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Sample records for carbonatite-aillikite occurrence west

  1. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  2. Hydroclimatic Assessment of West Nile Virus Occurrence Across Continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billian, H. E.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widely infections from arbovirus in mid-latitudes, having reached the Western Hemisphere in 1999. As a vector-borne disease, WNV is primarily spread by mosquitoes; the disease is predominantly found in tropical and temperate regions of the world, and is now considered an endemic pathogen in the United States, Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe. Environmental processes play a vital role in the trigger of WNV. Here, using logistical regression models, we quantified relationships between hydroclimatic processes and mosquito abundance for WNV across the continental USA using precipitation and temperature at different spatial and temporal scales. It will be shown that reported cases of this disease are more prevalent during spring and summer months in the entire country, when there is more precipitation and higher surface air temperatures for 2003 to 2013. The key impacts of this research are those related to the improvement of human health, and a means to predict mosquito breeding patterns long term as they relate to the prevalence of vector-borne illnesses.

  3. East-west asymmetric of scintillation occurrence in Indonesia using GPS and GLONASS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Saito, S.; Husin, A.; Dear, V.; Anggarani, S.

    2015-12-01

    By using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) receiver to collect amplitude scintillation at L1 frequency from GPS and GLONASS, we investigated ionospheric scintillation occurrence at equator anomaly in Indonesia from July 2014 to June 2015. The receiver is installed at Bandung (6.9 deg S, 107.6 deg E; 9.9 deg S mag. latitude), Indonesia. In this study, we grouped our analysis into two groups based on duration of observation, (1) July-December 2014 (monthly F10.7 ranged from 124.7-158.7) which is named autumn equinox and (2) January-June 2015 (monthly F10.7 ranged from 120.1-141.7) which is named spring equinox. Our preliminary results can be summarized as follows; (1) the intensity of scintillations at spring equinox is higher than at autumn equinox although solar activity at autumn equinox is higher than at spring equinox, see Figure 1 and (2) as shown in Figure 2, the directional distribution of scintillation occurrences at spring equinox mostly concentrate in the western sky, so we see east-west asymmetric, but the distribution at autumn equinox doesn't show clearly east-west asymmetric. Previous studies have reported that occurrence rate of the scintillation at spring equinox season is higher than at autumn equinox. Our results suggest that equinoctial asymmetry of scintillation occurrence can be also as an asymmetric of scintillation intensity and east-west asymmetric of scintillation occurrence between spring and autumn equinox. In general, plasma bubble is tilted westward as it vertically develop due to vertical shear in the eastward plasma drift in F region, and consequently, it will be tilted westward as it extends in latitude. Scintillation intensity will be stronger when signal propagation tend to be parallel with structure of the plasma bubble. Figure 2 also imply that the latitudinal extension of plasma bubble is higher at spring equinox than at autumn equinox. More the bubble extends in latitude, more the bubble structure exists in the western

  4. Borrelia infection in small mammals in West Africa and its relationship with tick occurrence inside burrows.

    PubMed

    Diatta, Georges; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent; Bâ, Khalilou; Chauvancy, Gilles; Ndiaye, Mady; Trape, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonotic disease caused by several Borrelia species transmitted to humans by Ornithodoros tick vectors. In West Africa, Borrelia crocidurae is a common cause of disease in many rural populations. Small mammals act as reservoirs of infection. We report here the results of surveys that investigated the occurrence of B. crocidurae infection in rodents and insectivores from eight countries of West and Central Africa. Animals were identified at the species level and tested for Borrelia either by examination of thick blood film, intra-peritoneal inoculation of blood or brain tissues into laboratory mice, or by molecular techniques. A total of 4358 small mammals belonging to 38 species and 7 families were collected, including 3225 specimens collected in areas where the occurrence of Ornithodoros sonrai tick in rodent burrows was documented, and 1133 in areas where this tick was absent. In areas with O. sonrai, Borrelia infection was demonstrated in 287 of 3109 (9.2%) small mammals tested, and none was documented in 1004 animals tested from other areas. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Rhipicephalus, Hyaloma and Argas ticks in burrows and the distribution of Borrelia infection in small mammals. The 287 specimens infected by Borrelia belonged to 15 rodent and shrew species, including three Saharo-Sahelian species - Gerbillus gerbillus, Gerbillus occiduus and Gerbillus tarabuli - identified as reservoirs for TBRF with a distribution restricted to this area. In Sudan and Sudano-Sahelian areas, Arvicanthis niloticus, Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys huberti were the main reservoir of infection. Although most small mammals species collected had a large distribution in West and Central Africa, the fact that only animals collected in areas with O. sonrai were found infected suggest that this tick is the only vector of TBRF in rodents and insectivores in this part of Africa. PMID:26327444

  5. Occurrence of west nile virus infection in raptors at the Salton Sea, California.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; Iko, William M; Hofmeister, Erik K

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV)-neutralizing antibodies and infectious virus, and the occurrence of overwinter transmission in two raptor species during January and March 2006 at the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California. We captured 208 American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) (January, n=100; March, n=108) and 116 Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) (January, n=52; March, n=64). Laboratory analysis revealed that 83% of American Kestrels and 31% of Burrowing Owls were positive for WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Additionally, two seroconversions were detected in Burrowing Owls between January and March. Infectious WNV, consistent with acute infection, was not detected in any bird. PMID:20688694

  6. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  7. Mode of occurrence and distribution of sulfur in West Virginia coals and Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.M. II

    1982-01-01

    The sulfur content of West Virginia coals and Devonian shales was studied using chemical analyses and reflected light microscopy. Pyrite was the dominant sulfide mineral observed in the coals; however, marcasite was abundant in many samples. These minerals were present in a variety of morphologies, maceral associations, particle sizes and abundances. Most iron disulfide occurrences were thought to have formed before the coal was completely compacted; however, some formed after cleat development. Charts of sulfur percentiles were prepared for thirteen of the major minable seams using over 2000 analyses. They revealed that many seams have wide ranges of sulfur content while others are amazingly uniform. Computer-contoured sulfur maps were prepared to show the distribution of sulfur in six of the State's most important seams. Sulfur species histograms, Spearan rank correlations and x-y plots of sulfur abundances indicated that: most of the sulfur in low-sulfur coals is in the organic form; however, the contribution of pyritic sulfur becomes more important as total sulfur increases. Sulfur in the Devonian shales was studied using a cored well from Lincoln County, West Virginia. The total sulfur content generally ranged between 0.0 and 4.0% with some units having particularly high sulfur contents. The sulfide minerals observed were very similar in size and morphology to those observed in coals. Pyrite was the dominant sulfide but significant quantities of marcasite were present in many samples. Chalcopyrite and sphalerite were also observed.

  8. Volcano-Sedimentary Hosted Diatomite Occurrences: Alayunt (Kutahya), West Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budakoglu, M.; Elmas, N.; Bentli, I.; Kumral, M.; Deniz, N.

    2009-05-01

    Diatomite (Diatomaceous Earth or "DE") is a sedimentary rock primarily composed of the fossilized remains of unicellular fresh water plants known as Diatoms. This study presents geochemical, mineralogical and economic characteristics of the Volcano-sedimentary hosted Alayunt diatomite occurrences. Lacustrine sedimentation is the principal industrial mineral sources for the studied district. Alayunt diatomites are known as one of the important industrial mineral deposits in West Anatolia because of their significant chemical and physical nature. Representative samples were collected from the location of the deposit, at spring conditions, to examine host rock, deposition features, chemical and physical characteristics. Late Miocene-Early Pliocene aged freshwater diatomite deposit was related to lacustrine-type sedimentary processes. Observed morphology and structure at the field are the main indicator of syngenetic deposition in the lacustrine basin. Diatomite shows horizontal layers in the volcano sedimentary host rock. XRD patterns of diatomite show dominant amorphous silica with small amounts of cristobalite. SEM micro-photos indicate that Alayunt diatomites are generally composed of benthic and the rare planktonic species. Chemical data show that diatomites have high silica contents (above 85 % SiO2) and low contaminants. Results suggest that Alayunt diatomite has economic importance for industry because of favorable geological-depositional, geochemical and physical features. Diatomite consists of approximately 90% silicon dioxide, with the remainder of its contents being elemental minerals, which are essential for plant growth. All of these unique factors make Diatomite the premium horticultural grade medium for all growing applications.

  9. Occurrence of avian Plasmodium and West Nile virus in culex species in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, T.; Irwin, P.; Hofmeister, E.; Paskewitz, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP?? WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzymebased assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for >1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions. ?? 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

  10. Occurrence and diversity of mesophilic Shewanella strains isolated from the North-West Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Sawabe, Tomoo; Zhukova, Natalia V; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Hayashi, Karin; Frolova, Galina M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Pavel, Konstantin G; Mikhailov, Valery V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2003-06-01

    Although bacteria of the genus Shewanella belong to one of the readily cultivable groups of "Gammaproteobacteria", little is known about the occurrence and abundance of these microorganisms in the marine ecosystem. Studies revealed that of 654 isolates obtained from marine invertebrates (ophiuroid Amphiopholis kochii, sipuncula Phascolosoma japonicum, and holothurian Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria japonica), seawater and sediments of the North-West Pacific Ocean (i.e. the Sea of Japan and Iturup Is, Kurile Islands), 10.7% belonged to the genus Shewanella. The proportion of viable Shewanella species varied from 4% to 20% depending on the source of isolation. From the isolation study, representative strains of different phenotypes (from seventy presumptive Shewanella strains) were selected for detailed characterization using phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic testing. 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis confirmed the results of tentative identification and placed the majority of these strains within only a few species of the genus Shewanella with 98-99% of 16S rDNA sequences identity mainly with S. japonica and S. colwelliana, suggesting that the strains studied might belong to these species. Numerically dominant strains of S. japonica were metabolically active and produced proteinases (gelatinases, caseinases), lipases, amylases, agarases, and alginases. Shewanella strains studied demonstrated weak antimicrobial and antifungal activities that might be an indication of their passive role in the colonization on living and non-living surfaces. PMID:12866857

  11. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Duarte, Elisabeth C; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas) associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs) in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops) of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%). Only six (0.6%) out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities. PMID:25946242

  12. The occurrence and allergising potential of airborne pollen in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Boral, Dola; Chatterjee, Soma; Bhattacharya, Kashinath

    2004-01-01

    A continuous 2-year volumetric aerobiological survey was conducted in Berhampore town, a centrally located and representative part of West Bengal, India. The aim of the study was to assess the allergising potential of airborne pollen grains of West Bengal. A total of 31 pollen types were identified of which Poaceae (grasses) pollen showed maximum frequency, followed by Cyperaceae, Cassia sp., Acacia auriculiformis, etc. The seasonal periodicities of the pollen types and their relationship to meteorological conditions were investigated. It was found that the pollen concentration is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Clinical investigations by skin prick test were carried out to detect allergenicity of pollen types. Eighteen common airborne pollen types induced positive responses of which pollen extracts of Saccharum officinarum (grass), Azadirachta indica, Cocos nucifera, Phoenix sylvestris, Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus citriodora showed strongest sensitising potential. This result is consistent with previous investigations in different parts of West Bengal. PMID:15236497

  13. Occurrence of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Horses, and Humans in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland. PMID:25866767

  14. Occurrence of West Nile virus antibodies in wild birds, horses, and humans in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland. PMID:25866767

  15. Five centuries of U.S. West Coast drought: Occurrence, spatial distribution, and associated atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. West Coast drought commencing in 2012 developed in association with a large, persistent high-pressure ridge linked to internal atmospheric variability. This study places the occurrence, spatial patterns, and associated circulation features of West Coast drought into a paleoclimate context through a synoptic dendroclimatology approach linking atmospheric circulation to surface hydroclimate patterns. Spatial reconstructions of upper atmosphere pressure patterns and cool-season drought show that West Coast-wide drought, although relatively rare compared to north-south dipole drought, has occurred periodically since 1500 Common Era and is consistently associated with a strong ridge centered along the Pacific Northwest coast. Atmospheric blocking is also linked to north-dry dipole droughts, while south-dry and wider Western droughts indicate La Niña-type patterns. The transition latitude between the northern and southern sides of the western precipitation dipole, important for California hydroclimate patterns, has had frequent year-to-year fluctuations but remained centered on 40°N over the past five centuries.

  16. Manatee occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico, west of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fertl, D.; Schiro, A. J.; Regan, G. T.; Beck, Cathy A.; Adimey, N.; Price-May, L.; Amos, A.; Worthy, Graham A.J.; Crossland, R.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the US Gulf of Mexico west of Florida have increased during the last decade. We reviewed all available manatee sighting, capture, and carcass records (n = 377) from Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas since the early 1900s; only 40 of these were previously published. Manatees were reported most often in estuarine habitats, usually either near a freshwater source or natural or industrial warm-water springs/runoffs during winter months. The recent increase in manatee records may be due to a combination of increased public awareness and dispersal of manatees, most likely seasonal migrants from Florida. We caution that the presence of artificial warm-water sources outside of the manatee’s traditional range may attract an increasing number of manatees and could increase the incidence of cold-related mortality in this region.

  17. Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Schwietering, J. F.

    1981-03-01

    During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

  18. Occurrence of acid precipitation on the West Coast of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, C.F.; Rambo, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Compilation of published and unpublished data shows acid precipitation to be more widespread in the Pacific coastal states than is generally recognized. Although information is scattered and discontinuous, precipitation is definitely acidic in the Los Angeles Basin and north-central California and in the Puget Sound region in Washington. Acid-rain occurrences were observed in western and eastern Oregon, but data are inadequate for regional generalization. New stations currently being established in Washington and Oregon, largely in response to the recently renewed activity of Mount St. Helens, will greatly facilitate assessment of precipitation acidity in the Northwest.

  19. Fluid flow and methane occurrences in the Disko Bugt area offshore West Greenland: indications for gas hydrates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Tove; Laier, Troels; Kuijpers, Antoon; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Mikkelsen, Naja E.; Nørgård-Pedersen, Niels

    2014-12-01

    The present study is the first to directly address the issue of gas hydrates offshore West Greenland, where numerous occurrences of shallow hydrocarbons have been documented in the vicinity of Disko Bugt (Bay). Furthermore, decomposing gas hydrate has been implied to explain seabed features in this climate-sensitive area. The study is based on archive data and new (2011, 2012) shallow seismic and sediment core data. Archive seismic records crossing an elongated depression (20×35 km large, 575 m deep) on the inner shelf west of Disko Bugt (Bay) show a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) within faulted Mesozoic strata, consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrates. Moreover, the more recently acquired shallow seismic data reveal gas/fluid-related features in the overlying sediments, and geochemical data point to methane migration from a deeper-lying petroleum system. By contrast, hydrocarbon signatures within faulted Mesozoic strata below the strait known as the Vaigat can be inferred on archive seismics, but no BSR was visible. New seismic data provide evidence of various gas/fluid-releasing features in the overlying sediments. Flares were detected by the echo-sounder in July 2012, and cores contained ikaite and showed gas-releasing cracks and bubbles, all pointing to ongoing methane seepage in the strait. Observed seabed mounds also sustain gas seepages. For areas where crystalline bedrock is covered only by Pleistocene-Holocene deposits, methane was found only in the Egedesminde Dyb (Trough). There was a strong increase in methane concentration with depth, but no free gas. This is likely due to the formation of gas hydrate and the limited thickness of the sediment infill. Seabed depressions off Ilulissat Isfjord (Icefjord) previously inferred to express ongoing gas release from decomposing gas hydrate show no evidence of gas seepage, and are more likely a result of neo-tectonism.

  20. Landscape, demographic and climatic associations with human West Nile virus occurrence regionally in 2012 in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    DeGroote, John P; Sugumaran, Ramanathan; Ecker, Mark

    2014-11-01

    After several years of low West Nile virus (WNV) occurrence in the United States of America (USA), 2012 witnessed large outbreaks in several parts of the country. In order to understand the outbreak dynamics, spatial clustering and landscape, demographic and climatic associations with WNV occurrence were investigated at a regional level in the USA. Previous research has demonstrated that there are a handful of prominent WNV mosquito vectors with varying ecological requirements responsible for WNV transmission in the USA. Published range maps of these important vectors were georeferenced and used to define eight functional ecological regions in the coterminous USA. The number of human WNV cases and human populations by county were attained in order to calculate a WNV rate for each county in 2012. Additionally, a binary value (high/low) was calculated for each county based on whether the county WNV rate was above or below the rate for the region it fell in. Global Moran's I and Anselin Local Moran's I statistics of spatial association were used per region to examine and visualize clustering of the WNV rate and the high/low rating. Spatial data on landscape, demographic and climatic variables were compiled and derived from a variety of sources and then investigated in relation to human WNV using both Spearman rho correlation coefficients and Poisson regression models. Findings demonstrated significant spatial clustering of WNV and substantial inter-regional differences in relationships between WNV occurrence and landscape, demographic and climatically related variables. The regional associations were consistent with the ecologies of the dominant vectors for those regions. The large outbreak in the Southeast region was preceded by higher than normal winter and spring precipitation followed by dry and hot conditions in the summer. PMID:25545933

  1. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in the environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Chaofei; Gao, Guanjun; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-11-01

    Antarctica is considered as a final sink of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, distributions and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with HRGC/HRMS technique. Twenty-three OCPs were measured in various environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica. The total concentrations (Σ23OCPs) were at quite low levels, ranging 93.6-1260 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil and sediment, 223-1053 pg g(-1) dw in moss and 373-812 pg g(-1) dw in lichen. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (especially p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the main contaminants in all samples. Lower α-HCH/γ-HCH and higher p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios compared with the technical products indicated long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of recent lindane and aged technical DDT. Significant dependence of many OCPs concentrations on total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. Apart from LRAT, local biotic activities could also contribute and influence the spatial distribution of the contaminants. PMID:26162333

  2. [A study on the occurrence of West Nile virus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on the selected areas in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kubica-Biernat, Beata; Kruminis-Łozowska, Wiesława; Stańczak, Joanna; Cieniuch, Stella

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), the etiologic agent of West Nile Fever (WNF), an emerging infectious disease that lately has been rapidly extending its range of occurrence from Africa to Middle East, and to Asia and Southern Europe. In Europe, cases of isolating WNV from mosquitoes representing four genera have been reported from Romania, Portugal, France, southern Russia and what is the most important, from Poland's neighbouring countries as the Czech Republic, Slovakia and southern Ukraine. These data, as well as human and equine cases in the Czech Republic and Belarus, support hypothesis that WNV has already been present also in Poland, the more so, specific antibodies were detected in the sera of birds collected at the Kampinos and Bialowieza Primeval Forests and in human from the vicinity of Bialystok. Mosquitoes were collected in 2004-2009 at indoor and outdoor collection sites in districts: Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Mazowieckie, Podlaskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie. In total 15400 female mosquitoes were collected in the cow sheds and overwintering in the cellars, and from human bait and CO2 traps. Mosquitoes were sorted by the collecting site, species and sex, and placed in pools of not in more than 50 specimens in special mixture of phenol and chaotropic salts and frozen in -20 degrees C. Altogether, 15400 females were examined. Total RNA were extracted according to protocol of A&A Biotechnology. RT reaction was performed with random primers and 217-nucleotide fragment from the NS5 coding sequence was amplified by heminested PCR. PCR products were analysed on 1.5% agarose gel. The predominant species was Culex pipiens, accounting for over 42% of total insects collection. All obtained results were negative. Further investigations are needed. PMID:19856843

  3. AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Griswold, Terry; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Ikerd, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes AnthWest, a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere. In this dataset a total of 22,648 adult occurrence records comprising 9657 unique events are documented for 92 species of Anthidium, including the invasive range of two introduced species from Eurasia, A. oblongatum (Illiger) and A. manicatum (Linnaeus). The geospatial coverage of the dataset extends from northern Canada and Alaska to southern Argentina, and from below sea level in Death Valley, California, USA, to 4700 m a.s.l. in Tucumán, Argentina. The majority of records in the dataset correspond to information recorded from individual specimens examined by the authors during this project and deposited in 60 biodiversity collections located in Africa, Europe, North and South America. A fraction (4.8%) of the occurrence records were taken from the literature, largely California records from a taxonomic treatment with some additional records for the two introduced species. The temporal scale of the dataset represents collection events recorded between 1886 and 2012. The dataset was developed employing SQL server 2008 r2. For each specimen, the following information is generally provided: scientific name including identification qualifier when species status is uncertain (e.g. “Questionable Determination” for 0.4% of the specimens), sex, temporal and geospatial details, coordinates, data collector, host plants, associated organisms, name of identifier, historic identification, historic identifier, taxonomic value (i.e., type specimen, voucher, etc.), and repository. For a small portion of the database records, bees associated with threatened or endangered plants (~ 0.08% of total records) as well as specimens collected as part of unpublished biological inventories (~17%), georeferencing is presented only to nearest

  4. AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Terry; Gonzalez, Victor H; Ikerd, Harold

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes AnthWest, a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere. In this dataset a total of 22,648 adult occurrence records comprising 9657 unique events are documented for 92 species of Anthidium, including the invasive range of two introduced species from Eurasia, A. oblongatum (Illiger) and A. manicatum (Linnaeus). The geospatial coverage of the dataset extends from northern Canada and Alaska to southern Argentina, and from below sea level in Death Valley, California, USA, to 4700 m a.s.l. in Tucumán, Argentina. The majority of records in the dataset correspond to information recorded from individual specimens examined by the authors during this project and deposited in 60 biodiversity collections located in Africa, Europe, North and South America. A fraction (4.8%) of the occurrence records were taken from the literature, largely California records from a taxonomic treatment with some additional records for the two introduced species. The temporal scale of the dataset represents collection events recorded between 1886 and 2012. The dataset was developed employing SQL server 2008 r2. For each specimen, the following information is generally provided: scientific name including identification qualifier when species status is uncertain (e.g. "Questionable Determination" for 0.4% of the specimens), sex, temporal and geospatial details, coordinates, data collector, host plants, associated organisms, name of identifier, historic identification, historic identifier, taxonomic value (i.e., type specimen, voucher, etc.), and repository. For a small portion of the database records, bees associated with threatened or endangered plants (~ 0.08% of total records) as well as specimens collected as part of unpublished biological inventories (~17%), georeferencing is presented only to nearest degree and the

  5. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  6. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, Robert D

    2005-11-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employed the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempted to characterize the P-T parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempted to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is worked with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) geochemically characterized the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Third-year results include: All project milestones have been met and addressed. We also have disseminated this research and related information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky are more extendible than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that has been successfully tested by a local independent and is now producing commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. If this structure is productive along strike, it will be one of the largest producing structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our

  7. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4μg/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. PMID:23416649

  8. Occurrence of gravid Loa loa in subconjunctival space of man: a case report from West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Debasish; Roy, Dipankar; Bera, D K; Manna, Buddhadeb

    2013-04-01

    Loa loa a benign filarial eye worm is endemic in tropical rain forests areas of west and central Africa. Reports of its sporadic recovery from India are available mostly from the travellers and miogrants. This is the fifth report from India in 100 years. One 10.5 cm long gravid female eye worm Loa loa was recovered from the subconjunctival area of a 50 year old Indian lady with history of trekking in swamp areas in the Himalayas in Kumayun district. She was suffering from recurrent attacks of swelling, pain and redness of right eye and fleeting itchy rashes all over the body. Slit lamp examination revealed an indistinct coiled structure in the sub conjunctival space. Through a small nick, the structure was pulled out and was found to be a live worm which was identified as a gravid female species of Loa loa. PMID:24431541

  9. Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the ‘home range’ (HR) and ‘core areas’ (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  10. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  11. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH. PMID:26354713

  12. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-09-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH.

  13. The improbable but unexceptional occurrence of megadrought clustering in the American West during the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Seager, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The five most severe and persistent droughts in the American West (AW) during the Common Era occurred during a 450 year period known as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA—850–1299 C.E.). Herein we use timeseries modeling to estimate the probability of such a period of hydroclimate change occurring. Clustering of severe and persistent drought during an MCA-length period occurs in approximately 10% of surrogate timeseries that were constructed to have the same characteristics as a tree-ring derived estimate of AW hydroclimate variability between 850 and 2005 C.E. Periods of hydroclimate change like the MCA are thus expected to occur in the AW, although not frequently, with a recurrence interval of approximately 11 000 years. Importantly, a shift in mean hydroclimate conditions during the MCA is found to be necessary for drought to reach the severity and persistence of the actual MCA megadroughts. This result has consequences for our understanding of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics underlying the MCA and a persistently warm Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is suggested to have played an important role in causing megadrought clustering during this period.

  14. An unusual occurrence of arsenic-bearing pyrite in the Upper Freeport coal bed, West-Central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Minkin, J.A.; McGee, J.J.; Cecil, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis were used to identify a rare type of As-bearing pyrite in selected specific gravity separates from the Pennsylvanian age Upper Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania. Arsenic was detected mainly in cell-wall replacement pyrite where concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 1.9 wt %. Although the majority of arsenic-bearing pyrite in the Upper Freeport coal bed is concentrated in massive and late diagenetic pyrite morphologies, the rarer As-bearing cell-replacement pyrite was observed in both light and heavy gravity separates from the three coal facies examined. Arsenic was occasionally detected in cell-filling replacement pyrite, but this As appears to be an artifact produced by signals from underlying and/or adjacent As-bearing cell-wall replacement pyrite. It is postulated that some plants of the Upper Freeport paleoswamp may have biomethylated As, which later could have been converted to dimethylarsine or other volatile organoarsenic compounds by either biologically or chemically driven processes. Once liberated, the arsenic may have been incorporated into pyrite during pyritization of the cell walls. The As incorporation occurred early, before significant compaction of the peat, because the pyritized cell walls are not compacted.

  15. Occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewater treatment plants in Israel and the Palestinian West Bank.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Pniela; Godinger, Tal; Odeh, Wad; Groisman, Ludmila; Al-Khateeb, Nader; Rabbo, Alfred Abed; Tal, Alon; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-01

    Israel and its Palestinian neighbors constitute a unique venue for evaluating the treatment efficiency and potential environmental risks of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), because of their physical proximity yet contrasting societal dynamics. Israel primarily relies on advanced tertiary sewage treatment and recycles over 85% of its treated wastewater, while in the Palestinian Authority (PA), there is only secondary treatment levels at WWTPs and reuse is minimal (<1%). To evaluate the extent of EDC occurrence and treatment efficiency, we conducted four sampling campaigns over two consecutive years, and measured the concentrations of selected EDCs in raw wastewater (WW), treated WW and sludge in six WWTPs in Israel, as well as in two Palestinian plants. Low concentrations of bisphenol A, octylphenol and triclosan measured in the raw WW in the Palestinian WWTPs reflected the relatively modest industrial activity and consumption habits as compared to the westernized consumer patterns in Israel. On the other hand, hormone concentrations in raw WW were higher in the Palestinian WWTPs than those in the Israeli WWTPs, presumably because of a dilution effect associated with a higher water per capita consumption among Israelis. Despite these differences in raw WW concentrations, the removal efficiency in all advanced WWTPs was relatively high when compared to averages reported internationally. PMID:27107387

  16. Combinatory Mediterranean-Sudanese systems role in the occurrence of heavy rainfalls (case study: south west of Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbary, Mehry

    2015-12-01

    Sudanese systems are low-pressure thermal s ystems which originate from the Red Sea and their low-pressure isoheights are detectable around south of the Red Sea, Sudan and Ethiopia. These systems when combined with Mediterranean troughs in cold seasons, and absorbing more humidity from the Red Sea, reach the south west of Iran and result in heavy rainfalls in western, southwestern and southern parts of Iran. In all these synoptic-dynamic systems, low-pressure isobars or low isoheights are considerable. 11 severe torrents which happened in southwest of Iran (1998-2008) are selected and using Japanese ReAnalysis data (JRA25), anomalies of dynamic and thermodynamic indices 2 days prior to the start of heavy rainfalls and during rainy days have been analyzed. The selected indices in this research are relative vorticity, convergence and divergence, vorticity advection, specific humidity and moisture advection. Pressure levels of 500 and 700 were analyzed to detect the location of troughs, vorticity and vertical wind velocity. Also level of 1000 hPa was investigated to determine the atmospheric convergence in near surface levels. It should be mentioned that to determine the advection of moisture, vertical profile of moisture advection (1000-250 hPa levels) was analyzed. According to the results of this research and analyzing 6-hourly recorded rainfall amounts, it is understood that in the reference events, before the start of the torrent, geopotential height values in the under-studied region decrease and at the time of maximum rainfalls, the geopotential height reaches to its lowest values and by the end of the torrent, the values start increasing; whereas parameters related to convergence and vertical movements, such as relative vorticity, moisture advection, convergence of moisture and specific humidity amounts correspond to the same trend of rainfall from the beginning to the end.

