits. Further research is needed to determine the conditions under which biochar can provide economic and agronomic benefits and to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these benefits. PMID:22751040

  13. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  14. Options for accounting carbon sequestration in German forests

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Joachim; Koehl, Michael; Riedel, Thomas; Bormann, Kristin; Rueter, Sebastian; Elsasser, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background The Accra climate change talks held from 21–27 August 2008 in Accra, Ghana, were part of an ongoing series of meetings leading up to the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. During the meeting a set of options for accounting carbon sequestration in forestry on a post-2012 framework was presented. The options include gross-net and net-net accounting and approaches for establishing baselines. Results This article demonstrates the embedded consequences of Accra Accounting Options for the case study of German national GHG accounting. It presents the most current assessment of sequestration rates by forest management for the period 1990 – 2007, provides an outlook of future emissions and removals (up to the year 2042) as related to three different management scenarios, and shows that implementation of some Accra options may reverse sources to sinks, or sinks to sources. Conclusion The results of the study highlight the importance of elaborating an accounting system that would prioritize the climate convention goals, not national preferences. PMID:19650896

  15. A Finite Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2015-07-23

    We present a hydro-mechanical model, followed by stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account of the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process. Analytical solutions for pressure and deformation fields were derived for a typical geological sequestration scenario in our previous work. A finite element approach is introduced here for numerically solving the hydro-mechanical model with arbitrary boundary conditions. The numerical approach was built on an open-source finite element code Elmer, and results were compared to the analytical solutions. The shear-slip failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where the potential failure zone is identified. Information is relevant to the prediction of the maximum sustainable injection rate or pressure. The effects of caprock permeability on the fluid pressure, deformation, stress, and the shear-slip failure zone were also quantitatively studied. It was shown that a larger permeability in caprock and base rock leads to a larger uplift but a smaller shear-slip failure zone.

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L.

    2008-01-01

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+)CO3 infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future. PMID:18626013

  17. Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: implications for soil carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Ashwood, Tom L

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this research was to understand how land cover and topography act, independently or together, as determinants of soil carbon and nitrogen storage over a complex terrain. Such information could help to direct land management for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Soils were sampled under different land covers and at different topographic positions on the mostly forested 14,000 ha Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, USA. Most of the soil carbon stock, to a 40-cm soil depth, was found to reside in the surface 20 cm of mineral soil. Surface soil carbon and nitrogen stocks were partitioned into particulate ({ge}53 {micro}m) and mineral-associated organic matter (<53 {micro}m). Generally, soils under pasture had greater nitrogen availability, greater carbon and nitrogen stocks, and lower C:N ratios than soils under transitional vegetation and forests. The effects of topography were usually secondary to those of land cover. Because of greater soil carbon stocks, and greater allocation of soil carbon to mineral-associated organic matter (a long-term pool), we conclude that soil carbon sequestration, but not necessarily total ecosystem carbon storage, is greater under pastures than under forests. The implications of landscape-level variation in soil carbon and nitrogen for carbon sequestration are discussed at several different levels: (1) nitrogen limitations to soil carbon storage; (2) controls on soil carbon turnover as a result of litter chemistry and soil carbon partitioning; (3) residual effects of past land use history; and (4) statistical limitations to the quantification of soil carbon stocks.

  18. Methane exsolution due to carbon dioxide injection in deep saline reservoirs: Implications for geologic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Doughty, C.; Spycher, N.

    2013-12-01

    Deep saline formations targeted for geologic carbon sequestration, especially in areas known for hydrocarbon production, may contain significant concentrations of dissolved CH4. As CO2 enters the formation water either in its free phase or dissolved forms, CH4 tends to exsolve from the water, potentially causing complications for geologic carbon sequestration. We have used numerical simulation with TOUGH2/EOS7C to investigate the process of CH4 exsolution caused by CO2 injection into deep formations containing water saturated with CH4. We validated the solubility model in TOUGH2/EOS7C against published measurements of solubility and corresponding Henry's Law coefficients which show that CO2 and CH4 solubilities actually increase with dissolution of the other component. Exsolution occurs because the partial pressures exerted by dissolved CO2 and CH4 in water exceed the static pressure, which can lead to the formation of a CH4-rich gas phase. We verified our results against a previously published one-dimensional test problem, and investigated the effects of numerical dispersion on the process. In 2D radial simulations of a model system, we found that highly concentrated CH4 gas regions form at the leading edge of the CO2 injection front, but the gas saturations in such regions are small. Because the gas saturations are small in the CH4-rich gas regions in the generic system studied here, (1) CH4 exsolution does not appear to be a problem for seismic monitoring of CO2 plumes, (2) reservoir pressurization due to dilution of supercritical CO2 by CH4 does not appear to be a concern, and (3) relative permeability is not strongly reduced.

  19. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  20. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  1. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  2. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Don

    2010-02-03

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  3. Effects of organic carbon sequestration strategies on soil enzymatic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, E.; Suciu, N.; Botteri, L.; Ferrari, T.; Coppolecchia, D.; Trevisan, M.; Piccolo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Greenhouse gases emissions can be counterbalanced with proper agronomical strategies aimed at sequestering carbon in soils. These strategies must be tested not only for their ability in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, but also for their impact on soil quality: enzymatic activities are related to main soil ecological quality, and can be used as early and sensitive indicators of alteration events. Three different strategies for soil carbon sequestration were studied: minimum tillage, protection of biodegradable organic fraction by compost amendment and oxidative polimerization of soil organic matter catalyzed by biometic porfirins. All strategies were compared with a traditional agricultural management based on tillage and mineral fertilization. Experiments were carried out in three Italian soils from different pedo-climatic regions located respectively in Piacenza, Turin and Naples and cultivated with maize or wheat. Soil samples were taken for three consecutive years after harvest and analyzed for their content in phosphates, ß-glucosidase, urease and invertase. An alteration index based on these enzymatic activities levels was applied as well. The biomimetic porfirin application didn't cause changes in enzymatic activities compared to the control at any treatment or location. Enzymatic activities were generally higher in the minimum tillage and compost treatment, while differences between location and date of samplings were limited. Application of the soil alteration index based on enzymatic activities showed that soils treated with compost or subjected to minimum tillage generally have a higher biological quality. The work confirms the environmental sustainability of the carbon sequestering agronomical practices studied.

  4. Modeling of induced seismicity during mineral carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarushina, V.; Bercovici, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Rapidly developing carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are a promising way of reducing the climate impact of greenhouse gases. These technologies involve injecting large amounts of CO2-bearing fluids underground, which potentially leads to high pore pressure and the conditions for seismic activity in the proximity of the injection site. Previously, we developed a simple conceptual model to estimate the seismic risk of mineral or mafic CCS operations (Yarushina & Bercovici, GRL vol.40, doi:10.1002/grl.50196, 2013). In this model, the storage reservoir is treated as a porous rock with grains that evolve during carbonation reactions. Seismic triggering occurs when local stresses at grain-grain contacts reach the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. We showed that injection of CO2 into reactive mafic or ultramafic rocks potentially reduces seismic risk since carbonation reactions increase the contact area between the rock grains and reduce the local stresses. Here we further develop this model and consider the effect of fluid injection flux and pressure gradients along grain boundaries on induced seismicity. Grain evolution not only changes the stress support but also alters the matrix permeability, which in turn affects the driving pressure gradients and the associated deviatoric stresses. The resulting coupled porous flow, chemical reactive grain-growth and failure model is an important step in understanding the seismic risks of carbon sequestration.

  5. Mineral Influence on Microbial Survival During Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, E. U.; Shanahan, T. M.; Wolfe, W. W.; Bennett, P.

    2012-12-01

    . Growth media was allowed to flow through a sand-packed column at a constant flow rate with pulses of liquid CO2 injected directly into the column. Preliminary data of dissolved iron measured from the effluent indicates that biofilm columns show a slight increase in dissolved iron concentrations before and after CO2 exposure in comparison to abiotic columns. These findings imply the important relationship between microbes and minerals during CO2 sequestration. The ability minerals have to contribute to the selection of microbes has important consequences to the survival of different microbial populations in the subsurface and the consequent biogeochemical changes that may happen.

  6. Carbon sequestration by Miscanthus energy crops plantations in a broad range semi-arid marginal land in China.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia; Liu, Wei; Yang, Wenhui; Yan, Juan; Li, Jianqiang; Sang, Tao

    2014-10-15

    Carbon sequestration is an essential ecosystem service that second-generation energy crops can provide. To evaluate the ability of carbon sequestration of Miscanthus energy crops in the Loess Plateau of China, the yield and soil organic carbon (SOC) changes were measured for three Miscanthus species in the experimental field in Qingyang of the Gansu Province (QG). With the highest yield of the three species, Miscanthus lutarioriparius contributed to the largest increase of SOC, 0.57 t ha(-1)yr(-1), comparing to the field left unplanted. Through modeling M. lutarioriparius yield across the Loess Plateau, an average increase of SOC was estimated at 0.46 t ha(-1)yr(-1) for the entire region. Based on the measurements of SOC mineralization under various temperatures and moistures for soil samples taken from QG, a model was developed for estimating SOC mineralization rates across the Loess Plateau and resulted in an average of 1.11 t ha(-1)yr(-1). Combining the estimates from these models, the average of net carbon sequestration was calculated at a rate of 9.13 t ha(-1)yr(-1) in the Loess Plateau. These results suggested that the domestication and production of M. lutarioriparius hold a great potential for carbon sequestration and soil restoration in this heavily eroded region. PMID:25089696

  7. Prairie restoration and carbon sequestration: difficulties quantifying C sources and sinks using a biometric approach.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kimberly Nicholas; Kucharik, Christopher J; Foley, Jonathan A

    2009-12-01

    We investigated carbon cycling and ecosystem characteristics among two prairie restoration treatments established in 1987 and adjacent cropland, all part of the Conservation Reserve Program in southwestern Wisconsin, USA. We hypothesized that different plant functional groups (cool-season C3 vs. warm-season C4 grasses) between the two prairie restoration treatments would lead to differences in soil and vegetation characteristics and amount of sequestered carbon, compared to the crop system. We found significant (P < 0.05) differences between the two prairie restoration treatments in soil CO2 respiration and above- and belowground productivity, but no significant differences in long-term (approximately 16-year) carbon sequestration. We used a biometric approach aggregating short-term observations of above- and belowground productivity and CO2 respiration to estimate total net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) using varied methods suggested in the literature. Net ecosystem production is important because it represents the ecosystem carbon sequestration, which is of interest to land managers and policymakers seeking or regulating credits for ecosystem carbon storage. Such a biometric approach would be attractive because it might offer the ability to rapidly assess the carbon source/sink status of an ecosystem. We concluded that large uncertainties in (1) estimating aboveground NPP, (2) determining belowground NPP, and (3) partitioning soil respiration into microbial and plant components strongly affect the magnitude, and even the sign, of NEP estimates made from aggregating its components. A comparison of these estimates across treatments could not distinguish differences in NEP, nor the absolute sign of the overall carbon balance. Longer-term quantification of carbon stocks in the soil, periodically linked to measurements of individual processes, may offer a more reliable measure of the carbon balance in grassland systems, suitable for

  8. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental

  9. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A.

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water

  10. Carbon stewardship: land management decisions and the potential for carbon sequestration in Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failey, Elisabeth L.; Dilling, Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Land use and its role in reducing greenhouse gases is a key element of policy negotiations to address climate change. Calculations of the potential for enhanced terrestrial sequestration have largely focused on the technical characteristics of carbon stocks, such as vegetation type and management regime, and to some degree, on economic incentives. However, the actual potential for carbon sequestration critically depends on who owns the land and additional land management decision drivers. US land ownership patterns are complex, and consequently land use decision making is driven by a variety of economic, social and policy incentives. These patterns and incentives make up the 'carbon stewardship landscape'—that is, the decision making context for carbon sequestration. We examine the carbon stewardship landscape in the US state of Colorado across several public and private ownership categories. Achieving the full potential for land use management to help mitigate carbon emissions requires not only technical feasibility and financial incentives, but also effective implementing mechanisms within a suite of often conflicting and hard to quantify factors such as multiple-use mandates, historical precedents, and non-monetary decision drivers.

  11. Differing methods of accounting ocean carbon sequestration efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Kevin; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken; Jain, Atul

    2004-12-01

    Presently, much of CO2 fossil-fuel emissions are removed from the atmosphere through natural ocean uptake of CO2. Many schemes have now been proposed by which the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere could be slowed with intentional further storage of CO2 in the ocean. Our review of the literature indicates inconsistency in whether ambient ocean carbon uptake is included when accounting for the effectiveness of such schemes. This inconsistency is a consequence of differing choices of atmospheric boundary condition. In the case of one particular form of ocean sequestration, namely direct injection of liquefied CO2 emissions into the ocean interior, this choice is the determination of whether the atmospheric CO2 concentration responsively increases due to leakage of injected carbon from the ocean or retains a specified value. We first show how results of simulations using these two different boundary conditions can be related with the convolution of an atmosphere pulse release. We then use a numerical model to present a more complete analysis of the role of these boundary conditions. Finally, we suggest that a responsive atmospheric CO2 boundary condition is appropriate for predicting future carbon concentrations, but a specified atmospheric CO2 boundary condition is appropriate for evaluating how much CO2 storage should be attributed to an ocean storage project.

  12. Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-05-01

    The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical

  13. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Grazing Lands: Societal Benefits and Policay Implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we examine the importance of ‘grazinglands’ in relation to the sequestration of soil organic carbon. Global estimates are that grazinglands occupy~ 3.6 billion ha and account for about one-fourth of potential C sequestration in world soils. Many environmental and societal benefits are provide...

  14. 75 FR 18575 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...EPA is proposing a rule to require reporting on carbon dioxide (CO2) injection and geologic sequestration (GS). The proposed rulemaking does not require control of greenhouse gases (GHGs), rather it requires only monitoring and reporting of CO2 injection and geologic sequestration. EPA first proposed that suppliers of CO2 be subject to mandatory GHG reporting......

  15. Carbon-negative Fuel from Stranded Energy with Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vechten, James; Graupner, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Stranded energy can be captured as nitrogen based fuels (ammonia, urea, guanidine) produced from hydrogen from saltwater electrolysis. The use of electrodialysis enables the co-production of NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq) together with oxygen and hydrogen. The NaOH can capture atmospheric CO2 as sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate and together with HCl and basaltic local rocks can produce a range of valuable commodity chemicals. Depending on the form of the sequestered carbon, either 2 or 4 moles of CO2 can be captured for each mole of hydrogen gas produced. The nitrogen based fuels can be used to power conventional thermal engines or solid oxide fuel cells. They can also be used as fertilizers, thereby avoiding the release of CO2 during their conventional production using natural gas or coal. With care the produced NaOH or carbonates may be used to counter ocean acidification

  16. Experimental observations of dolomite dissolution in geologic carbon sequestration conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    One sequestration scenario proposed to reduce CO2 emissions involves injecting CO2 into saline formations or hydrocarbon reservoirs, where dolomite frequently occurs. To better understand fluid-mineral interactions in these sequestration settings, we have conducted a series of single-pass, flow-through experiments on dolomite core samples with CO2-bearing brine. An important component of the experimental design was to maintain the fabric of the rock so as to more accurately simulate fluid flow in natural dolomite-bearing systems. Seven experiments were conducted at 100°C and a pore-fluid pressure of 150 bars with a fluid containing 1 molal NaCl and 0.6 molal dissolved CO2. Flow rates ranged from 0.01 to 1 ml/min. Each experiment was terminated before dissolution breakthrough, but permeability increased by approximately an order of magnitude for all experiments. In general, Ca and Mg concentrations were initially high, but then decreased with reaction progress. We hypothesize that time-dependent changes in fluid chemistry reflect reduction in reactive surface area. Fluid chemistry also indicates preferential removal of Ba, Mn, and Sr with respect to Ca and Mg. In the extreme case, 70% of the Ba was removed from one core, while only 3% of the Ca, Mg, or the entire core mass was removed by dissolution. Ongoing work is focused on identifying elemental distributions throughout the rock to better understand the dissolution process. With fluid chemistry and BET surface area, we model dissolution rate as a function of core length using reactive transport simulations and compare our whole rock, far from equilibrium dissolution rates with analogous data reported in the literature. Finally, X-ray computed tomography images enable reconstructions of dissolution patterns, and they are being used to explore the effect of pore space heterogeneity on flow path development. Geologic carbon sequestration in dolomite will produce significant dissolution at the brine/CO2 interface

  17. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2005-04-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The mechanism of physical SOC sequestration is achieved by encapsulation of SOM in spaces within macro and microaggregates. The experimental sites, owned and maintained by American Electrical Power, were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoils and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites were reclaimed both with and without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed in 2003 (R03-G), in 1973 (R73-F), in 1969 (R69-G), in 1962 (R62-G and R62-F) and in 1957 (R57-F). Three sites are under continuous grass cover and the three under forest cover since reclamation. Three bulk soil samples were collected from each site from three landscape positions (upper; middle, and lower) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The samples were air dried and using wet sieving technique were fractionated into macro (> 2mm), meso (2-0.25 mm) and microaggregate (0.25-0.053 mm). These fractions were weighted separately and water stable aggregation (WSA) and geometric mean (GMD) and mean weight (MWD) diameters of aggregates were obtained. The soil C and N concentrations were also determined on these aggregate fractions. Analysis of mean values showed that in general, WSA and MWD of aggregates increased with increasing duration since reclamation or age of reclaimed soil for all three landscape positions and two depths in sites under continuous grass. The forest sites were relatively older than grass sites and therefore WSA or MWD of aggregates did not show any increases with age since reclamation. The lower WSA in R57-F site than R73-F clearly showed the effect of soil erosion on aggregate stability. Higher aggregation and aggregate diameters in R73-F than R62-F and R57

  18. Carbon sequestration via aqueous olivine mineral carbonation: role of passivating layer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdallah Bearat; Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Deirdre Gormley; Ryan Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; Kyle Squires; George H. Wolf

    2006-08-01

    CO{sub 2} sequestration via carbonation of widely available low-cost minerals, such as olivine, can permanently dispose of CO{sub 2} in an environmentally benign and a geologically stable form. The paper reports the results of studies of the mechanisms that limit aqueous olivine carbonation reactivity under the optimum sequestration reaction conditions observed to date: 1 M NaCl + 0.64 M NaHCO{sub 3} at T {approx} 185{sup o}C and P{sub CO{sub 2}} {approx} 135 bar. A reaction limiting silica-rich passivating layer (PL) forms on the feedstock grains, slowing carbonate formation and raising process cost. The morphology and composition of the passivating layers are investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atomic level modeling. Postreaction analysis of feedstock particles, recovered from stirred autoclave experiments at 1500 rpm, provides unequivocal evidence of local mechanical removal (chipping) of PL material, suggesting particle abrasion. This is corroborated by the observation that carbonation increases dramatically with solid particle concentration in stirred experiments. Multiphase hydrodynamic calculations are combined with experiment to better understand the associated slurry-flow effects. Large-scale atomic-level simulations of the reaction zone suggest that the PL possesses a 'glassy' but highly defective SiO{sub 2} structure that can permit diffusion of key reactants. Mitigating passivating layer effectiveness is critical to enhancing carbonation and lowering sequestration process cost. 30 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The mechanism of physical SOC sequestration is achieved by encapsulation of SOC in spaces within macro and microaggregates. The experimental sites, owned and maintained by American Electrical Power, were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoils and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites were reclaimed both with and without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed in 1994 (R94-F), in 1987 (R87-G), in 1982 (R82-F), in 1978 (R78-G), in 1969 (R69-F), in1956 (R56-G), and from the unmined control (UMS-G). Three sites are under continuous grass cover and three under forest cover since reclamation. The samples were air dried and fractionated using a wet sieving technique into macro (> 2.0 mm), meso (0.25-2.0 mm) and microaggregates (0.053-0.25 mm). The soil C and N concentrations were determined by the dry combustion method on these aggregate fractions. Soil C and N concentrations were higher at the forest sites compared to the grass sites in each aggregate fraction for both depths. Statistical analyses indicated that the number of random samples taken was probably not sufficient to properly consider distribution of SOC and TN concentrations in aggregate size fractions for both depths at each site. Erosional effects on SOC and TN concentrations were, however, small. With increasing time since reclamation, SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations also increased. The higher C and N concentrations in each aggregate size fraction in older than the newly reclaimed sites demonstrated the C sink capacity of newer sites.

