Sample records for carbon-13 nuclear spin

  1. Protein carbon-13 spin systems by a single two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, B.H.; Westler, W.M.; Darba, P.; Markley, J.L.

    1988-05-13

    By applying a two-dimensional double-quantum carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance experiment to a protein uniformly enriched to 26% carbon-13, networks of directly bonded carbon atoms were identified by virtue of their one-bond spin-spin couplings and were classified by amino acid type according to their particular single- and double-quantum chemical shift patterns. Spin systems of 75 of the 98 amino acid residues in a protein, oxidized Anabaena 7120 ferredoxin (molecular weight 11,000), were identified by this approach, which represents a key step in an improved methodology for assigning protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Missing spin systems corresponded primarily to residues located adjacent to the paramagnetic iron-sulfur cluster. 25 references, 2 figures.

  2. Robust control of entanglement in a Nitrogen-vacancy centre coupled to a Carbon-13 nuclear spin in diamond

    E-print Network

    R. S. Said; J. Twamley

    2009-03-23

    We address a problem of generating a robust entangling gate between electronic and nuclear spins in the system of a single nitrogen-vacany centre coupled to a nearest Carbon-13 atom in diamond against certain types of systematic errors such as pulse-length and off-resonance errors. We analyse the robustness of various control schemes: sequential pulses, composite pulses and numerically-optimised pulses. We find that numerically-optimised pulses, produced by the gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm (GRAPE), are more robust than the composite pulses and the sequential pulses. The optimised pulses can also be implemented in a faster time than the composite pulses.

  3. MAS NMR studies of carbon-13 spin exchange in durene.

    PubMed

    Reichert, D; Hempel, G; Poupko, R; Luz, Z; Olejniczak, Z; Tekely, P

    1998-12-01

    One- (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) carbon-13 NMR exchange measurements in powder samples of isotopically normal durene under magic angle spinning (MAS) are reported. The experiments include rotor synchronized 2-D exchange (RS2DE), 1-D magnetization transfer (MT) and time reverse ODESSA (tr-ODESSA). The latter two experiments were performed as a function of several external parameters, including proton decoupling field during mixing time, sample spinning rate and partly, of temperature. The effects of these parameters on the spin exchange induced by spin diffusion and by chemical, or physical exchange, is discussed. Spin exchange between all types of carbons in the durene molecules occurs on the time scale of seconds. From the dependence of the spin exchange rate on the external parameters it is concluded that the process is dominated by spin diffusion. On the basis of these results an upper limit of 10(-16) cm2 s(-1) can be set for the self-diffusion constant in crystalline durene. PMID:10023843

  4. Apparent transverse relaxation rates in systems with coupled carbon-13 spins

    E-print Network

    to systems with coupled protons. This work focuses on systems with three coupled carbon-13 spins, which in turn are coupled to several neighbouring protons. Unmodulated echo trains can be obtained by optimizing rates of nitrogen-15 nuclei. In proteins, these nuclei are isolated from each other, in the sense

  5. The first observation of Carbon-13 spin noise spectra

    PubMed Central

    Schlagnitweit, Judith; Müller, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the first 13C NMR spin noise spectra obtained without any pulse excitation by direct detection of the randomly fluctuating noise from samples in a cryogenically cooled probe. Noise power spectra were obtained from 13C enriched methanol and glycerol samples at 176 MHz without and with 1H decoupling, which increases the sensitivity without introducing radio frequency interference with the weak spin noise. The multiplet amplitude ratios in 1H coupled spectra indicate that, although pure spin noise prevails in these spectra, the influence of absorbed circuit noise is still significant at the high concentrations used. In accordance with the theory heteronuclear Overhauser enhancements are absent from the 1H-decoupled 13C spin noise spectra. PMID:23041799

  6. The first observation of Carbon-13 spin noise spectra.

    PubMed

    Schlagnitweit, Judith; Müller, Norbert

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate the first (13)C NMR spin noise spectra obtained without any pulse excitation by direct detection of the randomly fluctuating noise from samples in a cryogenically cooled probe. Noise power spectra were obtained from (13)C enriched methanol and glycerol samples at 176 MHz without and with (1)H decoupling, which increases the sensitivity without introducing radio frequency interference with the weak spin noise. The multiplet amplitude ratios in (1)H coupled spectra indicate that, although pure spin noise prevails in these spectra, the influence of absorbed circuit noise is still significant at the high concentrations used. In accordance with the theory heteronuclear Overhauser enhancements are absent from the (1)H-decoupled (13)C spin noise spectra. PMID:23041799

  7. Natural Abundance Carbon13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of the Canine Sciatic Nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Williams; J. A. Hamilton; M. K. Jain; A. Allerhand; E. H. Cordes; S. Ochs

    1973-01-01

    The proton-decoupled natural abundance carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the canine sciatic nerve is virtually identical to that of canine adipose tissue and markedly similar to that of liquid triolein. No resonances assignable to cholesterol, glycolipids, or sphingolipids are detectable in the sciatic nerve spectrum despite their abundance in the myelin sheath of this nerve. However, many such resonances

  8. Paramagnetic Effects on Solid State Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Soil Organic Matter

    E-print Network

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    Paramagnetic Effects on Solid State Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Soil Organic of doping experiments. The degree of signal loss caused by paramagnetic metals In this paper, we present with state 13 C NMR spectroscopy of soil organic matter the organic substrate and the type of NMR experiment

  9. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of glycolysis in protozoa

    E-print Network

    Rhoades, Teresa Ann

    1986-01-01

    from substrate glucose was found to be incorporated without scrambling irto mannitol. Incu- bations with singly labeled glucoses confirmed this information. Path- ways of mannitol biosynthesis im Euglena gracilis z were found to in- volve a NADPH... OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. lh h t hit d E th E ~Et E itits CHAPTER II. EXPERIMENTAL. Growth and Harvest of Euglena gracilis...

  10. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cobalt transferrin and selected model compounds 

    E-print Network

    Philen, Rossanne McElroy

    1975-01-01

    of contamination due to [Co(NH )4 CO ]NO is approximately 20X. However, peak 13 13 areas in C-nmr spectra are not always comparable (60, 61, 62). 13 In C-nmr several factors combine to make peak area measuremnts difficult. Often when area measurements... the carbonic acid anion is bound to the metal in the transferrin binding site, a series of carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were run on 13 2- cobalt-transferrin, which was 90X enriched with CO , and the compounds [Co(NH )& C03]NO and [Co...

  11. Characterization of the International Humic Substances Society standard and reference fulvic and humic acids by solution state carbon-13 (13C) and hydrogen-1 (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Folan, Daniel W.; MacCarthy, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Standard and reference samples of the International Humic Substances Society have been characterized by solution state carbon-13 and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Samples included the Suwannee River, soil, and peat standard fulvic and humic acids, the Leonardite standard humic acid, the Nordic aquatic reference fulvic and humic acids, and the Summit Hill soil reference humic acid. Aqueous-solution carbon-13 NMR analyses included the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times, measurement of nuclear Overhauser enhancement factors, measurement of quantitative carbon distributions, recording of attached proton test spectra, and recording of spectra under nonquantitative conditions. Distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer carbon-13 NMR spectra also were recorded on the Suwannee River fulvic acid in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide. Hydrogen-1 NMR spectra were recorded on sodium salts of the samples in deuterium oxide. The carbon aromaticities of the samples ranged from 0.24 for the Suwannee River fulvic acid to 0.58 for the Leonardite humic acid.

  12. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance study on poly(ethylacrylate-co-sodium acrylate) ionomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Kwark, Young-Je; Kim, Joon-Seop

    2003-12-01

    The poly(ethylacrylate) (PEA) homopolymer and poly(ethylacrylate-co-sodium acrylate) ionomer that contain 8.4 mol % ionic groups (PEANa-8.4) were studied by 13C using cross polarization and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS NMR). The 13C spin-lattice relaxation times in a rotating frame, T1?, were measured as functions of the temperature. Using these T1? spin-lattice relaxation times, we addressed the chain mobility, correlation time, and activation energy for carbon of the PEA homopolymer and the PEANa-8.4 ionomer. We found that the molecular motion in the PEA homopolymer needed a higher activation energy than that in the PEANa-8.4 ionomer. In addition, we observed that motion of the 1-methyl carbons in the PEANa-8.4 ionomer was distinctly different from that in the PEA homopolymer: the value of T1? for 1-methyl carbon is ascribed to stronger interactions between the polymer chains in the homopolymer.

  13. Aryl ring rotation in porphyrins. A carbon-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation time study

    SciTech Connect

    Noss, L.; Liddell, P.A.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1997-01-16

    Overall tumbling and internal rotational motions in porphyrins bearing meso aryl substituents and, in some cases, flanking alkyl groups at the {beta}-pyrrolic positions have been determined using {sup 13}C spin-lattice relaxation time measurements. In deuteriochloroform solution at 303 K, the overall reorientation of all three porphyrins investigated occurs with diffusion coefficients of approximately 1x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. In porphyrins with only hydrogen at the {beta}-pyrrolic positions, the meso phenyl rings undergo rotations about their single bonds to the porphyrin with diffusion coefficients of approximately 4x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. Introduction of methyl substituents at the {beta}-pyrrolic positions adjacent to the phenyl rings reduces these motions, but only to approximately 1x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. Thus, significant internal motions are present in both types of molecules. These motions occur on the time scale of many photoinduced electron and energy transfer processes in porphyrins covalently linked to electron or energy donors or acceptors through meso aryl groups. Thus, the internal librational motions may affect rates of photoinduced electron and energy transfer, even in relatively `rigid` molecular constructs. 47 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Solid-State Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Humic Acids at High Magnetic Field Strengths

    E-print Network

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    are cies (3­4 kHz) (Wilson, 1987). Under these conditions, employed, care must be taken to ensureHz, seriously affecting the SN in fast spinning spectra. To circumvent this problem, Humic acid (HA used to examine the chemistry of plant precursors al., 1999, 2001). Unfortunately, many times, the side

  15. Determination of alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants in groundwater using macroreticular resins and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Willoughby, T.; Barber, L.B., Jr.; Thorn, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants were determined in groundwater at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg/L. The method uses XAD-8 resin for concentration, followed by elution with methanol, separation of anionic and nonionic surfactants by anion exchange, quantitation by titration, and identification by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Laboratory standards and field samples containing straight-chain and branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonates, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and alkylbenzene ethoxylates were studied. The XAD-8 extraction of surfactants from groundwater was completed in the field, which simplified sample preservation and reduced the cost of transporting samples.

  16. A carbon-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation study of the molecular conformation of the nootropic drug 2-oxopyrrolidin-1-ylacetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Grassi, A.; Guidoni, L.; Nicolini, M.; Pappalardo, G. C.; Viti, V.

    The spin-lattice relaxation times ( T1) of carbon-13 resonances of the drug 2-oxopyrrolidin- 1-ylacetamide ( 2OPYAC) were determined in CDCl 3 + DMSO and H 2O solutions to investigate the internal conformational flexibility. The measured T1s for the hydrogen-bearing carbon atoms of the 2-pyrrolidone ring fragment were diagnostic of a rigid conformation with respect to the acetamide linked moiety. The model of anisotropic reorientation of a rigid body was used to analyse the measured relaxation data in terms of a single conformation. Owing to the small number of T1 data available the fitting procedure for each of the possible conformations failed. The structure corresponding to the rigid conformation was therefore considered to be the one that is strongly stabilized by internal hydrogen bonding as predicted on the basis of theoretical MO ab initio quantum chemical calculations.

  17. Application of solid state silicone-29 and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the characterization of inorganic matter-humic complexes in Athabasca oil sands

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyar, L.S.; Ripmeester, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    The ease of bitumen recovery from oil sand by hot or cold water separation techniques depends upon the surface properties of the components, especially water wet character of the clay and sand particles. Oil wetting of some of the oils and sand solids is believed to be caused by the presence of humic matter-non-crystalline inorganic complexes. Characterization of these complexes using solid state carbon-13 and silicon-29 magic spinning angle (MAS) NMR spectroscopy was the purpose of the present work.

  18. Selective coupling of individual electron and nuclear spins with integrated all-spin coherence protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terletska, Hanna; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav

    2015-03-01

    The electron spin of the NV center in diamond is a promising platform for spin sensing. Applying the dynamical decoupling, the NV electron spin can be used to detect the individual weakly coupled carbon-13 nuclear spins in diamond and employ them for small-scale quantum information processing. However, the nuclear spins within this approach remain unprotected from decoherence, which ultimately limits the detection and restricts the fidelity of the quantum operation. Here we investigate possible schemes for combining the resonant decoupling on the NV spin with the decoherence protection of the nuclear spins. Considering several schemes based on pulse and continuous-wave decoupling, we study how the joint electron-nuclear spin dynamics is affected. We identify regimes where the all-spin coherence protection improves the detection and manipulation. We also discuss potential applications of the all-spin decoupling for detecting spins outside diamond, with the purpose of implementing the nanoscale NMR. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences (Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358).

  19. Nuclear spin and isospin excitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Osterfeld

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of our present knowledge of collective spin-isospin excitations in nuclei. Most of this knowledge comes from intermediate-energy charge-exchange reactions and from inelastic electron- and proton-scattering experiments. The nuclear-spin dynamics is governed by the spin-isospin-dependent two-nucleon interaction in the medium. This interaction gives rise to collective spin modes such as the giant Gamow-Teller resonances. An interesting phenomenon

  20. Spin observables and nuclear geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, J. A.; Sparrow, D. A.; Amado, R. D.

    1982-09-01

    The new measurements of polarization P and spin rotation function Q in 500 MeV p-40Ca elastic scattering require geometric differences among the various parts of the p-nucleus interaction. We present a general analytic formalism which defines these differences and shows how the new experiments can be interpreted as interferometric determinations of them. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Closed form spin-dependent p-nucleus scattering amplitudes. Data-to-data relations for polarization and spin rotation.

  1. Nuclear spin noise imaging.

    PubMed

    Müller, Norbert; Jerschow, Alexej

    2006-05-01

    NMR images were obtained from the proton spin noise signals of a water-containing phantom, which was placed in the highly tuned, low-noise resonant circuit of a cryogenically cooled NMR probe in the presence of systematically varied magnetic field gradients. The spatially resolved proton spin density was obtained from the raw signal by a modified projection-reconstruction protocol. Although spin noise imaging is inherently less sensitive than conventional magnetic resonance imaging, it affords an entirely noninvasive visualization of the interior of opaque objects or subjects. Thus, tomography becomes possible even when neither x-ray nor radio frequency radiation can be applied for technical or safety reasons. PMID:16636281

  2. High-spin nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    High-spin spectroscopy is the study of the changes in nuclear structure, properties, and behavior with increasing angular momentum. It involves the complex interplay between collective and single-particle motion, between shape and deformation changes, particle alignments, and changes in the pairing correlations. A review of progress in theory, experimentation, and instrumentation in this field is given. (DWL)

  3. Molecular motions of [Beta]-carotene and a carotenoporphyrin dyad in solution. A carbon-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation time study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Swindle, S.L.; Smith, S.K.; Nieman, R.A.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

    1995-03-09

    Analysis of [sup 13]C NMR spin-lattice relaxation times (T[sub 1]) yields information concerning both overall tumbling of molecules in solution and internal rotations about single bonds. Relaxation time and nuclear Overhauser effect data have been obtained for [Beta]-carotene and two related molecules, squalane and squalene, for zinc meso-tetraphenylporphyrin, and for a dyad consisting of a porphyrin covalently linked to a carotenoid polyene through a trimethylene bridge. Squalane and squalene, which lack conjugated double bonds, behave essentially as limp string, with internal rotations at least as rapid as overall isotropic tumbling motions. In contrast, [Beta]-carotene reorients as a rigid rod, with internal motions which are too slow to affect relaxation times. Modeling it as an anisotropic rotor yields a rotational diffusion coefficient for motion about the major axis which is 14 times larger than that for rotation about axes perpendicular to that axis. The porphyrin reorients more nearly isotropically and features internal librational motions about the single bonds to the phenyl groups. The relaxation time data for the carotenoporphyrin are consistent with internal motions similar to those of a medieval military flail. 31 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Repeated measurements and nuclear spin polarization

    E-print Network

    Lian-Ao Wu

    2010-08-11

    We study repeated (noncontinuous) measurements on the electron spin in a quantum dot and find that the measurement technique may lead to a different met$ or mechanism to realize nuclear spin polarization. While it may be used in any case, the method is aimed at the further polarization, providing that nuclear spins have been polarized by the existent electrical or optical methods. The feasibility of the method is analyzed. The existing techniques in electron spin measurements are applicable to this scheme. The repeated measurements \\emph{deform} the structures of the nuclear wave function and can also serve as $\\emph{gates}$ to manipulate nuclear spins.

  5. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath. This work was supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF CUHK402207, CUHK402209, and CUHK402410. The author acknowledges collaboration with Nan Zhao, Jian-Liang Hu, Sai Wah Ho, Jones T. K. Wan, and Jiangfeng Du.

  6. Submillisecond hyperpolarization of nuclear spins in silicon.

    PubMed

    Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Franke, David P; Stutzmann, Martin; Vlasenko, Leonid S; Itoh, Kohei M; Brandt, Martin S

    2015-03-20

    In this Letter, we devise a fast and effective nuclear spin hyperpolarization scheme, which is, in principle, magnetic field independent. We use this scheme to experimentally demonstrate polarizations of up to 66% for phosphorus donor nuclear spins in bulk silicon, which are created within less than 100???s in a magnetic field of 0.35 T at a temperature of 5 K. The polarization scheme is based on a spin-dependent recombination process via weakly coupled spin pairs, for which the recombination time constant strongly depends on the relative orientation of the two spins. We further use this scheme to measure the nuclear spin relaxation time and find a value of ?100??ms under illumination, in good agreement with the value calculated for nuclear spin flips induced by repeated ionization and deionization processes. PMID:25839308

  7. High-resolution proton and carbon-13 NMR of membranes: why sonicate

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, E.; Bowers, J.L.; Forbes, J.

    1987-11-03

    The authors have obtained high-field (11.7-T) proton and carbon-13 Fourier transform (FT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of egg lecithin and egg lecithin-chloresterol (1:1) multibilayers, using magic-angle sample spinning (MASS) techniques, and sonicated egg lecithin and egg lecithin-cholesterol (1:1) vesicles, using conventional FT NMR methods. Resolution of the proton and carbon-13 MASS NMR spectra of the pure egg lecithin samples is essentially identical with that of sonicated samples, but spectra of the unsonicated lipid, using MASS, can be obtained very much faster than with the more dilute, sonicated systems. With the 1:1 lecithin-cholesterol system, proton MASS NMR spectra are virtually identical with conventional FT spectra of sonicated samples, while the /sup 13/C NMR, the authors demonstrate that most /sup 13/C nuclei in the cholesterol moiety can be monitored, even though these same nuclei are essentially invisible, i.e., are severely broadened, in the corresponding sonicated systems. In addition, /sup 13/C MASS NMR spectra can again be recorded much faster than with sonicated samples, due to concentration effects. Taken together, these results strongly suggest there will seldom be need in the future to resort to ultransonic disruption of lipid bilayer membranes in order to obtain high-resolution proton or carbon-13 NMR spectra.

  8. Dynamic nuclear polarization with single electron spins.

    PubMed

    Petta, J R; Taylor, J M; Johnson, A C; Yacoby, A; Lukin, M D; Marcus, C M; Hanson, M P; Gossard, A C

    2008-02-15

    We polarize nuclear spins in a GaAs double quantum dot by controlling two-electron spin states near the anticrossing of the singlet (S) and m(S)= +1 triplet (T+) using pulsed gates. An initialized S state is cyclically brought into resonance with the T+ state, where hyperfine fields drive rapid rotations between S and T+, "flipping" an electron spin and "flopping" a nuclear spin. The resulting Overhauser field approaches 80 mT, in agreement with a simple rate-equation model. A self-limiting pulse sequence is developed that allows the steady-state nuclear polarization to be set using a gate voltage. PMID:18352516

  9. Nuclear spin noise in NMR revisited

    E-print Network

    Ferrand, Guillaume; Luong, Michel; Desvaux, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical shapes of nuclear spin-noise spectra in NMR are derived by considering a receiver circuit with finite, preamplifier input impedance and a transmission line between the preamplifier and the probe. Using this model, it becomes possible to reproduce all observed experimental features: variation of the NMR resonance linewidth as a function of the transmission line phase, nuclear spin-noise signals appearing as a "bump" or as a "dip" superimposed on the average electronic noise level even for a spin system and probe at the same temperature, pure in-phase Lorentzian spin-noise signals exhibiting non-vanishing frequency shifts. Extensive comparison to experimental measurements validate the model predictions, and define the conditions for obtaining pure in-phase Lorentzian-shape nuclear spin noise with a vanishing frequency shift, in other words, the conditions for simultaneously obtaining the Spin-Noise and Frequency-Shift Tuning Optima.

  10. Conversion of Nuclear Spin Isomers of Ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapovsky, P. L.; Zhivonitko, V. V.; Koptyug, I. V.

    2013-10-01

    A theoretical model of the nuclear spin isomer conversion in C2H4 induced by the intramolecular spin-spin interaction between hydrogen nuclei has been developed. In the ground electronic state, C2H4 has four nuclear spin isomers in contrast to two isomers in the molecules studied so far in this field of research. At the gas pressure of 1 Torr, the rate of conversion between isomers with the nuclear spin symmetries B1u and B2u was found to be 5.2 - 10-4 s-1, which coincides within experimental uncertainties with the rate recently measured by Sun et al. ( Science 2005, 310, 1938 ). It was determined that at low gas pressures the conversion is induced mainly by the mixing of only one pair of rotational states. The calculated pressure dependence of the conversion rate predicts that conversion slows down with increasing pressure at pressures higher than 300 Torr.

  11. Nuclear spin conversion in diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Il'ichev, L. V., E-mail: leonid@iae.nsk.su; Shalagin, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    A mechanism of the internal interaction in dimers that mixes different nuclear spin modifications has been proposed. It has been shown that the intramolecular current associated with transitions between electronic terms of different parities can generate different magnetic fields on nuclei, leading to transitions between spin modifications and to the corresponding changes in rotational states. In the framework of the known quantum relaxation process, this interaction initiates irreversible conversion of nuclear spin modifications. The estimated conversion rate for nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is quite high (10{sup -3}-10{sup -5} s{sup -1})

  12. Nuclear-spin noise and spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleator, Tycho; Hahn, Erwin L.; Hilbert, Claude; Clarke, John

    1987-08-01

    The spontaneous emission from nuclear spins has been observed at liquid-4He temperatures. The spins, 35Cl nuclei, are placed in the inductor of a tuned LCR circuit coupled to a dc superconducting quantum interference device used as a radio-frequency amplifier. When the spins are saturated and have zero polarization, the emission is observed at the nuclear quadrupole Larmor frequency as a bump in the spectral density of the Nyquist noise current in the tuned circuit. This bump arises from the temperature-independent fluctuations in the transverse component of the nuclear magnetization. When the spins are in thermal equilibrium, on the other hand, a dip in the spectral density of the current noise is observed, arising from an induced absorption of noise power from the circuit at the Larmor frequency. The standard circuit-coupled Bloch's equation, modified to take into account radiation damping and transverse spin fluctuations, is consistent with the predictions of the Nyquist theorem and the Einstein equation for spontaneous emission. A spin-pendulum model for spin noise is described. The signal-to-noise ratio obtainable in a spin-noise measurement is discussed.

  13. Coherent manipulation of nuclear spins using spin injection from a half-metallic spin source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Tetsuya; Akiho, Takafumi; Ebina, Yuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system that uses spin injection from a highly polarized spin source. Efficient spin injection into GaAs from a half-metallic spin source of Mn-rich C o2MnSi enabled an efficient dynamic nuclear polarization of Ga and As nuclei in GaAs and a sensitive detection of NMR signals. Moreover, coherent control of nuclear spins, or the Rabi oscillation between two quantum levels formed at Ga nuclei, induced by a pulsed NMR has been demonstrated at a relatively low magnetic field of ˜0.1 T. This provides a novel all-electrical solid-state NMR system with the high spatial resolution and high sensitivity needed to implement scalable nuclear-spin-based qubits.

  14. The spin-temperature theory of dynamic nuclear polarization and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Wollan, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed derivation of the equations governing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and nuclear spin lattice relaxation by use of the spin temperature theory has been carried to second order in a perturbation expansion of the density matrix. Nuclear spin diffusion in the rapid diffusion limit and the effects of the coupling of the electron dipole-dipole reservoir (EDDR) with the nuclear spins are incorporated. The complete expression for the dynamic nuclear polarization has been derived and then examined in detail for the limit of well resolved solid effect transitions. Exactly at the solid effect transition peaks, the conventional solid-effect DNP results are obtained, but with EDDR effects on the nuclear relaxation and DNP leakage factor included. Explicit EDDR contributions to DNP are discussed, and a new DNP effect is predicted.

  15. Detection and Control of Individual Nuclear Spins Using a Weakly Coupled Electron Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Taminiau, T.H.; Wagenaar, J.J.T.; van der Sar, T.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Hanson, R.

    2012-09-28

    We experimentally isolate, characterize, and coherently control up to six individual nuclear spins that are weakly coupled to an electron spin in diamond. Our method employs multipulse sequences on the electron spin that resonantly amplify the interaction with a selected nuclear spin and at the same time dynamically suppress decoherence caused by the rest of the spin bath. We are able to address nuclear spins with interaction strengths that are an order of magnitude smaller than the electron spin dephasing rate. Our results provide a route towards tomography with single-nuclear-spin sensitivity and greatly extend the number of available quantum bits for quantum information processing in diamond.

  16. Nuclear spin effects in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Martin M.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Foreman, Seth M.; Ye Jun [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the effect of nuclear spin on the performance of optical lattice clocks. With a state-mixing theory including spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, we describe the origin of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition and the differential g factor between the two clock states for alkaline-earth-metal(-like) atoms, using {sup 87}Sr as an example. Clock frequency shifts due to magnetic and optical fields are discussed with an emphasis on those relating to nuclear structure. An experimental determination of the differential g factor in {sup 87}Sr is performed and is in good agreement with theory. The magnitude of the tensor light shift on the clock states is also explored experimentally. State specific measurements with controlled nuclear spin polarization are discussed as a method to reduce the nuclear spin-related systematic effects to below 10{sup -17} in lattice clocks.

  17. Nuclear spin cooling using Overhauser field selective coherent population trapping

    E-print Network

    Mena Issler; Eric Kessler; Geza Giedke; Susanne Yelin; Ignacio Cirac; Mikhail Lukin; Atac Imamoglu

    2010-08-20

    Hyperfine interactions with a nuclear spin environment fundamentally limit the coherence properties of confined electron spins in the solid-state. Here, we show that a quantum interference effect in optical absorption from two electronic spin states of a solid-state emitter can be used to prepare the surrounding environment of nuclear spins in well-defined states, thereby suppressing electronic spin dephasing. The evolution of the coupled electron-nuclei system into a coherent population trapping state by optical excitation induced nuclear spin diffusion can be described in terms of Levy flights, in close analogy with sub-recoil laser cooling of atoms. The large difference in electronic and nuclear time scales simultaneously allow for a measurement of the magnetic field produced by nuclear spins, making it possible to turn the lasers that cause the anomalous spin diffusion process off when the strength of the resonance fluorescence reveals that the nuclear spins are in the desired narrow state.

  18. Dynamic nuclear polarization of carbonyl and methyl 13C spins in acetate using trityl OX063

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Lumata, Lloyd

    2015-03-01

    Hyperpolarization via dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a physics technique that amplifies the magnetic resonance signals by several thousand-fold for biomedical NMR spectroscopy and imaging (MRI). Herein we have investigated the effect of carbon-13 isotopic location on the DNP of acetate (one of the biomolecules commonly used for hyperpolarization) at 3.35 T and 1.4 K using a narrow ESR linewidth free radical trityl OX063. We have found that the carbonyl 13C spins yielded about twice the polarization produced in methyl 13C spins. Deuteration of the methyl group, beneficial in the liquid-state, did not produce an improvement in the polarization level at cryogenic conditions. Concurrently, the solid-state nuclear relaxation of these samples correlate with the polarization levels achieved. These results suggest that the location of the 13C isotopic labeling in acetate has a direct impact on the solid-state polarization achieved and is mainly governed by the nuclear relaxation leakage factor.

  19. NUCLEAR SPIN ISOSPIN RESPONSES FOR LOW-ENERGY NEUTRINOS

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    NUCLEAR SPIN ISOSPIN RESPONSES FOR LOW-ENERGY NEUTRINOS Hiroyasu EJIRI Nuclear Physics Laboratory@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp (H. Ejiri). Physics Reports 338 (2000) 265}351 Nuclear spin isospin responses for low-energy Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567 Japan. E-mail address: ejiri

  20. $^{29}$Si nuclear spins as a resource for donor spin qubits in silicon

    E-print Network

    Gary Wolfowicz; Pierre-Andre Mortemousque; Roland Guichard; Stephanie Simmons; Mike L. W. Thewalt; Kohei M. Itoh; John J. L. Morton

    2015-05-08

    Nuclear spin registers in the vicinity of electron spins in solid state systems offer a powerful resource to address the challenge of scalability in quantum architectures. We investigate here the properties of $^{29}$Si nuclear spins surrounding donor atoms in silicon, and consider the use of such spins, combined with the donor nuclear spin, as a quantum register coupled to the donor electron spin. We find the coherence of the nearby $^{29}$Si nuclear spins is effectively protected by the presence of the donor electron spin, leading to coherence times in the second timescale - over two orders of magnitude greater than the coherence times in bulk silicon. We theoretically investigate the use of such a register for quantum error correction, including methods to protect nuclear spins from the ionisation/neutralisation of the donor, which is necessary for the re-initialisation of the ancillae qubits. This provides a route for multi-round quantum error correction using donors in silicon.

  1. Lévy flights in laser cooling of nuclear spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; Chu, Y.; Pick, A.; Aspect, A.; Lukin, M.; Yelin, S.

    2014-05-01

    Interaction between an electronic spin and its surrounding nuclear spin environment is a major source of decoherence in most solid-state spin qubits. We develop a phenomenological model for nuclear spin diffusion in the presence of electronic dark states. As an quantitative example, we study the diffusion in 13C nuclear spin bath of an NV- impurity in diamond. We use this model to predict that the nuclear diffusion time-scales exhibit Lévy statistics-- enabling nuclear spins to remain trapped in certain configurations for long times. We comment on observing such statistics by measuring photon scattering rates that are dependent on nuclear diffusion rates, leading to quantitative measurements of the non-equilibrium bath dynamics in such central-spin systems.

  2. Coherence and Control of Quantum Registers Based on Electronic Spin in a Nuclear Spin Bath

    E-print Network

    Hodges, Jonathan S.

    We consider a protocol for the control of few-qubit registers comprising one electronic spin embedded in a nuclear spin bath. We show how to isolate a few proximal nuclear spins from the rest of the bath and use them as ...

  3. State preparation and metrology of nitrogen nuclear spin in diamond

    E-print Network

    Bang, Kilhyun

    2012-01-01

    steady-state population of N nuclear spin can be achievepopulation back from |0, ? GS to |?1, ? with the the dynamic nuclearnuclear spin polarization at the steady state is available from the rate equations. The population

  4. Coherent Control of a Single Silicon-29 Nuclear Spin Qubit

    E-print Network

    Jarryd J. Pla; Fahd A. Mohiyaddin; Kuan Y. Tan; Juan P. Dehollain; Rajib Rahman; Gerhard Klimeck; David N. Jamieson; Andrew S. Dzurak; Andrea Morello

    2014-08-06

    Magnetic fluctuations caused by the nuclear spins of a host crystal are often the leading source of decoherence for many types of solid-state spin qubit. In group-IV materials, the spin-bearing nuclei are sufficiently rare that it is possible to identify and control individual host nuclear spins. This work presents the first experimental detection and manipulation of a single $^{29}$Si nuclear spin. The quantum non-demolition (QND) single-shot readout of the spin is demonstrated, and a Hahn echo measurement reveals a coherence time of $T_2 = 6.3(7)$ ms - in excellent agreement with bulk experiments. Atomistic modeling combined with extracted experimental parameters provides possible lattice sites for the $^{29}$Si atom under investigation. These results demonstrate that single $^{29}$Si nuclear spins could serve as a valuable resource in a silicon spin-based quantum computer.

  5. Uncovering many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths by central spin decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wen-Long; Wolfowicz, Gary; Zhao, Nan; Li, Shu-Shen; Morton, John J. L.; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-09-01

    Central spin decoherence caused by nuclear spin baths is often a critical issue in various quantum computing schemes, and it has also been used for sensing single-nuclear spins. Recent theoretical studies suggest that central spin decoherence can act as a probe of many-body physics in spin baths; however, identification and detection of many-body correlations of nuclear spins in nanoscale systems are highly challenging. Here, taking a phosphorus donor electron spin in a 29Si nuclear spin bath as our model system, we discover both theoretically and experimentally that many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths produce identifiable signatures in decoherence of the central spin under multiple-pulse dynamical decoupling control. We demonstrate that under control by an odd or even number of pulses, the central spin decoherence is principally caused by second- or fourth-order nuclear spin correlations, respectively. This study marks an important step toward studying many-body physics using spin qubits.

  6. Uncovering many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths by central spin decoherence

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wen-Long; Wolfowicz, Gary; Zhao, Nan; Li, Shu-Shen; Morton, John J.L.; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Central spin decoherence caused by nuclear spin baths is often a critical issue in various quantum computing schemes, and it has also been used for sensing single-nuclear spins. Recent theoretical studies suggest that central spin decoherence can act as a probe of many-body physics in spin baths; however, identification and detection of many-body correlations of nuclear spins in nanoscale systems are highly challenging. Here, taking a phosphorus donor electron spin in a 29Si nuclear spin bath as our model system, we discover both theoretically and experimentally that many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths produce identifiable signatures in decoherence of the central spin under multiple-pulse dynamical decoupling control. We demonstrate that under control by an odd or even number of pulses, the central spin decoherence is principally caused by second- or fourth-order nuclear spin correlations, respectively. This study marks an important step toward studying many-body physics using spin qubits. PMID:25205440

  7. Robust control of individual nuclear spins in diamond

    E-print Network

    Benjamin Smeltzer; Jean McIntyre; Lilian Childress

    2009-09-22

    Isolated nuclear spins offer a promising building block for quantum information processing systems, but their weak interactions often impede preparation, control, and detection. Hyperfine coupling to a proximal electronic spin can enhance each of these processes. Using the electronic spin of the nitrogen-vacancy center as an intermediary, we demonstrate robust initialization, single-qubit manipulation, and direct optical readout of 13C, 15N, and 14N nuclear spins in diamond. These results pave the way for nitrogen nuclear spin based quantum information architectures in diamond.

  8. Chemical distinction by nuclear spin optical rotation.

    PubMed

    Ikäläinen, Suvi; Romalis, Michael V; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2010-10-01

    Nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR) arising from the Faraday effect constitutes a novel, advantageous method for detection of nuclear magnetic resonance, provided that a distinction is seen between different chemical surroundings of magnetic nuclei. Efficient first-principles calculations for isolated water, ethanol, nitromethane, and urea molecules at standard laser wavelengths reveal a range of NSOR for different molecules and inequivalent nuclei, indicating the existence of an optical chemical shift. 1H results for H2O(l) are in excellent agreement with recent pioneering experiments. We also evaluate, for the same systems, the Verdet constants of Faraday rotation due to an external magnetic field. Calculations of NSOR in ethanol and a 11-cis-retinal protonated Schiff base imply an enhanced chemical distinction between chromophores at laser wavelengths approaching optical resonance. PMID:21230897

  9. Chemical Distinction by Nuclear Spin Optical Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikäläinen, Suvi; Romalis, Michael V.; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2010-10-01

    Nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR) arising from the Faraday effect constitutes a novel, advantageous method for detection of nuclear magnetic resonance, provided that a distinction is seen between different chemical surroundings of magnetic nuclei. Efficient first-principles calculations for isolated water, ethanol, nitromethane, and urea molecules at standard laser wavelengths reveal a range of NSOR for different molecules and inequivalent nuclei, indicating the existence of an optical chemical shift. H1 results for H2O(l) are in excellent agreement with recent pioneering experiments. We also evaluate, for the same systems, the Verdet constants of Faraday rotation due to an external magnetic field. Calculations of NSOR in ethanol and a 11-cis-retinal protonated Schiff base imply an enhanced chemical distinction between chromophores at laser wavelengths approaching optical resonance.

  10. Detecting and Polarizing Nuclear Spins with Double Resonance on a Single Electron Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, P.; Scheuer, J.; Cai, J.-M.; Schwarz, I.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.; Katagiri, M.; Teraji, T.; Koizumi, S.; Isoya, J.; Fischer, R.; McGuinness, L. P.; Naydenov, B.; Jelezko, F.

    2013-08-01

    We report the detection and polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at room temperature by using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. We use Hartmann-Hahn double resonance to coherently enhance the signal from a single nuclear spin while decoupling from the noisy spin bath, which otherwise limits the detection sensitivity. As a proof of principle, we (i) observe coherent oscillations between the NV center and a weakly coupled nuclear spin and (ii) demonstrate nuclear-bath cooling, which prolongs the coherence time of the NV sensor by more than a factor of 5. Our results provide a route to nanometer scale magnetic resonance imaging and novel quantum information processing protocols.

  11. Nuclear magnetic spin-rotational relaxation times for linear molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James McConnell

    1982-01-01

    The stochastic differential equation study of nuclear magnetic relaxation by spin-rotational interactions is applied to the linear rotator model of the molecule. Inertial effects are included in the calculations, which are performed analytically. Expressions are derived for the spin-rotational contributions to the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times, and for the spin-rotational correlation time.

  12. Squeezing and entangling nuclear spins in helium 3

    E-print Network

    Gael Reinaudi; Alice Sinatra; Aurelien Dantan; Michel Pinard

    2006-01-09

    We present a realistic model for transferring the squeezing or the entanglement of optical field modes to the collective ground state nuclear spin of $^3$He using metastability exchange collisions. We discuss in detail the requirements for obtaining good quantum state transfer efficiency and study the possibility to readout the nuclear spin state optically.

  13. Nuclear spin polarization in silicon nanostructures with charge carrier injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Danilyuk; V. E. Borisenko

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically examine injection polarization of nuclear spins in silicon nanostructures with hyperfine interaction of nuclei\\u000a with excited triplet states. We predict the possibility of the appearance of self-sustaining nuclear spin polarization, initiated\\u000a by an external field. We show that if the external magnetic field is varied, we observe up to a 600-fold jump in the number\\u000a of spin-polarized nuclei.

  14. Nuclear spin polarization in silicon nanostructures with charge carrier injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Danilyuk; V. E. Borisenko

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically examine injection polarization of nuclear spins in silicon nanostructures with hyperfine interaction of nuclei with excited triplet states. We predict the possibility of the appearance of self-sustaining nuclear spin polarization, initiated by an external field. We show that if the external magnetic field is varied, we observe up to a 600-fold jump in the number of spin-polarized nuclei.

  15. Nuclear spin polarization transfer across an organic-semiconductor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, Lucas; Michal, Carl A.

    2003-11-01

    Motivated by Tycko's proposal to harness optically pumped nuclear spin polarization for the enhancement of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from biological macromolecules, we investigate the transfer of thermal nuclear spin polarization between 1H or 19F in an organic overlayer and 31P at the surface of micron-sized InP particles by Hartmann-Hahn cross polarization. Comparison with analytic and numerical models indicates that the total quantity of polarization transferred across the semiconductor-organic interface is limited by the relatively short room-temperature 1H T1? (11 ms) and the slow diffusion of nuclear spin polarization in the semiconductor. Models and spin-counting experiments indicate that we are able to transfer approximately 20% of the total nuclear spin polarization originating in the organic overlayer to the semiconductor, supporting the feasibility of transferred optically pumped NMR.

  16. Decoherence of nuclear spins in the frozen core of an electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, R.; Balian, S. J.; Wolfowicz, G.; Mortemousque, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2015-06-01

    Hybrid qubit systems combining electronic spins with nearby ("proximate") nuclear spin registers offer a promising avenue towards quantum information processing, with even multispin error-correction protocols recently demonstrated in diamond. However, for the important platform offered by spins of donor atoms in cryogenically cooled silicon, decoherence mechanisms of 29Si proximate nuclear spins are not yet well understood. The reason is partly because proximate spins lie within a so-called "frozen core" region where the donor electronic hyperfine interaction strongly suppresses nuclear dynamics. We investigate the decoherence of a central proximate nuclear qubit arising from quantum spin baths outside, as well as inside, the frozen core around the donor electron. We consider the effect of a very large nuclear spin bath comprising many (?108 ) weakly contributing pairs outside the frozen core (the "far bath"). We also propose that there may be an important contribution from a few (of order 100) symmetrically sited nuclear spin pairs ("equivalent pairs"), which were not previously considered because their effect is negligible outside the frozen core. If equivalent pairs represent a measurable source of decoherence, nuclear coherence decays could provide sensitive probes of the symmetries of electronic wave functions. For the phosphorus donor system, we obtain T2 n values of order 1 second for both the far-bath and equivalent-pair models, confirming the suitability of proximate nuclei in silicon as very-long-lived spin qubits.

  17. Simulation of extended periodic systems of nuclear spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Paul; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Emsley, Lyndon

    2000-08-01

    Simulations of exact spin dynamics in systems of multiple nuclear spins are limited to relatively small numbers of spins by the large size of the Hamiltonian matrices for dipolar-coupled spin systems. We propose using the translational symmetry of periodic (crystalline) systems to block-diagonalize both the Hamiltonian and the density matrix and thus extend the range of exact calculation. Although this method has general application whenever the density matrix treatment is valid, the method is illustrated using simulations of spin diffusion in one-dimensional spin-1/2 lattices. Clear evidence of convergence towards the limit of an infinitely extended lattice is seen.

  18. Spin Modes in Nuclei and Nuclear Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshio [Department of Physics and Graduate School of Integrated Basic Sciences, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan) and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Otsuka, Takaharu [Department of Physics and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-05-06

    Spin modes in stable and unstable exotic nuclei are studied and important roles of tensor and three-body forces on nuclear structure are discussed. New shell model Hamiltonians, which have proper tensor components, are shown to explain shell evolutions toward drip-lines and spin properties of both stable and exotic nuclei, for example, Gamow-Teller transitions in {sup 12}C and {sup 14}C and an anomalous M1 transition in {sup 17}C. The importance and the necessity of the repulsive monopole corrections in isospin T = 1 channel to the microscopic two-body interactions are pointed out. The corrections are shown to lead to the proper shell evolutions in neutron-rich isotopes. The three-body force, in particular the Fujita-Miyazawa force induced by {Delta} excitations, is pointed out to be responsible for the repulsive corrections among the valence neutrons. The important roles of the three-body force on the energies and transitions in exotic oxygen and calcium isotopes are demonstrated.

  19. Protection of centre spin coherence by dynamic nuclear spin polarization in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang-Qin; Jiang, Qian-Qing; Chang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Dong-Qi; Li, Wu-Xia; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Po, Hoi Chun; Zhang, Wen-Xian; Zhao, Nan; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2014-08-01

    We experimentally investigate the protection of electron spin coherence of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond by dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP). The electron spin decoherence of an NV centre is caused by the magnetic field fluctuation of the 13C nuclear spin bath, which contributes large thermal fluctuation to the centre electron spin when it is in an equilibrium state at room temperature. To address this issue, we continuously transfer the angular momentum from electron spin to nuclear spins, and pump the nuclear spin bath to a polarized state under the Hartmann-Hahn condition. The bath polarization effect is verified by the observation of prolongation of the electron spin coherence time (T*2). Optimal conditions for the DNP process, including the pumping pulse duration and repeat numbers, are proposed by numerical simulation and confirmed by experiment. We also studied the depolarization effect of laser pulses. Our results provide a new route for quantum information processing and quantum simulation using the polarized nuclear spin bath.

  20. Fast Electrical Control of Single Electron Spins in Quantum Dots with Vanishing Influence from Nuclear Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, J.; Otsuka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takakura, T.; Obata, T.; Pioro-Ladrière, M.; Lu, H.; Palmstrøm, C. J.; Gossard, A. C.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate fast universal electrical spin manipulation with inhomogeneous magnetic fields. With fast Rabi frequency up to 127 MHz, we leave the conventional regime of strong nuclear-spin influence and observe a spin-flip fidelity >96 % , a distinct chevron Rabi pattern in the spectral-time domain, and a spin resonance linewidth limited by the Rabi frequency, not by the dephasing rate. In addition, we establish fast z rotations up to 54 MHz by directly controlling the spin phase. Our findings will significantly facilitate tomography and error correction with electron spins in quantum dots.

  1. Room temperature hyperpolarization of nuclear spins in bulk

    PubMed Central

    Tateishi, Kenichiro; Negoro, Makoto; Nishida, Shinsuke; Kagawa, Akinori; Morita, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), a means of transferring spin polarization from electrons to nuclei, can enhance the nuclear spin polarization (hence the NMR sensitivity) in bulk materials at most 660 times for 1H spins, using electron spins in thermal equilibrium as polarizing agents. By using electron spins in photo-excited triplet states instead, DNP can overcome the above limit. We demonstrate a 1H spin polarization of 34%, which gives an enhancement factor of 250,000 in 0.40 T, while maintaining a bulk sample (?0.6 mg, ?0.7 × 0.7 × 1 mm3) containing >1019 1H spins at room temperature. Room temperature hyperpolarization achieved with DNP using photo-excited triplet electrons has potentials to be applied to a wide range of fields, including NMR spectroscopy and MRI as well as fundamental physics. PMID:24821773

  2. Anisotropic nuclear-spin diffusion in double quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, T.; Kume, W.; Watanabe, S.; Akiba, K.; Nagase, K.; Hirayama, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear spin diffusion in double quantum wells (QWs) is examined by using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at a Landau level filling factor ? =2 /3 spin phase transition (SPT). The longitudinal resistance increases during the DNP of one of the two QW (the "polarization QW") by means of a large applied current and starts to decrease just after the termination of the DNP. On the other hand, the longitudinal resistance of the other QW (the "detection QW") continuously increases for approximately 2 h after the termination of the DNP of the polarization QW. It is therefore concluded that the nuclear spins diffuse from the polarization QW to the detection QW. The time evolution of the longitudinal resistance of the polarization QW is explained mainly by the nuclear spin diffusion in the in-plane direction. In contrast, that of the detection QW manifests much slower nuclear diffusion in the perpendicular direction through the AlGaAs barrier.

  3. Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Spin Echoes MIT Department of Physics

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Spin Echoes MIT Department of Physics (Dated: February 5, 2014) In this experiment, the phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is used to determine the magnetic moments-factor in atomic spectroscopy and is given by g = (µ/µN )/I, (2) and µN is the nuclear magneton, e /2mp

  4. Characterization of High-Tannin Fractions from Humus by Carbon-13 Cross-Polarization and Magic-Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    E-print Network

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    be found in various parts of many plants. Also, northern black spruce forests develop nutrientUnlike lignin the emulsified one. As both tannin- forest site on northern Vancouver Island were depleted rich humus fractions were depleted in N and high in structures derived in N, and high in lignin and cutin structures. from

  5. Engineering Nuclear spin has now been associated with Nobel Prizes

    E-print Network

    Chemical Engineering Nuclear spin has now been associated with Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry-2003, Professor Reimer won the Donald Sterling Noyce Prize, the AIChE Northern California Section Award and the UC

  6. Nuclear magnetic spin-rotational relaxation times for symmetric molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James McConnell

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of calculating times related to nuclear magnetic spin-rotational interactions may be solved for the symmetric rotator model of a molecule by employing the method already proposed in a general manner for asymmetric molecules that undergo rotational thermal motion. Expressions are derived for the spin-rotational correlation time and for the contributions arising from spin-rotational interactions

  7. Robust Dynamical Decoupling Sequences for Individual Nuclear Spin Addressing

    E-print Network

    J. Casanova; J. F. Haase; Z. -Y. Wang; M. B. Plenio

    2015-06-11

    We propose the use of non-equally spaced decoupling pulses for high-resolution selective addressing of nuclear spins by a quantum sensor. The analytical model of the basic operating principle is supplemented by detailed numerical studies that demonstrate the high degree of selectivity and the robustness against static and dynamic control field errors of this scheme. We exemplify our protocol with an NV center-based sensor to demonstrate that it enables the identification of individual nuclear spins that form part of a large spin ensemble.

  8. Concerted two-dimensional NMR approaches to hydrogen-1, carbon-13, and nitrogen-15 resonance assignments in proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, B.J.; Reily, M.D.; Westler, W.M.; Ulrich, E.L.; Markley, J.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1989-01-10

    When used in concert, one-bond carbon-carbon correlations, one-bond and multiple-bond proton-carbon correlations, and multiple-bond proton-nitrogen correlations, derived from two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra of isotopically enriched proteins, provide a reliable method of assigning proton, carbon, and nitrogen resonances. In contrast to procedures that simply extend proton assignments to carbon or nitrogen resonances, this technique assigns proton, carbon, and nitrogen resonances coordinately on the basis of their integrated coupling networks. Redundant spin coupling pathways provide ways of resolving overlaps frequently encountered in homonuclear {sup 1}H 2D NMR spectra and facilitate the elucidation of complex proton spin systems. Carbon-carbon and proton-carbon couplings can be used to bridge the aromatic and aliphatic parts of proton spin systems; this avoids possible ambiguities that may result from the use of nuclear Overhauser effects to assign aromatic amino acid signals. The technique is illustrated for Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin and cytochrome c-553, both uniformly enriched with carbon-13 (26%) or nitrogen-15 (98%).

  9. Optical Control of Nuclear Spin Ensembles in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jonathan; Reimer, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    We present new results on the hyperpolarization of ^13C nuclear spins in diamond through optically-oriented nitrogen vacancy (NV-) defects. Optical illumination of high NV- concentration diamonds at cryogenic temperatures and 9.4 Tesla results in a negative nuclear spin temperature with measured bulk-average polarization over 5%, although local polarization may be higher. The negative spin-temperature is attributed to a population inversion within the dipolar energy levels of the NV- spin ensemble. In our quantitative model, nuclei near defects equilibrate with the NV- dipolar energy reservoir and polarization is transported to the bulk material via spin diffusion. This model is tested by investigating a series of samples with varied defect density. We also investigate the nuclear hyperpolarization of NV- containing diamond nanocrystals. Such materials may be useful for surface transfer of polarization to target molecules for enhanced NMR sensitivity. Additionally, we investigate the dynamics and decoherence of the hyperpolarized nuclear spin ensemble and its interaction with electronic defect spins. Such phenomena are of fundamental interest to the use of diamond for quantum information applications.