  17. Spatio-temporal factors influencing the occurrence of Syngamus trachea within release pens in the South West of England.

    PubMed

    Gethings, O J; Sage, R B; Leather, S R

    2015-01-15

    Syngamus trachea is a pathogenic tracheal nematode that causes syngamiasis in wild and game birds, especially when birds are managed at high densities. Despite its pathogenic nature, very little is known about its epidemiology and relationship with ambient temperature and humidity. The spatial and temporal modelling of disease was undertaken on two pheasant estates within the South West of England from April 2014 to August 2014. Significant differences between the mean numbers of eggs per gram of soil were identified between pens at both site 1 and site 2 but did not differ significantly between sites. Egg abundance was significantly associated with soil moisture content, with greater egg survival between years in pens with higher average volumetric soil moisture content. Previous years stocking density and pen age were also associated with greater egg survival between years with more eggs being recovered in pens with greater stocking densities, and pens that had been sited longer. The greatest model to explain the variation in the numbers of eggs per gram of soil per pen was a combination of soil moisture content, stocking density and pen age. Larval recovery differed significantly between sites. Larval abundance was significantly and positively associated with temperature and relative humidity at site 1. Similarly, temperature and humidity were also positively and significantly associated with larval abundance at site 2. Rainfall did not influence larval recovery at either site 1 or site 2. The model with the greatest ability to explain larval abundance at both sites, was a combination of temperature, humidity and rainfall. Infection status (positive faecal egg counts) was significantly and positively associated with larval abundance at both sites, but rainfall was only positively associated at site 1. Temperature and humidity were positively associated with infection status at site 2, but not at site 1. The present study highlights the influence of climatic

  18. Kimberlite and related rocks from Garnet Lake, West Greenland, including their mantle constituents, diamond occurrence, age and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Mark T.; Frei, Dirk

    2009-11-01

    Observations of thickness, orientation and morphology and mineral chemistry of the principal diamondiferous intrusive sheet and associated bodies in the vicinity of Garnet Lake, Sarfartoq, West Greenland are reported. The principal body dips to the east on a NE/SW (true) trend and reaches a maximum thickness of 4.25 m. Multiple intrusive events are identified within the main sheet including sub-parallel bands occasionally exhibiting grain size sorting, cross-cutting layers and late-stage carbonate-rich emplacement, particularly at the contacts with country rock. Phenocrystic mineral assemblages and compositional measurements reveal two principal petrological types. The dominant type is an aillikite and the second rock type is a kimberlite. The kimberlite exhibits thin Ba-rich rims (towards kinoshitalite) on Al-rich phlogopite crysts, and an abundance of perovskite. Compositional zonation in groundmass spinels suggest a later transition towards an aillikite component. The aillikite is characterised by abundant phlogopite, heavily zoned with tetraferriphlogopite rims, transitional Type 1-Type 2 spinel compositions, rare Al,Ti-rich groundmass clinopyroxene and occasional exotic Sr-carbonate phases such as olekminskite. The Garnet Lake main sheet is characterised by mantle phases occurring as individual grains, most strikingly as garnet xenocrysts up to 5 mm and disaggregated mantle olivine crysts. Xenoliths occur rarely and are typically garnet dunites and garnet lherzolites. Heavy mineral separation reveals an abundance of G10D garnets and, whilst peridotitic garnets dominate, eclogitic G3D and G4D garnets also occur. Trace element compositions of garnet crysts reveal sinusoidal REE patterns in harzburgitic garnets however a component of flat and REE-enriched G11 garnets is apparent, reflecting significant mantle refertilisation. Thermorbarometric calculations on assemblages in Garnet Lake main sheet garnet lherzolites reveal equilibrium conditions clustering closely

  19. Occurrence of nodulation in unexplored leguminous trees native to the West African tropical rainforest and inoculation response of native species useful in reforestation.

    PubMed

    Diabate, Moussa; Munive, Antonio; de Faria, Sérgio Miana; Ba, Amadou; Dreyfus, Bernard; Galiana, Antoine

    2005-04-01

    Despite the abundance and diversity of timber tree legumes in the West African rainforest, their ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules in symbiosis with rhizobia, and their response to rhizobial inoculation, remain poorly documented. In the first part of this study the occurrence of nodulation was determined in 156 leguminous species growing in six natural forest areas in Guinea, mostly mature trees. In the second part, an in situ experiment of rhizobial inoculation was performed on eight selected tree species belonging to three genera: Albizia, Erythrophleum and Millettia. Of the 97 plant species and 14 genera that had never been examined before this study, 31 species and four genera were reported to be nodulated. After 4 months of growing in a nursery and a further 11 months after transplantation of plants to the field, we observed a highly significant (P < 0.001) and positive effect of inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. strains on the growth of the eight tree species tested. The importance of determining the nodulation ability of unexplored local trees and subsequently using this information for inoculation in reforestation programmes was demonstrated. PMID:15760366

  20. Occurrence of fecal-indicator bacteria and protocols for identification of fecal-contamination sources in selected reaches of the West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of fecal-indicator bacteria indicates the potential presence of pathogens originating from the fecal matter of warm-blooded animals. These pathogens are responsible for numerous human diseases ranging from common diarrhea to meningitis and polio. The detection of fecal-indicator bacteria and interpretation of the resultant data are, therefore, of great importance to water-resource managers. Current (2005) techniques used to assess fecal contamination within the fluvial environment primarily assess samples collected from the water column, either as grab samples or as depth- and (or) width-integrated samples. However, current research indicates approximately 99 percent of all bacteria within nature exist as attached, or sessile, bacteria. Because of this condition, most current techniques for the detection of fecal contamination, which utilize bacteria, assess only about 1 percent of the total bacteria within the fluvial system and are, therefore, problematic. Evaluation of the environmental factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of bacteria within the fluvial system, as well as the evaluation and modification of alternative approaches that effectively quantify the larger population of sessile bacteria within fluvial sediments, will present water-resource managers with more effective tools to assess, prevent, and (or) eliminate sources of fecal contamination within pristine and impaired watersheds. Two stream reaches on the West Branch Brandywine Creek in the Coatesville, Pa., region were studied between September 2002 and August 2003. The effects of sediment particle size, climatic conditions, aquatic growth, environmental chemistry, impervious surfaces, sediment and soil filtration, and dams on observed bacteria concentrations were evaluated. Alternative approaches were assessed to better detect geographic sources of fecal contamination including the use of turbidity as a surrogate for bacteria, the modification and implementation of sandbag

  1. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2003-05-31

    This report summarizes the first-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). First-year results include: (1) meeting specific milestones (determination of thrust movement vectors, fracture analysis, and communicating results at professional meetings and through publication). All milestones were met. Movement vectors for Valley and Ridge thrusts were confirmed to be west-directed and derived from pushing by the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, and fan about the Tennessee salient. Fracture systems developed during Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic to Holocene compressional and extensional tectonic events, and are more intense near faults. Presentations of first-year results were made at the Tennessee Oil and Gas Association meeting (invited) in June, 2003, at a workshop in August 2003 on geophysical logs in Ordovician rocks, and at the Eastern Section AAPG meeting in September 2003. Papers on thrust tectonics and a major prospect discovered during the first year are in press in an AAPG Memoir and published in the July 28, 2003, issue of the Oil and Gas Journal. (2) collaboration with industry and USGS partners. Several Middle Ordovician black shale samples were sent to USGS for organic carbon analysis. Mississippian and Middle Ordovician rock samples were collected by John Repetski (USGS) and

  2. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2004-05-31

    This report summarizes the second-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Second-year results include: All current milestones have been met and other components of the project have been functioning in parallel toward satisfaction of year-3 milestones. We also have been effecting the ultimate goal of the project in the dissemination of information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky have much greater extensibility than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that is generating considerable exploration interest. If this structure is productive, it will be one of the largest structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician

  3. Development of experimental approach to examine U occurrence continuity over the extended area reconnoitory boreholes: Lostoin Block, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, G K

    2015-10-01

    Exploratory drilling was undertaken in the Lostoin block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya based on the geological extension to the major uranium deposit in the basin. Gamma ray logging of drilled boreholes shows considerable subsurface mineralization in the block. However, environmental and exploration related challenges such as climatic, logistic, limited core drilling and poor core recovery etc. in the block severely restricted the study of uranium exploration related index parameters for the block with a high degree confidence. The present study examines these exploration related challenges and develops an integrated approach using representative sampling of reconnoitory boreholes in the block. Experimental findings validate a similar geochemically coherent nature of radio elements (K, Ra and Th) in the Lostoin block uranium hosting environment with respect to the known block of Mahadek basin and uranium enrichment is confirmed by the lower U to Th correlation index (0.268) of hosting environment. A mineralized zone investigation in the block shows parent (refers to the actual parent uranium concentration at a location and not a secondary concentration such as the daughter elements which produce the signal from a total gamma ray measurement) favoring uranium mineralization. The confidence parameters generated under the present study have implications for the assessment of the inferred category of uranium ore in the block and setting up a road map for the systematic exploration of large uranium potential occurring over extended areas in the basin amid prevailing environmental and exploratory impediments. PMID:26164149

  4. Occurrence of Trichodinid Ciliophorans (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni with description of Trichodina glossogobae sp. nov. in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amlan Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Gong, Yingchun; Bhowmik, Biplab

    2012-04-01

    Between January 2011 and March 2011 occurrence of trichodinid ciliophorans were studied in the freshwater fishes of the river Churni. The biodiversity survey revealed presence of a new species of the genus Trichodina (Ehrenberg 1830) infesting Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton-Buchanan). Another freshwater fish Labeo bata (Hamilton 1822) were found to be infested with two species of the genus Tripartiella Lom 1959: Tripartiella bulbosa (Davis 1947) Lom 1959 and T. copiosa Lom 1959. Adhesive disc size of the new Trichodina species is small measuring 30.6-46.9 (36.2 ± 3.9) μm in diameter. The centre of the disc is finely granular and transforms into dark when impregnated with silver. The overall prevalence of this species is 15.6% (12/77). Tripartiella bulbosa and T. copiosa are very small sized ciliophorans, measuring 16.7-23.8 (20.6 ± 2.2) μm and 15.2-22.4 (19.7 ± 1.9) μm in diameter, respectively. PMID:23542238

  5. Occurrence, distribution and health risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs and azaarenes) in street dust from a major West African Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2016-05-15

    Scientific evidence suggests that the burden of disease on urban residents of sub-Saharan African Countries is increasing, partly as a result of exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic environmental chemicals. However, characterization of the levels, composition pattern and sources of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in environmental samples from African cities is still lacking. This study measured the PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) and azaarene (AZAs) content of street dusts collected from Kumasi, Ghana (a major metropolis located in the tropical forest zone of West Africa). The ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs, ∑OPAHs and ∑AZAs concentration in street dust averaged 2570ngg(-1) (range: 181-7600ngg(-1)), 833ngg(-1) (57-4200ngg(-1)) and 73ngg(-1) (3.3-240ngg(-1)), respectively. The concentrations of ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs were strongly correlated (n=25) with ∑OPAHs (r=0.96, p<0.01) and ∑AZAs (r=0.94, p<0.01). The ∑OPAHs concentrations were also strongly correlated with ∑AZAs (r=0.91, p<0.01). Concentrations of individual PAHs in these street dusts were enriched at between 12 and 836 compared to their average concentrations in background soils from same city, demonstrating the high influence of traffic emissions. Several individual OPAHs and AZAs had higher concentrations than their related and often monitored parent-PAHs. The estimated incremental lifetime cancer risks due to the parent-PAHs in street dusts was >10(-6) indicating high risk of contracting cancer from exposure to street dust from Kumasi. The contribution of OPAHs, AZAs, and alkyl-PAHs in street dust to cancer risk could not be quantified because of lack of toxicity equivalency factors for these compounds; however this could be significant because of their high concentration and known higher toxicity of some polar PACs and alkyl-PAHs than their related parent-PAHs. PMID:26930316

  6. Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungsik; Kim, Do Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Tidal dunes with well-defined rhythmic tidal bundles are documented from the lower intertidal zone of an open-coast macrotidal environment in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea. Based on combined morphologic, sedimentologic and hydrodynamic datasets, this study aims to characterize the factors that govern the temporal and spatial variability of tidal bundles in a non-barred, unconfined macrotidal environment. The tidal dunes are flood-asymmetric and of longer wavelength (10-20 m) with small ebb caps on the upper bank, and symmetric to slightly ebb-asymmetric and of shorter wavelength (5-10 m) with larger ebb caps on the lower bank. The upper-bank dunes are characterized by more steeply dipping flood-directed planar cross-beds and thinner mud drapes than the lower-bank dunes. Each tidal bundle consists of a single mud drape that is stratified to cross-stratified, rich in silt and very fine sand. It overlies ebb-directed ripples and represents dynamic mud deposition during the ebb tidal phase. The presence of strong rotary currents (up to 0.25 m/s) and low suspended-sediment concentration of flood currents prevent deposition of mud drapes during the high-tide slack-water period. The distinct asymmetry in the water elevation at which the velocity peaks during the ebb and flood phases results in the preferential preservation of flood-directed cross-beds in the lower intertidal zone, where the ebb current - although stronger than the flood currents - is of shorter duration and hence unable to reverse the dune profile. The pronounced time-velocity asymmetry at the higher elevation combined with the distinct velocity peak asymmetry leads to a better preservation of hierarchical tidal cycles in the upper-bank dunes. The present study suggests that the persistent occurrence of single, stratified to cross-stratified mud drapes, which reflect dynamic mud deposition during the ebb phase, and the dominance of flood-directed cross-beds are diagnostic features of tidal bundles in the intertidal

  7. Co-occurrence and distribution of East (L1014S) and West (L1014F) African knock-down resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato population of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kabula, Bilali; Kisinza, William; Tungu, Patrick; Ndege, Chacha; Batengana, Benard; Kollo, Douglas; Malima, Robert; Kafuko, Jessica; Mohamed, Mahdi; Magesa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Insecticide resistance molecular markers can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in Anopheles vector populations. Assaying these makers is of paramount importance in the resistance monitoring programme. We investigated the presence and distribution of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Tanzania. Methods Indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from 10 sites and tested for insecticide resistance using the standard WHO protocol. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics were used to genotype mosquitoes and detect kdr mutations. Results The An. gambiae tested were resistance to lambdacyhalothrin in Muheza, Arumeru and Muleba. Out of 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotyped, 35% were An. gambiae s.s. and 65% An. arabiensis. L1014S and L1014F mutations were detected in both An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. L1014S point mutation was found at the allelic frequency of 4–33%, while L1014F was at the allelic frequency 6–41%. The L1014S mutation was much associated with An. gambiae s.s. (χ2 = 23.41; P < 0.0001) and L1014F associated with An. arabiensis (χ2 = 11.21; P = 0.0008). The occurrence of the L1014S allele was significantly associated with lambdacyhalothrin resistance mosquitoes (Fisher exact P < 0.001). Conclusion The observed co-occurrence of L1014S and L1014F mutations coupled with reports of insecticide resistance in the country suggest that pyrethroid resistance is becoming a widespread phenomenon among our malaria vector populations. The presence of L1014F mutation in this East African mosquito population indicates the spreading of this gene across Africa. The potential operational implications of these findings on malaria control need further exploration. Objectif Les marqueurs moléculaires de la résistance aux insecticides peuvent fournir des indicateurs sensibles du développement de la résistance dans les populations de vecteurs Anopheles. Le test de ces

  8. Environmental occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  9. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  10. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  11. Analysis of co-occurrence networks with clique occurrence information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bin; Li, Yixiao

    2014-12-01

    Most of co-occurrence networks only record co-occurrence relationships between two entities, and ignore the weights of co-occurrence cliques whose size is bigger than two. However, this ignored information may help us to gain insight into the co-occurrence phenomena of systems. In this paper, we analyze co-occurrence networks with clique occurrence information (CNCI) thoroughly. First, we describe the components of CNCIs and discuss the generation of clique occurrence information. And then, to illustrate the importance and usefulness of clique occurrence information, several metrics, i.e. single occurrence rate, average size of maximal co-occurrence cliques and four types of co-occurrence coefficients etc., are given. Moreover, some applications, such as combining co-occurrence frequency with structure-oriented centrality measures, are also discussed.

  12. On the Occurrence of Counter Equatorial Electrojet Over Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A. B.; O, F. O.; Uozumi, T.

    2014-12-01

    This study engaged year 2009 data of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field obtained from four geomagnetic observatories in the East and West African meridians to study the occurrence of counter electrojet along the African longitudes: Ilorin (Nigeria: 4.68°E, 8.50°N; dip latitude, 1.82°S), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia: 38.77°E, 9.04°N; dip latitude, 0.18°N), Lagos (Nigeria: 3.27°E, 6.48°N; dip latitude 3.04°S), and Nairobi (Kenya: 36.48°E, 1.16°S; dip latitude 10.65°S). Data was obtained from the Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) installed and managed by the International Centre for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE), Japan. The diurnal and seasonal distribution of the occurrence of CEJ at Ilorin (West Africa) and Addis Ababa (East Africa) were examined. It was observed that the occurrence of morning CEJ is much prevalent along the East African longitude (90%) than the West African longitude (80.9%), while the evening CEJ is dominant along the West African longitude (82.9%) than the East African longitude (50%). The longitudinal variability in the occurrence of CEJ along these longitudes is attributed to the differences in meridional currents, variation in the local electric field in the ionosphere, and the gravity wave associated vertical winds. The simultaneity and asymmetry in the occurrence of CEJ were also investigated. The morning simultaneity is maximum (100%) is maximum than the evening simultaneity. The occurrence of Asym-2 is much prevalent at both longitudes (41.3%) than asym-1 (4.9%).

  13. NATIONAL CONTAMINANT OCCURRENCE DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Under the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments, EPA is to assemble a National Drinking Water Occurrence Database (NCOD) by August 1999. The NCOD is a collection of data of documented quality on unregulated and regulated chemical, radiological, microbia...

  14. Glycoproteins: Occurrence and Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Valentin

    Protein glycosylation is regarded as the most complex form of post-translational modification leading to a heterogeneous expression of glycoproteins as mixtures of glycoforms. This chapter describes the structure and occurrence of glycoproteins with respect to their glycan chains. Discussed are different carbohydrate-peptide linkages including GPI anchors, common structures of N- and O-glycans, and the structure of glycosaminoglycans contained in proteoglycans. Also covered are the bacterial cell wall polymer peptidoglycan and the glycopeptide antibiotics of the vancomycin group. Properties and functions of the glycans contained in glycoproteins are dealt with in the next chapter of this book.

  15. 2. DETAIL OF RUBBLE ABUTMENT AT WEST END OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF RUBBLE ABUTMENT AT WEST END OF WEST MULTNOMAH FALLS VIADUCT. - Historic Columbia River Highway, West Multnomah Falls Viaduct, West of Multnomah Falls on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  16. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the U.S. in ...

  17. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  18. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  19. Occurrence of halogenated alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Gordon W

    2012-01-01

    Once considered to be isolation artifacts or chemical "mistakes" of nature, the number of naturally occurring organohalogen compounds has grown from a dozen in 1954 to >5000 today. Of these, at least 25% are halogenated alkaloids. This is not surprising since nitrogen-containing pyrroles, indoles, carbolines, tryptamines, tyrosines, and tyramines are excellent platforms for biohalogenation, particularly in the marine environment where both chloride and bromide are plentiful for biooxidation and subsequent incorporation into these electron-rich substrates. This review presents the occurrence of all halogenated alkaloids, with the exception of marine bromotyrosines where coverage begins where it left off in volume 61 of The Alkaloids. Whereas the biological activity of these extraordinary compounds is briefly cited for some examples, a future volume of The Alkaloids will present full coverage of this topic and will also include selected syntheses of halogenated alkaloids. Natural organohalogens of all types, especially marine and terrestrial halogenated alkaloids, comprise a rapidly expanding class of natural products, in many cases expressing powerful biological activity. This enormous proliferation has several origins: (1) a revitalization of natural product research in a search for new drugs, (2) improved compound characterization methods (multidimensional NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry), (3) specific enzyme-based and other biological assays, (4) sophisticated collection methods (SCUBA and remote submersibles for deep ocean marine collections), (5) new separation and purification techniques (HPLC and countercurrent separation), (6) a greater appreciation of traditional folk medicine and ethobotany, and (7) marine bacteria and fungi as novel sources of natural products. Halogenated alkaloids are truly omnipresent in the environment. Indeed, one compound, Q1 (234), is ubiquitous in the marine food web and is found in the Inuit from their diet of whale

  20. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  1. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  2. 13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE WEST ANCHORAGE. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  4. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  5. WEST CLEAR CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, George E.; Bielski, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    Results of geologic, geochemical, and aeromagnetic studies and review of mineral records and prospect examination for the West Clear Creek Roadless Area, Arizona, indicate that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. No concentrations of minerals were identified within the boundary of the area. A small manganese deposit occurs 1-3 mi east of the area but does not extend into the area. Slightly anomalous values for certain trace metals were found in samples taken within the area, but do not indicate the presence of metallic resources. Gypsum, basaltic cinders, and sandstone occur in the area.

  6. 38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON WEST WALL AND OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  7. West side of the north and west wings of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of the north and west wings of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. Mycobacterium africanum—Review of an Important Cause of Human Tuberculosis in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Bouke C.; Antonio, Martin; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium africanum consists of two phylogenetically distinct lineages within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, known as M. africanum West African 1 and M. africanum West African 2. These lineages are restricted to West Africa, where they cause up to half of human pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we discuss the definition of M. africanum, describe the prevalence and restricted geographical distribution of M. africanum West African 1 and 2, review the occurrence of M. africanum in animals, and summarize the phenotypic differences described thus far between M. africanum and M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. PMID:20927191

  9. Treatment of West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Yoichi

    2011-03-01

    West syndrome is one of the most refractory epileptic syndromes in infancy, and many researchers have made great effort to find optimal treatment modalities for this syndrome. In this review, previous literature on optimal treatments of West syndrome and its refractory nature were briefly presented, followed by an introduction of recent publication of expert opinions from the US and Europe. An Asian expert opinion generated by a short questionnaire survey was then presented. It was shown that medically proven optimal treatment of West syndrome is not always the practical treatment of choice in Asian countries. Cost and geographical regions should also be taken into account in making practical choices for treatment of West syndrome. PMID:21196092

  10. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis H.

    1999-01-14

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices.

  11. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  12. Simulating multimodal seasonality in extreme daily precipitation occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, Mari R.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley J.; Stephenson, David B.; Kilsby, Christopher G.

    2016-06-01

    Floods pose multi-dimensional hazards to critical infrastructure and society and these hazards may increase under climate change. While flood conditions are dependent on catchment type and soil conditions, seasonal precipitation extremes also play an important role. The extreme precipitation events driving flood occurrence may arrive non-uniformly in time. In addition, their seasonal and inter-annual patterns may also cause sequences of several events and enhance likely flood responses. Spatial and temporal patterns of extreme daily precipitation occurrence are characterized across the UK. Extreme and very heavy daily precipitation is not uniformly distributed throughout the year, but exhibits spatial differences, arising from the relative proximity to the North Atlantic Ocean or North Sea. Periods of weeks or months are identified during which extreme daily precipitation occurrences are most likely to occur, with some regions of the UK displaying multimodal seasonality. A Generalized Additive Model is employed to simulate extreme daily precipitation occurrences over the UK from 1901 to 2010 and to allow robust statistical testing of temporal changes in the seasonal distribution. Simulations show that seasonality has the strongest correlation with intra-annual variations in extreme event occurrence, while Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) have the strongest correlation with inter-annual variations. The north and west of the UK are dominated by MSLP in the mid-North Atlantic and the south and east are dominated by local SST. All regions now have a higher likelihood of autumnal extreme daily precipitation than earlier in the twentieth century. This equates to extreme daily precipitation occurring earlier in the autumn in the north and west, and later in the autumn in the south and east. The change in timing is accompanied by increases in the probability of extreme daily precipitation occurrences during the autumn, and in the number of

  13. STUDY OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OCCURRENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SDWA Amendments of 1996 added a requirement for EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to jointly carry out "pilot waterborne disease occurrence studies for at least five major U.S. communities or public water systems" and "prepare a report on the findin...

  14. CHIRAL POLLUTANTS: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task involves process research to determine the environmental occurrence and fate of enantiomers of selected chiral pesticides, PCBs and other chiral pollutants with an emphasis on currently-used modern pesticides expected to have short to intermediate environmental half-liv...

  15. First natural occurrence of coesite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Madsen, B.M.

    1960-01-01

    Coesite, the high-pressure polymorph of SiO2, hitherto known only as a synthetic compound, is identified as an abundant mineral in sheared Coconino sandstone at Meteor Crater, Arizona. This natural occurrence has important bearing on the recognition of meteorite impact craters in quartz-bearing geologic formations.

  16. Composting moves west

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.

    1996-05-01

    The art and science of composting has been applied to handling municipally generated organic wastes (particularly leaves, brush, and grass) in the Eastern US for many years, but now municipal composting can be really said to have gone west. Using methods farmers have been perfecting almost since the dawn of agriculture, municipalities in the US operate more than 4,000 composting sites across the country. Although a few municipal composting facilities have operated in the Western US for more than 30 years, the combination of cheap, plentiful landfill space, low population density, and extreme climate has prevented composting in the West from growing as fast as it has in other parts of the US. But continued growth in the West, combined with ambitious recycling goals in some Western states, have allowed composting to establish a major foothold as a practical solid waste management alternative.

  17. Charleston folio, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Marius R.

    1901-01-01

    The Charleston quadrangle embraces an area of 938 square miles, extending from latitude 38° on the south to 38°30' to the north, and from longitude 81° 30' on the east to 82° on the west.  The quadrangle is located in the State of West Virginia, including parts of the counties of Kanawha, Boone, Putnam, and Lincoln, and is named from the city of Charleston, which is situated at the junction of Elk and Kanawha rivers, in the north-eastern part of the quadrangle.

  18. 5. WEST SIDE, FROM PARKING LOT WEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST SIDE, FROM PARKING LOT WEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, AND METAL RAILINGS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  20. 6. West side, details of west truss web and floorbeam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side, details of west truss web and floor-beam bracing by steel plates and steel rod; looking northeast - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  1. 35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: THE MOLDED STRINGCOURSE THAT PROJECTS FROM THE BASE OF THE FIRST FLOOR WINDOW ARCH AND VISIBLE WATERTABLE) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  2. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  3. 3. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL OF WEST FACE OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL OF WEST FACE OF WEST STATION HOUSE. GREEK REVIVAL WINDOW ENTABLATURE. - Union Elevated Railroad, Madison-Wabash Avenue Station, Madison Steet & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, part of original Forest Cottage as of 1901. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  5. 282. 183234 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (50511) TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    282. 1832-34 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (505-11) TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  6. 9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  8. GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

  9. NORTH VIEW OF WEST ABUTMNET FOR THE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH VIEW OF WEST ABUTMNET FOR THE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE) TO THE APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHWEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  10. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Narwade, Sujit; Kalra, Mohit; Jagdish, Rajkumar; Varier, Divya; Satpute, Sagar; Khan, Noor; Talukdar, Gautam; Mathur, V. B.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Pundir, Dinesh Singh; Chavan, Vishwas; Sood, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven states of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS). The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula. PMID:22207820

  11. 5. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, west of west gate. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay, west of west gate. View from the east. Rear of west breast wall is visible behind log timbers. Breast wall timbers are squared. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  12. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  13. West Texas State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ed D.