  20. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Leakage Potential and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.; Fitts, J. P.; Wilson, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    The geologic reservoirs that could be used for long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) may have natural or manmade pathways that allow injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, to leak into overlying formations. Using a basin-scale leakage estimation model, we investigated the geophysical parameters that govern this leakage, and the resulting accumulations of leaked fluids in overlying formations. The results are discussed in the context of two polices aimed at governing long-term sequestration and protecting groundwater: the U.S. DOE guideline for storage permanence and the U.S. EPA UIC Program Class VI Rule. For a case study of CO2 injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone in the Michigan sedimentary basin, we showed that (1) the U.S. DOE guideline would allow for more leakage from larger injection projects than for smaller ones; (2) leakage amounts are determined mostly by well leakage permeability rather than by variation in formation permeabilities; (3) numerous leaking wells with anomalously high leakage permeabilities are necessary in order to achieve substantial leakage rates; (4) leakage can reach potable groundwater but intervening stratigraphic traps reduce the amount to be multiple orders of magnitude less than the leakage out of the reservoir, and (5) this leakage can reduce the Area of Review that is defined by the U.S. EPA as the area within which leakage can threaten groundwater. In summary, leakage that exceeds the U.S. DOE storage permanence goal would occur only under extreme conditions, the amount that reaches shallow potable groundwater may be inconsequential from a pollution standpoint, and leakage may be beneficial. Future federal policies should be harmonized to achieve the dual goals of protecting groundwater while allowing for adaptive management that incorporates uncertainties and imperfections inherent in geologic reservoirs.

  1. Relative permeability experiments of carbon dioxide displacing brine and their implications for carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jonathan S; Goldberg, David S; Lackner, Klaus S; Matter, Juerg M; Supp, Michael G; Ramakrishnan, T S

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate anthropogenically induced climate change and ocean acidification, net carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere must be reduced. One proposed option is underground CO2 disposal. Large-scale injection of CO2 into the Earth's crust requires an understanding of the multiphase flow properties of high-pressure CO2 displacing brine. We present laboratory-scale core flooding experiments designed to measure CO2 endpoint relative permeability for CO2 displacing brine at in situ pressures, salinities, and temperatures. Endpoint drainage CO2 relative permeabilities for liquid and supercritical CO2 were found to be clustered around 0.4 for both the synthetic and natural media studied. These values indicate that relative to CO2, water may not be strongly wetting the solid surface. Based on these results, CO2 injectivity will be reduced and pressure-limited reservoirs will have reduced disposal capacity, though area-limited reservoirs may have increased capacity. Future reservoir-scale modeling efforts should incorporate sensitivity to relative permeability. Assuming applicability of the experimental results to other lithologies and that the majority of reservoirs are pressure limited, geologic carbon sequestration would require approximately twice the number of wells for the same injectivity. PMID:24274391

  2. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  3. Effects of Biochar Amendment on Soil Properties and Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Zhu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties and soil carbon sequestration, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties as well as soil carbon sequestration. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates and the amount of soil carbon storage.

  4. The Lifestyle Carbon Dividend: Assessment of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Grasslands and Pasturelands Reverted to Native Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S.; Jain, A. K.; Shu, S.

    2015-12-01

    What is the potential of a global transition to a vegan lifestyle to sequester carbon and mitigate climate change? To answer this question, we use an Earth System Model (ESM), the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). ISAM is a fully coupled biogeochemistry (carbon and nitrogen cycles) and biogeophysics (hydrology and thermal energy) ESM, which calculates carbon sources and sinks due to land cover and land use change activities, such as reforestation and afforestation. We calculate the carbon sequestration potential of grasslands and pasturelands that can be reverted to native forests as 265 GtC on 1.96E+7 km2 of land area, just 41% of the total area of such lands on Earth. The grasslands and pasturelands are assumed to revert back to native forests which existed prior to any human intervention and these include tropical, temperate and boreal forests. The results are validated with above ground regrowth measurements. Since this carbon sequestration potential is greater than the 240 GtC of that has been added to the atmosphere since the industrial era began, it shows that such global lifestyle transitions have tremendous potential to mitigate and even reverse climate change.

  5. Carbon Capture and Sequestration: A Regulatory Gap Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln Davies; Kirsten Uchitel; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2012-04-30

    Though a potentially significant climate change mitigation strategy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) remains mired in demonstration and development rather than proceeding to full-scale commercialization. Prior studies have suggested numerous reasons for this stagnation. This Report seeks to empirically assess those claims. Using an anonymous opinion survey completed by over 200 individuals involved in CCS, it concludes that there are four primary barriers to CCS commercialization: (1) cost, (2) lack of a carbon price, (3) liability risks, and (4) lack of a comprehensive regulatory regime. These results largely confirm previous work. They also, however, expose a key barrier that prior studies have overlooked: the need for comprehensive, rather than piecemeal, CCS regulation. The survey data clearly show that the CCS community sees this as one of the most needed incentives for CCS deployment. The community also has a relatively clear idea of what that regulation should entail: a cooperative federalism approach that directly addresses liability concerns and that generally does not upset traditional lines of federal-state authority.

  6. Carbon Sequestration on Mars: Constraints from the Nili Fossae Carbonate Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Martian carbonates have been observed telescopically, from orbit, in situ and in Martian meteorites; however, a long-postulated geologic reservoir that accounts for proposed thinning of a multi-bar early Mars atmosphere by CO2 sequestration has not yet been identified. One striking aspect of the Martian geologic record is the presence of valley networks and open basin lakes last active around the Noachian/Hesperian boundary, at ca. 3.5 Ga. If surface waters were supported by a thicker atmosphere, hundreds of millibars to bars of CO2 would need to be lost to space during the Hesperian/Amazonian, inconsistent with current atmospheric models. Was this late CO2 sequestered in the Martian crust? We consider the role of diffuse and localized CO2 sequestration and constrain the timing and explore implications for late Noachian atmospheric conditions via examination of the age and composition of the largest contiguous exposure of carbonate-bearing rock on Mars, the Nili Fossae carbonate plains (21.5°N, 78.5°E). Morphological, spectral and thermophysical data sets from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, Thermal Emission Imaging System, and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment are considered in the context of past atmospheric drawdown. We find the olivine-enriched (~20%-25%) basalts of the Nili Fossae plains have been altered, by low-temperature, in-situ carbonation processes, to at most ~20% Fe-Mg carbonate, thus limiting carbon sequestration in the Nili Fossae region to ~0.25-12 mbar of CO2 during the late Noachian/early Hesperian, before or concurrent with valley network formation. While large compared to modern-day CO2 reservoirs, the lack of additional, comparable-sized post-Late Noachian carbonate-bearing deposits on Mars indicates ineffective carbon sequestration in rock units over the past ~3.7 Ga. This implies a thin atmosphere (≲500 mbar) during valley network formation, extensive post

  7. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration monitoring and verification via laser based detection system in the 2 mum band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Seth David

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a known contributor to the green house gas effect. Emissions of CO2 are rising as the global demand for inexpensive energy is placated through the consumption and combustion of fossil fuels. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) may provide a method to prevent CO2 from being exhausted to the atmosphere. The carbon may be captured after fossil fuel combustion in a power plant and then stored in a long term facility such as a deep geologic feature. The ability to verify the integrity of carbon storage at a location is key to the success of all CCS projects. A laser-based instrument has been built and tested at Montana State University (MSU) to measure CO2 concentrations above a carbon storage location. The CO2 Detection by Differential Absorption (CODDA) Instrument uses a temperature-tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode that is capable of accessing a spectral region, 2.0027 to 2.0042 mum, that contains three CO2 absorption lines and a water vapor absorption line. This instrument laser is aimed over an open-air, two-way path of about 100 m, allowing measurements of CO2 concentrations to be made directly above a carbon dioxide release test site. The performance of the instrument for carbon sequestration site monitoring is studied using a newly developed CO2 controlled release facility. The field and CO2 releases are managed by the Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) group at MSU. Two test injections were carried out through vertical wells simulating seepage up well paths. Three test injections were done as CO2 escaped up through a slotted horizontal pipe simulating seepage up through geologic fault zones. The results from these 5 separate controlled release experiments over the course of three summers show that the CODDA Instrument is clearly capable of verifying the integrity of full-scale CO2 storage operations.

  9. Reassessing carbon sequestration in the North China Plain via addition of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenxu; Duan, Yongmei; Wang, Yuying; Hu, Chunsheng

    2016-09-01

    Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) exerts a strong influence on the carbon (C) sequestered in response to nitrogen (N) additions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but limited information is available on in situ SIC storage and dissolution at the field level. This study determined the soil organic/inorganic carbon storage in the soil profile at 0-100cm depths and the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in soil leachate in 4N application treatments (0, 200, 400, and 600kgNha(-1)yr(-)(1)) for 15years in the North China Plain. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on total amount of carbon sequestration and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 in an agricultural system. Results showed that after 15years of N fertilizer application the SOC contents at depths of 0-100cm significantly increased, whereas the SIC contents significantly decreased at depths of 0-60cm. However, the actual measured loss of carbonate was far higher than the theoretical maximum values of dissolution via protons from nitrification. Furthermore, the amount of HCO3(-) and the HCO3(-)/(Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)) ratio in soil leachate were higher in the N application treatments than no fertilizer input (CK) for the 0-80cm depth. The result suggested that the dissolution of carbonate was mainly enhanced by soil carbonic acid, a process which can absorb soil or atmosphere CO2 and less influenced by protons through the nitrification which would release CO2. To accurately evaluate soil C sequestration under N input scenarios in semi-arid regions, future studies should include both changes in SIC storage as well as the fractions of dissolution with different sources of acids in soil profiles. PMID:27135576

  10. Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    A fiber sensor array for sub-surface CO2 concentrations measurements was developed for monitoring geologic carbon sequestration sites. The fiber sensor array uses a single temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating with a nominal wavelength of 2.004 μm. Light from this DFB laser is direct to one of the 4 probes via an in-line 1 x 4 fiber optic switch. Each of the 4 probes are buried and allow the sub-surface CO2 to enter the probe through Millipore filters that allow the soil gas to enter the probe but keeps out the soil and water. Light from the DFB laser interacts with the CO2 before it is directed back through the in-line fiber optic switch. The DFB laser is tuned across two CO2} absorption features where a transmission measurement is made allowing the CO2 concentration to be retrieved. The fiber optic switch then directs the light to the next probe where this process is repeated allowing sub-surface CO2 concentration measurements at each of the probes to be made as a function of time. The fiber sensor array was deployed for fifty-eight days beginning June 19, 2012 at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site where sub-surface CO2 concentrations were monitored. Background measurements indicate the fiber sensor array can monitor background levels as low as 1,000 parts per million (ppm). A thirty four day sub-surface release of 0.15 tones CO2/day began on July 10, 2012. The elevated subsurface CO2 concentration was easily detected by each of the four probes with values ranging to over 60,000 ppm, a factor of greater than 6 higher than background measurements. The fiber sensor array was also deploy at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) site in north-central Montana between July 9th and August 7th, 2013 where background measurements were made in a remote sequestration site with minimal infrastructure. The project

  11. Space-Time Controls on Carbon Sequestration Over Large-Scale Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Cooper, Harry J.; Gu, Jiujing; Grose, Andrew; Norman, John; daRocha, Humberto R.; Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major research focus of the LBA Ecology Program is an assessment of the carbon budget and the carbon sequestering capacity of the large scale forest-pasture system that dominates the Amazonia landscape, and its time-space heterogeneity manifest in carbon fluxes across the large scale Amazon basin ecosystem. Quantification of these processes requires a combination of in situ measurements, remotely sensed measurements from space, and a realistically forced hydrometeorological model coupled to a carbon assimilation model, capable of simulating details within the surface energy and water budgets along with the principle modes of photosynthesis and respiration. Here we describe the results of an investigation concerning the space-time controls of carbon sources and sinks distributed over the large scale Amazon basin. The results are derived from a carbon-water-energy budget retrieval system for the large scale Amazon basin, which uses a coupled carbon assimilation-hydrometeorological model as an integrating system, forced by both in situ meteorological measurements and remotely sensed radiation fluxes and precipitation retrieval retrieved from a combination of GOES, SSM/I, TOMS, and TRMM satellite measurements. Brief discussion concerning validation of (a) retrieved surface radiation fluxes and precipitation based on 30-min averaged surface measurements taken at Ji-Parana in Rondonia and Manaus in Amazonas, and (b) modeled carbon fluxes based on tower CO2 flux measurements taken at Reserva Jaru, Manaus and Fazenda Nossa Senhora. The space-time controls on carbon sequestration are partitioned into sets of factors classified by: (1) above canopy meteorology, (2) incoming surface radiation, (3) precipitation interception, and (4) indigenous stomatal processes varied over the different land covers of pristine rainforest, partially, and fully logged rainforests, and pasture lands. These are the principle meteorological, thermodynamical, hydrological, and biophysical

  12. CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND LAND MANAGEMENT AT DOD INSTALLATIONS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report explores the influence of management practices such as tree harvesting, deforestation, and reforestation on carbon sequestration potential by DOD forests by performing a detailed analysis of a specific installation, Camp Shelby, Mississippi. amp Shelby was selected fo...

  13. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G K; Thangarajan, R; Chung, J W

    2012-05-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t(1/2)) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. PMID:22444054

  14. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude

  15. Woody encroachment reduces nutrient limitation and promotes soil carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Wilma J; Shanungu, Griffin K; Edwards, Peter J; Olde Venterink, Harry

    2014-01-01

    During the past century, the biomass of woody species has increased in many grassland and savanna ecosystems. As many of these species fix nitrogen symbiotically, they may alter not only soil nitrogen (N) conditions but also those of phosphorus (P). We studied the N-fixing shrub Dichrostachys cinerea in a mesic savanna in Zambia, quantifying its effects upon pools of soil N, P, and carbon (C), and availabilities of N and P. We also evaluated whether these effects induced feedbacks upon the growth of understory vegetation and encroaching shrubs. Dichrostachys cinerea shrubs increased total N and P pools, as well as resin-adsorbed N and soil extractable P in the top 10-cm soil. Shrubs and understory grasses differed in their foliar N and P concentrations along gradients of increasing encroachment, suggesting that they obtained these nutrients in different ways. Thus, grasses probably obtained them mainly from the surface upper soil layers, whereas the shrubs may acquire N through symbiotic fixation and probably obtain some of their P from deeper soil layers. The storage of soil C increased significantly under D. cinerea and was apparently not limited by shortages of either N or P. We conclude that the shrub D. cinerea does not create a negative feedback loop by inducing P-limiting conditions, probably because it can obtain P from deeper soil layers. Furthermore, C sequestration is not limited by a shortage of N, so that mesic savanna encroached by this species could represent a C sink for several decades. We studied the effects of woody encroachment on soil N, P, and C pools, and availabilities of N and P to Dichrostachys cinerea shrubs and to the understory vegetation. Both N and P pools in the soil increased along gradients of shrub age and cover, suggesting that N fixation by D. cinerea did not reduce the P supply. This in turn suggests that continued growth and carbon sequestration in this mesic savanna ecosystems are unlikely to be constrained by nutrient

  16. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-01-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed mine soils (RMS). Experimental sites characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil were identified. These sites are owned by Americal Electrical Power and are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. The sites chosen were: (1) reclaimed without topsoil application (three under forest and three under continuous grass cover), (2) reclaimed with topsoil application (three under forest and three under continuous grass cover) and (3) unmined sites (one under forest and another grass cover). Soil samples were collected from 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm depths from each of the experimental site under continuous grass and SOC and, total nitrogen (TN) concentration, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. The results of the study for the quarter (30 September to 31 December, 2003) showed that soil pH was > 5.5 and EC < 4 dS m{sup -1} for all sites and depths and therefore favorable for grass growth. Among the three reclamation treatments, SOC concentration increased from 1.9 g kg{sup -1} for site reclaimed in 2003 (newly reclaimed and at baseline) to 11.64 g kg{sup -1} for site reclaimed in 1987 (a 5-fold increase) to 20.41 g kg{sup -1} for sites reclaimed in 1978 (a 10- fold increase). However, for sites reclaimed without topsoil application, soil pH, EC, SOC and TN concentrations were similar for both depths. The SOC concentrations in reclaimed sites with topsoil application in 0 to 15 cm depth increased from a base value of 0.7 g kg{sup -1} at the rate of 0.76 g kg{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The high SOC concentration for 0-15 cm layer for site reclaimed in 1978 showed the high carbon sequestration potential upon reclamation and establishment of the grass cover on minesoils.

  17. Enzymes for carbon sequestration: neutron crystallographic studies of carbonic anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S. Z. Kovalevsky, A. Y.; Domsic, J.; Mustyakimov, M.; Silverman, D. N.; McKenna, R.; Langan, P.

    2010-11-01

    The first neutron crystal structure of carbonic anhydrase is presented. The structure reveals interesting and unexpected features of the active site that affect catalysis. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO{sub 2} to form HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and H{sup +} using a Zn–hydroxide mechanism. The first part of catalysis involves CO{sub 2} hydration, while the second part deals with removing the excess proton that is formed during the first step. Proton transfer (PT) is thought to occur through a well ordered hydrogen-bonded network of waters that stretches from the metal center of CA to an internal proton shuttle, His64. These waters are oriented and ordered through a series of hydrogen-bonding interactions to hydrophilic residues that line the active site of CA. Neutron studies were conducted on wild-type human CA isoform II (HCA II) in order to better understand the nature and the orientation of the Zn-bound solvent (ZS), the charged state and conformation of His64, the hydrogen-bonding patterns and orientations of the water molecules that mediate PT and the ionization of hydrophilic residues in the active site that interact with the water network. Several interesting and unexpected features in the active site were observed which have implications for how PT proceeds in CA.

  18. The NatCarb geoportal: Linking distributed data from the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Rich, P.M.; Bartley, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships are generating the data for a "carbon atlas" of key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential sinks, etc.) required for rapid implementation of carbon sequestration on a broad scale. The NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb) provides Web-based, nation-wide data access. Distributed computing solutions link partnerships and other publicly accessible repositories of geological, geophysical, natural resource, infrastructure, and environmental data. Data are maintained and enhanced locally, but assembled and accessed through a single geoportal. NatCarb, as a first attempt at a national carbon cyberinfrastructure (NCCI), assembles the data required to address technical and policy challenges of carbon capture and storage. We present a path forward to design and implement a comprehensive and successful NCCI. ?? 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Precipitation of hydrated Mg carbonate with the aid of carbonic anhydrase for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Strategies for sequestering CO2 directly from the atmosphere are likely required to achieve the desired reduction in CO2 concentration and avoid the most damaging effects of climate change [1]. Numerous studies have demonstrated the accelerated precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals with the aid of carbonic anhydrase (CA) as a means of sequestering CO2 in solid carbonate form; however, no study has examined precipitation of magnesium carbonate minerals using CA. Precipitation of magnesite (MgCO3) is kinetically inhibited [2]; therefore, Mg2+ must be precipitated as hydrated carbonate minerals. In laboratory experiments, the uptake of atmospheric CO2 into brine solutions (0.1 M Mg) was rate-limiting for the precipitation of dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2-5H2O] with initial precipitation requiring 15 days [3]. It was also found that dypingite precipitation outpaced the uptake of CO2 gas into solution. CO2 uptake is limited by the hydration of CO2 to form carbonate ions [4]. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes are among the fastest known in nature and are able to catalyze the hydration of CO2, i.e., converting CO2(aq) to CO32- and HCO3- [5]. CA plays an important role in the carbon concentrating mechanism of photoautotrophic, chemoautotrophic, and heterotrophic prokaryotes and is involved in pH homeostasis, facilitated diffusion of CO2, ion transport, and the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3- [6]. Introducing CA into buffered Mg-rich solutions should allow for more rapid precipitation of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals. Batch experiments were conducted using 125 mL flasks containing 100 mL of Millipore deionized water with 0.2 M of MgCl2-6H2O. To buffer pH, 1.0 g of pulverized brucite [Mg(OH)2] or 1.0 g of NaOH was added to the systems, which were amended with Bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) (Sigma-Aldrich). Solutions were stirred continuously and kept at room temperature (~22°C) with laboratory air introduced by bubbling. Temperature and pH were measured routinely

  20. Wind erosion reduces soil organic carbon sequestration falsely indicating ineffective management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian; Baldock, Jeffrey A.