  10. Flux noise in SQUIDs: Electron versus nuclear spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Rogerio; Laforest, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are limited by intrinsic flux noise whose origin is unknown. We develop a method to accurately calculate the flux produced by spin impurities in realistic superconducting thin film wires, and show that the flux produced by each spin is much larger than anticipated by former calculations. Remarkably, the total flux noise power due to electron spins at the thin side surface of the wires is found to be of similar magnitude as the one due to electrons at the wide top surface of the wires. In addition, flux noise due to lattice nuclear spins in the bulk of the wires is found to be a sizable fraction of the total noise for some SQUID geometries. We discuss the relative importance of electron and nuclear spin species in determining the total noise power, and propose strategies to design SQUIDs with lower flux noise. We acknowledge support from the Canadian agency NSERC through its Discovery and Engage programs.

  11. Nuclear-spin observation of noise spectra in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Susumu; Yuge, Tatsuro; Nishimori, Masashi; Kawanago, Takashi; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2013-12-01

    We propose a systematic method of obtaining the spectra of noises that cause the decoherence of spins in solids. Based on this method, we experimentally show that this method can be applied to nuclear spins in semiconductors. We clarify that the spectral intensity must be derived from the long-time tail of the multiple-echo decay. To obtain higher-frequency noise, the inversion-pulse interval must be as short as possible, which required us to employ the alternating-phase Carr-Purcell sequence instead of the widely used Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill. For 75As nuclear spin in variously-doped GaAs, we observed a Lorentzian spectrum, instead of the commonly observed 1/f spectrum. This indicates that the nuclear spins are indeed in a coherently-controlled state.

  12. Nuclear-spin observation of noise spectra in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Susumu; Nishimori, Masashi; Kawanago, Takashi [Department of Materials Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Yuge, Tatsuro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hirayama, Yoshiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan and JST-ERATO Nuclear Spin Electronics Project, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We propose a systematic method of obtaining the spectra of noises that cause the decoherence of spins in solids. Based on this method, we experimentally show that this method can be applied to nuclear spins in semiconductors. We clarify that the spectral intensity must be derived from the long-time tail of the multiple-echo decay. To obtain higher-frequency noise, the inversion-pulse interval must be as short as possible, which required us to employ the alternating-phase Carr-Purcell sequence instead of the widely used Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill. For {sup 75}As nuclear spin in variously-doped GaAs, we observed a Lorentzian spectrum, instead of the commonly observed 1/f spectrum. This indicates that the nuclear spins are indeed in a coherently-controlled state.

  13. Nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation in diatomic molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Dzuba, V. A.; Beloy, K.; Flambaum, V. V.; Schwerdtfeger, P.

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear-spin-dependent (NSD) parity-violating (PV) effects can be strongly enhanced in diatomic molecules containing heavy atoms. Future measurements are anticipated to provide nuclear anapole moments and strength constants for PV nuclear forces. In light molecules, the NSD electroweak electron-nucleus interaction may also be detected. Here we calculate NSD PV effects for molecular ions. Our calculations are motivated by rapid developments in trapping techniques for such systems at low temperatures.

  14. Spin constraints on nuclear energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robledo, L. M.; Bernard, R. N.; Bertsch, G. F.

    2014-02-01

    The Gallagher-Moszkowski rule in the spectroscopy of odd-odd nuclei imposes a new spin constraint on the energy functionals for self-consistent mean field theory. The commonly used parametrization of the effective three-body interaction in the Gogny and Skyrme families of energy functionals is ill suited to satisfy the spin constraint. In particular, the Gogny parametrization of the three-body interaction has the spin dependence opposite to that required by the observed spectra. The two-body part has a correct sign, but in combination the rule is violated as often as not. We conclude that a new functional form is needed for the effective three-body interaction that can take into better account the different spin-isospin channels of the interaction.

  15. Nuclear Spin Relaxation in Acetylene Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myong-Ku Ahn; Charles S. Johnson Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Proton spin–lattice relaxation times (T1) have been measured in acetylene gas between ?50 °C and 19°C using a CAT for signal averaging. T1 was found to depend linearly on the number density &rgr; in the range of these measurements (0.1 to 0.9 amagat). The temperature dependence of the ratio T1?&rgr; indicates that the spin–rotational interaction provides the dominant relaxation mechanism.

  16. Fast Room-Temperature Phase Gate on a Single Nuclear Spin in Diamond

    E-print Network

    S. Sangtawesin; T. O. Brundage; J. R. Petta

    2014-07-14

    Nuclear spins support long lived quantum coherence due to weak coupling to the environment, but are difficult to rapidly control using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a result of the small nuclear magnetic moment. We demonstrate a fast ~ 500 ns nuclear spin phase gate on a 14N nuclear spin qubit intrinsic to a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. The phase gate is enabled by the hyperfine interaction and off-resonance driving of electron spin transitions. Repeated applications of the phase gate bang-bang decouple the nuclear spin from the environment, locking the spin state for up to ~ 140 microseconds.

  17. Combustion resistance of the 129Xe hyperpolarized nuclear spin state.

    PubMed

    Stupic, Karl F; Six, Joseph S; Olsen, Michael D; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Using a methane-xenon mixture for spin exchange optical pumping, MRI of combustion was enabled. The (129)Xe hyperpolarized nuclear spin state was found to sufficiently survive the complete passage through the harsh environment of the reaction zone. A velocity profile (V(z)(z)) of a flame was recorded to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI velocimetry of transport processes in combustors. PMID:23165418

  18. The nuclear spin response to intermediate energy protons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. Baker; L. Bimbot; B. Castel; R. W. Fergerson; C. Glashausser; A. Green; O. Hausser; K. Hicks; K. Jones; C. A. Miller; S. K. Nanda; R. D. Smith; M. Vetterli; J. Wambach; R. Abegg; D. Beatty; V. Cupps; C. Djalali; R. Henderson; K. P. Jackson; R. Jeppeson; J. Lisantti; M. Morlet; R. Sawafta; W. Unkelbach; A. Willis; S. Yen

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the spin-flip probability Snn for inclusive inelastic proton scattering around 300 MeV from nuclei between 12C and 90Zr show that an enhanced spin response near 40 MeV excitation at q ~ 100 MeV\\/c is a general feature of nuclear structure. Data for 40Ca at 800 MeV confirm that the enhancement is not a peculiarity of 300 MeV scattering.

  19. Quantum and classical correlations in electron-nuclear spin echo

    SciTech Connect

    Zobov, V. E., E-mail: rsa@iph.krasn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    The quantum properties of dynamic correlations in a system of an electron spin surrounded by nuclear spins under the conditions of free induction decay and electron spin echo have been studied. Analytical results for the time evolution of mutual information, classical part of correlations, and quantum part characterized by quantum discord have been obtained within the central-spin model in the high-temperature approximation. The same formulas describe discord in both free induction decay and spin echo although the time and magnetic field dependences are different because of difference in the parameters entering into the formulas. Changes in discord in the presence of the nuclear polarization ?{sub I} in addition to the electron polarization ?{sub S} have been calculated. It has been shown that the method of reduction of the density matrix to a two-spin electron-nuclear system provides a qualitatively correct description of pair correlations playing the main role at ?{sub S} ? ?{sub I} and small times. At large times, such correlations decay and multispin correlations ensuring nonzero mutual information and zero quantum discord become dominant.

  20. Spin instabilities of infinite nuclear matter and effective tensor interactions

    E-print Network

    J. Navarro; A. Polls

    2013-04-09

    We study the effects of the tensor force, present in modern effective nucleon-nucleon interactions, in the spin instability of nuclear and neutron matter. Stability conditions of the system against certain very low energy excitation modes are expressed in terms of Landau parameters. It is shown that in the spin case, the stability conditions are equivalent to the condition derived from the spin susceptibility, which is obtained as the zero-frequency and long-wavelength limit of the spin response function calculated in the Random Phase Approximation. Zero-range forces of the Skyrme type and finite-range forces of M3Y and Gogny type are analyzed. It is shown that for the Skyrme forces considered, the tensor effects are sizeable, and tend to increase the spin instability which appears at smaller densities than in the case that the tensor is not taken into account. On the contrary, the tensor contribution of finite range forces to the spin susceptibility is small or negligible for both isospin channels of symmetric nuclear matter as well as for neutron matter. A comparison with the spin susceptibility provided by realistic interactions is also presented.

  1. Optical Polarization of Nuclear Spins in Silicon Carbide.

    PubMed

    Falk, Abram L; Klimov, Paul V; Ivády, Viktor; Szász, Krisztián; Christle, David J; Koehl, William F; Gali, Ádám; Awschalom, David D

    2015-06-19

    We demonstrate optically pumped dynamic nuclear polarization of ^{29}Si nuclear spins that are strongly coupled to paramagnetic color centers in 4H- and 6H-SiC. The 99%±1% degree of polarization that we observe at room temperature corresponds to an effective nuclear temperature of 5???K. By combining ab initio theory with the experimental identification of the color centers' optically excited states, we quantitatively model how the polarization derives from hyperfine-mediated level anticrossings. These results lay a foundation for SiC-based quantum memories, nuclear gyroscopes, and hyperpolarized probes for magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26197014

  2. Optical Polarization of Nuclear Spins in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Abram L.; Klimov, Paul V.; Ivády, Viktor; Szász, Krisztián; Christle, David J.; Koehl, William F.; Gali, Ádám; Awschalom, David D.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate optically pumped dynamic nuclear polarization of 29Si nuclear spins that are strongly coupled to paramagnetic color centers in 4 H - and 6 H -SiC. The 9 9 % ±1 % degree of polarization that we observe at room temperature corresponds to an effective nuclear temperature of 5 ? K . By combining ab initio theory with the experimental identification of the color centers' optically excited states, we quantitatively model how the polarization derives from hyperfine-mediated level anticrossings. These results lay a foundation for SiC-based quantum memories, nuclear gyroscopes, and hyperpolarized probes for magnetic resonance imaging.

  3. Carbon-13 Labeling Used to Probe Cure and Degradation Reactions of High- Temperature Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, J. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    High-temperature, crosslinked polyimides are typically insoluble, intractible materials. Consequently, in these systems it has been difficult to follow high-temperature curing or long-term degradation reactions on a molecular level. Selective labeling of the polymers with carbon-13, coupled with solid nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), enables these reactions to be followed. We successfully employed this technique to provide insight into both curing and degradation reactions of PMR-15, a polymer matrix resin used extensively in aircraft engine applications.

  4. Local probing of nuclear bath polarization with a single electronic spin

    E-print Network

    Paz London; Ran Fischer; Ignacio Alvizu; Jeronimo R. Maze; David Gershoni

    2015-05-22

    We demonstrate experimentally that a polarized nuclear spin modifies the dynamic behavior of a neighboring electronic spin. Specifically, an out-of-phase component appears in the electronic spin-echo signal. This component is proportional to the nuclear spin degree of polarization and strongly depends on the nuclear polarization direction. When the electronic spin is surrounded by a polarized nuclear spin bath, the spin-echo quadrature manifests a characteristic frequency related only to the nuclear spins abundance and their collective polarization. We use this analysis to propose a novel measurement method for the local nuclear spin bath of a single electronic spin. We quantify the realistic experimental regimes at which the scheme is efficient. Our proposal has potential applications for quantum sensing schemes, and opens a route for a systematic study of polarized mesoscopical-systems.

  5. Dynamics of a mesoscopic nuclear spin ensemble interacting with an optically driven electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, M. J.; Matthiesen, C.; Hansom, J.; Le Gall, C.; Schulte, C. H. H.; Clarke, E.; Atatüre, M.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to discriminate between simultaneously occurring noise sources in the local environment of semiconductor InGaAs quantum dots, such as electric and magnetic field fluctuations, is key to understanding their respective dynamics and their effect on quantum dot coherence properties. We present a discriminatory approach to all-optical sensing based on two-color resonance fluorescence of a quantum dot charged with a single electron. Our measurements show that local magnetic field fluctuations due to nuclear spins in the absence of an external magnetic field are described by two correlation times, both in the microsecond regime. The nuclear spin bath dynamics show a strong dependence on the strength of resonant probing, with correlation times increasing by a factor of 4 as the optical transition is saturated. We interpret the behavior as motional averaging of both the Knight field of the resident electron spin and the hyperfine-mediated nuclear spin-spin interaction due to optically induced electron spin flips.

  6. Coherent control of hyperfine-coupled electron and nuclear spins for quantum information processing

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jamie Chiaming

    2008-01-01

    Coupled electron-nuclear spins are promising physical systems for quantum information processing: By combining the long coherence times of the nuclear spins with the ability to initialize, control, and measure the electron ...

  7. Engineering nuclear spin dynamics with optically pumped nitrogen-vacancy center

    E-print Network

    Ping Wang; Jiangfeng Du; Wen Yang

    2015-03-01

    We present a general theory for using an optically pumped diamond nitrogen-vacancy center as a tunable, non-equilibrium bath to control a variety of nuclear spin dynamics (such as dephasing, relaxation, squeezing, polarization, etc.) and the nuclear spin noise. It opens a new avenue towards engineering the dissipative and collective nuclear spin evolution and solves an open problem brought up by the $^{13}$C nuclear spin noise suppression experiment [E. Togan \\textit{et al}., Nature 478, 497 (2011)].

  8. A silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Kane

    1998-01-01

    Quantum computers promise to exceed the computational efficiency of ordinary classical machines because quantum algorithms allow the execution of certain tasks in fewer steps. But practical implementation of these machines poses a formidable challenge. Here I present a scheme for implementing a quantum-mechanical computer. Information is encoded onto the nuclear spins of donor atoms in doped silicon electronic devices. Logical

  9. Creating nuclear spin entanglement using an optical degree of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffry, Marcus [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lovett, Brendon W. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); SUPA, Department of Physics, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Gauger, Erik M. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    Molecular nanostructures are promising building blocks for future quantum technologies, provided methods of harnessing their multiple degrees of freedom can be identified and implemented. Due to low decoherence rates, nuclear spins are considered ideal candidates for storing quantum information, while optical excitations can give rise to fast and controllable interactions for information processing. A recent paper [M. Schaffry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200501 (2010)] proposed a method for entangling two nuclear spins through their mutual coupling to a transient optically excited electron spin. Building on the same idea, we present here an extended and much more detailed theoretical framework, showing that this method is in fact applicable to a much wider class of molecular structures than previously discussed in the original proposal.

  10. Nuclear Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Comagnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kornack, T.W.; Ghosh, R.K.; Romalis, M.V. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08550 (United States)

    2005-12-02

    We describe a nuclear spin gyroscope based on an alkali-metal-noble-gas comagnetometer. Optically pumped alkali-metal vapor is used to polarize the noble-gas atoms and detect their gyroscopic precession. Spin precession due to magnetic fields as well as their gradients and transients can be cancelled in this arrangement. The sensitivity is enhanced by using a high-density alkali-metal vapor in a spin-exchange relaxation free regime. With a K-{sup 3}He comagnetometer we demonstrate rotation sensitivity of 5x10{sup -7} rad s{sup -1} Hz{sup -1/2}, equivalent to a magnetic field sensitivity of 2.5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The rotation signal can be increased by a factor of 10 using {sup 21}Ne with a smaller magnetic moment. The comagnetometer is also a promising tool in searches for anomalous spin couplings beyond the standard model.

  11. Cooling of Nuclear Spins in Diamond via Dark State Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; Pick, Adi; Lukin, Mikhail; Yelin, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    Interaction between an electronic state and its surrounding nuclear spin environment is a major source of decoherence in most artificial atomic systems. Recently, optical pumping techniques, including coherent population trapping were used to monitor and control the nuclear bath surrounding such solid state systems. We develop a semi-classical model reminiscent of VSCPT in atomic physics to explain the anomalous diffusion in the nuclear bath. We test our model by using it to explain the dark time distribution in experiments with NV centers in diamond.

  12. Fast Room-Temperature Phase Gate on a Single Nuclear Spin in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangtawesin, S.; Brundage, T. O.; Petta, J. R.

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear spins support long lived quantum coherence due to weak coupling to the environment, but are difficult to rapidly control using nuclear magnetic resonance as a result of the small nuclear magnetic moment. We demonstrate a fast ~ 500 ns nuclear spin phase gate on a 14N nuclear spin qubit intrinsic to a nitrogen-vacancy center in high purity diamond. This phase gate is achieved by utilizing electron-nuclear hyperfine interaction. By driving off-resonant Rabi oscillations on the electronic spin, we can generate an arbitrary phase gate on the nuclear spin. We also demonstrate that repeated applications of ?-phase gates can bang-bang decouple the nuclear spin from the environment, locking the spin state for up to 140 ?s. Research was supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, the National Science Foundation through Awards DMR-0819860 and DMR-0846341, and the Army Research Office through PECASE Award W911NF-08-1-0189.

  13. Nuclear tetrahedral configurations at spin zero

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Zberecki; Paul-Henri Heenen; Piotr Magierski

    2009-02-04

    The possibility of the existence of stable tetrahedral deformations at spin zero is investigated using the Skyrme-HFBCS approach and the generator coordinate method (GCM). The study is limited to nuclei in which the tetrahedral mode has been predicted to be favored on the basis of non self-consistent models. Our results indicate that a clear identification of tetrahedral deformations is unlikely as they are strongly mixed with the axial octupole mode. However, the excitation energies related to the tetrahedral mode are systematically lower than those of the axial octupole mode in all the nuclei included in this study.

  14. Spin instabilities of infinite nuclear matter and effective tensor interactions

    E-print Network

    Navarro, J

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of the tensor force, present in modern effective nucleon-nucleon interactions, in the spin instability of nuclear and neutron matter. Stability conditions of the system against certain very low energy excitation modes are expressed in terms of Landau parameters. It is shown that in the spin case, the stability conditions are equivalent to the condition derived from the spin susceptibility, which is obtained as the zero-frequency and long-wavelength limit of the spin response function calculated in the Random Phase Approximation. Zero-range forces of the Skyrme type and finite-range forces of M3Y and Gogny type are analyzed. It is shown that for the Skyrme forces considered, the tensor effects are sizeable, and tend to increase the spin instability which appears at smaller densities than in the case that the tensor is not taken into account. On the contrary, the tensor contribution of finite range forces to the spin susceptibility is small or negligible for both isospin channels of symmetr...

  15. Hyperfine switching triggered by resonant tunneling for the detection of a single nuclear spin qubit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomofumi Tada

    2008-01-01

    A novel detection mechanism and a robust control of a single nuclear spin-flip by hyperfine interactions between the nuclear spin and tunneling electron spin are proposed on the basis of ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function calculations. The calculated relaxation times of the nuclear spin of proton in a nano-contact system, Pd(electrode)–H2–Pd(electrode), show that ON\\/OFF switching of hyperfine interactions is effectively

  16. Microtesla SABRE enables 10% nitrogen-15 nuclear spin polarization.

    PubMed

    Theis, Thomas; Truong, Milton L; Coffey, Aaron M; Shchepin, Roman V; Waddell, Kevin W; Shi, Fan; Goodson, Boyd M; Warren, Warren S; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2015-02-01

    Parahydrogen is demonstrated to efficiently transfer its nuclear spin hyperpolarization to nitrogen-15 in pyridine and nicotinamide (vitamin B(3) amide) by conducting "signal amplification by reversible exchange" (SABRE) at microtesla fields within a magnetic shield. Following transfer of the sample from the magnetic shield chamber to a conventional NMR spectrometer, the (15)N NMR signals for these molecules are enhanced by ?30,000- and ?20,000-fold at 9.4 T, corresponding to ?10% and ?7% nuclear spin polarization, respectively. This method, dubbed "SABRE in shield enables alignment transfer to heteronuclei" or "SABRE-SHEATH", promises to be a simple, cost-effective way to hyperpolarize heteronuclei. It may be particularly useful for in vivo applications because of longer hyperpolarization lifetimes, lack of background signal, and facile chemical-shift discrimination of different species. PMID:25583142

  17. Revisit to Nuclear Spin Temperature of Ammonia in Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemekers, D.; Arpigny, C.; Kanda, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Kawakita, H.

    2009-09-01

    Comets had formed from dust and icy materials in the solar nebula 4.6 Gyrs ago. The cometary materials are considered as the most pristine in the solar system and both dust grains and icy materials in comets have been used to investigate the formation conditions of the solar system. One of interesting primordial characters is a nuclear spin temperature (related to an ortho-to-para ratio; OPR) of cometary molecules such as H2O, NH3, etc. The nuclear spin temperatures probably reflect the molecular formation temperatures in the solar nebula (or in the presolar molecular cloud). In this work, we analyzed high dispersion optical spectra of C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), 88P/Howell, fragments B and C of 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 and 8P/Tuttle. Our observations were performed by the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile and the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted on the Subaru telescope in Hawaii. We determined nuclear spin temperatures of NH3 in five comets based on optical spectra of NH2. The nuclear spin temperatures of NH3 can be obtained from OPRs of NH2. We used the (0,9,0) ro-vibronic band at 610nm in this work. Absorption lines (by the telluric atmosphere) and cometary C2 emission lines blended with NH2 emission lines were also taken into account in our analysis. These lines have never been considered in previous studies. The origin of icy materials in the five comets will be discussed based on these results.

  18. Nuclear spins and magnetic moments of some cesium isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ekström; S. Ingelman; G. Wannberg; M. Skarestad

    1977-01-01

    Using an atomic-beam magnetic resonance apparatus connected on-line with the ISOLDE isotope separator, CERN, hyperfine structure measurements have been performed in the 2S1\\/2 electronic ground state of some cesium isotopes. An on-line oven system which efficiently converts a mass separated ion beam of alkali isotopes to an atomic beam is described in some detail. Experimentally determined nuclear spins of 120,

  19. Voltage-induced conversion of helical to uniform nuclear spin polarization in a quantum wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornich, Viktoriia; Stano, Peter; Zyuzin, Alexander A.; Loss, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    We study the effect of bias voltage on the nuclear spin polarization of a ballistic wire, which contains electrons and nuclei interacting via hyperfine interaction. In equilibrium, the localized nuclear spins are helically polarized due to the electron-mediated Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction. Focusing here on nonequilibrium, we find that an applied bias voltage induces a uniform polarization, from both helically polarized and unpolarized spins available for spin flips. Once a macroscopic uniform polarization in the nuclei is established, the nuclear spin helix rotates with frequency proportional to the uniform polarization. The uniform nuclear spin polarization monotonically increases as a function of both voltage and temperature, reflecting a thermal activation behavior. Our predictions offer specific ways to test experimentally the presence of a nuclear spin helix polarization in semiconducting quantum wires.

  20. Nuclear Spin Maser at Highly Stabilized Low Magnetic Field and Search for Atomic EDM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Asahi, K.; Inoue, T.; Uchida, M.; Hatakeyama, N.; Tsuchiya, M.; Kagami, S. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oh-okayama 2-12-1, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2009-08-04

    A nuclear spin maser is operated at a low static field through an active feedback scheme based on an optical nuclear spin detection and succeeding spin control by a transverse field application. The frequency stability of this optical-coupling spin maser is improved by installation of a low-noise current source for a solenoid magnet producing a static magnetic field in the maser operation. Experimental devices for application of the maser to EDM experiment are being developed.

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION Carbon-13 Labeling for Improved Tracer

    E-print Network

    the effects of isotopic labeling using both deuterium substitution (dPS) and 13 C labeling (13 C-PS). ClearSHORT COMMUNICATION Carbon-13 Labeling for Improved Tracer Depth Profiling of Organic Materials Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA 13 C labeling is introduced as an alternative

  2. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain.

    PubMed

    Chekhovich, E A; Hopkinson, M; Skolnick, M S; Tartakovskii, A I

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2-4.5?ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging. PMID:25704639

  3. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain

    PubMed Central

    Chekhovich, E.A.; Hopkinson, M.; Skolnick, M.S.; Tartakovskii, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear–nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2–4.5?ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging. PMID:25704639

  4. Imaging nuclear spins weakly coupled to a probe paramagnetic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Pagliero, Daniela; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-05-01

    Optically detected paramagnetic centers in wide-band-gap semiconductors are emerging as a promising platform for nanoscale metrology at room temperature. Of particular interest are applications where the center is used as a probe to interrogate other spins that cannot be observed directly. Using the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond as a model system, we propose a strategy to determine the spatial coordinates of weakly coupled nuclear spins. The central idea is to label the target nucleus with a spin polarization that depends on its spatial location, which is subsequently revealed by making this polarization flow back to the NV for readout. Using extensive analytical and numerical modeling, we show that the technique can attain high spatial resolution depending on the NV lifetime and target spin location. No external magnetic field gradient is required, which circumvents complications resulting from changes in the direction of the applied magnetic field, and considerably simplifies the required instrumentation. Extensions of the present technique may be adapted to pinpoint the locations of other paramagnetic centers in the NV vicinity or to yield information on dynamical processes in molecules on the diamond surface.

  5. Self-Sustaining Resistance Oscillations by Electron-Nuclear Spin Coupling in Mesoscopic Quantum Hall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusa, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Muraki, K.; Saku, T.; Hirayama, Y.

    2005-06-01

    We study electron-nuclear spin coupling implemented in mesoscopic fractional quantum Hall (FQH) devices. We find that longitudinal resistance in such systems oscillates with a period of several hundreds of seconds driven by a constant voltage instead of a constant current. The anomalous behavior suggests that an average nuclear spin polarization self-sustainingly oscillates between randomized and polarized states, which reveal nonlinear nature of the mesoscopic electron-nuclear spin coupled systems.

  6. Self-sustaining resistance oscillations: Electron-nuclear spin coupling in mesoscopic quantum Hall devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusa, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Muraki, K.; Saku, T.; Hirayama, Y.

    2004-04-01

    We study electron-nuclear spin coupled systems implemented in mesoscopic fractional quantum Hall devices. We find that longitudinal resistance in such systems, oscillates with a period of several hundreds of seconds driven by a constant voltage instead of a constant current. The anomalous behavior suggests that an average nuclear spin polarization self-sustainingly oscillates between randomized and polarized states, which reveal the nonlinear nature of the mesoscopic electron-nuclear spin coupled systems.

  7. Stable Three-Axis Nuclear Spin Gyroscope in Diamond

    E-print Network

    Ashok Ajoy; Paola Cappellaro

    2012-05-07

    We propose a sensitive and stable three-axis gyroscope in diamond. We achieve high sensitivity by exploiting the long coherence time of the N14 nuclear spin associated with the Nitrogen-Vacancy center in diamond, and the efficient polarization and measurement of its electronic spin. While the gyroscope is based on a simple Ramsey interferometry scheme, we use coherent control of the quantum sensor to improve its coherence time as well as its robustness against long-time drifts, thus achieving a very robust device with a resolution of 0.5mdeg/s/(Hz mm^3)^(1/2). In addition, we exploit the four axes of delocalization of the Nitrogen-Vacancy center to measure not only the rate of rotation, but also its direction, thus obtaining a compact three-axis gyroscope.

  8. Radioactive nuclear beams and the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1992-12-01

    Radioactive nuclear beams (RNBs) offer exciting new research opportunities in fields as diverse as nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics atomic, materials, and applied science. Their realization in new accelerator complexes also offers important technical challenges. Some of the nuclear physics possibilities afforded by RNBs, with emphasis on low spin nuclear structure, are discussed, accompanied by an outline of the ISL initiative and its status.

  9. Radioactive nuclear beams and the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive nuclear beams (RNBs) offer exciting new research opportunities in fields as diverse as nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics atomic, materials, and applied science. Their realization in new accelerator complexes also offers important technical challenges. Some of the nuclear physics possibilities afforded by RNBs, with emphasis on low spin nuclear structure, are discussed, accompanied by an outline of the ISL initiative and its status.

  10. Nuclear spin-spin coupling in a van der Waals-bonded system: xenon dimer.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Juha; Hanni, Matti; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2013-03-14

    Nuclear spin-spin coupling over van der Waals bond has recently been observed via the frequency shift of solute protons in a solution containing optically hyperpolarized (129)Xe nuclei. We carry out a first-principles computational study of the prototypic van der Waals-bonded xenon dimer, where the spin-spin coupling between two magnetically non-equivalent isotopes, J((129)Xe - (131)Xe), is observable. We use relativistic theory at the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-density-functional theory levels using novel completeness-optimized Gaussian basis sets and choosing the functional based on a comparison with correlated ab initio methods at the nonrelativistic level. J-coupling curves are provided at different levels of theory as functions of the internuclear distance in the xenon dimer, demonstrating cross-coupling effects between relativity and electron correlation for this property. Calculations on small Xe clusters are used to estimate the importance of many-atom effects on J((129)Xe - (131)Xe). Possibilities of observing J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in liquid xenon are critically examined, based on molecular dynamics simulation. A simplistic spherical model is set up for the xenon dimer confined in a cavity, such as in microporous materials. It is shown that the on the average shorter internuclear distance enforced by the confinement increases the magnitude of the coupling as compared to the bulk liquid case, rendering J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in a cavity a feasible target for experimental investigation. PMID:23514495

  11. Correlated internal motions and nuclear spin relaxation in lamellar mesophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniparoli, J. P.; Grassi, A.; Chachaty, C.

    A model of correlated internal motions has been developed for investigating, by nuclear spin relaxation, the dynamical behaviour of a small flexible molecule solubilized in a lamellar mesophase. This model, which involves the population of the molecular conformers and the transition rates among them, has been illustrated by the deuteron longitudinal relaxation of a diluted perdeuterated butanol solution in the sodium dibutylphosphate/water lamellar phase. Having derived the conformer populations from the quadrupolar splittings, the reorientational diffusion coefficients were obtained by a minimization procedure from the temperature dependence of the deuteron T1 relaxation times at 46 and 77 MHz.

  12. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of glycolysis in protozoa 

    E-print Network

    Rhoades, Teresa Ann

    1986-01-01

    for 3 column volumes, The eluate from the column was then lyo- philized and the residue dissolved in 0 0 for subsequent NMR experi- 2 ments. The head volume of the column was determined hy loading a known amount of glucose spiked with (U- C...

  13. Nuclear spin-dependent parity nonconservation in diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphree, Dennis Haaga, Jr.

    Nuclear spin-dependent parity nonconserving phenomena produce effects that are relevant to particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. They unite these increasingly disparate disciplines via the subtle effects of the weak force. Currently, weak interactions between nucleons present at best a confusing picture, and neutral weak coupling of leptons to baryons, even at high energy, is one of the most poorly characterized aspects of the Standard Model. Perhaps surprisingly, one of the most effective laboratories for studying parity violation is the diatomic molecule. The naturally close spacing of molecular hyperfine-rotational levels, which can be Zeeman shifted even closer to degeneracy, allows small parity violating effects to be enhanced dramatically. Here we describe the beginning of our experimental program to study nuclear spin-dependent parity nonconservation (NSD-PNC) using a beam of diatomic free radicals. Specifically, we seek to measure weak matrix elements connecting hyperfine-rotational states in a series of molecules, beginning with barium fluoride. Our experimental technique is based on a Stark interference method: we look for asymmetries in transitions that depend on the sign of an applied electric field. A key element in the experimental program is the magnetic field used to Zeeman shift the levels in our molecules to near crossing. Carefully controlling both the strength and uniformity of this field is critical to the success of the experiment. In order to measure the field over the wide range of values required by our experiment, both a completely novel nuclear magnetic resonance probe, as well as a unique field shimming apparatus and algorithm, were developed. A second important element in the program is the ability to detect the states of our molecules with as high a signal to noise as possible. To that end a new detection method based on a two-photon transition was developed. Both of these areas, which constitute the bulk of the author's contribution to the experimental program, are described in detail.

  14. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times of metallic antimony at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genio, E. B.; Xu, J.; Lang, T.; Ihas, G. G.; Sullivan, N. S.

    1995-11-01

    We have used pulsed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) techniques to measure the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times in antimony at low temperatures. High quality echoes with strong signal/noise ratios were only observed for finely powdered samples of high purity (99.9999%). The samples were carefully annealed and diluted with fine silica to below the percolation limit to minimize RF heating. The powder mixture was immersed in liquid3He to ensure good thermal contact to a sintered silver heat exchanger attached to a copper nuclear demagnetization refrigerator. We report the temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times for the multiple level nuclear spin system.

  15. Distal and proximal ligand interactions in heme proteins: Correlations between C-O and Fe-C vibrational frequencies, oxygen-17 and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts, and oxygen-17 nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in C sup 17 O- and sup 13 CO-labeled species

    SciTech Connect

    Ki Deok Park; Guo, K.; Adebodun, F.; Chiu, M.L.; Sligar, S.G.; Oldfield, E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-03-05

    The authors have obtained the oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a variety of C{sup 17}O-labeled heme proteins, including sperm whale (Physeter catodon) myoglobin, two synthetic sperm whale myoglobin mutants (His E7 {yields} Val E7; His E7 {yields} Phe E7), adult human hemoglobin, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) hemoglobin, horseradish (Cochlearia armoracia) peroxidase isoenzymes A and C, and Caldariomyces fumago chloroperoxidase, in some cases as a function of pH, and have determined their isotropic {sup 17}O NMR chemical shifts, {delta}{sub i}, and spin-lattice relaxation times, T{sub 1}. They have also obtained similar results on a picket fence prophyrin. The results show an excellent correlation between the infrared C-O vibrational frequencies, {nu}(C-O), and {delta}{sub i}, between {nu}(C-O) and the {sup 17}O nuclear quadrupole coupling constant, and as expected between e{sup 2}qQ/h and {delta}{sub i}. The results suggest the IR and NMR measurements reflect the same interaction, which is thought to be primarily the degree of {pi}-back-bonding from Fe d to CO {pi}* orbitals, as outlined previously.

  16. Spin-pseudospin intertwined excitation at the ν = 1 bilayer quantum Hall state investigated by nuclear-spin relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, S.; Terasawa, D.; Nguyen, M. H.; Fukuda, A.; Zheng, Y. D.; Arai, T.; Sawada, A.; Ezawa, Z. F.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the electron spin degree of freedom at the imbalanced density bilayer ? = 1 quantum Hall states using the resistively detected nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1. Our measurements reveal a continuous change in 1/T1 for ? = 1 to 0, suggesting that the balanced density ? = 1 state also exhibits electron-spin fluctuations. Moreover, the value of 1/T1 in the back layer (the layer from which electrons are transferred to the front layer) increases at intermediate density imbalance states. This indicates that the low-energy electron-spin mode, similar to a mode observed in Skyrmion crystals, might extend across the two layers.

  17. Nuclear Spin Locking and Extended Two-Electron Spin Decoherence Time in an InAs Quantum Dot Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Colin; Ross, Aaron; Steel, Duncan; Sham, L. J.; Bracker, Allan; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The spin eigenstates for two electrons confined in a self-assembled InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) consist of the spin singlet state, S, with J = 0 and the triplet states T-, T0 and T+, with J = 1. When a transverse magnetic field (Voigt geometry) is applied, the two-electron system can be initialized to the different states with appropriate laser excitation. Under the excitation of a weak probe laser, non-Lorentzian lineshapes are obtained when the system is initialized to either T- or T+, where T- results in a ``resonance locking'' lineshape while T+ gives a ``resonance avoiding '' lineshape: two different manifestations of hysteresis showing the importance of memory in the system. These observations signify dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNSP) arising from a feedback mechanism involving hyperfine interaction between lattice nuclei and delocalized electron spins, and Overhauser shift due to nuclear spin polarization. Using pump configurations that generate coherent population trapping, the isolation of the electron spin from the optical excitation shows the stabilization of the nuclear spin ensemble. The dark-state lineshape measures the lengthened electron spin decoherence time, from 1 ns to 1 ?s. Our detailed spectra highlight the potential of QDM for realizing a two-qubit gate. This work is supported by NSF, ARO, AFOSR, DARPA, and ONR.

  18. Self-sustained current oscillation and nuclear spin effects in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Keiji; Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Tarucha, Seigo

    2004-05-01

    Hyperfine coupling of electron spins to nuclear spins is studied for a GaAs-based double quantum dot in the spin blockade. A current flowing through the double dot shows time-dependent oscillations with a period of as long as 200 sec.

  19. Resolving Remoter Nuclear Spins in a Noisy Bath by Dynamical Decoupling Design

    E-print Network

    Wenchao Ma; Fazhan Shi; Kebiao Xu; Pengfei Wang; Xiangkun Xu; Xing Rong; Chenyong Ju; Chang-Kui Duan; Nan Zhao; Jiangfeng Du

    2015-06-16

    We experimentally resolve several weakly coupled nuclear spins in diamond using a series of novelly designed dynamical decoupling controls. Some nuclear spin signals, hidden by decoherence under ordinary dynamical decoupling controls, are shifted forward in time domain to the coherence time range and thus rescued from the fate of being submerged by the noisy spin bath. In this way, more and remoter single nuclear spins are resolved. Additionally, the field of detection can be continuously tuned on sub-nanoscale. This method extends the capacity of nanoscale magnetometry and may be applicable in other systems for high-resolution noise spectroscopy.

  20. Coherent control of two nuclear spins using the anisotropic hyperfine interaction

    E-print Network

    Yingjie Zhang; Colm A. Ryan; Raymond Laflamme; Jonathan Baugh

    2011-09-02

    We demonstrate coherent control of two nuclear spins mediated by the magnetic resonance of a hyperfine-coupled electron spin. This control is used to create a double nuclear coherence in one of the two electron spin manifolds, starting from an initial thermal state, in direct analogy to the creation of an entangled (Bell) state from an initially pure unentangled state. We identify challenges and potential solutions to obtaining experimental gate fidelities useful for quantum information processing in this type of system.

  1. Quantum Information Processing with Large Nuclear Spins in GaAs Semiconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N. Leuenberger; Daniel Loss; Martino Poggio; David D. Awschalom

    2002-01-01

    We propose an implementation for quantum information processing based on coherent manipulations of nuclear spins I=3\\/2 in GaAs semiconductors. We describe theoretically an NMR method which involves multiphoton transitions and which exploits the nonequidistance of nuclear spin levels due to quadrupolar splittings. Starting from known spin anisotropies we derive effective Hamiltonians in a generalized rotating frame, valid for arbitrary I,

  2. Nuclear Spin-Dependent Parity Nonconservation in Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmlow, David; Murphree, Dennis; Cahn, Sidney; Demille, David; Deveney, Edward; Paolino, Richard; Kozlov, Misha

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear spin-dependent parity nonconservation (NSD-PNC) effects arise from couplings of the Z0 boson (parameterized by the electroweak coupling constants C2P,N) and from the interaction of electrons with the nuclear anapole moment, a parity-odd magnetic moment. The effects of the anapole moment scale with the nucleon number A of the nucleus as A^2/3, while the Z0 coupling is independent of A; the former will be the dominant source of NSD-PNC in nuclei with A > 20. To date, the most precise result on NSD-PNC comes from a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in ^133Cs. However, the effects of NSD-PNC can be dramatically enhanced in diatomic molecules. We outline an experimental program to take advantage of this enhancement. We have identified over ten suitable molecules; from measurements on the nuclei in these molecules we can extract the relative contributions of the anapole moment and the electroweak Z0 couplings. This will increase the available data on nuclear anapole moments, as well as reduce the uncertainties in current measurements of C2N and C2P. We report on the design of our pulsed molecular beam experiment and the current status of our efforts.

  3. Nuclear Spin-Dependent Parity Nonconservation in Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmlow, David; Demille, David; Cahn, Sidney; Murphree, Dennis; Barry, John; Steinecker, Matthew; Yale, Christopher; Deveney, Edward; Paolino, Richard; Kozolv, Mikhail

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear spin-dependent parity nonconservation (NSD-PNC) effects arise from couplings of the Z0 boson (parameterized by the electroweak coupling constants C2P,N) and from the interaction of electrons with the nuclear anapole moment, a parity-odd magnetic moment. The latter scales with the nucleon number A of the nucleus as A^2/3, while the Z0 coupling is independent of A; the former will be the dominant source of NSD-PNC in nuclei with A>20. The most precise result on NSD-PNC to date comes from a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in ^133Cs, but this effect can be dramatically enhanced in diatomic molecules. We outline an experimental program to take advantage of this enhancement with over ten suitable molecules with which we can extract the relative contributions of the anapole moment and the electroweak Z0 couplings. This will increase the available data on nuclear anapole moments, as well as reduce the uncertainties in current measurements of C2N and C2P. We report on improvements in the design of our pulsed molecular beam experiment and the current status of our efforts.

  4. Nuclear Spin-Dependent Parity Violation in Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Jeffrey; Cahn, Sidney; Kirilov, Emil; Demille, David; Kozlov, Mikhail; Paolino, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear spin-dependent parity violation (NSD-PV) effects arise from exchange of the Z^0 boson (parametrized by the electroweak coupling constants C2P,N) between electrons and the nucleus, and from the interaction of electrons with the nuclear anapole moment, a parity-odd magnetic moment. The latter scales with the nucleon number A of the nucleus as A^3/2, while the Z^0 coupling is independent of A; the former will be the dominant source of NSD-PV in nuclei with A greater than 20. NSD-PV effects can be dramatically amplified in diatomic molecules by bringing two levels of opposite parity close to degeneracy in a strong magnetic field. This opens the prospect for measurements across a broad range of nuclei. As a precursor to the measurement of the nuclear anapole moment of ^137Ba, we have experimentally observed and characterized opposite-parity level crossings in ^138BaF. These are found to be in excellent agreement with parameter-free predictions and indicate that the sensitivity necessary for NSD-PV measurements should be within reach.

  5. Selective Rotational Excitation of Molecular Isotopes and Nuclear Spin Isomers

    E-print Network

    Sharly Fleischer; Ilya. Sh. Averbukh; Yehiam Prior

    2007-02-15

    Following excitation by a strong ultra-short laser pulse, molecules develop coordinated rotational motion, exhibiting transient alignment along the direction of the laser electric field, followed by periodic full and fractional revivals that depend on the molecular rotational constants. In mixtures, the different species undergo similar rotational dynamics, all starting together but evolving differently with each demonstrating its own periodic revival cycles. For a bimolecular mixture of linear molecules, at predetermined times, one species may attain a maximally aligned state while the other is anti-aligned (i.e. molecular axes are confined in a plane perpendicular to the laser electric field direction). By a properly timed second laser pulse, the rotational excitation of the undesired species may be almost completely removed leaving only the desired species to rotate and periodically realign, thus facilitating further selective manipulations by polarized light. In this paper, such double excitation schemes are demonstrated for mixtures of molecular isotopes (isotopologues) and for nuclear spin isomers.

  6. A 3D-printed high power nuclear spin polarizer.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; LaPierre, Cristen D; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-01-29

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of (129)Xe and (1)H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of "off-the-shelf" components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity (129)Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ?74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the (129)Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10(-2) min(-1)] and in-cell (129)Xe spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for (129)Xe and Rb (PRb ? 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced (129)Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  7. A 3D-Printed High Power Nuclear Spin Polarizer

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M.; Walkup, Laura L.; Gust, Brogan M.; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Goodson, Boyd M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of 129Xe and 1H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of “off-the-shelf” components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity 129Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ~74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the 129Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10?2 min?1] and in-cell 129Xe spin?lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for 129Xe and Rb (PRb ~ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced 129Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  8. Frequency selective detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somasundaram, Samuel D.; Jakobsson, Andreas; Smith, John A. S.; Althoefer, Kaspar A.

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a radio frequency (RF) technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the 14N nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. The technique has been hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and is further aggravated by the presence of RF interference (RFI). To ensure accurate detection, proposed detectors should exploit the rich form of the NQR signal. Furthermore, the detectors should also be robust to any remaining residual interference, left after suitable RFI mitigation has been employed. In this paper, we propose a new NQR data model, particularly for the realistic case where multiple pulse sequences are used to generate trains of spin echoes. Furthermore, we refine two recently proposed approximative maximum likelihood (AML) detectors, enabling the algorithm to optimally exploit the data model of the entire echo train and also incorporate knowledge of the temperature dependent spin-echo decay time. The AML-based detectors ensure accurate detection and robustness against residual RFI, even when the temperature of the sample is not precisely known, by exploiting the dependencies of the NQR resonant lines on temperature. Further robustness against residual interference is gained as the proposed detector is frequency selective; exploiting only those regions of the spectrum where the NQR signal is expected. Extensive numerical evaluations based on both simulated and measured NQR data indicate that the proposed Frequency selective Echo Train AML (FETAML) detector offers a significant improvement as compared to other existing detectors.

  9. Atomic-scale nuclear spin imaging using quantum-assisted sensors in diamond

    E-print Network

    Ashok Ajoy; Ulf Bissbort; Mikhail D. Lukin; Ronald L. Walsworth; Paola Cappellaro

    2014-07-11

    Nuclear spin imaging at the atomic level is essential for the understanding of fundamental biological phenomena and for applications such as drug discovery. The advent of novel nano-scale sensors has given hope of achieving the long-standing goal of single-protein, high spatial-resolution structure determination in their natural environment and ambient conditions. In particular, quantum sensors based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently been used to detect nanoscale ensembles of external nuclear spins. While NV sensitivity is approaching single-spin levels, extracting relevant information from a very complex structure is a further challenge, since it requires not only the ability to sense the magnetic field of an isolated nuclear spin, but also to achieve atomic-scale spatial resolution. Here we propose a method that, by exploiting the coupling of the NV center to an intrinsic quantum memory associated with the Nitrogen nuclear spin, can reach a tenfold improvement in spatial resolution, down to atomic scales. The spatial resolution enhancement is achieved through coherent control of the sensor spin, which creates a dynamic frequency filter selecting only a few nuclear spins at a time. We propose and analyze a protocol that would allow not only sensing individual spins in a complex biomolecule, but also unraveling couplings among them, thus elucidating local characteristics of the molecule structure.

  10. Atomic-Scale Nuclear Spin Imaging Using Quantum-Assisted Sensors in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajoy, A.; Bissbort, U.; Lukin, M. D.; Walsworth, R. L.; Cappellaro, P.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear spin imaging at the atomic level is essential for the understanding of fundamental biological phenomena and for applications such as drug discovery. The advent of novel nanoscale sensors promises to achieve the long-standing goal of single-protein, high spatial-resolution structure determination under ambient conditions. In particular, quantum sensors based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently been used to detect nanoscale ensembles of external nuclear spins. While NV sensitivity is approaching single-spin levels, extracting relevant information from a very complex structure is a further challenge since it requires not only the ability to sense the magnetic field of an isolated nuclear spin but also to achieve atomic-scale spatial resolution. Here, we propose a method that, by exploiting the coupling of the NV center to an intrinsic quantum memory associated with the nitrogen nuclear spin, can reach a tenfold improvement in spatial resolution, down to atomic scales. The spatial resolution enhancement is achieved through coherent control of the sensor spin, which creates a dynamic frequency filter selecting only a few nuclear spins at a time. We propose and analyze a protocol that would allow not only sensing individual spins in a complex biomolecule, but also unraveling couplings among them, thus elucidating local characteristics of the molecule structure.

  11. Nuclear spin cooling using Overhauser-field selective coherent population trapping.

    PubMed

    Issler, M; Kessler, E M; Giedke, G; Yelin, S; Cirac, I; Lukin, M D; Imamoglu, A

    2010-12-31

    We show that a quantum interference effect in optical absorption from two electronic spin states of a solid-state emitter can be used to prepare the surrounding environment of nuclear spins in well-defined states, thereby suppressing electronic spin dephasing. The coupled electron-nuclei system evolves into a coherent population trapping state by optical-excitation-induced nuclear-spin diffusion for a broad range of initial optical detunings. The spectroscopic signature of this evolution where the single-electron strongly modifies its environment is a drastic broadening of the dark resonance in optical absorption experiments. The large difference in electronic and nuclear time scales allows us to verify the preparation of nuclear spins in the desired state. PMID:21231709

  12. Energy levels and decoherence properties of single electron and nuclear spins in a defect center in diamond

    E-print Network

    I. Popa; T. Gaebel; M. Domhan; C. Wittmann; F. Jelezko; J. Wrachtrup

    2004-09-12

    The coherent behavior of the single electron and single nuclear spins of a defect center in diamond and a 13C nucleus in its vicinity, respectively, are investigated. The energy levels associated with the hyperfine coupling of the electron spin of the defect center to the 13C nuclear spin are analyzed. Methods of magnetic resonance together with optical readout of single defect centers have been applied in order to observe the coherent dynamics of the electron and nuclear spins. Long coherence times, in the order of microseconds for electron spins and tens of microseconds for nuclear spins, recommend the studied system as a good experimental approach for implementing a 2-qubit gate.

  13. Spin Responses in Nuclei and Nuclear Weak Processes in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    New shell-model Hamiltonians which can successfuly describe spin-dependent transition rates in nuclei are applied to study nuclear weak processes in stars. New v-induced reaction cross sections in 12C and 56Fe evaluated by the new Hamiltonians are shown to reproduce well the experimental data. Nucleosynthesis of light elements in supernova explosions (SNe) as well as v oscillation effects are discussed with the new cross sections. Electron capture and ?-decay rates in stellar environments are re-evaluated in fp- and sd-shell nuclei. Nucleosynthesis in Type-Ia SNe, rp-process and X-ray burst are discussed with the new reaction rates in Ni isotopes. Important roles of accurate e-capture and ?-decay rates in sd-shell nuclei on the cooling of stars with 8-10 solar masses by nuclear URCA processes and the fate of the stars are demonstrated. ?-decay half-lives of waiting-point nuclei at N =126 are evaluated by shell- model calculations, and r-process nucleosynthesis up to Th and U region in both core-collapse SNe and binary neutron star mergers are studied.

  14. Nuclear Spin-Dependent Parity Violation in Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahn, Sidney; Rahmlow, David; Steinecker, Matthew; Ammon, Jeffrey; Kirilov, Emil; Deveney, Edward; Paolino, Richard; Demille, David

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear spin-dependent parity nonconservation (NSD-PNC) effects arise from exchange of the Z^0 boson (parameterized by the electroweak coupling constants C2P,N) between electrons and the nucleus and from the interaction of electrons with the nuclear anapole moment, a parity-odd magnetic moment. The latter scales with the nucleon number A of the nucleus as A^23, while the Z^0 coupling is independent of A; the former will be the dominant source of NSD-PNC in nuclei with A >=20. The most precise result on NSD-PNC to date comes from a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in ^133Cs, but this effect can be dramatically enhanced in diatomic molecules by bringing two levels of opposite parity close to degeneracy in a strong magnetic field. Level crossings have been observed in ^138BaF as a precursor to the test for parity violation in ^137BaF. We report on our measurements and planned design improvements to improve sensitivity in preparation for the parity violation experiment.