    1988-01-01

    Threats in the external environment, the arrival of a planning-oriented new president, and new regional reaccreditation criteria prompted West Texas State University to undertake a successful strategic planning venture. Leadership must focus strategic planning in a manner that recognizes the decentralized and collegial elements present in higher…

  14. West Virginia and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with West Virginia and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

  15. The West: Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA.

    This document consists of the printed components only of a PBS curriculum package intended to be used with the 9-videotape PBS documentary series entitled "The West." The complete curriculum package includes a teacher's guide, lesson plans, a student guide, audio tapes, a video index, and promotional poster. The teacher's guide and lesson plans…

  16. Global distributions and occurrence rates of transient luminous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Alfred B.; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Lee, Yi-Jen; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Chern, Jyh-Long; Frey, Harald U.; Mende, Stephen B.; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Fukunishi, Hiroshi; Chang, Yeou-Shin; Liu, Tie-Yue; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    2008-08-01

    We report the global transient luminous event (TLE) distributions and rates based on the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. ISUAL observations cover 45°S to 25°N latitude during the northern summer and 25°S to 45°N latitude during the northern winter. From July 2004 to June 2007, ISUAL recorded 5,434 elves, 633 sprites, 657 halos, and 13 gigantic jets. Surprisingly, elve is the dominant type of TLEs, while sprites/halos are a distant second. Elve occurrence rate jumps as the sea surface temperature exceeds 26 degrees Celsius, manifesting an ocean-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. In the ISUAL survey, elves concentrate over the Caribbean Sea, South China Sea, east Indian Ocean, central Pacific Ocean, west Atlantic Ocean, and southwest Pacific Ocean; while sprites congregate over central Africa, Japan Sea, and west Atlantic Ocean. The ISUAL experiment observed global rates of 3.23, 0.50, 0.39, and 0.01 events per minute for elves, sprites, halos, and gigantic jets, respectively. Taking the instrumental detection sensitivity and the restricted survey area into account, the corrected global occurrence rates for sprites and elves likely are a factor of two and an order of magnitude higher, respectively. ISUAL observations also indicate that the relative frequency of high peak current lightning (>80 kA) is 10 times higher over the oceans than over the land. On the basis of the corrected ISUAL elve global occurrence rate, the total electron content at the lower ionosphere above elve hot zones was computed to be elevated by more than 5%.

  17. BIG SANDY, WEST ELLIOTTS CREEK, AND REED BRAKE ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys done in the Big Sandy, West Elliotts Creek, and Reed Brake Roadless Areas, Alabama, indicate that the areas have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. The three areas, however, have a probable potential for oil or gas. Probable coal resource potential exists in the Big Sandy and the West Elliotts Creek Roadless Areas. Clay and abundant sand resources occur in the roadless areas. Clayey sand has been used to stabilize roads and in road grade construction.

  18. West Candor Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows west Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame. The image is a composite of Viking high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. West Candor Chasma occupies the westernmost part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. West Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by straight-walled cliffs, most likely faults, and on its west by two segments of north-northeast-trending cliffs. The north wall is dissected by landslide scars forming reentrants filled with landslide debris. The south wall shows spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The high-standing central mesa, informally dubbed Red Mesa has several curvilinear reentrants carved into the caprock, whose anomalously colored layers were interpreted to be caused by young hydrothermal alteration products (Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus, v. 106, p. 380-391). Light-colored lobes flow away from the top of the interior stack and then flow around and embay the same layered stack from which they originated. One of these apparent flow features is composed of at least two or perhaps even three huge, superposed, vaguely layered, very rugged, light-colored lobes as much as 100 km long, 20 km wide, and over 2 km thick. The layered deposits below the caprock also merge with a chaotic material that has local lobate fronts and overlaps landslide deposits. Hummocky material, similar in hue to wall rock, fills the southwestern-most region of west Candor Chasma and is perhaps as much as 3

  19. Occurrence reporting and processing of operations information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-21

    DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (``Reportable Occurrences``); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department`s performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations.

  20. Colorado quartz: occurrence and discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Modreski, P.J.; Kile, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The many varieties and associations of quartz found throughout the state rank it as one of the premier worldwide localities for that species. This paper briefly outlines the historical importance of the mineral, the mining history and the geological setting before discussing the varieties of quartz present, its crystallography and the geological enviroments in which it is found. The latter include volcanic rocks and near surface igneous rocks; pegmatites; metamorphic and plutonic rocks; hydrothermal veins; skarns and sedimentary deposits. Details of the localities and mode of occurrence of smoky quartz, amethyst, milky quartz, rock crystal, rose quartz, citrine, agate and jasper are then given. -S.J.Stone

  1. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  2. West Indian amblyopia.

    PubMed Central

    Fasler, J. J.; Rose, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    A series of 21 patients admitted to St Thomas' Hospital, Medical Ophthalmology Unit, with a diagnosis of West Indian or West African amblyopia is reported. Patients were investigated for haematological, biochemical, serological, and radiological abnormalities and particular attention was paid to dietary history. Patients admitted in recent years also underwent neurophysiological investigations. No definite correlation between visual loss and dietary or family history was found, and there was no evidence that the improvement in vision which occurred in just under half the patients on follow-up was related to treatment with hydroxocobalamin or multivitamins. Visual-evoked responses in 4 patients showed a prolonged latency suggesting optic nerve demyelination, while in only one case was the electro-oculogram definitely subnormal. These findings contrast with those in 'toxic' amblyopias and suggest that the syndrome of West Indian amblyopoa may be due to bilateral optic nerve demyelination of unknown aetiology rather than the effect of toxic substances or nutritional deficiency on the retina. PMID:7443605

  3. Substorm statistics: Occurrences and amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, J.E.; Nemzek, R.J.

    1994-05-01

    The occurrences and amplitudes of substorms are statistically investigated with the use of three data sets: the AL index, the Los Alamos 3-satellite geosynchronous energetic-electron measurements, and the GOES-5 and -6 geosynchronous magnetic-field measurements. The investigation utilizes {approximately} 13,800 substorms in AL, {approximately} 1400 substorms in the energetic-electron flux, and {approximately} 100 substorms in the magnetic field. The rate of occurrence of substorms is determined as a function of the time of day, the time of year, the amount of magnetotail bending, the orientation of the geomagnetic dipole, the toward/away configuration of the IMF, and the parameters of the solar wind. The relative roles of dayside reconnection and viscous coupling in the production of substorms are assessed. Three amplitudes are defined for a substorms: the jump in the AL index, the peak of the >30-keV integral electron flux at geosynchronous orbit near midnight, and the angle of rotation of the geosynchronous magnetic field near midnight. The substorm amplitudes are statistically analyzed, the amplitude measurements are cross correlated with each other, and the substorm amplitudes are determined as functions of the solar-wind parameters. Periodically occurring and randomly occurring substorms are analyzed separately. The energetic-particle-flux amplitudes are consistent with unloading and the AL amplitudes are consistent with direct driving plus unloading.

  4. Lineaments and Mineral Occurrences in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conservative lineament map of Pennsylvania interpreted from ERTS-1 channel 7 (infrared) imagery and Skylab photography was compared with the distribution of known metallic mines and mineral occurrences. Of 383 known mineral occurrences, 116 show a geographical association to 1 km wide lineaments, another 24 lie at the intersection of two lineaments, and one lies at the intersection of three lineaments. The Perkiomen Creek lineament in the Triassic Basin is associated with 9 Cu-Fe occurrences. Six Pb-Zn occurrences are associated with the Tyrone-Mount Union lineament. Thirteen other lineaments are associated with 3, 4, or 5 mineral occurrences each.

  5. 6. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate. View from the south, looking north at the southern or rear wall of the crib. In the background, west gate sill and bay is visible. Canal chamber is in upper right background. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  6. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect

    De Jager, J. ); Doyle, M. ); Grantham, P. ); Mabillard, J. )

    1993-09-01

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  7. Oceanography of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Bemiasa

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

  8. West Arabia Barchans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows small barchan dunes on the floor of a crater in western Arabia Terra. Similar dunes are found in most of the larger craters of the region. The steepest slopes on these dunes, their slipfaces, point toward the west-southwest, indicating that dominant winds blow from the east-northeast (upper right).

    Location near: 10.9oN, 2.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  9. Human and biophysical influences on fire occurrence in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hammer, Roger B.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Clayton, Murray K.

    2013-01-01

    National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model the drivers of fire occurrence within ecoregions across the conterminous United States. We used generalized linear models to compare the relative influence of human, vegetation, climate, and topographic variables on fire occurrence in the United States, as measured by MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2006. We constructed models for all fires and for large fires only and generated predictive maps to quantify fire occurrence probabilities. Areas with high fire occurrence probabilities were widespread in the Southeast, and localized in the Mountain West, particularly in southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Probabilities for large-fire occurrence were generally lower, but hot spots existed in the western and south-central United States The probability of fire occurrence is a critical component of fire risk assessments, in addition to vegetation type, fire behavior, and the values at risk. Many of the hot spots we identified have extensive development in the wildland–urban interface and are near large metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrated that human variables were important predictors of both all fires and large fires and frequently exhibited nonlinear relationships. However, vegetation, climate, and topography were also significant variables in most ecoregions. If recent housing growth trends and fire occurrence patterns continue, these areas will continue to challenge policies and management efforts seeking to balance the risks generated by wildfires with the ecological benefits of fire.

  10. Human and biophysical influences on fire occurrence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hawbaker, Todd J; Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B; Keuler, Nicholas S; Clayton, Murray K

    2013-04-01

    National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model the drivers of fire occurrence within ecoregions across the conterminous United States. We used generalized linear models to compare the relative influence of human, vegetation, climate, and topographic variables on fire occurrence in the United States, as measured by MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2006. We constructed models for all fires and for large fires only and generated predictive maps to quantify fire occurrence probabilities. Areas with high fire occurrence probabilities were widespread in the Southeast, and localized in the Mountain West, particularly in southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Probabilities for large-fire occurrence were generally lower, but hot spots existed in the western and south-central United States The probability of fire occurrence is a critical component of fire risk assessments, in addition to vegetation type, fire behavior, and the values at risk. Many of the hot spots we identified have extensive development in the wildland--urban interface and are near large metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrated that human variables were important predictors of both all fires and large fires and frequently exhibited nonlinear relationships. However, vegetation, climate, and topography were also significant variables in most ecoregions. If recent housing growth trends and fire occurrence patterns continue, these areas will continue to challenge policies and management efforts seeking to balance the risks generated by wildfires with the ecological benefits of fire. PMID:23734486

  11. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis; Yannimaras, Demetrios

    1999-11-03

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer.

  12. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  13. 42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY, BEHIND WHICH ARE MOUNTED JIGS AND PATTERNS FOR WINDMILL AND STEEL WATER TANK CONSTRUCTION, AS WELL AS THIN SHEET STEEL STENCILS USED FOR MARKING PRODUCTS WITH PAINT. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  14. 8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST DAM, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTLET TO RIGHT OF DAM, NEW PUMP PLANT BUILDING AND CANAL TO LEFT OF DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  15. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 14. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. SHOWS CONCRETE AND WOODED WINDOWS, DRIP CAST IN THE EAVES, AND SEA OF DARKNESS TILE MOSAIC SET IN THE WALL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  17. 87. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. SHOWS CONCRETE AND WOODEN WINDOWS. DRIP CAST IN THE EAVES. AND SEA OF DARKNESS TILE MOSAIC SET IN THE WALL. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-14. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  18. 8. Looking to the west, to the west lock gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Looking to the west, to the west lock gate and pool. The ramp from U.S. 24 to the elevated new section of I-469 is in the background. View was taken from INDOT temporary service road. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  19. 7. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL: Crib supporting bay west of west gate, view looking north. Close-up view of floor, with several boulders shown under log timbers in situ. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  20. 18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ORE BIN AND TRESTLE FROM TWO JOHNS TRAMLINE TO SOUTH, CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND. MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND. THE TRAM TO PORTLAND PASSED TO NORTH OF MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. 29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No date. (The field welding was by the Teleweld Corporation of Chicago, with four Lincoln welders from Tuesday, April 19 to Monday, May 16, 1949. 528 man hours of welders' time) - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  2. Coal bed methane research in West Virginia's northern coalfield

    SciTech Connect

    Repine, T.E. Jr.; Blake, B.M. Jr.; Ashton, K.C.; Schwietering, J.F.; Grady, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Production of coal bed methane from virgin coal beds within the northern West Virginia coalfield is presently limited to several small fields in Wetzel County. Approximately 50 years of periodic activity have yielded wells with reported initial productions of between 30 and 60 mcf per day from the 500-ft-deep Pittsburgh and slightly shallower Sewickley coal beds. Current exploration within this region is focused on multiple-seam completions, utilizing the more predictable areal geology of the Sewickley and Pittsburgh coal beds (Upper Pennsylvanian/Monongahela Group), plus the assumed higher methane potential of the more deeply buried and less well studied Freeport and Kittanning (Middle Pennsylvanian/Allegheny Formation) and the undivided Pottsville Group (Lower to Middle Pennsylvanian) coal beds. Regional gas contents indicate moderately gassy (generally less than 200 ft{sup 3} of gas per ton of coal) coal beds. The West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey is using a Gas Research Institute grant to review available data describing the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, and water in West Virginia's northern coalfield. Subdrainage overburden maps, which eliminate the impact of topography on overburden calculations, have been constructed to assist both regional and local exploration. Limited core samples are available to study the relationship between vitrinite reflectance and gas contents. Similar studies involving gas content versus ash content of in-seam benches are planned. Preliminary coal isopleth maps indicate a greater frequency of occurrence of coal beds in the southern portion of the study area.

  3. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  4. On-off intermittency in earthquake occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, M.; Godano, C.

    2007-02-15

    The clustered occurrence of earthquakes is viewed as an intermittent phenomenon, interpreting the clusters of events as chaotic bursts combined to the Poissonian occurrence of background seismicity. In particular, we suggest that it can be interpreted as an example of on-off intermittency. This kind of intermittency is parameter driven and exhibits certain universal statistical properties. The study of a Californian catalogue allows to interpret earthquake occurrence as an on-off intermittent phenomenon. Our results suggest the existence of a branching mechanism in earthquake occurrence well explained by epidemic type models.

  5. Ebola in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  6. West Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposures in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Most of west Candor's interior includes exposures of layered rock with very few superimposed impact craters. The rock may be very ancient, but the lack of craters suggests that the erosion of these materials is on-going.

    Location near: 6.3oS, 76.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  7. Ebola in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  8. West of Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    7 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an eroded landscape occurring west of Sinus Meridiani, the region in which the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, landed nearly a year ago. The bedrock at this location is buried beneath a mantle of dust, sand, and granules, but remnants of younger layers of bedrock now stand high in the form of buttes in the lower right quarter of the image. The two circular mesas were once meteor impact craters. They were filled, buried, and fossilized within the rock, then later exhumed. This scene is located near 1.5oN, 6.2oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across, and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  9. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  10. [West African childbirth traditions].

    PubMed

    Hallgren, R

    1983-11-01

    Religious and medical practices are steeped in the traditions of West African culture vis-a-vis childbirth. It is customary for delivery to occur with the woman squatting on the ground surrounded by sisters and female relatives, some of whom function as midwives. Midwives get paid only if delivery is successful. A stool is also often used in childbirth. The name given to a child in the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria has to refer to the circumstances of the individual's birth. The contact with the earth (as in the squatting position) has religious overtones--it indicates the fecundity of the earth, and the mother's contact with it. Infertility is considered the greatest tragedy in traditional African society. In Senegal, a childless woman pays a fertile one a certain sum in return for bearing her a child who would be raised as her own (this tradition is not unlike surrogate motherhood in Western countries). Men are never present at birth; however, in urban settings this practice is changing. The burial of the placenta and umbilical cord is thought to restore the woman's fertility and help heal her womb. This practice was even recorded in 19th century Sweden harkening back to heathen times. In Ghana, an infertile woman urinates on the ground where the placenta is buried in the belief that her fertility will be restored. The birth of twins is regarded as a great blessing, and as a sign of fertility; however, the inability of the mother to breast-feed both twins may result in the death of the weaker child. The harmony of nature, animals, and human beings is paramount in traditional West Africa religion and life, and undoubtedly Western culture could learn from some of these beliefs. PMID:6558064

  11. West-Side Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marochnik, L. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with the history of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The motivation to write the paper was the publication of two papers on the history of these theories (Pasha 2004a, b). Pasha's papers tell only a part of the story that took place on the Western side of the Iron Curtain in the 1960s. But giving only a part of the full story is a distortion of historical truth. Important work done on the Eastern side of the Iron Curtain is still little known in the West. In this paper, I fill the gaps and correct chronological inaccuracies in Pasha's story and mention facts that are still unknown (or little known) to the astronomical community in the West. I also give my recollection of the development of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The paper gives examples of important results in the theory of density waves in galaxies that are mistakenly attributed to C. C. Lin, F. H. Shu, Y.Y. Lau, C. Yuan and others, meanwhile they were obtained earlier by L. Marochnik, A. Suchkov and others. Below is another example. Both "famous" paper of Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) and Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) have appeared simultaneously in March of 1969. Both papers dealt, in particular, with the comparison of theory with observations. However, in the frame of their WKB approximation, Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) employed an incorrect approach. It was a direct consequence of Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) analysis and led to the far-going consequences. The paper has been published at the http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0501170 web site.

  12. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  13. New evidence for the West Florida Shelf Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbes, Fernando; Müller-Karger, Frank E.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.

    2002-11-01

    The occurrence of an episodic chlorophyll plume detected on the West Florida Shelf between 1979 and 1986 was confirmed in March 1995 with shipboard data and in March 1998 with new ocean color data from the SeaWiFS sensor. New evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that diatom blooms off Apalachicola Bay are the precursor of the seasonal West Florida Shelf plume, and that the nutrient requirements for such blooms, especially silicate, can be supported by river discharge. The observations indicate that the impact of rivers is maximal over the middle shelf and decreases over the outer shelf. Salinity and discharge measurements support the concept that the Apalachicola River had a major impact at distances exceeding 100 km from the coast and that it plays an important role in the formation of offshore blooms. Preliminary analyses suggest that successional processes lead to cryptophytes dominating in the offshore blooms.

  14. OCCURRENCE OF ACID PRECIPITATION ON THE WEST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compilation of published and unpublished data shows acid precipitation to be more widespread in the Pacific coastal states than is generally recognized. Although information is scattered and discontinuous, precipitation is definitely acidic in the Los Angeles Basin and north-cent...

  15. UMTRA project list of reportable occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This UMTRA Project List of Reportable occurrences is provided to facilitate efficient categorization of reportable occurrences. These guidelines have been established in compliance with DOE minimum reporting requirements under DOE Order 5000.3B. Occurrences are arranged into nine groups relating to US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project operations for active sites. These nine groupings are provided for reference to determined whether an occurrence meets reporting requirement criteria in accordance with the minimum reporting requirements. Event groups and significance categories that cannot or will not occur, and that do not apply to UMTRA Project operations, are omitted. Occurrence categorization shall be as follows: Group 1. Facility Condition; Group 2. Environmental; Group 3. Personnel Safety; Group 4. Personnel Radiation Protection; Group 5. Safeguards and Security; Group 6. Transportation; Group 7. Value Basis Reporting; Group 8. Facility Status; and Group 9. Cross-Category Items.

  16. Parenting Behavior and the Occurrence and Co-occurrence of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated prevalence of the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and conduct problems in a community sample of 10th-grade adolescents participating in a four-year longitudinal study. Found that early hostile parent behavior increased the probability of later occurrence and co-occurrence of elevated depressive symptoms and conduct problems, whereas…

  17. Case report: coal mine subsidence in Farmington, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The cause of the ground movements that occurred in the town of Farmington, West Virginia in Oct. 1975 were investigated. The Farmington incident represents an extreme case of mine subsidence in the northern Appalachian coal field. It was found that subsidence can take place above mines that are several hundred feet below the ground surface and can extend over tens of acres; it can sometimes be mistaken for other forms of ground movement, e.g., landslides; its occurrence may be delayed until many years after completion of mining; and it can take place even where accepted mining practices have been followed.

  18. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  19. 46. View looking west, toward west gate. Planks were laid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. View looking west, toward west gate. Planks were laid in the mud (center left) so that visitors could view the inside of the south, forebay crib and examine the unusual right-handed counter foil. A visiting engineer perceived this as quite 'modern'. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  20. 51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELLSERVICE SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. AT LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND IS 1960S PICKUP TRUCK, THE LAST MOTOR VEHICLE USED IN WELL SERVICE BY THE KREGEL WINDMILL COMPANY. MOST OF THE OBJECTS VISIBLE IN THIS VIEW ARE CLUTTER NOT RELATED TO THE WELL SERVICE BUSINESS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  1. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  2. West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, James J

    2016-06-01

    Although long recognized as a human pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV) emerged as a significant public health problem following its introduction and spread across North America. Subsequent years have seen a greater understanding of all aspects of this viral infection. The North American epidemic resulted in a further understanding of the virology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and epidemiology of WNV infection. Approximately 80% of human WNV infections are asymptomatic. Most symptomatic people experience an acute systemic febrile illness; less than 1% of infected people develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically manifests as meningitis, encephalitis, or anterior myelitis resulting in acute flaccid paralysis. Older age is associated with more severe illness and higher mortality; other risk factors for poor outcome have been challenging to identify. In addition to natural infection through mosquito bites, transfusion- and organ transplant-associated infections have occurred. Since there is no definitive treatment for WNV infection, protection from mosquito bites and other preventative measures are critical. WNV has reached an endemic pattern in North America, but the future epidemiologic pattern is uncertain. PMID:27337465

  3. Hydrothermal Occurrences in Gusev Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Milliken, R.; Mills, V. W.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration of the Gusev crater landing site by the Spirit rover has revealed for the first time, in situ evidence of hydrothermal activity on Mars. Most compelling are eroded outcrops of opaline silica found adjacent to "Home Plate" [1], an eroded stack of volcaniclastic deposits stratigraphically overlain by a vesicular basalt unit [2]. Recent work [3] demonstrates that the silica outcrops occur in a stratiform unit that possibly surrounds Home Plate. The outcrops are dominated by opal-A with no evidence for diagenesis to other silica phases. No other hydrous or alteration phases have been identified within the outcrops; most notable is a lack of sulfur phases. The outcrops have porous and in some cases, brecciated microtextures. Taken together, these observations support the interpretation that the opaline silica outcrops were produced in a hot spring or perhaps geyser environment. In this context, they are silica sinter deposits precipitated from silica-rich hydrothermal fluids, possibly related to the volcanism that produced the Home Plate volcanic rocks. On Earth, debris aprons in which sinter is brecciated, reworked, and cemented, are common features of hot springs and geysers and are good analogs for the Martian deposits. An alternative hypothesis is that the silica resulted from acid-sulfate leaching of precursor rocks by fumarolic steam condensates. But stratigraphic, textural, and chemical observations tend to diminish this possibility [3]. We are conducting extensive laboratory and field investigations of silica from both hot spring/geyser and fumarole environments to understand the full range of mineralogical, chemical, textural, and morphological variations that accompany its production, in order to shed more light on the Home Plate occurrence. The recent discovery of abundant Mg-Fe carbonate (16-34 wt%) in outcrops named Comanche provides possible evidence for additional hydrothermal activity in Gusev [4]. However, the carbonate is hosted by olivine

  4. Common raven occurrence in relation to transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  5. Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence relative to large-scale edge and habitat characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, P.B.; Bosworth, S.B.; Dettmers, R.

    2006-02-15

    We examined Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) abundance and occurrence in southwestern West Virginia, where the coal-mining technique of mountaintop removal mining-valley fill converts large contiguous tracts of deciduous forest to forest patches surrounded by early successional habitats. Our study objectives were to quantify abundance and occurrence of Cerulean Warblers relative to (1) distance from the edge of extensive reclaimed grasslands and (2) habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Cerulean Warbler abundance increased with distance from the edge and edge effects extended 340 m into the forest. Percent occurrence did not vary with distance from mine edge, suggesting a degree of tolerance to the extensive edge occurring at the interface of forest and reclaimed lands. Abundance and occurrence were greater on ridges and midslopes than in bottomlands; consequently, disturbances such as mountaintop mining in which ridges are removed may have a greater impact on populations compared to other sources of fragmentation where ridges are not disturbed. It was found that, in addition to outright loss of forested habitat, mountaintop mining-valley fill alters the spatial configuration of forested habitats, creating edge and area effects that negatively affect Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence in the reclaimed mine landscape.

  6. GeoPowering the West

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  7. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  8. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  9. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  10. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  11. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section...

  12. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005). PMID:16965710

  13. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsley, K. J.; Rathburn, S. L.; Friedman, J. M.; Mangano, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  14. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers. PMID:27059223

  15. Debris flow occurrence and sediment persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimsley, Kyle J; Rathburn, Sara L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  16. Seismicity of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A four year seismic study has found the Basin and Range province of west Texas and the adjacent area of Mexico to be more seismically active then than heretofore known. A University of Texas five station seismic array around the Marfa Basin has located or detected approximately 800 local and regional earthquakes with S-P times of less than 30 sec. A crustal model for the Basin and Range is derived from natural and artificial sources and contains four layers having velocities of 3.60, 4.93, 6.11, and 6.60 km/sec, respectively, overlying a mantle of 8.37 km/sec. A moderate level of seismic activity has been detected near Van Horn, in the Marfa Basin, and along the Texas-Mexico border between latitudes 30 and 31/sup 0/N. Five earthquake sequences were recorded, two near the Texas-Mexico border and three in the Marfa Basin. Four of these sequences showed quiescent periods in foreshock activity preceding the main shock. On the eastern side of the Marfa Basin a diffuse linear seismic zone may represent an unmapped fault, striking N 50/sup 0/W that coincides with Muehlberger's proposed eastern boundary of Basin and Range faulting. A new epicenter for the Valentine, Texas earthquake of August 16, 1931 has been relocated instrumentally at the northern end of this diffuse zone. Regional and local teleseismic P-wave arrival time anomalies observed for the nearby Gnome underground nuclear explosion of 1961 are used to determine station corrections and thus to locate the new 1931 epicenter at 3.69/sup 0/N, 104.57/sup 0/W. Several estimates of magnitude (m/sub b/) based on intensity data range from 5.6 to 6.4. Fault-plane and composite fault-plane solutions support Muehlberger's hypothesis that the Basin and Range is undergoing extension in a SW-NE direction.

  17. [Prediction model of human-caused fire occurrence in the boreal forest of northern China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fu-tao; Su, Zhang-wen; Wang, Guang-yu; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Long; Yang, Ting-ting

    2015-07-01

    The Chinese boreal forest is an important forest resource in China. However, it has been suffering serious disturbances of forest fires, which were caused equally by natural disasters (e.g., lightning) and human activities. The literature on human-caused fires indicates that climate, topography, vegetation, and human infrastructure are significant factors that impact the occurrence and spread of human-caused fires. But the studies on human-caused fires in the boreal forest of northern China are limited and less comprehensive. This paper applied the spatial analysis tools in ArcGIS 10.0 and Logistic regression model to investigate the driving factors of human-caused fires. Our data included the geographic coordinates of human-caused fires, climate factors during year 1974-2009, topographic information, and forest map. The results indicated that distance to railway (x1) and average relative humidity (x2) significantly impacted the occurrence of human-caused fire in the study area. The logistic model for predicting the fire occurrence probability was formulated as P= 1/[11+e-(3.026-0.00011x1-0.047x2)] with an accuracy rate of 80%. The above model was used to predict the monthly fire occurrence during the fire season of 2015 based on the HADCM2 future weather data. The prediction results showed that the high risk of human-caused fire occurrence concentrated in the months of April, May, June and August, while April and May had higher risk of fire occurrence than other months. According to the spatial distribution of possibility of fire occurrence, the high fire risk zones were mainly in the west and southwest of Tahe, where the major railways were located. PMID:26710638

  18. Brief Communication: Freaque wave occurrences in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P. C.

    2014-11-01

    Documenting freaque waves when they occured around the globe in 2013 is based here on news reports on the internet. It was found that there were a total 22 cases of freaque waves in 2013, based on those reported in clearly-defined physically specific environments. There were three cases in the deep ocean, six in nearshore areas, seven on sandy beaches, and seven on rocky shore areas. Note that most of the academic research has been on freaque waves in the deep ocean, which accounts for 13% of all occurrences. The majority of reported occurrences, 87%, are in the nearshore areas or along the beach area. Geographically, these cases are also fairly evenly spread around the globe. As of now, there is no general knowledge regarding the frequency of occurrence of these freaque waves, so that one may assume that 2013 was a customary year for freaque wave occurrences.

  19. Managing occurrence branching in qualitative simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, L.

    1996-12-31

    Qualitative simulators can produce common sense abstractions of complex behaviors given only partial knowledge about a system. One of the problems which limits the applicability of qualitative simulators is the intractable branching of successor states encountered with model of even modest size. Some branches may be unavoidable due to the complex nature of a system. Other branches may be accidental results of the model chosen. A common source of intractability is occurrence branching. Occurrence branching occurs when the state transitions of two variables are unordered with respect to each other. This paper extends the QSIM model to distinguish between interesting occurrence branching and uninteresting occurrence branching. A representation, algorithm, and simulator for efficiently handling uninteresting branching is presented.

  20. Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, O.