    2016-09-01

    Improved management of agricultural land has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce atmospheric CO2 via soil carbon sequestration. However, SOC stocks are reduced by soil erosion which is commonly omitted from calculations of crop production, C cycling, C sequestration and C accounting. We used fields from the wind eroded dryland cropping region of Western Australia to demonstrate the global implications for C sequestration and C accounting of omitting soil erosion. For the fields we previously estimated mean net (1950s-1990) soil erosion of 1.2 ± 1.0 t ha-1 y-1. The mean net (1990-2013) soil erosion increased by nearly four times to 4.4 ± 2.1 t ha-1 y-1. Conservation agriculture has evidently not reduced wind erosion in this region. The mean net (1990-2013) SOC erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 across all sampled fields and similar to measured sequestration rates in the region (up to 0.5 t C ha-1 y-1; 10 years) for many management practices recommended for building SOC stocks. The minimum detectable change (MDC; 10 years) of SOC without erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 whilst the MDC of SOC with erosion was up to 0.4 t C ha-1 y-1. These results illustrate the generally applicable outcome: (i) if SOC erosion is equal to (or greater than) the increase in SOC due to management practices, the change will not be detectable (or a loss will be evident); (ii) without including soil erosion in SOC sequestration calculations, the monitoring of SOC stocks will lead to, at best the inability to detect change and, at worst the false impression that management practices have failed to store SOC. Furthermore, continued omission of soil erosion in crop production, C accounting and C sequestration will most likely undermine confidence in policy designed to encourage adoption of C farming and the attendant benefits for soil stewardship and food security.

  1. An index-based approach to assessing recalcitrance and soil carbon sequestration potential of engineered black carbons (biochars).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Omar R; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E; Herbert, Bruce E

    2012-02-01

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R(50), for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R(50) is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R(50), with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R(50) and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R(50) is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R(50) ≥ 0.70), Class B (0.50 ≤ R(50) < 0.70) or Class C (R(50) < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, whereas Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R(50), to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars. PMID:22242866

  2. An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Omar R.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E.; Herbert, Bruce

    2012-01-10

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R{sub 50}, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R{sub 50} is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R{sub 50}, with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R{sub 50} and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R{sub 50} is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R{sub 50} {>=} 0.70), Class B (0.50 {<=} R{sub 50} < 0.70) or Class C (R{sub 50} < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, while Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R{sub 50}, to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  3. Carbon stocks and soil sequestration rates of riverine mangroves and freshwater wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, M. F.; Santini, N. S.; Tovilla, C.; Vázquez-Lule, A.; Castro, L.

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and degradation of wetlands are important causes of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Accurate measurements of carbon (C) stocks and sequestration rates are needed for incorporating wetlands into conservation and restoration programs with the aim for preventing carbon emissions. Here, we assessed whole ecosystem C stocks (trees, soil and downed wood) and soil N stocks of riverine wetlands (mangroves, marshes and peat swamps) within La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve in the Pacific coast of Mexico. We also estimated soil C sequestration rates of mangroves on the basis of soil accumulation. We hypothesized that riverine wetlands have large C stocks, and that upland mangroves have larger C and soil N stocks compared to lowland mangroves. Riverine wetlands had large C stocks with a mean of 784.5 ± 73.5 Mg C ha-1 for mangroves, 722.2 ± 83.4 Mg C ha-1 for peat swamps, and 336.5 ± 38.3 Mg C ha-1 for marshes. C stocks and soil N stocks were in general larger for upland (833.0 ± 7.2 Mg C ha-1; 26.4 ± 0.5 Mg N ha-1) compared to lowland mangroves (659.5 ± 18.6 Mg C ha-1; 13.8 ± 2.0 Mg N ha-1). Soil C sequestration values were 1.3 ± 0.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The Reserve stores 32.5 Mtons of C or 119.3 Mtons of CO2, with mangroves sequestering (via soil accumulation) 27 762 ± 0.5 Mg C ha-1 every year.

  4. Nitrate leaching, yields and carbon sequestration after noninversion tillage, catch crops, and straw retention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E M; Munkholm, L J; Olesen, J E; Melander, B

    2015-05-01

    Crop management factors, such as tillage, rotation, and straw retention, need to be long-term to allow conclusions on effects on crop yields, nitrate leaching, and carbon sequestration. In 2002, two field experiments, each including four cash crop rotations, were established on soils with 9 and 15% clay, under temperate, coastal climate conditions. Direct drilling and harrowing to two different depths were compared to plowing with respect to yield, nitrate N leaching, and carbon sequestration. For comparison of yields across rotations, grain and seed dry matter yields for each crop were converted to grain equivalents (GE). Leaching was compared to yields by calculating yield-scaled leaching (YSL, g N kg GE), and N balances were calculated as the N input in manure minus the N output in products removed from the fields. Direct drilling reduced yields, but no effect on leaching was found. Straw retention did not significantly increase yields, nor did it reduce leaching, while fodder radish ( L.) as a catch crop was capable of reducing nitrate leaching to a low level. Thus, YSL of winter wheat ( L.) was higher than for spring barley ( L.) grown after fodder radish due to the efficient catch crop. Soil organic carbon (SOC) did not increase significantly after 7 yr of straw incorporation or noninversion tillage. There was no correlation between N balances calculated for each growing season and N leaching measured in the following percolation period. PMID:26024267

  5. Ecosystem carbon budgeting and soil carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raj K; Lal, Rattan

    2006-08-01

    Global warming risks from emissions of green house gases (GHGs) by anthropogenic activities, and possible mitigation strategies of terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration have increased the need for the identification of ecosystems with high C sink capacity. Depleted soil organic C (SOC) pools of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) ecosystems can be restored through conversion to an appropriate land use and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs). The objectives of this paper are to (1) synthesize available information on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from coal mining and combustion activities, (2) understand mechanisms of SOC sequestration and its protection, (3) identify factors affecting C sequestration potential in RMSs, (4) review available methods for the estimation of ecosystem C budget (ECB), and (5) identify knowledge gaps to enhance C sink capacity of RMS ecosystems and prioritize research issues. The drastic perturbations of soil by mining activities can accentuate CO2 emission through mineralization, erosion, leaching, changes in soil moisture and temperature regimes, and reduction in biomass returned to the soil. The reclamation of drastically disturbed soils leads to improvement in soil quality and development of soil pedogenic processes accruing the benefit of SOC sequestration and additional income from trading SOC credits. The SOC sequestration potential in RMS depends on amount of biomass production and return to soil, and mechanisms of C protection. The rate of SOC sequestration ranges from 0.1 to 3.1 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) and 0.7 to 4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in grass and forest RMS ecosystem, respectively. Proper land restoration alone could off-set 16 Tg CO2 in the U.S. annually. However, the factors affecting C sequestration and protection in RMS leading to increase in microbial activity, nutrient availability, soil aggregation, C build up, and soil profile development must be better understood in order to formulate guidelines for development of an

  6. Water Level and Fire Regulate Carbon Sequestration in a Subtropical Peat Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, S.; Sumner, D.; Shoemaker, B.; Benscoter, B.; Hinkle, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Managed wetlands provide valuable ecosystem services, including carbon storage. Management practices, such as water-level manipulation and prescribed fire, can have a profound effect on the carbon dynamics of these ecosystems. Fluxes of carbon dioxide have been measured by eddy covariance methods over a subtropical peat marsh in Florida, USA since 2009. During this 5-year period, the site has experienced hydroperiods ranging from nine to twelve months. Hydroperiod was found to affect net ecosystem productivity, which was relatively low (70-130 grams carbon per square meter) in years with periodic drying events and much higher (300-600 grams carbon per square meter) during years with constant marsh inundation. The site experienced a prescribed fire in Spring of 2014, which consumed approximately 80% of the aboveground biomass (800 grams carbon per square meter). In addition to the carbon released by the fire, photosynthetic uptake during what would normally be the most productive part of the year was reduced relative to previous years due to low leaf area. These results illustrate how management practices can affect carbon sequestration, which is important for both atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and maintenance of peat topography.

  7. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

  8. Risk assessment framework for geologic carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.; Jordan, P.; Zhang, Y.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a simple and transparent approach for assessing CO{sub 2} and brine leakage risk associated with CO{sub 2} injection at geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. The approach, called the Certification Framework (CF), is based on the concept of effective trapping, which takes into account both the probability of leakage from the storage formation and impacts of leakage. The effective trapping concept acknowledges that GCS can be safe and effective even if some CO{sub 2} and brine were to escape from the storage formation provided the impact of such leakage is below agreed-upon limits. The CF uses deterministic process models to calculate expected well- and fault-related leakage fluxes and concentrations. These in turn quantify the impacts under a given leakage scenario to so-called 'compartments,' which comprise collections of vulnerable entities. The probabilistic part of the calculated risk comes from the likelihood of (1) the intersections of injected CO{sub 2} and related pressure perturbations with well or fault leakage pathways, and (2) intersections of leakage pathways with compartments. Two innovative approaches for predicting leakage likelihood, namely (1) fault statistics, and (2) fuzzy rules for fault and fracture intersection probability, are highlighted here.

  9. Submicron structures provide preferential spots for carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Cordula; Mueller, Carsten W.; Höschen, Carmen; Buegger, Franz; Heister, Katja; Schulz, Stefanie; Schloter, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The sequestration of carbon and nitrogen by clay-sized particles in soils is well established, and clay content or mineral surface area has been used to estimate the sequestration potential of soils. Here, via incubation of a sieved (<2 mm) topsoil with labelled litter, we find that only some of the clay-sized surfaces bind organic matter (OM). Surprisingly, <19% of the visible mineral areas show an OM attachment. OM is preferentially associated with organo-mineral clusters with rough surfaces. By combining nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry and isotopic tracing, we distinguish between new labelled and pre-existing OM and show that new OM is preferentially attached to already present organo-mineral clusters. These results, which provide evidence that only a limited proportion of the clay-sized surfaces contribute to OM sequestration, revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration in soils and the widely used carbon saturation estimates. PMID:24399306

  10. Quantification of the effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration by forests at a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Wim; Dentener, Frank; Bouwman, Lex

    2014-05-01

    The severe perturbation of the nitrogen (N) cycle since the beginning of nineteenth century has caused an enhanced N deposition on forests. Due to N limitation in most forest ecosystems increased N deposition usually increases net primary production (NPP) thus stimulating carbon (C) sequestration in trees. Increased productivity may also increase C sequestration in the soil due to increased litter production and reduced decomposition of organic matter, depending on the stage of humus formation. It is estimated that at present about 26% of the anthropgenic CO2 emission is sequestered in terrestrial ecosystems, predominantly forest ecosystems. An important question is: which fraction of this global C sequestration is determined by enhanced N deposition and how will changes in N deposition affect global C sequestration? Quantification will depend on both the magnitude of N deposition and the CO2-C response per kg N input. These C-to-N deposition-response ratios (Nitrogen Use Efficiency; NUE) are dependent on the occurrence of N limitation versus possible limitation by other factors, such as low temperature, limited water availability and/ or limited availability of other nutrients such as phophate (P). Responses thus differ between type of forest ecosystem, such as boreal, temperate and tropical forests. Furthermore, NUE will most likely decrease with N input and with time (no fixed C-to-N deposition ratios). In this presentation, we shortly review approaches to quantify impacts N on CO2-C exchange by forest ecosystems, including N retention measurements combined with stoichiometric scaling, C responses to N addition experiments (meta-analysis), empirical relations between spatial patterns of forest carbon uptake N deposition, while accounting for other environmental factors and large scale modelling. Ranges in CO2-C per kg N input, are then presented for major world forest ecosystems making use of those approaches. Using these factors, a quantification is made of the

  11. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "grain for green" project in Loess Plateau, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, R.; Fu, B.; Liu, Gaisheng; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The "Grain for Green" project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the "Grain for Green" project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau, and it is

  12. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Advantages and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Slagle, A. L.; Goldberg, D.

    2014-12-01

    To make a significant impact on anthropogenic CO2 emissions, geologic carbon sequestration would require thousands of CO2 repositories around the world. Unconventional reservoirs, such as igneous rocks and fractured formations, may add substantial storage capacity and diversify CO2 storage options. In particular, basaltic rocks represent a promising target due to their widespread occurrence, potentially suitable reservoir structure and high reactivity with CO2, but a comprehensive evaluation of worldwide CO2 sequestration capacity in unconventional reservoirs is lacking. In this presentation we summarize available data on storage potential of basaltic rocks and fractured formations illustrated by field examples from the Columbia River Basalt, the Newark Rift Basin and IODP Site 1256, and discuss potential limiting factors, such as effective porosity and the risk of inducing earthquakes by CO2 injections. Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), low-volume flows and intrusions, and ocean floor basalt represent three general classes of basaltic reservoirs, each characterized by different structure and storage capacity. Oceanic plateaus and LIPs are projected to have the highest CO2 storage capacity, on the order of thousands gigatons (Gt) per site, followed by continental LIPs and ocean floor basalts (hundreds to thousands Gt per site). Isolated basalt flows and intrusions are likely to offer only low- to moderate-capacity options. An important limiting factor on CO2 injection volumes and rates is the risk of inducing earthquakes by increasing pore pressure in the subsurface. On continents, available in situ stress analysis suggests that local stress perturbations at depth may create relaxed stress conditions, allowing for pore pressure increase without reactivating fractures and faults. Remote storage sites on oceanic plateaus and below the seafloor are advantageous due to low impact of potential seismic and/or leakage events. Other effects, such as thermal stresses created

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Soils of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands play an important but complex role in the global carbon cycle, contributing to the ecosystem service of greenhouse gas regulation through carbon sequestration. Although coastal wetlands occupy a small percent of the total US land area, their potential for carbon...

  14. Estimates of Carbon Sequestration and Storage in Tidal Coastal Wetlands Along the US East Coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, salt marshes are reported to sequester carbon (210 g C m-2 y -1), and along with mangroves in the US, they are reported to account for 1–2 % of the carbon sink for the conterminous US. Using the published salt marsh carbon sequestration rate and National Wetland Invent...

  15. Estimates of Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Coastal Wetlands Along the US east Coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, salt marshes are reported to sequester carbon (210 g C m-2 y -1), and along with mangroves in the US, they are reported to account for 1–2 % of the carbon sink for the conterminous US. Using the published salt marsh carbon sequestration rate and National Wetland Invent...

  16. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program Validation Phase.

    PubMed

    Litynski, John T; Plasynski, Sean; McIlvried, Howard G; Mahoney, Christopher; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the Validation Phase (Phase II) of the Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative. In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy created a nationwide network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) to help determine and implement the technology, infrastructure, and regulations most appropriate to promote carbon sequestration in different regions of the nation. The objectives of the Characterization Phase (Phase I) were to characterize the geologic and terrestrial opportunities for carbon sequestration; to identify CO(2) point sources within the territories of the individual partnerships; to assess the transportation infrastructure needed for future deployment; to evaluate CO(2) capture technologies for existing and future power plants; and to identify the most promising sequestration opportunities that would need to be validated through a series of field projects. The Characterization Phase was highly successful, with the following achievements: established a national network of companies and professionals working to support sequestration deployment; created regional and national carbon sequestration atlases for the United States and portions of Canada; evaluated available and developing technologies for the capture of CO(2) from point sources; developed an improved understanding of the permitting requirements that future sequestration activities will need to address as well as defined the gap in permitting requirements for large scale deployment of these technologies; created a raised awareness of, and support for, carbon sequestration as a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option, both within industry and among the general public; identified the most promising carbon sequestration opportunities for future field tests; and established protocols for project implementation, accounting, and management. Economic evaluation was started and is continuing and will be a factor in project selection. During the

  17. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2003-10-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  18. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2001-12-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  19. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2001-07-01

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  20. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-12-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  1. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-07-09

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  2. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHAPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J.Fabry

    2004-01-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  3. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2001-09-10

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  4. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2003-04-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  5. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2003-07-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  6. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-09-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  7. Calcium Carbonate Produced by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2007-06-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO2 through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids - single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate - to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  8. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2005-01-24

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids ? single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate ? to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  9. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2005-04-29

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  10. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2004-04-26

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  11. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2004-10-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  12. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Alge in Long Term Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2006-09-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  13. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2006-06-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  14. Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    To, Jennifer PC; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N

    2010-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration. PMID:21173868

  15. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jikich, Sinisha; McLendon, Robert; Seshadri, Kal; Irdi, Gino; Smith, Duane

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of carbon dioxide (CO2) in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed-methane/CO2-sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the laboratory can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates significantly. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, 3D effective stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while, it sorbed CO2. Increases in sample density because of sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the CT showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core. and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated

  16. Sequestration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Sequestration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs) in a suitably chosen polymer is under investigation as a means of promoting the dissolution of the nanotubes into epoxies. The purpose of this investigation is to make it possible to utilize SWCNs as the reinforcing fibers in strong, lightweight epoxy-matrix/carbon-fiber composite materials. SWCNs are especially attractive for use as reinforcing fibers because of their stiffness and strength-to-weight ratio: Their Young s modulus has been calculated to be 1.2 TPa, their strength has been calculated to be as much as 100 times that of steel, and their mass density is only one-sixth that of steel. Bare SWCNs cannot be incorporated directly into composite materials of the types envisioned because they are not soluble in epoxies. Heretofore, SWCNS have been rendered soluble by chemically attaching various molecular chains to them, but such chemical attachments compromise their structural integrity. In the method now under investigation, carbon nanotubes are sequestered in molecules of poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene) [PmPV]. The strength of the carbon nanotubes is preserved because they are not chemically bonded to the PmPV. This method exploits the tendency of PmPV molecules to wrap themselves around carbon nanotubes: the wrapping occurs partly because there exists a favorable interface between the conjugated face of a nanotube and the conjugated backbone of the polymer and partly because of the helical molecular structure of PmPV. The constituents attached to the polymer backbones (the side chains) render the PmPV-wrapped carbon nanotubes PmPV soluble in organic materials that, in turn, could be used to suspend the carbon nanotubes in epoxy precursors. At present, this method is being optimized: The side chains on the currently available form of PmPV are very nonpolar and unable to react with the epoxy resins and/or hardeners; as a consequence, SWCN/PmPV composites have been

  17. Rapid Assessment of U.S. Forest and Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Forest Biomass Carbon-Sequestration Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Bliss, Norman B.; Kellndorfer, Josef M.; Reeves, Matt C.; Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides results of a rapid assessment of biological carbon stocks and forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity in the conterminous United States. Maps available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to calculate estimates of current organic carbon storage in soils (73 petagrams of carbon, or PgC) and forest biomass (17 PgC). Of these totals, 3.5 PgC of soil organic carbon and 0.8 PgC of forest biomass carbon occur on lands managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). Maps of potential vegetation are used to estimate hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities that are 3-7 PgC higher than current forest biomass carbon storage in the conterminous United States. Most of the estimated hypothetical additional forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity is accrued in areas currently occupied by agriculture and development. Hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities calculated for existing forests and woodlands are within +or- 1 PgC of estimated current forest biomass carbon storage. Hypothetical forest biomass sequestration capacities on lands managed by the DOI in the conterminous United States are 0-0.4 PgC higher than existing forest biomass carbon storage. Implications for forest and other land management practices are not considered in this report. Uncertainties in the values reported here are large and difficult to quantify, particularly for hypothetical carbon sequestration capacities. Nevertheless, this rapid assessment helps to frame policy and management discussion by providing estimates that can be compared to amounts necessary to reduce predicted future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  18. An Investigation of Soil Moisture Status and Rates of Carbon Sequestration in a Successional Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, R. E.; Albertson, J. D.; Williams, C. A.; Epstein, H. E.

    2001-12-01

    The dynamics of carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems are controlled by a wide array of biological and physical factors such as vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, and net radiation. In addition to the spatial variability exerted by these controls, carbon exchange rates in these environments vary over a broad spectrum of temporal scales, with large amplitudes associated with diurnal, seasonal, and even successional time scales. To explore the role of soil moisture on carbon uptake in a successional system, micrometeorological and eddy covariance measurements were taken during the earliest stages of succession in a historically cultivated but recently abandoned crop field (corn and rye) in eastern North America at the Blandy Experimental Farm in the Virginia Piedmont. Analysis of the measured flux and state variable time series explores the coupling of water and carbon fluxes as a function of environmental parameters in the presence of "natural" primary productivity in an early successional environment. Carbon uptake in both cultivated and successional systems is compared, and uptake is shown to be greater in the presence of the dominant early successional species, Setaria glauca, than in the presence of rye cultivation. In addition, the importance of soil moisture to carbon sequestration is demonstrated for both successional and cultivated plants.