  15. Influence of nuclear spin on chemical reactions: Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects (A Review)

    PubMed Central

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    1983-01-01

    The course of chemical reactions involving radical pairs may depend on occurrence and orientation of nuclear spins in the pairs. The influence of nuclear spins is maximized when the radical pairs are confined to a space that serves as a cage that allows a certain degree of independent diffusional and rotational motion of the partners of the pair but that also encourages reencounters of the partners within a period which allows the nuclear spins to operate on the odd electron spins of the pair. Under the proper conditions, the nuclear spins can induce intersystem crossing between triplet and singlet states of radical pairs. It is shown that this dependence of intersystem crossing on nuclear spin leads to a magnetic isotope effect on the chemistry of radical pairs which provides a means of separating isotopes on the basis of nuclear spins rather than nuclear masses and also leads to a magnetic field effect on the chemistry of radical pairs which provides a means of influencing the course of polymerization by the application of weak magnetic fields. PMID:16593273

  16. Nuclear-spin-dependent coherent population trapping of single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    E-print Network

    D. Andrew Golter; Khodadad N. Dinyari; Hailin Wang

    2013-03-02

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) provides a highly sensitive means for probing the energy level structure of an atomic system. For a nitrogen vacancy center in diamond, the CPT offers an alternative to the standard optically-detected magnetic resonance method for measuring the hyperfine structure of the electronic ground states. We show that the nuclear spin dependent CPT measures directly the hyperfine splitting of these states due to the 14N nuclear spin. The CPT spectral response obtained in the presence of a strong microwave field, resonant or nearly resonant with a ground state spin transition, maps out the dynamic Stark splitting induced by the coherent spin excitation.

  17. Recursive polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at arbitrary magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Henshaw, Jacob; Meriles, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    We introduce an alternate route to dynamically polarize the nuclear spin host of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Our approach articulates optical, microwave and radio-frequency pulses to recursively transfer spin polarization from the NV electronic spin. Using two complementary variants of the same underlying principle, we demonstrate nitrogen nuclear spin initialization approaching 80% at room temperature both in ensemble and single NV centers. Unlike existing schemes, our approach does not rely on level anti-crossings and is thus applicable at arbitrary magnetic fields. This versatility should prove useful in applications ranging from nanoscale metrology to sensitivity-enhanced NMR.

  18. Recursive polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at arbitrary magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Henshaw, Jacob D.; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce an alternate route to dynamically polarize the nuclear spin host of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Our approach articulates optical, microwave, and radio-frequency pulses to recursively transfer spin polarization from the NV electronic spin. Using two complementary variants of the same underlying principle, we demonstrate nitrogen nuclear spin initialization approaching 80% at room temperature both in ensemble and single NV centers. Unlike existing schemes, our approach does not rely on level anti-crossings and is thus applicable at arbitrary magnetic fields. This versatility should prove useful in applications ranging from nanoscale metrology to sensitivity-enhanced NMR.

  19. Recursive polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at arbitrary magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Daniela Pagliero; Abdelghani Laraoui; Jacob D. Henshaw; Carlos A. Meriles

    2014-12-17

    We introduce an alternate route to dynamically polarize the nuclear spin host of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Our approach articulates optical, microwave and radio-frequency pulses to recursively transfer spin polarization from the NV electronic spin. Using two complementary variants of the same underlying principle, we demonstrate nitrogen nuclear spin initialization approaching 80% at room temperature both in ensemble and single NV centers. Unlike existing schemes, our approach does not rely on level anti-crossings and is thus applicable at arbitrary magnetic fields. This versatility should prove useful in applications ranging from nanoscale metrology to sensitivity-enhanced NMR.

  20. Boundary between the thermal and statistical polarization regimes in a nuclear spin ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, B. E.; Cadeddu, D.; Xue, F.; Peddibhotla, P.; Poggio, M., E-mail: martino.poggio@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-28

    As the number of spins in an ensemble is reduced, the statistical fluctuations in its polarization eventually exceed the mean thermal polarization. This transition has now been surpassed in a number of recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, which achieve nanometer-scale detection volumes. Here, we measure nanometer-scale ensembles of nuclear spins in a KPF{sub 6} sample using magnetic resonance force microscopy. In particular, we investigate the transition between regimes dominated by thermal and statistical nuclear polarization. The ratio between the two types of polarization provides a measure of the number of spins in the detected ensemble.

  1. Dynamic nuclear polarization of diamond. II. Nuclear orientation via electron spin-locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynhardt, Eduard C.; High, Grant L.

    1998-09-01

    The polarization of 13C nuclei by means of nuclear orientation via electron spin-locking (Hartmann-Hahn cross-polarization between paramagnetic electrons and 13C nuclei) in a suite of natural diamonds has been investigated at 2.4 GHz and 9.6 GHz. The 13C polarization rate has been found to be independent of the microwave frequency, in agreement with theory. It is shown that since T1?(e)?T1(e) for diamond, the effective polarization rate of 13C nuclei is relatively low. At low paramagnetic impurities (Ce<5 ppm) 13C nuclei in diamond are polarized faster by employing continuous wave microwave radiation to drive the forbidden transitions of the 13C-electron spin system, the so-called solid effect.

  2. Conditional control of donor nuclear spins in silicon using stark shifts.

    PubMed

    Wolfowicz, Gary; Urdampilleta, Matias; Thewalt, Mike L W; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Morton, John J L

    2014-10-10

    Electric fields can be used to tune donor spins in silicon using the Stark shift, whereby the donor electron wave function is displaced by an electric field, modifying the hyperfine coupling between the electron spin and the donor nuclear spin. We present a technique based on dynamic decoupling of the electron spin to accurately determine the Stark shift, and illustrate this using antimony donors in isotopically purified silicon-28. We then demonstrate two different methods to use a dc electric field combined with an applied resonant radio-frequency (rf) field to conditionally control donor nuclear spins. The first method combines an electric-field induced conditional phase gate with standard rf pulses, and the second one simply detunes the spins off resonance. Finally, we consider different strategies to reduce the effect of electric field inhomogeneities and obtain above 90% process fidelities. PMID:25375741

  3. Conditional Control of Donor Nuclear Spins in Silicon Using Stark Shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfowicz, Gary; Urdampilleta, Matias; Thewalt, Mike L. W.; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V.; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Morton, John J. L.

    2014-10-01

    Electric fields can be used to tune donor spins in silicon using the Stark shift, whereby the donor electron wave function is displaced by an electric field, modifying the hyperfine coupling between the electron spin and the donor nuclear spin. We present a technique based on dynamic decoupling of the electron spin to accurately determine the Stark shift, and illustrate this using antimony donors in isotopically purified silicon-28. We then demonstrate two different methods to use a dc electric field combined with an applied resonant radio-frequency (rf) field to conditionally control donor nuclear spins. The first method combines an electric-field induced conditional phase gate with standard rf pulses, and the second one simply detunes the spins off resonance. Finally, we consider different strategies to reduce the effect of electric field inhomogeneities and obtain above 90% process fidelities.

  4. Harnessing the GaAs quantum dot nuclear spin bath for quantum control

    E-print Network

    Hugo Ribeiro; J. R. Petta; Guido Burkard

    2011-12-20

    We theoretically demonstrate that nuclear spins can be harnessed to coherently control two-electron spin states in a double quantum dot. Hyperfine interactions lead to an avoided crossing between the spin singlet state and the ms = +1 triplet state, T_+ . We show that a coherent superposition of singlet and triplet states can be achieved using finite-time Landau-Zener-St\\"uckelberg interferometry. In this system the coherent rotation rate is set by the Zeeman energy, resulting in ~1 nanosecond single spin rotations. We analyze the coherence of this spin qubit by considering the coupling to the nuclear spin bath and show that T_2^* ~ 16 ns, in good agreement with experimental data. Our analysis further demonstrates that efficient single qubit and two qubit control can be achieved using Landau-Zener-St\\"uckelberg interferometry.

  5. Cryogenic sample exchange NMR probe for magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Alexander

    We describe a cryogenic sample exchange system that dramatically improves the efficiency of magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments by reducing the time required to change samples and by ...

  6. Atomic-Scale Nuclear Spin Imaging Using Quantum-Assisted Sensors in Diamond

    E-print Network

    Bissbort, U.

    Nuclear spin imaging at the atomic level is essential for the understanding of fundamental biological phenomena and for applications such as drug discovery. The advent of novel nanoscale sensors promises to achieve the ...

  7. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation via paramagnetic centers in solids. 13C NMR of diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark Henrichs, P.; Cofield, Milton L.; Young, Ralph H.; Michael Hewitt, J.

    Diamonds of gem quality give narrow 13C NMR signals (about 200 Hz width at half height) even in a spectrometer designed for use with liquids. Industrial diamond powders require magic-angle spinning to give narrow NMR resonances. Spin-lattice relaxation in the industrial powders depends on time ( t) exponentially in t {1}/{2}. A theory is developed to explain this behavior in terms of relaxation by paramagnetic centers in the absence of nuclear spin diffusion.

  8. Spin-Orbit Coupling in the Pseudoscalar Meson Theory of Nuclear Forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gentaro Araki

    1955-01-01

    The fourth order nuclear forces were derived by Sato on the basis of the pseudoscalar meson theory. The spin-orbit coupling contained in his result is examined in the approximate way. The doublet interval ^2D1\\/2-^2D5\\/2 of the 17O nucleus due to this spin-orbit coupling is calculated taking into account all spin-orbit couplings between seventeen nucleons according to the method of Talmi.

  9. High Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization with High-Spin Transition Metal Ions

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Alexander

    We report the dynamic nuclear polarization of 1H spins in magic-angle-spinning spectra recorded at 5 T and 84 K via the solid effect using Mn2+ and Gd[superscript 3+] complexes as polarizing agents. We show that the magnitude ...

  10. Macroscopic nuclear spin diffusion constants of rotating polycrystalline solids from first-principles simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halse, Meghan E.; Zagdoun, Alexandre; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-05-01

    A method for quantitatively calculating nuclear spin diffusion constants directly from crystal structures is introduced. This approach uses the first-principles low-order correlations in Liouville space (LCL) method to simulate spin diffusion in a box, starting from atomic geometry and including both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and powder averaging. The LCL simulations are fit to the 3D diffusion equation to extract quantitative nuclear spin diffusion constants. We demonstrate this method for the case of 1H spin diffusion in ice and L-histidine, obtaining diffusion constants that are consistent with literature values for 1H spin diffusion in polymers and that follow the expected trends with respect to magic-angle spinning rate and the density of nuclear spins. In addition, we show that this method can be used to model 13C spin diffusion in diamond and therefore has the potential to provide insight into applications such as the transport of polarization in non-protonated systems.

  11. Nuclear Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Comagnetometer T. W. Kornack, R. K. Ghosh, and M. V. Romalis

    E-print Network

    Romalis, Mike

    Nuclear Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Comagnetometer T. W. Kornack, R. K. Ghosh, and M. V; published 29 November 2005) We describe a nuclear spin gyroscope based on an alkali their gyroscopic precession. Spin precession due to magnetic fields as well as their gradients and transients can

  12. Theory of box-model hyperfine couplings and transport signatures of long-range nuclear-spin coherence in a quantum-dot spin valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesi, Stefano; Coish, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    We have theoretically analyzed coherent nuclear-spin dynamics induced by electron transport through a quantum-dot spin valve. The hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclear spins in a quantum dot allows for the transfer of angular momentum from spin-polarized electrons injected from ferromagnetic or half-metal leads to the nuclear spin system under a finite voltage bias. Accounting for a local nuclear-spin dephasing process prevents the system from becoming stuck in collective dark states, allowing a large nuclear polarization to be built up in the long-time limit. After reaching a steady state, reversing the voltage bias induces a transient current response as the nuclear polarization is reversed. Long-range nuclear-spin coherence leads to a strong enhancement of spin-flip transition rates (by an amount proportional to the number of nuclear spins) and is revealed by an intense current burst, analogous to superradiant light emission. The crossover to a regime with incoherent spin flips occurs on a relatively long-time scale, on the order of the single-nuclear-spin dephasing time, which can be much longer than the time scale for the superradiant current burst. This conclusion is confirmed through a general master equation. For the two limiting regimes (coherent/incoherent spin flips), the general master equation recovers our simpler treatment based on rate equations, but is also applicable at intermediate dephasing. Throughout this work, we assume uniform hyperfine couplings, which yield the strongest coherent enhancement. We propose realistic strategies, based on isotopic modulation and wave-function engineering in core-shell nanowires, to realize this analytically solvable "box-model" of hyperfine couplings.

  13. Quantum Hall Charge Sensor for Single-Donor Nuclear Spin Detection in Silicon

    E-print Network

    D. Sleiter; N. Y. Kim; K. Nozawa; T. D. Ladd; M. L. W. Thewalt; Y. Yamamoto

    2010-05-12

    We propose a novel optical and electrical hybrid scheme for the measurement of nuclear spin qubits in silicon. By combining the environmental insensitivity of the integer quantum Hall effect with the optically distinguishable hyperfine states of phosphorus impurities in silicon, our system can simultaneously offer nuclear spin measurement and robustness against environmental defects. 31P donor spins in isotopically purified 28Si are often discussed as very promising quantum memory qubits due to their extremely long decoherence times, and our proposed device offers an effective implementation for such a quantum memory system.

  14. The classical nature of nuclear spin noise near clock transitions of Bi donors in silicon

    E-print Network

    Wen-Long Ma; Gary Wolfowicz; Shu-Shen Li; John J. L. Morton; Ren-Bao Liu

    2015-05-07

    Whether a quantum bath can be approximated as classical noise is a fundamental issue in central spin decoherence and also of practical importance in designing noise-resilient quantum control. Spin qubits based on bismuth donors in silicon have tunable interactions with nuclear spin baths and are first-order insensitive to magnetic noise at so-called clock-transitions (CTs). This system is therefore ideal for studying the quantum/classical nature of nuclear spin baths since the qubit-bath interaction strength determines the back-action on the baths and hence the adequacy of a classical noise model. We develop a Gaussian noise model with noise correlations determined by quantum calculations and compare the classical noise approximation to the full quantum bath theory. We experimentally test our model through dynamical decoupling sequence of up to 128 pulses, finding good agreement with simulations and measuring electron spin coherence times approaching one second - notably using natural silicon. Our theoretical and experimental study demonstrates that the noise from a nuclear spin bath is analogous to classical Gaussian noise if the back-action of the qubit on the bath is small compared to the internal bath dynamics, as is the case close to CTs. However, far from the CTs, the back-action of the central spin on the bath is such that the quantum model is required to accurately model spin decoherence.

  15. Gauge invariance of the nuclear spin/electron orbit interaction and NMR spectral parameters.

    PubMed

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2012-08-21

    A gauge transformation of the vector potential A(m(I)), associated to the magnetic dipole m(I) of nucleus I in a molecule, has been studied. The conditions for gauge invariance of nuclear magnetic shielding, nuclear spin/electron orbit contribution to spin-spin coupling between two nuclei, I and J, and electronic current density induced by m(I), have been expressed via quantum mechanical sum rules that are identically satisfied for exact and optimal variational wavefunctions. It is shown that separate diamagnetic and paramagnetic contributions to the properties transform into one another in the gauge transformation, whereas their sum is invariant. Therefore, only total response properties have a physical meaning. In particular, the disjoint diamagnetic and paramagnetic components of nuclear spin/electron orbit contributions to coupling constants are not uniquely defined. The diamagnetic contribution to the nuclear spin-spin coupling tensor, evaluated as an expectation value in the Ramsey theory, can alternatively be expressed as a sum-over-states formula, by rewriting the second-order Hamiltonian in commutator form à la Geertsen, as previously reported by Sauer. Other sum-over-states formulae are obtained via a gauge transformation, by a procedure formally allowing for a continuous translation of the origin of the m(I)-induced current density, analogous to those previously proposed for magnetizabilities and nuclear magnetic shielding. PMID:22920104

  16. Spin-asymmetry energy of nuclear matter Physik-Department T39, Technische Universitt Mnchen, D-85747 Garching, Germany

    E-print Network

    Weise, Wolfram

    Spin-asymmetry energy of nuclear matter N. Kaiser Physik-Department T39, Technische Universität the density-dependent spin-asymmetry energy S kf of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter in the three of freedom in the description of the nuclear many- body dynamics. The contributions to the energy per

  17. Testing for parity violation in nuclei using spin density matrices for nuclear density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, B. R.; Giraud, B. G.

    2015-06-01

    The spin density matrix (SDM) used in atomic and molecular physics is revisited for nuclear physics, in the context of the radial density functional theory. The vector part of the SDM defines a ‘hedgehog’ situation, which exists only if nuclear states contain some amount of parity violation. A toy model is given as an illustrative example.

  18. Resonator-induced dissipation of transverse nuclear-spin signals in cold nanoscale samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Mark C.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.

    2012-03-01

    The back action of typical macroscopic resonators used for detecting nuclear magnetic resonance can cause a reversible decay of the signal, known as radiation damping. A mechanical resonator that is strongly coupled to a microscopic sample can in addition induce an irreversible dissipation of the nuclear-spin signal, distinct from radiation damping. We provide a theoretical description of resonator-induced transverse relaxation that is valid for samples of a few nuclear spins in the low-temperature regime, where quantum fluctuations play a significant role in the relaxation process, as well as for larger samples and at higher temperatures. Transverse relaxation during free evolution and during spin locking are analyzed, and simulations of relaxation in example systems are presented. In the case where an isolated spin (1)/(2) interacts with the resonator, transverse relaxation is exponential during free evolution, and the time constant for the relaxation is T2=2/Rh, where Rh is the rate constant governing the exchange of quanta between the resonator and the spin. For a system of multiple spins, the time scale of transverse relaxation during free evolution depends on the spin Hamiltonian, which can modify the relaxation process through the following effects: (1) changes in the structure of the spin-spin correlations present in the energy eigenstates, which affect the rates at which these states emit and absorb energy, (2) frequency shifts that modify emission and absorption rates within a degenerate manifold by splitting the energy degeneracy and thus suppressing the development of resonator-induced correlations within the manifold, and (3) frequency shifts that introduce a difference between the oscillation frequencies of single-quantum coherences ?ab and ?cd and average to zero the transfers between them. This averaging guarantees that the spin transitions responsible for the coupling between ?ab and ?cd cause irreversible loss of order rather than a reversible interconversion of the coherences. In systems of a few spins, transverse relaxation is accelerated by a dipolar Hamiltonian that is either the dominant term in the internal spin Hamiltonian or a weak perturbation to the chemical-shift Hamiltonian. A pure chemical-shift Hamiltonian yields exponential relaxation with T2=2/Rh in the case where the Larmor frequencies of the spins are distinct and sufficiently widely spaced. During spin locking with a nutation frequency fast enough to average the evolution under the internal spin Hamiltonian but not the interactions occurring during the correlation time of the resonator, relaxation of the spin-locked component is exponential with time constant T1?=2/Rh.

  19. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation of dilute spins in semiconducting diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, M. J. R.; Reynhardt, E. C.

    1988-06-01

    Absorption line shape and spin-lattice relaxation-time measurements have been made on 13C nuclei (1.1% abundant) in a type-IIb single-crystal semiconducting diamond. The line shape measurements are consistent with theoretical predictions for a dilute spin system. Over the temperature range 295-375 K, the spin-lattice relaxation time is long (3-4 h) and shows a temperature dependence which may be explained by means of a model in which spin diffusion plays a role, and the paramagnetic acceptor centers relax via an Orbach-type process involving excited states near the valence band.

  20. Direct evidence for nuclear spin waves in Nd2CuO4 by high-resolution neutron-spin-echo spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterji, Tapan; Holderer, Olaf; Schneider, Harald

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of coupling through the hyperfine interaction of nuclear spins with the electronic spin system has given rise to hope for potential novel applications in spintronics and quantum computations. We investigated the dispersion of nuclear spin waves in such a coupled system, Nd2CuO4, by using neutron-spin-echo spectroscopy at millikelvin temperatures. Our results show the existence of dispersion of nuclear spin waves in Nd2CuO4 at T = 40 mK. A fit of the dispersion data with the spin wave dispersion formula gave the Suhl-Nakamura interaction range to be of the order of 10 Å, which is much smaller than that expected theoretically.

  1. Coherent Storage of Microwave Excitations in Rare-Earth Nuclear Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfowicz, Gary; Maier-Flaig, Hannes; Marino, Robert; Ferrier, Alban; Vezin, Hervé; Morton, John J. L.; Goldner, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Interfacing between various elements of a computer—from memory to processors to long range communication—will be as critical for quantum computers as it is for classical computers today. Paramagnetic rare-earth doped crystals, such as Nd3 +?Y2SiO5 (YSO ) , are excellent candidates for such a quantum interface: they are known to exhibit long optical coherence lifetimes (for communication via optical photons), possess a nuclear spin (memory), and have in addition an electron spin that can offer hybrid coupling with superconducting qubits (processing). Here we study two of these three elements, demonstrating coherent storage and retrieval between electron and Nd 145 nuclear spin states in Nd3 +?YSO . We find nuclear spin coherence times can reach 9 ms at ˜5 K , about 2 orders of magnitude longer than the electron spin coherence, while quantum state and process tomography of the storage or retrieval operation between the electron and nuclear spin reveal an average state fidelity of 0.86. The times and fidelities are expected to further improve at lower temperatures and with more homogeneous radio-frequency excitation.

  2. Coherent storage of microwave excitations in rare-earth nuclear spins.

    PubMed

    Wolfowicz, Gary; Maier-Flaig, Hannes; Marino, Robert; Ferrier, Alban; Vezin, Hervé; Morton, John J L; Goldner, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Interfacing between various elements of a computer--from memory to processors to long range communication--will be as critical for quantum computers as it is for classical computers today. Paramagnetic rare-earth doped crystals, such as Nd(3+):Y2SiO5(YSO), are excellent candidates for such a quantum interface: they are known to exhibit long optical coherence lifetimes (for communication via optical photons), possess a nuclear spin (memory), and have in addition an electron spin that can offer hybrid coupling with superconducting qubits (processing). Here we study two of these three elements, demonstrating coherent storage and retrieval between electron and (145)Nd nuclear spin states in Nd(3+):YSO. We find nuclear spin coherence times can reach 9 ms at ?5??K, about 2 orders of magnitude longer than the electron spin coherence, while quantum state and process tomography of the storage or retrieval operation between the electron and nuclear spin reveal an average state fidelity of 0.86. The times and fidelities are expected to further improve at lower temperatures and with more homogeneous radio-frequency excitation. PMID:25978214

  3. Spin-orbit coupling rule in nuclear and atomic systems

    E-print Network

    J. -P. Ebran; E. Khan; A. Mutschler; D. Vretenar

    2015-06-02

    Spin-orbit coupling characterizes quantum systems such as atoms, nuclei, hypernuclei, quarkonia, etc., and is essential for understanding their spectroscopic properties. Depending on the system, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on shell structure is large in nuclei, small in quarkonia, perturbative in atoms. In the standard non-relativistic reduction of the single-particle Dirac equation, we derive a universal rule for the relative magnitude of the spin-orbit effect that applies to very different quantum systems, regardless of whether the spin-orbit coupling originates from the strong or electromagnetic interaction. It is shown that in nuclei the near equality of the mass of the nucleon and the difference between the large repulsive and attractive potentials explains the fact that spin-orbit splittings are comparable to the energy spacing between major shells. For a specific ratio between the particle mass and the effective potential whose gradient determines the spin-orbit force, we predict the occurrence of giant spin-orbit energy splittings that dominate the single-particle excitation spectrum.

  4. The magnetic field dependence of cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic angle spinning.

    PubMed

    Mance, Deni; Gast, Peter; Huber, Martina; Baldus, Marc; Ivanov, Konstantin L

    2015-06-21

    We develop a theoretical description of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) in solids under Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) to describe the magnetic field dependence of the DNP effect. The treatment is based on an efficient scheme for numerical solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation, which explicitly takes into account the variation of magnetic interactions during the sample spinning. The dependence of the cross-effect MAS-DNP on various parameters, such as the hyperfine interaction, electron-electron dipolar interaction, microwave field strength, and electron spin relaxation rates, is analyzed. Electron spin relaxation rates are determined by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements, and calculations are compared to experimental data. Our results suggest that the observed nuclear magnetic resonance signal enhancements provided by MAS-DNP can be explained by discriminating between "bulk" and "core" nuclei and by taking into account the slow DNP build-up rate for the bulk nuclei. PMID:26093552

  5. Spin-orbit coupling rule in nuclear and atomic systems

    E-print Network

    Ebran, J -P; Mutschler, A; Vretenar, D

    2015-01-01

    Spin-orbit coupling characterizes quantum systems such as atoms, nuclei, hypernuclei, quarkonia, etc., and is essential for understanding their spectroscopic properties. Depending on the system, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on shell structure is large in nuclei, small in quarkonia, perturbative in atoms. In the standard non-relativistic reduction of the single-particle Dirac equation, we derive a universal rule for the relative magnitude of the spin-orbit effect that applies to very different quantum systems, regardless of whether the spin-orbit coupling originates from the strong or electromagnetic interaction. It is shown that in nuclei the near equality of the mass of the nucleon and the difference between the large repulsive and attractive potentials explains the fact that spin-orbit splittings are comparable to the energy spacing between major shells. For a specific ratio between the particle mass and the effective potential whose gradient determines the spin-orbit force, we predict the occurrence o...

  6. Nuclear-Spin-Induced Circular Dichroism in the Infrared Region for Liquids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Yao, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Liu, Fan-Chen; Chen, Dong-Ming

    2015-06-22

    Recently, the nuclear-spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) and circular dichroism (NSCD) for liquids were discovered and extensively studied and developed. However, so far, nuclear-spin-induced magnetic circular dichroism in the IR region (IR-NSCD) has not been explored, even though all polyatomic molecules exhibit extensive IR spectra. Herein, IR-NSCD is proposed and discussed theoretically. The results indicate that in favorable conditions the IR-NSCD angle may be much larger than the NSOR angle in the UV/Vis region due to a vibrational resonance effect and can be measurable by using the NSOR experiment scheme. IR-NSCD can automatically combine and give NMR spectra and IRCD spectra of the nuclear spin prepolarized samples in liquids, which, in principle, could be developed to become a unique, novel analytical tool. PMID:25827496

  7. Universal Long-time Behavior of Nuclear Spin Decays in a Solid

    E-print Network

    Steven W. Morgan; Boris V. Fine; Brian Saam

    2008-05-13

    Magnetic resonance studies of nuclear spins in solids are exceptionally well suited to probe the limits of statistical physics. We report experimental results indicating that isolated macroscopic systems of interacting nuclear spins possess the following fundamental property: spin decays that start from different initial configurations quickly evolve towards the same long-time behavior. This long-time behavior is characterized by the shortest ballistic microscopic timescale of the system and therefore falls outside of the validity range for conventional approximations of statistical physics. We find that the nuclear free induction decay and different solid echoes in hyperpolarized solid xenon all exhibit sinusoidally modulated exponential long-time behavior characterized by identical time constants. This universality was previously predicted on the basis of analogy with resonances in classical chaotic systems.

  8. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thurber, Kent R., E-mail: thurberk@niddk.nih.gov; Tycko, Robert [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)] [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    We report solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, {sup 1}H and cross-polarized {sup 13}C NMR signals from {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T{sub 1e} is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  9. Optical pumping of the electronic and nuclear spin of single charge-tunable quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bracker, A S; Stinaff, E A; Gammon, D; Ware, M E; Tischler, J G; Shabaev, A; Efros, Al L; Park, D; Gershoni, D; Korenev, V L; Merkulov, I A

    2005-02-01

    We present a comprehensive examination of optical pumping of spins in individual GaAs quantum dots as we change the net charge from positive to neutral to negative with a charge-tunable heterostructure. Negative photoluminescence polarization memory is enhanced by optical pumping of ground state electron spins, which we prove with the first measurements of the Hanle effect on an individual quantum dot. We use the Overhauser effect in a high longitudinal magnetic field to demonstrate efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins for all three charge states of the quantum dot. PMID:15783594

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization studies of redox-sensitive nitroxyl spin probes in liposomal solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Milton Franklin Benial; Hideo Utsumi; Kazuhiro Ichikawa; Ramachandran Murugesan; Ken-Ichi Yamada; Yuichi Kinoshita; Tatsuya Naganuma; Masahisa Kato

    2010-01-01

    Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) studies of a membrane-permeable nitroxyl spin probe, 2H-enriched 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL), used in simultaneous molecular imaging is reported. Phantom imaging was performed with liposomal solutions of MC-PROXYL at varying spin probe and liposome concentrations using a field-cycle mode, custom-built OMRI scanner. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) spectra of the liposomal solution of the spin probe, measured at

  11. Nuclear spin relaxation in paramagnetic systems (S>/=1) under fast rotation conditions.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef

    2003-06-01

    A new theoretical model for nuclear spin relaxation in paramagnetic systems in solution has been developed. Fast rotational motion is included in the model, both as a source of modulation of the static zero-field splitting, which provides a mechanism for electron spin relaxation, and as an origin of the stochastic variation of the electron spin-nuclear spin dipole-dipole interaction leading to nuclear spin relaxation. At the limit of low magnetic field, the model is essentially identical to the earlier formulations from our laboratory, but new closed-form expressions are given for the inner- and outer-sphere relaxation at the high-field limit. Numerical comparisons with a general theory are reported for the inner-sphere case. In addition, some nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles from the literature are considered for systems where experiments have been done with both low-molecular weight paramagnetic complexes and their adducts with proteins. Previously developed theories are used to interpret data for the slowly rotating protein adducts, and good fits of the fast-rotating counterparts are obtained by further adjustment of one or two additional parameters. PMID:12810007

  12. Nuclear states and shapes at high spin. [Good review

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    As angular momentum is added to a nucleus, the balance of forces acting upon it to determine its shape, moment of inertia, mode of rotation, and type of level structure may undergo a series of changes. At relatively low spins a deformed nucleus will rotate collectively, and one may see the effect of Coriolis antipairing in gradually increasing the moment of inertia. Around spin 12 to 16 h-bar there may be an abrupt change (backbending) when a pair of high-j nucleons unpairs and the nucleons align with the axis of rotation; this process allows the nucleus to slow its collective rotation. This process, the start of a sharing of angular momentum between single-particle motion and the collective rotation, gives a lower total energy and corresponds to a change toward triaxiality in the shape of the nucleus. At much higher spins discrete ..gamma..-ray transitions can no longer be observed. This is the regime of continuum spectra; all the information on these high-spin states (to 65 h-bar) is contained in these continuum cascades. Knowledge is accumulating on how to study these spectra, experimentally and theoretically, and new techniques offer promise of revealing a great deal of information about the shapes and properties of very high spin states. 71 references, 34 figures.

  13. Effect of nuclear spin symmetry in cold and ultracold reactions: D + para/ortho-H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbotin, Ionel; Côté, Robin

    2015-06-01

    We report results for reaction and vibrational quenching of the collision D with para-H2(v,j=0) and ortho-H2(v,j=1) at cold and ultracold temperatures. We investigate the effect of nuclear spin symmetry for barrier dominated processes (0?slant v?slant 4) and for one barrierless case (v = 5). We find resonant structures for energies in the range corresponding to 0.01–10 K, which depend on the nuclear spin of H2, arising from contributions of specific partial waves. We discuss the implications on the results in this benchmark system for ultracold chemistry.

  14. Electrically driven reverse overhauser pumping of nuclear spins in quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Rudner, M S; Levitov, L S

    2007-12-14

    We propose a new mechanism for polarizing nuclear spins in quantum dots, based on periodic modulation of the hyperfine coupling by electric driving at the electron spin resonance frequency. Dynamical nuclear polarization results from resonant excitation rather than hyperfine relaxation mediated by a thermal bath, and thus is not subject to Overhauser-like detailed balance constraints. This allows polarization in the direction opposite to that expected from the Overhauser effect. Competition of the electrically driven and bath-assisted mechanisms can give rise to spatial modulation and sign reversal of polarization on a scale smaller than the electron confinement radius in the dot. PMID:18233468

  15. Simultaneous sub-second hyperpolarization of the nuclear and electron spins of phosphorus in silicon

    E-print Network

    A. Yang; M. Steger; T. Sekiguchi; M. L. W. Thewalt; T. D. Ladd; K. M. Itoh; H. Riemann; N. V. Abrosimov; P. Becker; H. -J. Pohl

    2009-08-12

    We demonstrate a method which can hyperpolarize both the electron and nuclear spins of 31P donors in Si at low field, where both would be essentially unpolarized in equilibrium. It is based on the selective ionization of donors in a specific hyperfine state by optically pumping donor bound exciton hyperfine transitions, which can be spectrally resolved in 28Si. Electron and nuclear polarizations of 90% and 76%, respectively, are obtained in less than a second, providing an initialization mechanism for qubits based on these spins, and enabling further ESR and NMR studies on dilute 31P in 28Si.

  16. Neutron diffraction determination of the nuclear spin ordering in Cu and Ag at nano- and subnano-K temperatures (invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Steiner; A. Metz; K. Siemensmeyer; O. V. Lounasmaa; J. T. Tuoriniemi; K. K. Nummila; R. T. Vuorinen; K. N. Clausen; K. Lefmann; F. B. Rasmussen

    1996-01-01

    The spontaneous nuclear spin ordering in the simple diamagnetic metals Cu and Ag has been studied by neutron diffraction using the spin dependent part of the nuclear cross section. Simple antiferromagnetic ordering of type I has been found in zero field for these fcc-systems below 60 and 560 pK for Cu and Ag, respectively. The ordering in an applied field

  17. Relativistic hybrid density functional calculations of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensors - Comparison with experiment for diatomic alkali metal halides 1 , 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Bryce; Jochen Autschbach

    2009-01-01

    The accurate calculation of the isotropic (Jiso) and anisotropic (DJ) parts of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensors is a stringent test for quantum chemistry, particularly for couplings involving heavy isotopes where relativistic ef- fects and relativity - electron correlation cross terms are expected to play an important role. Experimental measurements on diatomic molecules in the gas phase offer ideal data

  18. Spin polarized asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star matter within the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect

    Bordbar, G. H. [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha, P. O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bigdeli, M. [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, we calculate properties of the spin polarized asymmetrical nuclear matter and neutron star matter, using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV{sub 18}, Reid93, UV{sub 14}, and AV{sub 14} potentials. According to our results, the spontaneous phase transition to a ferromagnetic state in the asymmetrical nuclear matter as well as neutron star matter do not occur.

  19. Coupled nuclear spin relaxation and internal rotations in magnesium fluosilicate hexahydrate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utton, D. B.; Tsang, T.

    1972-01-01

    Both proton and fluorine nuclear spin-lattice relaxations have been studied by the 180- to 90-deg pulse method in magnesium fluosilicate hexahydrate at 25 and 13 MHz over the temperature range from 170 to 350 K. Observed nonexponential behavior of the nuclear magnetic relaxation is explained by internal rotations of the doubly charged negative fluosilicate ions and doubly charged positive magnesium hexahydrate ions.

  20. A Magnetic Switch for Spin-Catalyzed Interconversion of Nuclear Spin Yongjun Li,

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    equilibrium at RT: (1) adsorbing a sample of eH2@C60 on the external surface of NaY zeolite at RT; (2) cooling% oH2/50% pH2 mixture (which is eH2 at 77 K); (4) removing the spin catalyst (O2) by applying a vacuumH2@C60 takes days in the absence of an added spin catalyst. The conversion of *pH2@C60 to eH2@C60 (eq

  1. Coherent storage of microwave excitations in rare-earth nuclear spins

    E-print Network

    Gary Wolfowicz; Hannes Maier-Flaig; Robert Marino; Alban Ferrier; Hervé Vezin; John J. L. Morton; Philippe Goldner

    2014-12-23

    Interfacing between various elements of a computer - from memory to processors to long range communication - will be as critical for quantum computers as it is for classical computers today. Paramagnetic rare earth doped crystals, such as Nd$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ (YSO), are excellent candidates for such a quantum interface: they are known to exhibit long optical coherence lifetimes (for communication via optical photons), possess a nuclear spin (memory) and have in addition an electron spin that can offer hybrid coupling with superconducting qubits (processing). Here we study two of these three elements, demonstrating coherent storage and retrieval between electron and $^{145}$Nd nuclear spin states in Nd$^{3+}$:YSO. We find nuclear spin coherence times can reach 9 ms at $\\approx 5$ K, about two orders of magnitude longer than the electron spin coherence, while quantum state and process tomography of the storage/retrieval operation reveal an average state fidelity of 0.86. The times and fidelities are expected to further improve at lower temperatures and with more homogeneous radio-frequency excitation.

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization studies of redox-sensitive nitroxyl spin probes in liposomal solution.

    PubMed

    Benial, A Milton Franklin; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Naganuma, Tatsuya; Kato, Masahisa

    2010-05-01

    Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) studies of a membrane-permeable nitroxyl spin probe, (2)H-enriched 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL), used in simultaneous molecular imaging is reported. Phantom imaging was performed with liposomal solutions of MC-PROXYL at varying spin probe and liposome concentrations using a field-cycle mode, custom-built OMRI scanner. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) spectra of the liposomal solution of the spin probe, measured at 14.529mT using a 5mT sweep of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) irradiation field showed splitting of the low and high filed hyperfine lines. Spectral measurements using D(2)O and a spin broadening agent, K(3)Fe(CN)(6) confirmed that these peaks originated from water molecules in two different environments, compartmentalized with liposomes. The nuclear Overhauser enhancement measured at different EPR irradiation times and power levels showed reduction in water nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal enhancement in liposomal membrane due to the reduction in the coupling constant, rho. This study illustrates that OMRI can be used to differentiate between the intra- and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. PMID:20226702

  3. Dynamic nuclear polarization studies of redox-sensitive nitroxyl spin probes in liposomal solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Naganuma, Tatsuya; Kato, Masahisa

    2010-05-01

    Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) studies of a membrane-permeable nitroxyl spin probe, 2H-enriched 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL), used in simultaneous molecular imaging is reported. Phantom imaging was performed with liposomal solutions of MC-PROXYL at varying spin probe and liposome concentrations using a field-cycle mode, custom-built OMRI scanner. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) spectra of the liposomal solution of the spin probe, measured at 14.529 mT using a 5 mT sweep of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) irradiation field showed splitting of the low and high filed hyperfine lines. Spectral measurements using D 2O and a spin broadening agent, K 3Fe(CN) 6 confirmed that these peaks originated from water molecules in two different environments, compartmentalized with liposomes. The nuclear Overhauser enhancement measured at different EPR irradiation times and power levels showed reduction in water nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal enhancement in liposomal membrane due to the reduction in the coupling constant, ?. This study illustrates that OMRI can be used to differentiate between the intra- and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe.

  4. Theory of nuclear magnetic spin-rotational relaxation for asymmetric molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James McConnell

    1988-01-01

    A stochastic differential equation study of nuclear magnetic relaxation by spin-rotational interactions was successfully completed for spherical, symmetric rotator and linear molecules. This theory has now been extended to asymmetric rotator molecules by first establishing the conditions under which such an extension is mathematically feasible and then investigating the consequences of accepting these conditions.

  5. Semiconductor quantum computer design with 100 nm separation of nuclear-spin qubits

    E-print Network

    Privman, Vladimir

    at distances of order 100 nm, attainable with the present-day semiconductor-heterostructure device technologies down, T1 = O(103 ) sec. Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of a semiconductor heterostructure quantumSemiconductor quantum computer design with 100 nm separation of nuclear-spin qubits Vladimir

  6. Nuclear Quadrupole Spin-Lattice Relaxation and Critical Dynamics of Ferroelectric Crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bonera; F. Borsa; A. Rigamonti

    1970-01-01

    The effect on the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation of the anomalous temperature dependence of generalized unstable lattice modes near the ferroelectric transition is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Expressions for the relaxation rate near Tc are derived for typical cases of critical dynamics of ferroelectric crystals. For the case of undamped soft-phonon modes it is shown that, on the basis of

  7. Nuclear spin dependence of the reaction of H3+ with H2. I. Kinetics and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Tom, Brian A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2011-05-01

    The chemical reaction H_3^+ + H2 ? H2 + H_3^+ is the simplest bimolecular reaction involving a polyatomic, yet is complex enough that exact quantum mechanical calculations to adequately model its dynamics are still unfeasible. In particular, the branching fractions for the "identity," "proton hop," and "hydrogen exchange" reaction pathways are unknown, and to date, experimental measurements of this process have been limited. In this work, the nuclear-spin-dependent steady-state kinetics of the H_3^+ + H2 reaction is examined in detail, and employed to generate models of the ortho:para ratio of H_3^+ formed in plasmas of varying ortho:para H2 ratios. One model is based entirely on nuclear spin statistics, and is appropriate for temperatures high enough to populate a large number of H_3^+ rotational states. Efforts are made to include the influence of three-body collisions in this model by deriving nuclear spin product branching fractions for the H_5^+ + H2 reaction. Another model, based on rate coefficients calculated using a microcanonical statistical approach, is appropriate for lower-temperature plasmas in which energetic considerations begin to compete with the nuclear spin branching fractions. These models serve as a theoretical framework for interpreting the results of laboratory studies on the reaction of H_3^+ with H2.

  8. A Search for Nonstandard Neutron Spin Interactions using Dual Species Xenon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James; Fu, Changbo; Yan, Haiyang; Smith, Erick; Snow, Mike; Walker, Thad

    2012-06-01

    NMR measurements using polarized noble gases can constrain possible exotic spin-dependent interactions involving nucleons. A differential measurement insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations can be performed using a mixture of two polarized species with different ratios of nucleon spin to magnetic moment. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) (developed to evaluate dual species xenon vapor cells for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope) to search for NMR frequency shifts of xenon-129 and xenon-131 when a non-magnetic zirconia rod is modulated near the NMR cell. We simultaneously excited both Xe isotopes and detected free-induction-decay transients. In combination with theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum, the measurements put a new upper bound on possible monopole-dipole interactions of the neutron for ranges around 1mm. This work is supported by the NGC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) funding, the Department of Energy, and the NSF.

  9. Solid effect in magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization

    E-print Network

    Smith, Albert A.

    For over five decades, the solid effect (SE) has been heavily utilized as a mechanism for performing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Nevertheless, it has not found widespread application in contemporary, high magnetic ...

  10. EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR SPIN POLARIZATION ON REACTION DYNAMICS IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC

    E-print Network

    Boxer, Steven G.

    in -200 ps (Rockley et al., 1975; Kaufmann et al., 1975). To study P+I* it is useful to block this latter- cally induced dynamic nuclear polarization [CIDNP]) (Kaptein and Oosterhoff, 1969; Closs, 1969

  11. Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Interactions of a Novel Triazolium-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Jesse J.; Schneider, Yanika; Kail, Brian W.; Luebke, David R.; Nulwala, Hunaid; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-04-11

    Nuclear spin relaxation, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques are used to determine supramolecular arrangement of 3-methyl-1-octyl-4-phenyl-1H-triazol-1,2,3-ium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [OMPhTz][Tf{sub 2}N], an example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid. The results obtained showed first-order thermodynamic dependence for nuclear spin relaxation of the anion. First-order relaxation dependence is interpreted as through-bond dipolar relaxation. Greater than first-order dependence was found in the aliphatic protons, aromatic carbons (including nearest neighbors), and carbons at the end of the aliphatic tail. Greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of spin relaxation rates is interpreted as relaxation resulting from at least one mechanism additional to through-bond dipolar relaxation. In rigid portions of the cation, an additional spin relaxation mechanism is attributed to anisotropic effects, while greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of the octyl side chain’s spin relaxation rates is attributed to cation–cation interactions. Little interaction between the anion and the cation was observed by spin relaxation studies or by ESI-MS. No extended supramolecular structure was observed in this study, which was further supported by MS and SAXS. nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) factors are used in conjunction with spin–lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) measurements to calculate rotational correlation times for C–H bonds (the time it takes for the vector represented by the bond between the two atoms to rotate by one radian). The rotational correlation times are used to represent segmental reorientation dynamics of the cation. A combination of techniques is used to determine the segmental interactions and dynamics of this example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid.

  12. Nuclear spin optical rotation and Faraday effect in gaseous and liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennanen, Teemu S.; Ikäläinen, Suvi; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2012-05-01

    Nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR) of linearly polarized light, due to the nuclear spins through the Faraday effect, provides a novel probe of molecular structure and could pave the way to optical detection of nuclear magnetization. We determine computationally the effects of the liquid medium on NSOR and the Verdet constant of Faraday rotation (arising from an external magnetic field) in water, using the recently developed theory applied on a first-principles molecular dynamics trajectory. The gas-to-liquid shifts of the relevant antisymmetric polarizability and, hence, NSOR magnitude are found to be -14% and -29% for 1H and 17O nuclei, respectively. On the other hand, medium effects both enhance the local electric field in water and, via bulk magnetization, the local magnetic field. Together these two effects partially cancel the solvation influence on the single-molecular property. We find a good agreement for the hydrogen NSOR with a recent pioneering experiment on H2O(l).

  13. Nuclear spin–lattice relaxation in periodically irradiated systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Vega; R. W. Vaughan

    1978-01-01

    A master equation for nuclear magnetic relaxation under conditions of periodic and cyclic rf irradiation is derived based on the stochastic Liouville equation. Conditions for the validity of the equation, involving both use of the motional narrowing approximation and the Magnus expansion, are discussed with particular attention given to the simultaneous presence of fluctuating and nonfluctuating interactions. The expressions derived

  14. Disorder-enhanced nuclear spin relaxation at Landau level filling factor one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tong; Benedikt, Friess; Li, Yong-Qing; Yan, Shi-Shen; Vladimir, Umansky; Klaus von, Klitzing; Jurgen, H. Smet

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear spin relaxation rate (1/T1) is measured for GaAs two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in the quantum Hall regime with an all-electrical technique for agitating and probing the nuclear spins. A “tilted plateau” feature is observed near the Landau level filling factor ? = 1 in 1/T1 versus ?. Both the width and magnitude of the plateau increase with decreasing electron density. At low temperatures, 1/T1 exhibits an Arrhenius temperature dependence within the tilted plateau regime. The extracted energy gaps are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding charge transport gaps. These results point to a nontrivial mechanism for the disorder-enhanced nuclear spin relaxation, in which microscopic inhomogeneities play a key role for the low energy spin excitations related to skyrmions. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921703 and 2015CB921102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91121003, 11374337, and 61425015), the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the BMBF, and the German–Israel Foundation.

  15. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 10 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1273 Breakdown of the nuclear-spin-temperature

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    adiabatic demagnetization techniques borrowed from bulk nuclear magnetic resonance experiments3 wouldLETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 10 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1273 Breakdown of the nuclear of interacting nuclear spins arranged on a crystalline lattice is generally described using a thermody- namic

  16. Preparation of Non-equilibrium Nuclear Spin States in Double Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    M. Gullans; J. J. Krich; J. M. Taylor; B. I. Halperin; M. D. Lukin

    2014-07-25

    We theoretically study the dynamic polarization of lattice nuclear spins in GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. In our prior work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 226807 (2010)] we identified three regimes of long-term dynamics, including the build up of a large difference in the Overhauser fields across the dots, the saturation of the nuclear polarization process associated with formation of so-called "dark states," and the elimination of the difference field. In particular, when the dots are different sizes we found that the Overhauser field becomes larger in the smaller dot. Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of these problems including a model of the polarization dynamics and the development of a new numerical method to efficiently simulate semiclassical central-spin problems. When nuclear spin noise is included, the results agree with our prior work indicating that large difference fields and dark states are stable configurations, while the elimination of the difference field is unstable; however, in the absence of noise we find all three steady states are achieved depending on parameters. These results are in good agreement with dynamic nuclear polarization experiments in double quantum dots.

  17. Electron-nuclear spin coupling in nano-scale devices: self-sustaining resistance oscillations and controlled multiple quantum coherences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusa, Go

    2005-03-01

    Author: G Yusa, K. Muraki, K. Takashina (NTT BRL), K. Hashimoto (SORST-JST), and Y. Hirayama (NTT BRL and SORST-JST). We studied electron-nuclear spin coupled systems implemented in microscopic fractional quantum Hall devices and found that in a constant voltage measurement, the longitudinal resistance of such devices oscillates self-sustainingly with a period of about 200 sec. Such behavior suggests that the average nuclear spin polarization self-sustainingly oscillates between randomized and polarized states. When the resistance is measured in constant current mode, on the other hand, nuclear spins are polarized and reach a steady state in about 200 sec. Using the polarized state as an initial state, quantum mechanical superpositional states between four nuclear spin states (multiple quantum coherence) are controlled by pulsed radio frequency radiation resonant with nuclear spin transitions (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR). Any arbitrary multiple quantum coherent state can be detected as change in the longitudinal resistance. Our findings represent a big step closer to practical all-electrical solid state nuclear spin quantum computing and quantum memory devices.

  18. Nuclear level density parameter: its dependence on spin and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekaran, M.; Rajasekaran, T.R.; Arunachalam, N.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of temperature and angular momentum on the nuclear level density parameter is investigated. Pairing correlations and deformation degrees of freedom are also included. The level density parameter fluctuates at low temperatures and the effect of angular momentum is very pronounced at low temperatures. The variation of shell correction with angular momentum is also studied. Results for the nuclei /sub //sub <1/ /sub 66//sup 58/Dy, /sub //sub <1/ /sub 78//sup 94/Pt, and /sub //sub <1/ /sub 70//sup 70/Yb are presented.

  19. Spin-dipole strength functions of 4He with realistic nuclear forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, W.; Suzuki, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Both isoscalar and isovector spin-dipole excitations of 4He are studied using realistic nuclear forces in the complex scaling method. The ground state of 4He and discretized continuum states with J?=0-,1-,2- for A=4 nuclei are described in explicitly correlated Gaussians reinforced with global vectors for angular motion. Two- and three-body decay channels are specifically treated to take into account final state interactions. The observed resonance energies and widths of the negative-parity levels are all in fair agreement with those calculated from both the spin-dipole and electric-dipole strength functions as well as the energy eigenvalues of the complex scaled Hamiltonian. Spin-dipole sum rules, both non-energy-weighted and energy-weighted, are discussed in relation to tensor correlations in the ground state of 4He.

  20. Entanglement of systems of dipolar coupled nuclear spins at the adiabatic demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, S. I.; Fel'dman, E. B.; Kucherov, M. M.; Pyrkov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the adiabatic demagnetization in the rotating reference frame (ADRF) of a system of dipolar coupled nuclear spins s = 1/2 in an external magnetic field. The demagnetization starts with the offset of the external magnetic field (in frequency units) from the Larmor frequency being several times greater than the local dipolar field. For different subsystem sizes, we have found from numerical simulations the temperatures at which subsystems of a one-dimensional nine-spin chain and a plane nine-spin cluster become entangled. These temperatures are of the order of microkelvins and are almost independent of the subsystem size. There is a weak dependence of the temperature on the space dimension of the system.