    1981-03-05

    The work focused on the occurrences of geopressures in Appalachia and selected California basins. In the former region, where geopressures have been observed, the pressure gradients for the most part were only slightly above normal as in the case of the Oriskany formation of Devonian age; this unit was also characterized by extremely high salinity. The one notable exception was in the Rome trough of West Virginia where Cambrian beds at depths below 10,000 feet display very high geopressures, approaching the lithostatic gradient, and the waters are only moderately saline. Though the geothermal gradient throughout Appalachian is relatively low, even in the Rome trough, the pressure, temperature and salinity values in this area indicate that the methane content of the Cambrian formation waters is in the range of 30 to 35 SCF/barrel. The two California areas researched included the contiguous Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. In the first, geopressures have been principally encountered in the Forbes formation of Cretaceous age, often at very shallow depths. Further waters are invariably characterized by very low salinity, far below the salinity of normal sea water, while the geothermal gradient in apparently higher in geopressured than in normally pressured zones. In the San Joaquin Valley, geopressures are particularly noteworthy in at least two formations of Miocene age at depths generally greater than those of the Forbes. The formation waters are likewise low in salinity; however, the geothemal gradient, especially in the geopressured zones on the west side of the valley, can be extremely high, up to twice as much as the normal temperature gradient. In view of these conditions, it is estimated that in the western San Joaquin Valley the methane content of geopressured formation waters will range from 30 to 40 SCF/barrel while in the Sacramento Valley, the methane content is estimated to be 20 to 25 SCF/barrel.

  1. Computerized medication administration records decrease medication occurrences.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Hill, J J; Wilson, R G; Nipper, K; Kwon, I W

    1997-04-01

    Studies have demonstrated that medication errors occur at a number of locations in the continuum between ordering of drug therapy and administration of the medication. Computer management of patient medication profiles offers the opportunity to enhance communication between pharmacists and nurses, and to decrease medication errors and delays in delivery of therapy. A number of authors have postulated that computerization of medication profiles would enhance medication delivery accuracy and timeliness, but no study has demonstrated this improvement. We report the results of a retrospective analysis undertaken to assess the improvements resulting from sharing a computerized medication record. We used a broader definition of medication occurrences that includes the more traditional definition, and averted errors, delays in delivery of medications and information, and disagreements between pharmacy and nursing medication profiles. We compared medication occurrences reported through an existing internal system between two periods; the first when separate pharmacy and nursing medication records were used, and the second period when a shared medication record was used by pharmacy and nursing. Average medication occurrences per admission decreased from 0.1084 to 0.0658 (p < 0.01). Medication occurrences per dose decreased from 0.0005 to 0.0003 (p < 0.01). The use of a shared medication record by pharmacy and nursing led to a statistically significant decrease in medication occurrences. Information shared between the two professions allowed timely resolution of discrepancies in medication orders, leading to better execution of drug therapy, decreased medication occurrences, and increased efficiency. PMID:10166241

  2. Comparison of drought occurrence in selected Slovak and Czech catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Porubska, Diana; Hanel, Martin; Horacek, Stanislav; Martinkova, Marta; Vizina, Adam

    2014-05-01

    the discharges were re-calculated into specific discharge and base flow. The results showed that drought occurrence in evaluated Czech and Slovak catchment reflects very variable physical conditions in catchments, first of all the location of the catchment (latitude and altitude). The latitude difference reflects itself in starting time of drought which often propagates from the west to the east. The altitude is reflected in the seasonal pattern of drought, where drought in higher altitudes occurs much often in winter-spring period whereas in lower altitudes the summer-autumn droughts prevail. Total number of droughts with duration of more than 50 days was much higher in Slovak than in Czech catchments, which could reflect the more continental character of climate in Slovakia. Drought occurrence in Žitava catchment often followed the drought in Czech catchments; especially the drought in Teplá. On the other hand, drought occurrence in the Metuje catchment was in some cases closer to drought development in Slovakia than in other two Czech catchments. The longest drought in discharges, estimated for Rakovnický potok by the method of SPA lasting for 1569 days in 2006 - 2010 period was caused probably by the human activities, because in none of other evaluated catchments such a long drought in the same or similar period occurred. Acknowledgments The research was done and results were published with the financial contribution of project No. APVV-0089-12 as well as projects No. 7AMB12SK167 and APVV-SK-CZ-0156-11 financed by the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic and APVV agency of the Slovak Republic.

  3. Tracer redistribution by clouds in West Africa: Numerical modeling for dry and wet seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Renard, M.; Chaumerliac, N.; Cautenet, S.; Nickerson, E.C. |

    1994-06-01

    The vertical transport by clouds of an inert tracer and its redistribution by complex West African circulations are examined using a two-dimensional mesoscale meteorological model with explicit microphysics. The model reproduces the tropical distribution of clouds and precipitation along a meridional cross section over West Africa, corresponding to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the dry and rainy seasons. The resulting redistribution of the inert tracer is therefore closely related to the northward migration of the ITCZ between January and July. The occurrence of biomass burning during the dry season is shown to be an important source of tracer enrichment at upper levels in the atmosphere.

  4. Recognition of the Script in Serbian Documents Using Frequency Occurrence and Co-Occurrence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brodić, Darko; Milivojević, Zoran N.; Maluckov, Čedomir A.

    2013-01-01

    Any document in Serbian language can be written in two different scripts: Latin or Cyrillic. Although characteristics of these scripts are similar, some of their statistical measures are quite different. The paper proposed a method for the extraction of certain script from document according to the occurrence and co-occurrence of the script types. First, each letter is modeled with the certain script type according to characteristics concerning its position in baseline area. Then, the frequency analysis of the script types occurrence is performed. Due to diversity of Latin and Cyrillic script, the occurrence of modeled letters shows substantial statistics dissimilarity. Furthermore, the co-occurrence matrix is computed. The analysis of the co-occurrence matrix draws a strong margin as a criteria to distinguish and recognize the certain script. The proposed method is analyzed on the case of a database which includes different types of printed and web documents. The experiments gave encouraging results. PMID:24385887

  5. An exploratory study on occurrence and impact of climate change on agriculture in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, R. Jayakumara; Kumar, Pramod; Jha, Girish Kumar; Pal, Suresh; Singh, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    This study has been undertaken to examine the occurrence of climate change in Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state of India and its impact on rainfall pattern which is a primary constraint for agricultural production. Among the five sample stations examined across the state, the minimum temperature has increased significantly in Coimbatore while the same has decreased significantly in Vellore whereas both minimum and maximum temperatures have increased significantly in Madurai since 1969 with climate change occurring between late 1980s and early 1990s. As a result, the south-west monsoon has been disturbed with August rainfall increasing with more dispersion while September rainfall decreasing with less dispersion. Thus, September, the peak rainfall month of south-west monsoon before climate change, has become the monsoon receding month after climate change. Though there has been no change in the trend of the north-east monsoon, the quantity of October and November rainfall has considerably increased with increased dispersion after climate change. On the whole, south-west monsoon has decreased with decreased dispersion while north-east monsoon has increased with increased dispersion. Consequently, the season window for south-west monsoon crops has shortened while the north-east monsoon crops are left to fend against flood risk during their initial stages. Further, the incoherence in warming, climate change and rainfall impact seen across the state necessitates devising different indigenous and institutional adaptation strategies for different regions to overcome the adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture.

  6. 51. View looking west, toward the west bay of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View looking west, toward the west bay of the lock. A derrick parked on a bench adjacent to U.S. 24 lowers its harness for the raising of a crib back wall section. The flat bed truck used to transport the timbers to the holding tank can be seen in the background, to the right, beyond the crane. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  7. Cryoglobulinemia as an Initial Manifestation of Underlying Hematological Malignancy: A Rare Occurrence in India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narender; Das, Reena; Chandra, Dinesh; Malhotra, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Cryoglobulinemias rarely been reported from India even though associated conditions such as hepatitis C infection, rheumatoid arthritis and plasma cell dyscrasias, etc., are common occurrences. In many regions of the country, temperatures in winter can be conducive to the precipitation of cryoglobulins, yet epidemiology of the disease suggests that it is a common condition in the west. We encountered a 68-year-old-male patient who presented with a history of headache off and on along with hepatosplenomegaly. The rare occurrence of cryoglobulinemia in our setting can delay the diagnosis, as happened in our case, since the index of suspicion of clinicians and laboratory personnel is low. We are reporting this case because of the rarity and protean clinical manifestations of cryoglobulinemia. PMID:25328341

  8. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  9. What rainfall events trigger landslides on the West Coast US?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasutti, Michela; Seager, Richard; Kirschbaum, Dalia

    2016-04-01

    A dataset of landslide occurrences compiled by collating google news reports covers 9 full years of data. We show that, while this compilation cannot provide consistent and widespread monitoring everywhere, it is adequate to capture the distribution of events in the major urban areas of the West Coast US and it can be used to provide a quantitative relationship between landslides and rainfall events. The case of the Seattle metropolitan area is presented as an example. The landslide dataset shows a clear seasonality in landslide occurrence, corresponding to the seasonality of rainfall, modified by the accumulation of soil moisture as winter progresses. Interannual variability of landslide occurrences is also linked to interannual variability of monthly rainfall. In most instances, landslides are clustered on consecutive days or at least within the same pentad and correspond to days of large rainfall accumulation at the regional scale. A joint analysis of the landslide data and of the high-resolution PRISM daily rainfall accumulation shows that on days when landslides occurred, the distribution of rainfall was shifted, with rainfall accumulation higher than 10mm/day being more common. Accumulations above 50mm/day much increase the probability of landslides, including the possibility of a major landslide event (one with multiple landslides in a day). The synoptic meteorological conditions associated with these major events show a mid-tropospheric ridge to the south of the target area steering a surface low and bringing enhanced precipitable water towards the Pacific North West. The interaction of the low-level flow with the local orography results in instances of a strong Puget Sound Convergence Zone, with widespread rainfall accumulation above 30mm/day and localized maxima as high as 100mm/day or more.

  10. Identifying Historical Occurrences of HABs Using Sedimentary Algal Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, J. M.; Waters, M. N.

    2008-12-01

    Algal blooms are a common feature of many coastal areas. Under some environmental conditions, these develop into Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and present an environmental hazard and a health risk for humans and wildlife due to toxin production. While monitoring programs track the development of contemporary HABs, data are lacking for historical blooms. We use sedimentary algal pigments to identify the occurrence of Karenia Brevis (Florida Red Tide) in sediment cores collected from mangrove environments along the west coast of Florida. Karenia Brevis has a unique pigment, gyroxanthin-diester, that is routinely used to identify red tide in the water column. Gyroxanthin-diester and other carotenoid pigments associated with red tide taxa are analyzed using HPLC techniques. Identification of gyroxanthan-diester is based on comparison with HPLC analysis of gyroxanthin standard, a monoculture sample of K. Brevis and with published spectra of Gyroxanthin-diester in water samples. We track the timing of the K. Brevis using Pb-210 dating models which allows an examination over the last 100 years.

  11. Forest Pest Occurrence Predictionca-Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fangyi; Zhang, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaoyan

    Since the spatial pattern of forest pest occurrence is determined by biological characteristics and habitat conditions, this paper introduced construction of a cellular automaton model combined with Markov model to predicate the forest pest occurrence. Rules of the model includes the cell states rules, neighborhood rules and transition rules which are defined according to the factors from stand conditions, stand structures, climate and the influence of the factors on the state conversion. Coding for the model is also part of the implementations of the model. The participants were designed including attributes and operations of participants expressed with a UML diagram. Finally, the scale issues on forest pest occurrence prediction, of which the core are the prediction of element size and time interval, are partly discussed in this paper.

  12. Simulation of Storm Occurrences Using Simulated Annealing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokupitiya, Ravindra S.; Borgman, Leon E.; Anderson-Sprecher, Richard

    2005-11-01

    Modeling storm occurrences has become a vital part of hurricane prediction. In this paper, a method for simulating event occurrences using a simulated annealing algorithm is described. The method is illustrated using annual counts of hurricanes and of tropical storms in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Simulations closely match distributional properties, including possible correlations, in the historical data. For hurricanes, traditionally used Poisson and negative binomial processes also predict univariate properties well, but for tropical storms parametric methods are less successful. The authors determined that simulated annealing replicates properties of both series. Simulated annealing can be designed so that simulations mimic historical distributional properties to whatever degree is desired, including occurrence of extreme events and temporal patterning.

  13. 1. WEST MULTNOMAH VIADUCT, VIEW LOOKING EAST. Historic Columbia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST MULTNOMAH VIADUCT, VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Historic Columbia River Highway, West Multnomah Falls Viaduct, West of Multnomah Falls on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  14. The night West blew up.

    PubMed

    Zuzek, Crystal

    2013-07-01

    The April 17 fertilizer plant explosion that killed 15 people and injured more than 160 in the Central Texas town of West put the state's disaster response system to the test. Area health professionals and emergency responders mobilized quickly to care for the injured and prevent more deaths. PMID:23818221

  15. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  16. West Flank Downhole Temperature Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2008-03-01

    Downhole temperature data for the three wells inside the West Flank FORGE footprint; 83-11, TCH 74-2 and TCH 48-11. TCH 74-2 and TCH 48-11 were both collected before 1990 and 83-11 was collected in 2009. The are compiled into one spreadsheet for ease of visualization.

  17. Vocational Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    This report describes vocational education in West Germany from a Canadian viewpoint. Chapter 1 discusses education in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949, including findings and govermental agencies/departments. A resume of the school system is provided in chapter 2. It covers kindergarten and preschool facilities, primary school, three…

  18. B-WEST Mentorship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jennice, Comp.; Benedetti, Marie L., Ed.

    This program guide is intended for use by mentors of women who have completed the preemployment training component of the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project and who are now entering a trade or technical occupation. The first section contains a definition of mentoring and mentor, protegee, and trainer profiles. Sections 2-6…

  19. A revision of the distribution of sea kraits (Reptilia, Laticauda) with an updated occurrence dataset for ecological and conservation research.

    PubMed

    Gherghel, Iulian; Papeş, Monica; Brischoux, François; Sahlean, Tiberiu; Strugariu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    The genus Laticauda (Reptilia: Elapidae), commonly known as sea kraits, comprises eight species of marine amphibious snakes distributed along the shores of the Western Pacific Ocean and the Eastern Indian Ocean. We review the information available on the geographic range of sea kraits and analyze their distribution patterns. Generally, we found that south and south-west of Japan, Philippines Archipelago, parts of Indonesia, and Vanuatu have the highest diversity of sea krait species. Further, we compiled the information available on sea kraits' occurrences from a variety of sources, including museum records, field surveys, and the scientific literature. The final database comprises 694 occurrence records, with Laticauda colubrina having the highest number of records and Laticauda schistorhyncha the lowest. The occurrence records were georeferenced and compiled as a database for each sea krait species. This database can be freely used for future studies. PMID:27110155

  20. A revision of the distribution of sea kraits (Reptilia, Laticauda) with an updated occurrence dataset for ecological and conservation research

    PubMed Central

    Gherghel, Iulian; Papeş, Monica; Brischoux, François; Sahlean, Tiberiu; Strugariu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Laticauda (Reptilia: Elapidae), commonly known as sea kraits, comprises eight species of marine amphibious snakes distributed along the shores of the Western Pacific Ocean and the Eastern Indian Ocean. We review the information available on the geographic range of sea kraits and analyze their distribution patterns. Generally, we found that south and south-west of Japan, Philippines Archipelago, parts of Indonesia, and Vanuatu have the highest diversity of sea krait species. Further, we compiled the information available on sea kraits’ occurrences from a variety of sources, including museum records, field surveys, and the scientific literature. The final database comprises 694 occurrence records, with Laticauda colubrina having the highest number of records and Laticauda schistorhyncha the lowest. The occurrence records were georeferenced and compiled as a database for each sea krait species. This database can be freely used for future studies. PMID:27110155

  1. Technique for Evaluating Multiple Probability Occurrences /TEMPO/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    Technique is described for adjustment of engineering response information by broadening the application of statistical subjective stimuli theory. The study is specifically concerned with a mathematical evaluation of the expected probability of relative occurrence which can be identified by comparison rating techniques.

  2. A Sweet Tasting Demonstration of Random Occurrences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a game in which students must guess the flavor of LifeSaver candy without the aid of sight and smell. Explains that this demonstration assists students to understand the phenomenon of random occurrences. Describes how the presentation is conducted as well as the outcomes of the demonstration. (CMK)

  3. [T-2 toxin: occurrence and detection].

    PubMed

    Dohnal, V; Jezková, A; Kuca, K; Jun, D

    2007-07-01

    The paper is focused on the occurrence and methods for the detection of T-2 toxin, one of the most toxic trichothecene Fusarium mycotoxin. Due to its physical-chemical properties and high toxicity, T-2 toxin is classified as a potential biological warfare agent. PMID:17969315

  4. Tectonic implications of Archean anorthosite occurrences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.; Maczuga, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrences of megacrystic anorthosite and basalt in a variety of geologic settings were reviewed and it was found that these rock types occur in a variety of tectonic settings. Anorthosites and megacrystic basalts are petrogenetically related and are found in oceanic volcanic crust, cratons, and shelf environments. Although megacrystic basalts are most common in Archean terranes, similar occurrences are observed in rocks of early Proterozoic age, and even in young terranes such as the Galapagos hotspot. Based on inferences from experimental petrology, all of the occurrences are apparently associated with similar parental melts that are relatively Fe-rich tholeiites. The megacrystic rocks exhibit a two- (or more)-stage development of plagioclase, with the megacrysts having relatively uniform composition produced under nearly isothermal and isochemical conditions over substantial periods of time. The anorthosites appear to have intruded various crustal levels from very deep to very shallow. The petrogenetic indicators, however, suggest that conditions of formation of the Precambrian examples were different from Phanerozoic occurrences.

  5. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  6. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  7. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  8. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  9. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The event..., Super Boat International Productions, Inc. is hosting the Key West World Championship, a series of...

  10. 50 CFR 32.68 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false West Virginia. 32.68 Section 32.68... § 32.68 West Virginia. The following refuge units have been opened to hunting and/or fishing, and are... the refuge (Pennsylvania: Phillis Island, Georgetown Island; West Virginia: Captina Island,...

  11. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.349 Section 81.349 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West Virginia. West Virginia—TSP Designated...

  12. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.349 Section 81.349 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West Virginia. West Virginia—TSP Designated...

  13. The Railroad and the Frontier West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewig, Rick

    1988-01-01

    Points out railroad building in the West as a cause rather than an effect of the rapid development of the area. Railroads hastened the demise of American Indian autonomy and their land base, brought permanent Anglo-American settlers to the West and provided a market relationship between East and West. (KO)

  14. 2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM INTERSECTION OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  15. 3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST SOUTH OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  16. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 1. West portal of the mudshed abutting the west portal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West portal of the mudshed abutting the west portal of Tunnel 5, view to the northwest, 135mm lens. The flat-roofed reinforced concrete mudsheds, rocksheds, and snowsheds are a common feature of the Natron Cutoff over the summit of the Cascades. With the railroad located on a sidehill bench cut into the precipitous slopes, the sheds protect the track from rock and mud slides, as well as from avalanches. With a solid wall on the uphill side and a series of columns on the downhill side, they form a gallery-like effect from within. This mudshed was built concurrent with the tunnel, in 1927. Though none of the mudsheds on the line are scheduled to be modified, this shed was documented as an integral element of Tunnel 5. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 5, Milepost 545.2, McCredie Springs, Lane County, OR

  18. Petrology of the Plutonic Rocks of west-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    1970-01-01

    A series of plutons in west-central Alaska defines the Hogatza plutonic belt which extends for about 200 miles in an east-west direction from the northeastern Seward Peninsula to the Koyukuk River. The plutonic rocks have an aggregate area of about 1,200 square miles and their composition, distribution, and possible petrogenesis are discussed for the first time in this report. Field, petrographic and chemical data supported by K/Ar age dating indicate the plutonic rocks are divisible into two suites differing in age, location, and composition. The western plutons are mid-Cretaceous (~100 m.y.) in age and consist of a heterogeneous assemblage of monzonite, syenite, quartz monzonite. Associated with these granitic rocks is a group of alkaline sub-silicic rocks that forma belt of intrusive complexes extending for a distance of at least 180 miles from west-central Alaska to the Bering Sea. The complex at Granite Mountain shows a rare example of zoning from an alkaline rim to a quartz-bearing core. The occurrence of a similar complex at Cape Dezhnev on the easternmost tip of Siberia suggests the alkaline province may extend into Siberia. The easternmost plutons are Late Cretaceous (180 m.y.) in age and composed primarily of granodiorite and quartz monzonite similar to calc-alkaline plutons found throughout the North America Cordillera. The plutons are epizonal and intrude deformed but unmetamorphosed Lower Cretaceous andesitic volcanics and volcanic graywacke which constitute the highly mobile Yukon-Koyukuk volcanogenic province of west-central Alaska. No older rocks have been found within the confines of this vast tract; the occurrence of a bounding ophiolite sequence has lead to the suggestion that the province was formed by large-scale rifting and is underlain by oceanic crust. The possibility of no juvenile sialic crust over much of the area suggests that the potassium-rich magma now represented by the alkaline rocks originated in the mantle. The distribution of the

  19. Variation of the Earth tide-seismicity compliance parameter the last 50 years for the west site of the Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Vergos, G.; Spatalas, S.

    2015-07-01

    Based on the results of our studies for the tidal triggering effect on the seismicity of the Hellenic area, we consider the confidence level of earthquake occurrence - tidal period accordance as an index of tectonic stress criticality for earthquake occurrence and we check if the recent increase in the seismic activity at the west site of the Aegean Volcanic Arc indicate faulting maturity for a stronger earthquake. In this paper we present the results of this test which are positive.

  20. Tidal triggering effect on earthquakes occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D.; Spatalas, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    In this review we present the investigation for the tidal triggering evidence on the earthquakes at various seismic areas of Greece. The result of our analysis using the HiCum method, indicate that the monthly variation of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence is in accordance with the period of the tidal lunar monthly (Mm) variations. The same happens with the corresponding diurnal and semi-diurnal variations of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence with the diurnal (K1), (O1) and semi-diurnal solar (S2) and semidiurnal lunar (M2) tidal variations. The confidence level of the Tidal-Earthquake frequency period compliance is very sensitive to the seismicity of the area and we call it Tidal - Earthquake frequency compliance parameter. We suggest that this parameter may be used in earthquake risk evaluation.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  2. Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Marin, S; Ramos, A J; Cano-Sancho, G; Sanchis, V

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins are abiotic hazards produced by certain fungi that can grow on a variety of crops. Consequently, their prevalence in plant raw materials may be relatively high. The concentration of mycotoxins in finished products is usually lower than in raw materials. In this review, occurrence and toxicology of the main mycotoxins are summarised. Furthermore, methodological approaches for exposure assessment are described. Existing exposure assessments, both through contamination and consumption data and biomarkers of exposure, for the main mycotoxins are also discussed. PMID:23907020

  3. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  4. Hierarchical models of animal abundance and occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Much of animal ecology is devoted to studies of abundance and occurrence of species, based on surveys of spatially referenced sample units. These surveys frequently yield sparse counts that are contaminated by imperfect detection, making direct inference about abundance or occurrence based on observational data infeasible. This article describes a flexible hierarchical modeling framework for estimation and inference about animal abundance and occurrence from survey data that are subject to imperfect detection. Within this framework, we specify models of abundance and detectability of animals at the level of the local populations defined by the sample units. Information at the level of the local population is aggregated by specifying models that describe variation in abundance and detection among sites. We describe likelihood-based and Bayesian methods for estimation and inference under the resulting hierarchical model. We provide two examples of the application of hierarchical models to animal survey data, the first based on removal counts of stream fish and the second based on avian quadrat counts. For both examples, we provide a Bayesian analysis of the models using the software WinBUGS.

  5. Meteotsunami occurrence frequency along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A number of research studies describe exceptional destructive meteotsunami events since long time whereas no systematic database is available of moderate events because sea level data were recorded with insufficient resolution. Sea level measurements recently collected with high sampling rate, one per minute or less, by tide gauges positioned along the Mediterranean coasts are examined, aiming to analyze the occurrence of oscillation events in the tsunami frequency range. Sea level data from operating tide stations inside the Mediterranean basin are made publicly available through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Sea Level Monitoring Facility web site (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). After the implementation of a rigorous quality check procedure to the raw water level time series, Hilbert transform is applied to two hour high-pass filtered observations to identify tsunami-like oscillation events. Events of seismic origin are identified by consistency between earthquake occurrence and tsunami wave travel time from the earthquake epicenter to the specific tide gauge. Similar analyses are performed to exclude sea waves induced harbor seiches events. A list of probable meteotsunami episodes occurred in the Mediterranean region is so compiled and their occurrence frequency and intensity statistics are evaluated at the different tide gauge sites over the time period of high frequency water level data availability ranging from five to seven years. The effects of atmospheric conditions and seabed topography are discussed. Detection and characterization of meteotsunamis, both of exceptional character and of weak intensity, represent an essential step toward improved assessments of coastal flooding risk along the Mediterranean coasts.

  6. National uranium resource evaluation, Charlottesville quadrangle, Virginia and West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Baillieul, T.A.; Daddazio, P.L.

    1982-04-01

    The Charlottesville 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, Virginia and West Virginia, was evaluated to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. This was done using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance surveys were performed. Limited core drilling was carried out at one site to aid the evaluation. The results of this investigation indicate environments favorable for vein-type deposits in metamorphic rocks within highly sheared portions of the Precambrian Lovingston Formation. Cambrian metasediments along the margins of the Green Springs and Ellisville intrusives in the southeastern part of the area are favorable for allogenic uranium deposits. All other rock units examined are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits.

  7. Occurrences and Effects of Drought across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Drought is a common occurrence in Africa and its effects vary temporally and spatially across the continent. The objective of this paper is to synthesize available information on droughts in Africa in order to discern emerging trends vis-à-vis spatiotemporal occurrences, impacts and adaptation. Drought forcings in the Sahelian region and southern Africa are predominately related to the passage of mid-latitude air masses while in locations near the equator is strongly linked to the position of ITCZ, except perhaps in the deserts where albedo may predominate. The review shows that drought occurrences have increased both temporally and spatially; its effects on the society vary across scales, and are influenced by political, economic, social, cultural, and ecological factors. The drought occurrence and its impacts varied spatially and temporally. The effect of drought also varied with socioeconomic sector; agriculture and pastoralism were the widely reported. The greater horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, has the most continuous record of droughts. The synthesis also reveals that a suite of drought adaptation strategies exists at the local scale; in contrasts, at the aggregate scale, coping strategies are scarce. Drought management tailored for specific livelihood system or societies are non-existent. The study found that occurrence of drought alongside issues related to the multiscale political economy affect the viability of most adaptation strategies used by societies across Africa. Drought management has been silent on the social, political, and economic dimensions that reasonably aggravate the vulnerability of lives and livelihood systems to this climatic hazard. The effect of drought and social pressures is relational and simultaneous to such a degree that differential vulnerability among communities across Africa is to be expected. Although scenarios about rainfall and drought vis-à-vis Africa are largely contested there is a general indication that most

  8. Occurrence of Isospora suis in Germany, Switzerland and Austria.

    PubMed

    Mundt, H-C; Cohnen, A; Daugschies, A; Joachim, A; Prosl, H; Schmäschke, R; Westphal, B

    2005-03-01

    Nationwide surveys for the occurrence of Isospora suis were carried out in Germany, Austria and Switzerland including a questionnaire regarding herd size, health status and management practices and a coccidiosis sampling kit for pooled faecal samples from litters of suckling piglets. A total of 184 veterinary practices participated in the survey and returned 1745 samples (331 kits) from 324 farms in the north (n = 98), south (n = 84), centre/east (n = 42) and west (n = 10) of Germany, Austria (n = 61) and Switzerland (n = 29) with larger farms in north and centre/east (average number of sows: 270 and 500) and smaller ones in the south (95), Austria (60) and Switzerland (43). Larger farms tended to have better hygienic standards (slatted floors, disinfection of the farrowing units). The majority of the participating farms (93.5%) reported problems with diarrhoea in piglets at 2-3 weeks of age, significantly associated (P < 0.001) with uneven weaning weights (94.9%). Toltrazuril (5%; Baycox) was used only rarely; however, in these farms unevenness of weaning weights was less frequently observed (P = 0.011). A 76.2% of the farms were positive for I. suis (samples contained mostly low or moderate oocyst numbers), especially in the south (P < 0.001). Oocysts were more frequently found in samples from farms with reported diarrhoea (P = 0.011), uneven weight gain (P = 0.019) or in herds of small size (P < 0.001). Disinfection, floor type or treatment with toltrazuril did not affect the frequency of observation of oocysts. PMID:15752269

  9. Research on red tide occurrences using enclosed experimental ecosystem in West Xiamen Harbor, China —Relationship between nutrients and red tide occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu; Lin, Rong-Cheng

    2000-09-01

    This study on the distribution of phosphate and its relation to phytoplankton biomass in Western Xiamen Harbor using marine ecosystem enclosures to isolate the culture water from the tidal currents and salinity changes outside indicated that the phytoplankton biomass variation closely related to dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in the seawater as described by the equation: [Chl-a]=A×e-B[PO4]. The biomass changes lagged by about two days the corresponding DIP. The research also dealt with the minimal DIP concentration for stopping diatom bloom and the possible maximal diatom biomass was estimated from the DIP external concentration in the seawater. The threshold of DIP initiating Skeletonema costatum red tide was calculated for use as an index to forecast its red tides. In addition, the relationships between a dinoflagellate red tide and nutrients are discussed. The results showed that the multiplication of dinoflagellate was not entirely dependent on the nutrients in the seawater.