  19. Carbon accumulation rate of peatland in the High Arctic, Svalbard: Implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsubo, Takayuki; Uchida, Masaki; Sasaki, Akiko; Kondo, Miyuki; Yoshitake, Shinpei; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Moss tundra that accumulates a thick peat layer is one of the most important ecosystems in the High Arctic, Svalbard. The importance of this ecosystem for carbon sequestration was estimated from the apparent rates of carbon accumulation based on the 14C age and amount of peat in the active layer. The study site at Stuphallet, Brøgger Peninsula, northwestern Svalbard was covered with a thick peat layer dominated by moss species such as Calliergon richardsonii, Paludella squarrosa, Tomenthypnum nitens, and Warnstorfia exannulata. The average thickness of the active layer (brown moss and peat) was approximately 28 cm in 1 August 2011. The calibrated (cal) age of peat from the bottom of the active layer (20-30 cm below the peatland surface) ranged from 81 to 701 cal yr BP (median value of 2σ range). Based on the total carbon (4.5-9.2 kg C m-2), the apparent rate of carbon accumulation in the active layer was 9.0-19.2 (g C m-2 yr-1), which is similar to or greater than the net ecosystem production or net primary production reported for other vegetation types in this area. Our data suggest that moss tundra plays an important role in carbon sequestration in this area.

  20. Measurement and evaluation of the relationships between capillary pressure, relative permeability, and saturation for surrogate fluids for laboratory study of geological carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, H.; Trevisan, L.; Sakaki, T.; Cihan, A.; Smits, K. M.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Multiphase flow models can be used to improve our understanding of the complex behavior of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in deep saline aquifers to make predictions for the stable storage strategies. These models rely on constitutive relationships such as capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) and relative permeability (kr) - saturation (Sw) as input parameters. However, for practical application of these models, such relationships for scCO2 and brine system are not readily available for geological formations. This is due to the complicated and expensive traditional methods often used to obtain these relationships in the laboratory through high pressure and/or high-temperature controls. A method that has the potential to overcome the difficulty in conducting such experiments is to replicate scCO2 and brine with surrogate fluids that capture the density and viscosity effects to obtain the constitutive relationships under ambient conditions. This study presents an investigation conducted to evaluate this method. An assessment of the method allows us to evaluate the prediction accuracy of multiphase models using the constitutive relationships developed from this approach. With this as a goal, the study reports multiple laboratory column experiments conducted to measure these relationships. The obtained relationships were then used in the multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2 T2VOC to explore capillary trapping mechanisms of scCO2. A comparison of the model simulation to experimental observation was used to assess the accuracy of the measured constitutive relationships. Experimental data confirmed, as expected, that the scaling method cannot be used to obtain the residual and irreducible saturations. The results also showed that the van Genuchten - Mualem model was not able to match the independently measured kr data obtained from column experiments. Simulated results of fluid saturations were compared with saturation measurements obtained using x-ray attenuations. This

  1. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP - REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING CO2 MOVEMENT DURING SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2005-10-01

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  2. Relative stability and significance of dawsonite and aluminum minerals in geologic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William

    2011-04-01

    Computer simulations predict dawsonite, NaAlCO3(OH)2, will provide long-term mineral sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 whereas dawsonite rarely occurs in nature or in laboratory experiments that emulate a carbon repository. Resolving this discrepancy is important to determining the significance of dawsonite mineralization to the long-term security of geologic carbon sequestration. This study is an equilibrium-based experimental and modeling evaluation of underlying causes for inconsistencies between predicted and observed dawsonite stability. Using established hydrothermal methods, 0.05 molal NaHCO3 aqueous solution and synthetic dawsonite were reacted for 18.7 days (449.2 hours) at 50°C, 20 MPa. Temperature was increased to 75°C and the experiment continued for an additional 12.3 days (295.1 hours). Incongruent dissolution yielded a dawsonite-gibbsite-nordstrandite assemblage. Geochemical simulations using Geochemist's Workbench and the resident database thermo.com.V8.R6+ incorrectly predicted a dawsonite-diaspore assemblage and underestimated dissolved aluminum by roughly 100 times. Higher aqueous aluminum concentrations in the experiment suggest that dawsonite or diaspore is less stable than predicted. Simulations employing an alternate database, thermo.dat, correctly predict dawsonite and dawsonite-gibbsite assemblages at 50 and 75°C, respectively, although dissolved aluminum concentrations are still two to three times lower than experimentally measured values. Correctly reproducing dawsonite solubility in standard geochemical simulations requires an as yet undeveloped internally consistent thermodynamic database among dawsonite, gibbsite, boehmite, diaspore, aqueous aluminum complexes and other Al-phases such as albite and kaolinite. These discrepancies question the ability of performance assessment models to correctly predict dawsonite mineralization in a sequestration site.

  3. Historical advances in the study of global terrestrial soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Feller, C; Bernoux, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes: it provides a summarized scientific history of carbon sequestration in relation to the soil-plant system and gives a commentary on organic wastes and SOC sequestration. The concept of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration has its roots in: (i) the experimental work of Lundegårdh, particularly his in situ measurements of CO2 fluxes at the soil-plant interface (1924, 1927, 1930); (ii) the first estimates of SOC stocks at the global level made by Waksman [Waksman, S.A., 1938. Humus. Origin, Chemical Composition and Importance in Nature, second ed. revised. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 526] and Rubey [Rubey, W.W., 1951. Geologic history of sea water. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 62, 1111-1148]; (iii) the need for models dealing with soil organic matter (SOM) or SOC dynamics beginning with a conceptual SOM model by De Saussure (1780-1796) followed by the mathematical models of Jenny [Jenny, H., 1941. Factors of Soil Formation: a System of Quantitative Pedology. Dover Publications, New York, p. 288], Hénin and Dupuis [Hénin, S., Dupuis, M., 1945. Essai de bilan de la matière organique. Annales d'Agronomie 15, 17-29] and more recently the RothC [Jenkinson, D.S., Rayner, J.H., 1977. The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Science 123 (5), 298-305] and Century [Parton, W.J., Schimel, D.S., Cole, C.V., Ojima, D.S., 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in great plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 (5), 1173-1179] models. The establishment of a soil C sequestration balance is not straightforward and depends greatly on the origin and the composition of organic matter that is to be returned to the system. Wastes, which are important sources of organic carbon for soils, are taken as an example. For these organic materials the following factors have to be considered: the presence or absence of fossil C, the potential

  4. Soil carbon sequestration in semi-arid soil through the addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu; Oh, Chamteut

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated a new strategy for increasing carbon retention in slightly alkaline soils through addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG, CaSO4•2H2O). FGDG is moderately soluble and thus the FGDG amendment may be effective to reduce microbial respiration, to accelerate calcite (CaCO3) precipitation, and to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces, but rates of these processes need to be understood. The effects of FGDG addition were tested in laboratory soil columns with and without FGDG-amended layers, and in greenhouse soil columns planted with switchgrass, a biofuel crop. The results of laboratory column experiments demonstrated that additions of FGDG promote soil carbon sequestration through suppressing microbial respiration to the extent of ~200 g per m2 soil per m of supplied water, and promoting calcite precipitation at similar rates. The greenhouse experiments showed that the FGDG treatments did not adversely affect biomass yield (~600 g dry biomass/m2/harvest) at the higher irrigation rate (50 cm/year), but substantially reduced recoverable biomass under the more water-limited conditions (irrigation rate = 20 cm/year). The main achievements of this study are (1) the identification of conditions in which inorganic and organic carbon sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils, (2) development of a method for measuring the total carbon balance in unsaturated soil columns, and (3) the quantification of different pathways for soil carbon sequestration in response to FGDG amendments. These findings provide information for evaluating land use practices for increased soil carbon sequestration under semi-arid region biofuel crop production.

  5. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  6. Vertically-integrated Approaches for Carbon Sequestration Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Guo, B.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is being considered as an approach to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as coal fired power plants and natural gas processing plants. Computer modeling is an essential tool for site design and operational planning as it allows prediction of the pressure response as well as the migration of both CO2 and brine in the subsurface. Many processes, such as buoyancy, hysteresis, geomechanics and geochemistry, can have important impacts on the system. While all of the processes can be taken into account simultaneously, the resulting models are computationally very expensive and require large numbers of parameters which are often uncertain or unknown. In many cases of practical interest, the computational and data requirements can be reduced by choosing a smaller domain and/or by neglecting or simplifying certain processes. This leads to a series of models with different complexity, ranging from coupled multi-physics, multi-phase three-dimensional models to semi-analytical single-phase models. Under certain conditions the three-dimensional equations can be integrated in the vertical direction, leading to a suite of two-dimensional multi-phase models, termed vertically-integrated models. These models are either solved numerically or simplified further (e.g., assumption of vertical equilibrium) to allow analytical or semi-analytical solutions. This presentation focuses on how different vertically-integrated models have been applied to the simulation of CO2 and brine migration during CCS projects. Several example sites, such as the Illinois Basin and the Wabamun Lake region of the Alberta Basin, are discussed to show how vertically-integrated models can be used to gain understanding of CCS operations.

  7. Multiphase modeling of geologic carbon sequestration in saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    Bandilla, Karl W; Celia, Michael A; Birkholzer, Jens T; Cihan, Abdullah; Leister, Evan C

    2015-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is being considered as a climate change mitigation option in many future energy scenarios. Mathematical modeling is routinely used to predict subsurface CO2 and resident brine migration for the design of injection operations, to demonstrate the permanence of CO2 storage, and to show that other subsurface resources will not be degraded. Many processes impact the migration of CO2 and brine, including multiphase flow dynamics, geochemistry, and geomechanics, along with the spatial distribution of parameters such as porosity and permeability. In this article, we review a set of multiphase modeling approaches with different levels of conceptual complexity that have been used to model GCS. Model complexity ranges from coupled multiprocess models to simplified vertical equilibrium (VE) models and macroscopic invasion percolation models. The goal of this article is to give a framework of conceptual model complexity, and to show the types of modeling approaches that have been used to address specific GCS questions. Application of the modeling approaches is shown using five ongoing or proposed CO2 injection sites. For the selected sites, the majority of GCS models follow a simplified multiphase approach, especially for questions related to injection and local-scale heterogeneity. Coupled multiprocess models are only applied in one case where geomechanics have a strong impact on the flow. Owing to their computational efficiency, VE models tend to be applied at large scales. A macroscopic invasion percolation approach was used to predict the CO2 migration at one site to examine details of CO2 migration under the caprock. PMID:25662534

  8. Review and model-based analysis of factors influencing soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A simple, multi-compartment model was developed to predict soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) plantations in the southeastern United States. Soil carbon sequestration is an important component of sustainable switchgrass production for bioenergy because soil organic matter promotes water retention, nutrient supply, and soil properties that minimize erosion. A literature review was included for the purpose of model parameterization and five model-based experiments were conducted to predict how changes in environment (temperature) or crop management (cultivar, fertilization, and harvest efficiency) might affect soil carbon storage and nitrogen losses. Predictions of soil carbon sequestration were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass production, and temperature. Predictions of ecosystem nitrogen loss were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the soil C/N ratio, and nitrogen remobilization efficiency (i.e., nitrogen cycling within the plant). Model-based experiments indicated that 1) soil carbon sequestration can be highly site specific depending on initial soil carbon stocks, temperature, and the amount of annual nitrogen fertilization, 2) response curves describing switchgrass yield as a function of annual nitrogen fertilization were important to model predictions, 3) plant improvements leading to greater belowground partitioning of biomass could increase soil carbon sequestration, 4) improvements in harvest efficiency have no indicated effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, but improve cumulative biomass yield, and 5) plant improvements that reduce organic matter decomposition rates could also increase soil carbon sequestration, even though the latter may not be consistent with desired improvements in plant tissue chemistry to maximize yields of cellulosic ethanol.

  9. Engineering de novo disulfide bond in bacterial α-type carbonic anhydrase for thermostable carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Park, Tae Yoon; Park, Hyun June; Yeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Young Je; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-07-01

    Exploiting carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that rapidly catalyzes carbon dioxide hydration, is an attractive biomimetic route for carbon sequestration due to its environmental compatibility and potential economic viability. However, the industrial applications of CA are strongly hampered by the unstable nature of enzymes. In this work, we introduced in silico designed, de novo disulfide bond in a bacterial α-type CA to enhance thermostability. Three variants were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli with an additional disulfide bridge. One of the variants showed great enhancement in terms of both kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities. This improvement could be attributed to the loss of conformational entropy of the unfolded state, showing increased rigidity. The variant showed an upward-shifted optimal temperature and appeared to be thermoactivated, which compensated for the lowered activity at 25 °C. Collectively, the variant constructed by the rapid and effective de novo disulfide engineering can be used as an efficient biocatalyst for carbon sequestration under high temperature conditions.

  10. Engineering de novo disulfide bond in bacterial α-type carbonic anhydrase for thermostable carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Park, Tae Yoon; Park, Hyun June; Yeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Young Je; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that rapidly catalyzes carbon dioxide hydration, is an attractive biomimetic route for carbon sequestration due to its environmental compatibility and potential economic viability. However, the industrial applications of CA are strongly hampered by the unstable nature of enzymes. In this work, we introduced in silico designed, de novo disulfide bond in a bacterial α-type CA to enhance thermostability. Three variants were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli with an additional disulfide bridge. One of the variants showed great enhancement in terms of both kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities. This improvement could be attributed to the loss of conformational entropy of the unfolded state, showing increased rigidity. The variant showed an upward-shifted optimal temperature and appeared to be thermoactivated, which compensated for the lowered activity at 25 °C. Collectively, the variant constructed by the rapid and effective de novo disulfide engineering can be used as an efficient biocatalyst for carbon sequestration under high temperature conditions. PMID:27385052

  11. The Effect of Emissions Trading And Carbon Sequestration on The Cost Of CO2 Emissions Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahasenan, Natesan; Scott, Michael J.; Smith, Steven J.

    2002-08-05

    The deployment of carbon capture and sequestration (CC&S) technologies is greatly affected by the marginal cost of controlling carbon emissions (also the value of carbon, when emissions permits are traded). Emissions limits that are more stringent in the near term imply higher near-term carbon values and therefore encourage the local development and deployment of CC&S technologies. In addition, trade in emissions obligations lowers the cost of meeting any regional or global emissions limit and so affects the rate of penetration of CC&S technologies. We examine the effects of the availability of sequestration opportunities and emissions trading (either within select regions or globally) on the cost of emissions mitigation and compliance with different emissions reduction targets for the IPCC SRES scenarios. For each base scenario and emissions target, we examine the issues outlined above and present quantitative estimates for the impacts of trade and the availability of sequestration opportunities in meeting emissions limitation obligations.

  12. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-10-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental sites. Soil samples were analyzed for the soil carbon and nitrogen contents, texture, water stable aggregation, and mean weight and geometric mean diameter of aggregates. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978 and managed under grass (Wilds) and forest (Cumberland) cover, respectively. The trees were planted in 1982 in the Cumberland site. The analyses of data on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were presented in the third quarter report. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, available water capacity (AWC) of soil, particle size distribution, and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and coal carbon contents. The SIC content ranged from 0.04 to 1.68% in Cumberland tree site and 0.01 to 0.65% in the Wilds. The coal content assumed to be the carbon content after oven drying the sample at 350 C varied between 0.04 and 3.18% for Cumberland and 0.06 and 3.49% for Wilds. The sand, silt and clay contents showed moderate to low variability (CV < 0.16) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The volume of transmission (VTP) and storage pores (VSP) also showed moderate to high variability (CV ranged from 0.22 to 0.39 for Wilds and 0.17 to 0.36 for Cumberland). The CV for SIC was high (0.7) in Cumberland whereas that for coal content was high (0.4) in the Wilds. The steady state infiltration rates (i{sub c}) also showed high variability

  13. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (p<0.05). A Random Forest model is developed and it captures the relationships between the SOC density and the environmental/anthropogenic factors (R(2)=0.59). The soil pH, land use, and elevation are the most important factors for determining SOC dynamics. In contrast, the effect of the reclamation age on the SOC density is negligible, where SOC content in the land reclaimed during years 1047-1724 is as low as that reclaimed during years 1945-2004. The scenario analysis results indicate that the carbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year. PMID:27196991

  14. Development of a differential absorption lidar for identification of carbon sequestration site leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William Eric

    This thesis describes the development and deployment of a near-infrared scanning micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for monitoring carbon dioxide sequestration site integrity. The DIAL utilizes a custom-built lidar (light detection and ranging) transmitter system based on two commercial tunable diode lasers operating at 1.571 microm, an acousto-optic modulator, fiber optic switches, and an Erbium-doped fiber amplifier to generate 65 microJ 200 ns pulses at a 15 kHz repetition rate. Backscattered laser transmitter light is collected with an 11 inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope where it is optically filtered to reduce background noise. A fiber-coupled photomultiplier tube operating in the photon counting mode is then used to monitor the collected return signal. Averaging over periods typically of one hour permit range-resolved measurements of carbon dioxide from 1 to 2.5 km with a typical error of 40 ppm. For monitoring a field site, the system scans over a field area by pointing the transmitter and receiver with a computer controlled motorized commercial telescope base. The system has made autonomous field measurements in an agricultural field adjacent to Montana State University and at the Kevin Dome carbon sequestration site in rural northern Montana. Comparisons have been made with an in situ sensor showing agreement between the two measurements to within the 40 error of the DIAL. In addition to the work on the 1.57 micron DIAL, this thesis also presents work done at NASA Langley Research Center on the development and deployment of a 2 micron integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. The 2 micron system utilizes a low repetition rate 140 mJ double pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser developed at NASA Langley.

  15. Deep-C Drilling: Carbon Sequestration at Depth under Vine Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Allister; Mueller, Karin; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    to at least 0.5 m depth. Using the same methodology to 1 m depth, we determined SCS in two wine grape vineyards on shallow, stony alluvial soils. We found a difference between vineyard and adjacent pasture SCS of nearly 16 t/ha. As the vines are 25 years old, this equates to carbon sequestration rates of 640kg/ha/year. Our results of the 'space-for-time' analysis also showed that all sequestration had occurred below 0.5 m. Therefore, we decided to deep-C drill further. In a 30-year old kiwifruit orchard and an adjacent pasture, SCSs were measured to 9 m depth. In the kiwifruit orchard, we found a sequestration rate of 6.3 tonnes C per hectare per year greater than in the adjacent pasture that was the antecedent land use. The carbon sequestered each year within the top 1 m of soil equates to about 4% of the emissions of kiwifruit grown in New Zealand and consumed in the United Kingdom. However, if the stock in the top 9 m of soil is included in this calculation, then the amount of SOC sequestered equates to about 42% of the respective emissions that would be calculated by life cycle assessment.

  16. Physical and Economic Integration of Carbon Capture Methods with Sequestration Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, G. R.; Thyne, G. D.

    2007-12-01

    Currently there are several different carbon capture technologies either available or in active development for coal- fired power plants. Each approach has different advantages, limitations and costs that must be integrated with the method of sequestration and the physiochemical properties of carbon dioxide to evaluate which approach is most cost effective. For large volume point sources such as coal-fired power stations, the only viable sequestration sinks are either oceanic or geological in nature. However, the carbon processes and systems under consideration produce carbon dioxide at a variety of pressure and temperature conditions that must be made compatible with the sinks. Integration of all these factors provides a basis for meaningful economic comparisons between the alternatives. The high degree of compatibility between carbon dioxide produced by integrated gasification combined cycle technology and geological sequestration conditions makes it apparent that this coupling currently holds the advantage. Using a basis that includes complete source-to-sink sequestration costs, the relative cost benefit of pre-combustion IGCC compared to other post-combustion methods is on the order of 30%. Additional economic benefits arising from enhanced oil recovery revenues and potential sequestration credits further improve this coupling.

  17. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  18. Exploring the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in carbon sequestration in agricultural soil, Part III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequestering carbon in agricultural soils can help mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2. Work at Rodale Institute’s Farming Systems Trial indicates significant potential for carbon sequestration in organically farmed soils. A potential mechanism for this is C storage in the arbuscular mycorrhizal...

  19. Simulating carbon sequestration in plowed and no-tillage systems in Brazilian Oxisols using CQESTR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CQESTR simulates the effect of several management practices on soil organic carbon stocks. The model had been calibrated and validated in temperate regions. Our objective was to simulate carbon sequestration in Oxisols under plowed and no-tillage systems in northeastern and southeastern Brazil using...

  20. 75 FR 33613 - Notice of the Carbon Sequestration-Geothermal Energy-Science Joint Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...The DOE Geothermal Technologies Program, Office of Science- Geosciences Program and Office of Fossil Energy-Carbon Sequestration Program will be holding a joint workshop on Common Research Themes for Carbon Storage and Geothermal Energy, June 15-16, 2010. Experts from industry, academia, national labs, and State and Federal geological surveys will discuss geosciences research needs for......

  1. CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON: THE POTENTIAL OF FOREST AND AGROFOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a major role in the Earth's carbon cycle through assimilation, storage, and emission of CO2. stablishment and management of boreal, temperate, and tropical forest and agroforest systems could potentially enhance sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. i...