  1. Entanglement of systems of dipolar coupled nuclear spins at the adiabatic demagnetization.

    PubMed

    Doronin, S I; Fel'dman, E B; Kucherov, M M; Pyrkov, A N

    2009-01-14

    We consider the adiabatic demagnetization in the rotating reference frame (ADRF) of a system of dipolar coupled nuclear spins s = 1/2 in an external magnetic field. The demagnetization starts with the offset of the external magnetic field (in frequency units) from the Larmor frequency being several times greater than the local dipolar field. For different subsystem sizes, we have found from numerical simulations the temperatures at which subsystems of a one-dimensional nine-spin chain and a plane nine-spin cluster become entangled. These temperatures are of the order of microkelvins and are almost independent of the subsystem size. There is a weak dependence of the temperature on the space dimension of the system. PMID:21813986

  2. High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-10-01

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve to include micro-groves at the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal penetration loss of pressure for 72 hours. As an application example, in situ 13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacted with supercritical CO2 and H2O at 150 bar and 50?C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  3. High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, David W; Turcu, Romulus V F; Sears, Jesse A; Rosso, Kevin M; Burton, Sarah D; Felmy, Andrew R; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2011-10-01

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. As an application example, in situ(13)C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) reacted with supercritical CO(2) and H(2)O at 150 bar and 50°C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. PMID:21862372

  4. Optical and Nuclear Spin Spectroscopy in PRASEODYMIUM(3+):LANTHANUM Fluoride by Optical Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Lawrence Leroy

    A Stark Modulated Optical Pumping (SMOP) technique was used as a sensitive probe of optical hole-burning to study the effects of nuclear spin interactions in Pr ^{3+}:LaF_3. The results of two experiments are reported. In the first experiment, the SMOP technique is applied for optical detection of the NQR spectrum of the Pr^{3+} optical ground state. Frequency and linewidth variations of the Pr ^{3+} ground state hyperfine levels for different positions within the main ^3 H_4(Gamma1) -^1D_2(Gamma 1) inhomogeneous optical line and satellite transitions of Pr^{3+}:LaF _3 are observed. A linear increase in the broadening of the Pr^{3+} hyperfine transitions, without a shift of central frequency, is measured as the laser is tuned toward the wings of the inhomogeneous optical transition. The linear variation is attributed to electric quadrupole broadening caused by changes in local density of point defects across the Stark broadened optical transition. The optically detected NQR spectra of the satellite transitions associated with Pr ion pairs are shifted in frequency, and for most satellites are narrower in width than the NQR spectra found in the wings of the main inhomogeneous optical line. In the second experiment, direct evidence for the presence of a spin diffusion barrier or "frozen core" in Pr^{3+}:LaF _3 is observed by examining the cross relaxation between the Pr and F nuclei in a magnetic field chosen so that a pair of the optical ground state Pr^ {3+} hyperfine energy levels matches the F splitting or a multiple of the F splitting. This level crossing condition allows resonant flip-flop interactions with the nearest neighbor frozen core fluorine spins to re-populate Pr^{3+} hyperfine levels emptied by laser hole-burning, and is detected as enhanced absorption of the laser beam. The coupling of core fluorine spins to bulk fluorine spins during Pr-F cross-relaxation is measured by NMR of the bulk fluorine spin magnetization. The rate of cross relaxation between the Pr spins and the bulk F spins measured in this way is at least three to four orders of magnitude slower than that expected in the absence of a spin diffusion barrier. This reduction of coupling indicates nearly complete de-tuning of the frozen core F spins immediately surrounding the Pr^{3+} ion, cutting off resonant coupling with the bulk F spins.

  5. Diamond as a Solid State Quantum Computer with a Linear Chain of Nuclear Spins System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, G. V.; López, G. V.

    By removing a $^{12}C$ atom from the tetrahedral configuration of the diamond, replace it by a $^{13}C$ atom, and repeating this in a linear direction, it is possible to have a linear chain of nuclear spins one half and to build a solid state quantum computer. One qubit rotation and controlled-not (CNOT) quantum gates are obtained immediately from this configuration, and CNOT quantum gate is used to determined the design parameters of this quantum computer.

  6. Discrimination of nuclear spin isomers exploiting the excited state dynamics of a quinodimethane derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Obaid, Rana [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Wien (Austria); Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Abu Dis, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kinzel, Daniel; Oppel, Markus, E-mail: markus.oppel@univie.ac.at; González, Leticia [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2014-10-28

    Despite the concept of nuclear spin isomers (NSIs) exists since the early days of quantum mechanics, only few approaches have been suggested to separate different NSIs. Here, a method is proposed to discriminate different NSIs of a quinodimethane derivative using its electronic excited state dynamics. After electronic excitation by a laser field with femtosecond time duration, a difference in the behavior of several quantum mechanical operators can be observed. A pump-probe experimental approach for separating these different NSIs is then proposed.

  7. Exploiting Spin Echo Decay in the Detection of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel D. Somasundaram; Andreas Jakobsson; John A. S. Smith; Kaspar Althoefer

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a radio-frequency technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the 14N nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. In a typical application, one observes trains of decaying NQR echoes, in which the decay is governed by the spin echo decay time(s) of the resonant line(s). In most detection

  8. Optical measurements of methyl-group tunneling and nuclear-spin conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Borczyskowski, Christian; Oppenländer, Andreas; Trommsdorff, H. Peter; Vial, Jean-Claude

    1990-12-01

    We report a novel approach to measure rotational tunneling in condensed phases. High-resolution optical spectroscopic methods are used to unravel the tunneling level structure and to measure the rate of the nuclear-spin conversion. The method is demonstrated in experiments on the rotational motion of methyl groups in a crystal of durene doped with di-methyl-s-tetrazine but it can readily be transposed to other tunneling systems.

  9. Magnetic order in nuclear spin two-dimensional lattices due to electronelectron interactions

    E-print Network

    Braunecker, Bernd

    in a quantum dot. The interaction Hamiltonian can be written in the form Hdot hyp ¼ X i AiS Á Ii ¼ X i Ai½Sz Iz introduced S7 ¼ Sx 7iSy , I7 i ¼ Ix i 7Iy i , and Ai % AjcðriÞj2 with A a proportionality constant and cðriÞ the wave function of the confined electron on the quantum dot. The number of nuclear spins is large

  10. Long-range two-qubit gate between nuclear spins in diamond mediated via an optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Adrian; Burkard, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond represent a promising possibility for a solid-state based realization of a qubit due to their excellent electron- and nuclear-spin coherence properties. Single-qubit gates for the nitrogen nuclear spin have been implemented. Here, we extend an earlier proposal for cavity-mediated coupling between NV electron spins and develop a scheme to implement a universal two-qubit gate between 14N or 15N nuclear spins. By virtually exciting a single NV center with an external laser field, a photon can be scattered into a surrounding cavity; we show that this process depends on the spin state of the nitrogen nucleus. For the two-qubit gate, we consider two NV centers coupled to a common cavity mode and each being excited individually. Virtual cavity excitation can then mediate an effective interaction between the NV nuclear spin qubits, generating a controlled-Z gate. Operation times for the gate implementation are found to be below 100 nanoseconds, which is orders of magnitude faster than the decoherence time of nuclear spin qubits in diamond.

  11. Optical pumping and population transfer of nuclear-spin states of caesium atoms in high magnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Luo; Xian-Ping Sun; Xi-Zhi Zeng; Ming-Sheng Zhan

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear-spin states of gaseous-state Cs atoms in the ground state are optically manipulated using a Ti:sapphire laser in a magnetic field of 1.516 T, in which optical coupling of the nuclear-spin states is achieved through hyperfine interactions between electrons and nuclei. The steady-state population distribution in the hyperfine Zeeman sublevels of the ground state is detected by using a tunable

  12. Magic angle spinning NMR of proteins: high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization and (1)h detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Yongchao; Andreas, Loren; Griffin, Robert G

    2015-06-01

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of amyloid and membrane proteins and large macromolecular complexes are an important new approach to structural biology. However, the applicability of these experiments, which are based on (13)C- and (15)N-detected spectra, would be enhanced if the sensitivity were improved. Here we discuss two advances that address this problem: high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and (1)H-detected MAS techniques. DNP is a sensitivity enhancement technique that transfers the high polarization of exogenous unpaired electrons to nuclear spins via microwave irradiation of electron-nuclear transitions. DNP boosts NMR signal intensities by factors of 10(2) to 10(3), thereby overcoming NMR's inherent low sensitivity. Alternatively, it permits structural investigations at the nanomolar scale. In addition, (1)H detection is feasible primarily because of the development of MAS rotors that spin at frequencies of 40 to 60 kHz or higher and the preparation of extensively (2)H-labeled proteins. PMID:25839340

  13. {sigma}-nuclear spin-orbit coupling from two-pion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, N. [Physik-Department T39, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Using SU(3) chiral perturbation theory we calculate the density-dependent complex-valued spin-orbit coupling strength U{sub {sigma}}{sub ls}(k{sub f})+iW{sub {sigma}}{sub ls}(k{sub f}) of a {sigma} hyperon in the nuclear medium. The leading long-range {sigma}N interaction arises from iterated one-pion exchange with a {lambda} or a {sigma} hyperon in the intermediate state. We find from this unique long-range dynamics a sizable ''wrong-sign'' spin-orbit coupling strength of U{sub {sigma}}{sub ls}(k{sub f0}){approx_equal}-20 MeV fm{sup 2} at normal nuclear matter density {rho}{sub 0}=0.16 fm{sup -3}. The strong {sigma}N{yields}{lambda}N conversion process contributes at the same time an imaginary part of W{sub {sigma}}{sub ls}(k{sub f0}){approx_equal}-12 MeV fm{sup 2}. When combined with estimates of the short-range contribution the total {sigma}-nuclear spin-orbit coupling becomes rather weak.

  14. Nuclear Spin Polarization of Phosphorus Donors in Silicon. Direct Evidence from 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumann, Patryk; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Patange, Om; Moussa, Osama; Thewalt, Mike; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolay; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Itoh, Kohei; Cory, David G.

    2014-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the optical hyperpolarization and coherent control of 31P, nuclear spins in single crystal silicon via the inductive readout of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal of 31P at a concentration of 1.5 x 1015 cc-1. The obtained polarization is sufficient the 31P spin polarization of 1.17 x 1015 in a 10 mm x 10 mm sample, observed in one FID with signal-to-noise ration of 113. The linewidth is 800 Hz. The Hahn echo pulse sequence reveals a 31P T2 time of 0.42 s at 1.6 K, which was extended by the Carr Purcell cycle to 1.2 s at the same temperature. The maximum build-up of the nuclear polarization was achieved within ~577 seconds, at 4.2 K, in 6.7 T, using optical excitations provided by an infra-red laser. This work has been supported by CERC Canada.

  15. Method of producing carbon-13 by multiphoton decomposition of c3f6

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P.A.; Nip, W.S.; Willis, C.

    1982-05-04

    A method of producing carbon-13 by multiphoton decomposition of C3F6, said material containing carbon-12 and carbon-13 isotopic species, comprising irradiating gaseous C3F6 in a reaction chamber at a pressure below 10 torr with a laser beam at a frequency in the range of 950 to 1020 wavenumbers and providing a minimum fluence of 1 joules per sq. Cm. And passing the material through a physical separation stage to obtain a 13C2F4 product.

  16. Nuclear spin dependence of hydrogenic plasmas in the laboratory and the diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, K. N.; Indriolo, N.; Kreckel, H.; Kauffman, C. A.; Tom, B. A.; Becka, E.; McGuire, B. A.; McCall, B. J.

    2011-05-01

    Observations of diffuse molecular clouds have shown that the excitation temperature T(H_3^+) derived from the (J,K) = (1,0) (ortho) and (1,1) (para) rotational levels of H_3^+ does not necessarily agree with the kinetic temperature (T01) inferred from UV measurements of H_2. In four of the five diffuse molecular cloud sight lines for which both H_3^+ and H_2 observations are available, T(H_3^+) is lower than T01 by 30 K. The reaction H_3^+ + H_2 ? H_2 + H_3^+ is expected to thermalize the H_3^+ nuclear spin distribution, but the interplay of nuclear spin selection rules and energetic restrictions at the low temperatures of the diffuse interstellar medium may prevent full thermalization at steady state. Alternatively, the nonthermal distribution could arise if H_3^+ does not experience a sufficient number of thermalizing collisions with H_2 during its lifetime. We have studied the nuclear spin dependence of the reaction of H_3^+ with H_2 in the laboratory by measuring the ortho:para ratio of H_3^+ formed in plasmas of varying ortho:para H_2 ratios. This study was performed in a hollow cathode cell which enabled the first measurements of this reaction at low temperature (130 K). From these measurements, we derived the ratio of the ``proton hop'' and ``hydrogen exchange'' rate coefficients as a function of temperature. The ratio, ?, was found to decrease with temperature, already reaching the statistical limit of 0.5 at a temperature of 130 K. Knowledge of ? enables modeling of the ortho:para ratio of H_3^+ in diffuse molecular clouds. We have modeled the nuclear spin dependence of the formation, thermalization, and destruction processes of H_3^+, and found that the nonthermal distribution is not caused by nuclear spin selection rules or energetic restrictions in the H_3^+ + H_2 reaction. Rather, it is likely caused by incomplete thermalization prior to H_3^+ destruction via electron dissociative recombination.

  17. Nuclear Spin Dependence of Hydrogenic Plasmas in the Laboratory and the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; Kauffman, Carrie A.; Tom, Brian A.; Beçka, Eftalda; McGuire, Brett A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2011-10-01

    Observations of diffuse molecular clouds have shown that the excitation temperature T(H3+) derived from the (J,K) = (1,0) (ortho) and (1,1) (para) rotational levels of H3+ does not necessarily agree with the kinetic temperature (T01) inferred from UV measurements of H2. In four of the five diffuse molecular cloud sight lines for which both H3+ and H2 observations are available, T(H3+) is lower than T01 by 30 K. The reaction H3+ + H2 ? H2 + H3+ is expected to thermalize the H3+ nuclear spin distribution, but the interplay of nuclear spin selection rules and energetic restrictions at the low temperatures of the diffuse interstellar medium may prevent full thermalization at steady state. Alternatively, the nonthermal distribution could arise if H3+ does not experience a sufficient number of thermalizing collisions with H2 during its lifetime. We have studied the nuclear spin dependence of the reaction of H3+ with H2 in the laboratory by measuring the ortho:para ratio of H3+ formed in plasmas of varying ortho:para H2 ratios. This study was performed in a hollow cathode cell which enabled the first measurements of this reaction at low temperature (130 K). From these measurements, we derived the ratio of the "proton hop" and "hydrogen exchange" rate coefficients as a function of temperature. The ratio, ?, was found to decrease with temperature, already reaching the statistical limit of 0.5 at a temperature of 130 K. Knowledge of ? enables modeling of the ortho:para ratio of H3+ in diffuse molecular clouds. We have modeled the nuclear spin dependence of the formation, thermalization, and destruction processes of H3+, and found that the nonthermal distribution is not caused by nuclear spin selection rules or energetic restrictions in the H3+ + H2 reaction. Rather, it is likely caused by incomplete thermalization prior to H3+ destruction via electron dissociative recombination.

  18. Nuclear-spin-induced cotton-mouton effect in a strong external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li-Juan; Vaara, Juha

    2014-08-01

    Novel, high-sensitivity and high-resolution spectroscopic methods can provide site-specific nuclear information by exploiting nuclear magneto-optic properties. We present a first-principles electronic structure formulation of the recently proposed nuclear-spin-induced Cotton-Mouton effect in a strong external magnetic field (NSCM-B). In NSCM-B, ellipticity is induced in a linearly polarized light beam, which can be attributed to both the dependence of the symmetric dynamic polarizability on the external magnetic field and the nuclear magnetic moment, as well as the temperature-dependent partial alignment of the molecules due to the magnetic fields. Quantum-chemical calculations of NSCM-B were conducted for a series of molecular liquids. The overall order of magnitude of the induced ellipticities is predicted to be 10(-11) -10(-6) rad?T(-1) ?M(-1) ?cm(-1) for fully spin-polarized nuclei. In particular, liquid-state heavy-atom systems should be promising for experiments in the Voigt setup. PMID:24862946

  19. Analytic treatment of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation for diffusion in a cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnitsky, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    We consider nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate resulted from a diffusion equation for rotational wobbling in a cone. We show that the widespread point of view that there are no analytical expressions for correlation functions for wobbling in a cone model is invalid and prove that nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in this model is exactly tractable and amenable to full analytical description. The mechanism of relaxation is assumed to be due to dipole-dipole interaction of nuclear spins and is treated within the framework of the standard Bloemberger, Purcell, Pound-Solomon scheme. We consider the general case of arbitrary orientation of the cone axis relative the magnetic field. The BPP-Solomon scheme is shown to remain valid for systems with the distribution of the cone axes depending only on the tilt relative the magnetic field but otherwise being isotropic. We consider the case of random isotropic orientation of cone axes relative the magnetic field taking place in powders. Also we consider the cases of their predominant orientation along or opposite the magnetic field and that of their predominant orientation transverse to the magnetic field which may be relevant for, e.g., liquid crystals. Besides we treat in details the model case of the cone axis directed along the magnetic field. The latter provides direct comparison of the limiting case of our formulas with the textbook formulas for free isotropic rotational diffusion. The dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate on the cone half-width yields results similar to those predicted by the model-free approach.

  20. Analytic treatment of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation for diffusion in a cone model

    E-print Network

    A. E. Sitnitsky

    2011-08-02

    We consider nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate resulted from a diffusion equation for rotational wobbling in a cone. We show that the widespread point of view that there are no analytical expressions for correlation functions for wobbling in a cone model is invalid and prove that nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in this model is exactly tractable and amenable to full analytical description. The mechanism of relaxation is assumed to be due to dipole-dipole interaction of nuclear spins and is treated within the framework of the standard Bloemberger, Purcell, Pound - Solomon scheme. We consider the general case of arbitrary orientation of the cone axis relative the magnetic field. The BPP-Solomon scheme is shown to remain valid for systems with the distribution of the cone axes depending only on the tilt relative the magnetic field but otherwise being isotropic. We consider the case of random isotropic orientation of cone axes relative the magnetic field taking place in powders. Also we consider the cases of their predominant orientation along or opposite the magnetic field and that of their predominant orientation transverse to the magnetic field which may be relevant for, e.g., liquid crystals. Besides we treat in details the model case of the cone axis directed along the magnetic field. The latter provides direct comparison of the limiting case of our formulas with the textbook formulas for free isotropic rotational diffusion. The dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate on the cone half-width yields results similar to those predicted by the model-free approach.

  1. Nuclear spin of a new isomer in $^{119}Cs$ and magnetic moment of $^{120}Cs$: Evidence for strongly deformed nuclear shapes of the light cesium isotopes

    E-print Network

    Ekström, C; Heinemeier, J

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear spin, I=/sup 3///sub 2/, of a new isomer in /sup 119/Cs and the magnetic moment, mu /sub I/=3.92(5) nm, of /sup 120/Cs have been determined in on-line ABMR experiments at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The experimental data give evidence for strongly deformed nuclear shapes of the light cesium isotopes. (10 refs).

  2. Spin-orbit effects on nuclear state preparation at the S -T+ anti-crossing in double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rancic, Marko; Burkard, Guido

    2014-03-01

    We explore the interplay of spin-orbit and hyperfine effects on the nuclear preparation schemes in two-electron double quantum dots, e.g. in GaAs. The quantity of utmost interest is the electron spin decoherence time T2* in dependence of the number of sweeps through the electron spin singlet S triplet T+ anti-crossing. Decoherence of the electron spin is caused by the difference field induced by the nuclear spins. We study the case where a singlet S(2 , 0) is initialized, in which both electrons are in the left dot. Subsequently, the system is driven repeatedly through the anti-crossing and back using linear electrical bias sweeps. Our model describes the passage through the anti-crossing with a large number of equally spaced, step-like parameter increments. We develop a numerical method describing the nuclear spins fully quantum mechanically, which allows us to track their dynamics. Both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit terms do depend on the angle ? between the [ 110 ] crystallographic and the inter-dot axis. Our results show that the suppression of decoherence (and therefore the enhancement of T2*) is inversely proportional to the strength of the spin-orbit interaction, which is tuned by varying the angle ?. We acknowledge the S3Nano Marie Curie ITN for support and funding.

  3. Probing the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot via full counting statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Nie, Yi-Hang; Chen, Jingzhe; Ren, Wei

    2015-03-01

    We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through a quantum dot weakly coupled to two ferromagnetic leads, in which an effective nuclear-spin magnetic field originating from the configuration of nuclear spins is considered. We demonstrate that the quantum coherence between the two singly-occupied eigenstates and the spin polarization of two ferromagnetic leads play an important role in the formation of super-Poissonian noise. In particular, the orientation and magnitude of the effective field have a significant influence on the variations of the values of high-order cumulants, and the variations of the skewness and kurtosis values are more sensitive to the orientation and magnitude of the effective field than the shot noise. Thus, the high-order cumulants of transport current can be used to qualitatively extract information on the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot.

  4. Rotor design for high pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Romulus V F; Hoyt, David W; Rosso, Kevin M; Sears, Jesse A; Loring, John S; Felmy, Andrew R; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2013-01-01

    High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low (1)H and (13)C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe(2+))(3)Si(2)O(5)(OH)(4)), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) at 150 bar and 50°C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO(2), but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields. PMID:23220181

  5. Carbon-13 Labeling for Quantitative Analysis of Molecular Movement in Heterogeneous Organic

    E-print Network

    ,22,23 and therefore, techniques such as isotopic labeling have been utilized in an attempt to overcome these drawbacksCarbon-13 Labeling for Quantitative Analysis of Molecular Movement in Heterogeneous Organic of macromolecules in heterogeneous or- ganic systems. Using 13C tracer labeling and two model systems, polystyrene

  6. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation of 60 Co in ferromagnetic alloys Pt 99 Co 1 and Pd 99 Co 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Trhlík; B. Sedlák; M. Rotter; ?. Lešták; V. N. Pavlov; P. ?ížek; M. Finger; A. L. Erzinkyan; V. P. Parfenova; G. M. Gurevich

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) of60Co in the systems Pt99Co1, Pd99Co1 has been studied by very low temperature nuclear orientation technique. The thermal cycling method has been used. The difference\\u000a of two orders of magnitude of Korringa constant has been found between Pt99Co1 and Pd99Co1.

  7. Free-induction decay and envelope modulations in a narrowed nuclear spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coish, W. A.; Fischer, Jan; Loss, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    We evaluate free-induction decay for the transverse components of a localized electron spin coupled to a bath of nuclear spins via the Fermi-contact hyperfine interaction. Our perturbative treatment is valid for special (narrowed) bath initial conditions and when the Zeeman energy of the electron b exceeds the total hyperfine coupling constant A : b>A . Using one unified and systematic method, we recover previous results reported at short and long times using different techniques. We find an unexpected modulation of the free-induction-decay envelope, which is present even for a purely isotropic hyperfine interaction without spin echoes and for a single nuclear species. We give subleading corrections to the decoherence rate, and show that, in general, the decoherence rate has a nonmonotonic dependence on electron Zeeman splitting, leading to a pronounced maximum. These results illustrate the limitations of methods that make use of leading-order effective Hamiltonians and re-exponentiation of short-time expansions for a strongly interacting system with non-Markovian (history-dependent) dynamics.

  8. Finite-temperature calculations for spin-polarized asymmetric nuclear matter with the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect

    Bigdeli, M. [Department of Physics, Zanjan University, Post Office Box 45195-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha, Post Office Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, G. H. [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha, Post Office Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poostforush, A. [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The lowest order constrained variational technique has been used to investigate some of the thermodynamic properties of spin-polarized hot asymmetric nuclear matter, such as the free energy, symmetry energy, susceptibility, and equation of state. We have shown that the symmetry energy of the nuclear matter is substantially sensitive to the value of spin polarization. Our calculations show that the equation of state of the polarized hot asymmetric nuclear matter is stiffer for higher values of the polarization as well as the isospin asymmetry parameter. Our results for the free energy and susceptibility show that spontaneous ferromagnetic phase transition cannot occur for hot asymmetric matter.

  9. Magic radio-frequency dressing of nuclear spins in high-accuracy optical clocks.

    PubMed

    Zanon-Willette, Thomas; de Clercq, Emeric; Arimondo, Ennio

    2012-11-30

    A Zeeman-insensitive optical clock atomic transition is engineered when nuclear spins are dressed by a nonresonant radio-frequency field. For fermionic species as (87)Sr, (171)Yb, and (199)Hg, particular ratios between the radio-frequency driving amplitude and frequency lead to "magic" magnetic values where a net cancelation of the Zeeman clock shift and a complete reduction of first-order magnetic variations are produced within a relative uncertainty below the 10(-18) level. An Autler-Townes continued fraction describing a semiclassical radio-frequency dressed spin is numerically computed and compared to an analytical quantum description including higher-order magnetic field corrections to the dressed energies. PMID:23368116

  10. Impact of hadronic and nuclear corrections on global analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Accardi, Alberto [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We present the first results of a new global next-to-leading order analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from the most recent world data on inclusive polarized deep-inelastic scattering, focusing in particular on the large-x and low-Q^2 regions. By directly fitting polarization asymmetries we eliminate biases introduced by using polarized structure function data extracted under nonuniform assumptions for the unpolarized structure functions. For analysis of the large-x data we implement nuclear smearing corrections for deuterium and 3He nuclei, and systematically include target mass and higher twist corrections to the g_1 and g_2 structure functions at low Q^2. We also explore the effects of Q^2 and W^2 cuts in the data sets, and the potential impact of future data on the behavior of the spin-dependent parton distributions at large x.

  11. Spin-isospin nuclear response using the existing microscopic Skyrme functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Fracasso, S.; Colo, G. [Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi and INFN, Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Our paper aims at providing an answer to the question of whether one can reliably describe the properties of the most important spin-isospin nuclear excitations by using the available nonrelativistic Skyrme energy functionals. Our method, which has been introduced in a previous publication devoted to the isobaric analog states, is the self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). The inclusion of pairing is instrumental for describing a number of experimentally measured spherical systems which are characterized by open shells. We discuss the effect of isoscalar and isovector pairing correlations. Based on the results for the Gamow-Teller resonance in {sup 90}Zr, {sup 208}Pb, and a few Sn isotopes, we draw definite conclusions on the performance of different Skyrme parametrizations, and we suggest improvements for future fits. We also use the spin-dipole resonance as a benchmark of our statements.

  12. EDM measurement in 129Xe atom using dual active feedback nuclear spin maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Ohtomo, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kojima, S.; Funayama, C.; Suzuki, T.; Chikamori, M.; Hikota, E.; Tsuchiya, M.; Furukawa, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Bidinosti, C. P.; Ino, T.; Ueno, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Asahi, K.

    2015-04-01

    The technique of an active nuclear spin maser is adopted in the search for electric dipole moment in a diamagnetic atom 129Xe. In order to reduce systematic uncertainties arising from long-term drifts of the external magnetic field and from the contact interaction between longitudinal polarized Rb atoms and 129Xe spin, a 3He comagnetometer with a double-cell geometry was employed. The remaining shift, which turned out to show some correlation with the cell temperature, was mitigated by stabilizing the cell temperature. As a result, the frequency drift of the 129Xe maser was reduced from 12 mHz to 700 ?Hz, and the determination precision of frequency of 8.7 nHz was obtained for a 2×104 s measurement time using the double-cell geometry cell.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of spin relaxation and magnetic field gradients in maple leaves.

    PubMed

    McCain, D C

    1995-09-01

    1H Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to measure the distributions of spin-spin relaxation times, T2, and of magnetic field gradients in both the chloroplast and nonchloroplast water compartments of maple leaves (Acer platanoides). Results showed that encounters between water molecules and membranes inside chloroplasts provide an inefficient relaxation mechanism; i.e., chloroplast membranes interact weakly with water molecules. Gradient measurements indirectly measured the sizes of chloroplasts by showing that water in the chloroplasts is confined to small compartments a few microns in diameter. A comparison between measured gradients and gradients calculated for a model leaf indicated that chloroplasts are somewhat more likely to occupy positions along cell walls adjacent to air spaces, but also they may be found in the interiors of cells. PMID:8519965

  14. Spin-isospin nuclear response using the existing microscopic Skyrme functionals

    E-print Network

    Sara Fracasso; Gianluca Colo'

    2007-04-22

    Our paper aims at providing an answer to the question whether one can reliably describe the properties of the most important spin-isospin nuclear excitations, by using the available non-relativistic Skyrme energy functionals. Our method, which has been introduced in a previous publication devoted to the Isobaric Analog states, is the self-consistent Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA). The inclusion of pairing is instrumental for describing a number of experimentally measured spherical systems which are characterized by open shells. We discuss the effect of isoscalar and isovector pairing correlations. Based on the results for the Gamow-Teller resonance in $^{90}$Zr, in $^{208}$Pb and in few Sn isotopes, we draw definite conclusions on the performance of different Skyrme parametrizations, and we suggest improvements for future fits. We also use the spin-dipole resonance as a benchmark of our statements.

  15. Size dependence of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in micro- and nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Panich, A M; Sergeev, N A; Shames, A I; Osipov, V Yu; Boudou, J-P; Goren, S D

    2015-02-25

    Size dependence of physical properties of nanodiamond particles is of crucial importance for various applications in which defect density and location as well as relaxation processes play a significant role. In this work, the impact of defects induced by milling of micron-sized synthetic diamonds was studied by magnetic resonance techniques as a function of the particle size. EPR and (13)C NMR studies of highly purified commercial synthetic micro- and nanodiamonds were done for various fractions separated by sizes. Noticeable acceleration of (13)C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation with decreasing particle size was found. We showed that this effect is caused by the contribution to relaxation coming from the surface paramagnetic centers induced by sample milling. The developed theory of the spin-lattice relaxation for such a case shows good compliance with the experiment. PMID:25646270

  16. Nuclear Spin relaxation mediated by Fermi-edge electrons in n-type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotur, M.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Kavokin, K. V.; Korenev, V. L.; Namozov, B. R.; Pak, P. E.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.

    2014-03-01

    A method based on the optical orientation technique was developed to measure the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation time T 1 in semiconductors. It was applied to bulk n-type GaAs, where T 1 was measured after switching off the optical excitation in magnetic fields from 400 to 1200 G at low (< 30 K) temperatures. The spin-lattice relaxation of nuclei in the studied sample with n D = 9 × 1016 cm-3 was found to be determined by hyperfine scattering of itinerant electrons (Korringa mechanism) which predicts invariability of T 1 with the change in magnetic field and linear dependence of the relaxation rate on temperature. This result extends the experimentally verified applicability of the Korringa relaxation law in degenerate semiconductors, previously studied in strong magnetic fields (several Tesla), to the moderate field range.

  17. Nuclear spin optical rotation and Faraday effect in gaseous and liquid water.

    PubMed

    Pennanen, Teemu S; Ikäläinen, Suvi; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2012-05-14

    Nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR) of linearly polarized light, due to the nuclear spins through the Faraday effect, provides a novel probe of molecular structure and could pave the way to optical detection of nuclear magnetization. We determine computationally the effects of the liquid medium on NSOR and the Verdet constant of Faraday rotation (arising from an external magnetic field) in water, using the recently developed theory applied on a first-principles molecular dynamics trajectory. The gas-to-liquid shifts of the relevant antisymmetric polarizability and, hence, NSOR magnitude are found to be -14% and -29% for (1)H and (17)O nuclei, respectively. On the other hand, medium effects both enhance the local electric field in water and, via bulk magnetization, the local magnetic field. Together these two effects partially cancel the solvation influence on the single-molecular property. We find a good agreement for the hydrogen NSOR with a recent pioneering experiment on H(2)O(l). PMID:22583295

  18. The Calculation of Indirect Nuclear SpinSpin Coupling Constants in Large Mark A. Watson,[b

    E-print Network

    Helgaker, Trygve

    ±4] This restriction, which arises from the severe demands that such calculations place on the description- able theoretical prediction of spin±spin coupling constants stems from a central application area±spin coupling constants in large molecular systems, performed using density functional theory. Such calculations

  19. Interlayer transport of nuclear spin polarization in ν = 2/3 quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, S.; Nguyen, M. H.; Terasawa, D.; Fukuda, A.; Zheng, Y. D.; Arai, T.; Sawada, A.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the interlayer diffusion of nuclear spin polarization (NSP) by using the phase transition point of quantum Hall states at a Landau level filling factor of ? ? 2/3 in a double quantum well sample. When the NSP is current-pumped in one layer, the magnetoresistance in the other layer is enhanced after a delay of 150 s and the raising speed of this layer is lower than that of the pumped layer. The delay and lower value of the raising speed are explained by the diffusion of NSP.

  20. Quantum-state tomography of a single nuclear spin qubit of an optically manipulated ytterbium atom

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, Atsushi; Kozuma, Mikio [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, JST, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Eto, Yujiro [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, JST, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, Masahito [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, JST, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    A single Yb atom is loaded into a high-finesse optical cavity with a moving lattice, and its nuclear spin state is manipulated using a nuclear magnetic resonance technique. A highly reliable quantum state control with fidelity and purity greater than 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, is confirmed by the full quantum state tomography; a projective measurement with high speed (500 {mu}s) and high efficiency (0.98) is accomplished using the cavity QED technique. Because a hyperfine coupling is induced only when the projective measurement is operational, the long coherence times (T{sub 1}=0.49 s and T{sub 2}=0.10 s) are maintained.

  1. Analytical theory of the nuclear-spin-induced optical rotation in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guo-hua; He, Ming; Chen, Dong-ming; He, Tian-jing; Liu, Fan-chen

    2011-08-01

    Based on the thought on the antisymmetric polarizability induced by nuclear magnetic moments and theory of the Faraday effect, an analytical theoretical expression is derived for the nuclear-spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) of diamagnetic saturated molecules in a circular cylinder. That consists of two parts, ? and ?, induced by the intramolecular and intermolecular hyperfine interaction, respectively. By using them and the Verdet constants, NSOR for 1H in water, hexane, cyclohexane and methyl-alcohol in liquid and H 2 gas have been calculated. The calculated NSOR for water agrees with the experiment and for three hydrocarbons predicts the same order of magnitude as water. For the samples studied except H 2 gas, ? and ? are comparable in magnitude.

  2. Chain of nuclear spins system quantum computer taking into account second neighbor Ising spins interaction and numerical simulation of Shor factorization of N=4

    E-print Network

    Gustavo V. Lopez; Lorena Lara

    2006-08-28

    For a one-dimensional chain of four nuclear spins (1/2) and taking into account first and second neighbor interactions among the spin system, we make the numerical simulation of Shor prime factorization algorithm of the integer number N=4 to study the influence of the second neighbor interaction on the performance of this algorithm. It is shown that the optimum Rabi's frequency to control the non-resonant effects is dominated by the second neighbor interaction coupling parameter ($J'$), and that a good Shor quantum factorization is achieved for a ratio of second to first coupling constant of $J'/J\\ge 0.04$.

  3. A high-performance Fortran code to calculate spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities. The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g- model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf. Program summaryProgram title: MM Catalogue identifier: AENM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 193181 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1298585 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, MPI. Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler and MPI. Operating system: Linux. RAM: Proportional to the system size, in our examples, up to 75Mb Classification: 17.15. External routines: MPICH2 (http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/mpich2/) Nature of problem: Calculating of the spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level density. Solution method: The algorithm implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The code is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface and a master-slaves dynamical load-balancing approach. Restrictions: The program uses two-body interaction in a restricted single-level basis. For example, GXPF1A in the pf-valence space. Running time: Depends on the system size and the number of processors used (from 1 min to several hours).

  4. Prediction of nuclear spin based on the behavior of ?-particle preformation probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.

    2013-11-01

    A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction with a finite-range exchange part which produces the nuclear matter saturation curve and the energy dependence of the nucleon-nucleus optical model potential is used to calculate the microscopic ?-nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the ? and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the NN interaction. The ?-decay half-lives have been determined using a microscopic potential within the semiclassical Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. We systematically studied the preformation probability, S?, for ten even-even and odd mass heavy nuclei from Po to No isotopes. We found that S? has a regular behavior with N if the ? particle emitted from adjacent isotopes comes from the same energy levels or from a group of levels, assuming that the order of levels in this group is not changed. Sudden increase in S? is found when protons and neutrons holes exist below the Fermi levels. Based on the similarity in the behavior of S? with the neutron number for two adjacent nuclei, we try to determine the unknown or doubted nuclear spins and parities or at least correlate spins of adjacent nuclei.

  5. Two methods for nuclear spin determination in collinear laser spectroscopy : classical r.f. magnetic resonance and observation of the Larmor precession (*)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    421 Two methods for nuclear spin determination in collinear laser spectroscopy : classical r. 2014 Measurement of nuclear spin in the collinear laser spectroscopy method has been investigated using]. Recently, the method of collinear laser spectroscopy has shown to be very fruitful in this field [2, 3

  6. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance with magic-angle spinning and dynamic nuclear polarization below 25 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Kent R.; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20-25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier [1], but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized 13C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional 13C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly 13C-labeled L-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly 13C-labeled amino acids.

  7. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance with magic-angle spinning and dynamic nuclear polarization below 25 K

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Kent R.; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20–25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier (Thurber et al., J. Magn. Reson. 2008) [1], but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized 13C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional 13C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly 13C-labeled L-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly 13C-labeled amino acids. PMID:23238592

  8. Nitrogen nuclear spin flips in nitroxide spin probes of different sizes in glassy o-terphenyl: possible relation with ?- and ?-relaxations.

    PubMed

    Isaev, N P; Dzuba, S A

    2011-09-01

    The pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) technique was employed to study nitroxide spin probes of three different sizes dissolved in glassy o-terphenyl. A microwave pulse applied to the central hyperfine structure (hfs) component of the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum was followed by two echo-detecting pulses of different microwave frequency to probe the magnetization transfer (MT) to the low-field hfs component. The MT between hfs components is readily related to flips in the nitrogen nuclear spin, which in turn are induced by molecular motion. The MT on the time scale of tens of microseconds was observed over a wide temperature range, including temperatures near and well below the glass transition. For a bulky nitroxide, it was found that MT rates approach dielectric ? (primary) relaxation frequencies reported for o-terphenyl in the literature. For small nitroxides, MT rates were found to match the frequencies of dielectric ? (secondary) Johari-Goldstein relaxation. The most probable motional mechanism inducing the nitrogen nuclear spin flips is large-angle angular jumps, between some orientations of unequal occupation probabilities. The pulsed ELDOR of nitroxide spin probes may provide additional insight into the nature of Johari-Goldstein relaxation in glassy media and may serve as a tool for studying this relaxation in substances consisting of non-rigid molecules (such as branched polymers) and in heterogeneous and non-polar systems (such as a core of biological membranes). PMID:21913776

  9. Relativistic four-component calculations of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings with efficient evaluation of the exchange-correlation response kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?ístková, Anežka; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Vladimir G.; Malkina, Olga L.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a new scheme for efficient calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings in the framework of four-component matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham approach termed matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham restricted magnetic balance resolution of identity for J and K, which takes advantage of the previous restricted magnetic balance formalism and the density fitting approach for the rapid evaluation of density functional theory exchange-correlation response kernels. The new approach is aimed to speedup the bottleneck in the solution of the coupled perturbed equations: evaluation of the matrix elements of the kernel of the exchange-correlation potential. The performance of the new scheme has been tested on a representative set of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings. The obtained results have been compared with the corresponding results of the reference method with traditional evaluation of the exchange-correlation kernel, i.e., without employing the fitted electron densities. Overall good agreement between both methods was observed, though the new approach tends to give values by about 4%-5% higher than the reference method. On the average, the solution of the coupled perturbed equations with the new scheme is about 8.5 times faster compared to the reference method.

  10. Relativistic four-component calculations of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings with efficient evaluation of the exchange-correlation response kernel.

    PubMed

    K?ístková, Anežka; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Vladimir G; Malkina, Olga L

    2015-03-21

    In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a new scheme for efficient calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings in the framework of four-component matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham approach termed matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham restricted magnetic balance resolution of identity for J and K, which takes advantage of the previous restricted magnetic balance formalism and the density fitting approach for the rapid evaluation of density functional theory exchange-correlation response kernels. The new approach is aimed to speedup the bottleneck in the solution of the coupled perturbed equations: evaluation of the matrix elements of the kernel of the exchange-correlation potential. The performance of the new scheme has been tested on a representative set of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings. The obtained results have been compared with the corresponding results of the reference method with traditional evaluation of the exchange-correlation kernel, i.e., without employing the fitted electron densities. Overall good agreement between both methods was observed, though the new approach tends to give values by about 4%-5% higher than the reference method. On the average, the solution of the coupled perturbed equations with the new scheme is about 8.5 times faster compared to the reference method. PMID:25796226

  11. Electronegativities and isoelectronic energy and electronegativity differences for monatomic systems with nonintegral nuclear charges: Local-spin-density-functional calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Sen; Jorge M. Seminario; Peter Politzer

    1989-01-01

    A relativistic self-consistent-field self-interaction-corrected local-spin-density functional, with electronic correlation included, has been used to compute the electronegativities of monatomic systems with nonintegral nuclear charges. We focused specifically upon quark atoms related to the halogens, having nuclear charges of Z+\\/-1\\/3. Two different methods for calculating electronegativities were found to give results in good agreement with each other and with an earlier

  12. Nuclear Spin of H_3^+ and H_2 in Dense Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2012-06-01

    The ortho:para ratio of H_2 is a critical parameter for deuterium fractionation in cold, dense quiescent cores. The dominant reservoir for interstellar deuterium is in the inert molecule HD, but the exothermic reaction H_3^+ + HD ? H_2D^+ + H_2 + 220 K (and H_2D^+ + HD, etc.) can yield highly reactive species capable of distributing deuterium to other molecules. The barrier to the reverse reaction, however, can be overcome even at temperatures below 10 K when ortho-H_2 (o-H_2) reacts with H_2D^+ (or D_2H^+, D_3^+), as ortho-H_2 possesses ˜170 K of internal rotational energy in its ground state. Recent modeling work has demonstrated the importance of o-H_2 in cold, dense, highly depleted cores using a chemical network that includes all nuclear spin modifications of H_3^+, H_2, and their isotopologues, but the initial o-H_2 fraction is taken as a parameter in the model. Observationally or computationally constraining this quantity would aid in understanding deuterium fractionation in dense cores. To learn about the initial o-H_2 fraction in a cold core, we have modeled the chemistry of non-depleted dense interstellar clouds from which cold cores are thought to form. A simplified gas-phase chemical network consisting of 28 species and ˜170 reactions is combined with a physical model of a dense cloud, including time-dependent physical conditions. Included in the network are the nuclear spin modifications of H_2, H_2^+, and H_3^+, as well as nuclear spin dependent rate coefficients for the thermalization reactions H_2 + H^+ and H_3^+ + H_2. By modeling the time-dependent chemistry, we find that the ortho:para ratio of H_2 requires 10^7-10^8 years to reach steady state under ``standard'' dense cloud conditions, which is at least on the order of the cloud lifetime. The timescale depends on the ionization rate, the rate coefficients of the various H_3^+ + H_2 reactions, and the relative abundances of H_3^+ and H^+, but is largely insensitive to the total density and temperature. Even at steady state, the o-H_2 fraction is calculated to be >0.5% at 10 K, which is several orders of magnitude above its value at thermodynamic equilibrium. The prospects for using observations of the ortho:para ratio of H_3^+ as a probe of the H_2 ortho:para ratio will be discussed.

  13. Giant titanium electron wave function in gallium oxide: A potential electron-nuclear spin system for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentink-Vigier, Frédéric; Binet, Laurent; Vignoles, Gerard; Gourier, Didier; Vezin, Hervé

    2010-11-01

    The hyperfine interactions of the unpaired electron with eight surrounding G69a and G71a nuclei in Ti-doped ?-Ga2O3 were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopies. They are dominated by strong isotropic hyperfine couplings due to a direct Fermi contact interaction with Ga nuclei in octahedral sites of rutile-type chains oriented along b axis, revealing a large anisotropic spatial extension of the electron wave function. Titanium in ?-Ga2O3 is thus best described as a diffuse (Ti4+-e-) pair rather than as a localized Ti3+ . Both electron and G69a nuclear spin Rabi oscillations could be observed by pulsed EPR and pulsed ENDOR, respectively. The electron spin decoherence time is about 1?s (at 4 K) and an upper bound of 520?s (at 8 K) is estimated for the nuclear decoherence time. Thus, ?-Ga2O3:Ti appears to be a potential spin-bus system for quantum information processing with a large nuclear spin quantum register.

  14. 23Na Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation Studies of Na2Ni2TeO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yutaka

    2015-06-01

    We report on 23Na NMR studies of the honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet Na2Ni2TeO6 by 23Na nuclear spin-echo techniques. The 23Na nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/23T1 exhibits critical divergence near the Néel temperature TN = 26 K, a narrow critical region, and the critical exponent w = 0.34 in 1/23T1 ? (T/TN - 1)-w for Na2Ni2TeO6, and TN = 18 K for Na2(Ni0.5Cu0.5)2TeO6. Although the uniform magnetic susceptibility of Na2Ni2TeO6 exhibits a broad maximum at 35 K, which is the characteristic of low-dimensional spin systems, the NMR results indicate a three-dimensional criticalphenomenon near the Néel temperature.

  15. The Low-temperature Nuclear Spin Equilibrium of H+ 3 in Collisions with H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grussie, F.; Berg, M. H.; Crabtree, K. N.; Gärtner, S.; McCall, B. J.; Schlemmer, S.; Wolf, A.; Kreckel, H.

    2012-11-01

    Recent observations of H2 and H+ 3 in diffuse interstellar sightlines revealed a difference in the nuclear spin excitation temperatures of the two species. This discrepancy comes as a surprise, as H+ 3 and H2 should undergo frequent thermalizing collisions in molecular clouds. Non-thermal behavior of the fundamental H+ 3/H2 collision system at low temperatures was considered as a possible cause for the observed irregular populations. Here, we present measurements of the steady-state ortho/para ratio of H+ 3 in collisions with H2 molecules in a temperature-variable radiofrequency ion trap between 45 and 100 K. The experimental results are close to the expected thermal outcome and they agree very well with a previous micro-canonical model. We briefly discuss the implications of the experimental results for the chemistry of the diffuse interstellar medium.

  16. Investigation of ion beam deposited spin valve interface structure by 59Co nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JÈ©dryka, Ewa; Bailey, William E.; Wójcik, Marek; Nadolski, Stefan; Wang, Shan X.

    1999-04-01

    59Co nuclear magnetic resonance was used to study the bulk and interface microstructure in the unpinned Co layer in a series of highly (111)-textured ion beam deposited spin valves. The intent of the study is to determine the degree of Co interface intermixing and any possible variation of the Co layer microstructure as a result of weakening (111) texture of the NiFe/Co/Cu/Co/NiFe/FeMn film stack. We found that the interfaces are diffused over ˜2 monolayers on both sides of the Co layer, involving an equivalent of about 3 Å of Co per interface and vary only slightly with deteriorating texture. The main structural change is the drop of perfect fcc stacking in the Co layer.

  17. Nuclear spin relaxation of {sup 129}Xe due to persistent xenon dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Berry-Pusey, B. N.; Anger, B. C.; Laicher, G.; Saam, B. [Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    We have measured longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of {sup 129}Xe in Xe-N{sub 2} mixtures at densities below 0.5 amagats in a magnetic field of 8.0 T. We find that intrinsic spin relaxation in this regime is principally due to fluctuations in the intramolecular spin-rotation (SR) and chemical-shift-anisotropy (CSA) interactions, mediated by the formation of {sup 129}Xe-Xe persistent dimers. Our results are consistent with previous work done in one case at much lower applied fields where the CSA interaction is negligible and in another case at much higher gas densities where transient xenon dimers mediate the interactions. We have verified that a large applied field suppresses the persistent-dimer mechanism, consistent with standard relaxation theory, allowing us to measure room-temperature gas-phase relaxation times T{sub 1} for {sup 129}Xe greater than 25 h at 8.0 T. These data also yield a maximum possible low-field T{sub 1} for pure xenon gas at room temperature of 5.45{+-}0.2 h. The coupling strengths for the SR and CSA interactions that we extract are in fair agreement with estimates based both on previous experimental work and on ab initio calculations. Our results have potential implications for the production and storage of large quantities of hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe for use in various applications.

  18. Hyperpolarization of 29Si by Resonant Nuclear Spin Transfer from Optically Hyperpolarized 31P Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluhy, Phillip; Salvail, Jeff; Saeedi, Kamyar; Thewalt, Mike; Simons, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Recent developments in nanomedicine have allowed nanoparticles of silicon containing hyperpolarized 29Si to be imaged in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. The extremely long relaxation times and isotropy of the Si lattice make polarized 29Si isotopes ideal for these sorts of imaging methods. However, one of the major difficulties standing in the path of widespread adoption of these techniques is the slow rate at which the 29Si is hyperpolarized and the limited maximum hyperpolarization achievable. In this talk, I will describe an effective method for hyperpolarization of the 29Si isotopes using resonant optical pumping of the donor bound exciton transitions to polarize the 31P donor nuclei, and a choice of static magnetic field that conserves energy during spin flip flops between donor nuclear and 29Si spins to facilitate diffusion of this polarization. Using this method, we are able to polarize greater than 10% of the 29Si centers in 64 hours without seeing saturation of the 29Si polarization.

  19. The Study of High Spin States in Nuclear Rotation by the Cranked Nilsson Strutinsky Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kardan, A.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.; Rafat-Motevalli, L. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P. O. Box 91775-1436, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-24

    A heavy-ion reaction can populate nuclear states of very high angular momentum with values of the order of I = 60 achievable. The reaction produces such configurations with a considerable internal excitation, but the emission of a few neutrons reduces the excitation energy effectively while not decreasing the spin by much. At sufficiently high spin the pairing is destroyed completely and the rigid-body moment of inertia becomes a good approximation. Even in this regime, however, the single-particle structure remains important and shell effects can be studied in terms of a rotating phenomenological shell model. On the theoretical side the cranked Nilsson strutinsky model has proved to be a successful tool to describe rapidly rotating nucleus. Indeed, this model gives a microscopic description of the influence of rotation on single-particle motion. This paper will concentrate on introduction to the cranked Nilsson strutinsky model in details. First, we explain the cranking model and the rotating liquid-drop model, then introduce the shell correction method. Also, we describe terminating bands, which show a continuous transition from high collectivity to a pure particle-hole state.

  20. Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Manjin; Hedges, Morgan P.; Ahlefeldt, Rose L.; Bartholomew, John G.; Beavan, Sarah E.; Wittig, Sven M.; Longdell, Jevon J.; Sellars, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Space-like separation of entangled quantum states is a central concept in fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics and in quantum communication applications. Optical approaches are ubiquitous in the distribution of entanglement because entangled photons are easy to generate and transmit. However, extending this direct distribution beyond a range of a few hundred kilometres to a worldwide network is prohibited by losses associated with scattering, diffraction and absorption during transmission. A proposal to overcome this range limitation is the quantum repeater protocol, which involves the distribution of entangled pairs of optical modes among many quantum memories stationed along the transmission channel. To be effective, the memories must store the quantum information encoded on the optical modes for times that are long compared to the direct optical transmission time of the channel. Here we measure a decoherence rate of 8 × 10-5 per second over 100 milliseconds, which is the time required for light transmission on a global scale. The measurements were performed on a ground-state hyperfine transition of europium ion dopants in yttrium orthosilicate (151Eu3+:Y2SiO5) using optically detected nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The observed decoherence rate is at least an order of magnitude lower than that of any other system suitable for an optical quantum memory. Furthermore, by employing dynamic decoupling, a coherence time of 370 +/- 60 minutes was achieved at 2 kelvin. It has been almost universally assumed that light is the best long-distance carrier for quantum information. However, the coherence time observed here is long enough that nuclear spins travelling at 9 kilometres per hour in a crystal would have a lower decoherence with distance than light in an optical fibre. This enables some very early approaches to entanglement distribution to be revisited, in particular those in which the spins are transported rather than the light.

  1. Nuclear spin imaging with hyperpolarized nuclei created by brute force method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masayoshi; Kunimatsu, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Kohri, Hideki; Ohta, Takeshi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Yosoi, Masaru; Ono, Satoshi; Fukuda, Kohji; Takamatsu, Kunihiko; Ueda, Kunihiro; Didelez, Jean-P.; Prossati, Giorgio; de Waard, Arlette

    2011-05-01

    We have been developing a polarized HD target for particle physics at the SPring-8 under the leadership of the RCNP, Osaka University for the past 5 years. Nuclear polarizaton is created by means of the brute force method which uses a high magnetic field (~17 T) and a low temperature (~ 10 mK). As one of the promising applications of the brute force method to life sciences we started a new project, "NSI" (Nuclear Spin Imaging), where hyperpolarized nuclei are used for the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The candidate nuclei with spin ½hslash are 3He, 13C, 15N, 19F, 29Si, and 31P, which are important elements for the composition of the biomolecules. Since the NMR signals from these isotopes are enhanced by orders of magnitudes, the spacial resolution in the imaging would be much more improved compared to the practical MRI used so far. Another advantage of hyperpolarized MRI is that the MRI is basically free from the radiation, while the problems of radiation exposure caused by the X-ray CT or PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cannot be neglected. In fact, the risk of cancer for Japanese due to the radiation exposure through these diagnoses is exceptionally high among the advanced countries. As the first step of the NSI project, we are developing a system to produce hyperpolarized 3He gas for the diagnosis of serious lung diseases, for example, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). The system employs the same 3He/4He dilution refrigerator and superconducting solenoidal coil as those used for the polarized HD target with some modification allowing the 3He Pomeranchuk cooling and the following rapid melting of the polarized solid 3He to avoid the depolarization. In this report, the present and future steps of our project will be outlined with some latest experimental results.

  2. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, K.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-{1/2} nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids.

  3. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of metabolism in Crithidia fasciculata 

    E-print Network

    McCloskey, Diane Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    and the subsequent fate of the "C atoms of [2, 4-"C, ] malate. 60 10 Route to formation of four glutamate isotopomers from the two OAA and acetyl CoA species which result from metabolism of [1, 3-"C, ] glycerol by C. fasciculata under aerobic conditions. 61 11..., ] glycerol under aerobic conditions. 54 14 Expansion of the 60 to 80 ppm region of the "C NMR spectrum shown in Fig. 13. 58 LIST OF FIGURES (CONTINUED) FIGURE Page 15 Expansion of the glutamate and alanine resonances from the "C NMR spectrum shown...

  4. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of metabolism in Crithidia fasciculata

    E-print Network

    McCloskey, Diane Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    fate of "C atoms of [1-"C] glucose during aerobic metabolism by C. fasciculata. 3B 4 Pathway of formation of [2-"C] ethanol during aerobic metabolism of [1-"C] glucose by C. fasciculata. 41 5 Pathway of formation of [2, 2'-'C, ] succinare during... and either carbon of ethanol during anaerobic glucose metabolism by C. fasci cvlata. 22 Pathway for formation of [1, 2-"C, ] succinatc. vut LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page I Drugs used for the treatment of Trypanosome cruzi (A&B) and Try panosoma brucei (C...

  5. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance study of mixed micelles. Variation of interchain distances and conformational equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerd, R.J.E.M.; De Hann, J.W.; Van de Ven, L.J.M.; Achten, M.; Buck, H.M.

    1982-06-24

    Observed /sup 13/C NMR chemical shift changes with respect to their single micelles upon mixed-micelle formation of potassium dodecanoate and short-chain potassium carboxylates (hexanoate up to and including decanoate) are described in all but one case to increasing distances between the apolar ends of the long amphiphile chains as compared with its single micelle. Only for dodecanoate-hexanoate micellar systems can a different conformational equilibrium of the dodecanoate chain not be excluded. Furthermore, recently observed solvent effects upon mixing of n-alkanes of different chain lengths are compared with both the decanoate and nonanoate chemical shift changes upon mixing with the dodecanoate amphiphiles. This leads to the conclusion that the former detergents are mainly subject to increased intermolecular chain packing. Observed effects for the octanoate and heptanoate are not as pronounced, and these surfactants should be considered as borderline cases, while the hexanoate undergoes conformational changes toward more extended forms. 46 references.

  6. Interaction between vine pesticides and bovine serum albumin studied by nuclear spin relaxation data.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvia; Bonechi, Claudia; Rossi, Claudio

    2010-10-13

    Pesticides are chemicals usually used in agriculture to prevent possible diseases to crops, such as grapes, caused by parasites. Even if most of the pesticides are degraded during the wine process, residual levels remain in the final product. The most commonly used pesticides in vine belong to several classes of chemical compounds; among them, triazoles and anilinopyrimidines have been commercially used since the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. In this work, we investigated the interaction between three of the most used fungicides belonging to the chemical classes mentioned above (myclobutanil, triadimenol, and pyrimethanil) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by nuclear spin relaxation analysis. We found that all of the pesticides were able to form a complex with BSA; nevertheless, there were strong differences in their affinity toward the plasma protein. The nuclear magnetic resonance approach used on the basis of the analysis of selective relaxation rate enhancements of pesticide protons in the presence of BSA allowed for the calculation of the affinity indexes and the equilibrium constants of the three systems. Myclobutanil showed the highest affinity toward BSA, whereas triadimenol gave the weakest interaction with the protein. The differences in the capacity of the three pesticides to bind to albumin highlighted the existence of different binding strengths on the protein. These results indicate that myclobutanil and triadimenol, despite their structure similarity, may have very different residence times in the plasma and rates of clearance. PMID:20857906

  7. Syntheses of carbon-13 labeled protoporphyrin-IX for spectroscopic studies of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fujinari, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The development of various methodologies for synthesis of selectively tailored protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester are presented. The iron(II) complex of protoporphyrin-IX is the heme, the prosthetic group for Hb, Mb, cytochromes and peroxidases. The significance of this research is to provide direct means to establish definitive carbon-13 NMR assignments of heme proteins in order to study not only the structure-function relationships, but also protein dynamics of these vital systems. Carbon-13 labeling at the beta-vinyl position was first achieved by ozonolysis of protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester. Column LC method were used to first isolate 2,4-diformyldeuteroporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester. Concomitantly, monofomyl-monovinyl porphyrins were obtained as a mixture of two isomers. This mixture was separated by MPLC or prep HPLC to afford the isomerically pure products, Spirographis porphyrin dimethyl ester and Iso-Spirographis porphyrin dimethyl ester. A Wittig reaction to each of these porphyrins with /sup 13/C-methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide gave 2,4-bis(/sup 13/C/sub 2/)-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, 2-(/sup 13/C/sub 2/)-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, and the 4-(/sup 13/C/sub 2/)-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, respectively.

  8. Suppression of nuclear spin diffusion at a GaAs/AlGaAs interface measured with a single quantum dot nano-probe

    E-print Network

    A. E. Nikolaenko; E. A. Chekhovich; M. N. Makhonin; I. W. Drouzas; A. B. Vankov; J. Skiba-Szymanska; M. S. Skolnick; P. Senellart; A. Lemaitre; A. I. Tartakovskii

    2009-01-15

    Nuclear spin polarization dynamics are measured in optically pumped individual GaAs/AlGaAs interface quantum dots by detecting the time-dependence of the Overhauser shift in photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Long nuclear polarization decay times of ~ 1 minute have been found indicating inefficient nuclear spin diffusion from the GaAs dot into the surrounding AlGaAs matrix in externally applied magnetic field. A spin diffusion coefficient two orders lower than that previously found in bulk GaAs is deduced.

  9. Hyperfine transitions in He-like ions as a tool for nuclear-spin-dependent parity-nonconservation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Fabrizio; Surzhykov, Andrey [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper a scheme is proposed for measuring nuclear-spin-dependent parity-nonconservation effects in highly charged ions. The idea is to employ circularly polarized laser light for inducing the transition between the level (1s2s){sup 1}S{sub 0} and the hyperfine sublevels of (1s2s){sup 3}S{sub 1} in He-like ions with nonzero nuclear spin. We argue that an interference between the allowed magnetic dipole M1 and the parity-violating electric dipole E1 decay channel leads to an observable asymmetry of order 10{sup -7} in the transition cross section, in the atomic range 28{<=}Z{<=}35. Experimental requirements for asymmetry measurements are discussed in the case of He-like {sub 34}{sup 77}Se.

  10. Magnetic ordering of nuclear spins in an interacting two-dimensional electron gas Pascal Simon,1,2 Bernd Braunecker,1 and Daniel Loss1

    E-print Network

    Braunecker, Bernd

    Magnetic ordering of nuclear spins in an interacting two-dimensional electron gas Pascal Simon,1,2 Bernd Braunecker,1 and Daniel Loss1 1Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82

  11. Floquet-Magnus expansion for general N-coupled spins systems in magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical perturbative approach for describing the NMR spectrum of strongly dipolar-coupled spin systems under fast magic-angle spinning. Our treatment is based on two approaches: the Floquet approach and the Floquet-Magnus expansion. The Floquet approach is well known in the NMR community as a perturbative approach to get analytical approximations. Numerical procedures are based on step-by-step numerical integration of the corresponding differential equations. The Floquet-Magnus expansion is a perturbative approach of the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we address the " ? -encoding" effect using the Floquet-Magnus expansion approach. We show that the average over " ? " angle can be performed for any Hamiltonian with ? symmetry.

  12. Nuclear spin relaxation rate of disordered px +i py -wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qiang; Wang, Z. D.

    2004-11-01

    Based on an effective Hamiltonian with the binary alloy disorder model defined in the triangular lattice, the impurity scattering effects on the density of states and especially on the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 of px+ipy -wave superconductors are studied by solving numerically the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. In the clean limit, the coherence peak of 1/T1 is observed as expected. More intriguingly, for strong scattering potential, the temperature dependence of 1/T1 exhibits the two different power-law behaviors near Tc and at low temperatures, respectively, which is qualitatively consistent with the nuclear quadrupolar resonance measurement of the newly discovered superconductor NaxCoO2•yH2O (x=0.35) . We argue that the disorder effect plays an important role in the thermodynamic properties of the px+ipy -wave pairing state as indicated in this paper, as well as other superconducting states with unconventional pairing symmetries. Therefore further experimental exploration is expected to determine the actual pairing symmetry of this material.

  13. Cryogenic sample exchange NMR probe for magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Alexander B.; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Matsuki, Yoh; Bajaj, Vikram S.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.; DeRocher, Ronald; Bryant, Jeffrey; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Lugtenburg, Johan; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a cryogenic sample exchange system that dramatically improves the efficiency of magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments by reducing the time required to change samples and by improving long-term instrument stability. Changing samples in conventional cryogenic MAS DNP/NMR experiments involves warming the probe to room temperature, detaching all cryogenic, RF, and microwave connections, removing the probe from the magnet, replacing the sample, and reversing all the previous steps, with the entire cycle requiring a few hours. The sample exchange system described here — which relies on an eject pipe attached to the front of the MAS stator and a vacuum jacketed dewar with a bellowed hole — circumvents these procedures. To demonstrate the excellent sensitivity, resolution, and stability achieved with this quadruple resonance sample exchange probe, we have performed high precision distance measurements on the active site of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. We also include a spectrum of the tripeptide N-f-MLF-OH at 100 K which shows 30 Hz linewidths. PMID:19356957

  14. Modeling the Influence of Nuclear Spin in the Reaction of H_3^+ with H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Tom, Brian A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2011-06-01

    The reaction H_3^+ + H_2 ? H_2 + H_3^+ is among the simplest of bimolecular chemical reactions, and may play an important role in determining the ortho:para ratios of H_3^+ and H_2 in interstellar environments. Despite its apparent simplicity, the kinetics of this reaction is not well understood, particularly the branching fractions of the proton hop and hydrogen exchange reaction pathways. In this contribution, we present a series of steady state chemical models that show how this reaction can be studied in the laboratory with spectroscopy. Our first model is based entirely on nuclear spin statistics, appropriate for high temperature, low pressure plasmas. This model is then extended to account for the possibility of a small number of three-body collisions which could influence the interpretation of spectroscopic measurements of the H_3^+ + H_2 binary reaction. Our final model employs rate coefficients calculated using a microcanonical statistical approach which takes into account energetic restrictions on certain reaction pathways, which may become important at lower temperatures. These models are directly aimed at extracting kinetic information about the H_3^+ + H_2 reaction from laboratory spectra of hydrogenic plasmas.

  15. Nuclear spin dependence of the reaction of H3+ with H2. II. Experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Kauffman, Carrie A.; Tom, Brian A.; Beçka, Eftalda; McGuire, Brett A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2011-05-01

    The nuclear spin dependence of the chemical reaction H_3^+ + H2 ? H2 + H_3^+ has been studied in a hollow cathode plasma cell. Multipass infrared direct absorption spectroscopy has been employed to monitor the populations of several low-energy rotational levels of ortho- and para-H_3^+ (o-H_3^+ and p-H_3^+) in hydrogenic plasmas of varying para-H2 (p-H2) enrichment. The ratio of the rates of the proton hop (kH) and hydrogen exchange (kE) reactions ? ? kH/kE is inferred from the observed p-H_3^+ fraction as a function of p-H2 fraction using steady-state chemical models. Measurements have been performed both in uncooled (Tkin ˜ 350 K) and in liquid-nitrogen-cooled (Tkin ˜ 135 K) plasmas, marking the first time this reaction has been studied at low temperature. The value of ? has been found to decrease from 1.6 ± 0.1 at 350 K to 0.5 ± 0.1 at 135 K.

  16. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR (Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance)

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1989-03-01

    Our Laboratory is presently engaged in developing a method to model sulfur-containing compounds in whole coal. It has been established that most of the organic sulfur in coal exists in the form of aromatic groups known as thiophenes. Sulfur-containing aromatic compounds such as thiophene, tetraphenylthiophene and thianthrene were adsorbed onto silica-alumina catalyst surfaces were used as models to emulate coal's anisotropic nature and abundance of unpaired electron spin density. The spectroscopic techniques used were Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR). EPR spectroscopy is a well established method to characterize g-matrix anisotropy in transition metal compounds. With increased resolution, EPR has become very useful for characterizing the small but still detectable g-matrix anisotropy in organic systems such as coal and the model systems for coal. ENDOR spectroscopy involves the inducement of NMR transitions of the nearby protons while detecting them with an EPR detection scheme which is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than using a NMR detection scheme. Analysis of the ENDOR spectra produced hyperfine information which is characteristic of these sulfur-containing systems. This information will be needed to resolve anisotropic hyperfine spectral features attributable to sulfur content in the analysis of coal macerals. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Spurious finite-size instabilities in nuclear energy density functionals: spin channel

    E-print Network

    A. Pastore; D. Tarpanov; D. Davesne; J. Navarro

    2015-05-19

    It has been recently shown, that some Skyrme functionals can lead to non-converging results in the calculation of some properties of atomic nuclei. A previous study has pointed out a possible link between these convergence problems and the appearance of finite-size instabilities in symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) around saturation density. We show that the finite-size instabilities not only affect the ground state properties of atomic nuclei, but they can also influence the calculations of vibrational excited states in finite nuclei. We perform systematic fully-self consistent Random Phase Approximation (RPA) calculations in spherical doubly-magic nuclei. We employ several Skyrme functionals and vary the isoscalar and isovector coupling constants of the time-odd term $\\mathbf{s}\\cdot \\Delta \\mathbf{s}$ . We determine critical values of these coupling constants beyond which the RPA calculations do not converge because RPA the stability matrix becomes non-positive.By comparing the RPA calculations of atomic nuclei with those performed for SNM we establish a correspondence between the critical densities in the infinite system and the critical coupling constants for which the RPA calculations do not converge. We find a quantitative stability criterion to detect finite-size instabilities related to the spin $\\mathbf{s}\\cdot \\Delta \\mathbf{s}$ term of a functional. This criterion could be easily implemented into the standard fitting protocols to fix the coupling constants of the Skyrme functional.

  18. Flexible nuclear screening approximation to the two-electron spin–orbit coupling based on ab initio parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chalupský, Jakub, E-mail: jakub@ims.ac.jp; Yanai, Takeshi [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2013-11-28

    The derivation, implementation, and validation of a new approximation to the two-electron spin–orbit coupling (SOC) terms is reported. The approximation, referred to as flexible nuclear screening spin–orbit, is based on the effective one-electron spin–orbit operator and accounts for two-electron SOC effects by screening nuclear charges. A highly flexible scheme for the nuclear screening is developed, mainly using parameterization based on ab initio atomic SOC calculations. Tabulated screening parameters are provided for contracted and primitive Gaussian-type basis functions of the ANO-RCC basis set for elements from H to Cm. The strategy for their adaptation to any other Gaussian basis set is presented and validated. A model to correct for the effect of splitting of transition metal d orbitals on their SOC matrix elements is introduced. The method is applied to a representative set of molecules, and compared to exact treatment and other approximative approaches at the same level of relativistic theory. The calculated SOC matrix elements are in very good agreement with their “exact” values; deviation below 1% is observed on average. The presented approximation is considered to be generally applicable, simple to implement, highly efficient, and accurate.

  19. Nuclear spin symmetry conservation and relaxation in water ((1)H2(16)O) studied by cavity ring-down (CRD) spectroscopy of supersonic jets.

    PubMed

    Manca Tanner, Carine; Quack, Martin; Schmidiger, David

    2013-10-01

    We report high resolution near-infrared laser spectra of water seeded in a supersonic jet expansion of argon probed by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) in the R branch of the 2?3 band (above 7500 cm(-1)) at several effective temperatures T < 30 K. Our goal is to study nuclear spin symmetry conservation and relaxation. For low mole fractions of water in the gas mixture, we obtained the lowest rotational temperatures and observed nuclear spin symmetry conservation, in agreement with theoretical expectation for inelastic collisions of isolated H2O molecules with Ar and similar to a previous series of experiments with other small molecules in supersonic jet expansions. However, for the highest mole fractions of water, which we used (xH2O < 1.6%), we obtained slightly higher rotational temperatures and observed nuclear spin symmetry relaxation, which cannot be explained by the intramolecular quantum relaxation mechanism in the monomer H2O. The nuclear spin symmetry relaxation observed is, indeed, seen to be related to the formation of water clusters at the early stage of the supersonic jet expansion. Under these conditions, two mechanisms can contribute to nuclear spin symmetry relaxation. The results are discussed in relation to claims of the stability of nuclear spin isomers of H2O in the condensed phase and briefly also to astrophysical spectroscopy. PMID:23668841

  20. Theoretical prediction of nuclear magnetic shieldings and indirect spin-spin coupling constants in 1,1-, cis-, and trans-1,2-difluoroethylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Nozirov, Farhod, E-mail: teobaldk@gmail.com, E-mail: farhod.nozirov@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4513 Manhattan College Parkway Riverdale, New York 10471 (United States)] [Department of Physics, 4513 Manhattan College Parkway Riverdale, New York 10471 (United States); Stachów, Micha?, E-mail: michal.stachow@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Opole University, 48, Oleska Street, 45-052 Opole (Poland)] [Faculty of Chemistry, Opole University, 48, Oleska Street, 45-052 Opole (Poland); Kupka, Teobald, E-mail: teobaldk@gmail.com, E-mail: farhod.nozirov@gmail.com

    2014-04-14

    A theoretical prediction of nuclear magnetic shieldings and indirect spin-spin coupling constants in 1,1-, cis- and trans-1,2-difluoroethylenes is reported. The results obtained using density functional theory (DFT) combined with large basis sets and gauge-independent atomic orbital calculations were critically compared with experiment and conventional, higher level correlated electronic structure methods. Accurate structural, vibrational, and NMR parameters of difluoroethylenes were obtained using several density functionals combined with dedicated basis sets. B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) optimized structures of difluoroethylenes closely reproduced experimental geometries and earlier reported benchmark coupled cluster results, while BLYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) produced accurate harmonic vibrational frequencies. The most accurate vibrations were obtained using B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) with correction for anharmonicity. Becke half and half (BHandH) density functional predicted more accurate {sup 19}F isotropic shieldings and van Voorhis and Scuseria's ?-dependent gradient-corrected correlation functional yielded better carbon shieldings than B3LYP. A surprisingly good performance of Hartree-Fock (HF) method in predicting nuclear shieldings in these molecules was observed. Inclusion of zero-point vibrational correction markedly improved agreement with experiment for nuclear shieldings calculated by HF, MP2, CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods but worsened the DFT results. The threefold improvement in accuracy when predicting {sup 2}J(FF) in 1,1-difluoroethylene for BHandH density functional compared to B3LYP was observed (the deviations from experiment were ?46 vs. ?115 Hz)

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of CF3I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, H.-O.; Kumar, M.; Gupta, V.; Gupta, R.

    This document is part of Part 1 `Aliphatic Compounds' of Subvolume D 'Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13' of Landolt-Börnstein III/35 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data', Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  2. Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Hâkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T.; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C. D.; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in 13CH3 groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states.

  3. Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation.

    PubMed

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Håkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C D; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H

    2015-01-28

    Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in (13)CH3 groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states. PMID:25637994

  4. Nuclear spin-dependent interactions: searches for WIMP, axion and topological defect dark matter, and tests of fundamental symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnik, Y. V.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    We calculate the proton and neutron spin contributions for nuclei using semi-empirical methods, as well as a novel hybrid ab initio/semi-empirical method, for interpretation of experimental data. We demonstrate that core-polarisation corrections to ab initio nuclear shell model calculations generally reduce discrepancies in proton and neutron spin expectation values from different calculations. We derive constraints on the spin-dependent P,T-violating interaction of a bound proton with nucleons, which for certain ranges of exchanged pseudoscalar boson masses improve on the most stringent laboratory limits by several orders of magnitude. We derive a limit on the CPT and Lorentz-invariance-violating parameter GeV, which improves on the most stringent existing limit by a factor of 8, and we demonstrate sensitivities to the parameters and at the level - GeV, which is a one order of magnitude improvement compared to the corresponding existing sensitivities. We extend previous analysis of nuclear anapole moment data for Cs to obtain new limits on several other CPT and Lorentz-invariance-violating parameters: GeV, , GeV and.

  5. Isotope and temperature effects on nuclear magnetic shieldings and spin-rotation constants calculated at the coupled-cluster level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauss, Dage Sundholm Jurgen

    The temperature dependence of nuclear shieldings as well as isotope effects on shieldings and spin-rotation constants have been computationally investigated for H ,HF,F , CO, and N employing the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method augmented by a perturbative treatment of triple excitations (CCSD(T)) for the calculation of potential curves, shieldings and spin-rotation functions together with finite-element techniques for the solution of the rovibrational problem. Calculated and measured temperature dependence of the isotropic shieldings agrees for N , while for CO and F the computed temperature dependence is smaller 2 2 than the experimental result. Isotropic shieldings have been deduced on the basis of our calculations from the measured spin-rotation constants for four isotopomers of H and agree, as required by theory. However, calculated and measured temperature dependence of the isotope shifts between HD and D differ by up to 10% which is larger than the estimated 2 error bars for the experimental values. For HF and CO, calculated and measured isotope shifts agree, while for N no experimental data for comparison are available. In case of spin2 rotation constants, the calculated dependence on the rotational angular momentum quantum number are for both H and F in good agreement with the dependence deduced from 2 2 measurements, while for HF not enough experimental data are available for a comparison. 2 2 2 2

  6. Thermal entanglement of a coupled electronic spins system: interplay between an external magnetic field, nuclear field and spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero M., Roberto J.; Rojas, F.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the thermal entanglement as a function of the temperature for a two-qubits Heisenberg spins system; we have included Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DM), an external magnetic field (EMF) and hyperfine interaction due to the nuclear field of the surrounding nuclei. A critical value for the EMF was found, around mT, which characterizes two regimes of behavior of the thermal entanglement. Our results show that the DM term acts as a facilitator for the entanglement because it prolongs the nonzero thermal entanglement for larger temperatures. We found that the concurrence as a function of the temperature has a local maximum, for values of the magnetic field larger than the critical field. We also show that the critical temperature follows a polynomial growth as a function of the DM term, with characteristic behavior , and the hyperfine field implies a critical temperature as a function of the field variance, of the form . We show that in this system, the entanglement measure by the concurrence and the one-spin polarization observable exhibit opposite behavior, providing a method to obtain the entanglement from the measurement of an observable.

  7. Chemical shift anisotropy of imino 15N nuclei in Watson-Crick base pairs from magic angle spinning liquid crystal NMR and nuclear spin relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Grishaev, Alexander; Yao, Lishan; Ying, Jinfa; Pardi, Arthur; Bax, Ad

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of 15N chemical shift anisotropy is prerequisite both for quantitative interpretation of nuclear spin relaxation rates in terms of local dynamics, and for the use of residual chemical shift anisotropy (RCSA) as a constraint in structure determination. Accurate measurement of the very small RCSA from the difference in 15N chemical shift under isotropic and weakly aligning liquid crystalline conditions is very sensitive to minute differences in sample conditions, such as pH or ionic strength. For this reason, chemical shifts were measured for the same solution, under static liquid crystalline alignment, and under magic angle spinning conditions where alignment relative to the magnetic field is removed. Measurements were made for 14 well-resolved G-N1 and 6 U-N3 15N nuclei in a sample of tRNAVal. Fitting these RCSA data together with 15N-1H dipole-CSA cross-correlated relaxation measurements to the recently refined structural model of tRNAVal yields the magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation of the 15N CSA tensors. PMID:19537719

  8. Heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance under ultra-high magic-angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithu, Venus Singh; Paul, Subhradip; Kurur, Narayanan D.; Madhu, P. K.

    2011-04-01

    We compare in this communication several heteronuclear dipolar decoupling sequences in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments under a magic-angle spinning frequency of 60 kHz. The decoupling radiofrequency field amplitudes considered are 190 and 10 kHz. No substantial difference was found among the sequences considered here in performance barring the difference in the optimisation protocol of the various schemes, an aspect that favours the use of swept-frequency two pulse phase modulation (SW f-TPPM).

  9. Variational Theory of Hot Nucleon Matter II : Spin-Isospin Correlations and Equation of State of Nuclear and Neutron Matter

    E-print Network

    Abhishek Mukherjee

    2008-11-21

    We apply the variational theory for fermions at finite temperature and high density, developed in an earlier paper, to symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. This extension generalizes to finite temperatures, the many body technique used in the construction of the zero temperature Akmal-Pandharipande-Ravenhall equation of state. We discuss how the formalism can be used for practical calculations of hot dense matter. Neutral pion condensation along with the associated isovector spin longitudinal sum rule is analyzed. The equation of state is calculated for temperatures less than 30 MeV and densities less than three times the saturation density of nuclear matter. The behavior of the nucleon effective mass in medium is also discussed.

  10. Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum gates with electron and nuclear spins of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yi; Huang, Shang-Yu; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    A negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has been recognized as a good solid-state qubit. A system consisting of the electronic spin of the NV center and hyperfine-coupled nitrogen and additionally nearby carbon nuclear spins can form a quantum register of several qubits for quantum information processing or as a node in a quantum repeater. Several impressive experiments on the hybrid electron and nuclear spin register have been reported, but fidelities achieved so far are not yet at or below the thresholds required for fault-tolerant quantum computation (FTQC). Using quantum optimal control theory based on the Krotov method, we show here that fast and high-fidelity single-qubit and two-qubit gates in the universal quantum gate set for FTQC, taking into account the effects of the leakage state, nearby noise qubits, and distant bath spins, can be achieved with errors less than those required by the threshold theorem of FTQC.

  11. Nuclear spin-dependent interactions: Searches for WIMP, Axion and Topological Defect Dark Matter, and Tests of Fundamental Symmetries

    E-print Network

    Y. V. Stadnik; V. V. Flambaum

    2015-01-22

    We calculate the proton and neutron spin contributions for nuclei using semi-empirical methods, as well as a novel hybrid \\emph{ab initio}/semi-empirical method, for interpretation of experimental data. We demonstrate that core-polarisation corrections to \\emph{ab initio} nuclear shell model calculations generally reduce discrepancies in proton and neutron spin expectation values from different calculations. We derive constraints on the spin-dependent P,T-violating interaction of a bound proton with nucleons, which for certain ranges of exchanged pseudoscalar boson masses improve on the most stringent laboratory limits by several orders of magnitude. We derive a limit on the CPT and Lorentz-invariance-violating parameter $|\\tilde{b}_{\\perp}^p| < 7.6 \\times 10^{-33}$ GeV, which improves on the most stringent existing limit by a factor of 8, and demonstrate sensitivities to the parameters $\\tilde{d}_{\\perp}^p$ and $\\tilde{g}_{ D\\perp}^p$ at the level $\\sim 10^{-29} - 10^{-28}$ GeV, which is a one order of magnitude improvement compared to the corresponding existing sensitivities. We extend previous analysis of nuclear anapole moment data for Cs to obtain new limits on several other CPT and Lorentz-invariance-violating parameters: $\\left|b_0^p \\right| < 7 \\times 10^{-8}$ GeV, $\\left|d_{00}^p \\right| < 8 \\times 10^{-8}$, $\\left|b_0^n \\right| < 3 \\times 10^{-7}$ GeV and $\\left|d_{00}^n \\right| < 3 \\times 10^{-7}$.

  12. Physical properties of the lipid bilayer membrane made of cortical and nuclear bovine lens lipids: EPR spin-labeling studies

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Marija; Widomska, Justyna; Dillon, James; Gaillard, Elizabeth R.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2009-01-01

    The physical properties of membranes derived from the total lipids extracted from the lens cortex and nucleus of a two-year-old cow were investigated using EPR spin labeling methods. Conventional EPR spectra and saturation-recovery curves show that spin labels detect a single homogenous environment in membranes made from cortical lipids. Properties of these membranes are very similar to those reported by us for membranes made of the total lipid extract of six-month-old calf lenses (J. Widomska, M. Raguz, J. Dillon, E. R. Gaillard, W. K. Subczynski, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1768 (2007) 1454–1465). However, in membranes made from nuclear lipids, two domains were detected by the EPR discrimination by oxygen transport method using the cholesterol analogue spin label and were assigned to the bulk phospholipid-cholesterol domain (PCD) and the immiscible cholesterol crystalline domain (CCD), respectively. Profiles of the order parameter, hydrophobicity, and the oxygen transport parameter are practically identical in the bulk PCD when measured for either the cortical or nuclear lipid membranes. In both membranes, lipids in the bulk PCD are strongly immobilized at all depths. Hydrophobicity and oxygen transport parameter profiles have a rectangular shape with an abrupt change between the C9 and C10 positions, which is approximately where the steroid-ring structure of cholesterol reaches into the membrane. The permeability coefficient for oxygen, estimated at 35°C, across the bulk PCD in both membranes is slightly lower than across the water layer of the same thickness. However, the evaluated upper limit of the permeability coefficient for oxygen across the CCD (34.4 cm/s) is significantly lower than across the water layer of the same thickness (85.9 cm/s), indicating that the CCD can significantly reduce oxygen transport in the lens nucleus. PMID:19761756

  13. Longitudinal nuclear spin relaxation of ortho- and para-hydrogen dissolved in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Aroulanda, Christie; Starovoytova, Larisa; Canet, Daniel

    2007-10-25

    The longitudinal relaxation time of ortho-hydrogen (the spin isomer directly observable by NMR) has been measured in various organic solvents as a function of temperature. Experimental data are perfectly interpreted by postulating two mechanisms, namely intramolecular dipolar interaction and spin-rotation, with activation energies specific to these two mechanisms and to the solvent in which hydrogen is dissolved. This permits a clear separation of the two contributions at any temperature. Contrary to the self-diffusion coefficients at a given temperature, the rotational correlation times extracted from the dipolar relaxation contribution do not exhibit any definite trend with respect to solvent viscosity. Likewise, the spin-rotation correlation time obeys Hubbard's relation only in the case of hydrogen dissolved in acetone-d6, yielding in that case a spin-rotation constant in agreement with literature data. Concerning para-hydrogen, which is NMR-silent, the only feasible approach is to dissolve para-enriched hydrogen in these solvents and to follow the back-conversion of the para-isomer into the ortho-isomer. Experimentally, this conversion has been observed to be exponential, with a time constant assumed to be the relaxation time of the singlet state (the spin state of the para-isomer). A theory, based on intermolecular dipolar interactions, has been worked out for explaining the very large values of these relaxation times which appear to be solvent-dependent. PMID:17914761

  14. What Do Nuclear Spin Temperatures Tell Us About The Origin Of Comets? A Multi-molecule Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo; Mumma, M. J.; Bonev, B. P.; DiSanti, M. A.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Gibb, E. L.; Paganini, L.; Radeva, Y. L.

    2012-10-01

    Comets are true remnants of our primordial Solar System, and provide unique clues to its formation and evolution, including the delivery of organics and water to our planet. A key indicator stored in the molecular structure of the nuclear ices is the spin temperature (Tspin), derived from spin-isomeric ratios (Rspin, e.g. ortho/para). At the time when cometary ices formed, the prevailing temperature defined the relative abundance of the different spin-isomeric species, and herewith Rspin and Tspin are normally treated as “remnant thermometers” probing the formation environments. Most of our knowledge of this indicator comes from measurements of ortho-para ratios in water and NH2, suggesting a common Tspin near 30K. This information is based on a restricted sample of comets, and the measurements are particularly sensitive to the molecular modeling technique and adopted spectral database. Here, we present new methodologies for extracting spin temperatures from ethane (C2H6), methane (CH4), and methanol (CH3OH), and describe advanced new models for ortho/para water (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Our H2O analysis is based on the most complete fluorescence radiative transfer model to date, which incorporates 1,200 million transitions including those originating from high-energy levels that are activated in comets via non-resonance cascade. In a similar fashion, we developed non-resonance fluorescence models for NH3 and HCN, and quantum band models for the ?7 band of C2H6 and ?3 band of CH3OH. All models respect spin symmetry non-conversion radiative rules, and make use of a realistic Solar spectrum for the computation of fluorescence pumps. We applied these new methods to derive spin-isomeric ratios for H2O, CH4, C2H6, CH3OH and NH3 from three high-quality cometary datasets: 1) C/2007 W1 (Boattini), 2) C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), and 3) 8P/Tuttle. We compare our results with the measured organic compositions for these comets, and present possible formation and evolution scenarios.

  15. 63Cu nuclear magnetic resonance study of Pr(1.85)Ce(0.15)Cu(1-x)Ni(x)O(4): Ni-induced spin density oscillation and modification of the low energy spin fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Williams, G V M; Jurkutat, M; Rybicki, D; Haase, J

    2011-02-23

    We report the results from a (63)Cu nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the electron-doped high temperature superconducting cuprate (HTSC) Pr(1.85)Ce(0.15)Cu(1-x)Ni(x)O(4). We find that Ni induces a magnetic broadening of the (63)Cu NMR spectra that can be interpreted in terms of an induced spin density oscillation about the Ni site, similar to that reported from (63)Cu NMR measurements on the hole-doped HTSCs when Zn is partially substituted for Cu. There is also an additional temperature-dependent contribution to the (63)Cu spin-lattice relaxation rate that can be interpreted in terms of an Ni-induced modification of the low energy spin fluctuations. Furthermore, the spin fluctuations are intrinsically spatially inhomogeneous and additional inhomogeneities are induced by Ni. PMID:21411886

  16. 63Cu nuclear magnetic resonance study of Pr1.85Ce0.15Cu1 - xNixO4: Ni-induced spin density oscillation and modification of the low energy spin fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. V. M.; Jurkutat, M.; Rybicki, D.; Haase, J.

    2011-02-01

    We report the results from a 63Cu nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the electron-doped high temperature superconducting cuprate (HTSC) Pr1.85Ce0.15Cu1 - xNixO4. We find that Ni induces a magnetic broadening of the 63Cu NMR spectra that can be interpreted in terms of an induced spin density oscillation about the Ni site, similar to that reported from 63Cu NMR measurements on the hole-doped HTSCs when Zn is partially substituted for Cu. There is also an additional temperature-dependent contribution to the 63Cu spin-lattice relaxation rate that can be interpreted in terms of an Ni-induced modification of the low energy spin fluctuations. Furthermore, the spin fluctuations are intrinsically spatially inhomogeneous and additional inhomogeneities are induced by Ni.

  17. Nuclear spin polarization following intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, D. E.; Pinter, J. S.; Mantica, P. F. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Mertzimekis, T. J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Stuchbery, A. E. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School for Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Khoa, D. T. [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, VAEC, P. O. Box 5T-160, Nghia Do, Hanoi, (Viet Nam)

    2007-11-15

    Intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions can produce a spin polarization of the projectile-like species. Spin polarization has been observed for both nucleon removal and nucleon pickup processes. Qualitative agreement with measured spin polarization as a function of the momentum of the projectile-like fragment is found in a kinematic model that considers conservation of linear and angular momentum and assumes peripheral interactions between the fast projectile and target. Better quantitative agreement was reached by including more realistic angular distributions and deorientation caused by {gamma}-ray emission and by correcting for the out-of-plane acceptance. The newly introduced corrections were found to apply to both nucleon removal and nucleon pickup processes.

  18. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization by Electrical Spin Injection in Ferromagnet-Semiconductor Heterostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Strand; B. D. Schultz; A. F. Isakovic; C. J. Palmstrøm; P. A. Crowell

    2003-01-01

    Electrical spin injection from Fe into Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As quantum well\\u000aheterostructures is demonstrated in small (< 500 Oe) in-plane magnetic fields.\\u000aThe measurement is sensitive only to the component of the spin that precesses\\u000aabout the internal magnetic field in the semiconductor. This field is much\\u000alarger than the applied field and depends strongly on the injection current\\u000adensity. Details of

  19. Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Hoyt, David W; Sears, Jr., Jesse A; Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2014-04-08

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

  20. Matrix isolation nuclear magnetic resonance studies of methyl group spin-rotation coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Murphy; David White

    1989-01-01

    In dilute rare gas matrices containing acetonitrile or methyl acetylene, the methyl group rotates almost freely about a fixed symmetry axis in a large fraction of the matrix trapping sites. The secular spin–rotation interaction of the methyl protons does not vanish in this case, and we show this leads to resolved, temperature dependent splitting of the proton NMR lines. In

  1. High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single nuclear spin in diamond

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    and measurement techniques2,3,5 because of its optical spin polariz- ation and readout mechanism10 , long-dependent energy difference is measured by monitoring the evolution of the corresponding phase f / Bt, where BT). If this priorinformation aboutthemagnetic fieldisnotavailable, estimation of B cannot be performed. To summarize, shorter

  2. Nuclear Configurations in the Spin-Orbit Coupling Model. I. Empirical Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Goeppert Mayer

    1950-01-01

    An extreme one particle model of the nucleus is proposed. The model is based on the succession of energy levels of a single particle in a potential between that of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator and a square well. (1) Strong spin orbit coupling leading to inverted doublets is assumed. (2) An even number of identical nucleons are assumed to couple

  3. Reactions Involving the Nuclear Spin Modifications of H+ Implications for the Interstellar Medium

    E-print Network

    McCall, Benjamin J.

    predictions [14], there should be a difference between the recombination cross sections of the two spin for the Interstellar Medium Brian A. Tom Preliminary Examination Department of Chemistry University of Illinois, comprising 92.1% by total num- ber. Due to this abundance, chemical processes in the interstellar medium

  4. Dipolar nuclear spin relaxation in liquids and plane fluids undergoing chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, P. H.

    We describe the correlated translational and rotational relative brownian motions of two reacting groups of atoms, alternatively bound and free, by the normalized solutions of a set of coupled diffusion equations. Under equilibrium conditions we calculate the spectral densities j(?) characteristic of the fluctuations of the intermolecular dipolar coupling between spins of these diffusing groups of atoms. When ?? << 1, where ? is the translational correlation time, the form of the spectral density j2(?) in three-dimensional liquids is j2(0) - ?3?1/2. The coefficient ?3 is independent of the molecular local order, of the diffusional rotation speed of the spin-carrying groups of atoms and of their association and dissociation rates. In plane fluids, when ?? << 1, the spectral density j(0)(?) may be written as -a2 ln (??) where the dependence of a2 on the average relative distribution of the interacting spins varies with the rate of the chemical reactions. In both three- and two-dimensional fluids spectral densities show an ?-3/2 or ?-2 behaviour for ?? >> 1 according to the magnitude of the association rate of the reacting groups of atoms. In liquid glycerol we analyse the low- and high-frequency limits of the experimental proton relaxation rate 1/T1 and 1/T1? measured by Harmon, Harmon and Burnett, and Lenk. We also discuss the proton spin-lattice relaxation times measured by Kleinberg and Silbernagel in layered intercalation compounds TiS2-NH3 and TaS2-NH3.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of C16H18BiOS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhova, B. M.

    This document is part of Part 6 `Organic Metalloid Compounds' of Subvolume D 'Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13' of Landolt-Börnstein III/35 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data', Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of C13H13ClSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhova, B. M.

    This document is part of Part 6 `Organic Metalloid Compounds' of Subvolume D 'Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13' of Landolt-Börnstein III/35 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data', Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of C18H15ClSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhova, B. M.

    This document is part of Part 6 `Organic Metalloid Compounds' of Subvolume D 'Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13' of Landolt-Börnstein III/35 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data', Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of C3H9ClSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhova, B. M.

    This document is part of Part 6 `Organic Metalloid Compounds' of Subvolume D 'Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13' of Landolt-Börnstein III/35 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data', Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  9. Progress in Spin Dynamics Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with the Application of Floquet-Magnus Expansion to Chemical Shift Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an historical overview of theoretical approaches used for describing spin dynamics under static or rotating experiments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. The article gives a brief historical overview for major theories in nuclear magnetic resonance and the promising theories. We present the first application of Floquet-Magnus expansion to chemical shift anisotropy when irradiated by BABA pulse sequence. PMID:23711337

  10. Progress in spin dynamics solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance with the application of Floquet-Magnus expansion to chemical shift anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an historical overview of theoretical approaches used for describing spin dynamics under static or rotating experiments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. The article gives a brief historical overview for major theories in nuclear magnetic resonance and the promising theories. We present the first application of Floquet-Magnus expansion to chemical shift anisotropy when irradiated by BABA pulse sequence. PMID:23711337

  11. Cost-effectiveness of the Carbon-13 Urea Breath Test for the Detection of Helicobacter Pylori

    PubMed Central

    Masucci, L; Blackhouse, G; Goeree, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This analysis aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of various testing strategies for Helicobacter pylori in patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia and to calculate the budgetary impact of these tests for the province of Ontario. Data Sources Data on the sensitivity and specificity were obtained from the clinical evidence-based analysis. Resource items were obtained from expert opinion, and costs were applied on the basis of published sources as well as expert opinion. Review Methods A decision analytic model was constructed to compare the costs and outcomes (false-positive results, false-negative results, and misdiagnoses avoided) of the carbon-13 (13C) urea breath test (UBT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology test, and a 2-step strategy of an ELISA serology test and a confirmatory 13C UBT based on the sensitivity and specificity of the tests and prevalence estimates. Results The 2-step strategy is more costly and more effective than the ELISA serology test and results in $210 per misdiagnosis case avoided. The 13C UBT is dominated by the 2-step strategy, i.e., it is more costly and less effective. The budget impact analysis indicates that it will cost $7.9 million more to test a volume of 129,307 patients with the 13C UBT than with ELISA serology, and $4.7 million more to test these patients with the 2-step strategy. Limitations The clinical studies that were pooled varied in the technique used to perform the breath test and in reference standards used to make comparisons with the breath test. However, these parameters were varied in a sensitivity analysis. The economic model was designed to consider intermediate outcomes only (i.e., misdiagnosed cases) and was not a complete model with final patient outcomes (e.g., quality-adjusted life years). Conclusions Results indicate that the 2-step strategy could be economically attractive for the testing of H. pylori. However, testing with the 2-step strategy will cost the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care $4.7 million more than with the ELISA serology test. PMID:24228083

  12. Carbon-13 and tin-119 relaxation studies of some axially symmetrical organotin compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, S.; Granger, P.

    We have studied a variety of axially symmetrical tin compounds by 119Sn and 13C NMR. Tin was observed at two field strengths and, except for Ph 3SnCl, T1 is field independent and governed mainly by spin-rotation. A chemical-shift anisotropy of 136 ppm is observed for 119Sn in Ph 3SnCl. Deverell's relationship provides a good estimate of the values of the spin-rotational constants and the theory of Woessner, Snowden, and Huntress leads to the values of the rotational diffusion constants.

  13. Solid-State Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at 263 GHz: Spectrometer Design and Experimental Results

    E-print Network

    Rosay, Melanie

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) experiments transfer polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins with microwave irradiation of the electron spins for enhanced sensitivity in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ...

  14. Homonuclear dipolar decoupling at magic-angle spinning frequencies up to 65 kHz in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskes, Michal; Steuernagel, Stefan; Schneider, Denis; Madhu, P. K.; Vega, Shimon

    2008-11-01

    We report here high-resolution 1H solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectra acquired by a combination of magic-angle spinning (MAS) and radiofrequency pulse methods up to MAS frequencies of 65 kHz. The details of the pulse methods and experimental conditions are outlined together with spectra from model compounds.

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW A VOLUME 46, NUMBER 1 1 JULY 1992 Optically excited Zeeman coherences in atomic ground states: Nuclear-spin effects

    E-print Network

    Suter, Dieter

    sublevels of the electronic ground state can have a large effect on the overall behavior of the system=+ in Na, I =$ in Cs). The 46- J =+ electronic ground state consists then of two degen- erate substates ground states: Nuclear-spin effects Dieter Suter Instituteof

  16. Comparison of Nuclear Spin Relaxation of H2O@C60 and H2@C60 and Their Nitroxide Derivatives

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Comparison of Nuclear Spin Relaxation of H2O@C60 and H2@C60 and Their Nitroxide Derivatives Yongjun of H2O@C60 makes possible the study of magnetic interactions of an isolated water molecule in a geometrically well-defined hydrophobic environment. Comparisons are made between the T1 values of H2O@C60

  17. Quantitation of a spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) between a hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled cell metabolite and water protons.

    PubMed

    Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E; Kettunen, Mikko I; Larkin, Timothy J; Basharat, Meer; Seeley, Colm; Brindle, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) describes the enhancement of spin polarization of solvent nuclei by the hyperpolarized spins of a solute. In this communication we demonstrate that SPINOEs can be observed between [1,4-(13) C2 ]fumarate, hyperpolarized using the dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization technique, and solvent water protons. We derive a theoretical expression for the expected enhancement and demonstrate that this fits well with experimental measurements. Although the magnitude of the effect is relatively small (around 2% measured here), the SPINOE increases at lower field strengths, so that at clinically relevant magnetic fields (1.5-3?T) it may be possible to track the passage through the circulation of a bolus containing a hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled substrate through the increase in solvent water (1) H signal. PMID:24523064

  18. Effects of Strain and Quantum Confinement in Optically Pumped Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in GaAs: Interpretation Guided by Spin-Dependent Band Structure Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Clifford; Wood, Ryan; Dipta, Saha; Tokarski, John; McCarthy, Lauren; Sanders, Gary; Stanton, Christopher; McGill, Stephen; Reyes, Arneil; Kuhns, Phil; Reno, John

    2015-03-01

    A combined experimental-theoretical study of optically pumped NMR (OPNMR) has been performed in a GaAs/Al0.1Ga0.9As quantum well film epoxy bonded to a Si substrate with thermally induced biaxial strain. The photon energy dependence of the Ga OPNMR signal was recorded at magnetic fields of 4.9 and 9.4 T at a temperature of 4.8-5.4 K. The data were compared to the nuclear spin polarization calculated from the differential absorption to spin-up and spin-down states of the electron conduction band using a modified Pidgeon Brown model. Comparison of theory with experiment facilitated the assignment of features in the OPNMR energy dependence to specific interband Landau level transitions. The results provide insight into how effects of strain and quantum confinement are manifested in optical nuclear polarization in semiconductors.

  19. Nuclear spin relaxation rate of disordered px +i py -wave superconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Han; Z. D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    Based on an effective Hamiltonian with the binary alloy disorder model defined in the triangular lattice, the impurity scattering effects on the density of states and especially on the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1\\/T1 of px+ipy -wave superconductors are studied by solving numerically the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. In the clean limit, the coherence peak of 1\\/T1 is observed as expected. More

  20. Research program in nuclear and solid state physics. [including pion absorption spectra and muon spin precession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The survey of negative pion absorption reactions on light and medium nuclei was continued. Muon spin precession was studied using an iron target. An impulse approximation model of the pion absorption process implied that the ion will absorb almost exclusively on nucleon pairs, single nucleon absorption being suppressed by energy and momentum conservation requirements. For measurements on both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic iron, the external magnetic field was supplied by a large C-type electromagnet carrying a current of about 100 amperes.

  1. Spectrally resolved hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light emitting diodes: Magneto-electroluminescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooker, S. A.; Liu, F.; Kelley, M. R.; Martinez, N. J. D.; Nie, W.; Mohite, A.; Nayyar, I. H.; Tretiak, S.; Smith, D. L.; Ruden, P. P.

    2014-10-01

    We use spectrally resolved magneto-electroluminescence (EL) measurements to study the energy dependence of hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light-emitting diodes. Using layered devices that generate bright exciplex emission, we show that the increase in EL emission intensity I due to small applied magnetic fields of order 100 mT is markedly larger at the high-energy blue end of the EL spectrum (?I/I ˜ 11%) than at the low-energy red end (˜4%). Concurrently, the widths of the magneto-EL curves increase monotonically from blue to red, revealing an increasing hyperfine coupling between polarons and nuclei and directly providing insight into the energy-dependent spatial extent and localization of polarons.

  2. Direct observation of low energy nuclear spin excitations in HoCrO3 by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, T; Jalarvo, N; Kumar, C M N; Xiao, Y; Brückel, Th

    2013-07-17

    We have investigated low energy nuclear spin excitations in the strongly correlated electron compound HoCrO3. We observe clear inelastic peaks at E = 22.18 ± 0.04 ?eV in both energy loss and gain sides. The energy of the inelastic peaks remains constant in the temperature range 1.5-40 K at which they are observed. The intensity of the inelastic peak increases at first with increasing temperature and then decreases at higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the energy and intensity of the inelastic peaks is very unusual compared to that observed in other Nd, Co, V and also simple Ho compounds. Huge quasielastic scattering appears at higher temperatures presumably due to the fluctuating electronic moments of the Ho ions that get increasingly disordered at higher temperatures. The strong quasielastic scattering may also originate in the first Ho crystal-field excitations at about 1.5 meV. PMID:23779198

  3. Frequency characteristics of a nuclear spin maser for the search for the electric dipole moment of 129Xe atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Furukawa, T.; Hayashi, H.; Nanao, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Uchida, M.; Matsuo, Y.; Asahi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency characteristics of a 129Xe nuclear spin maser was studied, which is under development at Tokyo Institute of Technology for the search for a permanent electric dipole moment in diamagnetic 129Xe atom. Drifts in the solenoid current and cell temperature were found to be the most influential factors on the maser frequency. From correlation coefficient analysis, there seem to exist other origins of frequency fluctuation, such as phase drifts in the maser oscillation. In order to improve the stability of the maser frequency, the intensity of the pumping laser required to fully polarize 129Xe nuclei was evaluated. Construction of a polarization assessment system for 129Xe gas cells and development of a new scheme of current stabilization are also remarked.

  4. Spectrally resolved hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light emitting diodes: Magneto-electroluminescence studies

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, S. A.; Kelley, M. R.; Martinez, N. J. D.; Nie, W.; Mohite, A.; Nayyar, I. H.; Tretiak, S.; Smith, D. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Liu, F.; Ruden, P. P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    We use spectrally resolved magneto-electroluminescence (EL) measurements to study the energy dependence of hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light-emitting diodes. Using layered devices that generate bright exciplex emission, we show that the increase in EL emission intensity I due to small applied magnetic fields of order 100?mT is markedly larger at the high-energy blue end of the EL spectrum (?I/I???11%) than at the low-energy red end (?4%). Concurrently, the widths of the magneto-EL curves increase monotonically from blue to red, revealing an increasing hyperfine coupling between polarons and nuclei and directly providing insight into the energy-dependent spatial extent and localization of polarons.

  5. Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: Longitudinal relaxation dispersion for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2013-10-01

    In complex biological or colloidal samples, magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) experiments using the field-cycling technique can characterize molecular motions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds, provided that a rigorous theory of nuclear spin relaxation is available. In gels, cross-linked proteins, and biological tissues, where an immobilized macromolecular component coexists with a mobile solvent phase, nuclear spins residing in solvent (or cosolvent) species relax predominantly via exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings. The physical or chemical exchange processes that dominate the MRD typically occur on a time scale of microseconds or longer, where the conventional perturbation theory of spin relaxation breaks down. There is thus a need for a more general relaxation theory. Such a theory, based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) for the EMOR mechanism, is available for a single quadrupolar spin I = 1. Here, we present the corresponding theory for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment of dipolar MRD outside the motional-narrowing regime. Based on an analytical solution of the spatial part of the SLE, we show how the integral longitudinal relaxation rate can be computed efficiently. Both like and unlike spins, with selective or non-selective excitation, are treated. For the experimentally important dilute regime, where only a small fraction of the spin pairs are immobilized, we obtain simple analytical expressions for the auto-relaxation and cross-relaxation rates which generalize the well-known Solomon equations. These generalized results will be useful in biophysical studies, e.g., of intermittent protein dynamics. In addition, they represent a first step towards a rigorous theory of water 1H relaxation in biological tissues, which is a prerequisite for unravelling the molecular basis of soft-tissue contrast in clinical magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Diffusivity, Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Viscosity at High Pressure in MeOH: Inferring the Pressure Dependence of the Infinite Frequency Shear Modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzke, Robert; Yarger, Jeffrey; Raffaelle, David; Wolf, George

    1998-03-01

    Diamond anvil-cell NMR data have been obtained for diffusivity and nuclear spin-spin relaxation times in MeOH as functions of pressure, to 4.0 GPa. Both of these quantities exhibit activated behavior, each with the same activation volume of 8.4 A^3 per molecule. Over this pressure range the viscosity(R.L. Cook et al., J. Phys. Chem. 97, 2355 (1993)) also displays activated pressure dependence, but with a smaller activation volume (7.0 A^3/molecule).(M.J.P. Brugmans and W.L. Vos, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 2661 (1995)) From viscosity and spin-spin relaxation times we deduce a pressure dependence for the infinite-frequency shear modulus, and from viscosity and diffusivity we also deduce a modified Stokes-Einstein relation yielding good agreement with this dependence. The modulus exhibits a strong decrease with pressure, contrary to expectation.

  7. 19F and 31P magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance of antimony(III)-doped fluorapatite phosphors: Dopant sites and spin diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Liam B.; Berkowitz, Jeffery K.; Yesinowski, James P.

    1992-03-01

    Phosphors based on calcium fluorapatite [Ca5F(PO4)3] doped with small amounts of Sb3+ as an activator are used in most fluorescent lamps. We have used quantitative 19F and 31P magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) to study seven samples of calcium fluorapatite containing 0.0-3.0 wt % Sb3+ in order to determine the site of antimony substitution. The 31P MAS-NMR spectra of fluorapatite containing 3.0, 2.1, and 1.3 wt % antimony contain a single sharp peak at 2.8 ppm indistinguishable from undoped fluorapatite, and show no additional peaks attributable to the influence of antimony. The 31P MAS-NMR spectra of the model compounds SbPO4, Sr1.03Ca8.97F2(PO4)6, Sr5F(PO4)3, and Ba5F(PO4)3 were also obtained. The 19F MAS-NMR spectra of the antimony-doped samples exhibit, in addition to the main peak at 64.0 ppm (downfield from C6F6) arising from unperturbed fluorapatite, a shoulder at 65.6 ppm, and a sharp peak at 68.6 ppm. The measured spin-lattice relaxation times T1 of these antimony-related peaks are equal in all cases to that of the main peak in a given sample, and vary from 129 to 378 sec, indicating that these peaks arise from apatitic fluoride ions perturbed by antimony. Quantitative studies reveal that the 68.6-ppm peak arises from two fluoride ions and the 65.6-ppm shoulder from one fluoride ion per Sb3+ ion incorporated into the lattice. The selective population anti-z and rate of transfer to adjacent nuclei (SPARTAN) pulse sequence used to measure spin diffusion by selectively inverting the 68.6-ppm peak reveals the presence of cross-relaxation to the main peak at 64.0 ppm, but not to the shoulder at 65.6 ppm. Each Sb3+ ion thus appears to be perturbing fluoride ions in at least two different chains. An additional peak at 73.1 ppm observed in some samples is assigned to a second type of antimony(III) substitution, with a single fluoride ion perturbed by each antimony ion. The results in total provide detailed support for a substitution model in which antimony(III) occupies a phosphate site in the apatite lattice, with a SbO3-3 group replacing a PO3-4 group. Two types of substitution at this site appear to occur, depending upon which oxygen atom is replaced by the antimony lone electron pair.

  8. Cadmium 113 and carbon 13 NMR studies of ligand binding to pig heart NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.S.; Colman, R.F.

    1986-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate. The reaction requires a divalent metal. NMR studies using cadmium 113 reveal a resonance in the enzyme-metal-isocitrate complex at 8 ppm relative to Cd(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/; whereas, in the absence of enzyme, the Cd-isocitrate complex has a resonance at approx.18 ppm. The resonance of enzyme-bound cadmium is typical of cadmium in a complex containing 6 oxygen ligands. Carbon 13 studies were done using specific enrichments at the 1, 2, or 5 positions of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate and isocitrate, synthesized by enzymatic conversion from glutamate. The carbon 13 resonances of the 1 and 5 carboxyl of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate are identical in free and enzyme-bound forms over the pH range 5.5-7.5, implying the absence of alterations in geometry of the enzyme-bound form. The 2-carbonyl resonance could not be located in the bound form, suggesting either significant perturbation or immobilization of this group. While the resonances of the carboxyls of free isocitrate shift over the pH range 5-8 reflecting a pK of 5.37, the positions of enzyme-bound resonances remain constant over this pH range. This indicates that isocitrate remains ionized in the enzyme-bound form.

  9. Use of spin-traps during warm ischemia-reperfusion in rat liver: comparative effect on energetic metabolism studied using 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Delmas-Beauvieux; S. Pietri; M. Culcasi; N. Leducq; H. Valeins; T. Liebgott; P. Diolez; P. Canioni; J. L. Gallis

    1997-01-01

    Detection of free radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR) proves the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in reperfused\\u000a organ injuries. Spin-traps are known to ameliorate hemodynamic parameters in an isolated postischemic heart. The effects of\\u000a 5 mmol\\/L DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or DEPMPO (5-(diethylphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrrolineN-oxide) on intracellular pH (pHin) and ATP level were evaluated by31P nuclear magnetic resonance on isolated rat liver

  10. Impact of pairing anti-viscosity on the orientation of the nuclear spin

    E-print Network

    Zhao, P W; Meng, J

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the tilted axis cranking covariant density functional theory with pairing correlations has been formulated and implemented in a fully self-consistent and microscopic way to investigate the evolution of the spin axis and the pairing effects in rotating triaxial nuclei. The measured energy spectrum and transition probabilities for the Nd-135 yrast band are reproduced well without any ad hoc renormalization factors when pairing effects are taken into account. A transition from collective to chiral rotation has been demonstrated. It is found that pairing correlations introduce additional admixtures in the single-particle orbitals, and, thus, result in "pairing anti- viscosity", which influences the structure of tilted axis rotating nuclei by reducing the magnitude of the proton and neutron angular momenta while merging their direction.

  11. Impact of pairing anti-viscosity on the orientation of the nuclear spin

    E-print Network

    P. W. Zhao; S. Q. Zhang; J. Meng

    2015-06-28

    For the first time, the tilted axis cranking covariant density functional theory with pairing correlations has been formulated and implemented in a fully self-consistent and microscopic way to investigate the evolution of the spin axis and the pairing effects in rotating triaxial nuclei. The measured energy spectrum and transition probabilities for the Nd-135 yrast band are reproduced well without any ad hoc renormalization factors when pairing effects are taken into account. A transition from collective to chiral rotation has been demonstrated. It is found that pairing correlations introduce additional admixtures in the single-particle orbitals, and, thus, result in "pairing anti- viscosity", which influences the structure of tilted axis rotating nuclei by reducing the magnitude of the proton and neutron angular momenta while merging their direction.

  12. 13C Nuclear Spin Relaxation Study of Haloethynyltrimethylsilanes. Carbon–Halogen Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Ejchart; Adam Gryff-Keller

    1996-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation times and nuclear Overhauser enhancement factors for13C nuclei in three haloethynyltrimethylsilanes, (CH3)3SiC?triple bond C?X, in CDCl3solution have been measured at four magnetic fields. The transverse relaxation times for acetylenic carbons have been also determined. Contributions to the total relaxation rates due to various relaxation mechanisms have been separated. The dipolar mechanism dominates the relaxation of methyl carbons,

  13. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation dispersion and segment diffusion in entangled polymers. Renormalized Rouse formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkullin, N.; Kimmich, R.

    1994-07-01

    A formalism for polymer melts was derived linking the spin-lattice relaxation time T1, the correlation function of chain tangent vectors and the mean-square segment displacement with memory functions. Potential normal-mode number dependences are included. In the limit of infinitely fast decaying memory functions the theory reproduces known expressions characteristic for Rouse dynamics. Interchain excluded-volume forces were taken into account in the frame of the renormalized Rouse approach [K. S. Schweizer, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 5802 (1989)]. The power law limits predicted on this basis are T1??1/2, T1??1/4, and T1??1/5 for the T1 dispersion in a sequence of regimes from high to low frequencies. The mean-square segment displacement obeys ?t1/4, ?t3/8, and ?t2/5 in a sequence of limits for increasing times. The spin-lattice relaxation dispersion of different polymers was studied mainly by the aid of the field-cycling NMR technique. The covered proton frequency range is less than 103 Hz to more than 108 Hz. The frequency dependence can be described by a series of power laws arising from chain dynamics. Two of these, namely T1??0.5 and T1??0.25 tending to appear at high and low frequencies, respectively, can be perfectly explained on the basis of the derived renormalized Rouse limits. The third power law, T1??0.44, which was observed only at rather low frequencies, has no theoretical counterpart in the frame of the renormalized Rouse theory. Some hints that farther reaching polymer theories such as the mode-mode coupling approach [K. S. Schweizer, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 5822 (1989)] can help to understand this finding are discussed.

  14. Effect of nuclear spin on chemical reactions and internal molecular rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Sterna, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    Part I of this dissertation is a study of the magnetic isotope effect, and results are presented for the separation of /sup 13/C and /sup 12/C isotopes. Two models are included in the theoretical treatment of the effect. In the first model the spin states evolve quantum mechanically, and geminate recombination is calculated by numerically integrating the collision probability times the probability the radical pair is in a singlet state. In the second model the intersystem crossing is treated via first-order rate constants which are average values of the hyperfine couplings. Using these rate constants and hydrodynamic diffusion equations, an analytical solution, which accounts for all collisions, is obtained for the geminate recombination. The two reactions studied are photolysis of benzophenone and toluene and the photolytic decomposition of dibenzylketone (1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone). No magnetic isotope effect was observed in the benzophenone reaction. /sup 13/C enrichment was observed for the dibenzylketone reaction, and this enrichment was substantially enhanced at intermediate viscosities and low temperatures. Part II of this dissertation is a presentation of theory and results for the use of Zeeman spin-lattice relaxation as a probe of methyl group rotation in the solid state. Experimental results are presented for the time and angular dependences of rotational polarization, the methyl group magnetic moment, and methyl-methyl steric interactions. The compounds studied are 2,6-dimethylphenol, methyl iodide, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylanthracene, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylnaphthalene, 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, and 2,3-dimethylmaleicanhydride.

  15. Searching for spin-dependent short-range forces using nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraci, Andrew; Arvanitaki, Asimina

    2014-05-01

    Axions are particles predicted to exist in order to explain the apparent smallness of the neutron electric dipole moment. While also being a promising candidate for dark matter, in tabletop experiments axions can mediate novel macroscopic forces between matter objects. I will describe a new method for detecting short-range forces from axion-like particles based on nuclear magnetic resonance in hyperpolarized Helium-3. The method can potentially improve previous experimental bounds by several orders of magnitude and can probe deep into the theoretically interesting regime for the QCD axion. Supported in part by NSF-PHY 1205994.

  16. CARBON-13 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 13C CHEMICAL SHIFTS AND 13C-199HG COUPLING CONSTANTS FOR SOME ORGANOMERCURY COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The (13)C shieldings and (13)C-(199)Hg coupling constants of fourteen phenyl- and seven alkyl- and alkenyl-mercury compounds have been obtained. Substituent effects on the (13)C shieldings are similar to those in nonmercurated phenyl compounds, with a similar relationship between...

  17. Evaluation of nitrogen nuclear hyperfine and quadrupole coupling parameters for the proximal imidazole in myoglobin-azide, -cyanide, and -mercaptoethanol complexes by electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Magliozzo, R S; Peisach, J

    1993-08-24

    Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy and computer simulation of spectra has been used to evaluate the nitrogen nuclear hyperfine and quadrupole coupling parameters for the proximal imidazole nitrogen directly coordinated to iron in three low-spin heme complexes, myoglobin-azide, -cyanide, and -mercaptoethanol (MbN3, MbCN, and MbRS). The variability in the weak electron-nuclear coupling parameters reveals the electronic flexibility within the heme group that depends on properties of the exogenous ligands. For example, the isotropic component of the nitrogen nuclear hyperfine coupling ranges from 4.4 MHz for MbN3 to 2.2 MHz for both MbCN and MbRS. The weaker coupling in MbCN and MbRS is taken as evidence for delocalization of unpaired electron spin from iron into the exogenous anionic ligands. The value of e2Qq, the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant for the axial imidazole nitrogen in MbCN and MbRS, was 2.5 MHz but was significantly larger, 3.2 MHz, in MbN3. This large value is considered evidence for a weakened sigma bond between the proximal imidazole and ferric iron in this form, and for a feature contributing to the origin of the high spin-low spin equilibrium exhibited by MbN3 [Beetlestone, J., & George, P. (1964) Biochemistry 5, 707-714]. The ESEEM results have allowed a correlation to be made between the orientation of the g tensor axes, the orientation of the p-pi orbital of the proximal imidazole nitrogen, and sigma- and pi-bonding features of the axial ligands. Furthermore, the proximal imidazole is suggested to act as a pi-acceptor in low-spin heme complexes in order to support strong sigma electron donation from the lone pair orbital to iron. An evaluation of the nitrogen nuclear hyperfine coupling parameters for the porphyrin pyrrole sites in MbRS reveals a large inequivalence in isotropic components consistent with an orientation of rhombic axes (and g tensor axes) that eclipses the Fe-Npyrrole vector directions. PMID:8395204

  18. Electron exchanges in nuclear spin conversion of hydrogen physisorbed on diamagnetic insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilisca, Ernest; Ghiglieno, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    Models are provided and discussed to interpret new experiments on the ortho-para conversion of hydrogen "physisorbed" on dielectric and diamagnetic surfaces. Electro-static and dynamical molecule-surface interactions complemented by hyperfine contacts are shown to be generally more effective than the magnetic ones. Coulomb repulsion induces exchanges of molecular and surface electrons and excites triplet spin states which are effective in the angular momenta transfers to the catalyst. The conversion time is obtained as the square of a ratio of two energies: the exchange and excitation ones. The main channel is found composed of triplet excitations of the order of the eV, induced by molecule-surface exchanges of about a hundred of meV. It explains the zinc and oxygen rates of about one minute observed on the MOF samples as well as the about ten times slower ones on the ASW. The same mechanism is also shown to occur in the transient regime, but faster. Finally it explains also the conversion of a few hours observed for interstitial hydrogen in silicium by transitions to the conduction band induced by about 10 meV electron exchanges. The molecule-surface orbital geometries of the MOF and ASW configurations are displayed and the quantum path when unfolded exhibits the successive broken symmetries.

  19. Enhancement of nuclear-spin cross-relaxation in metal-hydrogen systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.B.; Conradi, M.S.; Fedders, P.A.; Norberg, R.E. (Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)); Torgeson, D.R.; Barnes, R.G. (Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)); Bowman, R.C. Jr. (Aerojet Electronic Systems Division, P.O. Box 296, Azusa, California 91702 (United States))

    1991-12-01

    A cross-relaxation model has previously been proposed to explain the anomalous frequency dependence of proton relaxation rates {ital R}{sub 1} in several metal-hydrogen systems at low temperatures. We report two experiments that test and unambiguously confirm the cross-relaxation model. The first experiment uses large-amplitude field modulation to sweep the proton resonance through the inhomogeneously broadened spectrum of metal resonances. The second involves rotation of the sample to sweep the metal resonances through the proton line. In both experiments, the protons are brought into spin thermal contact with an increased number of metal nuclei. Sample rotation rates of only 10 Hz increase the proton {ital R}{sub 1} by a factor of 50 for the TaH{sub {ital x}} system. A simple model explains the variation of {ital R}{sub 1} with rotation speed. Both techniques reveal increased proton relaxation rates {ital R}{sub 1}, unique signatures of the cross-relaxation model. A model is presented that explains the weaker than linear temperature dependence of {ital R}{sub 1}. The role of disorder on a length scale of 500 A or less is emphasized.

  20. Single- And Double-degenerate Models Of Type Ia Sne, Nuclear-burning White Dwarfs, Spin, And Supersoft X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Voss, R.; Claeys, J. S. W.

    2011-09-01

    Over the past decade we have established that there are too few supersoft x-ray sources (SSSs) in galaxies of all types to support the hypothesis that the majority of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) progenitors pass through a long SSS phase. Yet, both single- and double-degenerate models predict long epochs during which a white dwarf receives mass at a rate compatible with nuclear burning. We explore the ways in which the link between nuclear-burning and SSS-like behavior can be broken. We also touch on the role that angular momentum (spin-up and spin-down) may have in changing the appearance of the progenitors just prior to explosion, and also the explosion and post-explosion signatures.

  1. Probing the formation and evolution of comets via nuclear spin temperatures of C_2H_6, CH_3OH, CH_4, NH_3, and H_2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, G.; Mumma, M.; Bonev, B.; DiSanti, M.; Paganini, L.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Gibb, E.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are true remnants of our primordial Solar System, and provide unique clues to its formation and evolution, including the delivery of organics and water to our planet. A key indicator stored in the molecular structure of the nuclear ices is the spin temperature (T_{spin}), derived from spin-isomeric ratios (R_{spin}, e.g., ortho/para). At the time when cometary ices formed, the prevailing temperature defined the relative abundance of the different spin-isomeric species, and herewith R_{spin} and T_{spin} are normally treated as ''remnant thermometers'' probing the formation environments of cometary molecules. Radiative and collisional transitions between the ortho and para states are strongly forbidden and herewith this indicator is preserved over time. Most of our knowledge of this indicator comes from the measurements of the ortho-para ratios in water and NH_2 (a proxy for ammonia), suggesting a common T_{spin} near 30 K. This information is based on a restricted sample of comets, and the measurements are particularly sensitive to the molecular modeling technique and adopted spectral database. Here, we present new methodologies for extracting spin temperatures from ethane (C_2H_6), methane (CH_4), and methanol (CH_3OH), and advanced new models for ortho/para water (H_2O) and ammonia (NH_3). Our H_2O analysis is based on the most complete fluorescence radiative-transfer model to date, which incorporates 1,200 million transitions including those originating from high-energy levels that are activated in comets via a non-resonant cascade. In a similar fashion, we developed non-resonant fluorescence models for NH_3 and HCN, and quantum-band models for the ?_7 band of C_2H_6 and ?_3 band of CH_3OH. All models respect spin-symmetry non-conversion radiative rules, and make use of a realistic solar spectrum for the computation of fluorescence pumps. We applied these new methods to derive spin-isomeric ratios for H_2O, CH_4, C_2H_6, CH_3OH, and NH_3 from three high- quality cometary datasets: 1) C/2007 W1 (Boattini), 2) C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), and 3) 8P/Tuttle. We compare our results to the measured organic compositions for these comets, and present possible formation and evolution scenarios.

  2. Characterization of very young mineral phases of bone by solid state 31 Phosphorus magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Roberts; L. C. Bonar; R. G. Griffin; M. J. Glimcher

    1992-01-01

    Summary The properties of bone mineral change with age and maturation. Several investigators have suggested the presence of an initial or “precursor” calcium phosphate phase to help explain these differences. We have used solid state 31P magic angle sample spinning (MASS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray radial distribution function (RDF) analyses to characterize 11-and 17-day-old embryonic chick bone and

  3. Nuclear resonance scattering study on the spin orientation in an epitaxial layer of Fe3O4 on MgO(100)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Kalev; L. Niesen

    2003-01-01

    A thin magnetite film grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on MgO(100) was studied by nuclear resonant scattering (NRS) at grazing incidence geometry. We show that the NRS data yield more information about the shape of the directional spin distribution than Mössbauer spectroscopy, in which only the average angle with respect to the photon wave vector can be measured. We fit our

  4. Tweezers for parahydrogen: a metal-free probe of nonequilibrium nuclear spin states of H? molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Chernichenko, Konstantin; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; Sumerin, Victor; Koptyug, Igor V

    2014-01-15

    To date, only metal-containing hydrogenation catalysts have been utilized for producing substantial NMR signal enhancements by means of parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP). Herein, we show that metal-free compounds known as molecular tweezers are useful in this respect. It is shown that ansa-aminoborane tweezers QCAT provided (20-30)-fold signal enhancements of parahydrogen-originating hydrogens in (1)H NMR spectra. Nuclear polarization transfer from the polarized hydrogens to (11)B nuclei leads to a 10-fold enhancement in the (11)B NMR spectrum. Moreover, our results indicate that dihydrogen activation by QCAT and CAT tweezers is carried out in a pairwise manner, and PHIP can be used for understanding the activation mechanism in metal-free catalytic systems in general. PMID:24359087

  5. Effects of strain and quantum confinement in optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance in GaAs: Interpretation guided by spin-dependent band structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R. M.; Saha, D.; McCarthy, L. A.; Tokarski, J. T.; Sanders, G. D.; Kuhns, P. L.; McGill, S. A.; Reyes, A. P.; Reno, J. L.; Stanton, C. J.; Bowers, C. R.

    2014-10-01

    A combined experimental-theoretical study of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR) has been performed in a GaAs /A l0.1G a0.9As quantum well film epoxy bonded to a Si substrate with thermally induced biaxial strain. The photon energy dependence of the Ga OPNMR signal was recorded at magnetic fields of 4.9 and 9.4 T at a temperature of 4.8-5.4 K. The data were compared to the nuclear spin polarization calculated from the electronic structure and differential absorption to spin-up and spin-down states of the electron conduction band using a modified k .p model based on the Pidgeon-Brown model. Comparison of theory with experiment facilitated the assignment of features in the OPNMR energy dependence to specific interband Landau level transitions. The results provide insight into how effects of strain and quantum confinement are manifested in optical nuclear polarization in semiconductors.

  6. Relaxation magnétique nucléaire du carbone-13 et dynamique des molécules de chlorpromazine associées en solution aqueuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, S.; Thévand, A.

    1998-02-01

    13C relaxation times and heteronuclear NOE enhancements have been measured for chlorpromazine hydrochloride salt in chloroform and water. The dipolar contribution to 13C ^1H spin systems relaxation rates were extracted and allowed us to characterize the molecular reorientation in the two solvents. The correlation times are on either side of “T1 minimum". The values agree with the size of the molecule and show an association by stacking of 11 monomeric entities. Les temps de relaxation des 13C et les accroissements par effet Overhauser 1Hto13C ont été mesurés parallèlement sur la molécule de chlorhydrate de chlorpromazine non associée dans le chloroforme et auto-associée dans l'eau. L'extraction de la contribution dipolaire aux constantes de vitesse de relaxation des systèmes 13C 1H de la molécule a permis de caractériser la réorientation de la molécule dans les deux cas. Les temps de corrélation obtenus qui se situent de part et d'autre du “T1 minimum" sont en accord avec la taille de la molécule isolée et montrent que l'agrégat est formé par empilement de 11 molécules.

  7. Spin noise of localized electrons interacting with optically cooled nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, D. S.

    2015-05-01

    A theory of spin fluctuations of localized electrons interacting with an optically cooled nuclear spin bath has been developed. Since nuclear spin temperature may stay low enough for a macroscopically long time, the effect of dynamic nuclear polarization on electron spin dynamics can be directly revealed by means of spin noise spectroscopy. We have shown that in the case of weak fields/relatively high nuclear spin temperature, a small degree of nuclear spin polarization affects the electron spin fluctuations in the same way as an additional external magnetic field. By contrast, the high degree of nuclear polarization realized in relatively strong magnetic field and at low nuclear spin temperature leads to a suppression of hyperfine field fluctuations and to a dramatic narrowing of the precession-induced peak in the spin noise spectrum. The experimental possibilities of nuclear spin system investigation by means of spin noise spectroscopy are discussed.

  8. Nuclear Spin Effects in the Reactions of H3^+ with H2 and Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, Holger; Crabtree, Kyle; Kauffman, Carrie; Tom, Brian; Novotny, Oldrich; Berg, Max; Bing, Dennis; Buhr, Henrik; Krantz, Claude; Lestinsky, Michael; Mendes, Mario; Nordhorn, Christian; Stutzel, Julia; Wolf, Andreas; Thomas, Richard; McCall, Benjamin

    2010-03-01

    H3^+ is the simplest polyatomic molecule. It is widely used as a benchmark for theoretical calculations of molecular spectroscopy and reaction dynamics, and also plays a pivotal role as the cornerstone of interstellar chemistry. In Urbana, we have investigated the proton hop/exchange reaction H3^+ + H2 -> (H5^+)^* -> H2 + H3^+ for the first time at low temperatures. This reaction is the simplest bimolecular reaction involving a polyatomic, and is also the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe. Our experiments have revealed the branching ratio between proton hop and exchange, and appear to explain the observed ortho:para ratio of H3^+ in diffuse interstellar clouds. At the TSR storage ring of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, we have performed high-resolution measurements of the dissociative recombination (DR) cross sections of cold H3^+ in different mixtures of its lowest ortho and para quantum states. These measurements represent an important step towards the first state-selected DR measurements.

  9. Core-valence Gaussian basis sets of double and triple zeta quality for Li to Ar. Applications in calculations of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, P. J. P.; Gomes, M. S.; Pires, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    In this Letter we extend the XZP basis sets (X = D and T) developed by Jorge et al. for Li-Ar atoms with the tight functions and optimize these functions using the criterion of maximizing the core correlation energy (CCE) developed by Woon and Dunning. The basis sets generated with this method were designated as CXZP. Our results showed CCE of the CXZP sets compared to the XZP sets were between 153 and 240 millihartrees (for Na-Ar). Applications in calculations of NMR indirect spin-spin coupling constants at the B3LYP and SOPPA levels were performed.

  10. Using Bio-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles and Dynamic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to Characterize the Time-Dependent Spin-Spin Relaxation Time for Sensitive Bio-Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Chen, Kuen-Lin; Wang, Chun-Min; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Horng, Herng-Er; Wang, Li-Min; Wu, C. H.; Yang, Hong-Chang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the use of bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (BMNs) and dynamic magnetic resonance (DMR) to characterize the time-dependent spin-spin relaxation time for sensitive bio-detection. The biomarkers are the human C-reactive protein (CRP) while the BMNs are the anti-CRP bound onto dextran-coated Fe3O4 particles labeled as Fe3O4-antiCRP. It was found the time-dependent spin-spin relaxation time, T2, of protons decreases as time evolves. Additionally, the ?T2 of of protons in BMNs increases as the concentration of CRP increases. We attribute these to the formation of the magnetic clusters that deteriorate the field homogeneity of nearby protons. A sensitivity better than 0.1 ?g/mL for assaying CRP is achieved, which is much higher than that required by the clinical criteria (0.5 mg/dL). The present MR-detection platform shows promise for further use in detecting tumors, viruses, and proteins. PMID:25397920

  11. Unusual spin fluctuations and magnetic frustration in olivine and non-olivine LiCoPO4 detected by P31 and Li7 nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S.-H.; Klingeler, R.; Neef, C.; Koo, C.; Büchner, B.; Grafe, H.-J.

    2014-04-01

    We report P31 and Li7 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies in new non-olivine LiZnPO4-type LiCoPO4tetra microcrystals, where the Co2+ ions are tetrahedrally coordinated. Olivine LiCoPO4, which was directly transformed from LiCoPO4tetra by an annealing process, was also studied and compared. The uniform bulk magnetic susceptibility and the P31 Knight shift obey the Curie-Weiss law for both materials with a high spin Co2+ (3d7, S =3/2), but the Weiss temperature ? and the effective magnetic moment ?eff are considerably smaller in LiCoPO4tetra. The spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 reveals a quite different nature of the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic state of both materials. Our NMR results imply that strong geometrical spin frustration occurs in tetrahedrally coordinated LiCoPO4, which may lead to the incommensurate magnetic ordering.

  12. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 87, 115416 (2013) Electrical current and coupled electron-nuclear spin dynamics in double quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Nori, Franco

    2013-01-01

    that by tuning the strength of the spin-orbit interaction the current flowing through the double dot exhibits that if the spin ensemble is in a thermal state there are regular oscillations in the transient current followed mechanism is due to the Pauli principle and has been demonstrated in semiconductor heterostructure quantum

  13. 13C-13C Homonuclear Recoupling in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at a Moderately High Magic-Angle-Spinning Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Mithu, Venus Singh; Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K.

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of 13C-13C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on 1H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail. PMID:23326308

  14. Enantiodiscrimination and extraction of short and long range homo- and hetero-nuclear residual dipolar couplings by a spin selective correlation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Nilamoni; Suryaprakash, N.

    2010-08-01

    A two dimensional correlation experiment for the measurement of short and long range homo- and hetero- nuclear residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) from the broad and featureless proton NMR spectra including 13C satellites is proposed. The method employs a single natural abundant 13C spin as a spy nucleus to probe all the coupled protons and permits the determination of RDCs of negligible strengths. The technique has been demonstrated for the study of organic chiral molecules aligned in chiral liquid crystal, where additional challenge is to unravel the overlapped spectrum of enantiomers. The significant advantage of the method is demonstrated in better chiral discrimination using homonuclear RDCs as additional parameters.

  15. Spin and spin-isospin instabilities and Landau parameters of Skyrme interactions with tensor correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Gang Cao; Gianluca Colò; Hiroyuki Sagawa

    2010-01-01

    The Landau parameters of Skyrme interactions in the spin and spin-isospin channels are studied using various Skyrme effective interactions with and without tensor correlations. We focus on the role of the tensor terms on the spin and spin-isospin instabilities that can occur in nuclear matter above saturation density. We point out that these instabilities are realized in nuclear matter at

  16. Pulsed and continuous wave electron nuclear double resonance patterns of aquo protons coordinated in frozen solution to high spin MN2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiaoling; Bernardo, Marcelino; Thomann, Hans; Scholes, Charles P.

    1993-04-01

    For the water protons that coordinate to Mn2+, the frozen solution ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance) spectra are made complex by the anisotropic electron-proton hyperfine interaction and by multiple contributions of the electron spin 5/2 manifold. A spin 5/2 Mn2+ ion having magnetic quantum numbers Ms=±1/2, ±3/2, ±5/2 and small zero-field splittings has overlapping electron spin EPR transitions. Proton hyperfine couplings to each of these electron spin states have yielded overlapping ENDOR patterns whose interpretation is nontrivial, even in so simple a system as Mn2+ ion having hexaaquo coordination. We have experimentally obtained and theoretically explained these proton ENDOR patterns and in so doing have laid the foundation for interpreting and sorting out frozen solution ENDOR patterns in more complex (enzyme) environments. Pulsed and cw ENDOR experiments showed features of metal-coordinated water protons occurring not only within a few MHz of the free proton frequency (as will happen for an electron spin 1/2 system) but extending over a range of up to 35 MHz. The EPR line of the Mn2+ S=5/2 manifold was broadened by zero-field splitting for hundreds of Gauss away from g=2.00, and the relative intensity of different ENDOR features reflected couplings to differing Ms spin states at varying fields across this EPR line. An expression was derived to show the dependence of proton ENDOR frequencies on the electron spin quantum number, Ms, upon the principal values of the intrinsic proton hyperfine tensor, upon the direction of the magnetic field, and upon the free proton frequency. This expression provided the starting point for powder simulations of the overall ENDOR pattern. These ENDOR powder pattern simulations were not elementary extensions of first-order theory as often applied to single-crystallike ENDOR spectra obtained at frozen solution EPR extrema. These simulations addressed the interpretation and the conditions for obtaining consistent hyperfine information from nuclei hyperfine coupled to Mn2+ where all Ms levels of the Mn2+ ion can furnish contributions to ENDOR and EPR. The aquo protons yielded an isotropic coupling As=0.8 MHz and a dipolar coupling Ad=3.4 MHz, where A?=2Ad+As (=7.6 MHz) and A?=As-Ad (=-2.6 MHz). Such couplings are in agreement with those obtained by proton ENDOR of [Mn(H2O)6]2+ in single crystals [R. DeBeer, W. DeBoer, C. A. Van't Hof, and D. Van Ormondt, Acta Cryst. B29, 1473 (1973)].

  17. Intermolecular Structure Determination of Amyloid Fibrils with 2 Magic-Angle Spinning and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR

    E-print Network

    Bayro, Marvin J.

    We describe magic-angle spinning NMR experiments designed to elucidate the interstrand architecture of amyloid fibrils. Three methods are introduced for this purpose, two being based on the analysis of long-range [superscript ...

  18. High-resolution magic-angle spinning 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipid dispersions using spherical glass ampoules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Zhou; Brian G Sayer; Ruth E Stark; Richard M Epand

    1997-01-01

    A very useful high-resolution magic-angle spinning (MAS) 1H NMR method for studying lipid dispersions is presented. The sample can be loaded into the spherical glass ampoule very easily, and a spinning speed of more than 10 kHz can be achieved without the problems of sample leakage or water loss. The line width at half height for the HDO peak is

  19. Cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance study of platinum complexes containing the cis-P2PtC2 fragment.

    PubMed

    Challoner, R; Sebald, A

    1995-01-01

    31P and 195Pt cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR) spectra of three platinum complexes of formal oxidation state Pt(0) and Pt(II), respectively, are reported. All three complexes, (Ph3P)2Pt(C2H4) (1), (Et2P-CH2-CH2-PEt2)Pt(C identical to C-H)2 (2) and (Ph2P-CH2-CH2-PPh2)Pt(C identical to C-C(CH3)=CH2)2 (3) contain the square-planar cis-P2PtC2 fragment and show unusual NMR spectroscopic properties insofar that the 195Pt shielding patterns are fairly narrow in relation to what one would generally have to expect for 195Pt in square-planar coordination. Another unexpected NMR property of the cis-P2PtC2 fragment in 1-3 is the absence of spinning frequency-dependent second-order effects in this solid-state ABX spin system. PMID:7894980

  20. Anatomical types of leaves and assimilating shoots and carbon 13C\\/ 12C isotope fractionation in Chinese representatives of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhibin Wen; Mingli Zhang

    2011-01-01

    To examine the anatomical types in Salsoleae s.l., and evaluate carbon isotope fractionation values for identifying the respective photosynthetic pathway, a total of 34 species representing 12 genera of Salsoleae s.l. in China were examined using light microscopy and carbon 13C\\/12C isotope fractionation. There are nine leaf anatomical types, namely, Sympegmoid (Sympegmoid type, Sympegmoid type II), Salsoloid with hypodermis (Salsola

  1. Carbon13 solid state NMR investigation and modeling of the morphological reorganization in regenerated cellulose fibres induced by controlled acid hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Ibbett; Dimitra Domvoglou; Franz Wortmann; K. Christian Schuster

    2010-01-01

    CPMAS carbon-13 NMR has been used to follow structural changes affecting regenerated cellulose fibres during hydrolysis by\\u000a mineral acids. The C4 envelope of regenerated cellulose was deconvoluted into separate peaks, for ordered (crystal), part-ordered\\u000a (surface) and disordered (non-crystal) polymer, which allowed calculation of average crystal lateral sizes, in good agreement\\u000a with WAXD data. A geometrical model has been used to

  2. Reconstriction of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic carbon-13 dioxide from air occluded in ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlen, M. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) dioxide (CO{sub 2}) mixing ratio and isotopic carbon-13 dioxide {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2} was measured in the air extracted form ice cores from Greenland (GISP 2, Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) and from Antarctica (Vostok). The goals are to determine the phasing between temperature and atmospheric CO{sub 2} changes during periods of different climatic conditions and to gain insight into the mechanisms producing the observed CO{sub 2} variations. Experimentally, the dry extraction technique at low temperature for CO{sub 2} was used. The extracted air is then condensed quickly at 35{degrees}K and subsequently released into a cell, where the CO{sub 2} mixing ratio is determined by tunable diode infrared laser spectroscopy on a single vibrational-rotational transition in the 4.3-micrometer ({mu}m) band by measuring the absorbance relative to standards. Three standards are processed identically to samples with every three samples. The experimental uncertainty is {plus_minus}3 parts per million (ppm). {delta}{sup 13}/CO{sub 2} is measured in duplicate by using a dry air extraction technique similar to Etheridge, Pearman, and de Silva on larger samples. CO{sub 2} is separated cryogenically from the extracted air, and {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2} is measured by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Severe extraction fractionation is observed. It is controlled and accounted for by admitting standard air samples over the ice; the standard air samples are then processed in the same manner as the extracted air samples are then processed in the same manner as the extracted air samples. The {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2} results are corrected for nitrous oxide mass interferences and for gravitational fractionation. The experimental uncertainty is better then {plus_minus}0.1 permil. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Observation of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal by electric-field modulation spectroscopy for a readout of a nuclear-spin qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Kouichi; Goto, Hayato; Nakamura, Satoshi; Kujiraoka, Mamiko

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear spin states of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal are known as good candidates for qubits in solids because of their long coherence time and their good controllability by lights. In the frequency-domain quantum computer (FDQC), nuclear spin states of the ions are employed as qubits defined in a frequency domain, and interaction between the qubits is mediated by a single cavity mode. In FDQC we can use adiabatic passage with dark states to perform single-qubit gates and two-qubit gates, and a single-qubit gate using adiabatic passage has been demonstrated. For two-qubit gates, quantum states of qubit ions need to be read out and operated individually. In order to observe a single ion in a crystal, we studied modulated signals due to ions in a cavity-mode spectrum of a monolithic optical cavity made of Pr3+:Y2SiO5. Owing to the cavity enhancement and the electric-field modulation spectroscopy, signals which are likely due to individual ions (statistical fine structure in an inhomogeneously broadened optical trandition) were observed.

  4. Optical measurements of methyl group tunneling in molecular crystals: Temperature dependence of the nuclear spin conversion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Claudius; Joyeux, Marc; Trommsdorff, H. Peter; Vial, Jean-Claude; von Borczyskowski, Christian

    1992-05-01

    The tunneling methyl groups in dimethyl-s-tetrazine (DMST) doped single crystals of durene were investigated by high resolution optical spectroscopy using spectral hole burning. The experiments probe the level structure as well as the relaxation dynamics of the tunneling methyl groups in different electronic states of DMST. The tunneling splitting differs by 1.24 GHz in the ground and the first excited singlet states of DMST. In the ground electronic state, relaxation (spin conversion) between the spin 3/2 (A) and 1/2 (E) tunneling levels was measured between 1.5 and 12 K. The spin conversion time is larger than 100 h at 1.5 K and decreases with Arrhenius-type behavior above 3.5 K. The activation energy of 20 cm-1 also is observed as a phonon sideband in emission, and is, in agreement with theoretical predictions, tentatively assigned to a librational mode of the methyl group.

  5. Nuclear spin Hall and Klein tunneling effects during oxidation with electric and magnetic field inductions in graphene.

    PubMed

    Little, Reginald B; McClary, Felicia; Rice, Bria; Jackman, Corine; Mitchell, James W

    2012-12-14

    The recent observation of the explosive oxidation of graphene with enhancement for decreasing temperature and the requirements for synchronizing oxidants for collective oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions presented a chemical scenario for the thermal harvesting by the magnetic spin Hall Effect. More experimental data are presented to demonstrate such spin Hall Effect by determining the influence of spins of so-called spectator fermionic cations. Furthermore, the so-called spectator bosonic cations are discovered to cause a Klein tunneling effect during the redox reaction of graphene. The Na(+) and K(+), fermionic cations and the Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), bosonic cations were observed and compared under a variety of experimental conditions: adiabatic reactions with initial temperatures (18-22 °C); reactions toward infinite dilution; isothermal reactions under nonadiabatic conditions at low temperature of 18 °C; reactions under paramagnetic O(2) or diamagnetic N(2) atmospheres of different permeabilities; reactions in applied and no applied external magnetic field; and reactions toward excess concentrations of common and uncommon Na(+) and Mg(2+) cations. The observed reaction kinetics and dynamics under these various, diverse conditions are consistent with the spin Hall mechanism, energy harvesting and short time violation of Second Law of Thermodynamics for redox reactions of graphene by the Na(+)K(+) mixture and are consistent with the Klein tunnel mechanism for the redox reactions of graphene by the Mg(2+)Ca(2+) mixture. Mixed spin Hall and Klein tunnel mechanisms are discovered to slow and modulate explosive redox reactions. Such spin Hall Effect also gives explanation of recent tunneling of electrons through boron nitride. PMID:23108034

  6. Nuclear spin isomers of guest molecules in H?@C??, H?O@C?? and other endofullerenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Judy Y-C; Li, Yongjun; Frunzi, Michael; Lei, Xuegong; Murata, Yasujiro; Lawler, Ronald G; Turro, Nicholas J

    2013-09-13

    Spectroscopic studies of recently synthesized endofullerenes, in which H?, H?O and other atoms and small molecules are trapped in cages of carbon atoms, have shown that although the trapped molecules interact relatively weakly with the internal environment they are nevertheless susceptible to appropriately applied external perturbations. These properties have been exploited to isolate and study samples of H? in C?? and other fullerenes that are highly enriched in the para spin isomer. Several strategies for spin-isomer enrichment, potential extensions to other endofullerenes and possible applications of these materials are discussed. PMID:23918710

  7. Effects of spin vacancies on the correlated spin dynamics in La{sub 2}Cu{ital {sub 1{minus}x}}Zn{ital {sub x}}O{sub 4} from {sup 63}Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, P.; Rigamonti, A.; Sala, R. [Department of Physics A. Volta, Unita INFM and Sezione INFN, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)] [Department of Physics A. Volta, Unita INFM and Sezione INFN, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    {sup 63}Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) relaxation measurements in La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} doped Zn are used in order to investigate the temperature dependence of the in-plane magnetic correlation length {xi}{sub 2D} and the effects associated to spin vacancies in two dimensional quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets (QHAF). The relaxation rates {ital T}{sub 1}{sup {minus}1} and {ital T}{sub 2}{sup {minus}1} have been related to the static generalized susceptibility {chi}({bold q},0) and to the decay rate {Gamma}{bold {sub q}} of the normal excitations. By using scaling arguments for {chi}({bold q},0) and {Gamma}{bold {sub q}}, the relaxation rates have been expressed in close form in terms of {xi}{sub 2D}{ital (x,T)} and its dependence on temperature and spin doping {ital x} thus extracted. The experimental findings are analyzed in light of the renormalized classical (RC) and quantum critical (QC) behaviors predicted for {xi}{sub 2D} by recent theories for {ital S}=1/2 HAF in square lattices. It is first shown that in pure La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, {xi}{sub 2D} is consistent with a RC regime up to about 900 K, with tendency toward the QC regime above. The spin vacancies reduce the N{acute e}el temperature according to the law {ital T{sub N}(x){approx}T{sub N}(0)(1{endash}3.5x)}. From the temperature dependence of {sup 63}Cu NQR relaxation rate {ital T}{sub 1}{sup {minus}1}, {ital T}{sub 2}{sup {minus}1} and from the composition dependence of {ital T{sub N}} it is consistently proved that the effect on {xi}{sub 2D} can be accounted for by the modification of the spin stiffness in a simple dilutionlike model, the system still remaining in the RC regime, at least for {ital T}{le}900 K. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Nuclear

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  9. Heisenberg spin exchange effects of nitroxide radicals on Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization in the low field limit at 1.5mT.

    PubMed

    Lingwood, Mark D; Ivanov, Ivan A; Cote, Alissa R; Han, Songi

    2010-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at very low magnetic fields (0.05-20mT) have gained interest due to the simple and portable magnet design and newly emerging applications outside of the usual laboratory setting. A method to enhance the NMR signal is needed due to the low thermal polarization of nuclear spins at these fields; dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) via the Overhauser effect from free radicals is an attractive option. In this report we describe a DNP-enhanced NMR system operating at a fixed field of 1.5mT and measure (1)H signal enhancements of up to -350 fold during the saturation of a selected electron spin resonance (ESR) transition of dissolved nitroxide radicals. This -350 fold enhanced polarization is equivalent to what would be obtained by prepolarization in a 0.53T field. The ESR spectra at varying radical concentrations are indirectly found through DNP-enhanced NMR detection. Here, ESR line broadening at higher radical concentrations due to Heisenberg electron spin exchange is observed. Enhancements in the limit of maximum power are reported as a function of concentration for three ESR transitions, and are found to increase with concentration. The >300 fold (1)H NMR signal amplifications achievable at 1.5mT will reduce experimental time by several orders of magnitude, permitting NMR relaxation, imaging or pulsed-field gradient diffusion experiments that are inaccessible without using the DNP effect at 1.5mT. We demonstrate the potential benefit of such large signal amplification schemes through T(1) and T(2) relaxation measurements carried out in a much shorter time when employing DNP. Finally, we compare our results to those obtained in the earth's magnetic field and find that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of DNP-enhanced signal at 1.5mT is much greater than that obtained by previous studies utilizing DNP enhancement in the 0.05mT earth's magnetic field. PMID:20188611

  10. Studies of the spin-isospin response of the nuclear continuum using intermediate energy hadrons. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, F.T.

    1999-11-01

    The work supported by this grant has had two main thrusts. One involved study of the spin, isospin, and multipole content of the continuum of nuclei, a continuation and completion of work done at LAMPF, Saturne, and TRIUMF. Most of the work has used ({bar p}, {bar p}{prime}) or ({bar d}, {bar d}{prime}) reactions, measuring spin observable to infer properties of the target nuclei. Publications resulting from this work have included seven refereed articles and letters, five abstracts and conference talks, one of which was invited. The second thrust involved preparatory work for experiments at CEBAF. The author was involved in Hall A work and the construction, installation, and initial experiments using the proton focal plane polarimeter. Experiments began in 1997 and no referred publications have yet been completed; ten abstracts and conference talks have been published.

  11. Electrical and ionic conductivity effects on magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance parameters of CuI.

    PubMed

    Yesinowski, James P; Ladouceur, Harold D; Purdy, Andrew P; Miller, Joel B

    2010-12-21

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the effects of two different types of conductivity, electrical and ionic, upon magic-angle spinning NMR spectra. The experimental demonstration of these effects involves (63)Cu, (65)Cu, and (127)I variable temperature MAS-NMR experiments on samples of ?-CuI, a Cu(+)-ion conductor at elevated temperatures as well as a wide bandgap semiconductor. We extend previous observations that the chemical shifts depend very strongly upon the square of the spinning-speed as well as the particular sample studied and the magnetic field strength. By using the (207)Pb resonance of lead nitrate mixed with the ?-CuI as an internal chemical shift thermometer we show that frictional heating effects of the rotor do not account for the observations. Instead, we find that spinning bulk CuI, a p-type semiconductor due to Cu(+) vacancies in nonstoichiometric samples, in a magnetic field generates induced AC electric currents from the Lorentz force that can resistively heat the sample by over 200 °C. These induced currents oscillate along the rotor spinning axis at the spinning speed. Their associated heating effects are disrupted in samples containing inert filler material, indicating the existence of macroscopic current pathways between micron-sized crystallites. Accurate measurements of the temperature-dependence of the (63)Cu and (127)I chemical shifts in such diluted samples reveal that they are of similar magnitude (ca. 0.27 ppm/K) but opposite sign (being negative for (63)Cu), and appear to depend slightly upon the particular sample. This relationship is identical to the corresponding slopes of the chemical shifts versus square of the spinning speed, again consistent with sample heating as the source of the observed large shift changes. Higher drive-gas pressures are required to spin samples that have higher effective electrical conductivities, indicating the presence of a braking effect arising from the induced currents produced by rotating a conductor in a homogeneous magnetic field. We present a theoretical analysis and finite-element simulations that account for the magnitude and rapid time-scale of the resistive heating effects and the quadratic spinning speed dependence of the chemical shift observed experimentally. Known thermophysical properties are used as inputs to the model, the sole adjustable parameter being a scaling of the bulk thermal conductivity of CuI in order to account for the effective thermal conductivity of the rotating powdered sample. In addition to the dramatic consequences of electrical conductivity in the sample, ionic conductivity also influences the spectra. All three nuclei exhibit quadrupolar satellite transitions extending over several hundred kilohertz that reflect defects perturbing the cubic symmetry of the zincblende lattice. Broadening of these satellite transitions with increasing temperature arises from the onset of Cu(+) ion jumps to sites with different electric field gradients, a process that interferes with the formation of rotational echoes. This broadening has been quantitatively analyzed for the (63)Cu and (65)Cu nuclei using a simple model in the literature to yield an activation barrier of 0.64 eV (61.7 kJ/mole) for the Cu(+) ion jumping motion responsible for the ionic conductivity that agrees with earlier results based on (63)Cu NMR relaxation times of static samples. PMID:21186877

  12. Time-resolved nuclear spin-dependent small-angle neutron scattering from polarised proton domains in deuterated solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. van den Brandt; H. Glättli; I. Grillo; P. Hautle; H. Jouve; J. Kohlbrecher; J. A. Konter; E. Leymarie; S. Mango; R. P. May; A. Michels; H. B. Stuhrmann; O. Zimmer

    2006-01-01

    .  We have investigated the process of dynamic proton polarisation by means of time-resolved polarised small-angle neutron scattering\\u000a (SANS) on frozen solutions of EHBA-CrV molecules in glycerol-water mixtures as a function of the concentration of EHBA-CrV and for different degrees of deuteration of the solvent. In the EHBA-CrV complex, the spins of the 20 protons which surround the paramagnetic CrV can

  13. Fast radio-frequency amplitude modulation in multiple-quantum magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance: Theory and experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Madhu; Amir Goldbourt; Lucio Frydman; Shimon Vega

    2000-01-01

    Multiple-quantum magic-angle-spinning (MQMAS NMR) spectroscopy has become a routine method to obtain high-resolution spectra of quadrupolar nuclei. One of the main problems in the performance of this experiment has been the poor efficiency of the radio-frequency pulses used in converting multiple-quantum coherences to the observable single-quantum signals. As the MQMAS experiment is basically an echo experiment this problem can be

  14. Towards real-time metabolic profiling of a biopsy specimen during a surgical operation by 1H high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Providing information on cancerous tissue samples during a surgical operation can help surgeons delineate the limits of a tumoral invasion more reliably. Here, we describe the use of metabolic profiling of a colon biopsy specimen by high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate tumoral invasion during a simulated surgical operation. Case presentation Biopsy specimens (n = 9) originating from the excised right colon of a 66-year-old Caucasian women with an adenocarcinoma were automatically analyzed using a previously built statistical model. Conclusions Metabolic profiling results were in full agreement with those of a histopathological analysis. The time-response of the technique is sufficiently fast for it to be used effectively during a real operation (17 min/sample). Metabolic profiling has the potential to become a method to rapidly characterize cancerous biopsies in the operation theater. PMID:22257563

  15. Modular magnetic field on the z-direction on a chain of nuclear spin system and quantum Not and Controlled-Not gates

    E-print Network

    G. V. Lopez; M. Avila

    2012-03-02

    We study the simulation of a single qubit rotation and Controlled-Not gate in a solid state one-dimensional chain of nuclear spins system interacting weakly through an Ising type of interaction with a modular component of the magnetic field in the z-direction, characterized by $B_z(z,t)=Bo(z)\\cos\\delta t$. These qubits are subjected to electromagnetic pulses which determine the transition in the one or two qubits system. We use the fidelity parameter to determine the performance of the Not (N) gate and Controlled-Not (CNOT) gate as a function of the frequency parameter $\\delta$. We found that for $|\\delta|\\le 10^{-3} MHz$, these gates still have good fidelity.

  16. Recent developments in solid-state magic-angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance of fully and significantly isotopically labelled peptides and proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Suzana K

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed and applied to the study of fully or significantly isotopically labelled ((13)C, (15)N or (13)C/(15)N) biomolecules. In the past few years, the first structures of (13)C/(15)N-labelled peptides, Gly-Ile and Met-Leu-Phe, and a protein, Src-homology 3 domain, were solved using magic-angle spinning NMR, without recourse to any structural information obtained from other methods. This progress has been made possible by the development of NMR experiments to assign solid-state spectra and experiments to extract distance and orientational information. Another key aspect to the success of solid-state NMR is the advances made in sample preparation. These improvements will be reviewed in this contribution. Future prospects for the application of solid-state NMR to interesting biological questions will also briefly be discussed. PMID:15306412

  17. NMR multiple quantum coherences in quasi-one-dimensional spin systems: Comparison with ideal spin-chain dynamics

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Wenxian

    The [superscript 19]F spins in a crystal of fluorapatite have often been used to experimentally approximate a one-dimensional spin system. Under suitable multipulse control, the nuclear-spin dynamics may be modeled to first ...

  18. Microtesla MRI with dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Zotev, Vadim S; Owens, Tuba; Matlashov, Andrei N; Savukov, Igor M; Gomez, John J; Espy, Michelle A

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging at microtesla fields is a promising imaging method that combines the pre-polarization technique and broadband signal reception by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors to enable in vivo MRI at microtesla-range magnetic fields similar in strength to the Earth magnetic field. Despite significant advances in recent years, the potential of microtesla MRI for biomedical imaging is limited by its insufficient signal-to-noise ratio due to a relatively low sample polarization. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a widely used approach that allows polarization enhancement by 2-4 orders of magnitude without an increase in the polarizing field strength. In this work, the first implementation of microtesla MRI with Overhauser DNP and SQUID signal detection is described. The first measurements of carbon-13 NMR spectra at microtesla fields are also reported. The experiments were performed at the measurement field of 96 ?T, corresponding to Larmor frequency of 4 kHz for protons and 1 kHz for carbon-13. The Overhauser DNP was carried out at 3.5-5.7 mT fields using rf irradiation at 120 MHz. Objects for imaging included water phantoms and a cactus plant. Aqueous solutions of metabolically relevant sodium bicarbonate, pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, labeled with carbon-13, were used for NMR studies. All the samples were doped with TEMPO free radicals. The Overhauser DNP enabled nuclear polarization enhancement by factor as large as -95 for protons and as large as -200 for carbon-13, corresponding to thermal polarizations at 0.33 T and 1.1 T fields, respectively. These results demonstrate that SQUID-based microtesla MRI can be naturally combined with Overhauser DNP in one system, and that its signal-to-noise performance is greatly improved in this case. They also suggest that microtesla MRI can become an efficient tool for in vivo imaging of hyperpolarized carbon-13, produced by low-temperature dissolution DNP. PMID:20843715

  19. Microtesla MRI with dynamic nuclear polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zotev, Vadim S.; Owens, Tuba; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Savukov, Igor M.; Gomez, John J.; Espy, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging at microtesla fields is a promising imaging method that combines the pre-polarization technique and broadband signal reception by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors to enable in vivo MRI at microtesla-range magnetic fields similar in strength to the Earth magnetic field. Despite significant advances in recent years, the potential of microtesla MRI for biomedical imaging is limited by its insufficient signal-to-noise ratio due to a relatively low sample polarization. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a widely used approach that allows polarization enhancement by two-four orders of magnitude without an increase in the polarizing field strength. In this work, the first implementation of microtesla MRI with Overhauser DNP and SQUID signal detection is described. The first measurements of carbon-13 NMR spectra at microtesla fields are also reported. The experiments were performed at the measurement field of 96 microtesla, corresponding to Larmor frequency of 4 kHz for protons and 1 kHz for carbon-13. The Overhauser DNP was carried out at 3.5 –5.7 mT field using rf irradiation at 120 MHz. Objects for imaging included water phantoms and a cactus plant. Aqueous solutions of metabolically relevant sodium bicarbonate, pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, labeled with carbon-13, were used for NMR studies. All the samples were doped with TEMPO free radicals. The Overhauser DNP enabled nuclear polarization enhancement by factor as high as ?95 for protons and as high as ?200 for carbon-13, corresponding to thermal polarizations at 0.33 T and 1.1 T fields, respectively. These results demonstrate that SQUID-based microtesla MRI can be naturally combined with Overhauser DNP in one system, and that its signal-to-noise performance is greatly improved in this case. They also suggest that microtesla MRI can become an efficient tool for in vivo imaging of hyperpolarized carbon-13, produced by the low-temperature dissolution DNP. PMID:20843715

  20. Leading Edge Spinning the Web of Cell Fate

    E-print Network

    Corces, Victor G.

    Leading Edge Minireview Spinning the Web of Cell Fate Kevin Van Bortle1 and Victor G. Corces1,* 1 involved in spinning the web of cell fate. Chromatin at the Nuclear Lamina The nuclear lamina is a thin

  1. Limits on anomalous spin-spin couplings between neutrons.

    PubMed

    Glenday, Alexander G; Cramer, Claire E; Phillips, David F; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2008-12-31

    We report experimental limits on new spin-dependent macroscopic forces between neutrons. We measured the nuclear Zeeman frequencies of a 3He/129Xe maser while modulating the nuclear spin polarization of a nearby 3He ensemble in a separate glass cell. We place limits on the coupling strength of neutron spin-spin interactions mediated by light pseudoscalar particles like the axion [g(p)g(p)/(4pihc)] at the 3 x 10(-7) level for interaction ranges longer than about 40 cm. This limit is about 10(-5) the size of the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between neutrons. PMID:19113768

  2. Complete proton and carbon-13 NMR assignment of the alkaloid geopyrotoxin through the use of homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.W.; Bax, A.

    1986-03-05

    Three different types of modern NMR techniques have been used to obtain a complete proton and carbon-13 assignment of the alkaloid geopyrotoxin. In addition to the two-dimensional phase-sensitive homo- and heteronuclear shift correlation methods, use of the recently proposed one-dimensional homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn difference experiment was crucial for obtaining the required long-range connectivity. Guidelines are presented for optimal use of these techniques. Experiments were performed at 500-MHz /sup 1/H frequency, using 8 mg of sample. 53 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  3. Electron Spin Resonance Experiments on Donors in Silicon. I. Electronic Structure of Donors by the Electron Nuclear Double Resonance Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Feher

    1959-01-01

    The ground-state wave function of the antimony, phosphorus, and arsenic impurities in silicon has been investigated by means of the electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) method. By this method the hyperfine interactions of the donor electron with the Si29 nuclei situated at different lattice sites were obtained. The isotropic part of the hyperfine interaction agreed with the theory of Kohn

  4. Generalized spin precession equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöckmann, Hans-Jürgen; Dubbers, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    The Bloch equations, which describe spin precession and relaxation in external magnetic fields, can be generalized to include the evolution of polarization tensors of various ranks in arbitrary multipole fields. We show applications of the generalized spin precession equations using simple examples from atomic, nuclear and condensed matter physics, and compare the various approaches found in the literature. The derivation of the generalized Bloch equations can be considerably simplified using a particular bra-ket notation for irreducible tensors.

  5. Spin relaxation in graphene quantum dots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Burkard; Philipp Struck

    2010-01-01

    With its low concentration of nuclear spins and relatively weak spin-orbit coupling, graphene is a promising host material for electron spin qubits. We have calculated the spin relaxation time T1 of a single spin in graphene quantum dots [1,2] as a function of the externally applied magnetic field B. We find that in quantum dots without coupling between the valleys

  6. Many-body singlets by dynamic spin polarization

    E-print Network

    Wang Yao

    2011-01-20

    We show that dynamic spin polarization by collective raising and lowering operators can drive a spin ensemble from arbitrary initial state to many-body singlets, the zero-collective-spin states with large scale entanglement. For an ensemble of $N$ arbitrary spins, both the variance of the collective spin and the number of unentangled spins can be reduced to O(1) (versus the typical value of O(N)), and many-body singlets can be occupied with a population of $\\sim 20 %$ independent of the ensemble size. We implement this approach in a mesoscopic ensemble of nuclear spins through dynamic nuclear spin polarization by an electron. The result is of two-fold significance for spin quantum technology: (1) a resource of entanglement for nuclear spin based quantum information processing; (2) a cleaner surrounding and less quantum noise for the electron spin as the environmental spin moments are effectively annihilated.

  7. Spin-bus concept of spin quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mehring, Michael; Mende, Jens [2. Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    We present a spin-bus concept of quantum computing where an electron spin S=1/2 acts as a bus qubit connected to a finite number N of nuclear spins I=1/2 serving as client qubits. Spin-bus clusters are considered as local processing units and may be interconnected with other spin-bus clusters via electron-electron coupling in a scaled up version. Here we lay the ground for the basic functional unit with long qubit registers, provide the theory and experimental verification of correlated qubit states, and demonstrate the Deutsch algorithm. Experiments were performed on a qubyte plus one nuclear spin in a solid state system.

  8. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for a Secondary High-Spin Isomeric Nuclear Beam (^18F^m) in Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Roberts; F. D. Becchetti; J. Janecke; M. Y. Lee; T. W. O'Donnell; K. Pham; R. E. Warner; R. M. Ronningen; H. W. Wilschut

    1996-01-01

    A 30 MeV\\/u primary ^17O primary beam has been used to produce a 22.3 MeV\\/u ^18F^m ( J^pi=5^+, E_x=1.1 MeV) isomeric secondary beam via the single nucleon transfer reaction ^17O(^12C,^11B)^18F. The total nuclear reaction cross section for ^18F^m , ^18F_g.s and ^16O in silicon were measured, and will be presented, in an X-Y-DeltaE-E detector telescope consisting of seven thin silicon

  9. Photochemically induced nuclear spin polarization in reaction centers of photosystem II observed by 13C-solid-state NMR reveals a strongly asymmetric electronic structure of the P680.+ primary donor chlorophyll

    PubMed Central

    Matysik, Jörg; Alia; Gast, Peter; van Gorkom, Hans J.; Hoff, Arnold J.; de Groot, Huub J. M.

    2000-01-01

    We report 13C magic angle spinning NMR observation of photochemically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarization (photo- CIDNP) in the reaction center (RC) of photosystem II (PS2). The light-enhanced NMR signals of the natural abundance 13C provide information on the electronic structure of the primary electron donor P680 (chlorophyll a molecules absorbing around 680 nm) and on the pz spin density pattern in its oxidized form, P680?. Most centerband signals can be attributed to a single chlorophyll a (Chl a) cofactor that has little interaction with other pigments. The chemical shift anisotropy of the most intense signals is characteristic for aromatic carbon atoms. The data reveal a pronounced asymmetry of the electronic spin density distribution within the P680?. PS2 shows only a single broad and intense emissive signal, which is assigned to both the C-10 and C-15 methine carbon atoms. The spin density appears shifted toward ring III. This shift is remarkable, because, for monomeric Chl a radical cations in solution, the region of highest spin density is around ring II. It leads to a first hypothesis as to how the planet can provide itself with the chemical potential to split water and generate an oxygen atmosphere using the Chl a macroaromatic cycle. A local electrostatic field close to ring III can polarize the electronic charge and associated spin density and increase the redox potential of P680 by stabilizing the highest occupied molecular orbital, without a major change of color. This field could be produced, e.g., by protonation of the keto group of ring V. Finally, the radical cation electronic structure in PS2 is different from that in the bacterial RC, which shows at least four emissive centerbands, indicating a symmetric spin density distribution over the entire bacteriochlorophyll macrocycle. PMID:10944191

  10. Self-diffusion coefficients obtained from proton-decoupled carbon-13 spectra for analyzing a mixture of terpenes.

    PubMed

    Yemloul, Mehdi; Castola, Vincent; Leclerc, Sébastien; Canet, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    In the limit of sufficient sensitivity, natural abundance 13C offers a much better spectral resolution than proton NMR. This is due to an important chemical shift range and to proton-decoupling conditions that yield one peak per carbon with practically no overlap. However, pulsed gradient spin echo experiments, which lead to the diffusion coefficient associated with each peak, have scarcely been employed. In this article, we present and compare different ways to access this quantity and we have effectively verified that, without any precaution, diffusion coefficients cannot be properly determined from standard procedures. The cause of such a failure is decoupling during the gradient pulses. We have used a very simple remedy that proved to be very successful on a model mixture of three monoterpenes and that appears as being of general applicability. PMID:19431152

  11. NMR line shapes of a gas of nuclear spin-1/2 molecules in fluctuating nano-containers

    E-print Network

    E. B. Fel'dman; M. G. Rudavets

    2004-09-13

    Reported in this paper is the impact of the fluctuations of the geometry of the nano-meter gas containers in the medium on the NMR line shape of the gas inside of the nano-containers. We calculate exactly the NMR line shape of the gas of spin-1/2 carrying molecules for two typical dynamics of the nano-container volume and the orientation with respect to the external magnetic field: (i) for a Gaussian stochastic dynamics, and (ii) for the regular harmonic vibrations. For the Gaussian ensemble of static disordered containers having an infinite correlation time, $\\tau_{\\sf c} \\to \\infty $, the overall line shape is shown to obey a logarithmic low frequency asymptotics, $ I(\\omega) = {const} \\times \\ln (\\frac{1}{\\omega})$, at $\\omega \\to 0$, and exponentially decaying asymptotics in a high frequency domain. For the Gaussian ensemble of the rapidly fluctuating containers of a finite $\\tau_{\\sf c}$, the overall line shape has a bell-shaped profile with $\\sim \\omega^{-4}$ far wing behaviour. In addition, we calculate exactly a satellite structure of the NMR line shape when the nano-bubbles in a liquid are affected by the harmonic deformations due to the acoustic waves.

  12. Nuclear Spins and Magnetic Moments of {sup 71,73,75}Cu: Inversion of pi2p{sub 3/2} and pi1f{sub 5/2} Levels in {sup 75}Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, K. T. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IPN Orsay, F-91940 Orsay Cedex (France); Vingerhoets, P.; Avgoulea, M.; Bissell, M. L.; De Rydt, M.; Neyens, G. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Billowes, J.; Cheal, B.; Mane, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Blaum, K.; Schug, M.; Yordanov, D. T. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [Engineering Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Forest, D. H.; Tungate, G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Geppert, Ch. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Koester, U.; Materna, T. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kowalska, M. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2009-10-02

    We report the first confirmation of the predicted inversion between the pi2p{sub 3/2} and pi1f{sub 5/2} nuclear states in the nug{sub 9/2} midshell. This was achieved at the ISOLDE facility, by using a combination of in-source laser spectroscopy and collinear laser spectroscopy on the ground states of {sup 71,73,75}Cu, which measured the nuclear spin and magnetic moments. The obtained values are mu({sup 71}Cu)=+2.2747(8)mu{sub N}, mu({sup 73}Cu)=+1.7426(8)mu{sub N}, and mu({sup 75}Cu)=+1.0062(13)mu{sub N} corresponding to spins I=3/2 for {sup 71,73}Cu and I=5/2 for {sup 75}Cu. The results are in fair agreement with large-scale shell-model calculations.

  13. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Michael Meyer

    2003-05-31

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, {tau}, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single distribution of activation energies (DAE) to calculate the corresponding conductivity and relaxation rates as a function of temperature and frequency?

  14. THz Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR

    E-print Network

    Nanni, Emilio Alessandro

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) increases the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by using high frequency microwaves to transfer the polarization of the electrons to the nuclear spins. The ...

  15. Resolving overlap in two-dimensional NMR spectra: nuclear Overhauser effects in a polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kupce, Eriks; Nishida, Toshiaki; Widmalm, Göran; Freeman, Ray

    2005-10-01

    Overlapping resonances in the two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser (NOESY) spectrum of the O-antigenic polysaccharide from Escherichia coli O147 have been resolved by recording a tilted projection of a three-dimensional NOESY-HSQC spectrum, where the carbon-13 and proton evolutions are linked together. Through the introduction of small contributions from the appropriate carbon-13 shifts, a cluster of five unresolved proton peaks is separated into its components without the need to perform the full three-dimensional measurement, a time saving of at least an order of magnitude. PMID:16052606

  16. Nuclear properties of the exotic high-spin isomer [sup 178]Hf[sup m2] from collinear laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Boos, N.; Le Blanc, F.; Krieg, M.; Pinard, J.; Huber, G.; Lunney, M.D.; Le Du, D.; Meunier, R.; Hussonnois, M.; Constantinescu, O.; Kim, J.B.; Briancon, C.; Crawford, J.E.; Duong, H.T.; Gangrski, Y.P.; Kuehl, T.; Markov, B.N.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Quentin, P.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J. (Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany) Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Institut National de Physique Nucleair e et de Physique des Particules Centre National de la Recherche Scientique, 91406 Orsay (France) Laboratoire Aime Cotton, 91405 Orsay (France) Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de MasseOrsay, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules Centre National de la Recherche Scientique, 91406 Orsay (France) Gesselschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt m.b.H., 64291 Darmstadt (Germany) Foster Radiation Laboratory, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada) Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, D

    1994-04-25

    The complete hyperfine spectrum in the optical transition 5[ital d][sup 2]6[ital s][sup 2] [sup 3][ital P][sub 2][r arrow]5[ital d]6[ital s][sup 2]6[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1] of [sup 178]Hf[sup m2] was recorded by collinear laser spectroscopy using nanogram amounts of samples. The quadrupole moment and isomer shift were determined for the first time as well as a precise value and the sign of the magnetic dipole moment. The change in nuclear mean-square charge radius between the isomeric state [sup 178]Hf[sup m2] and the ground state [sup 178]Hf[sup [ital g

  17. Determination of the free energy landscape of alpha-synuclein using spin label nuclear magnetic resonance measurements.

    PubMed

    Allison, Jane R; Varnai, Peter; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2009-12-30

    Natively unfolded proteins present a challenge for structure determination because they populate highly heterogeneous ensembles of conformations. A useful source of structural information about these states is provided by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement measurements by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, from which long-range interatomic distances can be estimated. Here we describe a method for using such distances as restraints in molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a mapping of the free energy landscapes of natively unfolded proteins. We demonstrate the method in the case of alpha-synuclein and validate the results by a comparison with electron transfer measurements. Our findings indicate that our procedure provides an accurate estimate of the relative statistical weights of the different conformations populated by alpha-synuclein in its natively unfolded state. PMID:20028147

  18. Fundamental Science Tools for Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Mineral Carbonation Chemistry: In Situ Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, D. W.; Turcu, R. V.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Burton, S. D.; Kwak, J.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J.

    2010-12-01

    GCS is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases. Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly reactions occurring in low-water supercritical CO2(scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Our high pressure MAS rotor has successfully maintained scCO2 conditions with minimal leakage over a period of 72 hours. Mineral carbonation reactions of a model magnesium silicate (forsterite) reacted with 96 bars scCO2 containing varying amounts of H2O (both below and above saturation of the scCO2) were investigated at 50?C. Figure 1 shows typical in situ 13C MAS NMR spectra demonstrating that the peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products are all observed in a single spectrum. For example, the scCO2 peak is located at 126.1 ppm. Reaction intermediates include the aqueous species HCO3-(160 ppm), partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates(166-168 ppm), and can easily be distinguished from final product magnesite(170 ppm). The new capability and this model mineral carbonation process will be overviewed in light of fundamental geochemical science needs for GCS implementation. Figure 1. 13C MAS NMR spectra of forsterite exposed to scCO2 300% saturated with water at 96 bars and 50°C. MAS rate=2.1 kHz.

  19. On Spin Fluctuations in Dense Matter and Skyrme Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sagawa, H.; Margueron, J. [Center for Mathematics and Physics, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, 965-8580 Fukushima (Japan)

    2009-05-07

    A modification of the standard Skyrme interaction is proposed so that the spin and spin-isospin instability is removed. The new terms are density dependent and modify only the spin p-h interaction in the case of spin-saturated system. The Landau parameters are examined to improve spin and spin-isospin properties of Skyrme interactions in finite nuclei and nuclear matter.

  20. Spin electronics and spin computation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Das Sarma; Jaroslav Fabian; Xuedong Hu

    2001-01-01

    We review several proposed spintronic devices that can provide new functionality or improve available functions of electronic devices. In particular, we discuss a high mobility field effect spin transistor, an all-metal spin transistor, and our recent proposal of an all-semiconductor spin transistor and a spin battery. We also address some key issues in spin-polarized transport, which are relevant to the

  1. Efficient Transformation of Parahydrogen Spin Order into Heteronuclear Magnetization

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chong; Coffey, Aaron M.; Shchepin, Roman V.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Waddell, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Spin order obtained in the strong coupling regime of protons from parahydrogen-induced hyperpolarization (PHIP) is initially captured as an ensemble of singlet states. For biomedical applications of PHIP, locking this spin order on long-lived heteronuclear storage nuclei increases spectral dispersion, reduces background interference from water protons, and eliminates the need to synchronize subsequent detection pulse sequences to accrued singlet-state evolution. A variety of traditional sequences such as INEPT or HMQC are available to interconvert heteronuclear single quantum coherences at high field, but new approaches are required for converting singlet states into heteronuclear single quantum coherences at low field in the strong coupling regime of protons. Described here is a consolidated pulse sequence that achieves this transformation of singlet-state spin order into heteronuclear magnetization across a wide range of scalar couplings in AA?X spin systems. Analytic solutions to the spin evolution are presented, and performance was validated experimentally in the parahydrogen addition product, 2-hydroxyethyl 1-13C-propionate-d3. Hyperpolarized carbon-13 signals were enhanced by a factor of several million relative to Boltzmann polarization in a static magnetic field of 47.5 mT (~13% polarization). We anticipate that this pulse sequence will provide efficient conversion of parahydrogen spin order over a broad range of emerging PHIP agents that feature AA?X spin systems. PMID:23214962

  2. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  3. /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the biosynthesis by Microbacterium ammoniaphilum of L-glutamate selectively enriched with carbon-13

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.E.; Han, C.H.; Kollman, V.H.; London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1982-02-10

    /sup 13/C NMR of isotopically enriched metabolites has been used to study the metabolism of Microbacterium ammoniaphilum, a bacterium which excretes large quantities of L-glutamic acid into the medium. Biosynthesis from 90% (1-/sup 13/C) glucose results in relatively high specificity of the label, with (2,4-/sup 13/C/sub 2/) glutamate as the major product. The predominant biosynthetic pathway for synthesis of glutamate from glucose was determined to be the Embden Meyerhof glycolytic pathway followed by P-enolpyruvate carboxylase and the first third of the Krebs cycle. Different metabolic pathways are associated with different correlations in the enrichment of the carbons, reflected in the spectrum as different /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C scalar multiplet intensities. Hence, intensity and /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C multiplet analysis allows quantitation of the pathways involved. Although blockage of the Krebs cycle at the ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase step is the basis for the accumulation of glutamate, significant Krebs cycle activity was found in glucose grown cells, and extensive Krebs cycle activity in cells metabolizing (1-/sup 13/C) acetate. In addition to the observation of the expected metabolites, the disaccharide ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..-trehalose and ..cap alpha..,..beta..-glucosylamine were identified from the /sup 13/C NMR spectra.

  4. Investigations of the structure of silicate glasses and carbohydrates by silicon-29 and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance and by ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping

    Measurements of the relative abundance of anionic species, commonly described as Qn species in silicate glasses are essential for any structure-based model of thermodynamic or transport properties of silicate liquids and magmas. Solid-state 29Si NMR has provided the most convincing evidence that the Qn species distribution in alkali glasses is not random but closer to binary. Unfortunately, for most silicate glasses 29Si MAS NMR spectra are incompletely resolved. A 2D NMR technique is reported that cannot only determine the distribution of Qn species without any a priori assumptions about the lineshapes, but also provide over an order of magnitude improvement in the precision of Qn species quantification. Results of this approach on a few carefully chosen composition should lead to a major improvement of structure-based thermodynamic models of silicate liquids. Another important aspect of structure of silicate glasses is the environment of nonbridging oxygen atoms. In other words, how the cations are distributed around non-bridging oxygen atoms. 17O solid-state NMR has been shown to be a powerful probe for studying the local structure of non-bridging oxygen. One challenge in exploiting techniques such as DOR, DAS, or MQ-MAS is the development of appropriate models to describe the relationships between NMR parameters and local structure. Ab initio calculations on the model cluster [(OH)3Si-OMn] OH 3Si-OMn n-1 + (M = Na, K; n = 3,4,5) have been performed. A point charge model is also used to derive approximate expressions to describe the dependence of the 17O quadrupole coupling parameters on the cation-non-bridging oxygen distance and its orientation. Solid-state NMR and ab initio quantum mechanical methods are used to characterize the possible molecular conformations of trehalose. Combining ab initio derived maps and using the 13 C lineshape as constraints, the torsion angle distribution map for alpha-alpha ' trehalose was constructed. Measurements of 13C isotropic chemical shift and other solid-state NMR tensor parameter distributions in combination with ab initio methods should prove useful in identifying sources of structural disorder in glassy trehalose. By monitoring these structural distributions new information about the membrane surface associative properties of trehalose and other sugars should be accessible.

  5. /sup 18/O isotope effect in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Part 8. Oxygen exchange of 2,4,6-trimethylpyrylium cation

    SciTech Connect

    Risley, J.M.; Van Etten, R.L.; Uncuta, C.; Balaban, A.T.

    1984-12-12

    The rate of the oxygen-exchange reaction in an aqueous solution of a heterocyclic oxygen compound, 2,4,6-trimethylpyrylium perchlorate, was quantitated. The /sup 18/O isotope effect in /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy affords a direct, continuous, and relatively simple analysis of the reaction and was used to obtain data on the incorporation of /sup 18/O from solvent H/sub 2//sup 18/O into the pyrylium salt. Due to the low solubility of this salt in aqueous solutions, 2,4,6-trimethyl(2-/sup 13/C)pyrylium perchlorate and 2,4,6-trimethyl(2,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/)pyrylium perchlorate were synthesized to facilitate the acquisition of the data on an NTC-200 spectrometer operating at 50.31 MHz. Upon incorporation of /sup 18/O into the pyrylium salt, the /sup 13/C NMR signal of the directly bonded carbon atom is shifted upfield 0.038 ppm. A /sup 13/C isotope effect is also detected in the doubly /sup 13/C-enriched pyrylium salt where the /sup 13/C NMR signal for /sup 13/C-O-/sup 13/C appears 0.011 ppm downfield from the /sup 13/C NMR signal for /sup 12/C-O-/sup 13/C. The rate of the oxygen-exchange reaction was studied as a function of pH (2.0-4.8), buffer concentration, added electrolyte, and temperature. A positive salt effect is observed. The oxygen-exchange reaction is subject to specific hydroxide ion catalysis and to general base catalysis by buffers such as acetate. The /sup 18/O-exchange reaction is compared to the other reactions of the pyrylium salt including hydrolysis and /sup 2/H exchange. The apparent energy of activation for the oxygen-exchange reaction at pH 3.1 in the absence of buffer and electrolyte is approximately 25 kcal mol/sup -1/ while at pH 4.7 in 50 mM sodium acetate, ..mu.. = 0.2 M with NaCl, it is 10 kcal mol/sup -1/. 36 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  6. Carbon-13 NMR studies of salt shock-induced carbohydrate turnover in the marine cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tel-Or, E.; Spath, S.; Packer, L.; Mehlhorn, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon turnover in response to abrupt changes in salinity, including the mobilization of glycogen for use in osmoregulation was studied with pulse-chase strategies utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-silent and NMR-detectable 12C and 13C isotopes, respectively. Growth of Agmenellum quadruplicatum in 30%-enriched 13C bicarbonate provided sufficient NMR-detectability of intracellular organic osmoregulants for these studies. A comparison of NMR spectra of intact cells and their ethanol extracts showed that the intact cell data were suitable for quantitative work, and, when combined with ESR measurements of cell volumes, yielded intracellular glucosylglycerol concentrations without disrupting the cells. NMR pulse-chase experiments were used to show that 13C-enriched glycogen, which had previously been accumulated by the cells under nitrogen-limited growth at low salinities, could be utilized for the synthesis of glucosylglycerol when the cells were abruptly transferred to hypersaline media, but only in the light. It was also shown that the accumulation of glucosylglycerol in the light occurred on a time scale similar to that of cell doubling. Depletion of glucosylglycerol when cells abruptly transferred to lower salinities appeared to be rapid--the intracellular pool of this osmoregulant was decreased 2-fold within 2 hours of hypotonic shock.

  7. Electron spin resonance and electron nuclear double resonance studies of flavoproteins involved in the photosynthetic electron transport in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7119.

    PubMed

    Medina, M; Gomez-Moreno, C; Cammack, R

    1995-01-15

    The flavins of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) and flavodoxin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 were obtained in their semiquinone states at pH 7 by photoreduction of the pure proteins in the presence of EDTA and 5-deazariboflavin. For FNR, the ESR signal of the FAD semiquinone was centred at g = 2.005 with linewidths 2.0 mT in H2O and 1.48 mT in D2O. These data are in agreement with those reported for other neutral flavin semiquinones. The linewidths were the same when measured either at X-band (9.35 GHz) or at S-band (4 GHz), indicating that line broadening is due to unresolved nuclear hyperfine couplings, caused in part by exchangeable protons. When the substrate, NADP+, was added to the semiquinone form of the protein no changes in the linewidth or shape of the spectra were detected, but a decrease in the ESR signal due to the FNR semiquinone was observed, consistent with the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH by reduced FNR and, subsequent displacement of the equilibrium. No changes in the shape or linewidth of the FNR ESR signals were observed when photoreduction of FNR was performed in the presence of either flavodoxin or ferredoxin. Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy of FNR semiquinone from Anabaena PCC 7119 provided further information about the interactions of the flavin radical with protons. A group of signals, with couplings of 5-9.5 MHz, is attributed to protons on C6 and on 8-CH3 of the flavin ring. No change in these hyperfine couplings was detected when the protein was studied in D2O, but the coupling Aiso attributed to protons on 8-CH3 decreased from 8.12 MHz to 7.72 MHz in the presence of NADP+. The decrease in the electron spin density distribution on this part of the flavin ring system was attributed to binding of the substrate, polarising the electron density distribution of the flavin towards the pyrimidine ring. A second group of signals was observed, with hyperfine couplings less than 3 MHz, some of which disappeared when the protein was transferred into D2O. Effects of NADP+ binding to the protein were also observed in these weak couplings. These signals are attributed to displaced water protons, or to exchangeable protons from amino acid residues on the protein near the flavin-binding site, involved in substrate stabilization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7851433

  8. Multifrequency spin resonance in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, Lilian; McIntyre, Jean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bates College, 44 Campus Ave, Lewiston, Maine 04240 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Magnetic resonance techniques provide a powerful tool for controlling spin systems, with applications ranging from quantum information processing to medical imaging. Nevertheless, the behavior of a spin system under strong excitation remains a rich dynamical problem. In this paper, we examine spin resonance of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond under conditions outside the regime where the usual rotating-wave approximation applies, focusing on effects of multifrequency excitation and excitation with orientation parallel to the spin quantization axis. Strong-field phenomena such as multiphoton transitions and coherent destruction of tunneling are observed in the spectra and analyzed via numerical and analytic theory. In addition to illustrating the response of a spin system to strong multifrequency excitation, these observations may inform techniques for manipulating electron-nuclear spin quantum registers.

  9. Selective One-Dimensional Total Correlation Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments for a Rapid Identification of Minor Components in the Lipid Fraction of Milk and Dairy Products: Toward Spin Chromatography?

    PubMed

    Papaemmanouil, Christina; Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G; Alivertis, Dimitrios; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Tzakos, Andreas G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

    2015-06-10

    We report a rapid, direct, and unequivocal spin-chromatographic separation and identification of minor components in the lipid fraction of milk and common dairy products with the use of selective one-dimensional (1D) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The method allows for the complete backbone spin-coupling network to be elucidated even in strongly overlapped regions and in the presence of major components from 4 × 10(2) to 3 × 10(3) stronger NMR signal intensities. The proposed spin-chromatography method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction, is selective with excellent resolution, is sensitive with quantitation capability, and compares favorably to two-dimensional (2D) TOCSY and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the 1D TOCSY NMR spin-chromatography method can become a procedure of primary interest in food analysis and generally in complex mixture analysis. PMID:25986319

  10. Coherent Nuclear Radiation

    E-print Network

    V. I. Yukalov; E. P. Yukalova

    2004-06-22

    The main part of this review is devoted to the comprehensive description of coherent radiation by nuclear spins. The theory of nuclear spin superradiance is developed and the experimental observations of this phenomenon are considered. The intriguing problem of how coherence develops from initially incoherent quantum fluctuations is analysed. All main types of coherent radiation by nuclear spins are discussed, which are: free nuclear induction, collective induction, maser generation, pure superradiance, triggered superradiance, pulsing superradiance, punctuated superradiance, and induced emission. The influence of electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions and the role of magnetic anisotropy are studied. Conditions for realizing spin superradiance by magnetic molecules are investigated. The possibility of nuclear matter lasing, accompanied by pion or dibaryon radiation, is briefly touched.

  11. Population and coherence transfer in half-integer quadrupolar spin systems induced by simultaneous rapid passages of the satellite transitions: A static and spinning single crystal nuclear magnetic resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Hartmut; Iuga, Dinu; Verhagen, Rieko; Kentgens, Arno P. M.

    2001-02-01

    We have recently shown that utilizing double frequency sweeps (DFSs) instead of pulses can lead to increased efficiencies in population and coherence transfer in half-integer quadrupolar spin systems. Cosine modulation of the carrier amplitude corresponds to the simultaneous irradiation of two frequencies symmetrically around the rf-carrier frequency. Convergent or divergent DFSs can be generated by appropriate time-dependent cosine modulation of the rf field. Population and coherence transfer induced by sweeping the modulation frequency through the quadrupolar satellite transitions is investigated in detail. The time dependence of such passages determines the adiabaticity of the transfer processes. Insight into the involved spin dynamics is of utmost importance in the design and optimization of experiments based on amplitude modulation, such as DFS enhanced multiple-quantum magic angle spanning, where multiple to single-quantum conversion is performed by a DFS. Vega and co-workers have provided a theoretical basis of adiabatic coherence transfer in spin-3/2 systems induced by the combined action of simple time independent cosine amplitude modulation (CAM) of the rf field and sample spinning [Madhu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 112, 2377 (2000)]. In our report we will extend this theory to DFS induced adiabatic transfer phenomena in spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 systems. A fully analytical description will be presented covering the whole adiabaticity range resulting in an accurate description of actual experiments. In this context it will be shown that both population and coherence transfer are governed by the same principles and one unique adiabaticity parameter for each pair of spectral satellites. The transfer phenomena derived for spin-3/2 systems will be studied and quantified experimentally for 23Na in a single crystal of NaNO3. In a static and spinning sample the combination with DFS and CAM irradiation will be studied showing the equivalence of the transfer in all these situations. Further we will demonstrate the greater flexibility of a DFS compared to a CAM pulse to manipulate the adiabaticity and thus to maximize the transfer efficiency. Finally, the 27Al resonance in an ?-Al2O3 single crystal will be inspected to demonstrate that the efficiency of DFS-induced population and coherence transfer in spin-5/2 systems depends on the direction of the DFS.

  12. Exploring large coherent spin systems with solid state NMR

    E-print Network

    Cho, HyungJoon, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) allows us to explore a large coherent spin system and provides an ideal test-bed for studying strongly interacting multiple-spin system in a large Hilbert space. In this thesis, ...

  13. Synthesis of deleobuvir, a potent hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor, and its major metabolites labeled with carbon-13 and carbon-14.

    PubMed

    Latli, Bachir; Hrapchak, Matt; Chevliakov, Maxim; Li, Guisheng; Campbell, Scot; Busacca, Carl A; Senanayake, Chris H

    2015-05-30

    Deleobuvir, (2E)-3-(2-{1-[2-(5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl)-3-cyclopentyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-6-carboxamido]cyclobutyl}-1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)prop-2-enoic acid (1), is a non-nucleoside, potent, and selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase. Herein, we describe the detailed synthesis of this compound labeled with carbon-13 and carbon-14. The synthesis of its three major metabolites, namely, the reduced double bond metabolite (2) and the acyl glucuronide derivatives of (1) and (2), is also reported. Aniline-(13) C6 was the starting material to prepare butyl (E)-3-(3-methylamino-4-nitrophenyl-(13) C6 )acrylate [(13) C6 ]-(11) in six steps. This intermediate was then used to obtain [(13) C6 ]-(1) and [(13) C6 ]-(2) in five and four more steps, respectively. For the radioactive synthesis, potassium cyanide-(14) C was used to prepare 1-cylobutylaminoacid [(14) C]-(23) via Buchrer-Bergs reaction. The carbonyl chloride of this acid was then used to access both [(14) C]-(1) and [(14) C]-(2) in four steps. The acyl glucuronide derivatives [(13) C6 ]-(3), [(13) C6 ]-(4) and [(14) C]-(3) were synthesized in three steps from the acids [(13) C6 ]-(1), [(13) C6 ]-(2) and [(14) C]-(1) using known procedures. PMID:25964148

  14. Spin Technologies in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Over the past several decades SiC has evolved from being a simple abrasive to a versatile material platform for high-power electronics, optoelectronics, and nanomechanical devices. These technologies have been driven by advanced growth, doping, and processing capabilities, and the ready availability of large-area, single-crystal SiC wafers. Recent advances have also established SiC as a promising host for a novel class of technologies based on the spin of intrinsic color centers. In particular, the divacancies and related defects have ground-state electronic-spin triplets with ms-long coherence times that can be optically addressed near telecom wavelengths and manipulated with magnetic, electric, and strain fields. Recently, divacancy addressability has been extended to the single defect level, laying foundation for single spin technologies in SiC. This rapidly developing field has prompted research into the SiC material host to understand how defect-bound electron spins interact with their surrounding nuclear spin bath. Although nuclear spins are typically a major source of decoherence in color-center spin systems, they are also an important resource since they interact with magnetic fields orders of magnitude more weakly than electronic spins. This fact has motivated their use for quantum memories and ultra-sensitive sensors. In this talk I will review advances in this rapidly developing field and discuss our efforts towards this latter goal. This work was supported by the AFOSR, DARPA, and the NSF.

  15. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  16. Quantum measurement of a mesoscopic spin ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Giedke, G. [Institut fuer Quantenelektronik, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, H.-Kopfermann-Str., 85748 Garching (Germany); Taylor, J. M.; Lukin, M. D. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); D'Alessandro, D. [Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Imamoglu, A. [Institut fuer Quantenelektronik, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    We describe a method for precise estimation of the polarization of a mesoscopic spin ensemble by using its coupling to a single two-level system. Our approach requires a minimal number of measurements on the two-level system for a given measurement precision. We consider the application of this method to the case of nuclear-spin ensemble defined by a single electron-charged quantum dot: we show that decreasing the electron spin dephasing due to nuclei and increasing the fidelity of nuclear-spin-based quantum memory could be within the reach of present day experiments.

  17. Transfer of spin angular momentum from Cs vapor to nearby Cs salts through laser-induced spin currents

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, K.; Patton, B.; Olsen, B. A.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Joseph Henry Laboratory, Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Optical pumping of alkali-metal atoms in vapor cells causes spin currents to flow to the cell walls where excess angular momentum accumulates in the wall nuclei. Experiments reported here indicate that the substantial enhancement of the nuclear-spin polarization of salts at the cell walls is primarily due to the nuclear-spin current, with a lesser contribution from the electron-spin current of the vapor.

  18. A study of the order-disorder, solid-solid phase transition of (+)-camphor using nuclear magnetic resonance with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning 

    E-print Network

    Crook, Russell Allan

    1986-01-01

    Parameters in the Rotating Frame . 52 a. Proton Spin-Lattice Relaxation in the Rotating Frame. . . 52 b. T and Contact Time. CH c. Carbon Spin-Lattice Relaxation in the Rotating Frame. 53 54 d. Adiabatic Demagnetization in the Rotating Frame. 56 2... crystal (+)-camphor. The phase II form of camphor was found to possess anomalous cross-polarization behavior which may be due to collisionally interrupted rotational diffusion which has been observed previously by deuterium NMR and variable pressure...

  19. Protecting a Solid-State Spin from Decoherence Using Dressed Spin States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golter, D. Andrew; Baldwin, Thomas K.; Wang, Hailin

    2014-12-01

    We report experimental studies of dressing an electron spin in diamond with resonant and continuous microwave fields to protect the electron spin from magnetic fluctuations induced by the nuclear spin bath. We use optical coherent population trapping (CPT) to probe the energy level structure, optically induced spin transitions, and spin decoherence rates of the dressed spin states. Dressing an electron spin with resonant microwaves at a coupling rate near 1 MHz leads to a 50 times reduction in the linewidth of the spin transition underlying the CPT process, limited by transit-time broadening. Compared with dynamical decoupling, where effects of the bath are averaged out at specific times, the dressed spin state provides a continuous protection from decoherence.

  20. Experimental and theoretical study of the carbon-13 and deuterium kinetic isotope effects in the Cl and OH reactions of CH3F.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Marina; Gruber-Stadler, Margret; Nicovich, J Michael; Soller, Raenell; Mülhäuser, Max; Wine, Paul H; Bache-Andreassen, Lihn; Nielsen, Claus J

    2008-12-01

    A laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to determine absolute rate coefficients for the CH3F + Cl reaction in N2 bath gas in the temperature range of 200-700 K and pressure range of 33-133 hPa. The data were fitted to a modified Arrhenius expression k(T) = 1.14 x 10(-12) x (T/298)2.26 exp{-313/T}. The OH and Cl reaction rates of (13)CH3F and CD3F have been measured by long-path FTIR spectroscopy relative to CH3F at 298 +/- 2 K and 1013 +/- 10 hPa in purified air. The FTIR spectra were fitted using a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting method including line data from the HITRAN database and measured infrared spectra as references. The relative reaction rates defined by alpha = k(light)/k(heavy) were determined to be k(OH+CH3F)/k(OH+CD3F) = 4.067 +/- 0.018, k(OH+CH3F)/k(OH+(13)CH3F) = 1.067 +/- 0.006, k(Cl+CH3F)/k(Cl+CD3F) = 5.11 +/- 0.07, and k(Cl+CH3F)/k(Cl+(13)CH3F) = 1.016 +/- 0.006. The carbon-13 and deuterium kinetic isotope effects in the OH and Cl reactions of CH3F have been further investigated by quantum chemistry methods and variational transition state theory. PMID:18989948

  1. Measuring central-spin interaction with a spin-bath by pulsed ENDOR: Towards suppression of spin diffusion decoherence

    PubMed Central

    Balian, S. J.; Kunze, M. B. A.; Mohammady, M. H.; Morley, G. W.; Witzel, W. M.; Kay, C. W. M.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments which enable us to characterize the coupling between bismuth donor spin-qubits in Si and the surrounding spin-bath of 29Si impurities which provides the dominant decoherence mechanism (nuclear spin diffusion) at low temperatures (< 16 K). Decoupling from the spin-bath is predicted and cluster correlation expansion simulations show near-complete suppression of spin diffusion, at optimal working points. The suppression takes the form of sharply peaked divergences of the spin diffusion coherence time, in contrast with previously identified broader regions of insensitivity to classical fluctuations. ENDOR data shows anisotropic contributions are comparatively weak, so the form of the divergences is independent of crystal orientation. PMID:23082071

  2. Spin-dependent recombination and hyperfine interaction at deep defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivchenko, E. L.; Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Kalevich, V. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of optical electron-spin orientation and spin-dependent Shockley-Read-Hall recombination in the longitudinal magnetic field, taking into account the hyperfine coupling between the bound-electron spin and the nuclear spin of a deep paramagnetic center. The master rate equations for the coupled system are extended to describe the nuclear spin relaxation by using two distinct relaxation times, ?n 1 and ?n 2, respectively, for defect states with one and two (singlet) bound electrons. The general theory is developed for an arbitrary value of the nuclear spin I . The magnetic-field and excitation-power dependencies of the electron and nuclear spin polarizations are calculated for the value of I =1 /2 . In this particular case the nuclear effects can be taken into account by a simple replacement of the bound-electron spin relaxation time by an effective time dependent on free-electron and hole densities and free-electron spin polarization. The role of nuclear spin relaxation is visualized by isolines of the electron spin polarization on a two-dimensional graph with the axes log2(?n 1) and log2(?n 2) .

  3. A study of the order-disorder, solid-solid phase transition of (+)-camphor using nuclear magnetic resonance with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning

    E-print Network

    Crook, Russell Allan

    1986-01-01

    system to return to equilibrium thus enabling the energy of the spin system to flow to the lattice. The rate of spin-lattice relaxation is assumed to be first order and characterized by the rate constant dM /dt =-V( M B sin( m t) ? M B cos( m t)) z x... crystal (+)-camphor. The phase II form of camphor was found to possess anomalous cross-polarization behavior which may be due to collisionally interrupted rotational diffusion which has been observed previously by deuterium NMR and variable pressure...

  4. Spin and spin-isospin instabilities and Landau parameters of Skyrme interactions with tensor correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Ligang [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. di Milano, via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy); Colo, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. di Milano, via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy); Sagawa, Hiroyuki [Center for Mathematics and Physics, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8560 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The Landau parameters of Skyrme interactions in the spin and spin-isospin channels are studied using various Skyrme effective interactions with and without tensor correlations. We focus on the role of the tensor terms on the spin and spin-isospin instabilities that can occur in nuclear matter above saturation density. We point out that these instabilities are realized in nuclear matter at the critical density of about two times the saturation density for all the adopted parameter sets. The critical density is shown to be very much dependent not only on the choice of the Skyrme parameter set, but also on the inclusion of the tensor terms.

  5. Detection of 3He spins with ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance employing SQUIDs for application to a neutron electric dipole moment experiment.

    PubMed

    Savukov, I; Matlashov, A; Volegov, P; Espy, M; Cooper, M

    2008-12-01

    The precession of (3)He spins is detected with ultra-low field NMR. The absolute strength of the NMR signal is accurately measured and agrees closely with theoretical calculations. The sensitivity is analyzed for applications to a neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) fundamental symmetry experiment under development. PMID:18835204

  6. Detection of 3He spins with ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance employing SQUIDs for application to a neutron electric dipole moment experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savukov, I.; Matlashov, A.; Volegov, P.; Espy, M.; Cooper, M.

    2008-12-01

    The precession of 3He spins is detected with ultra-low field NMR. The absolute strength of the NMR signal is accurately measured and agrees closely with theoretical calculations. The sensitivity is analyzed for applications to a neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) fundamental symmetry experiment under development.

  7. Zero-field detection of spin dependent recombination with direct observation of electron nuclear hyperfine interactions in the absence of an oscillating electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, C. J.; Lenahan, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) involves the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of spin dependent transport mechanisms such as spin dependent tunneling and spin dependent recombination (SDR) in solid state electronics. Conventional EPR measurements generally require strong static magnetic fields, typically 3 kG or greater, and high frequency oscillating electromagnetic fields, typically 9 GHz or higher. In this study, we directly demonstrate that, in the absence of the oscillating electromagnetic field, a very large SDR response (?1%) can be detected at zero magnetic field with associated hyperfine interactions at extremely low magnetic fields in a silicon carbide (SiC) diode at room temperature. The zero-field SDR (ZFSDR) response that we detect is unexpected in the conventional detection scheme of SDR via EDMR. We believe that our observations provide fundamental physical understanding of other recently reported zero-field phenomena such as singlet triplet mixing in double quantum dots and low-field giant magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors. Our work provides an unambiguous demonstration that the zero-field phenomenon we observe involves SDR. Measurements reported herein indicate that extremely useful low-field SDR and ZFSDR results can be acquired simply and inexpensively in systems of technological importance. This work also suggests the potential use of this new physics in applications including absolute magnetometry with self-calibration, spin based memories, quantum computation, and inexpensive low-field EDMR spectrometers for wafer/probing stations.

  8. Anisotropic spin-echo dynamics: Maximizing purity for hole spins in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coish, William; Wang, Xiaoya Judy; Chesi, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically study spin-echo dynamics for a central spin qubit coupled anisotropically to a spin bath. Our main focus is on hole spins in quantum dots, with an anisotropic hyperfine coupling to nuclear spins. Through direct application of a systematic Magnus expansion, we analyze the purity of the spin qubit. The purity can characterize non-classical correlations between the spin qubit and bath and provides a figure-of-merit for preserving an ancilla qubit in some initial state. Interestingly, we show that the purity can be preserved to a greater degree by `parking' the spin qubit in a superposition of Zeeman eigenstates, rather than allowing it to align along an applied magnetic field. The procedure reported here provides a general strategy for preserving ancilla qubits in the presence of anisotropic interactions.

  9. Emergent spin

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael, E-mail: creutz@bnl.gov

    2014-03-15

    Quantum mechanics and relativity in the continuum imply the well known spin–statistics connection. However for particles hopping on a lattice, there is no such constraint. If a lattice model yields a relativistic field theory in a continuum limit, this constraint must “emerge” for physical excitations. We discuss a few models where a spin-less fermion hopping on a lattice gives excitations which satisfy the continuum Dirac equation. This includes such well known systems such as graphene and staggered fermions. -- Highlights: •The spin–statistics theorem is not required for particles on a lattice. •Spin emerges dynamically when spinless fermions have a relativistic continuum limit. •Graphene and staggered fermions are examples of this phenomenon. •The phenomenon is intimately tied to chiral symmetry and fermion doubling. •Anomaly cancellation is a crucial feature of any valid lattice fermion action.

  10. Scalable Quantum Computing based on Spin Qubits in CNT QD

    E-print Network

    Stobi?ska, Magdalena; Stobi?ski, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    We study experimentally demonstrated single-electron ${}^{12}$C CNT QD with significant spin-orbit interaction as a scalable quantum computer candidate. Both electron spin and orbital angular momentum can serve as a logical qubit for quantum processing. We introduce macroscopic quantum memory for the system in a form of injected either magnetic or spin carrying atomic ensemble into the nanotube. CNT provides with a stable atomic trap in finite temperature and with one-dimensional nuclear spin lattice in an external magnetic field. The electron is coupled to the atomic ensemble through either magnetic or hyperfine interaction. Easy electron and nuclear spin read-out procedure for this system is possible.

  11. Scalable Quantum Computing based on Spin Qubits in CNT QD

    E-print Network

    Magdalena Stobi?ska; Gerard J. Milburn; Leszek Stobi?ski

    2009-12-17

    We study experimentally demonstrated single-electron ${}^{12}$C CNT QD with significant spin-orbit interaction as a scalable quantum computer candidate. Both electron spin and orbital angular momentum can serve as a logical qubit for quantum processing. We introduce macroscopic quantum memory for the system in a form of injected either magnetic or spin carrying atomic ensemble into the nanotube. CNT provides with a stable atomic trap in finite temperature and with one-dimensional nuclear spin lattice in an external magnetic field. The electron is coupled to the atomic ensemble through either magnetic or hyperfine interaction. Easy electron and nuclear spin read-out procedure for this system is possible.

  12. Experimental data confronts nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The physical content of experimental data for a variety of excitation energies and angular momenta is summarized. The specific nuclear structure questions which these data address are considered. The specific regions discussed are: low-spin data near the particle separation thresholds; low-spin data at intermediate excitation energies; high-spin, near-yrast data and high-spin data at larger excitation energies. 63 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Reorientation of benzene in its crystalline state: A model case for the analogy between nuclear magnetic resonance spin alignment and quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Fujara; W. Petry; W. Schnauss; H. Sillescu

    1988-01-01

    The close analogy between 2H-NMR spin alignment and 1H quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4579 (1986)] in determining the geometry and time scale of molecular reorientation is illustrated by an experimental example. Analysis of the final states of both methods show consistently that benzene in its (poly)crystalline state reorients by rotational jumps about the molecular sixfold symmetry

  14. Spin resonance without spin splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, M.; Sothmann, B.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; König, J.

    2015-05-01

    We predict that a single-level quantum dot without discernible splitting of its spin states develops a spin-precession resonance in charge transport when embedded into a spin valve. The resonance occurs in the generic situation of Coulomb blockaded transport with ferromagnetic leads whose polarizations deviate from perfect antiparallel alignment. The resonance appears when electrically tuning the interaction-induced exchange field perpendicular to one of the polarizations—a simple condition relying on vectors in contrast to usual resonance conditions associated with energy splittings. The spin resonance can be detected by stationary d I /d V spectroscopy and by oscillations in the time-averaged current using a gate-pulsing scheme. The generic noncollinearity of the ferromagnets and junction asymmetry allow for an all-electric determination of the spin-injection asymmetry, the anisotropy of spin relaxation, and the magnitude of the exchange field. We also investigate the impact of a nearby superconductor on the resonance position. Our simplistic model turns out to be generic for a broad class of coherent few-level quantum systems.

  15. Cross-correlation spin noise spectroscopy of interacting multi-component spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Luyi; Roy, Dibyendu; Crooker, Scott; Sinitsyn, Nikolai

    2015-03-01

    Interacting multi-component spin systems are ubiquitous in semiconductor spintronics; e . g . carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in magnetic semiconductors, or electronic spin coupling to nuclear spin baths. Traditionally, inter-species spin interactions are studied by experimental methods that are necessarily perturbative: e . g . , by intentionally polarizing or depolarizing one spin species and detecting the response of the other(s). Here, we show that multi-probe spin noise spectroscopy can reveal interspecies spin-spin interactions - under conditions of strict thermal equilibrium - by cross-correlating the stochastic fluctuation signals exhibited by each of the constituent spin species. We develop a theory for such noise cross-correlations in thermal equilibrium. As a proof of principle, we compare the results with an experimental study of a well-understood interacting spin system - a mixture of warm Rb and Cs vapors - by applying a new type of two-color spin noise spectroscopy. Noise correlations directly reveal the presence of inter-species spin exchange interactions. Such non-invasive and noise-based techniques should be generally applicable to any multi-component spin system in which the fluctuations of the constituent components are detectable.

  16. Local spin structure of large spin fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tin-Lun; Huang, Biao

    2015-04-01

    We show that large spin fermions have very rich spin structures. The local spin order of a spin-f Fermi gas is a linear combination of 2 f (particle-hole) angular momentum states, L =1 ,...,2 f . L =1 ,2 represent ferromagnetic and nematic spin order, while L ?3 are higher spin orders that have no analog in spin-1/2 systems. Each L spin sector is characterized as L pairs of antipodal points on a sphere. Model calculations show that some of these spin orders have the symmetry of Platonic solid, and many of them have non-Abelian line defects.

  17. Research Plan for Spin Physics at RHIC 1 Executive Summary (by Gerry)

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    spin program. The Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Physics Science and Technology Review and Nuclear Physics, to create this plan. The RHIC spin physics program contributes to a developingResearch Plan for Spin Physics at RHIC Abstract #12;1 Executive Summary (by Gerry) Briefly describe

  18. Electron spin coherence near room temperature in magnetic quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Moro, Fabrizio; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Wilman, James; Fielding, Alistair J; Fay, Michael W; Granwehr, Josef; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    We report on an example of confined magnetic ions with long spin coherence near room temperature. This was achieved by confining single Mn(2+) spins in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and by dispersing the QDs in a proton-spin free matrix. The controlled suppression of Mn-Mn interactions and minimization of Mn-nuclear spin dipolar interactions result in unprecedentedly long phase memory (TM?~?8??s) and spin-lattice relaxation (T1?~?10?ms) time constants for Mn(2+) ions at T?=?4.5?K, and in electron spin coherence observable near room temperature (TM?~?1??s). PMID:26040432

  19. Electron spin coherence near room temperature in magnetic quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Fabrizio; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Wilman, James; Fielding, Alistair J.; Fay, Michael W.; Granwehr, Josef; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    We report on an example of confined magnetic ions with long spin coherence near room temperature. This was achieved by confining single Mn2+ spins in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and by dispersing the QDs in a proton-spin free matrix. The controlled suppression of Mn–Mn interactions and minimization of Mn–nuclear spin dipolar interactions result in unprecedentedly long phase memory (TM?~?8??s) and spin–lattice relaxation (T1?~?10?ms) time constants for Mn2+ ions at T?=?4.5?K, and in electron spin coherence observable near room temperature (TM?~?1??s). PMID:26040432

  20. Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation in the Layered Compounds MS2 and MS2(PYRIDINE)1/2; M=Ta and Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Shinji; Nakamura, Syunzaburou; Aoki, Ryozo; Molinie, Philippe

    1980-03-01

    Measurements of the 181Ta and 93Nb spin-lattice relaxation time T1 at low temperatures are reported for the 2H polytypes of TaS2 and NbS2 and their pyridine intercalation compounds. An analysis of T1T shows that, on the intercalation of pyridine molecules, the density of states at Fermi level N(EF) increases about 30% for 2H-TaS2, while decreases about 30% for 2H-NbS2. This is suggestive of charge transfer from pyridine molecules to dz2 conduction band of the disulfides.

  1. Quantum decoherence of the central spin in a sparse system of dipolar coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzel, Wayne M.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Cywi?ski, ?ukasz; Das Sarma, S.

    2012-07-01

    The central spin decoherence problem has been researched for over 50 years in the context of both nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance. Until recently, theoretical models have employed phenomenological stochastic descriptions of the bath-induced noise. During the last few years, cluster expansion methods have provided a microscopic, quantum theory to study the spectral diffusion of a central spin. These methods have proven to be very accurate and efficient for problems of nuclear-induced electron spin decoherence in which hyperfine interactions with the central electron spin are much stronger than dipolar interactions among the nuclei. We provide an in-depth study of central spin decoherence for a canonical scale-invariant all-dipolar spin system. We show how cluster methods may be adapted to treat this problem in which central and bath spin interactions are of comparable strength. Our extensive numerical work shows that a properly modified cluster theory is convergent for this problem even as simple perturbative arguments begin to break down. By treating clusters in the presence of energy detunings due to the long-range (diagonal) dipolar interactions of the surrounding environment and carefully averaging the effects over different spin states, we find that the nontrivial flip-flop dynamics among the spins becomes effectively localized by disorder in the energy splittings of the spins. This localization effect allows for a robust calculation of the spin echo signal in a dipolarly coupled bath of spins of the same kind, while considering clusters of no more than six spins. We connect these microscopic calculation results to the existing stochastic models. We, furthermore, present calculations for a series of related problems of interest for candidate solid state quantum bits including donors and quantum dots in silicon as well as nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond.

  2. Single-atom spin qubits in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurak, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Spin qubits in silicon are excellent candidates for scalable quantum information processing (QIP) due to their long coherence times and the enormous investment in silicon MOS technology. Here I discuss qubits based upon single phosphorus (P) dopant atoms in Si. Projective readout of such qubits had proved challenging until single-shot measurement of a single donor electron spin was demonstrated using a silicon single electron transistor (Si-SET) and the process of spin-to-charge conversion. The measurement gave readout fidelities > 90% and spin lifetimes T1e > 6 s, opening the path to demonstration of electron and nuclear spin qubits in silicon. Integrating an on-chip microwave transmission line enabled single-electron spin resonance (ESR) of the P donor electron. We used this to demonstrate Rabi oscillations of the electron spin qubit, while a Hahn echo sequence revealed electron spin coherence times T2e > 0.2 ms. This time is expected to become much longer in isotopically enriched 28Si devices. We also achieved single-shot readout of the 31P nuclear spin (with fidelity > 99.6%) by monitoring the two hyperfine-split ESR lines of the P donor system. By applying (local) NMR pulses we demonstrated coherent control of the nuclear spin qubit, giving a coherence time T2n > 60 ms. Spin qubits in silicon are excellent candidates for scalable quantum information processing (QIP) due to their long coherence times and the enormous investment in silicon MOS technology. Here I discuss qubits based upon single phosphorus (P) dopant atoms in Si. Projective readout of such qubits had proved challenging until single-shot measurement of a single donor electron spin was demonstrated using a silicon single electron transistor (Si-SET) and the process of spin-to-charge conversion. The measurement gave readout fidelities > 90% and spin lifetimes T1e > 6 s, opening the path to demonstration of electron and nuclear spin qubits in silicon. Integrating an on-chip microwave transmission line enabled single-electron spin resonance (ESR) of the P donor electron. We used this to demonstrate Rabi oscillations of the electron spin qubit, while a Hahn echo sequence revealed electron spin coherence times T2e > 0.2 ms. This time is expected to become much longer in isotopically enriched 28Si devices. We also achieved single-shot readout of the 31P nuclear spin (with fidelity > 99.6%) by monitoring the two hyperfine-split ESR lines of the P donor system. By applying (local) NMR pulses we demonstrated coherent control of the nuclear spin qubit, giving a coherence time T2n > 60 ms. Device fabrication was undertaken at the Australian National Fabrication Facility. This work was supported by the Australian Research Council Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology and the U.S. Army Research Office (W911NF-08-1-0527).

  3. Implementation of State Transfer Hamiltonians in Spin Chains with Magnetic Resonance Techniques

    E-print Network

    Cappellaro, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear spin systems and magnetic resonance techniques have provided a fertile platform for experimental investigation of quantum state transfer in spin chains. From the first observation of polarization transfer, predating ...

  4. High-spin studies and nuclear structure in three semi-magic regions of the chart: High-seniority states in Sn isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, Alain

    2013-12-01

    Two fusion-fission experiments have been performed and studied with the Euroball Ge array: 12C+ 238U at 90 MeV bombarding energy, and 18O + 208Pb at 85 MeV. Among the lot of new information extracted during the last decade, the latest results discussed here are the discovery of the high-spin states of 119-126Sn. The maximum value of angular momentum available in the ?h11/2 shell, i.e. for mid-occupation and the breaking of the three neutron pairs (seniority v = 6), has been identified in several tin isotopes. It is the first time that such high-seniority states are established in spherical nuclei.

  5. Controlling Spin-Spin Network Dynamics by Repeated Projective Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretschneider, Christian O.; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Kurizki, Gershon; Frydman, Lucio

    2012-04-01

    We show that coupled-spin network manipulations can be made highly effective by repeated projections of the evolving quantum states onto diagonal density-matrix states (populations). As opposed to the intricately crafted pulse trains that are often used to fine-tune a complex network’s evolution, the strategy hereby presented derives from the “quantum Zeno effect” and provides a highly robust route to guide the evolution by destroying all unwanted correlations (coherences). We exploit these effects by showing that a relaxationlike behavior is endowed to polarization transfers occurring within a N-spin coupled network. Experimental implementations yield coupling constant determinations for complex spin-coupling topologies, as demonstrated within the field of liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

  6. Quantum cavity for spin due to spin-orbit interaction at a metal boundary.

    PubMed

    Varykhalov, A; Sánchez-Barriga, J; Shikin, A M; Gudat, W; Eberhardt, W; Rader, O

    2008-12-19

    A quantum cavity for spin is created using a tungsten crystal as substrate of high nuclear charge and breaking the structural inversion symmetry through deposition of a gold quantum film. Spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows directly that quantum-well states and the "matrioshka" or Russian nested doll Fermi surface of the gold film are spin polarized and spin-orbit split up to a thickness of at least nine atomic layers. Ferromagnetic materials or external magnetic fields are not required, and the quantum film does not need to possess a high atomic number as analogous results with silver show. PMID:19113734

  7. Quantum Cavity for Spin due to Spin-Orbit Interaction at a Metal Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varykhalov, A.; Sánchez-Barriga, J.; Shikin, A. M.; Gudat, W.; Eberhardt, W.; Rader, O.

    2008-12-01

    A quantum cavity for spin is created using a tungsten crystal as substrate of high nuclear charge and breaking the structural inversion symmetry through deposition of a gold quantum film. Spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows directly that quantum-well states and the “matrioshka” or Russian nested doll Fermi surface of the gold film are spin polarized and spin-orbit split up to a thickness of at least nine atomic layers. Ferromagnetic materials or external magnetic fields are not required, and the quantum film does not need to possess a high atomic number as analogous results with silver show.

  8. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-09-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields, including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process in which photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allows the production of greater than 10/sup 18/ polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed.

  9. Triple-quantum two-dimentional {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of aluminosilicate and aluminate crystals and glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Baltisberger, J.H. [Berea College, KY (United States)] [Berea College, KY (United States); Xu, Z.; Stebbins, J.F. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wang, S.H.; Pines, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-07-31

    A new two-dimensional magic-angle spinning NMR experiment using multiple-quantum coherence of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei was used to study {sup 27}Al sites in crystalline samples of leucite (KAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}), and kyanite (Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}), as well as CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} glass and a magnesium aluminoborate glass. In the crystals, multiple sites are partially resolved and new results for isotropic chemical shifts and quadrupolar parameters are derived, using data collected at a single magnetic field. Data for both leucite and anorthite are consistent with previous results that correlate chemical shifts with mean intertetrahedral bond angle. Signal can be obtained from sites with quadrupolar coupling constants as large as 9 MHz, but intensities are reduced. In the aluminoborate glass, peaks for sites with different Al coordination numbers are well seperated. The lack of such features in CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} glass rules out the presence of significant quantities of AlO{sub 5} and AlO{sub 6} groups. 31 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials, and organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boyd Mclean Goodson; Boyd M

    1999-01-01

    Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Laser-Polarized Noble Gases in Molecules, Materials, and Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boyd M. Goodson

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques is fundamentally limited by the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR

  12. Spin dependence in intermediate energy p-nucleus scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, R. D.; McNeil, J. A.; Sparrow, D. A.

    1981-05-01

    We obtain closed form approximations for the spin dependent eikonal p-nucleus scattering amplitudes. The polarization P and spin rotation function Q can be written in terms of the unpolarized elastic scattering cross section and two complex parameters related to the nucleon-nucleon spin orbit strength and range. These forms agree well with the available data and illuminate the dynamical content of P and Q. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Closed form eikonal amplitude for spin dependent p-nucleus scattering. Data-to-data forms relating spin observables to elastic scattering.

  13. Single spin stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy

    E-print Network

    Pfender, Matthias; Waldherr, Gerald; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate precision addressing of single quantum emitters by combined optical microscopy and spin resonance techniques. To this end we utilize nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond confined within a few ten nanometers as individually resolvable quantum systems. By developing a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) technique for NV centers we are able to simultaneously perform sub diffraction-limit imaging and optically detected spin resonance (ODMR) measurements on NV spins. This allows the assignment of spin resonance spectra to individual NV center locations with nanometer scale resolution and thus further improves spatial discrimination. For example, we resolved formerly indistinguishable emitters by their spectra. Furthermore, ODMR spectra contain metrology information allowing for sub diffraction-limit sensing of, for instance, magnetic or electric fields with inherently parallel data acquisition. As an example, we have detected nuclear spins with nanometer sca...

  14. EPR, electron spin echo envelope modulation, and electron nuclear double resonance studies of the 2Fe2S centers of the 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia 2CBS.

    PubMed

    Riedel, A; Fetzner, S; Rampp, M; Lingens, F; Liebl, U; Zimmermann, J L; Nitschke, W

    1995-12-29

    The 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia 2CBS (Fetzner, S., Müller, R., and Lingens, F. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 279-290) contains both a ferredoxin-type and a Rieske-type 2Fe2S center. These two significantly different 2Fe2S clusters were characterized with respect to their EPR spectra, electrochemical properties (Rieske-type cluster with gz = 2.025, gy = 1.91, gx = 1.79, gav = 1.91, Em = -125 +/- 10 mV; ferredoxin-type center with gz = 2.05, gy = 1.96, gx = 1.89, gav = 1.97, Em = -200 +/- 10 mV) and pH dependence thereof. X band electron spin echo envelope modulation and electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy was applied to study the interaction of the Rieske-type center of the 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase with 14N and 1H nuclei in the vicinity of the 2Fe2S cluster. The results are compared to those obtained on the Rieske protein of the cytochrome b6f complex (Em = +320 mV) and the water-soluble ferredoxin (Em = -430 mV) of spinach chloroplasts, as typical representatives of the gav = 1.91 and gav = 1.96 class of 2Fe2S centers. Properties common to all Rieske-type clusters and those restricted to the respective centers in bacterial oxygenases are discussed. PMID:8537340

  15. Mechanism of Solid-State Thermolysis of Ammonia Boraine: 15N NMR Study Using Fast Magic-Angle Spinning and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Shalabh [Ames Laboratory; Caporini, Marc A [Bruker BioSpin Corporation; Pecharsky, Vitalij K [Ames Laboratory; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-28

    The solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane (NH3BH3, AB) was explored using state-of-the-art 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy, including 2D indirectly detected 1H{15N} heteronuclear correlation and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced 15N{1H} cross-polarization experiments as well as 11B NMR. The complementary use of 15N and 11B NMR experiments, supported by density functional theory calculations of the chemical shift tensors, provided insights into the dehydrogenation mechanism of AB—insights that have not been available by 11B NMR alone. Specifically, highly branched polyaminoborane derivatives were shown to form from AB via oligomerization in the “head-to-tail” manner, which then transform directly into hexagonal boron nitride analog through the dehydrocyclization reaction, bypassing the formation of polyiminoborane.

  16. Characterization of the wound-induced material in Citrus paradisi fruit peel by carbon-13 CP-MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Simona; Lai, Adolfo; Stange, Richard R; McCollum, T Greg; Schirra, Mario

    2003-05-01

    Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, were injured, inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and incubated under conditions favourable for the accumulation of defence related material. Histochemical examination revealed that tissues adjacent to inoculated injuries contained phloroglucinol-HCl (PG-HCl) reactive material. Solvent washed cell wall preparations of intact and injured-inoculated peel were further purified using a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes. Samples from injured inoculated tissue contained PG-HCl reactive globular material in addition to the fragments of xylem and cuticle found in controls. The principal chemical moieties of the material that accumulates in grapefruit injuries during wound-healing were studied by solid state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR. A complete assignment of the NMR signals was made. From the analysis evidence was found that cellulose and hemicellulose are the biopolymers present in the intact peel samples, in addition, relevant quantities of cutin were found in the residues of enzyme digest. The NMR difference spectrum intact- wounded peels showed resonances which were attributed to all major functional groups of the aromatic-aliphatic suberin polyester of new material produced by the wounds. Information on the latter polyester was obtained by analyzing the T(1)rho (1H) relaxation. PMID:12711139

  17. Optical polarization of nuclear ensembles in diamond

    E-print Network

    Ran Fischer; Andrey Jarmola; Pauli Kehayias; Dmitry Budker

    2013-01-21

    We report polarization of a dense nuclear-spin ensemble in diamond and its dependence on magnetic field and temperature. The polarization method is based on the transfer of electron spin polarization of negatively charged nitrogen vacancy color centers to the nuclear spins via the excited-state level anti-crossing of the center. We polarize 90% of the 14N nuclear spins within the NV centers, and 70% of the proximal 13C nuclear spins with hyperfine interaction strength of 13-14 MHz. Magnetic-field dependence of the polarization reveals sharp decrease in polarization at specific field values corresponding to cross-relaxation with substitutional nitrogen centers, while temperature dependence of the polarization reveals that high polarization persists down to 50 K. This work enables polarization of the 13C in bulk diamond, which is of interest in applications of nuclear magnetic resonance, in quantum memories of hybrid quantum devices, and in sensing.

  18. Neutrino Nuclear Responses for Neutrino Studies in Nuclear Femto Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Brehova, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-24

    Fundamental properties of neutrinos and neutrino nuclear interactions are of great interest from particle and astro-nuclear physics view points. They are well studied in nuclear femto laboratories, where neutrino nuclear responses are crucial. Neutrino masses and neutrino natures are studied by neutrino-less double beta decays (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) in nuclei. Here neutrino nuclear responses are required to extract neutrino properties from 0{nu}{beta}{beta} rates. Neutrino nuclear responses are sensitive to nuclear spin isospin correlations and nuclear structures. They are experimentally studied by nuclear probes for charge exchange nuclear reactions, photon EM probes for photo-nuclear reactions, and lepton probes for muon and neutrino capture reactions.

  19. Quantum registers based on single NV + n 13C centers in diamond: I. The spin Hamiltonian method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Nizovtsev; S. Ya. Kilin; V. A. Pushkarchuk; A. L. Pushkarchuk; S. A. Kuten

    2010-01-01

    Details of the application of the spin Hamiltonian method for studying spin characteristics of a quantum register that includes an electron spin S = 1 of a single NV center in the ground electronic state and nuclear spins I = 1\\/2 of several isotopic atoms 13C located at different lattice sites near the vacancy of the NV center. Two methods

  20. Spin with Inertia

    E-print Network

    Kikuchi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    We consider introducing finite moments of inertia to spin. Such inertia generally arises in spin effective dynamics, that is, when we incorporate the effect of environmental degrees of freedom (typically, conducting fermions) interacting with the spins. When the inertia is finite, new spin precession mode emerges, which is intrinsic to the system and caused by the spin Berry curvature itself. We discuss the effect of this inertia on resonance, spin waves and domain wall dynamics. We also discuss the equivalence between the dynamics of spin and those of a spinning top, which becomes explicit when we introduce the inertia.

  1. Spin with Inertia

    E-print Network

    Toru Kikuchi

    2015-02-13

    We consider introducing finite moments of inertia to spin. Such inertia generally arises in spin effective dynamics, that is, when we incorporate the effect of environmental degrees of freedom (typically, conducting fermions) interacting with the spins. When the inertia is finite, new spin precession mode emerges, which is intrinsic to the system and caused by the spin Berry curvature itself. We discuss the effect of this inertia on resonance, spin waves and domain wall dynamics. We also discuss the equivalence between the dynamics of spin and those of a spinning top, which becomes explicit when we introduce the inertia.

  2. Spin dynamics in CuO and Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, P.; Corti, M.; Rigamonti, A. (Department of Physics Alessandro Volta,'' University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    [sup 63]Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), nuclear antiferromagnetic resonance (AFNMR), and spin-lattice relaxation, as well as [sup 7]Li NMR and relaxation measurements in CuO and in Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

  3. Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times in 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wink, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the mechanisms of nuclear magnetic relaxation, and applications of relaxation times. The measurement of spin-lattice relaxations is reviewed. It is stressed that sophisticated techniques such as these are becoming more important to the working chemist. (CW)

  4. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-10-27

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  5. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-07-13

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  6. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-06-29

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  7. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  8. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-11-10

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  9. Visualization of an entangled channel spin-1 system

    SciTech Connect

    Sirsi, Swarnamala; Adiga, Veena [Department of Physics, Yuvaraja's College, University of Mysore, Mysore-05 (India)

    2010-08-15

    Covariance matrix formalism gives powerful entanglement criteria for continuous as well as finite dimensional systems. We use this formalism to study a mixed channel spin-1 system which is well known in nuclear reactions. A spin-j state can be visualized as being made up of 2j spinors which are represented by a constellation of 2j points on a Bloch sphere using Majorana construction. We extend this formalism to visualize an entangled mixed spin-1 system.

  10. Orbital and spin scissors modes in superfluid nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbutsev, E. B.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Schuck, P.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear scissors modes are considered in the frame of the Wigner-function moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes in rare-earth nuclei.

  11. High-Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in the Nuclear Rotating Frame

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Robert G.

    spin are simulta- neously flipped, results in a population redistribution among the electron-nuclearHigh-Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in the Nuclear Rotating Frame C. T. Farrar,* D. A. Hall, 2000 A proton dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancement ( ) close to thermal

  12. Inertia of Intrinsic Spin

    E-print Network

    Bahram Mashhoon; Helmut Kaiser

    2005-11-19

    The state of a particle in space and time is characterized by its mass and spin, which therefore determine the inertial properties of the particle. The coupling of intrinsic spin with rotation is examined and the corresponding inertial effects of intrinsic spin are studied. An experiment to measure directly the spin-rotation coupling via neutron interferometry is analyzed in detail.

  13. RHIC SPIN FLIPPER

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; ROSER, T.

    2007-06-25

    This paper proposes a new design of spin flipper for RHIC to obtain full spin flip with the spin tune staying at half integer. The traditional technique of using an rf dipole or solenoid as spin flipper to achieve full spin flip in the presence of full Siberian snake requires one to change the snake configuration to move the spin tune away from half integer. This is not practical for an operational high energy polarized proton collider like RHIC where beam lifetime is sensitive to small betatron tune change. The design of the new spin flipper as well as numerical simulations are presented.

  14. Table of Nuclear Moments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Raghavan

    1989-01-01

    This table is a compilation of experimental data on static nuclear magnetic dipole ane electric quadrupole moments for ground state and excited states of nuclides from ¹H to ²⁵⁴Es. Listed along with the moments are the associated excitation energy, half-life, spin, and parity of the nuclear state, and the experimental method employed. The literature has been surveyed through early 1988.

  15. Spin flight research summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, J. M., Jr.; Stough, H. P., III; Dicarlo, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive general aviation stall/spin research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center. Flight tests have examined the effects of tail design, wing leading edge design, mass distribution, and minor airframe modifications on spin and recovery characteristics. Results and observations on test techniques are presented for the first airplane in the program. Configuration changes produced spins varying from easily recoverable slow, steep spins to unrecoverable, fast flat spins.

  16. Spin accumulation in thin Cs salts on contact with optically polarized Cs vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    The spin angular momentum accumulates in the Cs nuclei of salt on contact with optically pumped Cs vapor. The spin polarization in stable chloride as well as dissociative hydride indicates that nuclear dipole interaction works in spin transferring with a lesser role of atom exchange. In the solid film, not only the spin buildup but also the decay of enhanced polarization is faster than the thermal recovery rate for the bulk salt. Eliminating the signal of thick salt, we find that the nuclear spin polarization in the chloride film reaches over 100 times the thermal equilibrium.

  17. Storage of multiple coherent microwave excitations in an electron spin ensemble

    E-print Network

    Hua Wu; Richard E. George; Arzhang Ardavan; Janus H. Wesenberg; Klaus Mølmer; David I. Schuster; Robert J. Schoelkopf; Kohei M. Itoh; John J. L. Morton; G. Andrew D. Briggs

    2010-06-18

    Electron and nuclear spins have good coherence times and an ensemble of spins is a promising candidate for a quantum memory. By employing holographic techniques via field gradients a single ensemble may be used to store many bits of information. Here we present a coherent memory using a pulsed magnetic field gradient, and demonstrate the storage and retrieval of up to 100 weak 10 GHz coherent excitations in collective states of an electron spin ensemble. We further show that such collective excitations in the electron spin can then be stored in nuclear spin states, which offer coherence times in excess of seconds.

  18. RHIC SPIN FLIPPER COMMISSIONING.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; MACKAY,W.W.; RANJBAR,V.; ROSER,T.

    2002-06-02

    An ac dipole with horizontally oriented oscillating magnetic field (spin flipper) was installed in FU-IIC to reverse the spin direction in the presence of two full Siberian snakes, thereby reducing the systematic errors for the spin physics experiments in RHIC. With two full snakes, the spin vector completes one full precession around the vertical direction in two revolutions, and the spin depolarization resonances due to the machine imperfections and betatron oscillations are eliminated. Since the spin flipper provides an oscillating horizontal dipole field, a ''spin resonance'' can occur if the spin flipper frequency is placed in the neighborhood of the spin precession frequency [ 1,2,3]. By slowly sweeping the spin flipper frequency across the spin precession frequency, a full spin flip can be achieved. This paper reports the results of the FZUC spin flipper commissioned during the RHIC 2002 polarized proton run. By running the spin flipper at a slightly different configuration, one can also measure the spin precession tune.

  19. Recent experimental advances in spin glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    We present a working definition and a general description of a spin glass. A number of different systems, including metals, semiconductors, and insulators, are discussed. This review presents the current status of experimental spin-glass research with special emphasis on the extent to which the results of this research yield information on spin dynamics. We review the salient features of a series of recent experimental results, published in the past five years, on the susceptibility, magnetization, heat capacity, high-pressure effects, phonon-thermal conductivity, neutron scattering, nuclear, electron, and muon spin resonance. The successful applications of the fractional exponential relaxation function to the frequency dependence of the susceptibility and the time dependence of the thermoremanent magnetization are demonstrated. Concerning the possible existence of the phase transition at the susceptibility cusp temperature, we summarize the experimental evidences. 179 references, 31 figures.

  20. Hole spin coherence in a Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, A P; Larsen, T W; Yao, J; Yan, H; Lieber, C M; Marcus, C M; Kuemmeth, F

    2014-06-11

    Relaxation and dephasing of hole spins are measured in a gate-defined Ge/Si nanowire double quantum dot using a fast pulsed-gate method and dispersive readout. An inhomogeneous dephasing time T2* 0.18 ?s exceeds corresponding measurements in III–V semiconductors by more than an order of magnitude, as expected for predominately nuclear-spin-free materials. Dephasing is observed to be exponential in time, indicating the presence of a broadband noise source, rather than Gaussian, previously seen in systems with nuclear-spin-dominated dephasing. PMID:24797219

  1. Microwave driven extraction of stabilized spin polarized atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roser, T.; Crabb, D. G.; Kaufman, W. A.; Raymond, R. S.; Stewart, J. A.; Vuaridel, B.; Court, G. R.

    1991-02-01

    The storage of ultracold spin-polarized hydrogen atoms offers the possibility of producing a high intensity nuclear polarized atomic hydrogen jet. We stored electron spin polarized atomic hydrogen at 0.4 K in an open 5 T magnetic storage cell. We also observed directly, for the first time, the extraction of hydrogen atoms from the storage cell by flipping their spins using a microwave driven transition. The results are being used to design a high intensity jet of nuclear polarized atomic hydrogen to be used as an internal target in the 400 GeV to 3 TeV UNK accelerator.

  2. Mesoscale spatial distribution of electron spins studied by time-resolved small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering with dynamic nuclear polarization: A case of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) doped in high-density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumada, Takayuki; Noda, Yohei; Koizumi, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Takeji

    2010-08-01

    We carried out time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) studies of dynamically polarized high-density polyethylene (HDPE) doped with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) persistent free radicals. We observed a remarkable enhancement of the scattering intensity shortly after a switching of microwave frequency from positive (negative) to negative (positive) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The enhancement was found to be due to spatially heterogeneous proton-spin polarization generated as a result of heterogeneously distributed TEMPO in the HDPE sample. The spatial fluctuation of the polarization ranged up to the length-scale of ?100 nm. This result strongly suggests that the TEMPO free radicals are localized more in nonfibrils but less in fibrils of HDPE. In this way, we propose that the time-resolved DNP-SANS and DNP-USANS be general techniques to determine mesoscale spatial distribution of electron spins in dielectric materials.

  3. Lifetimes of Nuclear Isomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Moszkowski

    1953-01-01

    Lifetimes of nuclear isomers for gamma-transitions are calculated theoretically on the basis of various independent particle models; e.g., single proton, single neutron, and states of several particles (Sec. II). The calculations of this paper are essentially restricted to the most common type of transition viz., multipole order equal to spin change. The lifetime is expressed in terms of a matrix

  4. Noncommutativity due to spin

    E-print Network

    M. Gomes; V. G. Kupriyanov; A. J. da Silva

    2010-02-25

    Using the Berezin-Marinov pseudoclassical formulation of spin particle we propose a classical model of spin noncommutativity. In the nonrelativistic case, the Poisson brackets between the coordinates are proportional to the spin angular momentum. The quantization of the model leads to the noncommutativity with mixed spacial and spin degrees of freedom. A modified Pauli equation, describing a spin half particle in an external e.m. field is obtained. We show that nonlocality caused by the spin noncommutativity depends on the spin of the particle; for spin zero, nonlocality does not appear, for spin half, $\\Delta x\\Delta y\\geq\\theta^{2}/2$, etc. In the relativistic case the noncommutative Dirac equation was derived. For that we introduce a new star product. The advantage of our model is that in spite of the presence of noncommutativity and nonlocality, it is Lorentz invariant. Also, in the quasiclassical approximation it gives noncommutativity with a nilpotent parameter.

  5. Spin Hall effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Jörg; Park, Byong-Guk; Irvine, Andrew C; Zârbo, Liviu P; Rozkotová, Eva; Nemec, Petr; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomás

    2010-12-24

    The field of semiconductor spintronics explores spin-related quantum relativistic phenomena in solid-state systems. Spin transistors and spin Hall effects have been two separate leading directions of research in this field. We have combined the two directions by realizing an all-semiconductor spin Hall effect transistor. The device uses diffusive transport and operates without electrical current in the active part of the transistor. We demonstrate a spin AND logic function in a semiconductor channel with two gates. Our study shows the utility of the spin Hall effect in a microelectronic device geometry, realizes the spin transistor with electrical detection directly along the gated semiconductor channel, and provides an experimental tool for exploring spin Hall and spin precession phenomena in an electrically tunable semiconductor layer. PMID:21205664

  6. Spin Rotation of Formalism for Spin Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio,A.

    2008-02-01

    The problem of which coefficients are adequate to correctly represent the spin rotation in vector spin tracking for polarized proton and deuteron beams in synchrotrons is here re-examined in the light of recent discussions. The main aim of this note is to show where some previous erroneous results originated and how to code spin rotation in a tracking code. Some analysis of a recent experiment is presented that confirm the correctness of the assumptions.

  7. Enhancement of nonlocal spin-valve signal using spin accumulation in local spin-valve configuration

    E-print Network

    Otani, Yoshichika

    Enhancement of nonlocal spin-valve signal using spin accumulation in local spin-valve configuration) We propose a nonlocal spin-valve measurement combined with a local spin-valve structure to enlarge spin signal. The probe configuration consists of a lateral spin valve with three Ni­Fe wires bridged

  8. Spin Circuit Representation for Spin Pumping Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kuntal; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-03-01

    There has been enormous progress in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics in recent years with the discovery of many new materials and phenomena and it remains a formidable challenge to integrate these phenomena into functional devices and evaluate their potential. To facilitate this process a modular approach has been proposed whereby different phenomena are represented by spin circuit components. Unlike ordinary circuit components, these spin circuit components are characterized by 4-component voltages and currents (one for charge and three for spin). In this talk we will (1) present a spin circuit representation for spin pumping phenomena, (2) combine it with a spin circuit representation for the spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces established results obtained earlier by other means, and finally (3) use it to propose a possible method for enhancing the spin pumping efficiency by an order of magnitude through the addition of a spin sink layer. This work was supported by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  9. Spin - or, actually: Spin and Quantum Statistics

    E-print Network

    Juerg Froehlich

    2008-02-29

    The history of the discovery of electron spin and the Pauli principle and the mathematics of spin and quantum statistics are reviewed. Pauli's theory of the spinning electron and some of its many applications in mathematics and physics are considered in more detail. The role of the fact that the tree-level gyromagnetic factor of the electron has the value g = 2 in an analysis of stability (and instability) of matter in arbitrary external magnetic fields is highlighted. Radiative corrections and precision measurements of g are reviewed. The general connection between spin and statistics, the CPT theorem and the theory of braid statistics are described.

  10. Control of coherence among the spins of a single electron and the three nearest neighbor 13C nuclei of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimo-Oka, T.; Kato, H.; Yamasaki, S.; Jelezko, F.; Miwa, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Mizuochi, N.

    2015-04-01

    Individual nuclear spins in diamond can be optically detected through hyperfine couplings with the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center; such nuclear spins have outstandingly long coherence times. Among the hyperfine couplings in the NV center, the nearest neighbor 13C nuclear spins have the largest coupling strength. Nearest neighbor 13C nuclear spins have the potential to perform fastest gate operations, providing highest fidelity in quantum computing. Herein, we report on the control of coherences in the NV center where all three nearest neighbor carbons are of the 13C isotope. Coherence among the three and four qubits are generated and analyzed at room temperature.

  11. Spin Seebeck power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Cahaya, Adam B.; Tretiakov, O. A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Bauer, Gerrit E. W. [Institute for Materials Research and WPI-AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kavli Institute of NanoScience, TU Delft Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-27

    We derive expressions for the efficiency and figure of merit of two spin caloritronic devices based on the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), i.e., the generation of spin currents by a temperature gradient. The inverse spin Hall effect is conventionally used to detect the SSE and offers advantages for large area applications. We also propose a device that converts spin current into electric one by means of a spin-valve detector, which scales favorably to small sizes and approaches a figure of merit of 0.5 at room temperature.

  12. Bias voltage dependence of the electron spin depolarization in quantum wires in the quantum Hall regime detected by the resistively detected NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Chida, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Arakawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hashisaka, M. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan and Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, S. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan and AIST, Tsukuba (Japan); Machida, T. [IIS and INQIE, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We performed the resistively-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (RDNMR) to study the electron spin polarization in the non-equilibrium quantum Hall regime. By measuring the Knight shift, we derive source-drain bias voltage dependence of the electron spin polarization in quantum wires. The electron spin polarization shows minimum value around the threshold voltage of the dynamic nuclear polarization.

  13. Bias voltage dependence of the electron spin depolarization in quantum wires in the quantum Hall regime detected by the resistively detected NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chida, K.; Hashisaka, M.; Yamauchi, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Arakawa, T.; Machida, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.

    2013-12-01

    We performed the resistively-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (RDNMR) to study the electron spin polarization in the non-equilibrium quantum Hall regime. By measuring the Knight shift, we derive source-drain bias voltage dependence of the electron spin polarization in quantum wires. The electron spin polarization shows minimum value around the threshold voltage of the dynamic nuclear polarization.

  14. Quantitative Determination of Chemical Processes by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Haifeng

    2012-07-16

    between two spins, gives rise to the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE),2-3 which depends on the distance between the two spins as 61/ij ijNOE r? . Distances obtained from NOE measurement and dihedral angles from scalar couplings provide geometrical... Robert R. Lucchese Jim(Xiuquan) Ji Head of Department, David H. Russell May 2012 Major Subject: Chemistry iii ABSTRACT Quantitative Determination of Chemical Processes by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance...

  15. Spin-isospin response in finite nuclei from an extended Skyrme interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peiwei; Cao, Li-Gang; Margueron, J.; Sagawa, H.

    2014-04-01

    The magnetic dipole (M1) and the Gamow-Teller (GT) excitations of finite nuclei have been studied in a fully self-consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) plus random phase approximation (RPA) approach by using the Skyrme energy density functionals with spin and spin-isospin densities. To this end, we adopt the extended interactions which include spin-density dependent terms and stabilize nuclear matter with respect to spin instabilities. The effect of the spin-density dependent terms is examined in the spin-flip excited state calculations. The numerical results show that those terms give appreciable repulsive contributions to the M1 and GT response functions of finite nuclei.

  16. Physics motivation and concepts for the IsoSpin Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this article the author summarizes the issues which motivated the proposal for the IsoSpin Laboratory. Intense tunable radioactive ion beams can be used for studies in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics, and atomic physics and material science. The author discusses typical instrumentation needs of these experiments, as such a discussion is more limited than the range of experimental studies.

  17. Kramers-degenerated NV+113C spin systems in diamond: analytical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Alexander P.; Kilin, Sergei Y.; Pushkarchuk, Alexander L.; Kuten, Semen A.

    2013-02-01

    Spin systems consisted of single electronic spin S=1 of the NV center and nearby nuclear spins I=1/2 of 13C atoms disposed in diamond lattice near the center can be used as a small register of a quantum computer or as a sensor of a magnetic field. At odd number of nuclear spins eigenvalues of the spin systems at zero external magnetic field are at least twofold degenerated (Kramers degeneration) due to time reversal invariance of the spin Hamiltonian. This degeneracy is lifted only by external magnetic field regardless of the presence of any electric (crystal) field which can also lift the degeneracy thus hindering measurement of the magnetic field. Therefore, the Kramers-degenerated spin systems can be very perspective for measurement of a local magnetic field by the NV-based single-spin quantum magnetometer. Here, we are considering analytically the simplest Kramers-degenerated spin system NV+113C consisting of a single electron spin S=1 of the NV ?enter coupled by hyperfine interaction with a single nuclear spin I=1/2 of 13C atom disposed in arbitrary site of diamond lattice. Simple approximate analytical expressions are obtained for eigenvalues and eigenstates of the spin system.

  18. Observation of nuclear spin species conversion inside the 1593 cm -1 structure of H 2O trapped in argon matrices: Nitrogen impurities and the H 2O:N 2 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardanaud, Cédric; Vasserot, Anne-Marie; Michaut, Xavier; Abouaf-Marguin, L.

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated, at high resolution (0.03 cm -1), the 1593 cm -1 structure observed in the IR absorption spectrum of water trapped in solid argon doped with nitrogen. It exhibits a doublet at 1592.59 ± 0.05 and 1593.08 ± 0.05 cm -1 and a line centered at 1592.93 ± 0.05 cm -1. The central component, which increases irreversibly upon annealing and when the concentration is increased, is due to the proton acceptor submolecule of the H 2O dimer, as mentioned in the literature. The doublet is assigned to the H 2O:N 2 complex. After a fast cooling of the sample from 20 to 4 K, the low frequency line of the doublet decreases with time and the high frequency one increases, the total integrated absorption increasing slightly. The ratio of the integrated intensities between the low frequency component and the high frequency one reaches a constant limit of 0.5 ± 0.1 at infinite time. This time behavior, perfectly exponential with a time constant ? of about 680 min, is reproducible. As the nitrogen molecule cannot rotate in an argon substitutional site, and as the H 2O submolecule seems to preserve somewhat its identity, this is interpreted as nuclear spin species conversion between ortho and para states of the H 2O submolecule within the complex. The order of magnitude of the energy difference between the ortho and para lowest levels, about 5 cm -1, is too weak to imply any, even very hindered, rotational motion of H 2O, but it could be the energy range of a tunneling effect. When the temperature is increased, the two components coalesce at 25 K into a single symmetrical line pointing at 1593.3 cm -1 and the conversion time shortens dramatically. An Arrhenius plot leads to a weak activation energy of the conversion process (about 30 cm -1). A possible geometry of the complex in solid argon, different from the gas phase one, is proposed.

  19. Cooperative spin decoherence in finite spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Fernando; Fernandez-Rossier, Joaquin

    2014-03-01

    Overcoming the problem of relaxation and decoherence of magnetic nanostructures is one of the mayor goals in magnetic data storage. Although spin chains with as few as 12 magnetic atoms have revealed stability in cryogenic conditions, understanding the mechanism leading to these effects is essential for the engineered of stable structures. Here we consider the problem of spin decoherence and relaxation of finite size quantum spin chains due to elastic and spin conserving interactions with an electron gas. Specifically, we consider how the decoherence (T2) and relaxation (T1) times between the two degenerate ground states of a chain of N coupled spins compares with the one of an isolated spin in the same environment. We find that the spin decoherence time of Ising chains can be either enhanced or suppressed depending on the matching between the Fermi wavelength 2 ? /kF and the inter-spin distance a. In particular, we find that depending on the values of kF a , it can show, for certain values that depends on the dimensionality of the electron gas, a cooperative enhancement proportional to N2 of the decoherence, analogous to super radiance decay of atom ensembles, or a suppression.

  20. Spin transport in bimetallocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Y.

    2013-09-01

    I present a theoretical study on the spin-transport behavior of bimetallocenes of cobalt or nickel, wherein electronic communication between the two metal centers can be efficiently performed via a fulvalene ligand. The transmission of electrons in the bimetallocene connected to two gold electrodes was calculated using a first-principles density functional method. Spin transport was estimated from the difference between the transmissions of the spin-up and spin-down states. Results revealed that bicobaltocene has a perfect spin-filtering effect because the supply of excess electrons to the electronic state of ferrocene causes a split in the energy levels of the spin-up and spin-down states. As surmised, it was found that spin polarization was caused by strong interactions between the two metal centers via the fulvalene ligand. Furthermore, bicobaltocene exhibited a negative differential resistance at a relatively low bias voltage.