  10. Early Mesozoic structural evolution of the eastern West Qinling, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guo-Li; Meng, Qing-Ren; Duan, Liang; Li, Lin

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to reconstruct Early Mesozoic structural development of the eastern West Qinling by integrating structural and geochronologic analyses. The results show that the eastern West Qinling experienced two-phase deformations, separated by a period of tectonic quiescence. Large-scale south-directed displacement of thrust sheets in association with folding characterized the first-phase deformation in Late Triassic time, leading to the formation of the West Qinling fold-and-thrust belt that is composed primarily of Paleozoic-Triassic strata. This fold-and-thrust belt is in general south-convexing arc-shaped, with an accumulated south-directed displacement being over 100 km. The folding and thrusting ended up during the Norian of the Late Triassic Epoch and were immediately followed by widespread granite intrusions. Marked uplift and erosion occurred in the Early Jurassic, resulting in exhumation of the Late Triassic granites. Transpressional deformation took place in the eastern West Qinling in the Middle Jurassic on account of occurrences of strike-slip faulting and refolding. In the easternmost part of the West Qinling exists a Permian-Triassic turbidite wedge that is bordered by a right-slip fault on the northeast and by a left-slip fault on the south, indicating a westward movement that was accommodated by slip faulting. It is argued that collision of the North and South China blocks was responsible for formation of the West Qinling fold-and-thrust belt in the Late Triassic, whereas Middle Jurassic transgression is considered as the result of westward extrusion of Permian-Triassic turbiditic materials from the East Qinling owing to renewed intracontinental convergence between the North and South China blocks. A tectonic model is advanced for Early Mesozoic tectonic development of the West Qinling.

  11. Climatology of radar anomalous propagation over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Tchawoua, Clément; Lopez, Philippe; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive examination of 5 years of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data from T511 L60 version of the ECMWF model to determine ducting conditions over West Africa and the computation of statistical distributions of the vertical gradient of refractivity determined from 2 years of radiosonde data over Dakar (14.41°N, 17.26°W), Douala (4°N, 9.7°E) and Niamey (13.35°N, 2.03°E) were carried out. It is found that diurnal and seasonal variations of the refractivity of the atmosphere are influenced by air temperature and water vapor pressure fluctuation. Refractivity gradients lower than -157 km-1 often results in spurious returned echoes and misinterpretation of radar images such as erroneous precipitation detection. The results obtained show that the local climate has an appreciable influence on the vertical profile of refractivity, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Discontinuity which is associated with the alternance of wet and dry seasons over the region. It is found that most of ducts occur in the night, morning (0000, 0600 UTC) and late afternoon (1800 UTC). The occurrence probability of abnormal propagation events, such as ducts, can provide some valuable information about the propagation of electromagnetic waves over West Africa.

  12. An Index to PGE-Ni-Cr Deposits and Occurrences in Selected Mineral-Occurrence Databases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Galloway, John P.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Databases of mineral deposits and occurrences are essential to conducting assessments of undiscovered mineral resources. In the USGS's (U.S. Geological Survey) global assessment of undiscovered resources of copper, potash, and the platinum-group elements (PGE), only a few mineral deposit types will be evaluated. For example, only porphyry-copper and sediment-hosted copper deposits will be considered for the copper assessment. To support the global assessment, the USGS prepared comprehensive compilations of the occurrences of these two deposit types in order to develop grade and tonnage models and delineate permissive areas for undiscovered deposits of those types. This publication identifies previously published databases and database records that describe PGE, nickel, and chromium deposits and occurrences. Nickel and chromium were included in this overview because of the close association of PGE with nickel and chromium mineralization. Users of this database will need to refer to the original databases for detailed information about the deposits and occurrences. This information will be used to develop a current and comprehensive global database of PGE deposits and occurrences.

  13. The Occurrence of Erionite at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-07-01

    The naturally-occurring zeolite mineral erionite has a fibrous morphology and is a known human carcinogen (inhalation hazard). Erionite has been found typically in very small quantities and restricted occurrences in the course of mineralogic characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for a high-level nuclear waste repository. The first identification of erionite was made in 1984 on the basis of morphology and chemical composition and later confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found in the lower vitrophyre (Tptpv3) of the Topopah Spring Tuff in a borehole sidewall sample. Most erionite occurrences identified at Yucca Mountain are in the Topopah Spring Tuff, within an irregular zone of transition between the lower boundary of devitrified tuff and underlying glassy tuff. This zone is fractured and contains intermingled devitrified and vitric tuff. In 1997, a second host of erionite mineralization was identified in the Exploratory Studies Facility within and adjacent to a high-angle fracture/breccia zone transgressing the boundary between the lowermost devitrified tuff (Tpcplnc) and underlying moderately welded vitric tuff (Tpcpv2) of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The devitrified-vitric transition zones where erionite is found tend to have complex secondary-mineral assemblages, some of very localized occurrence. Secondary minerals in addition to erionite may include smectite, heulandite-clinoptilolite, chabazite, opal-A, opal-CT, cristobalite, quartz, kenyaite, and moganite. Incipient devitrification within the Topopah Spring Tuff transition zone includes patches that are highly enriched in potassium feldspar relative to the precursor volcanic glass. Geochemical conditions during glass alteration may have led to local evolution of potassium-rich fluids. Thermodynamic modeling of zeolite stability shows that erionite and chabazite stability fields occur only at aqueous K concentrations much higher than in present Yucca Mountain waters. The association of erionite

  14. Global potential of dust devil occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemmett-Smith, Bradley; Marsham, John; Knippertz, Peter; Gilkeson, Carl

    2014-05-01

    Mineral dust is a key constituent in the climate system. Airborne mineral dust forms the largest component of the global aerosol budget by mass and subsequently affects climate, weather and biogeochemical processes. There remains large uncertainty in the quantitative estimates of the dust cycle. Dry boundary-layer convection serves as an effective mechanism for dust uplift, typically through a combination of rotating dust devils and non-rotating larger and longer-lived convective plumes. These microscale dry-convective processes occur over length scales of several hundred metres or less. They are difficult to observe and model, and therefore their contribution to the global dust budget is highly uncertain. Using an analytical approach to extrapolate limited observations, Koch and Renno (2006) suggest that dust devils and plumes could contribute as much as 35%. Here, we use a new method for quantifying the potential of dust devil occurrence to provide an alternative perspective on this estimate. Observations have shown that dust devil and convective plume occurrence is favoured in hot arid regions under relatively weak background winds, large ground-to-air temperature gradients and deep dry convection. By applying such known constraints to operational analyses from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), we provide, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first hourly estimates of dust devil occurrence including an analysis of sensitivity to chosen threshold uplift. The results show the expected diurnal variation and allow an examination of the seasonal cycle and day-to-day variations in the conditions required for dust devil formation. They confirm that desert regions are expected to have by far the highest frequency of dry convective vortices, with winds capable of dust uplift. This approach is used to test the findings of Koch and Renno (2006). Koch J., Renno N. (2006). The role of convective plumes and vortices on the global aerosol

  15. Universality in solar flare and earthquake occurrence.

    PubMed

    de Arcangelis, L; Godano, C; Lippiello, E; Nicodemi, M

    2006-02-10

    Earthquakes and solar flares are phenomena involving huge and rapid releases of energy characterized by complex temporal occurrence. By analyzing available experimental catalogs, we show that the stochastic processes underlying these apparently different phenomena have universal properties. Namely, both problems exhibit the same distributions of sizes, interoccurrence times, and the same temporal clustering: We find after flare sequences with power law temporal correlations as the Omori law for seismic sequences. The observed universality suggests a common approach to the interpretation of both phenomena in terms of the same driving physical mechanism. PMID:16486917

  16. Universality in Solar Flare and Earthquake Occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    De Arcangelis, L.; Godano, C.; Lippiello, E.; Nicodemi, M.

    2006-02-10

    Earthquakes and solar flares are phenomena involving huge and rapid releases of energy characterized by complex temporal occurrence. By analyzing available experimental catalogs, we show that the stochastic processes underlying these apparently different phenomena have universal properties. Namely, both problems exhibit the same distributions of sizes, interoccurrence times, and the same temporal clustering: We find after flare sequences with power law temporal correlations as the Omori law for seismic sequences. The observed universality suggests a common approach to the interpretation of both phenomena in terms of the same driving physical mechanism.

  17. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  18. SIGNAL BRIDGE WEST OF TOWER AT MILEPOST 203.2, LOOKING WEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIGNAL BRIDGE WEST OF TOWER AT MILEPOST 203.2, LOOKING WEST, EQUIPPED WITH B&O COLOR-POSITION-LIGHT SIGNAL HEADS FOR EASTBOUND TRAINS. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  19. 41. West end of McHugh Basin, looking west toward Dingle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. West end of McHugh Basin, looking west toward Dingle Basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, PUget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  20. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  1. 46 CFR 326.4 - Reports of accidents and occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reports of accidents and occurrences. 326.4 Section 326... MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.4 Reports of accidents and occurrences. The Agent shall report every accident or occurrence of a P&I nature promptly to both the...

  2. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  3. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  4. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  5. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  6. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  7. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  8. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  9. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  10. 10 CFR 840.3 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 840.3 Section 840.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.3 Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. If the DOE determines that both of the criteria set forth in § 840.4 and §...

  11. 46 CFR 326.4 - Reports of accidents and occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of accidents and occurrences. 326.4 Section 326... MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.4 Reports of accidents and occurrences. The Agent shall report every accident or occurrence of a P&I nature promptly to both the...

  12. Antenna heights for the optimum utilization of the oceanic evaporation duct. Part 1: Results from the Pacific measurements. Part 2: Results from the Key West measurements, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, J. H.; Hitney, H. V.

    1988-01-01

    Extensive evaporation ducting measurements were conducted over a period of 1 year in the Southern California offshore area and for 2 weeks between Key West and the Marquesas Keys. The purpose of the measurements was to provide data for model validations and to determine if existing climatologies could be used for estimating the probability of occurrence for evaporation ducting conditions.

  13. K West Basin canister survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-26

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

  14. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, L.; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  15. Meteotsunami occurrences and causes in Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechle, Adam J.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Wu, Chin H.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of meteotsunamis in Lake Michigan is quantified at 10 locations from up to 20 years of historical water level records. Meteotsunami height data are fit with Pareto Type 1 and Generalized Pareto Distributions to estimate exceedance probabilities. The annual meteotsunami return level exceeds 0.25 m at all but two stations, with the largest annual return level of 0.62 m at Calumet Harbor. Analysis of radar imagery indicates that Lake Michigan meteotsunamis are associated primarily with convective storm structures, with a considerable contribution from frontal storms as well. Meteotsunami association with convective storm structures is more prevalent in southern Lake Michigan while frontal storm structures have a greater association with meteotsunamis in northern Lake Michigan. Water depths in southern Lake Michigan are conducive to Proudman resonance with convective storms while the northern Lake Michigan is too deep to meet Proudman resonance criteria, suggesting Greenspan edge wave resonance as the likely generation mechanism. Interestingly, meteotsunami events occur primarily in the late spring and early summer, approximately 1 month before the peak convective storm season but after the peak cyclone season. Overall, this statistical analysis provides valuable insight into the spatial and temporal trends in meteotsunami occurrence in Lake Michigan needed to estimate the risk posed by these dangerous coastal hazards.

  16. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic arcobacters in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Anna; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Figueras, Maria José; Pérez-Cataluña, Alba; Marchetti, Patrizia; Serraino, Andrea; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Terio, Valentina; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Di Pinto, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Considering that several recent cases of human gastroenteritis have been associated with species from the Arcobacter genus, and that few data are currently available about the occurrence of this genus in Italian shellfish, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. and the presence of virulence-associated genes. The approach consisted of cultural and biomolecular (multiplex-PCR and 16S-RFLP) methods identifying isolates, followed by PCR assays aimed at the cadF, ciaB, cjl349, irgA, hecA putative virulence genes. Arcobacter spp. was detected in 16/70 (22.8%) shellfish samples. Specifically, Arcobacter spp. was highlighted in 10/42 (23.8%) mussel and in 6/28 (21.4%) clam samples. Subsequently, biomolecular assays revealed Arcobacter butzleri in 12/16 (75%) and Arcobacter cryaerophilus 1B in 4/16 (25%) isolates. PCRs aimed at the five putative virulence genes demonstrated widespread distribution of these genes among Arcobacter isolates and some differences from the results published by other authors. Our research provides more information regarding the health risks associated with the consumption of raw bivalve molluscs and underlines the need to implement an adequate control plan by performing intensive and continuous monitoring in order to guarantee human health. PMID:27052698

  17. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren Alex; Björklund, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  18. A probabilistic model for snow avalanche occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perona, P.; Miescher, A.; Porporato, A.

    2009-04-01

    Avalanche hazard forecasting is an important issue in relation to the protection of urbanized environments, ski resorts and of ski-touring alpinists. A critical point is to predict the conditions that trigger the snow mass instability determining the onset and the size of avalanches. On steep terrains the risk of avalanches is known to be related to preceding consistent snowfall events and to subsequent changes in the local climatic conditions. Regression analysis has shown that avalanche occurrence indeed correlates to the amount of snow fallen in consecutive three snowing days and to the state of the settled snow at the ground. Moreover, since different type of avalanches may occur as a result of the interactions of different factors, the process of snow avalanche formation is inherently complex and with some degree of unpredictability. For this reason, although several models assess the risk of avalanche by accounting for all the involved processes with a great detail, a high margin of uncertainty invariably remains. In this work, we explicitly describe such an unpredictable behaviour with an intrinsic noise affecting the processes leading snow instability. Eventually, this sets the basis for a minimalist stochastic model, which allows us to investigate the avalanche dynamics and its statistical properties. We employ a continuous time process with stochastic jumps (snowfalls), deterministic decay (snowmelt and compaction) and state dependent avalanche occurrence (renewals) as a minimalist model for the determination of avalanche size and related intertime occurrence. The physics leading to avalanches is simplified to the extent where only meteorological data and terrain data are necessary to estimate avalanche danger. We explore the analytical formulation of the process and the properties of the probability density function of the avalanche process variables. We also discuss what is the probabilistic link between avalanche size and preceding snowfall event and

  19. Modelling the probability of ionospheric irregularity occurrence over African low latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungufeni, Patrick; Jurua, Edward; Bosco Habarulema, John; Anguma Katrini, Simon

    2015-06-01

    This study presents models of geomagnetically quiet time probability of occurrence of ionospheric irregularities over the African low latitude region. GNSS-derived ionospheric total electron content data from Mbarara, Uganda (0.60°S, 30.74°E, geographic, 10.22°S, magnetic) and Libreville, Gabon (0.35°N, 9.68°E, geographic, 8.05°S, magnetic) during the period 2001-2012 were used. First, we established the rate of change of total electron content index (ROTI) value associated with background ionospheric irregularity over the region. This was done by analysing GNSS carrier-phases at L-band frequencies L1 and L2 with the aim of identifying cycle slip events associated with ionospheric irregularities. We identified at both stations a total of 699 events of cycle slips. The corresponding median ROTI value at the epochs of the cycle slip events was 0.54 TECU/min. The probability of occurrence of ionospheric irregularities associated with ROTI ≥ 0.5 TECU / min was then modelled by fitting cubic B-splines to the data. The aspects the model captured included diurnal, seasonal, and solar flux dependence patterns of the probability of occurrence of ionospheric irregularities. The model developed over Mbarara was validated with data over Mt. Baker, Uganda (0.35°N, 29.90°E, geographic, 9.25°S, magnetic), Kigali, Rwanda (1.94°S, 30.09°E, geographic, 11.62°S, magnetic), and Kampala, Uganda (0.34°N, 32.60°E, geographic, 9.29°S, magnetic). For the period validated at Mt. Baker (approximately, 137.64 km, north west), Kigali (approximately, 162.42 km, south west), and Kampala (approximately, 237.61 km, north east) the percentages of the number of errors (difference between the observed and the modelled probability of occurrence of ionospheric irregularity) less than 0.05 are 97.3, 89.4, and 81.3, respectively.

  20. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  1. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  2. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  3. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  4. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  5. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  6. West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

  7. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... of approval of the West Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 948 West Virginia Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Interim rule...

  8. Mother Tongue Education: The West African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo, Ed.

    In the rapidly changing political, economic, and social life of West Africa, there is a renewed interest in cultural identity. This book describes the developments and the difficulties experienced by different West African countries in the use of mother tongues in multi-lingual society. The book was commissioned to give scholars, educators, and…

  9. West Virginia: A History for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Alexander; Sherwood, Topper, Ed.

    This book on the history of West Virginia emphasizes the differences and similarities among the people inhabiting what is now the state of West Virginia, from prehistoric times to the present. The history focuses on how these people have acted as individuals and in groups such as families, communities, societies, corporations, and government.…

  10. Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.

    1983-12-01

    This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

  11. Projecting Global Occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii and C. neoformans cause pulmonary and systemic cryptococcosis. Recently, C. gattii was recognized as a distinct pathogen of humans and animals. We analyzed information from 400 publications (1948–2008) to examine whether the fungus occurs globally. Known distribution of C. gattii is possibly limited because specialized reagents for differentiation from C. neoformans are not readily available and not always used, and environmental surveys are patchy. However, autochthonous reports of C. gattii cryptococcosis have now been recognized from tropical and temperate regions. An ongoing outbreak in western Canada strengthens the case that the range of the pathogen has expanded. A few studies have highlighted differences in cryptococcosis between C. gattii and C. neoformans. More than 50 tree species have yielded C. gattii especially from decayed hollows suggesting a possible ecologic niche. This pathogen merits more attention so its environmental occurrence and role in cryptococcosis can be accurately determined. PMID:20031037

  12. The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals.

    PubMed

    Hatakka, M; Asplund, K

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals was studied in 1989-1992. Samples were collected from flight kitchens in 29 countries. The material consisted of 400 cold dishes and 1,288 hot dishes as well as salads, cheese plates and deserts. Total number of samples was 2211. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 samples; 1 contaminated sample was a cold dish prepared in Bangkok, 1 was a hot dish prepared in Mombasa and the remaining 4 contaminated samples were hot dishes prepared within one week in Beijing. The isolated serotypes were S. ohio, S. manchester and S. braenderup. The contaminated cold dish prepared by a flight kitchen in Bangkok was found to be connected with a Salmonella outbreak which occurred in Finland in 1990. Cold airline dishes containing food of animal origin seems to be more risky as a source of Salmonella infections among airline passengers. PMID:8147292

  13. Olmsted Syndrome: Rare Occurrence in Four Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bukharia, Atishay; Komal, Sweta; Sudhanan, V Madhu; Chaudhary, Shyam Sundar

    2016-01-01

    Olmsted syndrome is a very rare and severe cicatrizing keratoderma associated with periorificial lesion. Most cases are sporadic but familial occurrence has been also seen. Till now around 73 cases have been reported and none of the reported cases have 4 siblings affected from this disease. We are reporting cases of 4 siblings of age 30 year female, 26 year female, 20 year male and 10 year male who were born to a third degree consangueinous marriage and presented with palmoplantar keratoderma, periorificial hyperkeratosis, flexion deformity, pseudoainhum and contracture of digits. There was no cardiac involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of Olmsted syndrome was made and all four patients were non responsive to treatment which included topical corticosteroid, topical salicylic acid, systemic isotretinoin, systemic acitretin and oral zinc in child. PMID:27293270

  14. Olmsted Syndrome: Rare Occurrence in Four Siblings.

    PubMed

    Bukharia, Atishay; Komal, Sweta; Sudhanan, V Madhu; Chaudhary, Shyam Sundar

    2016-01-01

    Olmsted syndrome is a very rare and severe cicatrizing keratoderma associated with periorificial lesion. Most cases are sporadic but familial occurrence has been also seen. Till now around 73 cases have been reported and none of the reported cases have 4 siblings affected from this disease. We are reporting cases of 4 siblings of age 30 year female, 26 year female, 20 year male and 10 year male who were born to a third degree consangueinous marriage and presented with palmoplantar keratoderma, periorificial hyperkeratosis, flexion deformity, pseudoainhum and contracture of digits. There was no cardiac involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of Olmsted syndrome was made and all four patients were non responsive to treatment which included topical corticosteroid, topical salicylic acid, systemic isotretinoin, systemic acitretin and oral zinc in child. PMID:27293270

  15. Epidemic occurrence of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Guinan, M; Schaberg, D; Bruhn, F W; Richardson, C J; Fox, W W

    1979-06-01

    In case-control studies of three epidemics of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in three different high-risk nurseries in three states, no particular risk factor was associated with affected infants or their mothers. Epidemic cases had higher birth weights and Apgar scores and fewer perinatal difficulties than those previously reported for sporadic cases. Seven infants fed primarily breast milk were not protected against disease. Early antibiotic therapy was associated with a significantly decreased risk of disease in one outbreak. In two hospitals, affected infants who received antibiotic therapy during the first three days of life had a significantly later disease onset. The occurrence of the disease in epidemics and the decreased risk or modification of disease with antibiotic therapy support an infectious etiology for NEC. PMID:108997

  16. Occurrence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Covert, Terry C.; Rodgers, Mark R.; Reyes, Antolin L.; Stelma, Gerard N.

    1999-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a major cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Because there is no evidence of person-to-person transmission and NTM have been found in drinking water, the environment is considered a likely source of infection. In this study the widespread occurrence of NTM was examined in drinking water, bottled water, and ice samples. A total of 139 samples were examined for NTM by a membrane filtration culture technique followed by PCR amplification and 16S rRNA sequence determination to identify the isolates. NTM were not detected in bottled water or cisterns but were detected in 54% of the ice samples and 35% of the public drinking-water samples from 21 states. The most frequently occurring isolate was M. mucogenicum (formerly referred to as an M. chelonae-like organism). PMID:10347032

  17. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  18. Occurrence of transformation products in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Battaglin, W.A.; Conn, K.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Glassmeyer, S.T.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Meyer, M.T.; Schnoebelen, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, most environmental occurrence research has focused on the parent compounds of organic contaminants. Research, however, has documented that the environmental transport of chemicals, such as pesticides and emerging contaminants, are substantially underestimated if transformation products are not considered. Although most examples described herein were drawn from research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, such results are generally reflective of those found in other parts of the world. Results from a study of 51 streams in the Midwestern United States found that transformation products were seven of the ten most frequently detected pesticide compounds in late spring runoff (after application of pre-emergent herbicides), and nine of the ten most frequently detected compounds in fall season runoff (during and after harvest). In fact, 70% of the total herbicide concentration in water from the Mississippi River Basin was from transformation products. Results from a study of 86 municipal wells in Iowa found the frequency of detection increased from 17%, when pesticide parent compounds were considered, to 53%, when both parents and transformation products were considered. Transformation products were 12 of the 15 most frequently detected compounds for this groundwater study. Although studies on transformation products of synthetic organic compounds other than pesticides are not as common, wastewater treatment plant discharges have repeatedly been shown to contribute such transformation products to streams. In addition, select detergent transformation products have been commonly found in solid waste in the 1000's mg/kg. These findings and many others document that transformation products must be considered to fully assess the potential environmental occurrence of chemical contaminants and their transport and fate in various compartments of the hydrologic system. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  20. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  1. Medical women of the West.

    PubMed Central

    Scully, A L

    1988-01-01

    The presence in the West of women physicians with degrees from regular medical schools spans a period of approximately 130 years. Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania graduated many of these early women physicians. The first woman medical graduate of a western school was Lucy M. Field Wanzer, who finished in 1876 at the Department of Medicine, University of California in San Francisco. Soon thereafter, schools that would become Stanford University and the Oregon Health Sciences University schools of medicine, as well as the newly founded University of Southern California, were contributing to the pool of women physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School, the first coeducational state medical school, also educated some of the western women physicians, who by 1910 numbered about 155. This regional account of the progress of women physicians as they strove to become an integral part of the profession emphasizes the familiar themes of altruism, ingenuity, and perseverance that characterized their efforts. Images PMID:3074578

  2. Occurrence and distribution of antifouling biocide Irgarol-1051 in coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hassan Rashid; Arifin, Marinah Mohd; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali; Mohamed Shazili, Noor Azhar; Bachok, Zainudin

    2013-05-15

    Emerging booster biocides contamination raises particular attention in the marine ecosystem health. This study provides the baseline data on the occurrence of Irgarol-1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamiono-s-triazine) in the selected coastal water around Malaysia. The maximum detected concentration of Irgarol was 2021 ng/L at Klang West, commercial and cargo port. Coral reef Islands (Redang and Bidong) were relatively less contaminated compared to other coastal areas. The temporal variation revealed that only 1% of 28 stations sampled on November, 2011 was above the environmental risk limit of 24 ng/L as suggested by Dutch Authorities, while in January and April, 2012; 46% and 92% of the stations were above the limit respectively. The present findings demonstrate the wide detection of novel antifouling materials Irgarol-1051 which advocates the need for proper monitoring and conservation strategies for the coastal resources. PMID:23490347

  3. 6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES OF WEST SPAN, AND PORTION OF WEST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  4. FRONT ELEVATIONS, NOS. 2122 AND 2124 ON THE WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATIONS, NOS. 2122 AND 2124 ON THE WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING WEST. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE OF GARDEN STATE PARKWAY ABUTMENT - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  6. 9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH SIDE OF DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  7. 41. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. MR. WEST'S HOUSE, MR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. MR. WEST'S HOUSE, MR. WEST ON PORCH AND THE ARBOR THAT IS OVER 100 YEARS OLD. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  8. View of intersection with west wall of north wing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection with west wall of north wing and north wall of west wing; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. 3. DETAIL OF HALF VIADUCT CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION FOR WEST MULTNOMAH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF HALF VIADUCT CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION FOR WEST MULTNOMAH FALLS VIADUCT. - Historic Columbia River Highway, West Multnomah Falls Viaduct, West of Multnomah Falls on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  11. 10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  12. TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL BETWEEN WEST BRANCH DROP AND GERKING FLUME. LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  13. W. St. John Street. View looking west from intersection of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    W. St. John Street. View looking west from intersection of Pleasant and W. St. John Streets - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  14. Hydrocarbon occurrences near Kyle Hot Springs, Buena Vista Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.; McCarthy, H.; Neumann, W.H.

    1995-06-01

    Buena Vista Valley is a small Tertiary Basin located in Northwestern Nevada. Oil was discovered in a mineral exploration hole drilled by Independence Mining Company Inc. (IMC) during October, 1993 near Kyle Hot Springs in Buena Vista Valley. The hole flowed unchecked for four and a half days, producing an estimated 500 barrels of oil with large volumes of hot water, before it was plugged and abandoned. In August of 1994 a continuous core hole was drilled by Barton/Evans to further evaluate the oil occurrences in the IMC hole. Two oil zones were found in the Barton/Evans hole, both of which have similar characteristics to the oil produced in the IMC hole. Pristane and phytane ratios (pr/ph) for oil samples from both holes are low (<0.1) which suggests that the source rock for this oil is from non marine lacustrine Tertiary sediments. There are no detectable hydrocarbons in the gas emanating from Kyle Hot Springs which indicates that the current day geothermal system is not in direct contact with any oil accumulations. Organic rich Triassic marine rocks which outcrop west of Buena Vista Valley, are over mature which supports the hypothesis that unexposed organic rich Tertiary rocks occurring in the deeper portions of the basin acted as the source for the oil occurrences in the IMC hole and in the Barton/Evans hole. In 1974, Standard Oil drilled an 11,000 foot well south of Buena Vista Valley in the Carson Sink and encountered organic rich Tertiary sediments at about 3500`. If this organic rich unit extends north into Buena Vista Valley, local geothermal anomalies might play an important role in the generation of oil. Earlier researches have reported that such anomalies do exist with temperature gradients approaching 100 C per kilometer west of Kyle Hot Springs in an area where gravity data suggest a relatively thick interval of Tertiary rocks have accumulated.