  2. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  3. Development of a Rapid Assessment Method for Quantifying Carbon Sequestration on Reclaimed Coal Mine Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharaj, S.; Barton, C. D.; Karathanasis, A. D.

    2005-12-01

    Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies designed to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed coal mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. However, quantifying new carbon (carbon that has been added to soil through recent biological processes) on reclaimed mine soils have proven to be difficult due to carbonates and coal particles present in the reclaimed coal mine spoils. Visible coal particles can be removed, but the microscopic coal dust particles remain. Additionally, with the advent of carbon trading on the stock market, rapid quantification of newly sequestered carbon has proven to be elusive. The focus of this project is to assess the potential of thermogravimetric analysis as a rapid, simple and direct method for differentiating and quantifying new carbon from old carbon (carbon of geologic origin) on reclaimed coal mine sites and provide a standard procedure for determining carbon sequestered in soil sinks. Thermogravimetry is a physico-chemical technique where the weight change is measured and recorded during the incremental heating of the soil sample over a temperature range of 25 to 1000 ° C. Grass litter and limestone were used as representative organic and inorganic carbon fractions, while coal was used to differentiate the old and new carbon within the organic fraction. Recoveries of mixtures at the 95 % confidence interval were found to be 94.49 ± 4.23 % (coal) , 93.67 ± 2.11 % (litter) , and 108.88 ± 2.88 % (limestone) respectively. Each of the above components appeared as distinct separate peaks on the thermograph, with litter appearing between 260 to 390 ° C, coal 425 to 480 ° C, and limestone 640 to 740 ° C. Overlapping peaks for the organic carbon represented by the grass litter may be indicative of cellulose and lignin fractions. Ongoing work in this area is

  4. Sequestration of Carbon in Mycorrhizal Fungi Under Nitrogen Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treseder, K. K.; Turner, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are root symbionts that facilitate plant uptake of soil nutrients in exchange for plant carbohydrates. They grow in almost every terrestrial ecosystem on earth, form relationships with about 80% of plant species, and receive 10 to 20% of the carbon fixed by their host plants. As such, they could potentially sequester a significant amount of carbon in ecosystems. We hypothesized that nitrogen fertilization would decrease carbon storage in mycorrhizal fungi, because plants should reduce investment of carbon in mycorrhizal fungi when nitrogen availability is high. We measured the abundance of two major groups of mycorrhizal fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, in control and nitrogen-fertilized plots within three boreal ecosystems of inland Alaska. The ecosystems represented different recovery stages following severe fire, and comprised a young site dominated by AM fungi, an old site dominated by ECM fungi, and an intermediate site co-dominated by both groups. Pools of mycorrhizal carbon included root-associated AM and ECM structures, soil-associated AM hyphae, and soil-associated glomalin. Glomalin is a glycoprotein produced only by AM fungi. It is present in the cell walls of AM hyphae, and then is deposited in the soil as the hyphae senesce. Nitrogen significantly altered total mycorrhizal carbon pools, but its effect varied by site (site * N interaction, P = 0.05). Under nitrogen fertilization, mycorrhizal carbon was reduced from 99 to 50 g C m2 in the youngest site, was increased from 124 to 203 g C m2 in the intermediate-aged site, and remained at 35 g C m2 in the oldest site. The changes in total mycorrhizal carbon stocks were driven mostly by changes in glomalin (site * N interaction, P = 0.05), and glomalin stocks were strongly correlated with AM hyphal abundance (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, it is not clear why AM hyphae responded differently to nitrogen fertilization in the different sites. Carbon stocks within

  5. Towards a default soil carbon sequestration rate after cropland to Miscanthus conversion in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel

    2013-04-01

    In Europe, an estimated 17-21 million hectares (Mha) of land will need to be converted to bioenergy crop production to meet the EU bioenergy targets for 2020. Conventional bioenergy crops, such as maize and oilseed rape, are known for high greenhouse gas emissions. Perennial grases, such as Miscanthus, are seen as sustainable alternative, due to low fertilizer demand, relatively high yields and the potential to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the variability of currently published SOC stock changes is huge, ranging from -6.8 to +7.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1, which we attribute to different organic manure applications and differences in the baseline SOC stocks between the sampled plots in the paired plot approach. The conversion from cropland to Miscanthus involves a C3-C4 vegetation change, which allows following the incorporation of C4 Miscanthus-derived carbon into the soil by measuring the abundance of the stable isotope 13C. This was done for six different Miscanthus plantations across Europe, which were older than ten years. C3 carbon decomposition was estimated using the carbon turnover model RothC. Both, C4 and C3 carbon dynamics were summed to obtain the vegetation change-induced SOC stock change. We subsequently applied this approach to all European sites, where C4 carbon dynamic after cropland to Miscanthus conversion has been investigated (n=14) and derived a temperature dependant SOC sequestration rate. We found a mean annual accumulation of 0.40±0.20 Mg C ha-1. Furthermore, we conducted a SOC fractionation to assess the incorporation of C4 carbon into different SOC fractions. After a mean time of 16 years, the particulate organic matter (POM) fraction consisted of 68% Miscanthus-derived carbon in 0-10 cm soil depth. The NaOCl resistant fraction, which is considered "inert", consisted of 12% Miscanthus-derived carbon in 0-10 cm soil depth.

  6. Maintenance of a Living Understory Enhances Soil Carbon Sequestration in Subtropical Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Lin, Yongbiao; Lu, Hongfang; Ding, Mingmao; Tan, Yaowen; Xu, Shejin; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    Orchard understory represents an important component of the orchards, performing numerous functions related to soil quality, water relations and microclimate, but little attention has been paid on its effect on soil C sequestration. In the face of global climate change, fruit producers also require techniques that increase carbon (C) sequestration in a cost-effective manner. Here we present a case study to compare the effects of understory management (sod culture vs. clean tillage) on soil C sequestration in four subtropical orchards. The results of a 10-year study indicated that the maintenance of sod significantly enhanced the soil C stock in the top 1 m of orchard soils. Relative to clean tillage, sod culture increased annual soil C sequestration by 2.85 t C ha-1, suggesting that understory management based on sod culture offers promising potential for soil carbon sequestration. Considering that China has the largest area of orchards in the world and that few of these orchards currently have sod understories, the establishment and maintenance of sod in orchards can help China increase C sequestration and greatly contribute to achieving CO2 reduction targets at a regional scale and potentially at a national scale. PMID:24116188

  7. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    K. Lorenz; M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2006-04-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed mine soils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed mine soil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by American Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. This report presents the results from two forest sites reclaimed with topsoil application and reclaimed in 1994 (R94-F) and in 1973 (R73-F), and two forest sites without topsoil application and reclaimed in 1969 (R69-F) and 1962 (R62-F). Results from one site under grass without topsoil application and reclaimed in 1962 (R62-G) are also shown. Three core soil samples were collected from each of the experimental sites and each landscape position (upper, middle and lower) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), volumes of transport (VTP) pores, and available water capacity (AWC) were determined. No significant differences were observed in VTP and AWC in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths among the sites R94-F and R73-F reclaimed with topsoil application and under continuous forest cover (P<0.05). VTP and AWC did also not differ among upper, middle and lower landscape positions. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity in 0-15 cm depth at R73-F was significantly lower at the lower compared to the upper landscape position. No significant differences were observed for Ks among landscape positions at R94-F. No significant differences were observed in VTP and AWC among landscape positions and depths within R69-F, R62-F and R62-G. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher in 0-15 cm depth at R62-F than at R69-F and R62-G. At the latter site, Ks was higher in the upper compared to the lower landscape position whereas Ks did not

  8. Genome Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Filichkin, Sergei; Etherington, Elizabeth; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steve

    2007-02-22

    The goals of the S.H. Strauss laboratory portion of 'Genome-enabled discovery of carbon sequestration genes in poplar' are (1) to explore the functions of candidate genes using Populus transformation by inserting genes provided by Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Florida (UF) into poplar; (2) to expand the poplar transformation toolkit by developing transformation methods for important genotypes; and (3) to allow induced expression, and efficient gene suppression, in roots and other tissues. As part of the transformation improvement effort, OSU developed transformation protocols for Populus trichocarpa 'Nisqually-1' clone and an early flowering P. alba clone, 6K10. Complete descriptions of the transformation systems were published (Ma et. al. 2004, Meilan et. al 2004). Twenty-one 'Nisqually-1' and 622 6K10 transgenic plants were generated. To identify root predominant promoters, a set of three promoters were tested for their tissue-specific expression patterns in poplar and in Arabidopsis as a model system. A novel gene, ET304, was identified by analyzing a collection of poplar enhancer trap lines generated at OSU (Filichkin et. al 2006a, 2006b). Other promoters include the pGgMT1 root-predominant promoter from Casuarina glauca and the pAtPIN2 promoter from Arabidopsis root specific PIN2 gene. OSU tested two induction systems, alcohol- and estrogen-inducible, in multiple poplar transgenics. Ethanol proved to be the more efficient when tested in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions. Two estrogen-inducible systems were evaluated in transgenic Populus, neither of which functioned reliably in tissue culture conditions. GATEWAY-compatible plant binary vectors were designed to compare the silencing efficiency of homologous (direct) RNAi vs. heterologous (transitive) RNAi inverted repeats. A set of genes was targeted for post transcriptional silencing in the model Arabidopsis system; these include the floral meristem identity gene (APETALA1 or

  9. Microbial community changes as a possible factor controlling carbon sequestration in subsoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strücker, Juliane; Jörgensen, Rainer Georg

    2015-04-01

    In order to gain more knowledge regarding the microbial community and their influence on carbon sequestration in subsoil two depth profiles with different soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations were sampled. The SOC concentrations developed naturally due to deposition and erosion. This experiment offers the opportunity to investigate to which extend natural SOC availability or other subsoil specific conditions influence the composition and the functional diversity of the microbial community and in return if there is any evidence how the microbial community composition affects carbon sequestration under these conditions. Soil samples were taken at four different depths on two neighbouring arable sites; one Kolluvisol with high SOC concentrations (8-12 g/kg) throughout the profile and one Luvisol with low SOC concentrations (3-4 g/kg) below 30 cm depth. The multi substrate induced respiration (MSIR) method was used to identify shifts in the functional diversity of the microbial community along the depth profiles. Amino sugars Muramic Acid and Glucosamine were measured as indicators for bacterial and fungal residues and ergosterol was determined as marker for saprotrophic fungi. The results of the discriminant analysis of the respiration values obtained from the 17 substrates used in the MSIR show that the substrate use in subsoil is different from the substrate use in topsoil. The amino sugar analysis and the ratio of ergosterol to microbial biomass C indicate that the fungal dominance of the microbial community decreases with depth. The results from this study support previous findings, which also observed decreasing fungal dominance with depth. Furthermore the MSIR approach shows clearly that not only the composition of the microbial community but also their substrate use changes with depth. Thus, a different microbial community with altered substrate requirements could be an important reason for enhanced carbon sequestration in subsoil. The fact that the MSIR

  10. Strategies to increase forest carbon sequestration in the southeast United States

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.R.; Lee, J.J. |

    1995-06-01

    Forest management to improve carbon (C) sequestration may offset increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. This study evaluated the influence that management has on C dynamics of forestland in the southeast United States. The approach used forest-stand inventories and C densities to calculate C pools and fluxes. Specific research objectives were to model C pools and fluxes for the years 1990-2039, to evaluate C sequestration rates, and to account for C benefits of off-site production of lumber or fuelwood. In comparison with nonaction management, tree harvesting for merchantable logs, fuelwood, or land-cover change decreased on-site C pools and sequestration rates, while reforestation increased on-site C pools and sequestration rates. The production of lumber or fuelwood contributed to off-site C benefits. However, only fuelwood produced C benefits adequate to offset the on-site C losses from harvesting trees.

  11. Comparison of Caprock Mineral Characteristics at Field Demonstration Sites for Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, C.A.; Lowry, G.; Dzombak, D.; Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.

    2008-10-01

    In 2003 the U.S Department of Energy initiated regional partnership programs to address the concern for rising atmospheric CO2. These partnerships were formed to explore regional and economical means for geologically sequestering CO2 across the United States and to set the stage for future commercial applications. Several options exist for geological sequestration and among these sequestering CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising. This is due, in part, to the possibility of stabilized permanent storage through mineral precipitation from chemical interactions of the injected carbon dioxide with the brine and reservoir rock. There are nine field demonstration sites for saline sequestration among the regional partnerships in Phase II development to validate the overall commercial feasibility for CO2 geological sequestration. Of the nine sites considered for Phase II saline sequestration demonstration, seven are profiled in this study for their caprock lithologic and mineral characteristics.

  12. Geomechanical risks in coal bed carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry R.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and evaluate geomechanical factors which should be taken into account in assessing the risk of leakage of CO{sub 2} from coal bed sequestration projects. The various steps in developing such a project will generate stresses and displacements in the coal seam and the adjacent overburden. The question is whether these stresses and displacements will generate new leakage pathways by failure of the rock or slip on pre-existing discontinuities such as fractures and faults. In order to evaluate the geomechanical issues in CO{sub 2} sequestration in coal beds, it is necessary to review each step in the process of development of such a project and evaluate its geomechanical impact. A coal bed methane production/CO{sub 2} sequestration project will be developed in four steps: (1) Formation dewatering and methane production; (2) CO{sub 2} injection with accompanying methane production; (3) Possible CO{sub 2} injection for sequestration only; and The approach taken in this study was to review each step: Identify the geomechanical processes associated with it, and assess the risks that leakage would result from these processes.

  13. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  14. Organic farming and soil carbon sequestration: what do we really know about the benefits?

    PubMed

    Leifeld, Jens; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    Organic farming is believed to improve soil fertility by enhancing soil organic matter (SOM) contents. An important co-benefit would be the sequestration of carbon from atmospheric CO2. Such a positive effect has been suggested based on data from field experiments though many studies were not designed to address the issue of carbon sequestration. The aim of our study was to examine published data in order to identify possible flaws such as missing a proper baseline, carbon mass measurements, or lack of a clear distinction between conventional and organic farming practices, thereby attributing effects of specific practices to organic farming, which are not uniquely organic. A total of 68 data sets were analyzed from 32 peer-reviewed publications aiming to compare conventional with organic farming. The analysis revealed that after conversion, soil C content (SOC) in organic systems increased annually by 2.2% on average, whereas in conventional systems SOC did not change significantly. The majority of publications reported SOC concentrations rather than amounts thus neglecting possible changes in soil bulk density. 34 out of 68 data sets missed a true control with well-defined starting conditions. In 37 out of 50 cases, the amount of organic fertilizer in the organic system exceeded that applied in the compared conventional system, and in half of the cases crop rotations differed between systems. In the few studies where crop rotation and organic fertilization were comparable in both systems no consistent difference in SOC was found. From this data analysis, we conclude that the claim for beneficial effects of organic farming on SOC is premature and that reported advantages of organic farming for SOC are largely determined by higher and often disproportionate application of organic fertilizer compared to conventional farming. PMID:21141778

  15. Interannual Variation in Carbon Sequestration Depends Mainly on the Carbon Uptake Period in Two Croplands on the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xueyan; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhao, Fenghua; Wang, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Interannual variation in plant phenology can lead to major modifications in the interannual variation of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) as a result of recent climate change in croplands. Continuous measurements of carbon flux using the eddy covariance technique were conducted in two winter wheat and summer maize double-cropped croplands during 2003–2012 in Yucheng and during 2007–2012 in Luancheng on the North China Plain. Our results showed that the difference between the NEP and the NBP, i.e., the crop economic yield, was conservative even though the NEP and the NBP for both sites exhibited marked fluctuations during the years of observation. A significant and positive relationship was found between the annual carbon uptake period (CUP) and the NEP as well as the NBP. The NEP and the NBP would increase by 14.8±5.2 and 14.7±6.6 g C m−2 yr−1, respectively, if one CUP-day was extended. A positive relationship also existed between the CUP and the NEP as well as the NBP for winter wheat and summer maize, respectively. The annual air temperature, through its negative effect on the start date of the CUP, determined the length of the CUP. The spring temperature was the main indirect factor controlling the annual carbon sequestration when a one-season crop (winter wheat) was considered. Thus, global warming can be expected to extend the length of the CUP and thus increase carbon sequestration in croplands. PMID:25313713

  16. Interannual variation in carbon sequestration depends mainly on the carbon uptake period in two croplands on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xueyan; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhao, Fenghua; Wang, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Interannual variation in plant phenology can lead to major modifications in the interannual variation of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) as a result of recent climate change in croplands. Continuous measurements of carbon flux using the eddy covariance technique were conducted in two winter wheat and summer maize double-cropped croplands during 2003-2012 in Yucheng and during 2007-2012 in Luancheng on the North China Plain. Our results showed that the difference between the NEP and the NBP, i.e., the crop economic yield, was conservative even though the NEP and the NBP for both sites exhibited marked fluctuations during the years of observation. A significant and positive relationship was found between the annual carbon uptake period (CUP) and the NEP as well as the NBP. The NEP and the NBP would increase by 14.8±5.2 and 14.7±6.6 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively, if one CUP-day was extended. A positive relationship also existed between the CUP and the NEP as well as the NBP for winter wheat and summer maize, respectively. The annual air temperature, through its negative effect on the start date of the CUP, determined the length of the CUP. The spring temperature was the main indirect factor controlling the annual carbon sequestration when a one-season crop (winter wheat) was considered. Thus, global warming can be expected to extend the length of the CUP and thus increase carbon sequestration in croplands. PMID:25313713

  17. Simulating the effects of forest managements on carbon sequestration: TREPLEX- Management model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Peng, C.; Lei, X.; Zhang, T.; Kneeshaw, D.; Larocque, G.

    2009-05-01

    With common concern surrounding the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the role of forest management (i.e. thinning) on carbon sequestration is growing as a hotspot in the post Kyoto period. However, the combination strategies between forest management and carbon management are less established. Jack pine is one of the most important commercial and reforestation species in lake states of the United States and Canada, and the specie was reported to show stronger response to forest management like thinning. Obviously, there is an urgent need for understanding how harvesting intensity (i.e., thinning) affects C sequestration in jack pine stands. The aim of this study is to quantify and predict the biomass and carbon sequestration in thinned jack pine stands in eastern Canada. TRIPLEX is a generic hybrid model for predicting forest growth and carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The TRIPLEX-Management concept model was developed. The following carbon components were considered: above ground live biomass carbon, standing dead biomass carbon, harvested wood product carbon and soil organic carbon. Thinning was linked with LAI (Leaf Area Index), stand density and soil conditions and included in NPP and biomass production and allocation models. The model was also integrated with DBH distribution models, biomass allometric models, and wood products C models as well as the established height-diameter models. It is expected to optimize thinning regimes for carbon and forest management in order to mitigate climate change impacts.

  18. Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Rates and Energy Balance of Turf in the Denver Urban Ecosystem and an Adjacent Native Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienelt, T. S.; Anderson, D. E.; Powell, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are currently characterized by rapid growth, are expected to continually expand and, thus, represent an important driver of land use change. A significant component of urban ecosystems is lawns, potentially the single largest irrigated "crop" in the U.S. Beginning in March of 2011 (ahead of the growing season), eddy covariance measurements of net carbon exchange and evapotranspiration along with energy balance fluxes were conducted for a well-watered, fertilized lawn (rye-bluegrass-mix) in metropolitan Denver and for a nearby tallgrass prairie (big bluestem, switchgrass, cheatgrass, blue grama). Due to the semi-arid climate conditions of the Denver region, differences in management (i.e., irrigation and fertilization) are expected to have a discernible impact on ecosystem productivity and thus on carbon sequestration rates, evapotranspiration, and the sensible and latent heat partitioning of the energy balance. By mid-July, preliminary data indicated that cumulative evapotranspiration was approximately 270 mm and 170 mm for urban and native grasslands, respectively, although cumulative carbon sequestration at that time was similar for both (approximately 40 mg/m2). However, the pattern of carbon exchange differed between the grasslands. Both sites showed daily net uptake of carbon starting in late May, but the urban lawn displayed greater diurnal variability as well as greater uptake rates in general, especially following fertilization in mid-June. In contrast, the trend of carbon uptake at the prairie site was occasionally reversed following strong convective precipitation events, resulting in a temporary net release of carbon. The continuing acquisition of data and investigation of these relations will help us assess the potential impact of urban growth on regional carbon sequestration.

  19. Diurnal and seasonal carbon sequestration potential of seven broadleaved species in a mixed deciduous forest in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Soumyajit; Bala, Sanjay; Mazumdar, Asis

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study was to measure annual carbon sequestration rate of mixed deciduous forest by measuring that of seven young broadleaved tree species (6 years age) as well as selection of better carbon sequestered plant species for future plantation. The diurnal net assimilation rate of Carbon dioxide (CO2) at leaf level was measured with LI-6400 Portable Photosynthesis System at daytime on seasonal basis in a man-made forest at Budge Budge (N 22°28‧ E 88°08‧) of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, INDIA. Net assimilation rate of carbon at canopy level was calculated by measuring Leaf Area Index with LAI-2200 and using analytical model with non-rectangular hyperbolic light response curve. The average net assimilation rate of CO2 at leaf level was found maximum in Albizzia lebbek (8.13 μmol m-2 s-1) and that of canopy level in Eucalyptus spp. (4.851 g h-1). The minimum was found for Swietenia mahagoni (1.058 g h-1). The annual carbon sequestration rate of the mixed forest in natural condition was estimated 6.01 t ha-1 year-1 by consolidating the potential of all seven species.

  20. Geochemical Impacts to Groundwater from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Controls on pH and Inorganic Carbon Concentrations from Reaction Path and Kinetic Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic carbon sequestration has the potential to cause long-term reductions in global emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Safe and effective application of carbon sequestration technology requires an understanding of the potential risks to the quality of underground...

  1. Characterizing fault-plume intersection probability for geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2008-11-01

    Leakage of CO{sub 2} out of the designated storage region via faults is a widely recognized concern for geologic carbon sequestration. The probability of such leakage can be separated into the probability of a plume encountering a fault and the probability of flow along such a fault. In the absence of deterministic fault location information, the first probability can be calculated from regional fault population statistics and modeling of the plume shape and size. In this study, fault statistical parameters were measured or estimated for WESTCARB's Phase III pilot test injection in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Combining CO{sub 2} plume model predictions with estimated fault characteristics resulted in a 3% probability that the CO{sub 2} plume will encounter a fault fully offsetting the 180 m (590 ft) thick seal. The probability of leakage is lower, likely much lower, as faults with this offset are probably low-permeability features in this area.

  2. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Carbon Concentrating Chemolithotrophic Bacteria Serratia sp. for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Randhir K.; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials. PMID:24619032

  4. Proteomic analysis of carbon concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria Serratia sp. for sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Randhir K; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials. PMID:24619032

  5. Assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Stackpoole, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) to develop a methodology and conduct an assessment of carbon storage, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas (GHG) fluxes in the Nation's ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and published the methodology (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5233) and has assembled an interdisciplinary team of scientists to conduct the assessment over the next three to four years, commencing in October 2010. The assessment will fulfill specific requirements of the EISA by (1) quantifying, measuring, and monitoring carbon sequestration and GHG fluxes using national datasets and science tools such as remote sensing, and biogeochemical and hydrological models, (2) evaluating a range of management and restoration activities for their effects on carbon-sequestration capacity and the reduction of GHG fluxes, and (3) assessing effects of climate change and other controlling processes (including wildland fires) on carbon uptake and GHG emissions from ecosystems.

  6. Improved grazing management may increase soil carbon sequestration in temperate steppe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenqing; Huang, Ding; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Yingjun; Badgery, Warwick B.; Wang, Xiaoya; Shen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Different grazing strategies impact grassland plant production and may also regulate the soil carbon formation. For a site in semiarid temperate steppe, we studied the effect of combinations of rest, high and moderate grazing pressure over three stages of the growing season, on the process involved in soil carbon sequestration. Results show that constant moderate grazing (MMM) exhibited the highest root production and turnover accumulating the most soil carbon. While deferred grazing (RHM and RMH) sequestered less soil carbon compared to MMM, they showed higher standing root mass, maintained a more desirable pasture composition, and had better ability to retain soil N. Constant high grazing pressure (HHH) caused diminished above- and belowground plant production, more soil N losses and an unfavorable microbial environment and had reduced carbon input. Reducing grazing pressure in the last grazing stage (HHM) still had a negative impact on soil carbon. Regression analyses show that adjusting stocking rate to ~5SE/ha with ~40% vegetation utilization rate can get the most carbon accrual. Overall, the soil carbon sequestration in the temperate grassland is affected by the grazing regime that is applied, and grazing can be altered to improve soil carbon sequestration in the temperate steppe. PMID:26137980

  7. Improved grazing management may increase soil carbon sequestration in temperate steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenqing; Huang, Ding; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Yingjun; Badgery, Warwick B.; Wang, Xiaoya; Shen, Yue

    2015-07-01

    Different grazing strategies impact grassland plant production and may also regulate the soil carbon formation. For a site in semiarid temperate steppe, we studied the effect of combinations of rest, high and moderate grazing pressure over three stages of the growing season, on the process involved in soil carbon sequestration. Results show that constant moderate grazing (MMM) exhibited the highest root production and turnover accumulating the most soil carbon. While deferred grazing (RHM and RMH) sequestered less soil carbon compared to MMM, they showed higher standing root mass, maintained a more desirable pasture composition, and had better ability to retain soil N. Constant high grazing pressure (HHH) caused diminished above- and belowground plant production, more soil N losses and an unfavorable microbial environment and had reduced carbon input. Reducing grazing pressure in the last grazing stage (HHM) still had a negative impact on soil carbon. Regression analyses show that adjusting stocking rate to ~5SE/ha with ~40% vegetation utilization rate can get the most carbon accrual. Overall, the soil carbon sequestration in the temperate grassland is affected by the grazing regime that is applied, and grazing can be altered to improve soil carbon sequestration in the temperate steppe.

  8. Improved grazing management may increase soil carbon sequestration in temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqing; Huang, Ding; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Yingjun; Badgery, Warwick B; Wang, Xiaoya; Shen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Different grazing strategies impact grassland plant production and may also regulate the soil carbon formation. For a site in semiarid temperate steppe, we studied the effect of combinations of rest, high and moderate grazing pressure over three stages of the growing season, on the process involved in soil carbon sequestration. Results show that constant moderate grazing (MMM) exhibited the highest root production and turnover accumulating the most soil carbon. While deferred grazing (RHM and RMH) sequestered less soil carbon compared to MMM, they showed higher standing root mass, maintained a more desirable pasture composition, and had better ability to retain soil N. Constant high grazing pressure (HHH) caused diminished above- and belowground plant production, more soil N losses and an unfavorable microbial environment and had reduced carbon input. Reducing grazing pressure in the last grazing stage (HHM) still had a negative impact on soil carbon. Regression analyses show that adjusting stocking rate to ~5SE/ha with ~40% vegetation utilization rate can get the most carbon accrual. Overall, the soil carbon sequestration in the temperate grassland is affected by the grazing regime that is applied, and grazing can be altered to improve soil carbon sequestration in the temperate steppe. PMID:26137980

  9. Micropulse differential absorption lidar for identification of carbon sequestration site leakage.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William; Repasky, Kevin S; Carlsten, John L

    2013-05-01

    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for identification of carbon dioxide leaks at carbon sequestration sites has been developed and initial data has been collected at Montana State University. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes operating in the continuous-wave mode with one locked to the online absorption wavelength and the other operating at the offline wavelength. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between online and offline operation. After the fiber optic switch, an acousto-optic modulator is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium-doped fiber amplifier to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 μJ, a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz, and an operating wavelength of 1.571 μm. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a photomultiplier tube module operating in the photon counting mode. The DIAL has measured carbon dioxide profiles from 1 to 2.5 km with 60 min temporal averaging. Comparisons of DIAL measurements with a Licor LI-820 gas analyzer point sensor have been made. PMID:23669765

  10. Geological Carbon Sequestration: A New Approach for Near-Surface Assurance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.

    2011-03-11

    There are two distinct objectives in monitoring geological carbon sequestration (GCS): Deep monitoring of the reservoir's integrity and plume movement and near-surface monitoring (NSM) to ensure public health and the safety of the environment. However, the minimum detection limits of the current instrumentation for NSM is too high for detecting weak signals that are embedded in the background levels of the natural variations, and the data obtained represents point measurements in space and time. A new approach for NSM, based on gamma-ray spectroscopy induced by inelastic neutron scatterings (INS), offers novel and unique characteristics providing the following: (1) High sensitivity with a reducible error of measurement and detection limits, and, (2) temporal- and spatial-integration of carbon in soil that results from underground CO{sub 2} seepage. Preliminary field results validated this approach showing carbon suppression of 14% in the first year and 7% in the second year. In addition the temporal behavior of the error propagation is presented and it is shown that for a signal at the level of the minimum detection level the error asymptotically approaches 47%.

  11. Geological carbon sequestration: a new approach for near-surface assurance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, Lucian

    2011-03-01

    There are two distinct objectives in monitoring geological carbon sequestration (GCS): Deep monitoring of the reservoir's integrity and plume movement and near-surface monitoring (NSM) to ensure public health and the safety of the environment. However, the minimum detection limits of the current instrumentation for NSM is too high for detecting weak signals that are embedded in the background levels of the natural variations, and the data obtained represents point measurements in space and time. A new approach for NSM, based on gamma-ray spectroscopy induced by inelastic neutron scatterings (INS), offers novel and unique characteristics providing the following: (1) High sensitivity with a reducible error of measurement and detection limits, and, (2) temporal- and spatial-integration of carbon in soil that results from underground CO(2) seepage. Preliminary field results validated this approach showing carbon suppression of 14% in the first year and 7% in the second year. In addition the temporal behavior of the error propagation is presented and it is shown that for a signal at the level of the minimum detection level the error asymptotically approaches 47%. PMID:21556180

  12. Monitoring CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation in Mine Tailings at Thetford Mines, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechat, K.; Lemieux, J. M.; Molson, J. W. H.; Beaudoin, G.; Hebert, R.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is considered a permanent option to capture and store atmospheric CO2. This reaction occurs naturally under ambient conditions in ultramafic mining and milling waste. In the region of Thetford Mines, Quebec, chrysotile mining has produced approximately 0.8 Gt of magnesium-rich milling waste, which mainly consists of poorly sorted ultramafic rock fragments (< 10 cm) and chrysotile fibers. To quantify the amount of CO2 that can be captured in the mine wastes of Thetford Mines, two experimental pilot-scale tailings cells were constructed and instrumented for measuring soil temperature, volumetric water content, gas pressure and gas composition, with ambient conditions recorded by an autonomous meteorological station. The cells were monitored for water geochemistry, carbon content and mineralogy, with the objective to better understand the mineral carbonation processes under natural conditions and to propose a conceptual model for mineral carbonation at the pilot scale. To validate this model, numerical simulations with the MIN3P reactive transport code have been carried out. The chemical composition of the cell leachate (pH > 10, Mg from 85 to 140 mg.L-1, and high total alkalinity from 260 to 300 mg.L-1 CaCO3) is consistent with active CO2 mineralization reactions within the cell. SEM analyses show precipitation of dypingite with a lamellar texture and cemented grain surfaces. The milling waste contains up to 1.2% C, which indicates CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. Measured CO2 concentrations in the interstitial air are also ten times lower than in the atmosphere. Analysis of seasonal variations in fluid flow and heat transfer (essentially by thermal conduction) shows that molecular diffusion is the main process for CO2 supply within the experimental cells. These observations have helped develop a conceptual model for mineral carbonation in the wastes and were used to calibrate the reactive transport model.

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by Americal Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed without topsoil application between 1956 and 1969. Three sites are under continuous grass cover and the three under forest cover since reclamation. Three core and three bulk soil samples were collected from each site from three slope positions (upper; middle, and lower) for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths, and texture, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) stocks were determined. No differences in sand and clay contents, bulk density, SOC and TN stocks were observed within different slope positions within each site. However, sand [R56-G (17.1%) < R69-G (29.1%) = R62-G (29.1%)], and silt [R56-G (58.3%) > R69-G (47.7%)] contents, bulk density [R62-G (1.25 Mg ha{sup -1}) > R69-G (0.94 Mg ha{sup -1}) = R62-G (0.90 Mg ha{sup -1})] varied significantly on the upper slope position among sites under continuous grass cover. Smaller but significant differences were also observed for pH [R69-G (8.3) > R56-G (7.7) = R62-G (7.9)] and EC [R56-G (0.66 dS m{sup -1}) > R62-G (0.25 dS m{sup -1}) = R69-G (0.24 dS m{sup -1})] on upper slope positions among sites under grass. Comparing all sites stochastically, sand and clay contents were similar among all sites except R62-F for both depths. Similarly, soil bulk density was also similar among all sites except R62-G for both depths. There were few differences in total

  14. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-07-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, bulk and core soil samples were collected from all 13 experimental sites for 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm depths. In addition, 54 experimental plots (4 x 4 m) were established at three separate locations on reclaimed minesites to assess the influence of compost application on SOC during project period 2. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978. The first site is under grass and the other under forest cover. The soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were determined for these two sites on a 20 x 20 m grid. The preliminary analysis showed that the {rho}{sub b} ranged from 0.88 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.16 Mg m{sup -3} for 0-15 cm, 0.91 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.32 Mg m{sup -3} for 15-30 cm, and 1.37 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.93 Mg m{sup -3} for 30-50 cm depths in Cumberland tree site, and it's statistical variability was low. The variability in {rho}{sub b} was also low in Wilds grass site and ranged from 0.82 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.18 Mg m{sup -3} for 0-15 cm, 1.04 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.37 Mg m{sup -3} for 15-30 cm, and 1.18 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.83 Mg m{sup -3} for 30-50 cm depths. The {rho}{sub b} showed strong spatial dependence for 0-15 cm depth only in the Cumberland tree site. The SOC concentrations and stocks were highly variable with CV > 0.36 from all depths in both Wilds grass site and Cumberland tree site. The SOC stocks showed strong spatial dependence for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths and moderate to strong for 20-50 cm depth in the Cumberland tree site. In contrast, in

  15. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2005-10-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. Among the three sites chosen for this study one was reclaimed in 1978 (Cumberland), one in 1987 (Switch Grass) and one site was reclaimed in 1994 (Tilton's Run). All three sites were reclaimed with topsoil application and were under continuous grass cover. Eighteen experimental plots were developed on each site. Five fertilization treatments were applied in triplicate on each experimental site. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental plots. Soil samples were analyzed for soil moisture characteristics. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, and available water capacity (AWC) of soil. The infiltration rates after 5 min (i{sub 5}) showed high statistical variability (CV > 0.62) among the three sites. Both steady state infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration showed moderate to high variability (CV > 0.35). The mean values for the infiltration rate after 5 min, steady state infiltration rate, and cumulative infiltration were higher for Switch Grass (2.93 {+-} 2.05 cm min{sup -1}; 0.63 {+-} 0.34 cm min{sup -1}; 113.07 {+-} 39.37 cm) than for Tilton's Run (1.76 {+-} 1.42 cm min{sup -1}; 0.40 {+-} 0.18 cm min{sup -1}; 73.68 {+-} 25.94 cm), and lowest for Cumberland (0.63 {+-} 0.34 cm min{sup -1}; 0.27 {+-} 0.19 cm min{sup -1}; 57.89 {+-} 31.00 cm). The AWC for 0-15 cm soil was highest at Tilton's Run (4.21 {+-} 1.75 cm) followed by Cumberland (3.83 {+-} 0.77 cm) and Switch Grass (3.31 {+-} 0.10 cm). In 15-30 cm depth Switch Grass had

  16. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  17. Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Graham, S.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven

  18. Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Li, J.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven

  19. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal wastes for carbon sequestration and energy generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrothermal carbonization of swine manure and poultry litter was conducted at 200°C for 20 hours at a 4:1 water:feedstock ratio. Carbon content of the solid, liquid and gas-phases was measured to determine the mass of carbon sequestered within the biochar. Carbon mass recoveries ranged from 95-100%...

  20. Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration Model (WECSsim) v. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-11-14

    The national Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim) is an analysis tool that can be used at the local, regional and national scale to address a potentially combined system using a coal or natural gas-fired power plant, a geologic carbon sequestration system in saline formations, and water extraction and treatment. With this combined system for geologic storage of CO2 in saline formations, the treated saline formation water could be used as cooling watermore » in the power plant. The key areas addressed in this tool include applying a data reduction process to existing NatCarb saline formation data to select the most viable formations for CO2 injection, water withdrawal and treatment metrics, and developing a national model to address the multiple combinations of power plants and saline formations. This model can be utilized by decision makers to understand the economic benefits and tradeoffs of this combined system. WECSsim allows for sensitivity analyses for capital costs, variables costs, CO2 sequestration and water treatment systems’ costs. The main goal of the WECSsim model is to allow interested individuals or groups the ability to run custom power plant, CO2 sequestration and water use scenarios for different regions of the country and understand the associated economics, longevity and potential of the CO2 sequestration and water extraction systems.« less

  1. Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration Model (WECSsim) v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-14

    The national Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim) is an analysis tool that can be used at the local, regional and national scale to address a potentially combined system using a coal or natural gas-fired power plant, a geologic carbon sequestration system in saline formations, and water extraction and treatment. With this combined system for geologic storage of CO2 in saline formations, the treated saline formation water could be used as cooling water in the power plant. The key areas addressed in this tool include applying a data reduction process to existing NatCarb saline formation data to select the most viable formations for CO2 injection, water withdrawal and treatment metrics, and developing a national model to address the multiple combinations of power plants and saline formations. This model can be utilized by decision makers to understand the economic benefits and tradeoffs of this combined system. WECSsim allows for sensitivity analyses for capital costs, variables costs, CO2 sequestration and water treatment systems’ costs. The main goal of the WECSsim model is to allow interested individuals or groups the ability to run custom power plant, CO2 sequestration and water use scenarios for different regions of the country and understand the associated economics, longevity and potential of the CO2 sequestration and water extraction systems.

  2. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  3. Modeling the contribution of dissolved organic carbon to carbon sequestration during the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wentao; Tian, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a carbon reservoir that is as large as the atmospheric CO2 pool, and its contribution to the global carbon cycle is gaining attention. As DOC is a dissolved tracer, its distribution can serve to trace the mixing of water masses and the pathways of ocean circulation. Published proxy and model reconstructions have revealed that, during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the pattern of deep ocean circulation differed from that of the modern ocean, whereby additional carbon is assumed to have been sequestered in stratified LGM deep water. The aim of this study is to explore the distribution of DOC and its production/removal rate during the LGM using the Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system model (GENIE). Modeled results reveal that increased salinity of bottom waters in the Southern Ocean is associated with stronger stratification and oxygen depletion. The stratified LGM deep ocean traps more nutrients, resulting in a decrease in the DOC reservoir size that, in turn, causes a negative feedback for carbon sequestration. This finding requires an increase in DOC lifetime to compensate for the negative feedback. The upper limit of DOC lifetime is assumed to be 20,000 years. Modeled results derive an increase (decrease) in DOC reservoir by 100 Pg C leading to an atmospheric CO2 decrease (increase) of 9.1 ppm and a dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C increase (decrease) of 0.06‰. The DOC removal rate is estimated to be 39.5 Tg C year-1 in the deep sea during the LGM. The contribution of DOC to the LGM carbon cycle elucidates potential carbon sink-increasing strategies.

  4. Carbon sequestration and rangelands: Effects of length of management practice and precipitation gradients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of rangelands can aid in the mitigation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations via carbon (C) storage in plant biomass and soil organic matter, a process termed C sequestration. Management practices that increase soil nitrogen (N), such as interseeding of N-fixing legumes, have the grea...

  5. Conservation practices to enhance soil carbon sequestration across the Southeastern coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A conservation system that promotes minimal surface disturbance combined with high residue cover crops can sequester carbon (C), but the ability to predict C sequestration amounts across specific conservation systems is not known at the field scale. A factorial arrangement of conservation tillage s...

  6. Modeling Regional Soil Carbon Sequestration Rates across the U.S. Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration can potentially mitigate the increase in atmospheric CO2, and reduce global warming in the short term. Land-use and soil management (including tillage and crop rotations) affect SOC balance and can be significant for the improvement of soil quality and product...

  7. Development of an assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery potential using carbon dioxide and associated carbon sequestration-Workshop findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested that the USGS estimate the "potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations" (121 Stat. 1711). The USGS developed a noneconomic, probability-based methodology to assess the Nation's technically assessable geologic storage resources available for sequestration of CO2 (Brennan and others, 2010) and is currently using the methodology to assess the Nation's CO2 geologic storage resources. Because the USGS has not developed a methodology to assess the potential volumes of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that could be produced by injection and sequestration of CO2, the Geologic Carbon Sequestration project initiated an effort in 2010 to develop a methodology for the assessment of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential in the sedimentary basins of the United States using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques with CO2 (CO2-EOR). In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS hosted a 2-day CO2-EOR workshop in May 2011, attended by 28 experts from academia, natural resource agencies and laboratories of the Federal Government, State and international geologic surveys, and representatives from the oil and gas industry. The geologic and the reservoir engineering and operations working groups formed during the workshop discussed various aspects of geology, reservoir engineering, and operations to make recommendations for the methodology.