  15. Correlation between the global occurrences of ionospheric irregularities and deep atmospheric convective clouds in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shin-Yi; Wu, Chung Lung; Liu, Chao Han

    2014-12-01

    To study the seeding mechanism of ionospheric irregularity occurrences, a correlation study has been carried out between the global monthly/latitudinal (m/l) distributions of irregularity occurrences and the deep atmospheric convective clouds in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) indicated by the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements. Seven longitude sectors - the African, Indian, West Pacific, Central Pacific, East Pacific, South American, and Atlantic sectors - are selected to study the correlations between the two distributions. The results indicate that good correlations exist only in the South American sector and to some extent in the African sector. For the other five sectors, no correlations are found in the m/l distributions between the irregularities and OLRs. This implies that the gravity wave induced in the ITCZ cannot be the sole seeding agent for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the global irregularity occurrences every season. We suspect that the post-sunset ionospheric electrodynamic perturbations could be the prevailing seeds for the RT instability globally year long. Together with the favorable post-sunset ionospheric condition, the global m/l distributions of irregularity occurrences could be adequately explained.

  16. Mean state and kinematic properties of mesoscale convective systems over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogungbenro, Stephen B.; Ajayi, V. O.; Adefolalu, D. O.

    2016-04-01

    A 17-year (1984 to 2000) dataset of brightness temperature (T b) was employed to study the spatial and temporal scales of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) over West Africa. The kinematic properties of MCS were tested using wind products. A threshold brightness temperature (T b) of ≤213 K and spatial coverage specifications of more than 5000 km2 were used as two set criteria for initiating MCS tracking. MCS occurrences vary in seasons and locations over West Africa, and their activities vary with different weather zones. They can appear at any time of the day, but this study revealed a significant preference for early morning hours and night hours over continental West Africa. The well-organized systems occur between July and September in the Sahel, and between May and September in the Savanna band. MCS activities in the Gulf of Guinea peak between March and April, while the Savanna and Sahel zones peak between June and August. The produced annual atlas gives a spatial account of areas of MCS dominance in West Africa. The presence of African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ), and deep monsoon depth all characterize an environment where MCS thrive. Kinematic study of a typical MCS reveals that the monsoon depth increases at the passage of MCS, with cyclonic vorticity dominating from the surface to 300 hpa while anticyclonic vorticity was observed around 200 hpa, and this confirms the importance of low level convergence and upper level divergence as the major requirements for storm mobilization and maintenance.

  17. Stochastic rainfall modeling in West Africa: Parsimonious approaches for domestic rainwater harvesting assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowden, Joshua R.; Watkins, David W., Jr.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2008-10-01

    SummarySeveral parsimonious stochastic rainfall models are developed and compared for application to domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) assessment in West Africa. Worldwide, improved water access rates are lowest for Sub-Saharan Africa, including the West African region, and these low rates have important implications on the health and economy of the region. Domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) is proposed as a potential mechanism for water supply enhancement, especially for the poor urban households in the region, which is essential for development planning and poverty alleviation initiatives. The stochastic rainfall models examined are Markov models and LARS-WG, selected due to availability and ease of use for water planners in the developing world. A first-order Markov occurrence model with a mixed exponential amount model is selected as the best option for unconditioned Markov models. However, there is no clear advantage in selecting Markov models over the LARS-WG model for DRWH in West Africa, with each model having distinct strengths and weaknesses. A multi-model approach is used in assessing DRWH in the region to illustrate the variability associated with the rainfall models. It is clear DRWH can be successfully used as a water enhancement mechanism in West Africa for certain times of the year. A 200 L drum storage capacity could potentially optimize these simple, small roof area systems for many locations in the region.

  18. Predictive Modeling of West Nile Virus Transmission Risk in the Mediterranean Basin: How Far from Landing?

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Véronique; Tran, Annelise; Durand, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The impact on human and horse health of West Nile fever (WNF) recently and dramatically increased in Europe and neighboring countries. Involving several mosquito and wild bird species, WNF epidemiology is complex. Despite the implementation of surveillance systems in several countries of concern, and due to a lack of knowledge, outbreak occurrence remains unpredictable. Statistical models may help identifying transmission risk factors. When spatialized, they provide tools to identify areas that are suitable for West Nile virus transmission. Mathematical models may be used to improve our understanding of epidemiological process involved, to evaluate the impact of environmental changes or test the efficiency of control measures. We propose a systematic literature review of publications aiming at modeling the processes involved in WNF transmission in the Mediterranean Basin. The relevance of the corresponding models as predictive tools for risk mapping, early warning and for the design of surveillance systems in a changing environment is analyzed. PMID:24362544

  19. Predictive modeling of West Nile virus transmission risk in the Mediterranean Basin: how far from landing?

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Véronique; Tran, Annelise; Durand, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The impact on human and horse health of West Nile fever (WNF) recently and dramatically increased in Europe and neighboring countries. Involving several mosquito and wild bird species, WNF epidemiology is complex. Despite the implementation of surveillance systems in several countries of concern, and due to a lack of knowledge, outbreak occurrence remains unpredictable. Statistical models may help identifying transmission risk factors. When spatialized, they provide tools to identify areas that are suitable for West Nile virus transmission. Mathematical models may be used to improve our understanding of epidemiological process involved, to evaluate the impact of environmental changes or test the efficiency of control measures. We propose a systematic literature review of publications aiming at modeling the processes involved in WNF transmission in the Mediterranean Basin. The relevance of the corresponding models as predictive tools for risk mapping, early warning and for the design of surveillance systems in a changing environment is analyzed. PMID:24362544

  20. GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Bridge at West Falls, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 9. WEST FACADE OF ORIGINAL (1903) POWERHOUSE, GENERATING ROOM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST FACADE OF ORIGINAL (1903) POWERHOUSE, GENERATING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. 12. NORTH AND WEST FACADES OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING; LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTH AND WEST FACADES OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING; LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer 1957 WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer 1957 WEST HALL FROM BALCONY - Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Exhibition Hall, Huntington Avenue & West Newton Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. Regional geologic framework and petroleum occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, E.J.; Jewell, G.A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Falcon Basin developed during the late Eocene as a result of dextral strike slip movement along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. During the Oligocene and early Miocene as much as 16,000 ft. of sediment, predominantly sandstones and shales, accumulated within the east-west trending pull-apart basin. Localized carbonate buildups were also developing in association with the Paraguana and Dabajuro Platforms. During the middle to late Miocene, uplift of the now emergent Central Falcon Basin Anticlinorium resulted in the northward progradation of delta systems. Sandstones associated with these deltas now make up the producing reservoirs within the basin. The complex present day structural configuration is the result of continued movement along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Landsat imagery and field mapping indicate a basin dominated by northeast trending folds and thrust faults and fracture patterns commonly associated with dextral strike-slip movement. Commercial production is currently limited to the Tiguaje and Cumarebo areas. The former occurs as four small fields ([plus minus]52 MMBO) related to structures developed by dextral movement along the Oca fault. The latter Cumarebo Field ([plus minus]60 MMBO) is a thrusted anticline on the northern flank of the Falcon foldbelt. The tectonic complexity and sandstone-dominated nature of the onshore Falcon Basin severely limit potential field size. Significant, yet currently undeveloped, reserves have also been discovered offshore in the Gulf of La Vela. Fractured granite, carbonates and sandstones associated with tilted fault block structures have tested hydrocarbons in several wells.

  6. The occurrence of the Dermacentor reticulatus tick--its expansion to new areas and possible causes.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) can be found in the temperate zones of Eurasia. Its area of occurrence is divided into east and west distributions, although the area as a whole is expanding. The initial east-west division was most probably associated with the varied climatic profile of Europe, for example, the range of specific mean winter and summer temperatures: the region where D. reticulatus is absent is characterized by mean winter temperatures between 0 degree C and 5 degrees C and thin snow cover. The present expansion may be the effect of climate change. The mean temperatures in Europe have increased, the vegetation season has lengthened and positive trends in the number of wet days can be seen. Consequently, northern Europe has become warmer and wetter over the last century. Human activity can also influence the spread of D. reticulatus. The liquidation of habitats suitable for D. reticulatus and the eradication of their hosts can play a role, as can changes in agricultural land use, environmental protection and the spread of international tourism and trade. In summary, the expansion of D. reticulatus into new areas could be the synergistic effect of many favourable factors. PMID:24930245

  7. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration. PMID:12281036

  8. Association Between Benzodiazepine Use and Epilepsy Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Harnod, Tomor; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We conducted a retrospective case–control study to evaluate the association between the risk of benzodiazepine (BZD) use and epilepsy occurrence by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We recruited 1065 participants who ages 20 years or older and newly diagnosed with epilepsy (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 345) between 2004 and 2011 and assigned them to the epilepsy group. We subsequently frequency-matched them with participants in a control group (n = 4260) according to sex, age, and index year at a 1:4 ratio. A logistic regression model was employed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for association of epilepsy with BZD exposure. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to estimate the dose–response relationship between BZD levels and epilepsy risk. The adjusted OR (aOR) for the association of epilepsy with BZD exposure was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68–2.42). The aOR for an average BZD dose increased to 1.26 for the participants on <0.01 defined daily dose (DDD), and increased to 4.32 for those on ≥1.50 DDD. On average, when the DDD of BZD exposure increased by 100 units, the epilepsy risk increase by 1.03-fold (95% CI = 1.01–1.04, P = 0.003). The annual BZD exposure day ranges were significantly associated with epilepsy (2–7 days: aOR = 1.67; 8–35 days: aOR = 3.16; and ≥35 days: aOR = 5.60). Whenever the annual BZD exposure increased by 30 days, the risk of epilepsy notably increased by 1.03-fold (95% CI = 1.01–1.04, P < 0.001). In addition, users who quit BZD for more than 6 months still exhibited a higher risk of epilepsy than did the non-BZD users. A considerable increase in epilepsy occurrence was observed in ones with BZD use, particularly in those with prolonged use, multiple exposure, and high-dose consumption. PMID:26376408

  9. Geostatistical analysis of gas potential in Devonian shales of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohn, M.E.; Neal, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The geologic processes that control the occurrence of gas in the Devonian shales of West Virginia are understood poorly. Locating a new Devonian shale well may depend upon proximity to known producing wells. Maps of initial potentials and probability of success can play an important role in exploration and development. Experimental semivariograms show large nugget effects for both variables. Contour maps of kriged estimates for these variables show northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast-trending linearities that may implicate natural fractures as controls on gas presence and production potential. ?? 1986.

  10. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  11. Aichi Virus 1: Environmental Occurrence and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans. PMID:25996404

  12. [Hepatocellular carcinoma: occurrence, risk factors, biomarkers].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Lengyel, Gabriella

    2010-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma can be found most frequently (80-90 %) in patients with liver cirrhosis. The most frequent causes of liver cirrhosis are chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections and chronic alcohol consumption. The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma is about 3-15 % in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Other predisposing causes can be: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), obesity, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune hepatitis, intrahepatic biliary inflammations (primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis), copper and iron metabolic diseases (Wilson-disease, haemochromatosis), congenital alpha-1-antitripsin deficiency. The causative role of hepatitis B és C viruses have been well established in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Other pathogenic factors are smoking, and different chemical agents. Treatment options for these patients have previously been limited to best supportive care and palliative therapy. Beside surgical treatment (resection, liver transplantation) the invasive radiologic therapy also has been widely used. The effectiveness of targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies or small-molecule kinase inhibitors has now been demonstrated for the treatment of different tumors. In year 2007, sorafenib, a multitargeted kinase inhibitor was introduced to clinical practice and found to prolong survival significantly for patients with advanced HCC. PMID:20494888

  13. Aichi virus 1: environmental occurrence and behavior.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans. PMID:25996404

  14. Graben hydrocarbon occurrences and structural style

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, T.P.

    1984-03-01

    Major hydrocarbon occurrences, types of traps, and structural styles have been synthesized from the Sirte basin, the Suez and Viking grabens, and from other normal faulted regions. Hydrocarbons occur in a stacked succession of one or more basins: pregraben, graben fill, and interior sag. Preservation of pregraben accumulations depends on late initiation of crustal arching and limitation of uplift to the graben shoulders. Furthermore, a stable pregraben tectonic environment is required to ensure internal continuity of subsequent fault-block closures. Hydrocarbon traps in the pregraben and graben-fill sediments are primarily dependent on the multidirectional orientation of normal faults, tilting of fault blocks, and, in many cases, flexing or erosion parallel with block edges. The fault pattern is dominated by longitudinal faults subparallel with the graben axis and, secondarily, by oblique faults. The direction and degree of block rotation are influenced by fault profile (planar or listric), degree of extension, fault pattern (doglegs, junctions, terminations), downwarping of the subsequent sag basin, and isostatic adjustment between large blocks.

  15. Parasomnias: co-occurrence and genetics.

    PubMed

    Hublin, C; Kaprio, J; Partinen, M; Koskenvu, M

    2001-06-01

    In clinical practice, parasomnias are often found to run in families and to co-occur. Several studies have indicated a role of genetic factors in them. In 1990, a questionnaire (response rate, 77%) sent to the Finnish Twin Cohort, a representative population sample aged 33-60 years, surveyed the frequency of five parasomnias (sleepwalking, sleeptalking, enuresis, bruxism, and nightmares) in childhood and as adults. In assessing the phenotypic covariation and shared genetic effects between the parasomnias, we used polychoric correlations and structural equation modelling. In childhood (n = 5856 individuals), co-occurrence is highest in sleeptalking with sleepwalking (R = 0.73), nightmares (R = 0.50), and bruxism (R = 0.43). As adults (n = 8567), the results are similar (R = 0.56, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively). The analyses of shared genetic effects included 815 monozygotic and 1442 dizygotic twin pairs with complete responses on four parasomnias as adults. The strongest genetic covariation was found in sleeptalking with sleepwalking, sleeptalking with bruxism, and in sleeptalking with nightmares. The estimated proportions of shared genetic effects were 50, 30, and 26%, respectively. The present results indicate that parasomnias share some common genetic background. PMID:11525419

  16. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David I; Liu, Kyle T; Reid, Bryan J; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W; Ouellette, Pierre H R; Ballantyne, James S

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics. PMID:26600157

  17. A predictive geologic model of radon occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, L.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Earlier work by LeGrand on predictive geologic models for radon focused on hydrogeologic aspects of radon transport from a given uranium/radium source in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer, and included submodels for bedrock lithology (uranium concentration), topographic slope, and water-table behavior and characteristics. LeGrand's basic geologic model has been modified and extended into a submodel for crystalline rocks (Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces) and a submodel for sedimentary rocks (Valley and Ridge and Coastal Plain Provinces). Each submodel assigns a ranking of 1 to 15 to the bedrock type, based on (a) known or supposed uranium/thorium content, (b) petrography/lithology, and (c) structural features such as faults, shear or breccia zones, diabase dikes, and jointing/fracturing. The bedrock ranking is coupled with a generalized soil/saprolite model which ranks soil/saprolite type and thickness from 1 to 10. A given site is thus assessed a ranking of 1 to 150 as a guide to its potential for high radon occurrence in the upper meter or so of soil. Field trials of the model are underway, comparing model predictions with measured soil-gas concentrations of radon.

  18. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, David I.; Liu, Kyle T.; Reid, Bryan J.; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W.; Ouellette, Pierre H. R.; Ballantyne, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics. PMID:26600157

  19. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  20. Occurrence of viruses infecting pea in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV), Pea leafroll virus (PLRV), Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), Pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Potato virus x(PVX), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on pea (Pisum sativum) in Iran. A Total of 1276 random and 684 symptomatic pea samples were collected during the spring and summer of 2002-2004 in Tehran province of Iran, where pea is grown, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies. Serological diagnoses were confirmed by electron microscopy and host range studies. Incidence of viruses in decreasing order was PVX (69%), ToMV (59%), PSbMV (36.6%), BBWV-1 (26.1%), BYMV (20.3%), AMV (17.77%), TSWV (12.6%), PEMV (10.9%), PLRV (6.78%). In this survey, natural occurrence of AMV, BBWV-1, PSbMV, TSWV, PVX and ToMV was reported for the first time on the pea in Iran. PMID:17390891

  1. Occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-12-01

    Mycotoxins have been identified as important toxins affecting animal species and humans ever since the discovery of aflatoxin B1 in 1960. Mycotoxigenic fungi are ubiquitous in nature and are held responsible for economic loss as they decrease crop yield and quality of food. The presence of fungi and their mycotoxins are reported not only in food grains but also in medicinal herbs and processed foods. Since prevention is not always possible, detoxification of mycotoxins have been attempted using several means; however, only few have been accepted for practical use, e.g. ammonia in the corn industry. Organizations such as the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration and European Union have set regulations and safety limits of important mycotoxins, viz. aflatoxins, fusarium toxins, ochratoxin, patulin zearalenone, etc., to ensure the safety of the consumers. This review article is a brief and up-to-date account of the occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins for those interested in and considering research in this area. PMID:26648039

  2. Tectonic development of the Indonesian archipelago and its bearing on the occurrence of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Simanjuntak, T.O. )

    1994-07-01

    The present geological and tectonic configuration of the Indonesian archipelago may represent a typical triple junction plate convergence, which has developed since Neogene times due to the northward-moving Indo-Australian plate, the westward-moving Pacific plate, and the south-southeastward-moving Eurasian Craton. The occurrence of a number of microcontinents in eastern Indonesia makes the geology and tectonics of the region more complex. The archipelago is one of the most complicated regions from the plate tectonics point of view. The geological evolution of the Indonesian archipelago is recorded by the occurrence of both tectonic convergence and tectonic divergence. Various types of plate convergences include a Cordilleran type subduction, which has been reoccurring since Paleozoic until present times in western Indonesia; a Neogene Tethyan type collision in the Banda region; and a double-arc collision in northern Maluku, central Indonesia. Tectonic divergence, which was preceded by rifting due to thermal doming and magma rise in the northern margins of the Australian Craton and followed by the detachment and west-northwestward displacement of continental fragments in Mesozoic, gave rise to the development of the microcontinents in eastern Indonesia.

  3. Assessing the coastal occurrence of endangered killer whales using autonomous passive acoustic recorders.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M Bradley; Emmons, Candice K; Ward, Eric J; Nystuen, Jeffrey A; Lammers, Marc O

    2013-11-01

    Using moored autonomous acoustic recorders to detect and record the vocalizations of social odonotocetes to determine their occurrence patterns is a non-invasive tool in the study of these species in remote locations. Acoustic recorders were deployed in seven locations on the continental shelf of the U.S. west coast from Cape Flattery, WA to Pt. Reyes, CA to detect and record endangered southern resident killer whales between January and June of 2006-2011. Detection rates of these whales were greater in 2009 and 2011 than in 2006-2008, were most common in the month of March, and occurred with the greatest frequency off the Columbia River and Westport, which was likely related to the presence of their most commonly consumed prey, Chinook salmon. The observed patterns of annual and monthly killer whale occurrence may be related to run strength and run timing, respectively, for spring Chinook returning to the Columbia River, the largest run in this region at this time of year. Acoustic recorders provided a unique, long-term, dataset that will be important to inform future consideration of Critical Habitat designation for this U.S. Endangered Species Act listed species. PMID:24180759

  4. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products in a sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Reif, Rubén; Santos, Ana; Judd, Simon J; Lema, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of eight pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) during sewage treatment has been studied in a pilot-scale treatment plant, comprising a primary settler (2.85 m(3)), an aeration tank (1.845 m(3)) and a secondary clarifier (0.5 m(3)), placed on site at a wastewater treatment works in the north west of the UK. It was fed both with raw sewage and the return liquor produced after sludge centrifugation, thus representing the most common configuration for a municipal sewage treatment plant based on the activated sludge process. Samples were taken at six different locations, including the return liquor stream, and analysed for musk fragrances and pharmaceutically active compounds belonging to various therapeutic groups such as anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and antiepileptics. Mass balances were conducted for those PPCPs that were quantifiable. The fate of the PPCPs was found to differ according to their physical-chemical characteristics. Anti-inflammatories underwent a degradation process and were almost completely removed from sewage during the biological treatment step. Musk fragrances were only partially removed, through adsorption onto the primary suspended solids and the biomass in the aerobic process, due to their strong lipophilic characteristics. The results of this study provide increasing evidence that the partial removal of these substances through the sewage treatment process contribute to the environmental occurrence of PPCPs. Consequently, existing STPs should be upgraded in order to attenuate the release of these substances into the aquatic environment. PMID:21057683

  5. Uranium occurrence in major rock types by fission-track mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Ledger, E.G.; Bomber, B.J.; Schaftenaar, W.E.; Tieh, T.T.

    1984-04-01

    Microscopic occurrence of uranium has been determined in about 50 igneous rocks from various location, and in a genetically unrelated sandstone from south Texas. Precambrian granites from the Llano uplift of central Texas contain from a few ppm uranium (considered normal) to over 100 ppm on a whole-rock basis. In granite, uranium is concentrated in: (1) accessory minerals including zircon, biotite, allanite, Fe-Ti oxides, and altered sphene, (2) along grain boundaries and in microfractures by precipitation from deuteric fluids, and (3) as point sources (small inclusions) in quartz and feldspars. Tertiary volcanic rocks from the Davis Mountains of west Texas include diverse rock types from basalt to rhyolite. Average uranium contents increase from 1 ppm in basalts to 7 ppm in rhyolites. Concentration occurs: (1) in iron-titanium-oxides, zircon, and rutile, (2) in the fine-grained groundmass as uniform and point-source concentrations, and (3) as late uranium in cavities associated with banded, silica-rich material. Uranium in ore-grade sandstone is concentrated to more than 3%. Specific occurrences include (1) leucoxene and/or anatase, (2) opaline and calcite cements, (3) mud clasts and altered volcanic rock fragments, and (4) in a few samples, as silt-size uranium- and molybdenum-rich spheres. Uranium content is quite low in pyrite, marcasite, and zeolites.

  6. Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic activity on the West Indian island of Montserrat has remained high for several years-the current activity started in 1995. However, remote sensing of the island has been difficult because of frequent cloud cover. The International Space Station crew flew north of the island on a clear day in early July (July 9, 2001) and recorded a vigorous steam plume emanating from the summit of Soufriere Hills. The image also reveals the extensive volcanic mud flows (lahars) and new deltas built out from the coast from the large amounts of volcanic debris delivered downstream by the rivers draining the mountain. As a small island (only 13 x 8 km), all of Montserrat has been impacted by the eruptions. Sources of Information: Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program Italy's Volcanoes Montserrat Volcano Observatory Digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309 was taken on 9 July 2001 from Space Station Alpha and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  7. Does the geoid drift west?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, G. E.; Parker, R. L.; Zumberge, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    In 1970 Hide and Malin noted a correlation of about 0.8 between the geoid and the geomagnetic potential at the Earth's surface when the latter is rotated eastward in longitude by about 160 degrees and the spherical harmonic expansions of both functions are truncated at degree 4. From a century of magnetic observatory data, Hide and Malin inferred an average magnetic westward drift rate of about 0.27 degrees/year. They attributed the magnetic-gravitational correlation to a core event at about 1350 A.D. which impressed the mantle's gravity pattern at long wavelengths onto the core motion and the resulting magnetic field. The impressed pattern was then carried westward 160 degrees by the nsuing magnetic westward drift. An alternative possibility is some sort of steady physical coupling between the magnetic and gravitational fields (perhaps migration of Hide's bumps on the core-mantle interface). This model predicts that the geoid will drift west at the magnetic rate. On a rigid earth, the resulting changes in sea level would be easily observed, but they could be masked by adjustment of the mantle if it has a shell with viscosity considerably less than 10 to the 21 poise. However, steady westward drift of the geoid also predicts secular changes in g, the local acceleration of gravity, at land stations. These changes are now ruled out by recent independent high-accuracy absolute measurements of g made by several workers at various locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  8. AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bees are among the most important pollinators of flowering plants in most ecosystems. This paper describes a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western He...

  9. Occurrence and Diversity of Giardia duodenalis Assemblages in Livestock in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Minetti, C; Taweenan, W; Hogg, R; Featherstone, C; Randle, N; Latham, S M; Wastling, J M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in humans and a wide range of livestock species. It is a genetically heterogeneous parasite that has been characterized in seven distinct genetic assemblages or cryptic species, and molecular markers can be used to differentiate both animal-specific and potentially zoonotic genotypes. Little is known about G. duodenalis and the range of assemblages occurring in domestic livestock species in the UK. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis detected in the faeces or large intestinal contents of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and camelids from farms in the north-west of England. Both healthy and clinically diseased animals were included in the survey. The presence of Giardia spp. and assemblages was determined by sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The potential association of infection with various clinical and epidemiological parameters was studied in cattle using both univariate and multivariate analyses. Giardia spp. were detected in 127 (34.3%) of the 370 animals tested. G. duodenalis assemblage E was found to be predominant in cattle and sheep, followed by assemblage A. Mixed infections with assemblages A and E were also detected. Interestingly, some cattle, sheep and pigs were found to be infected with more unexpected assemblages (C, D, F). Pre-weaned calves were more likely to test positive than adult animals, but no association between the occurrence of overt intestinal disease and G. duodenalis infection was detected. The common occurrence of assemblage A and the finding of unusual assemblages in atypical hosts suggest that in future, a multilocus analysis should be used to confirm the actual diversity of G. duodenalis in livestock and the presence of potentially zoonotic genotypes. These data also suggest that there is a need to re-evaluate the clinical significance of G. duodenalis infection in livestock. PMID:23472706

  10. Environmental predictors of West Nile fever risk in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen of global public health importance. Transmission of WNV is determined by abiotic and biotic factors. The objective of this study was to examine environmental variables as predictors of WNV risk in Europe and neighboring countries, considering the anomalies of remotely sensed water and vegetation indices and of temperature at the locations of West Nile fever (WNF) outbreaks reported in humans between 2002 and 2013. Methods The status of infection by WNV in relationship to environmental and climatic risk factors was analyzed at the district level using logistic regression models. Temperature, remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) anomalies, as well as population, birds’ migratory routes, and presence of wetlands were considered as explanatory variables. Results The anomalies of temperature in July, of MNDWI in early June, the presence of wetlands, the location under migratory routes, and the occurrence of a WNF outbreak the previous year were identified as risk factors. The best statistical model according to the Akaike Information Criterion was used to map WNF risk areas in 2012 and 2013. Model validations showed a good level of prediction: area under Receiver Operator Characteristic curve = 0.854 (95% Confidence Interval 0.850-0.856) for internal validation and 0.819 (95% Confidence Interval 0.814-0.823) (2012) and 0.853 (95% Confidence Interval 0.850-0.855) (2013) for external validations, respectively. Conclusions WNF incidence is increasing in Europe and WNV is expanding into new areas where it had never been observed before. Our model can be used to direct surveillance activities and public health interventions for the upcoming WNF season. PMID:24986363

  11. Development of West African Rainy Seasons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    The development of West African rainy seasons in the observed climatology can be understood in terms of two factors: continentality, i.e., the shape and placement of the African continent, and solar forcing. First, the observed features of the West African spring and summer precipitation climatology that distinguish it from the precipitation climatology of the tropical Atlantic to the east and Central/Eastern Africa to the west are presented. These include a lingering of the precipitation maximum along the Guinean coast in June and the apparent sudden movement of the precipitation maximum into the Sahel in early July. Then, these distinguishing features of the West Africa precipitation climatology are explained in terms of the regional dynamics and, finally, related to continentality and solar forcing through the roles of the African easterly jet, land surface temperature, and seasonally-varying SSTs.

  12. GOES-West Movie of Hurricane Newton

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of infrared and visible images from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows the development and movement of Hurricane Newton from Sept. 4 through Sept. 6 at 10 a.m. EDT (1400 UTC) toward Ba...

  13. Childhood and Education in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Roger

    1975-01-01

    Describes and explains the differences between schools in North America (USA and Canada) and Western Europe (France and West Germany) in terms of their contrasting notions of childhood and childrearing. (SDH)

  14. GOES-West Video of Sandra

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite showed Tropical Storm Sandra has become decoupled by strong wind shear as it was approaching landfall in western Mexico ...

  15. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). West Nile virus transmission has been documented in Europe and the Middle East, Africa, India, parts of Asia, and Australia. It was first detected ...

  16. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  17. GOES-West Satellite Sees 'Pineapple Express'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Visible and infrared images taken from NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental, or GOES-West, satellite from Feb. 7 through 9, 2014, were animated by the NASA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard ...