  8. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  9. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Cerutti, O.M.

    1992-08-01

    Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

  10. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Cerutti, O.M.

    1992-08-01

    Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

  11. Carbon sequestration in deep ploughed Luvisols and Podzols of Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara, Viridiana; Don, Axel; Nieder, Rolf; Well, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    Research on carbon sequestration in arable soils up to now has mainly focused on reduced and no-tillage systems even though the effects on soil carbon stocks are marginal. This study addresses the long-term effects of deep ploughing. We are sampling five Luvisols and five Podzols under agriculture as well as five Podzols under forest in Northern Germany, which were deep ploughed (50 to 90 cm depth) in the 1960s. Adjacent equally managed, but conventionally ploughed (approx. 30 cm depth) subplots are used as a reference respectively. At each site two subplots of 20 by 40 meters, we collect samples from different depths of a soil profile (down to 1.5 meter depth) after digging a pit. Additionally, five composite core samples down to 1 meter depth randomly distributed over the field subplot are collected. Soil bulk density, gravel fraction as well as organic and inorganic carbon content will be determined to calculate organic C stocks. First results from an arable loess soil (Haplic Luvisol) near Salzgitter, which was ploughed to 90 cm depth in 1966, show a mean C stock of 82,5 Mg ha-1 in the deep ploughed subplot compared to 65,9 Mg ha-1 in the reference subplot. This is equal to a long-term increase of 30% in soil organic carbon due to deep ploughing, which is several times higher than the effects of reduced ploughing or no-tillage. Moreover, we will conduct incubation experiments to determine soil respiration and microbial biomass via substrate induced respiration in order to elucidate the stability of the buried carbon. Further analysis will address the stabilization mechanisms of the buried soil organic matter including pH measurements, soil texture analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy to quantify pedogenic iron and aluminum oxides, cation-exchange capacity, C density fractionation and radiocarbon dating. We will present data from the first sampling campaigns and discuss their implications for our view on subsoil carbon stability.

  12. Ecological carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage: Practical constraints and real-world possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.; King, A. W.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    A carbon sequestration strategy was recently proposed in which a forest is sustainably managed, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition under anaerobic, dry or cold conditions. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, partially cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. The live trees serve as a 'carbon scrubber' or 'carbon remover' that provides continuous sequestration. The stored wood is a semi-permanent carbon sink, but also serves as a 'biomass/bioenergy reserve' that could be utilized in the future if deemed more beneficial, for instance, by contributing to supply infrastructure for biomass power generation. Based on global forest coarse wood production rate, land availability, conservation, other wood use, and other practical constraints, we estimate a carbon sequestration potential for wood harvest and storage (WHS) 1-3 GtC y-1. The implementation of such a scheme at our estimated lower value of 1 GtC y-1 would imply a doubling of the current world wood harvest rate. This can be achieved by harvesting wood at a modest harvesting intensity of 1.2 tC ha-1 y-1, over a forest area of 8 Mkm2 (800 Mha). To achieve the higher value of 3 GtC y-1, forests need to be managed this way on half of the world's forested land, or on a smaller area but with higher harvest intensity. However, any successful implementation strategy will need to balance the needs of the local community and environment. It nonethelss provides a novel new addition to a portfolio of existing forest management strategies. We propose 'carbon sequestration and biomass farms' with mixed land use for carbon, energy, agriculture, as well as conservation, provided that governance issues are properly dealt with. In another example, the forests damaged by insects, fire, storms such as in the America West could be thinned to reduce fire danger and harvested for

  13. [Variation characteristics of soil carbon sequestration under long-term different fertilization in red paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yang-zhu; Gao, Ju-sheng; Zhang, Wen-ju; Liu, Shu-jun

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) content, the saturation capacity of soil carbon sequestration and its cooperation with carbon input (crop source and organic fertilizer source carbon) under long-term (1982-2012) different fertilization in red paddy soil. The results showed that fertilization could increase SOC content. The SOC content of all the fertilization treatments demonstrated a trend of stabilization after applying fertilizer for 30 years. The SOC content in the treatments applying organic manure with mineral fertilizers was between 21.02 and 21.24 g · kg(-1), and the increase rate ranged from 0.41 to 0.59 g · kg(-1) · a(-1). The SOC content in the treatments applying mineral fertilizers only was 15.48 g · kg(-1). The average soil carbon sequestration in the treatments that applied organic manure with mineral fertilizers ranged from 43.61 to 48.43 t C · hm(-2), and the average SOC storage over the years in these treatments was significantly greater than those applying mineral fertilizers only. There was an exponentially positive correlation between C sequestration efficiency and annual average organic C input. It must input exogenous organic carbon at least at 0. 12 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1) to maintain the balance of soil organic carbon under the experimental conditions. PMID:26915193

  14. Carbon stocks and soil sequestration rates of tropical riverine wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, M. F.; Santini, N. S.; Tovilla, C.; Vázquez-Lule, A.; Castro, L.; Guevara, M.

    2015-06-01

    Riverine wetlands are created and transformed by geomorphological processes that determine their vegetation composition, primary production and soil accretion, all of which are likely to influence C stocks. Here, we compared ecosystem C stocks (trees, soil and downed wood) and soil N stocks of different types of riverine wetlands (marsh, peat swamp forest and mangroves) whose distribution spans from an environment dominated by river forces to an estuarine environment dominated by coastal processes. We also estimated soil C sequestration rates of mangroves on the basis of soil C accumulation. We predicted that C stocks in mangroves and peat swamps would be larger than marshes, and that C, N stocks and C sequestration rates would be larger in the upper compared to the lower estuary. Mean C stocks in mangroves and peat swamps (784.5 ± 73.5 and 722.2 ± 63.6 MgC ha-1, respectively) were higher than those of marshes (336.5 ± 38.3 MgC ha-1). Soil C and N stocks of mangroves were highest in the upper estuary and decreased towards the lower estuary. C stock variability within mangroves was much lower in the upper estuary (range 744-912 MgC ha-1) compared to the intermediate and lower estuary (range 537-1115 MgC ha-1) probably as a result of a highly dynamic coastline. Soil C sequestration values were 1.3 ± 0.2 MgC ha-1 yr-1 and were similar across sites. Estimations of C stocks within large areas need to include spatial variability related to vegetation composition and geomorphological setting to accurately reflect variability within riverine wetlands.

  15. Carbon sequestration potential of coastal wetland soils of Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Romero, Elisabeth; García-Calderón, Norma Eugenia; Ikkonen, Elena; García-Varela, Kl

    2014-05-01

    Tropical coastal wetlands, including rainforests and mangrove ecosystems play an increasingly important ecological and economic role in the tropical coastal area of the State of Veracruz /Mexico. However, soil processes in these environments, especially C-turnover rates are largely unknown until today. Therefore, we investigated CO2 and CH4 emissions together with gains and losses of organic C in the soils of two different coastal ecosystems in the "Natural Protected Area Cienaga del Fuerte (NPACF)" near Tecolutla, in the State of Veracruz. The research areas were an artificially introduced grassland (IG) and a wetland rainforest (WRF). The gas emissions from the soil surfaces were measured by a static chamber array, the soil organic C was analysed in soil profiles distributed in the two areas, humic substances were characterized and C budget was calculated. The soils in both areas acted as carbon sinks, but the soils of the WRF sequestered more C than those of the IG, which showed a higher gas emission rate and produced more dissolved organic carbon. The gas emission measurements during the dry and the rainy seasons allowed for estimating the possible influence of global warming on gas fluxes from the soils of the two different ecological systems, which show in the WRF a quite complex spatial emission pattern during the rainy season in contrast to a more continuous emission pattern in the IG plots

  16. Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies of Mineral Carbonation as a Mechanism for Permanent Carbon Sequestration in Mafic/Ultramafic Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhengrong; Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Shuang; Bolton, Edward; Bercovici, David; Ague, Jay; Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Oristaglio, Michael; Zhu, Wen-Iu; Lisabeth, Harry; Johnson, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    A program of laboratory experiments, modeling and fieldwork was carried out at Yale University, University of Maryland, and University of Hawai‘i, under a DOE Award (DE-FE0004375) to study mineral carbonation as a practical method of geologic carbon sequestration. Mineral carbonation, also called carbon mineralization, is the conversion of (fluid) carbon dioxide into (solid) carbonate minerals in rocks, by way of naturally occurring chemical reactions. Mafic and ultramafic rocks, such as volcanic basalt, are natural candidates for carbonation, because the magnesium and iron silicate minerals in these rocks react with brines of dissolved carbon dioxide to form carbonate minerals. By trapping carbon dioxide (CO2) underground as a constituent of solid rock, carbonation of natural basalt formations would be a secure method of sequestering CO2 captured at power plants in efforts to mitigate climate change. Geochemical laboratory experiments at Yale, carried out in a batch reactor at 200°C and 150 bar (15 MPa), studied carbonation of the olivine mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacting with CO2 brines in the form of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions. The main carbonation product in these reactions is the carbonate mineral magnesite (MgCO3). A series of 32 runs varied the reaction time, the reactive surface area of olivine grains and powders, the concentration of the reacting fluid, and the starting ratio of fluid to olivine mass. These experiments were the first to study the rate of olivine carbonation under passive conditions approaching equilibrium. The results show that, in a simple batch reaction, olivine carbonation is fastest during the first 24 hours and then slows significantly and even reverses. A natural measure of the extent of carbonation is a quantity called the carbonation fraction, which compares the amount of carbon removed from solution, during a run, to the maximum amount

  17. Material Resource Considerations for Ex Situ Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2005-05-01

    The conclusions of this report are: (1) There are enough ultramafic resources to sequester all the CO{sub 2} produced by coal-fired powerplants in the US; (2) Sequestering all the CO{sub 2} would require a significant increase in the mining of ultramafic minerals; (3) The increased mining will have an environmental cost; (4) Some man made by product minerals could contribute to CO{sub 2} sequestration although many of these resources are small; and (5) It may be possible in some cases to sequester CO{sub 2} and eliminate hazardous waste in the same ex situ process.

  18. Soil Organic Carbon Loss: An Overlooked Factor in the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Enhanced Mineral Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzen, Christiana; Harrison, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals regulates the global carbon cycle on geologic timescales. Several authors have proposed that applying finely ground silicate minerals to soils, where organic acids would enhance the rate of weathering, could increase carbon uptake and mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Silicate minerals such as olivine could replace lime, which is commonly used to remediate soil acidification, thereby sequestering CO2 while achieving the same increase in soil pH. However, the effect of adding this material on soil organic matter, the largest terrestrial pool of carbon, has yet to be considered. Microbial biomass and respiration have been observed to increase with decreasing acidity, but it is unclear how long the effect lasts. If the addition of silicate minerals promotes the loss of soil organic carbon through decomposition, it could significantly reduce the efficiency of this process or even create a net carbon source. However, it is possible that this initial flush of microbial activity may be compensated for by additional organic matter inputs to soil pools due to increases in plant productivity under less acidic conditions. This study aimed to examine the effects of olivine amendments on soil CO2 flux. A liming treatment representative of typical agricultural practices was also included for comparison. Samples from two highly acidic soils were split into groups amended with olivine or lime and a control group. These samples were incubated at 22°C and constant soil moisture in jars with airtight septa lids. Gas samples were extracted periodically over the course of 2 months and change in headspace CO2 concentration was determined. The effects of enhanced mineral weathering on soil organic matter have yet to be addressed by those promoting this method of carbon sequestration. This project provides the first data on the potential effects of enhanced mineral weathering in the soil environment on soil organic carbon pools.

  19. A Hydro-mechanical Model and Analytical Solutions for Geomechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-05-15

    We present a hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow in greater detail. The simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. Two parts were coupled using the standard linear poroelasticity. Analytical solutions for pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario. The model predicts the temporal and spatial variation of pressure field and effects of permeability and elastic modulus of formation on the fluid pressure distribution.

  20. Carbon capture and sequestration: identifying and managing risks - article no. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra B. Klass; Elizabeth J. Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Carbon capture and geologic sequestration (CCS) technology promises to provide deep emissions cuts, particularly from coal power generation, but deploying CCS creates risks of its own. This article first considers the risks associated with CCS, which involves capturing CO{sub 2} emissions from industrial sources and power plants, transporting the CO{sub 2} by pipeline, and injecting it underground for permanent sequestration. The article then suggests ways in which these risks can be minimized and managed and considers more broadly when or if CCS should be deployed or whether its use should be limited or rejected in favor of other solutions.

  1. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  2. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  3. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-07-30

    July 21, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  4. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2010-09-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  5. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary

    2013-05-31

    This report covers the results of developing the rock physics theory of the effects of CO{sub 2} injection and storage in a host reservoir on the rock's elastic properties and the resulting seismic signatures (reflections) observed during sequestration and storage. Specific topics addressed are: (a) how the elastic properties and attenuation vary versus CO{sub 2} saturation in the reservoir during injection and subsequent distribution of CO{sub 2} in the reservoir; (b) what are the combined effects of saturation and pore pressure on the elastic properties; and (c) what are the combined effects of saturation and rock fabric alteration on the elastic properties. The main new results are (a) development and application of the capillary pressure equilibrium theory to forecasting the elastic properties as a function of CO{sub 2} saturation; (b) a new method of applying this theory to well data; and (c) combining this theory with other effects of CO{sub 2} injection on the rock frame, including the effects of pore pressure and rock fabric alteration. An important result is translating these elastic changes into synthetic seismic responses, specifically, the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) response depending on saturation as well as reservoir and seal type. As planned, three graduate students participated in this work and, as a result, received scientific and technical training required should they choose to work in the area of monitoring and quantifying CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  6. GEO-SEQ Best Practices Manual. Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Site Evaluation to Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Sally M.; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Doughty, Christine A.; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Hoversten, Mike; Gasperikova, Erica; Daley, Thomas; Majer, Ernie; Lippmann, Marcelo; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Knauss, Kevin; Johnson, James; Foxall, William; Ramirez, Abe; Newmark, Robin; Cole, David; Phelps, Tommy J.; Parker, J.; Palumbo, A.; Horita, J.; Fisher, S.; Moline, Gerry; Orr, Lynn; Kovscek, Tony; Jessen, K.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Cakici, M.; Hovorka, Susan; Holtz, Mark; Sakurai, Shinichi; Gunter, Bill; Law, David; van der Meer, Bert

    2004-10-23

    The first phase of the GEO-SEQ project was a multidisciplinary effort focused on investigating ways to lower the cost and risk of geologic carbon sequestration. Through our research in the GEO-SEQ project, we have produced results that may be of interest to the wider geologic carbon sequestration community. However, much of the knowledge developed in GEO-SEQ is not easily accessible because it is dispersed in the peer-reviewed literature and conference proceedings in individual papers on specific topics. The purpose of this report is to present key GEO-SEQ findings relevant to the practical implementation of geologic carbon sequestration in the form of a Best Practices Manual. Because our work in GEO-SEQ focused on the characterization and project development aspects, the scope of this report covers practices prior to injection, referred to as the design phase. The design phase encompasses activities such as selecting sites for which enhanced recovery may be possible, evaluating CO{sub 2} capacity and sequestration feasibility, and designing and evaluating monitoring approaches. Through this Best Practices Manual, we have endeavored to place our GEO-SEQ findings in a practical context and format that will be useful to readers interested in project implementation. The overall objective of this Manual is to facilitate putting the findings of the GEO-SEQ project into practice.

  7. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Rendek, Eva; Ducom, Gaëlle; Germain, Patrick

    2006-01-16

    During bottom ash weathering, carbonation under atmospheric conditions induces physico-chemical evolutions leading to the pacification of the material. Fresh bottom ash samples were subjected to an accelerated carbonation using pure CO2. The aim of this work was to quantify the volume of CO2 that could be sequestrated with a view to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and investigate the possibility of upgrading some specific properties of the material with accelerated carbonation. Carbonation was performed by putting 4mm-sieved samples in a CO2 chamber. The CO2 pressure and the humidity of the samples were varied to optimize the reaction parameters. Unsieved material was also tested. Calcite formation resulting from accelerated carbonation was investigated by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) and metal leaching tests were performed. The volume of sequestrated CO2 was on average 12.5L/kg dry matter (DM) for unsieved material and 24 L/kg DM for 4mm-sieved samples. An ash humidity of 15% appeared to give the best results. The reaction was drastically accelerated at high pressure but it did not increase the volume of sequestrated CO2. Accelerated carbonation, like the natural phenomenon, reduces the dangerous nature of the material. It decreases the pH from 11.8 to 8.2 and causes Pb, Cr and Cd leaching to decrease. This process could reduce incinerator CO2 emissions by 0.5-1%. PMID:16139424

  9. Carbon Sequestration: is Science Leading Policy or Will Policy Direct Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. K.

    2007-12-01

    Climate-related policy is in its infancy on capital hill, as policy makers only recently started to converge on the acceptance that climate change is a credible, scientific reality. Until recently much of the debate and policy decisions have been related to whether or not climate change, or more specifically global warming, is occurring. The climate debate has shifted from discussing the science behind climate change to addressing how we can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In the 110th Congress, policy makers have come to realize and accept that we, as a nation, are one of the largest global emitters of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Geologic carbon sequestration has gained significant congressional attention and is considered to be one of the most promising carbon mitigation tools. In the present Congress, scientific experts have testified before numerous committees about the various caveats of geologic carbon sequestration. As a result, policy has been and is currently being drafted to address the challenges facing large-scale commercial demonstration of geologic sequestration facilities. Policy has been passed through both the House and Senate that is aimed at increasing funding for basic and advanced research, development, and demonstration of small- to large-scale carbon dioxide injection projects. This legislation is only the beginning of a series of legislation that is under development. In the next year, policy will be introduced that will likely address issues related to pore space and mineral rights ownership, regulatory framework for carbon dioxide transport and injection, long-term injection site monitoring protocol, personal and environmental safety, and liability issues, to name a few. Policy is not limited to the technical aspects of carbon capture, transport, and storage, but is also being developed to help stimulate a market that will be operating under climate constraints. Financial incentives have been proposed that will assist industrial

  10. Spatial Patterns of Carbon Residence Time and Sequestration Capacity in Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Xu, T.; Luo, Y.

    2005-12-01

    To model carbon (C) sequestration and its spatial pattern, three key parameters need to be quantified: (1) canopy carbon influx; (2) carbon residence time in an ecosystem; and (3) initial values of pool sizes. While spatial distributions of canopy carbon influx have been extensively studied, spatial patterns of carbon residence times have not been carefully characterized. In this study, we conducted an inverse analysis to estimate the carbon residence times in ecosystems of the conterminous US from 12 data sets. The 12 data sets are three NPP data sets (i.e., NPP in leaves, stems, and roots), five biomass data sets (i.e., biomass of leaves, stem, and roots in three soil layers), one litter data set (i.e., fine litter mass), and three SOC data sets in the three soil layers. The inverse analysis was based on a process-based Terrestrial ECOsystem Regional (TECOR) model and used the genetic algorithm for optimal parameter estimation. The inverted residence times and increase trends of net primary production (NPP) were then fed into a forward modeling analysis to map spatial patterns of carbon sequestration capacity. Our analysis estimated that the mean residence time for the whole conterminous US is 46 years with a range from 10 to 150 years. The central Great Plains have the lowest residence times (mean = 28 years, std = 13 years) and the west regions have the highest ones (mean = 64 years, std = 34 years) with the east regions in between (mean = 41 years, std = 20 years). When a 0.5 percent increase of NPP per year was uniformly applied to the whole conterminous US, our forward modeling showed that most of the eastern regions and some of the northwest regions have large carbon sequestration capacity. When a satellite-data-derived spatial distribution of NPP was applied in the forward modeling, it was estimated that the cropland has the largest carbon sequestration capacity followed by the deciduous broadleaf forest, grassland, wooded grassland, and mixed forest. The

  11. Terrestrial sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Charlie Byrer

    2008-03-10

    Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

  12. Terrestrial sequestration

    ScienceCinema

    Charlie Byrer

    2010-01-08

    Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-04-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by Americal Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. Three core and three bulk soil samples were collected from each of the experimental site and one unmined site (UMS) for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths and soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), texture, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), volumes of transport (VTP) and storage (VSP) pores, available water capacity (AWC), pH and electrical conductivity (EC), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were determined. The preliminary results from sites reclaimed with topsoil and grass indicate that sand content was highest (24%) and clay content was lowest (17%) for site reclaimed in 2003 (R03) for 0-15 cm depth. The {rho}{sub b} was highest for R03 (1.24 Mg m{sup -3}) than sites reclaimed in 1987 (R87; 1.02 Mg m{sup -3}), 1978 (R78; 0.98 Mg m{sup -3}) and UMS (0.96 Mg m{sup -3}) for 0-15 cm depth. No significant differences were observed in Ks, VTP, VSP, AWC among these sites (P<0.05). For 15-30 cm depth {rho}{sub b} varied in the order R03 (1.61 Mg m{sup -3})> R87 (1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) = R78 (1.40 Mg m{sup -3}) = UMS (1.34 Mg m{sup -3}). Soil pH was > 5.5 and EC < 4 dS m{sup -1} for all sites and depths and was favorable for grass growth. The SOC and TN stocks were lower in R03 (3.5 Mg ha{sup -1} and 0.6 Mg ha{sup -1}; respectively) than R78 (30.1 Mg ha{sup -1} and 1.6 Mg ha{sup -1}) and UMS (18.7 Mg ha{sup -1} and 1.8 Mg ha{sup -1}) for 0-15 cm depth. The SOC and TN stocks were also lower in R03 (2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}and 0.8 Mg ha{sup -1}; respectively) than R87 (22

  14. Proposed roadmap for overcoming legal and financial obstacles to carbon capture and sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Wendy ); Chohen, Leah; Kostakidis-Lianos, Leah; Rundell, Sara )

    2009-03-01

    Many existing proposals either lack sufficient concreteness to make carbon capture and geological sequestration (CCGS) operational or fail to focus on a comprehensive, long term framework for its regulation, thus failing to account adequately for the urgency of the issue, the need to develop immediate experience with large scale demonstration projects, or the financial and other incentives required to launch early demonstration projects. We aim to help fill this void by proposing a roadmap to commercial deployment of CCGS in the United States.This roadmap focuses on the legal and financial incentives necessary for rapid demonstration of geological sequestration in the absence of national restrictions on CO2 emissions. It weaves together existing federal programs and financing opportunities into a set of recommendations for achieving commercial viability of geological sequestration.

  15. How organic carbon derived from multiple sources contributes to carbon sequestration processes in a shallow coastal system?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Kuwae, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Carbon captured by marine organisms helps sequester atmospheric CO2, especially in shallow coastal ecosystems, where rates of primary production and burial of organic carbon (OC) from multiple sources are high. However, linkages between the dynamics of OC derived from multiple sources and carbon sequestration are poorly understood. We investigated the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of particulate OC (POC) and dissolved OC (DOC) in the water column and sedimentary OC using elemental, isotopic, and optical signatures in Furen Lagoon, Japan. Based on these data analysis, we explored how OC from multiple sources contributes to sequestration via storage in sediments, water column sequestration, and air–sea CO2 exchanges, and analyzed how the contributions vary with salinity in a shallow seagrass meadow as well. The relative contribution of terrestrial POC in the water column decreased with increasing salinity, whereas autochthonous POC increased in the salinity range 10–30. Phytoplankton-derived POC dominated the water column POC (65–95%) within this salinity range; however, it was minor in the sediments (3–29%). In contrast, terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were relatively minor contributors in the water column but were major contributors in the sediments (49–78% and 19–36%, respectively), indicating that terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were selectively stored in the sediments. Autochthonous DOC, part of which can contribute to long-term carbon sequestration in the water column, accounted for >25% of the total water column DOC pool in the salinity range 15–30. Autochthonous OC production decreased the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the water column and thereby contributed to atmospheric CO2 uptake, except in the low-salinity zone. Our results indicate that shallow coastal ecosystems function not only as transition zones between land and ocean but also as carbon sequestration filters

  16. Sequestration of carbon in soil organic matter in Senegal: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tieszen, Larry L.; Tappan, G. Gray; Toure, A.

    2004-01-01

    The project focuses on four objectives in specific locations across the agroecological zones of Senegal. These objectives are: use of soil sampling and biogeochemical modeling to quantify the biophysical potential for carbon sequestration and to determine the sensitivity of the carbon stocks to various management and climate scenarios, to evaluate the socio-economic and cultural requirements necessary for successful project implementation directed toward an aggregation of smallholders to sequester around 100,000 t carbon (C), to support capacity building to develop a Carbon Specialist Team, and to initiate extrapolation from site-specific project areas to the Sahel region and the national level.

  17. Conservation and sequestration of carbon: The potential of forest and agroforest management practices

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.; Schroeder, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    Forests play a major role in the Earth's carbon cycle through assimilation, storage, and emission of CO2. Establishment and management of boreal, temperate, and tropical forest and agroforest systems could potentially enhance sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. A biologic and economic analysis of forest establishment and management options from 94 nations revealed that forestation, agroforestry, and silviculture could be employed to conserve and sequester one gigaton (Gt) of carbon annually over a 50 year period. The marginal cost of implementing these options to sequester 55 Gt of carbon would be approximately $10/ton.

  18. Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Atul Jain

    2005-04-17

    This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and

  19. Potential carbon sequestration of European arable soils estimated by modelling a comprehensive set of management practices.

    PubMed

    Lugato, Emanuele; Bampa, Francesca; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca; Jones, Arwyn

    2014-11-01

    Bottom-up estimates from long-term field experiments and modelling are the most commonly used approaches to estimate the carbon (C) sequestration potential of the agricultural sector. However, when data are required at European level, important margins of uncertainty still exist due to the representativeness of local data at large scale or different assumptions and information utilized for running models. In this context, a pan-European (EU + Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Norway) simulation platform with high spatial resolution and harmonized data sets was developed to provide consistent scenarios in support of possible carbon sequestration policies. Using the CENTURY agroecosystem model, six alternative management practices (AMP) scenarios were assessed as alternatives to the business as usual situation (BAU). These consisted of the conversion of arable land to grassland (and vice versa), straw incorporation, reduced tillage, straw incorporation combined with reduced tillage, ley cropping system and cover crops. The conversion into grassland showed the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates, ranging between 0.4 and 0.8 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , while the opposite extreme scenario (100% of grassland conversion into arable) gave cumulated losses of up to 2 Gt of C by 2100. Among the other practices, ley cropping systems and cover crops gave better performances than straw incorporation and reduced tillage. The allocation of 12 to 28% of the European arable land to different AMP combinations resulted in a potential SOC sequestration of 101-336 Mt CO2 eq. by 2020 and 549-2141 Mt CO2 eq. by 2100. Modelled carbon sequestration rates compared with values from an ad hoc meta-analysis confirmed the robustness of these estimates. PMID:24789378

  20. Multiphase fluid-rock reactions among supercritical carbon dioxide, brine, aquifer, and caprock: relevance to geologic sequestration of carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Janecky, D. R.; Snow, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The reactive behavior of a multiphase fluid (supercritical CO{sub 2} and brine) under physical-chemical conditions relevant to geologic storage and sequestration in a carbon repository is largely unknown. Experiments were conducted in a flexible cell hydrothermal apparatus to evaluate multiphase fluid-rock (aquifer plus caprock) reactions that may impact repository integrity.

  1. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION SIMULATED BY EPIC IN COTTON ROTATIONS FROM THREE MAJOR LAND RESOURCE AREAS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the southeastern USA is perceived as occurring at a relatively low rate, because of the inherent low SOC content of most agricultural soils. However, recent field estimates of SOC sequestration in conservation management systems suggest that the sequest...

  2. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Simulated by EPIC in Cotton Rotations from Three Major Land Resource Areas in the Southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the southeastern USA is perceived as occurring at a relatively low rate, because of the inherent low SOC content of most agricultural soils. However, recent field estimates of SOC sequestration in conservation management systems suggest that the sequest...

  3. SIMULATING SOIL ORGANIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN COTTON PRODUCTION SYSTEMS WITH EPIC AND THE SOIL CONDITIONING INDEX IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the southeastern USA is perceived as occurring at a relatively low rate, because of the inherent low SOC content of most agricultural soils. However, recent field estimates of SOC sequestration in conservation management systems suggest that the sequest...

  4. A spatial resolution threshold of land cover in estimating terrestrial carbon sequestration in four counties in Georgia and Alabama, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, S.Q.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in carbon density (i.e., carbon stock per unit area) and land cover greatly affect carbon sequestration. Previous studies have shown that land cover change detection strongly depends on spatial scale. However, the influence of the spatial resolution of land cover change information on the estimated terrestrial carbon sequestration is not known. Here, we quantified and evaluated the impact of land cover change databases at various spatial resolutions (250 m, 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, and 4 km) on the magnitude and spatial patterns of regional carbon sequestration in four counties in Georgia and Alabama using the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). Results indicated a threshold of 1 km in the land cover change databases and in the estimated regional terrestrial carbon sequestration. Beyond this threshold, significant biases occurred in the estimation of terrestrial carbon sequestration, its interannual variability, and spatial patterns. In addition, the overriding impact of interannual climate variability on the temporal change of regional carbon sequestration was unrealistically overshadowed by the impact of land cover change beyond the threshold. The implications of these findings directly challenge current continental- to global-scale carbon modeling efforts relying on information at coarse spatial resolution without incorporating fine-scale land cover dynamics.

  5. Carbon dioxide sequestration from industrial flue gas by Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Banerjee, Debopam; Das, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of using Chlorella sorokiniana for CO2 sequestration from industrial flue gas. The flue gas emitted from the oil producing industry contains mostly CO2 and H2S (15.6% (v/v) and 120 mg L(-1), respectively) along with nitrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The high concentration of CO2 and H2S had an inhibitory effect on the growth of C. sorokiniana. Some efforts were made for the maximization of the algal biomass production using different techniques such as diluted flue gas, flue gas after passing through the scrubber, flue gas passing through serially connected photobioreactors and two different reactors. The highest reduction in the CO2 content of inlet flue gas was 4.1% (v/v). Some new pigments were observed in the flue gas sequestered biomass. Fatty acid composition in the total lipid was determined to evaluate its suitability for food, feed, and biofuel. PMID:24292202

  6. A Risk-Based System Analysis Framework for Geological Carbon Sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Klotz, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to characterize existing carbon capture and sequestration technologies at a high level, develop an analytical framework to help assess the technologies, and implement the framework in a system dynamics model. The first year of this project succeeded in characterizing existing technologies to help focus the analysis on power plants. The assessment also helped determine which technologies are largely accepted by the carbon capture research community as relatively proven technologies, discuss the salient performance metrics, and assess the associated economics. With this information, an analytical framework was developed to assess the technologies from a systems view perspective. With this framework, the Carbon Sequestration and Risk Model (CSR) was developed to assess performance and economic risk issues as they relate to global atmospheric CO2 concentration goals and single plant scale projects to characterize the economics of these systems.

  7. Comparison of alkaline industrial wastes for aqueous mineral carbon sequestration through a parallel reactivity study.

    PubMed

    Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Nakles, David V; Hawthorne, Steven B; Heebink, Loreal V; Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Michael; Ghosh, Rajat S

    2014-10-01

    Thirty-one alkaline industrial wastes from a wide range of industrial processes were acquired and screened for application in an aqueous carbon sequestration process. The wastes were evaluated for their potential to leach polyvalent cations and base species. Following mixing with a simple sodium bicarbonate solution, chemistries of the aqueous and solid phases were analyzed. Experimental results indicated that the most reactive materials were capable of sequestering between 77% and 93% of the available carbon under experimental conditions in four hours. These materials - cement kiln dust, spray dryer absorber ash, and circulating dry scrubber ash - are thus good candidates for detailed, process-oriented studies. Chemical equilibrium modeling indicated that amorphous calcium carbonate is likely responsible for the observed sequestration. High variability and low reactive fractions render many other materials less attractive for further pursuit without considering preprocessing or activation techniques. PMID:24735991

  8. Delineation of Magnesium-rich Ultramafic Rocks Available for Mineral Carbon Sequestration in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral carbon sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester CO2. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made covering the entire United States detailing their geographical distribution and extent, or evaluating their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the continental United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. The focus of the national-scale map is entirely on suitable ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine and serpentine minerals. By combining the map with digital datasets that show non-mineable lands (such as urban areas and National Parks), estimates on potential depth of a surface mine, and the predicted reactivities of the mineral deposits, one can begin to estimate the capacity for CO2 mineral sequestration within the United States. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ozone Effects on Global Net Primary Production and Carbon Sequestration Using a Biogeochemistry Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, B. S.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Melillo, J. M.; Wang, C.; Zhuang, Q.; Prinn, R. G.

    2002-12-01

    The effects of air pollution on vegetation may provide another important control on the carbon cycle that has not yet been widely considered. Prolonged exposure to high levels of ozone, in particular, has been observed to inhibit photosynthesis by direct cellular damage within the leaves and through changes in stomatal conductance. We have incorporated simple empirical equations derived for hardwoods, pines, and crops into the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, version 4.3) to explore spatial and temporal variations of ozone effects on net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon sequestration across the globe. Although our results show up to a 2% reduction in annual NPP as a result of historical ozone levels during the late 1980s-early 1990s, regionally this reduction is much larger. The largest decreases (up to 39% in some locations) occur in the eastern U.S., Europe, and China, during months with high ozone levels and substantial production. Carbon sequestration during the early 1990s is reduced by as much as 0.43 PgC/yr, or 15%, with the presence of ozone. Thus the effects of ozone on net primary production and carbon sequestration should be factored into future calculations of the global carbon budget.

  10. Carbon sequestration in European soils through straw incorporation: limitations and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Powlson, D S; Riche, A B; Coleman, K; Glendining, M J; Whitmore, A P

    2008-01-01

    We compared alternate uses of cereal straw (4.25t dry matter ha(-1) containing 1.7t carbon (C)) for their effectiveness in relation to climate change mitigation. The scenarios were (1) incorporation into soil to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content ("carbon sequestration") and (2) combustion to generate electricity. The Rothamsted Carbon Model was used to estimate SOC accumulation in a silty clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of north-west Europe. Using straw for electricity generation saved seven times more CO2 than from SOC accumulation. This comparison assumed that electricity from straw combustion displaced that generated from coal and used the mean annual accumulation of SOC over 100yr. SOC increased most rapidly in the early years, but then more slowly as a new equilibrium value was approached. We suggest that increased SOC from straw incorporation does not represent genuine climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. In Europe, most straw not already incorporated in the field where it is grown is subsequently returned elsewhere, e.g., after use for animal bedding and production of manure. Only additional retention of C in soil compared to the alternative use represents sequestration. Maintenance of SOC for soil functioning is a more appropriate rationale for returning straw to soil than climate change mitigation. This analysis shows that considerably greater climate change mitigation is achieved through saved CO2 emissions by burning straw for electricity generation, replacing some use of fossil fuel. PMID:18061434

  11. Engineered Escherichia coli with Periplasmic Carbonic Anhydrase as a Biocatalyst for CO2 Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Kim, Im Gyu; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Dong Gyun

    2013-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2). It has been suggested recently that this remarkably fast enzyme can be used for sequestration of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, making this a promising alternative for chemical CO2 mitigation. To promote the economical use of enzymes, we engineered the carbonic anhydrase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngCA) in the periplasm of Escherichia coli, thereby creating a bacterial whole-cell catalyst. We then investigated the application of this system to CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation, a process with the potential to store large quantities of CO2. ngCA was highly expressed in the periplasm of E. coli in a soluble form, and the recombinant bacterial cell displayed the distinct ability to hydrate CO2 compared with its cytoplasmic ngCA counterpart and previously reported whole-cell CA systems. The expression of ngCA in the periplasm of E. coli greatly accelerated the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation and exerted a striking impact on the maximal amount of CaCO3 produced under conditions of relatively low pH. It was also shown that the thermal stability of the periplasmic enzyme was significantly improved. These results demonstrate that the engineered bacterial cell with periplasmic ngCA can successfully serve as an efficient biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration. PMID:23974145

  12. Carbon accumulation and sequestration of lakes in China during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Chen, Huai; Yu, Zicheng; Wu, Jianghua; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Yanfen; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the responses of lake systems to past climate change and human activity is critical for assessing and predicting the fate of lake carbon (C) in the future. In this study, we synthesized records of the sediment accumulation from 82 lakes and of C sequestration from 58 lakes with direct organic C measurements throughout China. We also identified the controlling factors of the long-term sediment and C accumulation dynamics in these lakes during the past 12 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP). Our results indicated an overall increasing trend of sediment and C accumulation since 12 ka, with an accumulation peak in the last couple of millennia for lakes in China, corresponding to terrestrial organic matter input due to land-use change. The Holocene lake sediment accumulation rate (SAR) and C accumulation rate (CAR) averaged (mean ± SE) 0.47 ± 0.05 mm yr(-1) and 7.7 ± 1.4 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) in China, respectively, comparable to the previous estimates for boreal and temperate regions. The SAR for lakes in the East Plain of subtropical China (1.05 ± 0.28 mm yr(-1) ) was higher than those in other regions (P < 0.05). However, CAR did not vary significantly among regions. Overall, the variability and history of climate and anthropogenic interference regulated the temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment and C sequestration for lakes in China. We estimated the total amount of C burial in lakes of China as 8.0 ± 1.0 Pg C. This first estimation of total C storage and dynamics in lakes of China confirms the importance of lakes in land C budget in monsoon-influenced regions. PMID:26220607

  13. The sequestration of terrestrial organic carbon in Arctic Ocean sediments: A comparison of methods and implications for regional carbon budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belicka, Laura L.; Harvey, H. Rodger

    2009-10-01

    A variety of approaches have previously been developed to estimate the fraction of terrestrial or marine organic carbon present in aquatic sediments. The task of quantifying each component is especially important for the Arctic due to the regions' sensitivity to global climate change and the potential for enhanced terrestrial organic carbon inputs with continued Arctic warming to alter carbon sequestration. Yet it is unclear how each approach compares in defining organic carbon sources in sediments as well as their impact on regional or pan-Arctic carbon budgets. Here, we investigated multiple methods: (1) two end-member mixing models utilizing bulk stable carbon isotopes; (2) the relationship between long-chain n-alkanes and organic carbon (ALKOC); (3) principal components analysis (PCA) combined with scaling of a large suite of lipid biomarkers; and (4) ratios of branched and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (the BIT index) to calculate the fraction of terrestrial organic matter components preserved in Arctic marine sediments. Estimated terrestrial organic carbon content among approaches showed considerable variation for identical sediment samples. For a majority of the samples, the BIT index resulted in the lowest estimates for terrestrial organic carbon, corroborating recent suggestions that this proxy may represent a distinct fraction of terrestrial organic matter; i.e., peat or soil organic matter, as opposed to markers such as n-alkanes or long-chain fatty acids which measure higher plant wax inputs. Because of the patchy inputs of n-alkanes to this region from coastal erosion in the western Arctic, the ALKOC approach was not as effective as when applied to river-dominated margins found in the eastern Arctic. The difficulties in constraining a marine δ 13C end-member limit the applicability of stable isotope mixing models in polar regions. Estimates of terrestrial organic carbon using the lipid-based PCA method and the bulk δ 13C

  14. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  15. Is mineral motion the ultimate control on critical zone carbon sequestration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Yoo, K.; Aalto, R. E.; Chen, C.; Fernandez, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the last decade, modeling and mechanistic studies of organic carbon (OC) turnover in soils and sediments have converged on one key finding - that organic matter (OM) complexation to fine minerals is a critical factor to stabilizing and sequestering carbon. However, OC production and mineral production are typically spatially separated (Fig. 1). Biological primary production primarily occurs where there is light - above the soil surface or in the low-turbidity euphotic zone of lakes and oceans. Mineral surface area (SA) is produced in the sapprolite, or bedrock-soil interface, where primary minerals are chemically weathered to secondary silicate clays and Fe and Al hydroxides. This physical separation between fresh OC and fine minerals results in rapid turnover of most photosynthesized carbon in soil litter layers, and most fresh clay minerals remain carbon-free due to limited contact. Likewise, OC mobilized into river corridors is in significant excess of the system’s capacity to stabilize it, with most OC being rapidly metabolized and returned to the atmosphere as CO2. We therefore hypothesize that the rate at which fresh minerals are delivered to and mix with fresh OC determines the rate of carbon preservation at a watershed scale. Although many studies have examined the role of erosion in carbon balances, none consider that fresh carbon and fresh minerals interact. Here we present the implications for our hypothesis, and show supporting data from a number of our own studies, including: Andean-Amazon carbon sequestration due to erosion-deposition even