  18. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  19. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil. PMID:17351814

  20. Comprehensive Flux Occurrence Statistics at Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Denton, M. H.; Bodeau, M.

    2005-12-01

    Geosynchronous orbit, the distance at which the orbital period around the Earth is 24 hours, is home to more than 200 satellites. From a space weather perspective, the environment in this orbit is highly variable and far from benign. Satellites exposed to these harsh conditions are subject to episodes of deep dielectric charging, surface charging, solar panel degradation, single event upsets, radiation degradation of optical coatings and paints, and other deleterious effects. Either suddenly or gradually over time, such effects can cause catastrophic or simply lifetime-shortening consequences for satellite systems. To protect against these environmental effects, spacecraft designers need to know quantitatively what the nature of the environment is likely to be over the design lifetime of their satellites. In recent years a number of such statistical analyses have been conducted, demonstrating the systematic dependence of geosynchronous plasma properties on orbital position, geomagnetic activity, and phase of the solar cycle. These studies have helped illuminate the physical processes that govern the nature of the plasma at geosynchronous orbit, but they do not provide a condensed description of the environment that is suitable for use by spacecraft designers. We report here a definitive statistical characterization of the geosynchronous environment that will be more useful for such purposes. The analysis is based on the LANL MPA geosynchronous plasma dataset, which now comprises more than 70 satellite-years of measurements extending well over a full solar cycle. We present the flux occurrence statistics of ions and electrons with energies in the range from ~1 eV to ~45 keV, covering the populations that are responsible for satellite surface charging and radiation damage to surface materials, and that provide the source for the higher-energy ring current and radiation belts. Significant differences have been found in long-term averages compared to the AE-8, AP-8

  1. Upper Devonian Catskill delta of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.C.; Lewis, J.S.; Mumcuoglu, C.; Boswell, R.; Peace, K.; Jewell, G.

    1984-12-01

    Oil and gas reservoir rocks of the Upper Devonian of West Virginia were deposited as shoreline sands along a coastal plain characterized by marine-dominant deltas (Catskill delta complex). These sandstones exhibit facies relationships between red beds and interbedded sandstones and shales that shift westward and eastward with offlap and onlap. Outcrop equivalents at Elkins, West Virginia, are correlated with the interval of Balltown to Fourth sands. Subsurface correlation indicates that maximum westward progradation occurred during deposition of the Gordon and Gordon Stray sands, and that transgression mainly characterized the younger Devonian sands of the Thirty-foot, Fifty-foot and Gantz. Regional correlations suggest that the Bradford-Balltown and Speechly (B sands of Pennsylvania Geological Survey) sands are better developed in northwestern Pennsylvania, whereas the Bayard through Gantz (D sands of Pennsylvania Geological Survey) sands are better developed in northern and central West Virginia, decreasing also in buildup toward southeastern West Virginia. The oil-bearing sandstones occur in strike trend (north-south) in north-central West Virginia connected by feeder channel sandstones with dip trends (east-west). The interpreted fluvial and tidal channels combine to represent distributary channels that supplied the sands to the barrier islands and delta front. Shoreline shifts, with regression and transgression of the ancient sea, caused corresponding changes in distal-fan accumulations with time.

  2. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  3. 1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING 120. BUILDING 120 HOUSES THE PROTECTIVE FORCE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTROLLING ENTRANCE TO AND EGRESS FROM THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT WEST ENTRANCE. - Rocky Flats Plant, Guard Facility, South side of west access road, approximately 2,323 feet east of Colorado Highway 93 & West Road, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  5. Occurrence of Phytophthora infestans on potato and tomato hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of Phytophthora infestans on diverse hosts and its distribution in the potato agro-ecosystem is crucial for effective disease management. The occurrence of P. infestans on potato and tomato hosts was recorded in Maine potato fields from 2006-2009. Over 90% of disease occurrences were on p...

  6. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  7. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  8. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  9. 10 CFR 140.83 - Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of extraordinary nuclear occurrence. 140.83 Section 140.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrences § 140.83 Determination of extraordinary...

  10. DON occurrence in cereal grains: A North American perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in agricultural commodities has been reported all over the world, with levels varying amongst grain type and years of production. However, a systematic review of the current situation regarding this mycotoxin, its occurrence, and its management in North America...

  11. Statistics of GNSS amplitude scintillation occurrences over Dakar, Senegal, at varying elevation angles during the maximum phase of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, A. O.; Awoyele, A.; Doherty, P. H.

    2016-03-01

    This study characterizes Global Navigation Satellite System amplitude scintillation over Dakar (14.75°N, 17.45°W, magnitude latitude: 5.88°N), Senegal. The data, which we arranged on daily and monthly scales, cover 14 months: September-November 2012; February-December 2013; and January-February 2014. The data were further binned into three levels of scintillation using the S4 index: weak (0.3 ≤ S4 < 0.4), moderate (0.4 ≤ S4 < 0.7), and intense (S4 ≥ 0.7), over varying elevation angles (10°, 20°, and 30°). Daily occurrences of scintillation were most frequent around 22-02 LT. On a month-by-month basis, October recorded the highest occurrences of scintillations, while June recorded the least. Furthermore, contrary to Akala et al. (2014, 2015) who earlier reported January as off season for scintillation occurrences at some sites in Africa, namely, Lagos (Central West Africa), Nairobi, and Kampala (East Africa), the current study recorded some scintillation occurrences at Dakar (far west of West Africa) in January. It therefore implies that longitudinal variations do exist in the climatology of ionospheric scintillations over Africa. Consequently, detailed understanding of the climatology and daily distributions of ionospheric scintillations over equatorial Africa, which is our key objective in this study (from the perspective of Dakar), is the basic requirement for developing robust physics-based scintillation models for the African equatorial region. Finally, we noted that the conventional adoption of high-elevation masking angles during scintillation data processing, with a view to suppressing multipath effects usually hid important ionospheric-induced scintillation data.

  12. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence of an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period October through December 1991. Five abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. None of these occurrences involved a nuclear power plant. Four involved medical therapy misadministrations and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. The NRC's Agreement States reported three abnormal occurrences. Two involved exposures of non-radiation workers and one involved a medical therapy misadministration. The report also contains information that updates some previously reported abnormal occurrences.

  13. Archway for Radiation and Micrometeorite Occurrence Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giersch, Louis R.

    2012-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the Moon require mitigation if a long-term human presence is to be achieved for extended periods of time. Radiation, micrometeoroid impacts, high-velocity debris, and thermal cycling represent threats to crew, equipment, and facilities. For decades, local regolith has been suggested as a candidate material to use in the construction of protective barriers. A thickness of roughly 3m is sufficient protection from both direct and secondary radiation from cosmic rays and solar protons; this thickness is sufficient to reduce radiation exposure even during solar flares. NASA has previously identified a need for innovations that will support lunar habitats using lightweight structures because the reduction of structural mass translates directly into additional up and down mass capability that would facilitate additional logistics capacity and increased science return for all mission phases. The development of non-pressurized primary structures that have synergy with the development of pressurized structures is also of interest. The use of indigenous or in situ materials is also a well-known and active area of research that could drastically improve the practicality of human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. The Archway for Radiation and Micrometeorite Occurrence Resistance (ARMOR) concept is a new, multifunctional structure that acts as radiation shielding and micrometeorite impact shielding for long-duration lunar surface protection of humans and equipment. ARMOR uses a combination of native regolith and a deployed membrane jacket to yield a multifunctional structure. ARMOR is a robust and modular system that can be autonomously assembled on-site prior to the first human surface arrival. The system provides protection by holding a sufficiently thick (3 m) archshaped shell of local regolith around a central cavity. The regolith is held in shape by an arch-shaped jacket made of strong but deployable material. No regolith processing is

  14. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  15. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  16. THE OCCURRENCE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS OF HEALTH CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER: RESULTS OF A NATIONWIDE DBP OCCURRENCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The motivation for this Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study was two-fold: First, more than 500 DBPs have been reported in the literature, yet there is almost no quantitative occurrence information for most. As a result, there is significant uncertainty ove...

  17. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  18. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011

  19. Eastern Gas Shales Project: West Virginia No. 7 well, Wetzel County. Phase III report, summary of laboratory analyses and mechanical characterization results

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    This summary presents a detailed characterization of the Devonian Shale occurrence in the EGSP-West Virginia No. 7 well. Information provided includes a stratigraphic summary and lithiology and fracture analyses resulting from detailed core examinations and geophysical log interpretations at the EGSP Core Laboratory. Plane of weakness orientations stemming from a program of physical properties testing at Michigan Technological University are also summarized; the results of physical properties testing are dealt with in detail in the accompanying report. The data presented was obtained from the study of approximately 533 feet of core retrieved from a well drilled in Wetzel county of north-central West Virginia.

  20. 7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  1. 75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5, 2010), the West Coast Salmon Plan, and regulations implementing the West.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the 2010 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5..., inseason action 11 (75 FR 54791, September, 9, 2010) imposed an open period landing and possession limit...

  2. 75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... the annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5, 2010), the West Coast.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the 2010 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY83 Fisheries Off West...

  3. 77 FR 65520 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... CSR 8--Ambient Air Quality Standards. In the Final Rules section of this Federal Register, EPA...

  4. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  5. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ..., Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 2916). We received no comments on...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach...

  6. 78 FR 59841 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... 11, 2012 (77 FR 73575), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the State of West... transportation conformity purposes for the West Virginia portion of the Area. On July 24, 2013 (78 FR 44487), EPA... emissions inventory requirements of section 172(c)(3) of the CAA. See December 11, 2012 (77 FR 73575)...

  7. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section 110.189a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any...

  8. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section 110.189a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any...

  9. The diel cycle of water vapor in west Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, B. G.; Lauder, A. M.; Posmentier, E. S.; Feng, X.

    2014-08-01

    We present a study of the dynamics of small-scale (~100 km) atmospheric circulation in west Greenland which is dominated by interactions of marine and continental air masses. Water vapor concentration and isotopic ratios measured continuously over a 25 day period in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland were used to monitor the convergence of easterly katabatic winds and westerly sea breezes that form a front between the dry, isotopically depleted, glacial air mass and the moist, isotopically enriched, marine air mass. During the latter 16 days of the measurement period, an interval with no large-scale synoptic interference, the inland penetration of the sea breeze controlled the largest day-to-day humidity and vapor isotopic variations. Kangerlussuaq experienced sea breezes in the afternoon on 9 days, consistent with the long-term average of such occurrences on 56% of days in July and August. The inland position of the sea breeze front is controlled by the katabatic wind strength, which is stronger during times of reduced cloud coverage and/or higher-pressure gradient between the coast and the Greenland ice sheet. The position and movement of the front will likely respond to changes in the general atmospheric circulation and regional radiation balance resulting from global warming, which will, in turn, impact the local hydrological cycle and ecosystem processes.

  10. Gag grouper larvae pathways on the West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Peebles, Ernst

    2014-10-01

    A numerical circulation model, quantitatively assessed against in situ observations, is used to describe the circulation on the West Florida Continental Shelf during spring 2007 when pre-settlement gag (Mycteroperca microlepis) were present in the surf zone near Tampa Bay, Florida. The pre-settlement fish were found to be isotopically distinct from settled juveniles in the area, which is consistent with recent arrival at near shore nursery habitats from offshore spawning grounds. Simulated particle trajectories are employed to test hypotheses relating to either a surface or a near-bottom route of across-shelf transport. The surface-route hypothesis is rejected, whereas the bottom-route hypothesis is found to be consistent with the location of pre-settlement fish and their co-occurrence with macroalgae of offshore, hard-bottom origin. We conclude that gag larvae are transported to the near shore via the bottom Ekman layer and that such transport is facilitated by remote forcing associated with Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope near the Dry Tortugas. Being that such remote forcing occurs inter-annually and not always in phase with the preferred spawning months (late winter through early spring), gag recruitment success should similarly vary with year and location.

  11. Clinical Sentinel Surveillance of Equine West Nile Fever, Spain.

    PubMed

    Saegerman, C; Alba-Casals, A; García-Bocanegra, I; Dal Pozzo, F; van Galen, G

    2016-04-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical data issued from a passive epidemiosurveillance network from September 2010 to December 2011 on horses in Spain were statistically compared and used to develop a predictive diagnostic decision tree, both with the aim to improve the early clinical detection of WNF in horses. Although clinical signs were variable in horses affected by WNF, four clinical signs and the month of occurrence were identified as useful indicators to distinguish between WNF-related and WNF-unrelated cases. The signs that pointed out a presumptive diagnosis of WNF in horses were cranial nerves deficits, limb paralysis, photophobia and nasal discharge. Clinical examination of horses with neurological signs that are not vaccinated against WNV could provide important clues for the early clinical detection of WNF and therefore serve as an alert for possible human viral infections. The study of the clinical pattern of WNF in horses is of importance to enhance awareness and better understanding and to optimize surveillance designs for clinical detection of WNF in horses in advance of epidemic activity affecting humans. PMID:24899369

  12. Seabirds of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, James B.; Pollock, Claire M.; Mavor, Roddy

    2001-05-01

    The marine environment of the Atlantic Frontier region north and west of Scotland, the focus of recent oil exploration, hosts internationally important concentrations of seabirds. Twenty-three species breed in colonies on the coasts and islands that rise from these waters and a further 25 species use them for feeding at various times of the year. The importance of these populations are set in an international context and their composition and occurrence in the deep waters of the Atlantic Frontier and adjacent continental shelf waters, as revealed by 20 years of at-sea surveys, is described. Deep waters are especially important for procellariiformes whereas shelf waters are important for all species, and overall seabird diversity is greater in shelf waters. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds can be severe, and although the effect of pollution in deep, oceanic waters might be minimal, prevailing currents and winds might result in greater impacts on more westerly, shelf waters. While the perceived threats from oil exploration in the Atlantic Frontier might be small the important seabird assemblage in the region should be considered in future exploitation of hydrocarbons here.

  13. A Point Process Model of Summer Season Rainfall Occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James A.; Karr, Alan F.

    1983-02-01

    A point process model of summer season rainfall occurrences is developed. The model, which is termed an RCM process, is a member of the family of Cox processes (Poisson processes for which the rate of occurrence of events varies randomly over time). Model development is based on counts and interarrival time statistics estimated from Potomac River basin rainfall data. The counting parameters used are the conditional intensity function, index of dispersion, and counts spectrum; the interarrival time parameters are the coefficient of variation and the autocorrelation function. Explicit results are presented for the counts and interarrival time parameters of RCM processes. Of particular importance in this paper is the interpretation of clustering suggested by the form of the RCM process. For the RCM process the rate of occurrence alternates between two states, one of which is 0, the other positive. During periods when the intensity is 0, no events can occur. The form of the intensity process suggests that clustering of summer season rainfall occurrences in the Potomac River basin results from the alternation of wet and dry periods. Computational results are presented for two extensions of the RCM process model of rainfall occurrences: a marked RCM process model of rainfall occurrences and associated storm depths and a bivariate RCM process model of rainfall occurrences at two sites.

  14. Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica

    PubMed

    Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

    2000-03-01

    The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world. PMID:10724159

  15. Global database of leishmaniasis occurrence locations, 1960-2012.

    PubMed

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Messina, Jane P; Battle, Katherine E; Duda, Kirsten A; Balard, Yves; Bastien, Patrick; Pratlong, Francine; Brownstein, John S; Freifeld, Clark C; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Madoff, Lawrence C; George, Dylan B; Myers, Monica F; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    The leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases of significant public health importance. However, information on their global occurrence is disparate and sparse. This database represents an attempt to collate reported leishmaniasis occurrences from 1960 to 2012. Methodology for the collection of data from the literature, abstraction of case locations and data processing procedures are described here. In addition, strain archives and online data resources were accessed. A total of 12,563 spatially and temporally unique occurrences of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis comprise the database, ranging in geographic scale from villages to states. These data can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses covering multiple resolutions. PMID:25984344

  16. Global database of leishmaniasis occurrence locations, 1960–2012

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Messina, Jane P; Battle, Katherine E; Duda, Kirsten A; Balard, Yves; Bastien, Patrick; Pratlong, Francine; Brownstein, John S; Freifeld, Clark C; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Madoff, Lawrence C; George, Dylan B; Myers, Monica F; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    The leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases of significant public health importance. However, information on their global occurrence is disparate and sparse. This database represents an attempt to collate reported leishmaniasis occurrences from 1960 to 2012. Methodology for the collection of data from the literature, abstraction of case locations and data processing procedures are described here. In addition, strain archives and online data resources were accessed. A total of 12,563 spatially and temporally unique occurrences of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis comprise the database, ranging in geographic scale from villages to states. These data can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses covering multiple resolutions. PMID:25984344

  17. A global compendium of human dengue virus occurrence.

    PubMed

    Messina, Jane P; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Brownstein, John S; Hoen, Anne G; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    A global geographic database of human dengue virus occurrence was produced to generate a global risk map and associated burden estimates(1). Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and case reports as well as informal online sources. Entries date from 1960 to 2012. We describe all data collection processes in full, as well as geo-positioning, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the most comprehensive database of confirmed human dengue infection to-date, consisting of 8,309 geo-positioned occurrences in total. PMID:25977762

  18. Geophysical studies of the West Antarctic Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.; Lemasurier, W. E.; Cooper, A. K.; Tessensohn, F.; TréHu, A.; Damaske, D.

    1991-12-01

    The West Antarctic rift system extends over a 3000 × 750 km, largely ice covered area from the Ross Sea to the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, comparable in area to the Basin and Range and the East African rift system. A spectacular rift shoulder scarp along which peaks reach 4-5 km maximum elevation marks one flank and extends from northern Victoria Land-Queen Maud Mountains to the Ellsworth-Whitmore-Horlick Mountains. The rift shoulder has maximum present physiographic relief of 5 km in the Ross Embayment and 7 km in the Ellsworth Mountains-Byrd Subglacial Basin area. The Transantarctic Mountains part of the rift shoulder (and probably the entire shoulder) has been interpreted as rising since about 60 Ma, at episodic rates of ˜1 km/m.y., most recently since mid-Pliocene time, rather than continuously at the mean rate of 100 m/m.y. The rift system is characterized by bimodal alkaline volcanic rocks ranging from at least Oligocene to the present. These are exposed asymmetrically along the rift flanks and at the south end of the Antarctic Peninsula. The trend of the Jurassic tholeiites (Ferrar dolerites, Kirkpatric basalts) marking the Jurassic Transantarctic rift is coincident with exposures of the late Cenozoic volcanic rocks along the section of the Transantarctic Mountains from northern Victoria Land to the Horlick Mountains. The Cenozoic rift shoulder diverges here from the Jurassic tholeiite trend, and the tholeiites are exposed continuously (including the Dufek intrusion) along the lower- elevation (1-2 km) section of Transantarctic Mountains to the Weddell Sea. Widely spaced aeromagnetic profiles in West Antarctica indicate the absence of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the ice covered part of the Whitmore-Ellsworth-Mountain block and suggest their widespread occurrence beneath the western part of the ice sheet overlying the Byrd Subglacial Basin. A German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) aeromagnetic

  19. Etiology of urethral discharge in West Africa: the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, J.; Sobéla, F.; Deslandes, S.; Alary, M.; Wegner, K.; Khonde, N.; Kintin, F.; Kamuragiye, A.; Sylla, M.; Zerbo, P. J.; Baganizi, E.; Koné, A.; Kane, F.; Mâsse, B.; Viens, P.; Frost, E.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the etiological role of pathogens other than Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral discharge in West African men. METHODS: Urethral swabs were obtained from 659 male patients presenting with urethral discharge in 72 primary health care facilities in seven West African countries, and in 339 controls presenting for complaints unrelated to the genitourinary tract. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. FINDINGS: N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium--but not U. urealyticum--were found more frequently in men with urethral discharge than in asymptomatic controls, being present in 61.9%, 13.8%, 13.4% and 10.0%, respectively, of cases of urethral discharge. Multiple infections were common. Among patients with gonococcal infection, T. vaginalis was as frequent a coinfection as C. trachomatis. M. genitalium, T. vaginalis, and C. trachomatis caused a similar clinical syndrome to that associated with gonococcal infection, but with a less severe urethral discharge. CONCLUSIONS: M. genitalium and T. vaginalis are important etiological agents of urethral discharge in West Africa. The frequent occurrence of multiple infections with any combination of four pathogens strongly supports the syndromic approach. The optimal use of metronidazole in flowcharts for the syndromic management of urethral discharge needs to be explored in therapeutic trials. PMID:11242818

  20. Identifying the Environmental Conditions Favouring West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  1. Identifying the environmental conditions favouring West Nile Virus outbreaks in Europe.

    PubMed

    Marcantonio, Matteo; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  2. The Connemara Fan: a major glacial grounding line fan west of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarron, Stephen; Praeg, Daniel; Monteys, Xavier; Scott, Gill

    2014-05-01

    Glacigenic topography on the mid-shelf (~130-350 m water depth) west of Galway, Ireland appears to have the morphological form, internal architecture and sediments associated with a large glacial grounding-line fan. Seismic data collected in 2009 and 2012 (during the GLAMAR and GATEWAYS 1 campaigns) reveal that the broad, arcuate ridges of the 'Olex moraine' form the landward part of a fan system which prograded beyond the mid-shelf break (defining the outer margin of the 'Clare Platform') westwards into the Porcupine Seabight. The topography is comparable to larger shelf-edge trough-mouth fans found further north along the same margin, however no discernible 'trough' has been identified on the Clare Platform. The ridge and fan topographic assemblage is renamed the 'Connemara Fan' in its entirety, based on its genetic relations and geographic location due west of Connemara, western Ireland. A macrofossil recovered from within a debris flow on the outer fan slope comprised of remobilised plumites dates to ~ 20 ka Cal B.P., indicating sediment reworking downslope following deglacial sediment input to at least that time. The Connemara Fan is the most southerly glacigenic fan identified along the north-east Atlantic margin. Its identification also adds to our knowledge of possibly multiple generations of ice sheets feeding onto the Irish shelf from west-central Ireland and the occurrence of ice sheet geometries and dynamics that evacuated ice, melt-water and sediment (ice streams?) westwards across the Clare Platform during past glaciations.

  3. Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

  4. Geochemical study on hot-spring water in West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahan, M. M.; Verave, R. T.; Irarue, P. Y.

    2015-10-01

    West New Britain Province, which occupies the western part of New Britain Island in Papua New Guinea, is ideally located within an active tectonic region that influences volcanism creating an environment favourable for geothermal activity. Geothermal mapping of surface manifestations reveals high temperature geothermal prospects along the northern coastline of West New Britain Province that are further confirmed by geochemical analysis. The occurrence of geothermal features is confined to the Quaternary Kimbe Volcanics and alluvium in the lowland areas. The features in Talasea appear to be controlled by deep-seated northerly trending faults while structures in Hoskins also appear to be deep seated but have not been identified. The geothermal systems in West New Britain Province have not been drilled, but preliminary reconnaissance geothermal mapping and geochemical analysis reveals four high temperature geothermal prospects suitable for further investigation and development of geothermal energy. These are the Pangalu (Rabili) and Talasea Station geothermal prospects in Talasea and Kasiloli (Magouru) and Silanga (Bakama and Sakalu) geothermal prospects in Hoskins. The calculated reservoir temperatures for these fields are in the range of 245-310 °C. Recommendations are made for further follow-up exploratory investigations.

  5. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-08-15

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41[degree] API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing.

  6. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  7. Impacts of West Nile Virus on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, E.K.; Wild, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The recent epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States proved to be unexpectedly active and was the largest epidemic of the virus ever recorded. Much remains to be discovered about the ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in the United States, including which species are important in maintaining the virus in nature, why some species are more susceptible to lethal infection, and what environmental factors are important in predicting future epidemics. These factors will likely vary regionally, depending on local ecological characteristics. Until scientists better understand the virus and factors influencing its activity, predicting its effects for future seasons is impossible. However, experts are certain about one thing: West Nile virus is here to stay.

  8. Glacial survival may matter after all: nunatak signatures in the rare European populations of two west-arctic species.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, Kristine B; Alsos, Inger G; Popp, Magnus; Engelskjøn, Torstein; Flatberg, Kjell I; Brochmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Biogeographers claimed for more than a century that arctic plants survived glaciations in ice-free refugia within the limits of the North European ice sheets. Molecular studies have, however, provided overwhelming support for postglacial immigration into northern Europe, even from the west across the Atlantic. For the first time we can here present molecular evidence strongly favouring in situ glacial persistence of two species, the rare arctic-alpine pioneer species Sagina caespitosa and Arenaria humifusa. Both belong to the 'west-arctic element' of amphi-Atlantic disjuncts, having their few and only European occurrences well within the limits of the last glaciation. Sequencing of non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA revealed only limited variation. However, two very distinct and partly diverse genetic groups, one East and one West Atlantic, were detected in each species based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), excluding postglacial dispersal from North America as explanation for their European occurrences. Patterns of genetic diversity and distinctiveness indicate that glacial populations existed in East Greenland and/or Svalbard (A. humifusa) and in southern Scandinavia (S. caespitosa). Despite their presumed lack of long-distance dispersal adaptations, intermixed populations in several regions indicate postglacial contact zones. Both species are declining in Nordic countries, probably due to climate change-induced habitat loss. Little or no current connectivity between their highly fragmented and partly distinct populations call for conservation of several populations in each geographic region. PMID:21156004

  9. West Nile Virus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Nasci, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in North America in 1999,West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16 196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780 000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND

  10. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  11. Dynamic stall occurrence on a horizontal axis wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    Surface pressure data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s ``Combined Experiment`` were analyzed to provide a statistical representation of dynamic stall occurrence on a downwind horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). Over twenty thousand blade rotational cycles were each characterized at four span locations by the maximum leading edge suction pressure and by the azimuth, velocity, and yaw at which it occurred. Peak suction values at least twice that seen in static wind tunnel tests were taken to be indicative of dynamic stall. The occurrence of dynamic stall at all but the inboard station (30% span) shows good quantitative agreement with the theoretical limits on inflow velocity and yaw that should yield dynamic stall. Two hypotheses were developed to explain the discrepancy at 30% span. Estimates are also given for the frequency of dynamic stall occurrence on upwind turbines. Operational regimes were identified which minimize the occurrence of dynamic stall events.

  12. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit. PMID:26175912

  13. Occurrence of Rock Varnish at Yungay, Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; McKay, C. P.

    2007-03-01

    Rock varnish is a thin nanostratigraphic coating consisting of clay particles cemented together by Fe and Mn oxides and is ubiquitous in arid climates. We report the occurrence of rock varnish in the Mars-like conditions present at Yungay.

  14. PROTOZOAN SOURCES OF SPONTANEOUS COLIFORM OCCURRENCE IN CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spontaneous occurrence of coliforms in chlorinated drinking waters has resulted in concern over their potential source and mechanism(s) of introduction into water delivery systems. Previous observations related to protozoal resistance to chlorine coupled with the ingestion of...

  15. Emerging Pollutants - Part I: Occurrence, Fate and Transport.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lang; Dong, Zhanfeng; Sun, Huan; Li, Hongxiang; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Part I: Occurrence, Fate, and Transport (this review) is a sequel of Emerging Pollutants. This review compiles research in 2015 for investigating emerging pollutants in wastewater and environmental sources of emerging pollutants. It investigates the occurrence, fate, transport of emerging pollutants in the environment. This review further discusses the monitoring approaches, modeling, and toxicological impacts of these compounds that are relevant to wastewater. PMID:27620111

  16. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Westinghouse PWR plants. Volume 4. Pipe failure induced by crack growth in west coast plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D.J.; Holman, G.S.; Lo, T.Y.; Mensing, R.W.

    1985-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in primary coolant piping warrants the current design requirements that safeguard against the effecs of such a break. This report assesses the reactor-coolant-loop piping system of west coast Westinghouse plants. The results indicate that directly induced DEGB is an unlikely event in the west coast Westinghouse plants. For the Trojan plant, leak is far more likely than a direct DEGB. Further, earthquakes have very little effect on the probabilities of leak and direct DEGB. At the Diablo Canyon plant, the increase in postulated seismic levels due to reevaluation of the site to account for the Hosgri Fault has caused directly induced DEGB failure probability to be dependent on earthquake occurrences. The resulting direct DEGB failure probability is still much lower than the indirect DEGB failure probability for Diablo Canyon.

  17. Sinkhole occurrence in consequence of heavy rainstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Pisano, Luca; Vennari, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    hazards. References Ford, D.C. & Williams P.W. (2007). Karst geomorphology and hydrology. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, U.K. Gutierrez, F., J. Guerrero J. & Lucha P. (2008) A genetic classification of sinkholes illustrated from evaporite paleo-karst exposures in Spain. Environmental Geology, 53, 993-1006. Gutierrez F., Parise M., De Waele J. & Jourde H. (2014) A review on natural and human-induced geohazards and impacts in karst. Earth-Science Reviews, 138, 61-88. Martinotti M.E., Pisano L., Trabace M., Marchesini I., Peruccacci S., Rossi M., Amoruso G., Loiacono P., Vennari C., Vessia G., Parise M. & Brunetti M. (2015) Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy). Geophysical Research Abstracts, 17, 2683. Parise M. (2008) Rock failures in karst. In: Cheng Z., Zhang J., Li Z., Wu F. & Ho K. (Eds.), Landslides and Engineered Slopes. Proc. 10th International Symposium on Landslides, Xi'an (China), June 30 - July 4, 2008, 1, 275-280. Parise M. (2012) A present risk from past activities: sinkhole occurrence above underground quarries. Carbonates and Evaporites, 27 (2), 109-118. Parise M. (2015a) A procedure for evaluating the susceptibility to natural and anthropogenic sinkholes. Georisk, 9 (4), 272-285. Parise M. (2015b) Karst geo-hazards: causal factors, human actions, and management issues. Acta Carsologica, 44 (2). Parise M. & Vennari C. (2013) A chronological catalogue of sinkholes in Italy: the first step toward a real evaluation of the sinkhole hazard. In: Land L., Doctor D.H. & Stephenson B. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, Carlsbad (New Mexico, USA), 6-10 May 2013, National Cave and Karst Research Institute, 383-392. Parise M., Ravbar N., Živanovic V., Mikszewski A., Kresic N., Madl-Szonyi J. & Kukuric N. (2015) Hazards in Karst and Managing Water Resources Quality. Chapter 17 in: Z

  18. Analysis of personnel error occurrence reports across Defense Program facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; O`Brien, J.N.

    1994-05-01

    More than 2,000 reports from the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database were examined in order to identify weaknesses in the implementation of the guidance for the Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) at Defense Program (DP) facilities. The analysis revealed recurrent problems involving procedures, training of employees, the occurrence of accidents, planning and scheduling of daily operations, and communications. Changes to DOE 5480.19 and modifications of the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System are recommended to reduce the frequency of these problems. The primary tool used in this analysis was a coding scheme based on the guidelines in 5480.19, which was used to classify the textual content of occurrence reports. The occurrence reports selected for analysis came from across all DP facilities, and listed personnel error as a cause of the event. A number of additional reports, specifically from the Plutonium Processing and Handling Facility (TA55), and the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility (CMR), at Los Alamos National Laboratory, were analyzed separately as a case study. In total, 2070 occurrence reports were examined for this analysis. A number of core issues were consistently found in all analyses conducted, and all subsets of data examined. When individual DP sites were analyzed, including some sites which have since been transferred, only minor variations were found in the importance of these core issues. The same issues also appeared in different time periods, in different types of reports, and at the two Los Alamos facilities selected for the case study.

  19. Hydrocarbon accumulations of Mississippian Berea sandstone in west-central West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.L. )

    1988-08-01

    The Berea Sandstone is a widely recognized producer of oil and gas in the Appalachian basin. Subsurface mapping, core analysis, and production data from producing wells have been evaluated in west-central West Virginia, where the Berea Sandstone represents a wide range of nearshore and coastal environments. Fluvial system deposits are found in southern Jackson County as channel sands (Gay-Fink) and adjacent deltaic facies. Coastal sediments were deposited to the north as intertidal shoals, tidal flats, and coarse-grained tidal-creek point bars. Marine shelf sands are found to the west.

  20. Recent changes in air temperature, heat waves occurrences, and atmospheric circulation in Northern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Bernard; Janicot, Serge; Monerie, Paul-Arthur

    2013-08-01

    study documents the time evolution of air temperature and heat waves occurrences over Northern Africa for the period 1979-2011. A significant warming (1°-3°C), appearing by the mid-1960s over Sahara and Sahel, is associated with higher/lesser frequency of warm/cold temperatures, as with longer duration and higher occurrences of heat waves. Heat waves episodes of at least 4 day duration have been examined after removing the long-term evolution. These episodes are associated with specific anomalies: (i) in spring, positive low-level temperature anomalies over the Sahel and Sahara; low and midlevel cyclonic rotation over Morocco associated with a Rossby wave pattern, lessening the Harmattan; more/less atmospheric moisture westward/eastward to 0°; upward/downward anomalies above the western/eastern regions associated with the Rossby wave pattern; (ii) in summer, a similar but weaker positive low-level temperature anomaly (up to 3°C); less moisture westward to 10°W, a cyclonic anomaly in central Sahel favoring the monsoon eastward to 0° and a midlevel anticyclonic anomaly over the Western Sahara, increasing southward the flux divergence associated with the African Easterly Jet. In March-May, two to three heat waves propagate eastward. They are preceded by an abnormal warm cell over Libya and southwesterlies over the West Sahara. A large trough stands over North Atlantic while midtropospheric subsidence and anticyclonic rotation reinforce over the continent, then migrates toward the Arabian peninsula in breaking up. These signals are spatially coherent and might suggest the role of short Rossby waves with an eastward group velocity and a baroclinic mode, possibly associated with jet stream deformation.

  1. Booker T. Washington: Rural West Virginia Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Althea M.

    1985-01-01

    The biographical sketch focuses on the early teaching career of Booker T. Washington at Tinkersville School in his hometown of Malden, West Virginia, from 1876-1878. Recollections of Washington's own education in Sunday school, the Tinkersville School, and Hampton Institute are included. (NEC)

  2. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

  3. Intermountain West Military Lands Planting Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This guide provides recommendations on plant materials for Department of Defense (DoD) land restoration at military facilties in the Intermountain West of the United States. These guidelines provide military land managers new options for revegetating military training lands. Most other guides for l...

  4. Model Program: West Springfield High School, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alukonis, J. T.; Settar, Scott

    2008-01-01

    West Springfield High School sits on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., in Fairfax County, Virginia. WSHS is home to a thriving and growing technology education program. In recent years, the program has exploded from less than 175 students to well over 425. These numbers are expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future. In 2002, the…

  5. Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary ME; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa. PMID:25429316

  6. Open Syllable Lengthening in West Germanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Aditi; Dresher, B. Elan

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to show that open syllable lengthening (OSL) was part of the grammar of the West Germanic languages: Middle English, Middle Dutch, and Middle High German. Claims that all three languages endeavored to maintain and maximize the Germanic foot, and OSL contributed in different ways to do so. (Author/VWL)

  7. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  8. Learning to Be: From East and West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The argument of this article is that whilst humanity has evolved for millions of years as a single species, different groups have developed their own cultural differences as they live in different parts of the world, and we learn within our cultures. Research has demonstrated that we do learn differently, in East and West, since we are brought up…

  9. Learning Under Siege on the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    1975-01-01

    Birzeit College, the only secular institution of higher education in the Israeli-occupied territories, continues to operate with 500 Palestinians attending classes on the West Bank of the Jordan River Valley even though its president, expelled for alleged subversive activities, continues to run the college from Beirut. (JT)

  10. Missing Chapters: West Virginia Women in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Women's Commission, Charleston.

    Nine women whose lives have contributed to West Virginia history are profiled in these collected essays. These women have made significant contributions to history as: midwife, physician, journalist, photographer, educator, musician, civic activist, and social reformer. The stereotypical image of a powerless, barefooted, uneducated girl is proven…

  11. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  12. Retooling Teacher Preparation in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchin, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses West Virginia's public schools, and their long struggle with student achievement levels in reading and math. Levels are significantly below the national average and there are poverty-based achievement gaps within the state. In 2013, a cross section of educators and education policy leaders from a range of experiences,…

  13. Go West, Young Man (and Woman)!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites on the American West, the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, Gold Rush, Donner Party, mountain men and the fur trade, Native Americans, cowboys, and western folklore. Lists related books, activity books, and CD-ROMs on cowboys, migration, and settling. (PEN)

  14. An Interdisciplinary Project and the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    This project began with a list of the kinds of topics that would be of most interest in a study of the old west. Some of the topics that were mentioned for the project included Lewis and Clark, Native American tribes and nations, early pioneers, the fur trade, Texas independence, the Pony Express, homesteaders, gunfighters, the Indian wars, and…

  15. 77 FR 40793 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You can also find later actions concerning... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 948 West Virginia Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Interim final...

  16. West Virginia U. Violated Procedures, Panel Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Administrators at West Virginia University violated procedures and displayed poor judgment in their "seriously flawed" response to an inquiry about a high-profile academic transcript, according to a report issued last week by an independent panel. The harshly worded report found that when the "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" raised questions last October…

  17. Writing the New West: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

  18. The West Virginia Health Education Assessment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Kamal, Khalid M.; Chapman, Don

    2005-01-01

    Well-designed school health education should provide students with the knowledge and skills to prevent the health risk behaviors most responsible for the major causes of morbidity and mortality. This paper reports the methodology and findings of a West Virginia statewide health education assessment initiative and describes how the findings are…

  19. 76 FR 67637 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You can also find later actions... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 948 West Virginia Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule...

  20. Natural Hazards within the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the vulnerability of the West Indies to various natural hazards, especially hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Reviews the geologic and meteorologic causes and consequences of the hazards. Suggests methods of incorporating hazards information in geography classes. Includes maps and a hurricane tracking chart. (DK)

  1. Fast Recession of a West Antarctic Glacier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry observations of Pine Island Glacier, in West Antarctica, reveal that the hinge-line position of this major ice stream retreated 1.2+/-0.2 km per year between 1992 and 1996, which in turn implies ice thinning at 3.5+/-0.6m ice per year.

  2. West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Anna; Hailey, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference held at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee on October 14, 2006. The conference theme, Turning the Pages: A Focus on Children's Literature, was emphasized throughout the day. During the conference, the early childhood classroom teachers, preservice teachers, and administrators…

  3. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This West Virginia edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

  4. WEST-3 wind turbine simulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.; Sridhar, S.

    1985-01-01

    The software developed for WEST-3, a new, all digital, and fully programmable wind turbine simulator is given. The process of wind turbine simulation on WEST-3 is described in detail. The major steps are, the processing of the mathematical models, the preparation of the constant data, and the use of system software generated executable code for running on WEST-3. The mechanics of reformulation, normalization, and scaling of the mathematical models is discussed in detail, in particulr, the significance of reformulation which leads to accurate simulations. Descriptions for the preprocessor computer programs which are used to prepare the constant data needed in the simulation are given. These programs, in addition to scaling and normalizing all the constants, relieve the user from having to generate a large number of constants used in the simulation. Also given are brief descriptions of the components of the WEST-3 system software: Translator, Assembler, Linker, and Loader. Also included are: details of the aeroelastic rotor analysis, which is the center of a wind turbine simulation model, analysis of the gimbal subsystem; and listings of the variables, constants, and equations used in the simulation.

  5. WEST LOUISVILLE AIR TOXICS STUDY (WLATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WLATS was a cooperative effort among the Louisville Metro Air Pollution Control District, the Commonwealth of Kentucky, the West Jefferson County Community Task Force, the University of Louisville, and EPA Region 4 whose purpose was to determine whether residents of the Rubbertow...

  6. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.349 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West... County (part): The city of Weirton, including Butler and Clay magisterial districts X New...

  7. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 81.349 see the List of CFR Sections Affected... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West... classified Better than national standards Hancock County (part): The city of Weirton, including Butler...

  8. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.349 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.349 West... County (part): The city of Weirton, including Butler and Clay magisterial districts X New...

  9. Feature Project--The Old West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Pat

    1984-01-01

    The teaching activities presented in this paper focus on transforming the classroom into the Old West as a means of providing endless opportunities for writing, speaking, and listening in the areas of math, science, social studies, history, geography, music, and art. The paper contains directions for helping students to create scenes, in the…

  10. The West Indian Peridinetini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Baridinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two genera and eight species of Peridinetini are recognized in the West Indies; four of the species are newly described. Peridinetus Schönherr occurs in the Greater Antilles with P. concentricus (Olivier), P. decipiens Prena sp. n., P. fuscosignum Prena sp. n., P. roeselii (Boheman) and P. sexguttat...

  11. West Africa 2013: Re-examining Ebola.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Daniel G; Rojek, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) that occurred from 2013 to 2016 in the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, with imported cases to three neighboring African countries as well as to the United States and Europe, constituted a major humanitarian disaster. The outbreak numbered over 28,500 cases, more than 10 times the number cumulatively registered from all previous EVD outbreaks combined, with at least 11,000 deaths, and resulted in billions of dollars of lost economic growth to an already impoverished region. The unprecedented scale of West Africa 2013 took the world by surprise and laid bare deficiencies in our response capacity to complex humanitarian disasters of highly infectious and lethal pathogens. However, the magnitude of West Africa 2013 also provided an, albeit unwelcome, unique opportunity and obligation to better understand the biology and epidemiology of EVD and, equally as important, the many scientific, economic, social, political, ethical, and logistical challenges in confronting emerging diseases in the modern era. Here we re-examine EVD, reviewing the unique challenges and scientific advances of West Africa 2013, contrasting them with the prior assumptions and classical teachings, identifying what they have taught us and what we still have to learn. PMID:27337474

  12. Compensatory Education Policy and the Intermountain West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael J.; And Others

    Concerned with the impact of Title I, as national education policy on four mountain west states (Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana), this study concludes that Title I has not been internalized, integrated, or institutionalized in this region of the country or in any of the four individual states. The rejection of Title I policy rests on two basic…

  13. East-West Perspectives on Elder Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and conceptualizes the meaning of lifelong learning from two cultural perspectives--East and West. It examines the different principles underpinning lifelong learning that explain why and how elders in the two cultures engage differently in continued learning. Finally, it discusses the cultural impact on elder learning by…

  14. Cultural Astronomy of parts of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, J. O.

    Indigenous endogenous traditional or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies West Africa like the rest of Africa is home to many long-standing cultural traditions that include beliefs practices and observations relating to the sky However the cultural astronomy of the West African sub-region is among the least investigated in the African continent The cultural astronomy of West Africa is rich with mythic figures cosmology and cosmogony divination methods that utilize observations of celestial bodies and many other sky-related beliefs and traditions In a region such as West Africa where there is little or no interest in modern astronomy cultural astronomy is a very powerful tool for creating general awareness and sensitization on modern astronomy Here we discuss some aspects of the culture and tradition of some of the ethnic groups in this region and how they relate to and could serve as a means of popularization of modern astronomy

  15. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  16. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  19. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  20. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  1. A Simple Shelf Circulation Model - Intrusion of Atlantic Water on the West Spitsbergen Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Frank; Skogseth, Ragnheid; Vaardal-Lunde, Juni; Inall, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Barotropic flow along depth contours is found, in accordance with standard geostrophic theory. A numerical model is developed that studies the deviation from such a flow. The model gives a good approximation of the dynamical processes on the West Spitsbergen Shelf (WSS) and shows that the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), the main gateway of Atlantic Water (AW) towards the Arctic, connects more easily to the Isfjorden Trough than anywhere else along the shelf. The circulation of AW in the troughs along the WSS is here named the Spitsbergen Trough Current (STC). From hydrographical and ocean current observations it is evident that the STC is primarily barotropic and driven by the Sea Surface Height. A connection between the along-coast wind stress and the STC is established, and it is demonstrated how the increased occurrence of winter cyclones in Fram Strait during January-February accelerates and widens the WSC. Ultimately, this results in a strengthened STC and dominance of AW on the WSS. The STC represent a slower route of AW towards the Arctic Ocean and a large heat transport towards the West Spitsbergen fjords during winter (0.2-0.4 TW towards Isfjorden). Heat flux estimates show that half of the AW heat loss in the Isfjorden Trough is due to heat loss to the surrounding water masses, while the rest is lost to the atmosphere. Sea ice production along West Spitsbergen has been reduced, or even non-existent in some fjords since 2006. Here, we argue that this is a consequence of the strong southerly wind periods along the WSS during winter.

  2. Estimation of Flood-Frequency Discharges for Rural, Unregulated Streams in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Flood-frequency discharges were determined for 290 streamgage stations having a minimum of 9 years of record in West Virginia and surrounding states through the 2006 or 2007 water year. No trend was determined in the annual peaks used to calculate the flood-frequency discharges. Multiple and simple least-squares regression equations for the 100-year (1-percent annual-occurrence probability) flood discharge with independent variables that describe the basin characteristics were developed for 290 streamgage stations in West Virginia and adjacent states. The regression residuals for the models were evaluated and used to define three regions of the State, designated as Eastern Panhandle, Central Mountains, and Western Plateaus. Exploratory data analysis procedures identified 44 streamgage stations that were excluded from the development of regression equations representative of rural, unregulated streams in West Virginia. Regional equations for the 1.1-, 1.5-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year flood discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression using data from the remaining 246 streamgage stations. Drainage area was the only significant independent variable determined for all equations in all regions. Procedures developed to estimate flood-frequency discharges on ungaged streams were based on (1) regional equations and (2) drainage-area ratios between gaged and ungaged locations on the same stream. The procedures are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia that have drainage areas within the limits of the stations used to develop the regional equations (from 0.21 to 1,461 square miles in the Eastern Panhandle, from 0.10 to 1,619 square miles in the Central Mountains, and from 0.13 to 1,516 square miles in the Western Plateaus). The accuracy of the equations is quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 21.7 to 56.3 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 2.0 to 70

  3. Trends in floods in West Africa: analysis based on 11 catchments in the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nka, B. N.; Oudin, L.; Karambiri, H.; Paturel, J. E.; Ribstein, P.

    2015-11-01

    After the drought of the 1970s in West Africa, the variability in rainfall and land use changes mostly affected flow, and recently flooding has been said to be an increasingly common occurrence throughout the whole of West Africa. These changes have raised many questions about the impact of climate change on the flood regimes in West African countries. This paper investigates whether floods are becoming more frequent or more severe and to what extent climate patterns have been responsible for these changes. We analyzed the trends in the floods occurring in 11 catchments within West Africa's main climate zones. The methodology includes two methods for sampling flood events, namely the AM (annual maximum) method and the POT (peak over threshold), and two perspectives of analysis are presented: long-term analysis based on two long flood time series and a regional perspective involving 11 catchments with shorter series. The Mann-Kendall trend test and the Pettitt break test were used to detect nonstationarities in the time series. The trends detected in flood time series were compared to the rainfall index trends and vegetation indices using contingency tables in order to identify the main driver of change in flood magnitude and flood frequency. The relation between the flood index and the physiographic index was evaluated through a success criterion and the Cramer criterion calculated from the contingency tables. The results show the existence of trends in flood magnitude and flood frequency time series, with two main patterns. Sahelian floods show increasing flood trends and one Sudanian. catchment presents decreasing flood trends. For the overall catchments studied, trends in the maximum 5-day consecutive rainfall index (R5d) show good coherence with trends in flood, while the trends in normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs) do not show a significant agreement with flood trends, meaning that this index has possibly no impact on the behavior of floods in

  4. Trends in West African floods: a comparative analysis with rainfall and vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nka, B. N.; Oudin, L.; Karambiri, H.; Paturel, J. E.; Ribstein, P.

    2015-05-01

    After the drought of the 1970s in West Africa, the variability of rainfall and land use changes affected mostly flow, and recently flooding has been said to be an increasingly common occurrence throughout the whole of West Africa. These changes raised many questions about the impact of climate change on the flood regimes in West African countries. This paper investigates whether floods are becoming more frequent or more severe, and to what extent climate patterns have been responsible for these changes. We analyzed the trends in the floods occurring in 14 catchments within West Africa's main climate zone. The methodology includes two methods for sampling flood events, namely the AM (annual maximum) method and the POT (peak over threshold), and two perspectives of analysis are presented: long-term analysis based on two long flood time series, and a regional perspective involving 14 catchments with shorter series. The Mann-Kendall trend test and the Pettitt break test were used to assess time series stationarity. The trends detected in flood time series were compared to the rainfall index trends and vegetation indices using contingency tables, in order to identify the main driver of change in flood magnitude and flood frequency. The relation between the flood index and the physiographic index was evaluated through a success criterion and the Cramer criterion calculated from the contingency tables. The results point out the existence of trends in flood magnitude and flood frequency time series with two main patterns. Sahelian floods show increasing flood trends and some Sudanian catchments present decreasing flood trends. For the overall catchments studied, the maximum 5 day consecutive rainfall index (Rx5d) seems to follow the flood trend, while the NDVI indices do not show a significant link with the flood trends, meaning that this index has no impact in the behavior of floods in the region.

  5. Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker outside the fenced facility area - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, West Camera Bunker, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 451. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 451. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Production Filling & Storage Building, 1050 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 980 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND 243 (LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 3. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Evaporator & Storage Building, 800 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. West Lawn Site and Planting Plans Oklahoma City Civic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Lawn Site and Planting Plans - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  14. 17. INTERIOR VIEW (WEST) AT TOP OF THE SECOND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW (WEST) AT TOP OF THE SECOND FLOOR STAIRS SHOWING TRIPLE-HUNG WINDOW WITH ORIGINAL SIDELIGHTS AT LANDING LEVEL - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  15. 1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE TO THE WEST, FACING EAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  16. Partial Northeast Elevation Mill #5 East & #5 West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Northeast Elevation - Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4), Typical Floor - Partial Plan Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  17. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building, 3250 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 1750 feet West of E Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 8. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF WASTEGATE AND BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF WASTEGATE AND BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM THE SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT - Woodville Canal Company, West side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Woodville, Bingham County, ID

  19. INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING SWITCHING LEVER CONTROL PANEL. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  20. 253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, AND 1829, SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  1. 12. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF EAST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF EAST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  2. 11. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF ENTRY TO AUDITORIUM, EAST ELEVATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF ENTRY TO AUDITORIUM, EAST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  3. 7. VIEW WEST; EAST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST; EAST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  4. 19. VIEW WEST; CENTRAL ROOM, NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING, SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW WEST; CENTRAL ROOM, NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING, SECOND FLOOR. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  5. 16. VIEW WEST; GROUND FLOOR CLASSROOM, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW WEST; GROUND FLOOR CLASSROOM, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  6. 8. VIEW WEST; EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. Naval Undersea ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW WEST; EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  7. 9. VIEW EAST; EXTERIOR DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION INCLUDING COLUMBUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW EAST; EXTERIOR DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION INCLUDING COLUMBUS HALL. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  8. 22. VIEW WEST; CENTRAL ROOM, NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING, THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW WEST; CENTRAL ROOM, NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  9. 26. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF AUDITORIUM INTERIOR WINDOW CORNICE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW WEST; DETAIL OF AUDITORIUM INTERIOR WINDOW CORNICE. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  10. 4. VIEW EAST; WEST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST; WEST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  11. Elevation of information window on west wall of south lobby ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of information window on west wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  13. INTERIOR VIEW, SECONDSTORY PASSAGE LOOKING WEST FROM ITS MIDPOINT. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SECOND-STORY PASSAGE LOOKING WEST FROM ITS MIDPOINT. THE PANELED OPENING IN THE FOREGROUND MARKS THE ORIGINAL WEST WALL - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. View of west elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area No. 21 in foreground. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. View of west elevation of Building No. 46.. Note walkway. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west elevation of Building No. 46.. Note walkway. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. View of north end of west elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north end of west elevation of Building No. 46. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. View of south end of west elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south end of west elevation of Building No. 46. Looking east/northeast - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, looking south towards building no. 121 (tennis courts) across W. Pennington Ave. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Greenhouse, West Pennington Avenue, East of Building No. 139, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. 19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. 2 AND 3, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  20. 18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 AND 2, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  1. View of headframe, looking west from Powell Memorial Orphan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of headframe, looking west from Powell Memorial - Orphan Lode Mine, Headframe, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  2. 2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING BOILER HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  3. CORNICE AND WINDOW DETAIL, WEST ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST (LIGHT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CORNICE AND WINDOW DETAIL, WEST ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST (LIGHT AND DARK EXPOSURES). - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. 1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Caustic Fusion Building, 450 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 4. WEST SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING WEATHERBOARD LOG COVERING, DOOR CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING WEATHERBOARD LOG COVERING, DOOR CUT INTO WEST WALL TO ENTER DOG TROT, AND UPROOTED TREE WHERE LATER SECOND PEN WAS LOCATED (4 x 5 negative) - Thomas Jefferson Walling Log Cabin, Henderson, Rusk County, TX

  7. South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view to southeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  8. 2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM IN MIDDLE GROUND, WEST DAM IN DISTANCE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  9. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND WEST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND WEST END OF ENGINE REPAIR HOUSE, HARBISON-WALKER QUARRY - Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, Engine Repair House, West end of Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  10. 1. General view to west, showing context in berth, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view to west, showing context in berth, at high tide. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. SHOP, YPOLE, MR. WEST'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. SHOP, Y-POLE, MR. WEST'S HOUSE AND POLE SWELL - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  12. VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER SECTION, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER SECTION, LOOKING WEST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  13. VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER PORTAL ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER PORTAL ON WEST BANK SIDE LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  14. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE WITH 28422 IMMEDIATELY LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE WITH 28422 IMMEDIATELY LEFT (WEST); VIEW TO NORTH. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28502, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. 1. TIP TOP MINE. WEST SIDE OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TIP TOP MINE. WEST SIDE OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. 11. EAST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EAST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING WEST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  17. 10. WEST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WEST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  18. 12. CANAL SLUICE GATE LOCATED 150' WEST OF POWER PLANT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CANAL SLUICE GATE LOCATED 150' WEST OF POWER PLANT. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  19. 2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Explosives Blending Building, 2180 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. Perspective, environmental view looking from the intersection of West Lanvale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective, environmental view looking from the intersection of West Lanvale Street and North Carrollton Avenue - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. 27. In context, from west facing east on Pine Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. In context, from west facing east on Pine Street, west side of Building E-6, far left. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  2. 2. View facing north of west and south elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing north of west and south elevations of Dixie Cotton Mill. The brick structure that forms the west elevation was added in 1913. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  3. 17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  4. 16. VIEW OF THE HOUSE INTERIOR, WEST AND NORTH WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE HOUSE INTERIOR, WEST AND NORTH WALLS OF THE BASEMENT SHOWING FOUNDATION MATERIALS; LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Richard M. Fairbourn Farm, 170 West, 11,400 South, South Jordan, Salt Lake County, UT

  5. 4. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING STEAM PIPES CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING STEAM PIPES CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS AT BASE OF BERM. - Loring Air Force Base, Double Cantilever Hangar, East of Arizona Road, west of southern portion of Taxiway J, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  6. WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE WEST PIER OF THE CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  7. 340. Caltrans, Photographer October 14, 1935 "TUNNEL WEST PORTAL"; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    340. Caltrans, Photographer October 14, 1935 "TUNNEL - WEST PORTAL"; VIEW OF TUNNEL - WEST PORTAL' UNDER CONSTRUCTION SHOWING EXCAVATION OF TUNNEL AFTER POUR. 5-1669 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  9. 1. View looking northwest, showing Saybrook west breakwater and Lynde ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northwest, showing Saybrook west breakwater and Lynde Point Lighthouse in the right background - Saybrook Breakwater Light, South tip of west end of Saybrook Breakwater, Old Saybrook, Middlesex County, CT

  10. 4. CENTER COURTYARD, FROM WEST SIDE OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CENTER COURTYARD, FROM WEST SIDE OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF BUILDING, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND LOWER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 17. UPPER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. UPPER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, WAITING ROOM, LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 16. UPPER STATION, WEST FACADE, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. Monongahela ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER STATION, WEST FACADE, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 14. UPPER STATION, FRONT AND WEST FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UPPER STATION, FRONT AND WEST FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  15. Detail of arched window by main entry on west elevation; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of arched window by main entry on west elevation; showing Stone Foundation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING WEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING WEST AT FOUNDATION WHICH IS CONTIGUOUS TO WEST WALL OF THE JONATHAN HAGER HOUSE - Jonathan Hager House (Foundation), Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

  17. 21. View to westnorthwest west in electrical room, first floor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View to west-northwest west in electrical room, first floor, showing AC-DC converters and control panel. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  18. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO WEST FRONT ENTRANCE VISABLE TO THE RIGHT - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  19. General view looking west from eastern edge of complex. Kilns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking west from eastern edge of complex. Kilns have been demolished but kiln stacks still stand. - Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, West end of Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  20. 15. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OLD FAITHFUL INN. THE INN'S NAMESAKE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OLD FAITHFUL INN. THE INN'S NAMESAKE, OLD FAITHFUL GEYSER IS AT LEFT. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY