Sample records for carbonic acid solution

  1. Stability of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate in rainwater and nitric acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Teir; Sanni Eloneva; Carl-Johan Fogelholm; Ron Zevenhoven

    2006-01-01

    Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicates has emerged as an interesting option for long term storage of captured CO2. However, carbonated minerals are not stable in acidic environments. This study was conducted to determine if synthetically carbonated minerals dissolve in acidic rain and release CO2. Synthetic magnesium and calcium carbonates were leached in nitric acid solutions of various acidities, as

  2. Stability of carbon nanowalls against chemical attack with acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizireanu, Sorin; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Nistor, Leona Cristina; Baibarac, Mihaela; Ruxanda, Grigore; Stancu, Mihaela; Ciuparu, Dragos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on the stability of CNW layers, synthesized by a radiofrequency plasma jet, against the chemical attack with different acid solutions (sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid). We present the changes of the morphology and structure of the CNW caused by the post-growth chemical treatments. We demonstrate that self-sustaining and transferable CNW layers can be obtained, by chemically dissolving the substrates, while the initial characteristics of the material are well preserved.

  3. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory Hudson (Castro Valley, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  4. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-07-01

    A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizes a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

  5. Extraction of palladium from acidic solutions with the use of carbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Kononova; N.G. Goryaeva; N.B. Dostovalova; S.V. Kachin; A.G. Kholmogorov [Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-15

    We studied the sorption of palladium(II) on LKAU-4, LKAU-7, and BAU carbon adsorbents from model hydrochloric acid solutions and the solutions of spent palladium-containing catalysts. It was found that sorbents based on charcoal (BAU) and anthracite (LKAU-4) were characterized by high sorption capacities for palladium. The kinetics of the saturation of carbon adsorbents with palladium(II) ions was studied, and it was found that more than 60% of the initial amount of Pd(II) was recovered in a 1-h contact of an adsorbent with a model solution. This value for the solutions of spent catalysts was higher than 35%.

  6. Visible-light photoconversion of carbon dioxide into organic acids in an aqueous solution of carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sushant; Liu, Yamin; Wang, Ping; Bunker, Christopher E; Fernando, K A Shiral; Lewis, William K; Guliants, Elena A; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jinping; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2014-07-22

    Carbon "quantum" dots (or carbon dots) have emerged as a new class of optical nanomaterials. Beyond the widely reported bright fluorescence emissions in carbon dots, their excellent photoinduced redox properties that resemble those found in conventional semiconductor nanostructures are equally valuable, with photon-electron conversion applications from photovoltaics to CO2 photocatalytic reduction. In this work we used gold-doped carbon dots from controlled synthesis as water-soluble catalysts for a closer examination of the visible-light photoconversion of CO2 into small organic acids, including acetic acid (for which the reduction requires many more electrons than that for formic acid) and, more interestingly, for the significantly enhanced photoconversion with higher CO2 pressures over an aqueous solution of the photocatalysts. The results demonstrate the nanoscale semiconductor-equivalent nature of carbon dots, with excellent potential in energy conversion applications. PMID:24972094

  7. Kinetics of dodecanoic acid adsorption from caustic solution by activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip Pendleton; Sophie Hua Wu

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the influences of adsorbent porosity and surface chemistry and of carbon dosage on dodecanoic acid adsorption kinetics from aqueous and 2 M NaOH solutions as batch adsorption processes. Both adsorbents are steam-activated carbons prepared from either coconut or coal precursors. Prior to use the adsorbents were washed in deionized water or 2 M NaOH. Mass transfer coefficients and effective

  8. Collagen tissue treated with chitosan solutions in carbonic acid for improved biological prosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Gallyamov, Marat O; Chaschin, Ivan S; Khokhlova, Marina A; Grigorev, Timofey E; Bakuleva, Natalia P; Lyutova, Irina G; Kondratenko, Janna E; Badun, Gennadii A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Khokhlov, Alexei R

    2014-04-01

    Calcification of bovine pericardium dramatically shortens typical lifetimes of biological prosthetic heart valves and thus precludes their choice for younger patients. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that the calcification is to be mitigated by means of treatment of bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid, i.e. water saturated with carbon dioxide at high pressure. This acidic aqueous fluid unusually combines antimicrobial properties with absolute biocompatibility as far as at normal pressure it decomposes spontaneously and completely into H2O and CO2. Yet, at high pressures it can protonate and dissolve chitosan materials with different degrees of acetylation (in the range of 16-33%, at least) without any further pretreatment. Even exposure of the bovine pericardium in pure carbonic acid solution without chitosan already favours certain reduction in calcification, somewhat improved mechanical properties, complete biocompatibility and evident antimicrobial activity of the treated collagen tissue. The reason may be due to high extraction ability of this peculiar compressed fluidic mixture. Moreover, exposure of the bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid introduces even better mechanical properties and highly pronounced antimicrobial activity of the modified collagen tissue against adherence and biofilm formation of relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Yet, the most important achievement is the detected dramatic reduction in calcification for such modified collagen tissues in spite of the fact that the amount of the thus introduced chitosan is rather small (typically ca. 1wt.%), which has been reliably detected using original tritium labelling method. We believe that these improved properties are achieved due to particularly deep and uniform impregnation of the collagen matrix with chitosan from its pressurised solutions in carbonic acid. PMID:24582232

  9. Kinetics of dodecanoic acid adsorption from caustic solution by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Phillip; Wu, Sophie Hua

    2003-10-15

    This study examines the influences of adsorbent porosity and surface chemistry and of carbon dosage on dodecanoic acid adsorption kinetics from aqueous and 2 M NaOH solutions as batch adsorption processes. Both adsorbents are steam-activated carbons prepared from either coconut or coal precursors. Prior to use the adsorbents were washed in deionized water or 2 M NaOH. Mass transfer coefficients and effective overall diffusion coefficients indicate a minor contribution from adsorbent porosity. In contrast, high surface oxygen content impedes transport to and into the adsorbent structure. Carbon dosage shows a proportional increase in transport coefficients with increasing mass; these coefficients are constant when normalized per unit mass. Neither water nor NaOH treatment of the adsorbents has a significant influence on dodecanoic acid adsorption kinetics. Molecular and Knudsen diffusion coefficients are defined to demonstrate that the overall effective diffusion coefficient values and the diffusion process are controlled by surface diffusion. PMID:14527446

  10. [Studies on carbonization of saccharides by using aqueous solution of various acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; He, An-Qi; Kang, Ting-Guo; Xia, Jin-Ming; Weng, Shi-Fu; Xu, Yi-Zhuang; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2014-09-01

    The authors tried to establish an approach to use acids to convert biomass into a fuel with higher carbon content and lower oxygen content in a zero-energy-consumption fashion. Considering that biomass is composed of monosaccharide, we used aqueous solutions of variation acids including hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and perchloric acid to treat 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose at ambient temperature and pressure. Black substances were produced after a period of time when 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose were mixed with aqueous solutions containing 8 mol · L(-1) acids. The black substance was collected and characterized by using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Elemental analysis results indicate that the contents of carbon increases significantly in the black substances in comparison with 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose. Moreover, XPS results indicate that the content of oxygen in the black substance undergoes a significant decrease compared with pure 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose. In the XPS spectra, the is peaks of 2-deoxy-ribose, strong sub peak at 286. 05 eV, which is assigned to carbon linked to oxygen directly, dominate in the C is peak envelop. After treatment by HClO4, the peak decreased dramatically. This result also supports the conclusion that the content of oxygen in mono-saccharide is significantly reduced after treatment by acids. In the FTIR spectra of the black substances, strong peaks can be observed around 1 600 cm(-1), indicating that C==C bond is formed in the product. The above results suggest that treatments with acids may be developed as a new zero-energy-consumption approach to convert biomass in a new fuel with improved energy output efficiency. PMID:25532323

  11. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Illuminated Frozen Pyruvic Acid Solutions Above Minus 140 Celsius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, M. I.; Colussi, A. J.; Hoffmann, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Photodecarboxylation rates of deareated aqueous pyruvic acid solutions drop by a factor of two in the frozen state at 253 K relative to the fluid at 293 K. TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl), in contrast with experiments in water, has no effect on photodecarboxylation rates in ice. Preirradiated frozen pyruvic acid (PA) solutions still release carbon dioxide (CD)in the dark at rates that increase with temperature (Ea = 22 kJ/mol, below 268 K), but which extrapolate into measurable rates in fluid solutions, at variance with observations. We verified the absence of post-illumination CD emissions in the concerted photodecomposition of benzoylformic acid in frozen solutions. We infer that PA rapidly photodecarboxylates into intermediates that slowly yield further CD via a thermally activated process. Prompt CD is apparently formed even at cryogenic temperatures, although is only able to sublimate above -140 Celsius. The detection of distant triplet radical pairs in ice below 190 K via electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry indicates that the primary process in the photodecarboxylation of pyruvic acid involves photoinduced charge transfer between the carbonyl groups of H-bonded PA dimers into triplet [PA- PA+], followed by ultrafast deprotonation/decarboxylation of the radical cation PA+. The radical anion PA- readily protonates into an alkoxyl radical to initiate polymerizations.

  12. Molecular Structure of Carbonic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-10

    The hypothetical acid formed with carbon dioxide and water; it is only in the H2CO3 form when in solution. This acid is found in everyday products, the most prominent of which include carbonated beverages. The conversion of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide in sodas is the reason the beverage looses the bubbling.

  13. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using magnetic carbon nanotube improved with tartaric acid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Boron removal capacity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified with tartaric acid was investigated in this study. Modification of MWCNTs with tartaric acid was confirmed by Boehm surface chemistry method and fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Experiments were performed to determine the adsorption isotherm and adsorption thermodynamic parameters of boron adsorption on tartaric acid modified MWCNTs (TA-MWCNTs). The effect of variables including initial pH, dosage of adsorbent, contact time and temperature was investigated. Analysis of data showed that adsorption equilibrium could be better described by Freundlich isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacities obtained at the pH of 6.0 was 1.97 mg/g. The estimated thermodynamic values of free energy (?G°), entropy (?S°) and enthalpy (?H°) indicated a spontaneous and an endothermic process. Furthermore, the TA-MWCNTs was magnetized for separation of boron-contaminated adsorbent from aqueous solution by applying magnetic field. The results showed that magnetic TA-MWCNTs particles were separated effectively after adsorption from contaminated water. PMID:24393401

  14. Metastable intermediates from glassy solutions part 5: FTIR spectroscopic characterization of isolated ?- and ?-carbonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Wolfgang; Hallbrucker, Andreas; Mayer, Erwin

    1997-06-01

    Layers of glassy aqueous or methanolic solutions of KH 12CO 3 (K 132CO 3) and of excess HCl or HBr have been deposited sequentially at 78 K in the form of droplets, and their reaction in the temperature range from 78 to 300 K studied by FTIR spectroscopy in the spectral range from 4000 to 400 cm -1. When using methanol as solvent, at ca. 20 K above its glass-transition temperature ( Tg), a decrease in viscosity initiated coalescence of the droplets. At ca. 40 K above Tg, protonation of {HCO-3}/{CO2-3} and formation of H 2CO 3 occurred in the liquid phase. After pumping off the solvent, residual ice and excess HCl, amorphous H 122CO 3 (H 132CO 3) was isolated, crystallizing at ca. 190-200 K to ?-carbonic acid. In the case of water as solvent, protonation of {HCO-3}/{CO2-3} apparently occurs in the freeze-concentrated state, after crystallization of glassy water to cubic ice. Reaction in freeze-concentrated aqueous solutions leads to formation of ?-H 2CO 3. This polymorphic form is the same product reported by Moore and Khanna for proton irradiation of cryogenic CO 2?H 2O mixtures (Spectrochim. Acta Part A, 1991, 47, 255). The cryogenic method is discussed for formation of metastable short-lived intermediates from reaction of non-volatile reactants, where the intermediates can be studied in solution or as amorphous or crystalline solids.

  15. Adsorption of Acid Red 57 from aqueous solutions onto polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon composite.

    PubMed

    El-Bindary, Ashraf A; Diab, Mostafa A; Hussien, Mostafa A; El-Sonbati, Adel Z; Eessa, Ahmed M

    2014-04-24

    The adsorption of Acid Red 57 (AR57) onto Polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon (PAN/AC) composite was investigated in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH and temperature. Physical characteristics of (PAN/AC) composite such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were obtained. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data. The dynamic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The activation energy, change of free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that (PAN/AC) composite could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of acid dyes from textile effluents. PMID:24463242

  16. The Adsorption of Gold, Palladium, and Platinum from Acidic Chloride Solutions on Mesoporous Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R. Zalupski; Rocklan McDowell

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium, and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II), and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of chloride ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces. The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5MHCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.

  17. GENERATION OF SOIL SOLUTION ACID NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY BY ADDITION OF DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Spodosol B horizon(base saturation of 5.4%) collected at the Watershed Manipulation Project site at Lead Mountain, ME, was used to examine soil solution chemistry in response to increasing solution levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). cid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), det...

  18. Electrochemical and vibrational properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes in hydrochloric acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lefrant; M. Baibarac; I. Baltog; T. Velula; J. Y. Mevellec; O. Chauvet

    2005-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV) are used for the investigation of the oxidation–reduction processes of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) films in an HCl 0.5 M solution. In the potential ranges (+100; +800) and (0; +1500) mV vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), the oxidation–reduction reactions of SWNT films, in both aqueous and semi-aqueous HCl 0.5M solutions, are reversible and irreversible,

  19. The adsorption of gold, palladium and platinum from acidic chloride solutions on mesoporous carbons.

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski; Rocklan McDowell; Guy Dutech

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of hydrogen ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces. The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5 M HCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.

  20. Removal of hexavalent chromium from acidic aqueous solutions using rice straw-derived carbon.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nai-Hua; Wang, Shan-Li; Liao, Yi-Huei; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Tzou, Yu-Min; Huang, Yuh-Ming

    2009-11-15

    This study evaluates the removal of Cr(VI) from water by carbon derived from the burning of rice straw. Rice straw was burned in the air to obtain rice carbon (RC), and then the removal of Cr(VI) by RC was investigated under various pHs and ionic strengths. After the experiments, the oxidation state of Cr bound to RC was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that Cr bound to RC was predominately in the trivalent form. The results showed that upon reacting with RC, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), which was either adsorbed on RC or released back into solution. The extent and rate of Cr(VI) removal increased with decreasing solution pH because the Cr(VI) adsorption and the subsequent reduction of adsorbed Cr(VI) to Cr(III) both occur preferentially at low pH. The minimal effect of ionic strength on the rates of Cr(VI) removal and Cr(III) adsorption indicated specific interactions between Cr(VI)/Cr(III) and their surface binding sites on RC. These results suggest that rice straw-based carbon may be effectively used at low pH as a substitute for activated carbon for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water. PMID:19619940

  1. CORROSION TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN OXALIC ACID CHEMICAL CLEANING SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Mickalonis, J.; Subramanian, K.; Ketusky, E.

    2011-10-14

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid has been selected for this purpose because it is an effective chelating agent for the solids and is not as corrosive as other acids. Electrochemical and immersion studies were conducted to investigate the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in simulated chemical cleaning environments. The effects of temperature, agitation, and the presence of sludge solids in the oxalic acid on the corrosion rate and the likelihood of hydrogen evolution were determined. The testing showed that the corrosion rates decreased significantly in the presence of the sludge solids. Corrosion rates increased with agitation, however, the changes were less noticeable.

  2. Crystal size distributions of induced calcium carbonate crystals in polyaspartic acid and Mytilus edulis acidic organic proteins aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roqué, Josep; Molera, Judit; Vendrell-Saz, Màrius; Salvadó, Nativitat

    2004-02-01

    Different concentrations of soluble matrix extracts from Mytilus edulis and polyaspartic acid were mixed with CaCl 2 aqueous solutions to produce CaCO 3 crystallizations under controlled conditions. The obtained crystals were observed at several intervals of time by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Image treatment of the SEM images allowed quantifying the crystal size distribution (CSD) in different crystallization conditions. CSD graphics showed that polyaspartic acid induced nucleation and inhibited crystal growth, and soluble matrix extracts from Mytilus edulis induced nucleation, but its inhibition rate of crystal growth is less than polyaspartic. Soluble matrix extracts from Mytilus edulis showed an equilibrium between nucleation and crystal growth. Also, XRD patterns have been acquired in order to determine the crystalline phases obtained by inducing crystallization (calcite and vaterite). Vaterite polymorph appeared in all induced crystallization events, but not in blank aqueous solutions.

  3. Radiation-induced grafting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in glycidyl methacrylate maleic acid binary aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Mo, Xinyue; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Wei, Genshuan; Zhang, Xiaohong; Qiao, Jinliang

    2008-05-01

    With the aim to improve the compatibility between multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nylon-6, purified MWCNTs ( p-MWCNTs) were grafted successfully with glycidyl methacrylate-maleic acid in aqueous solution using a single-step radiation method. The chemical structure and morphology of grafted p-MWCNTs ( g-MWCNTs) was investigated by micro-FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nylon-6/ g-MWCNTs composite has higher mechanical strength and heat distortion temperature due to improved dispersion and compatibility than those of nylon-6/ p-MWCNTs.

  4. Effects of impurities on the electroreduction of carbon dioxide on platinum electrodes in acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. (Dept. of Chemistry, Case-Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (US))

    1992-02-01

    The electroreduction of carbon dioxide has been studied in this laboratory using electrochemical techniques and in situ Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) on both polycrystalline and single-crystalline platinum electrodes in 0.1M HClO{sub 4} solution. On polycrystalline electrodes and two single-crystalline planes ((110) and (100)), the reduction reaction proceeds in the hydrogen absorption region and gives rise the polycrystalline electrode and Pt(110), and bridge-bonded Co on Pt(100). No. CO was detected on Pt(111). The introduction of CO{sub 2} in solution shows a similar effect on the Butterfly peaks of Pt(111) to that of specifically adsorbed anions, such as bisulfate. The has been attributed tentatively to the absorption of HCO{sub 3} in the potential region between the onset of the butterfly peaks and the formation of oxide. The IR absorption peak between 1418 and 1456 cm{sup {minus}1}, which is assigned to the absorbed HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, shows a large positive shift with increasing potential (127 cm{sup {minus}1}/V). As part of the research on CO{sub 2} reduction, this paper examines the effects of impurities (Cl{sup {minus}}) and electrode rotation rates on Co{sub 2} reduction on polycrystalline Pt electrodes in 0.1M HClO{sub 4} solutions.

  5. Adsorption removal of acid black 1 from aqueous solution using ordered mesoporous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaoming; Hu, Xijun; Fu, Dafang; Lam, Frank L. Y.

    2014-03-01

    A novel ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 and synthetic CMK-3 containing nitrogen functional groups by ammonia-treated were applied for acid black 1(AB1) dye adsorption. The ammonia-treated(chemical vapor deposition method) before and after CMK-3 were characterized by using a Micrometitics ASAP 2020 surface area analyzer (ASAP 2020), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and equilibrium studies. This result indicates that the prepared CMK-3 and modified CMK-3 were almost uniform, as rope-like domains and their uniform mesopore with diameter centered at 3.2 nm and 3.7 nm. The FIIR analysis depicted that the presence of a variety of new basic functional groups on the modified CMK-3 surface. Several effect variables of pH, dye concentration and temperature were studied. The pseudo second-order model showed the ?tter well to agree with the kinetic data. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, with the latter found to closely the isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results show that CMK-3 using ammonia gas modified by thermal treatment system is an effective method to improvement capacity as it shows the highest adsorption capacity of AB1, as compared to the unmodified CMK-3 and the bamboo-based carbon, respectively.

  6. Poly (vinylsulfonic acid) assisted synthesis of aqueous solution stable vaterite calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Ashvin T; Pradhan, Sulolit; McShane, Michael J

    2014-03-15

    Calcium carbonate nanoparticles of the vaterite polymorph were synthesized by combining CaCl2 and Na2CO3 in the presence of poly (vinylsulfonic acid) (PVSA). By studying the important experimental parameters we found that controlling PVSA concentration, reaction temperature, and order of reagent addition the particle size, monodispersity, and surface charge can be controlled. By increasing PVSA concentration or by decreasing temperature CCNPs with an average size from ?150 to 500 nm could be produced. We believe the incorporation of PVSA into the reaction plays a dual role to (1) slow down the nucleation rate by sequestering calcium and to (2) stabilize the resulting CCNPs as the vaterite polymorph, preventing surface calcification or aggregation into microparticles. The obtained vaterite nanoparticles were found to maintain their crystal structure and surface charge after storage in aqueous buffer for at least 5 months. The aqueous stable vaterite nanoparticles could be a useful platform for the encapsulation of a large variety of biomolecules for drug delivery or as a sacrificial template toward capsule formation for biosensor applications. PMID:24461857

  7. The effect of phosphoric acid on the absorption of carbon dioxide into solutions of methyldiethanolamine

    E-print Network

    Cordi, Eric Marshall

    1991-01-01

    . The specific equipment required for each setup is described below in detail. Kinetic and Mass Transfer Experimental Setup Both the kinetics and mass transfer of the solutions were studied with a liquid batch and a continuous flow of gas through the reactor...: Nitrous Oxide Absorption into MDEA/HsPO4 Solutions . . . 17. Ideal Solution Equilibrium Concentrations at 25'C 18. Comparison of Ideal and Actual Solution pH Values. . 19. Ionic Ratio Criteria for Solutions with Overall Activity Coefficients Less...

  8. Adsorption characteristics of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from aqueous solution on powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Z; Kabasakal, E

    2005-01-01

    The removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), one of the most commonly used phenoxy acid herbicides, from aqueous solution was studied by using acid-washed powdered activated carbon (PAC) as an adsorbent in a batch system. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics were investigated as a function of initial pH, temperature, and initial 2,4-D concentration. Powdered activated carbon exhibited the highest 2,4-D uptake capacity of 333.3 mg g(-1) at 25 degrees C and an initial pH value of 2.0. Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models were used to express the equilibrium data of 2,4-D depending on temperature. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Freundlich equilibrium model in the studied concentration range of 2,4-D at all the temperatures studied. Three simplified models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and saturation-type kinetic models were used to test the adsorption kinetics. It was shown that the adsorption of 2,4-D on PAC at 25, 35, and 45 degrees C could be best fitted by the saturation-type kinetic model with film and intraparticle diffusions being the essential rate-controlling steps. The activation energy of adsorption (EA) was determined as--1.69 kJ mole(-1). Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the thermodynamic constants of adsorption (deltaG degrees, deltaH degrees, and deltaS degrees) were also evaluated. PMID:16047879

  9. Removal of hexavalent chromium in carbonic acid solution by oxidizing slag discharged from steelmaking process in electric arc furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Seiji; Okazaki, Kohei; Sasano, Junji; Izaki, Masanobu

    2014-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is well-known to be a strong oxidizer, and is recognized as a carcinogen. Therefore, it is regulated for drinking water, soil, groundwater and sea by the environmental quality standards all over the world. In this study, it was attempted to remove Cr(VI) ion in a carbonic acid solution by the oxidizing slag that was discharged from the normal steelmaking process in an electric arc furnace. After the addition of the slag into the aqueous solution contained Cr(VI) ion, concentrations of Cr(VI) ion and total chromium (Cr(VI) + trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ions decreased to lower detection limit of them. Therefore, the used slag could reduce Cr(VI) and fix Cr(III) ion on the slag. While Cr(VI) ion existed in the solution, iron did not dissolve from the slag. From the relation between predicted dissolution amount of iron(II) ion and amount of decrease in Cr(VI) ion, the Cr(VI) ion did not react with iron(II) ion dissolved from the slag. Therefore, Cr(VI) ion was removed by the reductive reaction between Cr(VI) ion and the iron(II) oxide (FeO) in the slag. This reaction progressed on the newly appeared surface of iron(II) oxide due to the dissolution of phase composed of calcium etc., which existed around iron(II) oxide grain in the slag.

  10. Experiment 2. 1. Preparing Standard Acid Solution

    E-print Network

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    of a Sample of Impure Sodium Carbonate Dry the sample at 150o C and then cool it in a desiccator. a. Weigh. Repeat these titrations at least three more times, calculate the percentage of sodium carbonate in yourExperiment 2. 1. Preparing Standard Acid Solution Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide

  11. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  12. Acid cleaning solutions for barnacle-covered surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia I Dolez; Brian J Love

    2002-01-01

    In this preliminary study dealing with acid cleaning solutions for barnacle-covered immersed surfaces, chemical treatments for the removal of calcium carbonate residues were investigated. They are based on acid mixtures that dissolve calcium carbonate, leaving the residual bioadhesive. The two most efficient acid treatments are a solution of 50vol% hydrochloric acid in water, and a mixture of water, hydrochloric and

  13. Characterization of the International Humic Substances Society standard and reference fulvic and humic acids by solution state carbon-13 (13C) and hydrogen-1 (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Folan, Daniel W.; MacCarthy, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Standard and reference samples of the International Humic Substances Society have been characterized by solution state carbon-13 and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Samples included the Suwannee River, soil, and peat standard fulvic and humic acids, the Leonardite standard humic acid, the Nordic aquatic reference fulvic and humic acids, and the Summit Hill soil reference humic acid. Aqueous-solution carbon-13 NMR analyses included the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times, measurement of nuclear Overhauser enhancement factors, measurement of quantitative carbon distributions, recording of attached proton test spectra, and recording of spectra under nonquantitative conditions. Distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer carbon-13 NMR spectra also were recorded on the Suwannee River fulvic acid in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide. Hydrogen-1 NMR spectra were recorded on sodium salts of the samples in deuterium oxide. The carbon aromaticities of the samples ranged from 0.24 for the Suwannee River fulvic acid to 0.58 for the Leonardite humic acid.

  14. The Perils of Carbonic Acid and Equilibrium Constants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effects caused by small amounts of carbon dioxide usually present in water and acid-base equilibria of dilute solutions. Notes that dilute solutions of most weak acids and bases undergo significant dissociation or protonation. (MVL)

  15. Acid neutralizing processes in an alpine watershed front range, Colorado, U.S.A.-1: Buffering capacity of dissolved organic carbon in soil solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iggy, Litaor M.; Thurman, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Soil interstitial waters in the Green Lakes Valley, Front Range, Colorado were studied to evaluate the capacity of the soil system to buffer acid deposition. In order to determine the contribution of humic substances to the buffering capacity of a given soil, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH of the soil solutions were measured. The concentration of the organic anion, Ai-, derived from DOC at sample pH and the concentration of organic anion, Ax- at the equivalence point were calculated using carboxyl contents from isolated and purified humic material from soil solutions. Subtracting Ax- from Ai- yields the contribution of humic substances to the buffering capacity (Aequiv.-). Using this method, one can evaluate the relative contribution of inorganic and organic constituents to the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of the soil solutions. The relative contribution of organic acids to the overall ANC was found to be extremely important in the alpine wetland (52%) and the forest-tundra ecotone (40%), and somewhat less important in the alpine tundra sites (20%). A failure to recognize the importance of organic acids in soil solutions to the ANC will result in erroneous estimates of the buffering capacity in the alpine environment of the Front Range, Colorado. ?? 1988.

  16. Uptake of acetone, acetaldehyde and ethanol in cold sulfuric acid solutions containing organic material: Carbon accretion mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret B. Williams; Rebecca R. H. Michelsen; Jessica L. Axson; Laura T. Iraci

    2010-01-01

    The solubilities of acetone, ethanol and acetaldehyde in cold ternary solutions composed of 38.4–75.0 wt% sulfuric acid in water with additional dissolved organic material have been measured over the temperature range 214.4–238.5 K using a Knudsen cell reactor. The solubility of acetaldehyde in H2SO4\\/H2O is enhanced by an order of magnitude by the presence of ethanol or acetone. The reactive uptake of

  17. A systematic study on the effect of acidic, basic and neutral additives on dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using a dimethylformamide solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Sasmita; Bhattacharjee, Sarama; Singh, Bimal P.

    2014-12-01

    Presence of acidic, basic and neutral additives on dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in dimethylforamide (DMF) solution has been investigated. The surface charge measurement showed that MWCNTs in the presence of acidic additives in DMF exhibit a higher surface charge (?85 C g?1) than that with the basic additives (?22 C g?1). The stability of the MWCNTs dispersion was visually monitored and it was found that in the presence of acidic and no additives it would be stable and dispersed for more than five days, whereas MWCNTs suspension immediately settle down in the presence of basic and neutral additives. The degree of defects on MWCNTs was determined by analysis of detailed Raman spectra of as-received MWNCTs and MWNCTs dispersed in DMF with different additives. By exploring the correlation between the ID/IG (Raman analysis) ratio and the degree of defects, it was found that the carbon–carbon double bond (C=C) of MWCNTs was slightly damaged by adding additives to the solvent.

  18. FeP nanoparticles film grown on carbon cloth: an ultrahighly active 3D hydrogen evolution cathode in both acidic and neutral solutions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jingqi; Liu, Qian; Liang, Yanhui; Xing, Zhicai; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping

    2014-12-10

    In this Letter, we demonstrate the direct growth of FeP nanoparticles film on carbon cloth (FeP/CC) through low-temperature phosphidation of its Fe3O4/CC precursor. Remarkably, when used as an integrated 3D hydrogen evolution cathode, this FeP/CC electrode exhibits ultrahigh catalytic activity comparable to commercial Pt/C and good stability in acidic media. This electrode also performs well in neutral solutions. This work offers us the most cost-effective and active 3D cathode toward electrochemical water splitting for large-scale hydrogen fuel production. PMID:25401517

  19. Electrochemical and FTIR studies of the mutual influence of lead(II) or iron(III) and phenol on their adsorption from aqueous acid solution by modified activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Paku?a; M. Walczyk; S. Biniak; A. ?wi?tkowski

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and spectral FTIR studies of the influence of activated carbon surface modification on the co-adsorption of metal cation (lead or iron) and phenol from aqueous acidic solution were carried out. The diversity in surface chemical structure was achieved by applying different procedures of inorganic matter removal and by modifying the carbon samples in various ways: heating under vacuum,

  20. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  1. Carbonic acid on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strazzulla, G.; Brucato, J. R.; Cimino, G.; Palumbo, M. E.

    1996-11-01

    For a long time carbonic acid (H 2CO 3) had defied many efforts for its detection by IR spectroscopic techniques. Recently H 2CO 3 has been synthesized at low temperature (?10-80 K), and stabilized up to ?250 K, by energetic ion irradiation of frozen targets made of H 2O:CO 2 ice mixtures (Moore and Khanna, Spectrochim. Acta47, 255-262, 1991; Moore et al., J, Geophys. Res.96(2), 17,541-17,545, 1991, DelloRusso et al., Geophys. Res.98(E3), 5505-5510, 1993; Brucato et al., Icarus 1996 (in press)) and by protonation of bicarbonate (Hage et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc.115, 8427-8431, 1993; J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans.91(17), 2823-2826, 1995). Its IR spectrum has been obtained. A comparison between the IR laboratory spectrum of H 2CO 3 with some spectra of Mars suggests that carbonic could be present on the surface and/or atmosphere of the red planet. Its firm identification requires the acquisition of better astronomical data possibly from space missions (e.g. Mars 96) and would be of primary relevance for both the organic and inorganic chemistry taking place on Mars.

  2. One-step synthesis of carbon functionalized with sulfonic acid groups using hydrothermal carbonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuezheng Liang; Minfeng Zeng; Chenze Qi

    2010-01-01

    Carbon functionalized with sulfonic acid groups has been synthesized using the one-step hydrothermal carbonization of furaldehyde and hydroxyethylsulfonic acid aqueous solution at 180°C for 4h. The carbon exhibited high acidity and comparable activities to sulfuric acid for the traditional acid-catalyzed reactions, which indicated that it has great potential for environment-friendly processes. The copolymerization method provides an efficient procedure for the

  3. Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolate) Produces a Hydrogen-Evolving Ni-S Film on Glassy Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Helm, Monte L.; Roberts, John A.

    2014-01-03

    Films electrodeposited onto glassy carbon electrodes from acidic acetonitrile solutions of [Bu4N][Ni(bdt)2] (bdt = 1,2-benzenedithiolate) are active toward electrocatalytic hydrogen production at potentials 0.2-0.4 V positive of untreated electrodes. This activity is preserved on rinsing the electrode and transfer to fresh acid solution. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that the deposited material contains Ni and S. Correlations between voltammetric and spectroscopic results indicate that the deposited material is active, i.e. that catalysis is heterogeneous rather than homogeneous. Control experiments establish that obtaining the observed catalytic response requires both Ni and the 1,2 benzenedithiolate ligand to be present during deposition. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a 17 national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  4. NiP? nanosheet arrays supported on carbon cloth: an efficient 3D hydrogen evolution cathode in both acidic and alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Liu, Qian; Sun, Xuping

    2014-11-21

    Designing efficient and stable hydrogen evolution catalysts made from earth-abundant elements is essential to the development of solar-driven water-splitting devices. In this communication, we develop a two-step strategy for constructing NiP2 nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth (NiP2 NS/CC). As a novel 3D hydrogen evolution cathode, the NiP2 NS/CC electrode is highly active in acidic solutions and needs an overpotential of 75 and 204 mV to achieve current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm(-2), respectively, and it preserves its catalytic activity for at least 57 h. Moreover, it also operates efficiently under alkaline conditions. PMID:25293654

  5. NiP2 nanosheet arrays supported on carbon cloth: an efficient 3D hydrogen evolution cathode in both acidic and alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ping; Liu, Qian; Sun, Xuping

    2014-10-01

    Designing efficient and stable hydrogen evolution catalysts made from earth-abundant elements is essential to the development of solar-driven water-splitting devices. In this communication, we develop a two-step strategy for constructing NiP2 nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth (NiP2 NS/CC). As a novel 3D hydrogen evolution cathode, the NiP2 NS/CC electrode is highly active in acidic solutions and needs an overpotential of 75 and 204 mV to achieve current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm-2, respectively, and it preserves its catalytic activity for at least 57 h. Moreover, it also operates efficiently under alkaline conditions.Designing efficient and stable hydrogen evolution catalysts made from earth-abundant elements is essential to the development of solar-driven water-splitting devices. In this communication, we develop a two-step strategy for constructing NiP2 nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth (NiP2 NS/CC). As a novel 3D hydrogen evolution cathode, the NiP2 NS/CC electrode is highly active in acidic solutions and needs an overpotential of 75 and 204 mV to achieve current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm-2, respectively, and it preserves its catalytic activity for at least 57 h. Moreover, it also operates efficiently under alkaline conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, supplementary figures, tables and movie. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04866k

  6. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine and 84% conversion of olivine to the carbonate in 6 hours. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, or some combination of the two. Future tests are intended to examine a broader pressure/temperature regime, various pretreatment options, as well as other mineral groups.

  7. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine and 84% conversion of olivine to the carbonate in 6 hours. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, or some combination of the two. Future tests are intended to examine a broader pressure/temperature regime, various pretreatment options, as well as other mineral groups.

  8. Meso/Macroporous nitrogen-doped carbon architectures with iron carbide encapsulated in graphitic layers as an efficient and robust catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in both acidic and alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meiling; Zhu, Jianbing; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Meso-/macroporous nitrogen-doped carbon architectures with iron carbide encapsulated in graphitic layers are fabricated by a facile approach. This efficient and robust material exhibits superior catalytic performance toward the oxygen reduction reaction in both acidic and alkaline solutions and is the most promising alternative to a Pt catalyst for use in electrochemical energy devices. PMID:25757871

  9. Dissolution of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Carbonate-Peroxide Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2010-01-31

    This study shows that spent UO2 fuel can be completely dissolved in a carbonate-peroxide solution apparently without attacking the metallic Mo-Tc-Ru-Rh-Pd fission product phase. Samples of spent nuclear fuel were pulverized and sieved to a uniform size, then duplicate aliquots were weighed into beakers for analysis. One set was dissolved in near-boiling 10M nitric acid, and the other set was dissolved in a solution of ammonium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide at room temperature. All the resulting fuel solutions were then analyzed for Sr-90, Tc-99, Cs-137, plutonium, and Am-241. For all the samples, the concentrations of Cs-137, Sr-90, plutonium, and Am-241 were the same for both the nitric acid dissolution and the ammonium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide dissolution, but the technetium concentration of the ammonium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide fuel solution was only about 25% of the same fuels dissolved in hot nitric acid.

  10. ORGANIC CARBON FRACTIONS IN O AND B HORIZON SOLUTIONS FROM A NEW ENGLAND SPODOSOL: EFFECTS OF ACID TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the effects of H2SO4 and HNO3 on dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and DOC fractions in extracts from Spodosol O and B horizon samples of a forest soil from eastern Maine. reliminary work with HNO3 at pH=3(1 to 24h shaking, ionic strength adjustment with NaNO3 (I=0....

  11. A Solution to the Problem of Nonequilibrium Acid\\/Base Gas-Particle Transfer at Long Time Step

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Z. Jacobson

    2005-01-01

    A stable numerical solution to the unsolved problem of nonequilibrium growth\\/evaporation at long time step of multiple dissociating acids (e.g., nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, carbonic acid, sulfuric acid, etc.) and a base (ammonia) is discussed. The solution eliminates most oscillatory behavior observed in previous solutions at long time step. The solution is applicable across the entire relative humidity range, both

  12. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  13. Ions in hyaluronic acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J.; Londono, David J.; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2009-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic biopolymer that is almost ubiquitous in biological tissues. An attempt is made to determine the dominant features that account for both its abundance and its multifunctional role, and which set it apart from other types of biopolymers. A combination of osmotic and scattering techniques is employed to quantify its dynamic and static properties in near-physiological solution conditions, where it is exposed both to mono- and divalent counterions. An equation of state is derived for the osmotic pressure ? in the semidilute concentration region, in terms of two variables, the polymer concentration c and the ionic strength J of the added salt, according to which ? =1.4×103c9/4/J3/4 kPa, where c and J are expressed in mole. Over the physiological ion concentration range, the effect of the sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the osmotic properties of HA solutions is fully accounted for by their contributions to the ionic strength. The absence of precipitation, even at high CaCl2 concentrations, distinguishes this molecule from other biopolymers such as DNA. Dynamic light scattering measurements reveal that the collective diffusion coefficient in HA solutions exceeds that in aqueous solutions of typical neutral polymers by a factor of approximately 5. This property ensures rapid adjustment to, and recovery from, stress applied to HA-containing tissue. Small angle x-ray scattering measurements confirm the absence of appreciable structural reorganization over the observed length scale range 10-1000 Å, as a result of calcium-sodium ion exchange. The scattered intensity in the transfer momentum range q >0.03 Å-1 varies as 1/q, indicating that the HA chain segments in semidilute solutions are linear over an extended concentration range. The osmotic compression modulus c ??/?c, a high value of which is a prerequisite in structural biopolymers, is several times greater than in typical neutral polymer solutions.

  14. Oligomer distribution in concentrated lactic acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dung T. Vu; Aspi K. Kolah; Navinchandra S. Asthana; Lars Peereboom; Carl T. Lira; Dennis J. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid) is a significant platform chemical for the biorenewable economy. Concentrated aqueous solutions of lactic acid (>30wt.%) contain a distribution of oligomers that arise via intermolecular esterification. As a result, the titratable acidity changes non-linearly with acid concentration. In this work, the oligomer distribution of lactic acid is characterized using GC, GC\\/MS, and HPLC to extend existing

  15. Physics Division ESH Bulletin 2007-01 Working with Hydrofluoric Acid Solutions

    E-print Network

    with hydrofluoric acid. Definition: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a very corrosive solution of hydrogen fluoride glass and should not be stored in glass containers. · HF reacts with carbonates, cyanides, and sulfates

  16. ARTICLE Evolution Mechanism of Calcium Carbonate in Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-ping Guo; Hai-xiong Tang; Yu Zhou; De-chang Jia; Cong-qin Ning; Ya-jun Guo

    2010-01-01

    Calcium carbonate was synthesized in a CaCl2\\/NaCO3 mixed solution by using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an additive. The thermodynamics and kinetics analyses indicate that although the driving force of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precipitation is always less than that of calcite and vaterite precipitation, the nucleation rate of ACC is greater than that of calcite and vaterite at the initial

  17. Polymerization of ?-amino Acids in Aqueous Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rihe Liu; Leslie E. Orgel

    1998-01-01

    We have compared carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as activating agents for the oligomerization of negatively-charged a- and ß-amino acids in homogeneous aqueous solution. a-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using CDI, but not by EDAC. ß-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using EDAC, but not by CDI. Aspartic acid, an a- and ß-dicarboxylic acid is oligomerized efficiently

  18. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Kalina, Dale G. (Naperville, IL); Kaplan, Louis (Lombard, IL); Mason, George W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  19. Determination of the acidic sites of purified single-walled carbon nanotubes by acid–base titration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hu; P Bhowmik; B Zhao; M. A Hamon; M. E Itkis; R. C Haddon

    2001-01-01

    We report the measurement of the acidic sites in three different samples of commercially available full-length purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) – as obtained from CarboLex (CLI), Carbon Solutions (CSI) and Tubes@Rice (TAR) – by simple acid–base titration methods. Titration of the purified SWNTs with NaOH and NaHCO3 solutions was used to determine the total percentage of acidic sites and

  20. ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

  1. Photooxidation of neptunium in nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Galkin, B.Y.; Krupitskii, S.V.; Lazarev, L.N.; Mishin, K.Y.; Romanovskii, V.N.

    1986-03-01

    The authors establish that photolysis of a 0.5 M nitric acid solution leads to an increase in the content of neptunium (V). At a nitric acid concentration greater than 1 M, there is an increase in the proportion of neptunium (V) only during the first 10 min after which it is oxidized to the state 6+. The photolysis products of nitric acid are responsible for the change in the ratio of the valence forms of neptunium. Irradiation of nitric acid solutions of neptunium containing hydrazine does not change its valence forms. The presence of urea in the solutions stabilizes the neptunium (VI) formed during photolysis. It was shown that the uranyl ion has a sensitizing affect on the photolysis of the nitrate ion, increasing the yield of nepunium (V).

  2. Unusual hydrophobic interactions in acidic aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanning; Xu, Jianqing; Voth, Gregory A

    2009-05-21

    Hydrophobic interaction, which is believed to be a primary driving force for many fundamental chemical and biological processes such as nanostructure self-assembly, micelle formation, and protein folding, is different in acidic aqueous solutions compared to salt solutions. In this study, the aggregation/dispersion behavior of nonpolar hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solutions with varying acid (HCl) concentrations is investigated using novel molecular dynamics simulations and compared to the hydrophobic behavior in corresponding salt (NaCl) solutions. The formation of unusual weakly bound hydrophobe-hydrated proton solvation structures is observed and can be attributed to the unique "amphiphilic" characteristic of hydrated protons. This molecular-level mechanism for the acid-enhanced dissolution of hydrophobic particles also provides a novel interpretation for the apparent anomaly of the hydronium cation in the Hofmeister series. PMID:19405494

  3. Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P. (Livermore, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Bullock, Sr., Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

  4. REACTIONS OF CHLORITE WITH ACTIVATED CARBON AND WITH VANILLIC ACID AND INDAN ADSORBED ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction between chlorite (CO2(-1)) and vanillic acid, at pH 6.0 in the presence of granular activated carbon (GAC), yielded several reaction products identifiable by GC/MS; no products were found in the absence of GAC. Indan and ClO2 or ClO2(-1) reacted in aqueous solution a...

  5. Sorption of boric acid and borax by activated carbon impregnated with various compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lj. V. Rajakovi?; M. Dj. Risti?

    1996-01-01

    The separation of boron compounds, boric acid and borax from aqueous solution by activated carbon before and after impregnation with various compounds was studied. A series of activated carbons was prepared from coconut shell impregnated with calcium and barium chlorides, citric and tartaric acids. The examined processes were performed in batch and continuous systems under equilibrium and dynamic conditions. Impregnation

  6. [Investigation on mechanism of pyrite oxidation in acidic solutions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Yi, Xiao-Yun; Dang, Zhi; Liu, Yun

    2012-11-01

    The mechanism of pyrite oxidation in acidic solutions was investigated by electrochemical analysis methods, such as open-circuit potential, cyclic voltammetry, Tafel polarization curve and anodic polarization curve, using a pyrite-carbon paste electrode as working electrode. The results showed that the oxidation process of pyrite in acidic solutions was via a two-step reaction: the first step was the dissolution of iron moiety and formation of a passivation film composed of elemental sulphur, metal-deficient sulfide and polysulfide; the second step was the further oxidation of these intermediate products to SO4(2-). The final reaction products of pyrite oxidation were Fe3+ and SO4(2-) in acidic solutions. In addition, the open-circuit potential and corrosion potential were positively shifted, the peak current and the corrosion current were increased with the increase in concentration of H2SO4 solutions. This indicated that increased acidity of the system was advantageous to the oxidation of pyrite. PMID:23323425

  7. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  8. Fabrication of carbon-aerogel electrodes for use in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    E-print Network

    Tharp, Ronald S

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was done to determine the ability to fabricate carbon aerogel electrodes for use in a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). It was found that the use of a 25% solution of the surfactant Cetyltrimethylammonium ...

  9. Osmotic coefficients of aqueous sodium carbonate solutions at 25°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Robinson; J. B. Macaskill

    1979-01-01

    Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements are reported for aqueous sodium carbonate solutions at 25°C using sodium chloride as reference electrolyte. Osmotic and activity coefficients are calculated from the concentrations of the solutions in isopiestic equilibrium. The results are used to calculate the trace activity coefficients of carbonate ion in sodium chloride solutions; these should approximate the trace activity coefficient of carbonate

  10. The pore solution phase of carbonated cement pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Anstice; C. L. Page; M. M. Page

    2005-01-01

    Samples of hydrated cement pastes were exposed to atmospheres with various carbon dioxide concentrations at relative humidities controlled by different saturated salt solutions. When carbonated throughout their thickness, as indicated by the phenolphthalein test, they were resaturated with water and subjected to pore solution expression and analysis. The effects of the various carbonating environments on the pore solution composition and

  11. Direct synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide by hydrogenation in acidic media

    PubMed Central

    Moret, Séverine; Dyson, Paul J.; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important as CO2 levels in the atmosphere continue to rise as a consequence of human activities. In this article we describe the direct hydrogenation of CO2 into formic acid using a homogeneous ruthenium catalyst, in aqueous solution and in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), without any additives. In water, at 40?°C, 0.2?M formic acid can be obtained under 200?bar, however, in DMSO the same catalyst affords 1.9?M formic acid. In both solvents the catalysts can be reused multiple times without a decrease in activity. Worldwide demand for formic acid continues to grow, especially in the context of a renewable energy hydrogen carrier, and its production from CO2 without base, via the direct catalytic carbon dioxide hydrogenation, is considerably more sustainable than the existing routes. PMID:24886955

  12. Direct synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide by hydrogenation in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Moret, Séverine; Dyson, Paul J; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important as CO2 levels in the atmosphere continue to rise as a consequence of human activities. In this article we describe the direct hydrogenation of CO2 into formic acid using a homogeneous ruthenium catalyst, in aqueous solution and in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), without any additives. In water, at 40?°C, 0.2?M formic acid can be obtained under 200?bar, however, in DMSO the same catalyst affords 1.9?M formic acid. In both solvents the catalysts can be reused multiple times without a decrease in activity. Worldwide demand for formic acid continues to grow, especially in the context of a renewable energy hydrogen carrier, and its production from CO2 without base, via the direct catalytic carbon dioxide hydrogenation, is considerably more sustainable than the existing routes. PMID:24886955

  13. Acidities of Water and Methanol in Aqueous Solution and DMSO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Daqing

    2009-01-01

    The relative acidities of water and methanol have been a nagging issue. In gas phase, methanol is more acidic than water by 36.0 kJ/mol; however, in aqueous solution, the acidities of methanol and water are almost identical. The acidity of an acid in solution is determined by both the intrinsic gas-phase ionization Gibbs energy and the solvent…

  14. Speciation in aqueous solutions of nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Hlushak, S; Simonin, J P; De Sio, S; Bernard, O; Ruas, A; Pochon, P; Jan, S; Moisy, P

    2013-02-28

    In this study, speciation in aqueous solutions of nitric acid at 25 °C was assessed in two independent ways. First, Raman experiments were carried out and interpreted in terms of free nitrate ions, ion pairs and neutral HNO(3) molecules. In parallel, a model was developed to account for the formation of these two kinds of pairs. It was based on an extension of the binding mean spherical approximation (BiMSA), or associative MSA (AMSA), in which the size and the charge of the ions in the chemical pair may differ from those of the free ions. A simultaneous fit of the osmotic coefficient and of the proportion of free ions (obtained from Raman spectroscopy experiments) led to an estimation of the speciation in nitric acid solutions. The result obtained using this procedure was compared with the estimation obtained from the Raman experiments. PMID:23258765

  15. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  16. SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENT BY THE SORPTION OF STEARIC ACID1CARBON14

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Kordecki; M. B. Gandy

    1961-01-01

    A technique was developed for determimng the surface area of non-porous ; powders by their sorption of stearic acid-l-carbon-14 from benzene solutions. ; Aliquots of the initial solution and of the solution in equilibrium with a sample ; were plated on chilled watch glasses and assayed by thin end-window Geiger ; counters. Specific surface areas obtained by this method for

  17. Solution influence on biomolecular equilibria - Nucleic acid base associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Various attempts to construct an understanding of the influence of solution environment on biomolecular equilibria at the molecular level using computer simulation are discussed. First, the application of the formal statistical thermodynamic program for investigating biomolecular equilibria in solution is presented, addressing modeling and conceptual simplications such as perturbative methods, long-range interaction approximations, surface thermodynamics, and hydration shell. Then, Monte Carlo calculations on the associations of nucleic acid bases in both polar and nonpolar solvents such as water and carbon tetrachloride are carried out. The solvent contribution to the enthalpy of base association is positive (destabilizing) in both polar and nonpolar solvents while negative enthalpies for stacked complexes are obtained only when the solute-solute in vacuo energy is added to the total energy. The release upon association of solvent molecules from the first hydration layer around a solute to the bulk is accompanied by an increase in solute-solvent energy and decrease in solvent-solvent energy. The techniques presented are expectd to displace less molecular and more heuristic modeling of biomolecular equilibria in solution.

  18. Study of Acid Response of Qatar Carbonate Rocks

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhaohong

    2012-02-14

    reservoirs. Recently papers published from industry discussed the techniques, planning, and optimization of acid stimulation for Qatar carbonate. To the best of author’s knowledge, no study has focused on the acid reaction to Qatar carbonates. The lack...

  19. The rate of carbonic acid decomposition in sea water and its oceanographic significance

    E-print Network

    Park, Kilho

    1957-01-01

    with and without the influence of atmospheric carbon dioxide based upon Buch's tables on the carbon dioxide and boric acid system in sea water are compared with exper- imental data obtained by the method of Mitchell and Rakestraw(1933) and Stoddard (1952... Mixtures of weak acids and their salts or of weak bases and their sa3ts are called buffer solutions, since they resist a change in pH upon addit1on oi' sli~ht amounts oi' acid or bases (Kolthoff', 1949). Sea water contairs carbonic and boric acids...

  20. Mineralisation of coloured aqueous solutions by ozonation in the presence of activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia C. C. Faria; José J. M. Órfão; Manuel Fernando R. Pereira

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of organic matter in coloured solutions of different classes of dyes by ozonation in the presence of activated carbon is investigated. The kinetics of the decolourisation and mineralisation of three different dyes solutions (CI Acid Blue 113, CI Reactive Red 241 and CI Basic Red 14) were studied in a laboratory scale reactor by three different processes: adsorption

  1. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  2. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  3. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  4. Total organic carbon concentrations in acidic lakes in southern Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, A.; Brakke, D.F.; Norton, S.A.

    1988-09-01

    Regional surveys in Norway demonstrate that most of the lakes have low concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC); 60% of the lakes had TOC < 2 mg/L and 90% had TOC < 6 mg/L. There was no apparent relationship between lake water pH and TOC. For the 1005 lakes sampled throughout Norway in 1986, organic anions represent <10% of the anions in all ranges of lake water pH. In the acidic lakes in southern Norway, TOC concentrations and the contributions of organic acids to acidity were very low. Lake water TOC decreased markedly with elevation and all lakes above 900 m had TOC < 2 mg/L. Strong acid concentrations were a function of base cation, excess sulfate, TOC, and NO/sub 3/ concentrations, but only 1.6% of the variation in strong acids in southernmost Norway was explained by TOC. The acidic lakes in southern Norway was explained by TOC. The acidic lakes in southern Norway sampled by regional surveys are mainly inorganic solutions with concentrations of excess sulfate that are high relative to base cations and with little contribution of organic anions to acidity.

  5. Adsorption of cesium (I) from aqueous solution using oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Yavari; Y. D. Huang; S. J. Ahmadi

    2011-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified by nitric acid solution and then used to study the adsorption of cesium\\u000a from aqueous solution using a batch technique under ambient conditions. As produced and oxidized MWCNTs were characterized\\u000a by nitrogen adsorption\\/desorption, Boehm’s titration method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The physical properties\\u000a of MWCNTs such as functional groups, total number of acid

  6. Experimental High Velocity Acid Jetting in Limestone Carbonates

    E-print Network

    Holland, Christopher

    2014-04-30

    Acid jetting is a well stimulation technique that is used in carbonate reservoirs. It typically involves injecting acid down hole at high flow rates through small orifices which cause high velocities of acid to strike the borehole wall...

  7. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  8. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the •NO2 radical.

  9. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  10. Solubilities of stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, and arachidyl alcohol in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35[degree]C

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Yoshio; Koga, Yoshio; Maruyama, Hironori; Arai, Yasuhiko (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    The solubilities of stearic acid (octadecanoic acid), stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol), and arachidyl alcohol (1-eicosanol) in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured by using a flow-type apparatus at 35 C up to 23.7 MPa. The solubilities of those substances and other fatty acids and higher alcohols in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35 C were correlated by a solution model based on the regular solution model coupled with the Flory-Huggins theory.

  11. Comparing the Amount of Acid in Different Solutions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity students will use a similar process to compare the amount of acid in two different indicator + acid solutions. The teacher demonstrates this process using laundry detergent solution to neutralize two solutions containing 1 and 3 drops of vinegar. Students will then use the same detergent solution to compare two solutions containing vinegar and cream of tartar. By comparing the number of drops used to return each solution back to its blue color, students can discover which solution initially contained more acid.

  12. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyethylenimine as inhibitors for the corrosion of a low carbon steel in phosphoric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Jianguo; W. Lin; V. Otieno-Alego; D. P. Schweinsberg

    1995-01-01

    Polarization and weight loss studies showed that both polyvinylpyrrolidonc and polyethylenimine are effective for the inhibition of low carbon steel over a wide concentration range of aqueous phosphoric acid (H3PO4) solutions. Both polymers retard the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions with emphasis on the former. The results for uninhibited acid confirm the kinetic expression proposed by Mathur and Vasudevan.

  13. PERFORMANCE AND MODELING OF A HOT POTASSIUM CARBONATE ACID GAS REMOVAL SYSTEM IN TREATING COAL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance and modeling of a hot potassium carbonate (K2CO3) acid gas removal system (AGRS) in treating coal gas. Aqueous solutions of K2CO3, with and without amine additive, were used as the acid gas removal solvent in the Coal Gasification/Gas Cleaning...

  14. Titration of Monoprotic Acids with Sodium Hydroxide Contaminated by Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalowski, Tadeusz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effects of using carbon dioxide contaminated sodium hydroxide solution as a titrant for a solution of a weak monoprotic acid and the resulting distortion of the titration curve in comparison to one obtained when an uncontaminated titrant is used. (CW)

  15. One-step synthesis of novel sulfuric acid groups' functionalized carbon via hydrothermal carbonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuezheng Liang; Huiquan Xiao; Yongmiao Shen; Chenze Qi

    2010-01-01

    The novel sulfuric acid groups' functionalized carbon has been synthesized via one-step hydrothermal carbonization of polyvinyl alcohol and hydroxyethylsulfuric acid. The novel carbon exhibited high acidity and comparable activities to sulfonic acid for the traditional acid-catalyzed reactions, which indicated that it has great potential for the environmental-friendly processes. The copolymerization method provides an efficient procedure for the synthesis of various

  16. EQUILIBRIUM DISTRIBUTION OF URANYL NITRATE AND NITRIC ACID IN EXTRACTION WITH METHYLCYCLOHEXANONE FROM ACID SOLUTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Havlicek; V. Sraier

    1963-01-01

    The mutual effects of uranyl nitrate and nitric acid on their extraction ; from acid solution with methylcyclohexanone were investigated. The distribution ; of the nitric acid alone for acid concentrations from 0.1 to 4M was first ; determined. The distribution of uranyl nitrate and nitric acid for uranyl ; concentration up to 2M and nitric acid concentrations of 0.1,

  17. Synthesis of acid-functionalized composite via surface deposition of acid-containing amorphous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bin; Zhang, Xuan; Lou, Lan-Lan; Dong, Yanling; Liu, Gaixia; Liu, Shuangxi

    2012-07-01

    A synthetic procedure, including two steps: a hydrothermal treatment using H2SO4 solution and a thermal treatment with concentrated H2SO4 in Teflon-lined stainless autoclaves was developed to synthesize acid-functionalized composite. In this process, the carbonization of glucose which contributed to the formation of carbon species with acid functional groups occurred on the silica surface. The resultant composite, investigated by powder XRD, low temperature N2 sorption and TEM, possessed well-defined mesostructure. And it was determined by XPS that amorphous carbon was deposited at the silica surface of SBA-15. The presence of multi-functional groups in the composite was confirmed by FT-IR results. Furthermore, carboxylic and sulfonic groups could be incorporated into the composite material via the covalent bond. The composite was employed as the catalyst for the acetalization of carbonyl compounds. It was suggested that acid sites were well dispersed, which was responsible for the good performance in the catalytic test. According to these facts, a synthesis route for mesostructured composite with acid functional groups has been proposed.

  18. Biosynthesis of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) from renewable carbon.

    PubMed

    Rohwerder, Thore; Müller, Roland H

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays a growing demand for green chemicals and cleantech solutions is motivating the industry to strive for biobased building blocks. We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. Starting from this carboxylic acid, practically all compounds possessing the isobutane structure are accessible by simple chemical conversions, e. g. the commodity methacrylic acid as well as isobutylene glycol and oxide. During recent years, biotechnological routes to 2-HIBA acid have been proposed and significant progress in elucidating the underlying biochemistry has been made. Besides biohydrolysis and biooxidation, now a bioisomerization reaction can be employed, converting the common metabolite 3-hydroxybutyric acid to 2-HIBA by a novel cobalamin-dependent CoA-carbonyl mutase. The latter reaction has recently been discovered in the course of elucidating the degradation pathway of the groundwater pollutant methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the new bacterial species Aquincola tertiaricarbonis. This discovery opens the ground for developing a completely biotechnological process for producing 2-HIBA. The mutase enzyme has to be active in a suitable biological system producing 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, which is the precursor of the well-known bacterial bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). This connection to the PHB metabolism is a great advantage as its underlying biochemistry and physiology is well understood and can easily be adopted towards producing 2-HIBA. This review highlights the potential of these discoveries for a large-scale 2-HIBA biosynthesis from renewable carbon, replacing conventional chemistry as synthesis route and petrochemicals as carbon source. PMID:20184738

  19. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1996-08-01

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 {+-} 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO{sub 4} at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. Studies on the effect of added LiNO{sub 3} or Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF{sub 6} content of WF{sub 6} gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF{sub 6}.

  20. Physicochemical foundations of spent nuclear fuel leaching in carbonate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Stepanov; A. V. Boyarintsev; A. M. Chekmarev

    2009-01-01

    The earlier work by Stepanov and Chekmarev [1] formulated the new strategy for aqueous chemical recycling of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in carbonate solutions referred to as the CarbEx process. This strategy comprises the leaching of SNF to aqueous carbonate solution, from which the extraction refining of uranium and plutonium is carried out using quaternary ammonium salts; solid-phase stripping of

  1. Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The ?13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

  2. Synthesis of a Novel Carbon Based Strong Acid Catalyst Through Hydrothermal Carbonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuezheng Liang; Jianguo Yang

    2009-01-01

    A novel carbon based strong acid catalyst has been synthesized through the sulfonation of the carbon materials from glucose.\\u000a The novel acid catalyst was obtained through the hydrothermal carbonization instead of the traditional heat treatment, which\\u000a made the carbonization process under much milder condition with higher yield. The novel heterogeneous catalyst owned the advantages\\u000a of high acidity as much as

  3. Sorption Purification of Scandium(III) To Remove Zirconium(IV) Impurity in Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. V. Sokolova

    2001-01-01

    A study was made on separation of the Zr(IV) impurity from scandium(III) in hydrochloric acid solutions by sorption with KRF-20t-60 cation exchanger, including sorption kinetics and sorption under dynamic conditions. The sorbent regeneration with 5% ammonium fluoride or 10% potassium carbonate at 22°C was considered.

  4. Functionalized carbon nanofibers as solid-acid catalysts for transesterification.

    PubMed

    Stellwagen, Daniel R; van der Klis, Frits; van Es, Daan S; de Jong, Krijn P; Bitter, Johannes H

    2013-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were functionalized with aryl sulfonic acid groups using in situ diazonium coupling. The use of diazonium coupling yielded an acidic carbon material, in which the introduced acidic groups are readily accessible to the triglyceride substrate. The material is an efficient catalyst for the transesterification of triolein and methanol, outperforming conventional sulfonated carbons in both stability and activity per acid site. Upon comparing CNFs with varying degrees of functionalization, a linear correlation between sulfonic acid sites and catalytic performance was found. PMID:23908100

  5. Corrosion inhibition by polyaniline copolymer of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi Fuhua; Wang Xiutong; Yu Jianqiang; Hou Baorong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the inhibitive effect of a polyaniline copolymer, namely, poly(aniline-co-o-anthranilic acid) solution, on the corrosion of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid. The effect of the different concentrations of the corrosion inhibitor also was investigated. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterise the polyaniline copolymer. Weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic

  6. Hydrogen storage and delivery: the carbon dioxide - formic acid couple.

    PubMed

    Laurenczy, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and the carbonates, the available natural C1 sources, can be easily hydrogenated into formic acid and formates in water; the rate of this reduction strongly depends on the pH of the solution. This reaction is catalysed by ruthenium(II) pre-catalyst complexes with a large variety of water-soluble phosphine ligands; high conversions and turnover numbers have been realised. Although ruthenium(II) is predominant in these reactions, the iron(II) - tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)-ethyl]phosphine (PP3) complex is also active, showing a new perspective to use abundant and inexpensive iron-based compounds in the CO2 reduction. In the catalytic hydrogenation cycles the in situ formed metal hydride complexes play a key role, their structures with several other intermediates have been proven by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. In the other hand safe and convenient hydrogen storage and supply is the fundamental question for the further development of the hydrogen economy; and carbon dioxide has been recognised to be a viable H2 vector. Formic acid--containing 4.4 weight % of H2, that is 53 g hydrogen per litre--is suitable for H2 storage; we have shown that in aqueous solutions it can be selectively decomposed into CO-free (CO < 10 ppm) CO2 and H2. The reaction takes place under mild experimental conditions and it is able to generate high pressure H2 (up to 600 bar). The cleavage of HCOOH is catalysed by several hydrophilic Ru(II) phosphine complexes (meta-trisulfonated triphenylphosphine, mTPPTS, being the most efficient one), either in homogeneous systems or as immobilised catalysts. We have also shown that the iron(II)--hydrido tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)ethyl]phosphine complex catalyses with an exceptionally high rate and efficiency (turnover frequency, TOF = 9425 h(-1)mol(-1); turnover number, TON = 92400) the formic acid cleavage, in environmentally friendly propylene carbonate solution, opening the way to use cheap, non-noble metal based catalysts for this reaction, too. PMID:22026175

  7. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-03-31

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

  8. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  9. Determination of free acidity in uranyl nitrate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Mayankutty; S. Ravi; M. N. Nadkarni

    1982-01-01

    Two modifications of the existing method of determining free acidity in highly concentrated uranyl nitrate solutions by alkalimetric\\u000a titrations in neutral potassium oxalate medium have been carried out to improve the reliability of the method. Free acidities\\u000a of several synthetic solutions containing uranium and nitric acid in a wide range of concentration ratios were determined\\u000a by all the three methods

  10. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  11. Crystallization characteristics of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) in ammonium carbonate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tae-Joon, Kim; Kyung-Chai, Jeong; Jin-Ho, Park; In-Soon, Chang; Cheong-Song, Choi

    1994-05-01

    Ammonium carbonate solutions with an excessive amount of NH 3 were produced in a commercial AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) conversion plant. In this study the AUC crystals, precipitated with uranyl nitrate and ammonium carbonate solutions prepared in the laboratory, were characterized to determine the feasibility of recycling ammonium carbonate solution. The AUC crystals were easily agglomerated with the increasing concentration of CO 32- and mole ratio of {NH 4+}/{CO 32-} in ammonium carbonate solution. Effects of a mixing system for the solution in the AUC crystallizer and the feed location of the solution on the agglomeration of AUC crystals were also studied along with the effects of agglomerated AUC powders on UO 2 powders. Finally, the feasibility of manufacturing UO 2 fuel with a sintered pellet density of 10.52 g/cm 3, using the AUC powders generated in this experiment, was demonstrated.

  12. Solubility of Small-Chain Carboxylic Acids in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Estevez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg�m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg�m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg�m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg�m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). Additionally, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.

  13. USE OF FATTY ACID STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO TO INDICATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels, broad microbial community structure, and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil o...

  14. Surface modification of precipitated calcium carbonate using aqueous fluosilicic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do Su Kim; Churl Kyoung Lee

    2002-01-01

    Surface modification of calcium carbonate using aqueous fluosilicic acid (H2SiF6) was carried out in terms of the mole ratio of fluosilicic acid to calcium carbonate as well contact time. The resulting surface compounds of amorphous silica and calcium fluoride after surface modification were visualized on the surface of calcium carbonate. Amorphous silica was generated by the hydrolysis of silicon hexafluoride

  15. Hybrid Crystals of Calcium Carbonate and Amino Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayako Kai; Toshikatsu Miki

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of amino acids on the crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and the reactivity between amino acids and CaCO3. Noncharged-polar and acidic amino acids are highly incorporated into CaCO3 and stabilize cauliflower-like grains composed of vaterite which is thermodynamically unstable in the CaCO3 polymorphs. Amino acids in the hybrid CaCO3 form radicals different from those in

  16. Solute carbon and carbon segregation in magnesium oxide single crystals — a secondary ion mass spectrometry study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedemann Freund

    1986-01-01

    If carbon is to be analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) in an oxide such as MgO, one has to know how the carbon is incorporated in the oxide host structure, before a successful experiment can be planned. If the carbon impurities derive from dissolved CO2 component which form a solid solution while the crystal grew from a melt

  17. Comparison of Carbonate and Uricase-Carbonate Methods for the Determination of Uric Acid in Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendell T. Caraway; Herman Marable

    1965-01-01

    A colorimetric carbonate procedure for the determination of uric acid has been modi- fied to include incubation of serum with uricase to destroy uric acid. Residual non- urate chromogens are subtracted from total chromogens to obtain the concentration of \\

  18. Nitric acid vapor removal by activated, impregnated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wood

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory and industrial workers can be exposed to vapors of nitric acid, especially in accidents, such as spills. Nitric acid can also be a product of incineration for energy production or waste (e.g., CW agent) disposal. Activated carbons containing impregnants for enhancing vapor and gas removal have been tested for effectiveness in removing vapors of nitric acid from air. The

  19. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  20. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from the testing, there would be a significant increase in the CR. Specifically, the CR for an agitated 1-wt% pure oxalic acid solution at 45 or 75 C was about 4 to 10 times greater than those for a 1-wt% solution with sludge. For 8-wt% at 50 C, the effect was even larger. The lower CRs suggest that the cathodic reactions were altered by the sludge. For both the 1-wt% and 8-wt% solution, increasing the temperature did not result in an increased CR. Although the CR for a 1-wt% acid with sludge was considered to be non-temperature dependent, a stagnant solution with sludge resulted in a CR that was greater at 45 C than at 75 C, suggesting that the oxalate film formed at a higher temperature was better in mitigating corrosion. For both a 1 and an 8-wt% solution, agitation typically resulted in a higher CR. Overall, the testing showed that the general CR to the SRS carbon steel tanks from 1-wt% oxalic acid solution will remain bounded by those from an 8-wt% oxalic acid solution.

  1. Microbial degradation of. beta. -chlorinated four-carbon aliphatic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler-Staub, D.; Kohler, H.P.E. (Univ of California, Riverside (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Alcaligenes sp. strain CC1 is able to grow on several {alpha}-chlorinated aliphatic acids (2-chlorobutyrate, 2-chloropropionate, and chloroacetate), as well as on the {beta}-chlorinate four-carbon aliphatic acids trans-3-chlorocrotonate, cis-3-chlorocrotonate, and 3-chlorobutyrate as sole carbon and energy sources. Dehalogenation of {alpha}-chlorinated acids could be measured by using resting cells grown on all the different carbon sources, whereas dehalogenation of {beta}-chlorinated four-carbon acids could be detected only by using resting cells grown on four-carbon compounds. A constitutive 2-haloacid dehalogenase, which did not show any activity with {beta}-chlorinate four-carbon acids, was detected in cell extracts. Cell extracts of crotonate-grown cells additionally contained a {beta}-haloacid dechlorination activity, which acted on trans-3-chlorocrotante, cis-3-chlorocrotonate, and 3-chlorobutyrate and was strictly on coenzyme A, ATP, and Mg{sup 2+}. Dechlorination of {beta}-chlorinate four-carbon acids takes places after activation of the acids to their coenzyme A derivatives and seems to be independent of the constitutive 2-haloacid dehalogenase.

  2. Separation of americium and europium from solutions of nitric and perchloric acid using dipicolinic acid diamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyapyshev, M. Yu.; Babain, V. A.; Smirnov, I. V.; Shadrin, A. Yu.

    2006-01-01

    Extraction of nitric acid, perchloric acid, americium, and europium with dialkyldiarylamides of 2,6-pyridinecarboxylic (dipicolinic) acid in polar fluorinated solvents (diluents) was analysed. Among the extractants studied N, N?-diethyl-N, N?-ditolylamide dipicolinate is characterized by the best extraction properties. On passing from nitric to perchloric acid solutions extraction of metals sharply increases. Extraction of americium from nitric acid solutions is significantly greater as compared with europium (separation coefficient reaches 6), whereas extraction of americium and europium from perchloric acid solutions is nearly similar. The effect of diluent on the extraction was analyzed; for different diluents the maximum of extraction from perchloric acid solutions shifts form 3 to 6 M.

  3. Preparation of iron oxide-impregnated spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composite and its photocatalytic removal of methylene blue in the presence of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Kadirova, Zukhra C; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Katsumata, Ken-Ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Sharipov, Khasan; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composites (GAC-Fe) with different iron oxide contents (Fe mass% = 0.6-10) were prepared by a pore volume impregnation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption results confirm the presence of amorphous iron oxide, pyrolytic carbon, and graphitized globular carbon nanoparticles covered with amorphous carbon in the CAG-Fe. The rate of photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under UV light in the presence of oxalic acid correlates with porosity of the prepared materials. The total MB removal includes the combination of adsorption and photodegradation without the addition of H2O2. The results of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis reveal that the decolorization of MB in aqueous solution containing oxalic acid corresponds to the decomposition of organic compounds to CO2 and H2O. PMID:24679083

  4. Polymerization of beta-amino acids in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We have compared carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as activating agents for the oligomerization of negatively-charged alpha- and beta-amino acids in homogeneous aqueous solution. alpha-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using CDI, but not by EDAC. beta-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using EDAC, but not by CDI. Aspartic acid, an alpha- and beta-dicarboxylic acid is oligomerized efficiently by both reagents. These results are explained in terms of the mechanisms of the reactions, and their relevance to prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  5. Dependence of composition of anion-exchange membranes and their electrical conductivity on concentration of sodium salts of carbonic and phosphoric acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Pismenskaya; Evgueni Laktionov; Victor Nikonenko; Abdulla El Attar; Bernard Auclair; Gérald Pourcelly

    2001-01-01

    Concentration dependencies of electrical conductivity of AFN, AMX, ACS and ACM anion-exchange membranes (from Tokuyama Soda), equilibrated with solutions of sodium salts of carbonic and phosphoric acids as well as with sodium sulfate solutions, are studied. Analysis of the data on electrolyte desorption from the membranes equilibrated initially with solutions of the weak-acid salts as well as the application of

  6. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA; Smith, Jeffrey W [Lancaster, OH; Ihle, Nathan C [Walla Walla, WA

    1984-01-01

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with portland cement to form concrete.

  7. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, G.A.; Smith, J.W.; Ihle, N.C.

    1982-07-08

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with Portland cement to form concrete.

  8. The interaction of Bromophenol Blue with proteins in acidic solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-ju Wei; Ke-an Li; Shen-yang Tong

    1996-01-01

    The interactions of Bromophenol Blue (BPB) with bovine serum albumin and ?-globulin in acidic solutions were investigated by a spectrophotometric method. It was considered that the electrostatic force is the main binding force, and that the color change during the combination is due to the transformation of dye species of free acidic form into bound basic form as well as

  9. Phosphorylation of Glyceric Acid in Aqueous Solution Using Trimetaphosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Vera; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    The phosphorylation of glyceric acid is an interesting prebiotic reaction because it converts a simple, potentially prebiotic organic molecule into phosphate derivatives that are central to carbohydrate metabolism. We find that 0.05 M glyceric acid in the presence of 0.5 M trimetaphosphate in alkaline solution gives a mixture of 2- and 3-phosphoglyceric acids in combined yields of up to 40%.

  10. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  11. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-12-05

    Magnesium oxide will be used as a neutralizing agent for acidic plutonium-containing solutions. It is expected that as the magnesium oxide dissolves, the pH of the solution will rise, and plutonium will precipitate. The resulting solid will be tested for suitability to storage. The liquid is expected to contain plutonium levels that meet disposal limit requirements.

  12. sup 15 N NMR spectroscopic investigation of nitrous and nitric acids in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acidities

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, G.K.S.; Heiliger, L.; Olah, G.A. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-11-28

    Both nitrous and nitric acids were studied in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acid strengths by {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopy. The study gives new insights into the nature of intermediates present at different acid strengths. Furthermore, we have also discovered a novel redox reaction between NO{sub 2}{sup +} and NO{sup +} ions involving the intermediacy of their respective acids. A mechanism is proposed to explain the observed results. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Carbon dioxide-sustained adsorption of lactic acid at pH > pK{sub a} of the acid

    SciTech Connect

    Husson, S.M.; King, C.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Experimental data are presented for batch and fixed-bed adsorption of lactic acid from aqueous sodium lactate solutions onto the tertiary amine sorbents, Dowex MWA-1 and Amberlite IRA-35, in the presence of carbon dioxide. The effects of carbon dioxide pressure and sodium lactate concentration on lactate uptake capacity were measured. A simple complexation model, which includes chemical-equilibria and mass- and charge-balance equations, was developed to describe the system. There are no fitted parameters in the model. The model predictions compare well with batch adsorption data.

  14. Kinetics of absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. J. Derks; T. Kleingeld; C. van Aken; J. A. Hogendoorn; G. F. Versteeg

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of carbon dioxide into aqueous piperazine (PZ) solutions has been studied in a stirred cell, at low to moderate temperatures, piperazine concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.5kmolm-3, and carbon dioxide pressures up to 500mbar, respectively. The obtained experimental results were interpreted using the DeCoursey equation [DeCoursey, W., 1974. Absorption with chemical reaction: development of

  15. Characterization of soil organic carbon pools by acid hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Silveira; N. B. Comerford; K. R. Reddy; H. El-Rifai

    2008-01-01

    Chemically stable fractions of the soil organic carbon (SOC) contribute to the soil C sequestration and may have an important role for the global C budget. Soil organic carbon characterization was studied using acid hydrolysis methods with 1 M and 6 M HCl and hot-water extraction in two coastal plain soils collected from different landscape positions. The residues after the chemical treatments

  16. The Effect of Acid Additives on Carbonate Rock Wettability and Spent Acid Recovery in Low Permeability Gas Carbonates

    E-print Network

    Saneifar, Mehrnoosh

    2012-10-19

    Spent acid retention in the near-wellbore region causes reduction of relative permeability to gas and eventually curtailed gas production. In low-permeability gas carbonate reservoirs, capillary forces are the key parameters that affect the trapping...

  17. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  18. Efficient optical resolution of amino acid by alanine racemaze chiral analogue supported on mesoporous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, D.; Kim, K.; Park, D.; Kim, G.

    2012-09-01

    Optically pure D-amino acids are industrially important chiral building blocks for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, food ingredients, and drug intermediates. Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic-resolution processes have recently been developed for deracemization of amino acids. S-ARCA would be a good candidate for the selective adsorption of D amino acid through the imine formation reaction. The organic phase containing S-ARCA adsorbent, TPPC or Ionic Liquid (as a phase transfer catalyst) in MC were coated on the surfaces of mesoporous carbon C-SBA-15(CMK). The aqueous solution of racemic D/L-amino acid and NaOH were added to the carbon support coated with ARCA. The D/L ratios on ARCA and in solution were determined with increasing reaction time. S-ARCA has a unique property for the selective adsorption of D- amino acid (up to 90% selcetivity) in the racemic mixture. The fixed bed reactor containing ARCA/carbon support was also adopted successfully for the selective separation of amino acid.

  19. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  20. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Mike J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2 +, Mg2 +) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al3 +, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  1. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Szecsody, Jim E; Truex, Mike J; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Wellman, Dawn M; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH2) resulted in a rapid (<10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al(3+), and K(+), likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH13) resulted in a rapid (<10h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity. PMID:23851265

  2. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  3. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Kalina, Dale G. (Naperville, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  4. The adsorption of pharmaceutically active compounds from aqueous solutions onto activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Raki?, Vesna; Rac, Vladislav; Krmar, Marija; Otman, Otman; Auroux, Aline

    2015-01-23

    In this study, the adsorption of pharmaceutically active compounds - salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, atenolol and diclofenac-Na onto activated carbons has been studied. Three different commercial activated carbons, possessing ?650, 900 or 1500m(2)g(-1) surface areas were used as solid adsorbents. These materials were fully characterized - their textural, surface features and points of zero charge have been determined. The adsorption was studied from aqueous solutions at 303K using batch adsorption experiments and titration microcalorimetry, which was employed in order to obtain the heats evolved as a result of adsorption. The maximal adsorption capacities of investigated solids for all target pharmaceuticals are in the range of 10(-4)molg(-1). The obtained maximal retention capacities are correlated with the textural properties of applied activated carbon. The roles of acid/base features of activated carbons and of molecular structures of adsorbate molecules have been discussed. The obtained results enabled to estimate the possibility to use the activated carbons in the removal of pharmaceuticals by adsorption. PMID:24857621

  5. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-05-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10?mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications. PMID:25371160

  6. Anaerobic Carbon Metabolism by the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle 1

    PubMed Central

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C.; Horsey, Anne K.; Weger, Harold G.; Turpin, David H.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen-limited cells of Selenastrum minutum (Naeg.) Collins are able to assimilate NH4+ in the dark under anaerobic conditions. Addition of NH4+ to anaerobic cells results in a threefold increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCAC) CO2 efflux and an eightfold increase in the rate of anaplerotic carbon fixation via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Both of these observations are consistent with increased TCAC carbon flow to supply intermediates for amino acid biosynthesis. Addition of H14CO3? to anaerobic cells assimilating NH4+ results in the incorporation of radiolabel into the ?-carboxyl carbon of glutamic acid. Incorporation of radiolabel into glutamic acid is not simply a short-term phenomenon following NH4+ addition as the specific activity of glutamic acid increases over time. This indicates that this alga is able to maintain partial oxidative TCAC carbon flow while under anoxia to supply ?-ketoglutarate for glutamate production. During dark aerobic NH4+ assimilation, no radiolabel appears in fumarate or succinate and only a small amount occurs in malate. During anaerobic NH4+ assimilation, these metabolites contain a large proportion of the total radiolabel and radiolabel accumulates in succinate over time. Also, the ratio of dark carbon fixation to NH4+ assimilation is much higher under anaerobic than aerobic conditions. These observations suggest the operation of a partial reductive TCAC from oxaloacetic acid to malate, fumarate, and succinate. Such a pathway might contribute to redox balance in an anaerobic cell maintaining partial oxidative TCAC activity. PMID:16667215

  7. The Effect Of Viscoelastic Surfactants Used In Carbonate Matrix Acidizing On Wettability

    E-print Network

    Adejare, Oladapo

    2012-07-16

    Carbonate reservoirs are heterogeneous; therefore, proper acid placement/diversion is required to make matrix acid treatments effective. Viscoelastic surfactants (VES) are used as diverting agents in carbonate matrix acidizing. However...

  8. Distribution of 1-butanol between organic solvent and acidic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, T.; Nemoto, H.; Uchiyama, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    1-butanol, a major TBP-degraded product, is known to react explosively with concentrated nitric acid under non-heated conditions. However, no quantitative data is available on the distribution behavior in the Purex solution. The distribution of 1-butanol between tributyl phosphate(TBP) diluted with n-dodecane and aqueous solution of nitric acid and uranyl nitrate was investigated under various conditions, by changing the concentration of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, the composition of the organic mixture, the organic to aqueous phase volume ratio, and temperature. 1-butanol was found to distribute more in solvent phase, but the distribution ratio is not large, less than four under typical Purex solution conditions. The ratio was found to be correlated with the molar concentration of free TBP and 1-butanol. Effects of these characteristics on safety in radiochemical plants will be discussed from the local accumulation of 1-butanol.

  9. Fluorecently labeled bionanotransporters of nucleic acid based on carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Novopashina, D S; Venyaminova, A G

    2012-01-01

    Here we propose the approach to design of the new type of hybrids of oligonucleotides with fluorescein-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The approach is based on stacking interactions of functionalized nanotubes with pyrene residues in conjugates of oligonucleotides. The amino- and fluorescein-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes were obtained, and their physico-chemical properties were investigated. The effect of carbon nanotubes functionalization type on the efficacy of sorption of pyrene conjugates of oligonucleotides was examined. Proposed non-covalent hybrids of fluorescein-labeled carbon nanotubes with oligonucleotides may be used for intracellular transport of functional nucleic acids.

  10. Electrosorption of Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Nanostructured Carbon Aerogel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tung-Yu Ying; Kun-Lin Yang; Sotira Yiacoumi; Costas Tsouris

    2002-01-01

    Electrosorption is generally defined as potential-induced adsorption on the surface of charged electrodes. After polarization of the electrodes, ions are removed from the electrolyte solution by the imposed electric field and adsorbed onto the surface of the electrodes. Experimental and modeling studies were conducted using two types of carbon aerogel composites of different surface areas to provide a better understanding

  11. Photochemical kinetics of pyruvic acid in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Reed Harris, Allison E; Ervens, Barbara; Shoemaker, Richard K; Kroll, Jay A; Rapf, Rebecca J; Griffith, Elizabeth C; Monod, Anne; Vaida, Veronica

    2014-09-18

    Pyruvic acid in the atmosphere is found in both the gas and aqueous phases, and its behavior gives insight into that of other ?-keto acids. Photolysis is a significant degradation pathway for this molecule in the environment, and in aqueous solution the major photoproducts are higher-molecular-weight compounds that may contribute to secondary organic aerosol mass. The kinetics of the aqueous-phase photolysis of pyruvic acid under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was investigated in order to calculate the first-order rate constant, Jaq, in solution. Analysis of the exponential decay of pyruvic acid was performed by monitoring both pyruvic acid and its photolytic products over the course of the reaction by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Detection of major and minor products in the 0.1, 0.05, and 0.02 M pyruvic acid photolyses clearly demonstrates that the primary reaction pathways are highly dependent on the initial pyruvic acid concentration and the presence of dissolved oxygen. The Jaq values were calculated with approximations based on the dominant pathways for limiting cases of the mechanism. Finally, a model study using the calculated rate constants demonstrates the importance of aqueous-phase photolysis as a sink for pyruvic acid in the atmosphere, compared with gas-phase photolysis and OH oxidation. PMID:24725260

  12. Preparing Standard Acid Solution Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are the most common strong acids and bases

    E-print Network

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    .0 = Ã? Ã?Ã? =HClC #12;Using a pH Electrode for an Acid-Base Titration In this experiment you will use a pH electrode to follow the course of an acid-base titration. You will observe how pH changes slowly during mostPreparing Standard Acid Solution Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are the most common strong

  13. Behavior of carbon isotopes during the hyperfiltration of calcium carbonate solutions through calcium bentonites

    E-print Network

    Hinz, David William

    1987-01-01

    (aq) The 1sotopic ratio of the effluent gave no clue to the possible occurrence of any fractionation of carbon 1sotopes. The solution retained on the high pressure s1de of the membrane was found to have an increased calcium concentration, as would... the stock solution's COB(aq) concentration. This is interpreted as conversion of bicarbonate to CO7(aq) along or within the membrane, with subsequent transport of the C02~a ~ through the membrane. The carbon isotopic ratio of the throughput solution...

  14. Polymerization of Pu(IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Friedman, H.A.; Osborne, M.M.

    1980-10-01

    The polymerization of Pu(IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions has been studied spectrophotometrically both to establish the influence of large UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} concentrations on the polymerization rates and, more generally, to review the influence of the major parameters on the polymer reaction. Typically, experiments have been performed at 50{sup 0}C and with 0.05 M Pu in nitric acid solutions that vary in acidity from 0.07 to 0.4 M. An induction period usually precedes the polymer growth stage during which time nucleation of primary hydrolysis products occurs. Uranyl nitrate retards the polymerization reaction by approximately 35% in spite of the counteracting influence of the nitrate ions associated with this solute. The rate of polymer formation, expressed as d(percent polymer)/dt, has been shown to depend on the total plutonium concentration in reactions where the Pu(IV) concentration remained constant; and it is therefore suggested that the polymer reaction rate is not first order with respect to the concentration of plutonium as was previously thought. It has been shown further that accurate acid determinations on stock reagents are essential in order to obtain reliable polymerization experiments. Satisfactory procedures for these analyses did not exist, so appropriate modifications to the iodate precipitation methods were developed. The most ideal plutonium reagent material has been shown to be crystalline Pu(IV) nitrate because it can be added directly to acid solutions without the occurrence of unintentional hydrolysis reactions.

  15. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

    1998-12-22

    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  16. The corrosion of aluminum in boric acid solutions

    E-print Network

    Bass, Henry Kinsolving

    1956-01-01

    THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN BORIC ACID SOLUTIONS A Thesis By HENRI KINSOLVING BASS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College oi' Texas' in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE ~Janua lqq6 Ma ]or Sub)ect Chemical E ineeri ~RARY I At N csLEEOE QF TExAs THE CORROSION OF ALUKBWM IN BORIC ACID SOLUTIONS A Thesis By HENRY KINSOLVINO BASS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Cha rman of Committee...

  17. Coprecipitation of thorium and uranium peroxides from acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McTaggart, D.R.; Mailen, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The factors affecting successful coprecipitation of thorium and uranium peroxides from acid media were studied. Variables considered in this work were H/sup +/ concentration, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration, duration of contact, and rate of feed solution addition. In all experiments, stock solutions of Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ and UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ were fed at a controlled rate into H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ solutions with constant stirring. Samples were taken as a function of time to follow the H/sup +/ concentration of the solution, uranium precipitation, thorium precipitation, precipitant weight/volume of solution, and crystalline structure and growth. The optimum conditions for maximum coprecipitation are low H/sup +/ concentration, high H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration, and extended contact time between the solutions.

  18. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid in the presence of Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1990-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and several polycarboxylic acids were formed in all systems. The primary characteristics observed in the latter system were: (1) Higher yield of the decomposition of acetic acid; (2) Lower yield of the formation of polycarboxylic acids; (3) No effect on the formation of methane; (4) Higher yield of the formation of carbon dioxide; and (5) The reduction of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of Na-montmorillonite. A possible reaction scheme was proposed to account for the observed changes. The results are important in understanding heterogeneous processes in radiation catalysis and might be significant to prebiotic chemistry.

  19. Modeling Sucrose Hydrolysis in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solutions at Pretreatment Conditions for Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, S.; Wickramasinghe, R.; Nagle, N. J.; Schell, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and herbaceous feedstocks may contain appreciable levels of sucrose. The goal of this study was to evaluate the survivability of sucrose and its hydrolysis products, fructose and glucose, during dilute sulfuric acid processing at conditions typically used to pretreat lignocellulose biomass. Solutions containing 25 g/l sucrose with 0.1-2.0% (w/w) sulfuric acid concentrations were treated at temperatures of 160-200 C for 3-12 min. Sucrose was observed to completely hydrolyze at all treatment conditions. However, appreciable concentrations of fructose and glucose were detected and glucose was found to be significantly more stable than fructose. Different mathematical approaches were used to fit the kinetic parameters for acid-catalyzed thermal degradation of these sugars. Since both sugars may survive dilute acid pretreatment, they could provide an additional carbon source for production of ethanol and other bio-based products.

  20. Roentgenoluminescence of hexahydrate of uranyl nitrate in phosphoric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ožvoldová, M.

    1992-08-01

    The fluorescence (FL) and roentgenoluminescence (XRL) spectra of yellow aqueous solution of hexahydrate of uranyl nitrate phosphoric acid solution have been measured. The XRL spectrum was compared with the XRL of the green alkali alumino-phosphate glasses doped with uranium. It was shown that both the FL and XRL were due to uranyl groups. The radiative transitions are ascribed to3?1u ?1?{g/+}.

  1. Electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate in acetic acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Fedoseev; V. P. Shilov

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of UOâ(NOâ)â has been studied by polarography on a mercury cathodes in CHâCOOH solutions. It has been found that UOâ(NOâ) is reduced to U(IV) by a mechanism similar to reduction in nitric acid solutions at pH>2. The polarograms have been recorded with various solid cathodes. The cathodes having current density of uranyl reduction close to that on mercury

  2. Acid–Base Titration: Analysis of Phosphoric Acid Anodizing Solutions. A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina C. Koether; Charles R. Munafo

    2002-01-01

    Phosphoric acid anodizing solutions are routinely titrated to monitor their concentrations; however, after successive anodizations of aluminum metal, increasing amounts of dissolved aluminum interfere with the neutralization titration. The true concentration of phosphoric acid is determined by a correction factor based on the concentration of the dissolved aluminum, which is determined industrially by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The academic determination

  3. PREDICTING TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR IN CARBONATE ACIDIZING TREATMENTS

    E-print Network

    Tan, Xuehao

    2010-01-16

    is the heat generated by reaction, affecting the temperature behavior significantly. The result of the thermal model showed significant temperature effects caused by reaction, providing a mechanism to quantitatively determine the acid flow profile. Based... penetration and include the reaction between acid and rock. 5 ? Integrate the flow-back part into the program to achieve the temperature behavior in the wellbore. ? Study the sensitivity of flow-back temperature in the wellbore to the injection rate...

  4. Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL; Roh, Yul [Chonnam National University, Gwangju; Cho, Kyu Seong [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of metal ions leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals.

  5. Methanol Uptake by Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Essin, A. M.; Golden, D. M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The global methanol budget is currently unbalanced, with source terms significantly larger than the sinks terms. To evaluate possible losses of gaseous methanol to sulfate aerosols, the solubility and reactivity of methanol in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols is under investigation. Methanol will partition into sulfate aerosols according to its Henry's law solubility. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H*, for cold (196 - 220 K) solutions ranging between 45 and 70 wt % H2SO4. We have found that methanol solubility ranges from approx. 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) M/atm for UT/LS conditions. Solubility increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. Although methanol is slightly more soluble than are acetone and formaldehyde, current data indicate that uptake by clean aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and any rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H is not significant over our experimental time scale for solutions below 80 wt % H2SO4. To confirm this directly, results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique will also be presented.

  6. Analysis of the stable carbon isotope composition of formic and acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Zhang, Like; Huang, Daikuan; An, Ning; Yang, Fang; Jiang, Wei; Fang, Bin

    2013-05-15

    Formic and acetic acids are ubiquitous in the environment and in many biological processes. Analysis of the stable carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) of formic and acetic acids is important to understanding their biogeochemical cycles. However, it has been faced with poor accuracy and high detection limits due to their low carbon number, high hydrophilicity, and semi-volatility. Here we developed an analytical technique by needle trap and gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). The organic acids in aqueous solution were extracted using a NeedlEx needle through purge-and-trap and were analyzed by GC-IRMS for ?(13)C. The procedures incur no isotope fractionation. Defined as the point at which the mean ?(13)C is statistically the same as the given value and the analytical error starts rising, the method's detection limits are 200 and 100 mg/L for formic and acetic acids, respectively, with an uncertainty of approximately 0.5‰ in direct extraction and analysis. They were lowered to 1 mg/L with precision of 0.9‰ after samples were subjected to preconcentration. The method was successfully applied to natural samples as diverse as precipitation, vinegars, ant plasma, and vehicle exhaust, which vary considerably in concentration and matrix of the organic acids. It is applicable to the organic acids in not only aqueous solution but also gaseous phase. PMID:23395975

  7. Adsorption of Pb(II) From Aqueous Solutions by Chemically Modified Zeolite Supported Carbon Nanotubes: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Venkata Ramana; D. Harikishore Kumar Reddy; B. Naresh Kumar; K. Seshaiah; G. Purna Chandra Rao; Chungsying Lu

    2012-01-01

    Zeolite supported carbon nanotubes (ZCNTs) were synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method. The physical and chemical properties such as surface area, pore diameter, surface functional groups and total acidic and basic sites of the ZCNTs were studied. They were employed as adsorbent to study the adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) in aqueous solution. The adsorption of Pb(II), increase

  8. Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Meunier, N; Laroulandie, J; Blais, J F; Tyagi, R D

    2003-12-01

    The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy metal uptake efficiency. Adsorption tests were conducted in agitated flasks with single-metal solutions (0.25 mM Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), multi-metal solution (comprised of 0.25 mM of each of the cations above) and an effluent obtained from chemical leaching of metal-contaminated soil, in the presence of different cocoa shell concentrations (5-40 g/l). Results from the single-metal solution assays indicated that the fixation capacity of heavy metals by cocoa shells followed a specific order: Pb>Cr>Cd=Cu=Fe>Zn=Co>Mn=Ni=Al. Cocoa shells are particularly efficient in the removal of lead from very acidic solutions (q(max)=6.2 mg Pb/g, pH(i)=2.0 and T=22 degrees C). The presence of other metals and cations in solution did not seem to affect the recovery of lead. It was also observed that the maximum metal uptake was reached in less than 2 h. This research has also demonstrated that the removal of metals caused a decline in solution proton concentration (pH increase) and release of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium from the cocoa shells. PMID:14575948

  9. Anodic dissolution of nickel in acidic chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Aal, E. E. Abd; Zakria, W.; Diab, A.; El Haleem, S. M. Abd

    2003-04-01

    The anodic dissolution of nickel was studied galvanostatically in hydrochloric acid solutions of various concentrations. The reaction orders of chloride ion and hydrogen ion concentrations were found to be 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. An anodic Tafel slope equal to 120 ± 10 mV · decade-1 was obtained. The dissolution rate of nickel at constant acid concentration was increased with stirring of the solution and increasing temperature. The activation energy, ?H, for the anodic dissolution process was found to be 12 kcal · mol-1. The presence of oxygen in solutions assisted the passivation process. The effect of addition of aniline and some of its derivatives (o-, m-, and p-anisidine) as inhibitors on the dissolution kinetics of Ni in 1 M HCl was also investigated. These compounds inhibited the anodic dissolution of nickel without affecting the Tafel slope, indicating that the adsorption of such inhibitors could not interfere with the mechanism of metal dissolution.

  10. Photosynthesis In Elodea canadensis Michx: Four-Carbon Acid Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Degroote, D; Kennedy, R A

    1977-06-01

    Experiments to determine the early labeled photosynthetic products in Elodea canadensis show that after 2 seconds of exposure to NaH(14)CO(3), 45% of the (14)C incorporated is located in malate and aspartate. Phosphoglyceric acid and sugars account for 27% of the label during similar exposures. Equivalent amounts of organic acids and C(3) cycle products are present after 8 seconds. Four-carbon acids remain relatively unchanged throughout the first 45 seconds of exposure, while sugars increase in a linear fashion. Enzyme assays indicate that ribulose diphosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzymes are present in a ratio of approximately 2:1. It appears that E. canadensis is able to synthesize significant amounts of four-carbon acids via beta-carboxylation and this may play a role in maintaining a pH favorable for carboxylation in aquatic plants. PMID:16660008

  11. The influence of some Arylazobenzoyl acetonitrile derivatives on the behaviour of carbon steel in acidic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Maksoud, S. A.

    2003-02-01

    The effect of a new class of corrosion inhibitors, namely, Arylazobenzoyl acetonitrile derivatives, on the corrosion of carbon steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2SO 4 solutions has been studied by electrochemical polarisation methods (potentiodynamic, Tafel extrapolation and the determination of polarisation resistance). Generally, inhibition efficiency of the investigated compounds was found to increases with increasing concentration. Results obtained from both potentiodynamic and polarisation resistance techniques reveal that these compounds are good inhibitors and behave better in 2 M HCl than 1 M H 2SO 4. The adsorption of the compounds on the carbon steel in both acidic media follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  12. Effective matrix acidizing in carbonates using microemulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefner, M.L.; Fogler, H.S.

    1985-05-01

    The process of matrix acidizing of oil reservoirs is described. It is designed to improve well productivity by increasing rock permeability in the region surrounding the wellbore. As resistance to flow is reduced, oil can move more easily to the wellbore and production increases. A reacting mixture, usually containing HCI for limestone and an HCI/HF mixture for sandstone, is pumped into the well at pressures low enough to avoid fracturing the formation rock or to open existing fractures. The goal is to achieve a somewhat uniform radial penetration of acid into the formation porespace. Partial dissolution of the matrix can then take place, and rock permeability is increased.

  13. Evaluation of Perforated Carbonate Cores Under Acid Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Diaz, Nerwing Jose

    2011-10-21

    to evaluate the impact of reactive charges on acid wormholing in representative carbonate cores. A set of oil-saturated Indiana limestone and cream chalk cores have been perforated under simulated downhole conditions using either a conventional or a... thankful to Mohamed Mahmoud for running the chemical analysis of the core effluent fluids and Yanbin Zhang for teaching me everything needed to perform the acidizing experiments. I am also very thankful to John Maldonado for all his time and help...

  14. Interaction of aromatic alcohols, aldehydes and acids with ?-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals: A steady state radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samovich, S. N.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2013-01-01

    Benzaldehyde and its derivatives efficaciously oxidize in aqueous solutions ?-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals (?-HCR) of various structures, suppressing thereby the radical recombination and fragmentation reactions. The compounds containing cinnamic moieties are capable of adding ?-hydroxyethyl radicals (?-HER) to the carbon-carbon double bonds conjugated with the aromatic system to form molecular products identifiable by mass spectrometry. On radiolysis of aqueous ethanol solutions, reduction of ?-HER by aromatic alcohols and acids has been shown to proceed via formation of their adducts with hydrated electron species.

  15. Kinetics of pyrite oxidation in sodium carbonate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. T. Ciminelli; K. Osseo-Asare

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of pyrite oxidation in sodium carbonate solutions were investigated in a stirred vessel, under temperatures ranging\\u000a from 50 °C to 85 °C, oxygen partial pressures from 0 to 1 atm, particle size fractions from ?150 + 106 to ?38 + 10 µm (?100\\u000a + 150 Mesh to ?400 Mesh + 10 µm) and pH values of up to

  16. Pyrite oxidation in carbonate-buffered solution: 1. Experimental kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Nicholson; R. W. Gillham; E. J. Reardon

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of pyrite oxidation in carbonate-buffered solution was investigated in the laboratory. Oxygen concentration, surface area and temperature were varied while pH values were limited to the range of 6.7-8.5. The rate experiments were performed on crushed and sieved size-fractions of pyrite that were carefully cleaned and mixed with similar-size silica sand. Oxidation occurred in a moisture-suction device

  17. Hydrogen and carbon in solid solution in oxides and silicates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedemann Freund

    1987-01-01

    The dissolution of H2O and CO2 in structurally dense, nominally anhydrous and non-carbonate oxide matrices such as MgO and CaO is reviewed. H2O and CO2 are treated as gaseous oxide components which enter into solid solution with the refractory oxide hosts. They form anion complexes associated with cation vacancy sites. Evidence is presented that OH- pairs which derive from the

  18. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide into Aqueous Colloidal Silica Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of experimental data for carbon dioxide absorption into aqueous nanometer sized colloidal silica solution as a non?Newtonian fluid, a dimensionless correlation for volumetric liquid?side mass transfer coefficient (kLa) of CO2 in the flat?stirred vessel was proposed. In addition to ordinary liquid properties and operating parameters such as impeller size and speed in the vessel, Deborah number, which

  19. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Insights into non-Fickian solute transport in carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Bijeljic, Branko; Mostaghimi, Peyman; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    [1] We study and explain the origin of early breakthrough and long tailing plume behavior by simulating solute transport through 3-D X-ray images of six different carbonate rock samples, representing geological media with a high degree of pore-scale complexity. A Stokes solver is employed to compute the flow field, and the particles are then transported along streamlines to represent advection, while the random walk method is used to model diffusion. We compute the propagators (concentration versus displacement) for a range of Peclet numbers (Pe) and relate it to the velocity distribution obtained directly on the images. There is a very wide distribution of velocity that quantifies the impact of pore structure on transport. In samples with a relatively narrow spread of velocities, transport is characterized by a small immobile concentration peak, representing essentially stagnant portions of the pore space, and a dominant secondary peak of mobile solute moving at approximately the average flow speed. On the other hand, in carbonates with a wider velocity distribution, there is a significant immobile peak concentration and an elongated tail of moving fluid. An increase in Pe, decreasing the relative impact of diffusion, leads to the faster formation of secondary mobile peak(s). This behavior indicates highly anomalous transport. The implications for modeling field-scale transport are discussed. Citation: Bijeljic, B., P. Mostaghimi, and M. J. Blunt (2013), Insights into non-Fickian solute transport in carbonates, Water Resour. Res., 49, 2714–2728, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20238. PMID:24223444

  1. Evaporation kinetics of acetic acid-water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffey, K.; Wong, N.; Saykally, R.; Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The transport of water molecules across vapor-liquid interfaces in the atmosphere is a crucial step in the formation and evolution of cloud droplets. Despite decades of study, the effects of solutes on the mechanism and rate of evaporation and condensation remain poorly characterized. The present work aims to determine the effect of atmospherically-relevant solutes on the evaporation rate of water. In our experiments, we create a train of micron-sized droplets and measure their temperature via Raman thermometry as they undergo evaporation without condensation. Analysis of the cooling rate yields the evaporation coefficient (?). Previous work has shown that inorganic salts have little effect on ?, with surface-adsorbing anions causing a slight reduction in the coefficient from that measured for pure water. Organic acids are ubiquitous in aqueous aerosol and have been shown to disrupt the surface structure of water. Here we describe measurements of the evaporation rate of acetic acid solutions, showing that acetic acid reduces ? to a larger extent than inorganic ions, and that ? decreases with increasing acetic acid concentration.

  2. Carbon quantum dots with photo-generated proton property as efficient visible light controlled acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Kong, Weiqian; Liu, Juan; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Xing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-12-01

    Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ?pH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34.7-46.2%, respectively) in water solution under visible light, while the 1-4 nm CQDs and 10-2000 nm graphite do not have such excellent catalytic activity. The use of 5-10 nm CQDs as a light responsive and controllable photocatalyst is truly a novel application of carbon-based nanomaterials, which may significantly push research in the current catalytic industry, environmental pollution and energy issues.Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ?pH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34.7-46.2%, respectively) in water solution under visible light, while the 1-4 nm CQDs and 10-2000 nm graphite do not have such excellent catalytic activity. The use of 5-10 nm CQDs as a light responsive and controllable photocatalyst is truly a novel application of carbon-based nanomaterials, which may significantly push research in the current catalytic industry, environmental pollution and energy issues. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03996j

  3. Version 3.0 SOP 14 --Sodium carbonate solutions October 12, 2007 Page 1 of 3

    E-print Network

    Version 3.0 SOP 14 -- Sodium carbonate solutions October 12, 2007 Page 1 of 3 SOP 14 Procedure for preparing sodium carbonate solutions for the calibration of coulometric CT measurements 1. Scope and field of application This procedure describes the preparation of a set of aqueous sodium carbonate solutions which

  4. [Effect of acid-base two steps surface modification on the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shou-xin; Chen, Xiao-yun; Chen, Xi; Sun, Cheng-lin

    2005-11-01

    Effect of HNO3-NaOH two steps surface modification on the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution onto activated carbon was evaluated. Activated carbon was oxidized in HNO3 aqueous solution at first (AC1), then treated in the mixture of NaOH and NaCl solution (AC2). Batch equilibrium and continuous adsorption experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption characteristics. Boehm titration method, element analysis were used to characterize the surface properties. N2/77 K adsorption isotherm method was used to characterize the pore structure. The results reveal that adsorption capacity and adsorption rate increase significantly, which in the following order: AC2>AC1>AC0. Surface modification caused BET surface area decreased and the total number of surface oxygen acid groups increased. First oxidation modification in HNO3 solution produced positive acid groups on the surface of activated carbon. Subsequent 2nd modification replaced H+ of carbon surface groups by Na+, the acidity of AC2 was decreased. The main cause of higher Cr(VI) adsorption capacity and rate for AC2 was the more oxygen surface acid groups, and suitable solution pH provide by surface groups. PMID:16447436

  5. Capture of carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentation by liquid absorption for use in biological production of succinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Senske, Gerard E

    2015-02-01

    Previously, it was shown that the gas produced in an ethanol fermentor using either corn or barley as feedstock could be sparged directly into an adjacent fermentor as a feedstock for succinic acid fermentation using Escherichia coli AFP184. In the present investigation, it was demonstrated that the CO2 produced in a corn ethanol fermentor could be absorbed in a base solution and the resultant carbonate solution used both for pH control and supply of the CO2 requirement in succinic acid fermentation. Thus, the CO2 produced in a 5-L corn mash containing 30 wt% total solids was absorbed in a packed column containing 2 L of either 5 M NaOH, 5 M KOH, or 15 wt% NH4OH, and the resultant carbonate solutions were used for pH control in a succinic acid fermentor. The results obtained indicated no significant differences between succinic acid production in these experiments and when 2.5 M solutions of Na2CO3, K2CO3, and (NH4)2CO3 from commercial sources were used. In a commercial setting, the demonstrated capture of CO2 in liquid form will allow transportation of the carbonate solutions to locations not in the immediate vicinity of the ethanol plant, and excess carbonate salts can also be recovered as value-added products. PMID:25448631

  6. Solution Preserves Nucleic Acids in Body-Fluid Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    A solution has been formulated to preserve deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in specimens of blood, saliva, and other bodily fluids. Specimens of this type are collected for diagnostic molecular pathology, which is becoming the method of choice for diagnosis of many diseases. The solution makes it possible to store such specimens at room temperature, without risk of decomposition, for subsequent analysis in a laboratory that could be remote from the sampling location. Thus, the solution could be a means to bring the benefits of diagnostic molecular pathology to geographic regions where refrigeration equipment and diagnostic laboratories are not available. The table lists the ingredients of the solution. The functions of the ingredients are the following: EDTA chelates divalent cations that are necessary cofactors for nuclease activity. In so doing, it functionally removes these cations and thereby retards the action of nucleases. EDTA also stabilizes the DNA helix. Tris serves as a buffering agent, which is needed because minor contaminants in an unbuffered solution can exert pronounced effects on pH and thereby cause spontaneous degradation of DNA. SDS is an ionic detergent that inhibits ribonuclease activity. SDS has been used in some lysis buffers and as a storage buffer for RNA after purification. The use of the solution is straightforward. For example, a sample of saliva is collected by placing a cotton roll around in the subject's mouth until it becomes saturated, then the cotton is placed in a collection tube. Next, 1.5 mL of the solution are injected directly into the cotton and the tube is capped for storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the solution has been demonstrated in tests on specimens of saliva containing herpes simplex virus. In the tests, the viral DNA, as amplified by polymerase chain reaction, was detected even after storage for 120 days.

  7. Carbon-supported platinum-decorated nickel nanoparticles for enhanced methanol oxidation in acid media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingli Wang; Hui Wang; Rongfang Wang; Qizhao Wang; Ziqiang Lei

    Carbon-supported platinum-decorated nickel nanoparticles (denoted as Pt-Ni\\/C) with intimate contact of Pt and Ni are prepared\\u000a by a galvanic displacement reaction between Ni\\/C nanoparticles and PtCl62? in aqueous solution. It demonstrates a higher mass activity and stability to methanol oxidation reaction than conventional\\u000a Pt\\/C and PtRu\\/C catalysts by a rotating disk electrode in acid solution, which could be attributed to

  8. Electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate in acetic acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Shilov, V.P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    Electrochemical reduction of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} has been studied by polarography on a mercury cathodes in CH{sub 3}COOH solutions. It has been found that UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}) is reduced to U(IV) by a mechanism similar to reduction in nitric acid solutions at pH>2. The polarograms have been recorded with various solid cathodes. The cathodes having current density of uranyl reduction close to that on mercury cathode have been further investigated. The most suitable cathode materials for reducing 1-2 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions have been found to be Hg, Ti, and stainless steel. The use of a stainless steel cathode is complicated by minor corrosion; as a result, iron ions appear in the solution, which catalyze the oxidation of U(IV) with air oxygen and nitrate ions. On a titanium cathode at a potential of -0.24 V 1.6 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution in 5 m CH{sub 3}COOH is reduced in the presence of 0.5 g 1{sup -1} of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} with 90% current efficiency and 99.3% extent of reduction. In the case of a mercury cathode 1.9 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution in 4-6 M CH{sub 3}COOH is reduced to U(IV) in the presence of 0.5 g 1{sup -1} of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} with 97{plus_minus}2% current efficiency and 99.7% extent of reduction. The formal potential of the U(VI)/U(IV) couple is equal to 0.32{plus_minus}0.01 V and only slightly depends on temperature T and concentration of acetic acid [CH{sub 3}COOH] over 20-0{degrees}C and 0.5-4 M ranges respectively. The acetic acid solutions of U(IV) thus obtained from UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} are considerably more stable than nitric acid solutions of U(IV), even in the presence of much smaller amounts of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} or other stabilizers.

  9. Energetic changes in the surface of activated carbons and relationship with Ni(II) adsorption from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Estupiñan, Paola; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated Ni(II) ion adsorption from aqueous solution on activated carbons obtained by chemically modifying the surface with the oxidizing agents nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (CAGoxP and CAGoxN, respectively). The activated carbons were characterized by total acidity and basicity, pH at the point of charge zero determination and IR spectroscopy. Textural parameters such as the BET area and pore volumes were evaluated by gas adsorption. The BET area of the materials was between 816 and 876 m2 g-1. Additionally, the immersion enthalpies of the activated carbons in water and benzene were determined. The experimental results on adsorption in solution were adjusted to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, obtaining values for the monolayer capacity between 29.68 and 50.97 mg g-1, which indicates that the adsorption capacity depends largely on solid surface chemistry.

  10. Synthesis and acid catalysis of cellulose-derived carbon-based solid acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Satoshi; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kitano, Masaaki; Yamaguchi, Daizo; Kato, Hideki; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Hara, Michikazu

    2010-06-01

    SO 3H-bearing amorphous carbon, prepared by partial carbonization of cellulose followed by sulfonation in fuming H 2SO 4, was applied as a solid catalyst for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of ?-1,4 glucan, including cellobiose and crystalline cellulose. Structural analyses revealed that the resulting carbon material consists of graphene sheets with 1.5 mmol g -1 of SO 3H groups, 0.4 mmol g -1 of COOH, and 5.6 mmol g -1 of phenolic OH groups. The carbon catalyst showed high catalytic activity for the hydrolysis of ?-1,4 glycosidic bonds in both cellobiose and crystalline cellulose. Pure crystalline cellulose was not hydrolyzed by conventional strong solid Brønsted acid catalysts such as niobic acid, Nafion ® NR-50, and Amberlyst-15, whereas the carbon catalyst efficiently hydrolyzes cellulose into water-soluble saccharides. The catalytic performance of the carbon catalyst is due to the large adsorption capacity for hydrophilic reactants and the adsorption ability of ?-1,4 glucan, which is not adsorbed to other solid acids.

  11. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  12. Thermodynamics of pentachlorophenol adsorption from aqueous solutions by oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Salam, M.; Burk, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Chemical modification of MWCNTs via oxidation proved to be a useful tool to improve the suspension stability and solubility of MWCNTs in aqueous solution. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were oxidized using different oxidizing agents and the produced oxidized MWCNTs were characterized using different techniques. IR measurements showed the presence of carboxylic acid function groups especially for the MWCNTs oxidized with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Oxidation of MWCNTs increased their solubility in aqueous solution and hence enhances the contact between the carbon nanotubes and the water and pentachlorophenol molecules. The oxidized MWCNTs were used to study the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption of PCP on the oxidized MWCNTs at various temperatures was studied and the adsorption equilibrium was well described using different adsorption models. The thermodynamic of adsorption was studied at different temperatures and the results showed that the adsorption process was product favored, and becomes more so at higher temperature, since the adsorption is endothermic in general.

  13. Recovery of rhenium from sulfuric acid solutions with activated coals

    SciTech Connect

    Troshkina, I.D.; Naing, K.Z.; Ushanova, O.N.; P'o, V.; Abdusalomov, A.A. [Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Engineering Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-09-15

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of rhenium sorption from sulfuric acid solutions (pH 2) by activated coals produced from coal raw materials (China) were studied. Constants of the Henry equation describing isotherms of rhenium sorption by activated coals were calculated. The effective diffusion coefficients of rhenium in the coals were determined. The dynamic characteristics of rhenium sorption and desorption were determined for the activated coal with the best capacity and kinetic characteristics.

  14. Differences in response between 18 carbon fatty acids and 12 14 carbon saturated fatty acids on plasma cholesterol in Guinea pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Luz Fernandez; Cristina Avalos; Marcela Vergara-Jimenez

    1998-01-01

    Male guinea pigs were fed four different diets rich in lauric plus myristic (LM), stearic (ST), oleic (OL) or linoleic (LN) fatty acids to compare the effects of 18 carbon fatty acids with different degrees of saturation with 1214 carbon saturated fatty acids on hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Animals fed the LM diet had 76–100% higher plasma total cholesterol and apo

  15. The interaction of Bromophenol Blue with proteins in acidic solution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y J; Li, K A; Tong, S Y

    1996-01-01

    The interactions of Bromophenol Blue (BPB) with bovine serum albumin and gamma-globulin in acidic solutions were investigated by a spectrophotometric method. It was considered that the electrostatic force is the main binding force, and that the color change during the combination is due to the transformation of dye species of free acidic form into bound basic form as well as to the bathochromic and hyperchromic effects of conjugation. The formation of an isosbestic point in the absorption spectra was explained based on a new consideration about the solution equilibria. Two conditional constants, apparent binding constant and maximum binding number, were defined to express the binding ability of a dye to a certain protein under a given set of conditions, and two linear regression equations were derived to determine these two parameters and the molar absorptivity of bound dye. The Scatchard model is not appropriate in the treatment of data obtained here. The factors which influence the sensitivity of a dye binding protein assay were discussed, and the Sandell index was used to express the sensitivity of protein detection. It was found that sodium chloride concentration and acidity of the solutions have significant effect on the sensitivity of BPB protein assay. PMID:18966456

  16. Surface tensions of solutions containing dicarboxylic acid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Hildemann, Lynn M.

    2014-06-01

    Organic solutes tend to lower the surface tension of cloud condensation nuclei, allowing them to more readily activate. The surface tension of various dicarboxylic acid aerosol mixtures was measured at 20 °C using the Wilhelmy plate method. At lower concentrations, the surface tension of a solution with equi-molar mixtures of dicarboxylic acids closely followed that of a solution with the most surface-active organic component alone. Measurements of surface tension for these mixtures were lower than predictions using Henning's model and the modified Szyszkowski equation, by ?1-2%. The calculated maximum surface excess (?max) and inverse Langmuir adsorption coefficient (?) from the modified Szyszkowski equation were both larger than measured values for 6 of the 7 mixtures tested. Accounting for the reduction in surface tension in the Köhler equation reduced the critical saturation ratio for these multi-component mixtures - changes were negligible for dry diameters of 0.1 and 0.5 ?m, but a reduction from 1.0068 to 1.0063 was seen for the 4-dicarboxylic acid mixture with a dry diameter of 0.05 ?m.

  17. The Application of Electrodialysis to Desalting an Amino Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, Vicente; Montiel, Vicente; González-García, José; Expósito, Eduardo; Iniesta, Jesús; Bonete, Pedro; Inglés, Marina

    2000-11-01

    One of the main difficulties in preparing pharmaceutical products is isolating them from aqueous solutions of high salt concentration, as a high purity must be obtained. Several methods that employ organic solvents are normally used. In this paper, a novel method, electrodialysis, is presented together with its application to the desalting of an industrial effluent comprising an amino acid (p-hydroxyphenylglycine) with a high salt content (ammonium sulfate and sodium dihydrogenphosphate). It was possible to remove more than 70% of the initial salt content. From this solution with a low salt content, it is possible to isolate the amino acid with a higher purity. This experiment will enable the student to gain a useful knowledge of this technique and to work with typical figures of merit of electrodialysis such as current efficiency, electrical energy consumption, production of the process, removal of salt, and loss of amino acid. In addition the student learns the use of chromatographic techniques applied to the analysis of amino acids (HPLC) and salts (IC).

  18. Methanol Uptake By Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the role of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols in the global budget of methanol, the solubility and reactivity of CH3OH in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions are under investigation. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H(*), for methanol dissolution into 45 to 70 percent by weight H2SO4. We find that methanol solubility ranges from 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 8) M/atm and increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and all rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Our data indicate that simple uptake by aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These results differ from those recently reported in the literature, and an explanation of this disparity will be presented. In addition to solvation, reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H may proceed in the atmosphere but is not significant under our experimental conditions. Results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique confirm this directly. In addition, the extent of methanol sequestration via formation of mono- and dimethylsulfate will be evaluated under several atmospheric conditions.

  19. Removal of organic contaminants from aqueous solution by cattle manure compost (CMC) derived activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Qingrong; Chen, Qinghua; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Mochidzuki, Kazuhiro; Sakoda, Akiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The activated carbons (ACs) prepared from cattle manure compost (CMC) with various pore structure and surface chemistry were used to remove phenol and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of two organic contaminants onto the ACs were investigated and the schematic models for the adsorptive processes were proposed. The result shows that the removal of functional groups from ACs surface leads to decreasing both rate constants for phenol and MB adsorption. It also causes the decrement of MB adsorption capacity. However, the decrease of surface functional groups was found to result in the increase of phenol adsorption capacity. In our schematic model for adsorptive processes, the presence of acidic functional groups on the surface of carbon is assumed to act as channels for diffusion of adsorbate molecules onto small pores, therefore, promotes the adsorption rate of both phenol and MB. In phenol solution, water molecules firstly adsorb on surface oxygen groups by H-bonding and subsequently form water clusters, which cause partial blockage of the micropores, deduce electrons from the ?-electron system of the carbon basal planes, hence, impede or prevent phenol adsorption. On the contrary, in MB solution, the oxygen groups prefer to combine with MB + cations than water molecules, which lead to the increase of MB adsorption capacity.

  20. Controlled exposures of volunteers to respirable carbon and sulfuric acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.R.; Avol, E.L.; Edwards, S.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Ruchuan Peng; Linn, W.S.; Hackney, J.D. (Univ. of Southern California, Downey (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Respirable carbon or fly ash particles are suspected to increase the respiratory toxicity of coexisting acidic air pollutants, by concentrating acid on their surfaces and so delivering it efficiently to the lower respiratory tract. To investigate this issue, the authors exposed 15 healthy and 15 asthmatic volunteers in a controlled-environment chamber to four test atmospheres: (1) clean air; (2) 0.5-{mu}m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol at {approx}100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, generated from water solution; (3) 0.5-{mu}m carbon aerosol at {approx}250 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, generated from highly pure carbon black with specific surface area comparable to ambient pollution particles; and (4) carbon as in (3) plus {approx}100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of ultrafine H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol generated from fuming sulfuric acid. Electron microscopy showed that nearly all acid in (4) became attached to carbon particle surfaces, and that most particles remained in the sub-{mu}m size range. Exposures were performed double-blind, 1 week apart. They lasted 1 hr each, with alternate 10-min periods of heavy exercise (ventilation {approx}50 L/min) and rest. Subjects gargled citrus juice before exposure to suppress airway ammonia. Lung function and symptoms were measured pre-exposure, after initial exercise, and at end-exposure. Bronchial reactivity to methacholine was measured after exposure. Statistical analyses tested for effects of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or carbon, separate or interactive, on health measures.

  1. New method for H(2)S removal in acid solutions.

    PubMed

    de Angelis, Alberto; Bellussi, Giuseppe; Pollesel, Paolo; Perego, Carlo

    2010-07-19

    Several different technologies are available for H(2)S removal from the gas stream of medium capacity. Among them, the most widely used is Locat with more than 120 plants worldwide. In the last decade, many new processes, such as Sulfatreat-DO, Crystasulf, Caltech, and UCSR, were proposed to overcome the drawbacks of the state-of-the-art processes (low sulfur purity, chemical degradation, thiosulfate formation). We have developed a new H(2)S conversion method based on acid ferric nitrate solution, co-catalyzed by a heteropolyacid. H(2)S was converted to pure sulfur (>99.9 %), with no traces of organic compounds. Due to the acid pH of the solution, no chelant or surfactant was needed and iron content in the solution could reach very high levels. Keggin heteropolyacid (H(6)PW(9)V(3)O(40)) catalyzed the reoxidation of reduced ferrous solution with air at mild temperature and at very high reaction rate. The undesired side reaction (NO(x) formation) could be avoided by simply increasing the oxygen partial pressure. PMID:20564280

  2. Carbonic acid ionization and the stability of sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pairs to 200 °C - A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Bénézeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Carbonic acid ionization and sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pair formation constants have been experimentally determined in dilute hydrothermal solutions to 200 °C. Two experimental approaches were applied, potentiometric acid-base titrations at 10-60 °C and spectrophotometric pH measurements using the pH indicators, 2-napthol and 4-nitrophenol, at 25-200 °C. At a given temperature, the first and second ionization constants of carbonic acid (K1, K2) and the ion pair formation constants for NaHCO(aq)(K) and NaCO3-(aq)(K) were simultaneously fitted to the data. Results of this study compare well with previously determined values of K1 and K2. The NaHCO(aq) and NaCO3-(aq) ion pair formation constants vary between 25 and 200 °C having values of logK=-0.18 to 0.58 and logK=1.01 to 2.21, respectively. These ion pairs are weak at low-temperatures but become increasingly important with increasing temperature under neutral to alkaline conditions in moderately dilute to concentrated NaCl solutions, with NaCO3-(aq) predominating over CO32-(aq) in ?0.1 M NaCl solution at temperatures above 100 °C. The results demonstrate that NaCl cannot be considered as an inert (non-complexing) electrolyte in aqueous carbon dioxide containing solutions at elevated temperatures.

  3. Fluidic delivery of homogeneous solutions through carbon tube bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikar, R.; Yarin, A. L.; Megaridis, C. M.

    2009-07-01

    A wide array of technological applications requires localized high-rate delivery of dissolved compounds (in particular, biological ones), which can be achieved by forcing the solutions or suspensions of such compounds through nano or microtubes and their bundled assemblies. Using a water-soluble compound, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 610 chloride, frequently used as a model drug release compound, it is shown that deposit buildup on the inner walls of the delivery channels and its adverse consequences pose a severe challenge to implementing pressure-driven long-term fluidic delivery through nano and microcapillaries, even in the case of such homogeneous solutions. Pressure-driven delivery (3-6 bar) of homogeneous dye solutions through macroscopically-long (~1 cm) carbon nano and microtubes with inner diameters in the range 100 nm-1 µm and their bundled parallel assemblies is studied experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the flow delivery gradually shifts from fast convection-dominated (unobstructed) to slow jammed convection, and ultimately to diffusion-limited transport through a porous deposit. The jamming/clogging phenomena appear to be rather generic: they were observed in a wide concentration range for two fluorescent dyes in carbon nano and microtubes, as well as in comparable transparent glass microcapillaries. The aim of the present work is to study the physics of jamming, rather than the chemical reasons for the affinity of dye molecules to the tube walls.

  4. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R. [Rutgers Centre, Rutherglen, Vic. (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  5. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part I: Proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, Angel; Kircheva, Nina; Perrin, Marion

    2011-10-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid is proposed as innovative solution for high energy density lead acid battery. The proof of concept is demonstrated, developing grids suitable for the small capacity, scale of valve-regulated lead acid batteries with 2.5-3 Ah plates. The manufacturing of the grids, includes fast, known and simple processes which can be rescaled for mass production with a minimum, investment costs. The most critical process of green composite carbonisation by heating in inert, atmosphere from 200 to 1000 °C takes about 5 h, guaranteeing the low cost of the grids. An AGM-VRLA, cell with prototype positive plate based on the lead-2% tin electroplated carbon honeycomb grid and, conventional negative plates is cycled demonstrating 191 deep cycles. The impedance spectroscopy, measurements indicate the grid performance remains acceptable despite the evolution of the corrosion, processes during the cycling.

  6. Stability constants and multinuclear NMR measurements of phosphonic acid derivatives with aluminum in aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yahia Z. Hamada; Wesley R. Harris

    2006-01-01

    We are reporting the stability constants of the different complexes between phosphonoacetic acid (PAA), phosphonoformic acid (PFA), aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), aminoethylphosphonic acid (AEPA) and methylenediphosphonic acid (MDP) with the aluminum metal ion in aqueous solutions. (In this study the term aluminum is reserved for the 3+ ion.) The affinity of the phosphonic acid derivatives to chelate aluminum has been tested

  7. Effects of dilute substitutional solutes on interstitial carbon in ?-Fe: Interactions and associated carbon diffusion from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peitao; Xing, Weiwei; Cheng, Xiyue; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi; Chen, Xing-Qiu

    2014-07-01

    By means of first-principles calculations coupled with the kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we have systematically investigated the effects of dilute substitutional solutes on the behaviors of carbon in ?-Fe. Our results uncover the following. (i) Without the Fe vacancy the interactions between most solutes and carbon are repulsive due to the strain relief, whereas Mn has a weak attractive interaction with its nearest-neighbor carbon due to the local ferromagnetic coupling effect. (ii) The presence of the Fe vacancy results in attractive interactions of all the solutes with carbon. In particular, the Mn-vacancy pair shows an exceptionally large binding energy of -0.81 eV with carbon. (iii) The alloying addition significantly impacts the atomic-scale concentration distributions and chemical potential of carbon in the Fe matrix. Among them, Mn and Cr increase the carbon chemical potential, whereas Al and Si reduce it. (iv) Within the dilute scale of the alloying solution, the solute concentration- and temperature-dependent carbon diffusivities demonstrate that Mn has a little impact on the carbon diffusion, whereas Cr (Al or Si) remarkably retards the carbon diffusion. Our results provide a certain implication for better understanding the experimental observations related with the carbon solubility limit, carbon microsegregation, and carbide precipitations in the ferritic steels.

  8. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  9. Adsorption characteristics of a phenoxy acetic acid herbicide on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Belmouden, M; Assabbane, A; Ichou, Y A

    2000-06-01

    The adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by two powdered coal activated carbons was studied in aqueous solution. The modelling of the adsorption equilibrium showed that the adsorption of 2,4-D fitted a Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption was influenced by the activated carbon type, adsorbent concentration and solution characteristics. The adsorption was found to decrease with an increase in pH over the range 1.5-9. Maximum adsorption occurred at pH approximately 2.5, which corresponds to the 2,4-D pKa value. The amount of 2,4-D adsorbed was also found to depend on the NaCl concentration. PMID:11256709

  10. Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. III - Seven carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra

    1986-01-01

    All of the eighteen possible seven-carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids have been positively identified in a hot-water extract of the Murchison meteorite by the combined use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. None of these amino acids has previously been found in meteorites or in any other natural material. They range in concentration from less than or equal to 0.5 to 5.3 nmol/g. Configuration assignments were made for 2-amino-3,4-dimethylpentanoic acid and allo-2-amino-3,4-dimethylpentanoic acid and the diasteromer ratio was determined. Fifty-five amino acids have now been positively identified in the Murchison meteorite, 36 of which are unknown in terrestrial materials. This unique suite of amino acids is characterized by the occurrence of all structural isomers within the two major classes of amino acids represented, by the predominance of branched chain isomers, and by an exponential decline in amount with increasing carbon chain length within homologous series. These characteristics of the Murchison amino acids are suggestive of synthesis before incorporation into a parent body.

  11. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

    2014-09-16

    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators. PMID:25133545

  12. Influence of peritoneal dialysis solutions with glucose and amino acids on ingestive behavior in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdel-Hafiz Mamoun; Björn Anderstam; Per Södersten; Bengt Lindholm; Jonas Bergström

    1996-01-01

    Influence of peritoneal dialysis solutions with glucose and amino acids on ingestive behavior in rats. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is often associated with malnutrition; reduced intake of nutrients due to anorexia is an important factor. The glucose load from glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions and amino acids from amino acid-based solutions may favor suppression of the appetite. To study

  13. Electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen on bimetallic copper–gold nanoparticles–multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode in alkaline solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ça?r? Ceylan Bak?r; Nihat ?ahin; Ramazan Polat; Zekerya Dursun

    2011-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with acid treatment and thereafter gold–copper nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the MWCNTs by applying several repetitive scans, thus forming a Cu–Au–MWCNT\\/GCE interface. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen was studied on this modified electrode in 0.1M NaOH solution. The electrocatalytic activity on the Cu–Au–MWCNT\\/GCE showed a tendency towards the O2 reduction. The peak potential of

  14. Effects of Lime and Carbonate of Lime on Acid Phosphate.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1917-01-01

    phosphate. AcL 0.1 grzm calcium carbonate mixed with the acid phosphate be- fore putting in the soil. One gram sulphate of potash and 1 gram ammonium nitrate added to all pots. Corn pIanted May S, harvested Julv 10-14, 1911. Four stalks. One gram... .................. ' 1,ah. No. 3653 3653 .0004 0015 0 .0433 .0113 4604 1 -AC corn. .................... ........................... 2-AC. 3-ACL ........................... ........................... 4-ACL I-AC sorghum. ........... : .... 2-AC...

  15. Activated carbon passes tests for acid-gas cleanup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Harruff; S. J. Bushkuhl

    1996-01-01

    Use of activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid-gas feed to Claus sulfur-recovery units has been successfully pilot tested in Saudi Arabia. Pilot plant results are discussed here along with issues involved in scale-up to commercial size. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This

  16. An experimental study on gold solubility in amino acid solution and its geological significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Jingrong; Lu Jianjun; Yang Fan; Wu Jingwei; Zhu Fahua

    1996-01-01

    The experiments on gold solubility in amino acid solution indicate that gold is very intensively soluble in amino acid (or\\u000a other organic acids), which is extensively present in geological bodies, and is most soluble in histidine. The temperature\\u000a and concentration, acidity and type of amino acid in the solution are important factors affecting gold-amino acid complexing.\\u000a The solubility of gold

  17. Adsorption of fluoranthene in surfactant solution on activated carbon: equilibrium, thermodynamic, kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianfei; Chen, Jiajun; Jiang, Lin; Wang, Xingwei

    2014-02-01

    Adsorption of fluoranthene (FLA) in surfactant solution on activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Isotherm, thermodynamic, and kinetic attributes of FLA adsorption in the presence of the surfactant on AC were studied. Effects of AC dosage, initial concentration of TX100, initial concentration of FLA, and addition of fulvic acid on adsorption were studied. The experimental data of both TX100 and FLA fitted the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. Positive enthalpy showed that adsorption of FLA on AC was endothermic. The efficiency of selective FLA removal generally increased with increasing initial surfactant concentration and decreasing fulvic acid concentration. The surface chemistry of AC may determine the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The adsorption process may be controlled by the hydrophobic interaction between AC and the adsorbate. The microwave irradiation of AC may be a feasible method to reduce the cost of AC through its regeneration. PMID:23979852

  18. INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF CHLORINE WITH MALIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, AND VARIOUS FRUIT JUICES, A SOURCE OF MUTAGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. iethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones an...

  19. Uranium (VI) adsorption on goethite and soil in carbonate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Amrhein, C. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of U are found in agricultural drainage waters from the San Joaquin Valley, CA, which are often disposed of in evaporation basins that are frequented by waterfowl. To determine the factors that affect aqueous U concentrations in the basins, sorption experiments with U(VI) were performed at various CO{sub 2} partial pressures, dissolved Ca, Mg, and P concentrations, and carbonate alkalinities. Synthetic waters, comparable in inorganic constituents to irrigation and drainage waters, were prepared, spiked with 0.1 (soil) and 2 mg U(VI) L{sup -1} (synthetic goethite), and analyzed for U, P (when applicable), and major ions. Total chemical analyses were input into the computer program FITEQL to determine U(VI) speciation and generate U(VI) adsorption constants with the diffuse layer model (also referred to as the two-layer model). Maximum adsorption occurred in solutions with low carbonate alkalinities (<=3 mmol L{sup -1}), ionic strengths (<=0.03 M), Ca concentrations (<=4 mmol L{sup -1}), and P concentrations (<0.005 mmol L{sup -1} for soil). Study results suggest that elevated U concentration in the drainage waters are due to the speciation of dissolved U(VI) into negatively charged carbonate complexes. 29 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Uptake of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor in Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, M.

    2002-12-01

    The uptake of ethyl alcohol vapor in liquid sulfuric acid has been investigated over the composition range of 40 - 80 wt % H2SO4 and between the temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies were performed using a flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and possible reaction products, ethyl hydrogen sulfate and diethyl sulfate. The uptake coefficients (gamma) have been measured and found to vary from 0.018 to 0.065, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. For example, at concentrated acids greater than 70 wt % and dilute solutions (<70 wt %) colder than 210 K, the gamma values are approaching ~ 0.06. Under other conditions, the gamma values are smaller. The adsorption and thermal desorption measurements have been used to distinguish the possible uptake mechanisms, either solubility or reactive uptake. The results suggest that reactive uptakes are greater than 50 % under all conditions. For dilute acids, we also determine the effective Henry's law constants (H*). We will compare the results with the uptake of gaseous methyl alcohol and acetone in H2SO4 determined previously in our laboratory. The potential implications to the budget of ethyl alcohol in the global troposphere will also be discussed.

  1. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  2. Oxidation of ferrous ions by ozone in acidic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Loegager, T.; Holcman, J.; Sehested, K.; Pedersen, T. (RISOE National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

    1992-08-19

    In the aqueous phase of the atmosphere (aerosols, clouds, fog, etc.), where iron, acids, and ozone are simultaneously present, the oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} by O{sub 3} is very important as an ozone sink. The oxidation of ferrous ions by ozone in acidic solution of pH 0-2 was studied using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The reaction can be characterized as an oxygen atom transfer from O{sub 3} to Fe{sup 2+}. An intermediate product assigned to be the ferryl ion, FeO{sup 2+}, was found and its UV-vis spectrum measured. A reaction mechanism is proposed, which accounts for all the authors experimental results.

  3. Molecular Structure of Hydrochloric acid (if in aqueous solution)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-10

    Hydrochloric acid (or hydrogen chloride) can be a colorless liquid with a sharp odor or a colorless to slightly yellow gas. It is a strong acid (it ionizes completely in aqueous solution) and highly corrosive. HCl is widely used as a laboratory reagent in the production of chlorides, in organic synthesis, ore reduction, hydrolyzing of starch and proteins, in the preparation of various food products, metal cleaning and pickling, for instance, and pharmaceutics acidifier. HCI is widely used in the manufacture e.g., in the conversion of cornstarch to syrup, in sugar refining, electroplating, soap refining, leather tanning etc. It is also used to remove scale and dust from boilers and heat exchange equipment, to clean membranes in desalination plants, increase oil well output and prepare metals for coatings.

  4. Carbon nanoparticles with tosyl functional group for distinguishing voltammetric peaks of ascorbic acid and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mandana; Imanzadeh, Hamideh; Banaei, Alireza

    2015-02-01

    In this approach, electro-oxidation of a mixture of uric acid and ascorbic acid at the surface of tosyl surface carbon nanoparticles/glassy carbon electrode has been performed. The electro-oxidation of these compounds at bare electrode is sluggish and there is no suitable peak separation between them. However, using functionalized carbon nanoparticles, two well-defined anodic peaks with a considerable enhancement in the peak current and a remarkable peak potential separation near 452 mV is obtained. The porous interfacial layer of the carbon nanoparticles modified electrode with a high specific surface area increases the conductive area; molecules can penetrate through the conductive porous channels onto the electrode more easily so leading to higher sensitivity and selectivity. The dynamic linear ranges of 1.0 × 10(-5) to 3.0 × 10(-3)M and 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4)M with detection limits 1.0 × 10(-5)M and 2.0 × 10(-8)M (for S/N=3) were obtained for ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively. Analytical utility of the modified electrode has been examined successfully using human urine samples and vitamin C commercial tablets. PMID:25492188

  5. Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Koehler, Birgit G.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Jordon, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    We determined the infrared optical constants of nitric acid trihydrate, nitric acid dihydrate, nitric acid monohydrate, and solid amorphous nitric acid solutions which crystallize to form these hydrates. We have also found the infrared optical constants of H2O ice. We measured the transmission of infrared light throught thin films of varying thickness over the frequency range from about 7000 to 500/cm at temperatures below 200 K. We developed a theory for the transmission of light through a substrate that has thin films on both sides. We used an iterative Kramers-Kronig technique to determine the optical constants which gave the best match between measured transmission spectra and those calculated for a variety of films of different thickness. These optical constants should be useful for calculations of the infrared spectrum of polar stratospheric clouds.

  6. Effects of acidic solutions on sexual reproduction of Pteridium aquilinum

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Conway, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of acidic solutions on spermatozoid motility and fertilization of gametophytes of Pteridium aquilinum. Buffered solutions (approx 0.0025 m) were used to simulate exposures to acidic precipitation for up to a 3.5 hr exposure. Experimental results suggest that the spermatozoid population can be subdivided into several groups with respect to pH sensitivity: About 25% spermatozoids are immobile one min after exposure to pH 6.1 buffer while about an equal percentage remain motile after 30 min exposure to buffer of pH 5.1. Between these two response extremes are two other subpopulations. One is quite sensitive to pH but shows some recovery if pH is between 5.6 and 6.1, while the second subpopulation does not seem to exhibit any motility recovery at all but is more resistant to acidity than the first subpopulation. To complement experiments that evaluate spermatozoid responses, experiments were performed to view the process of fertilization under controlled environmental conditions as well as under the canopy of a forest. Fertilization of gametophytes in uncovered petri dishes under a forest canopy was similar to results in aseptic culture after gametophytes were exposed to various pH levels and 86.6 micrometers sulfate. Fertilization at pH 4.5 and 3.6 was about one-half that occurring at pH 6.1. Fertilization in gametophytes exposed to pH 3.0 was about 10-20% of that occurring at pH 6.1. Addition of 86.6 micrometers sulfate decreased fertilization under all culture conditions. These experimental results suggest that fertilization in p. Aquilinum may be used as a bioindicator of contaminants in rainwater. The results demonstrate that spermatozoid motility (and the process of fertilization) is more acid sensitive than gametophytic and sporophytic tissues.

  7. Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. II - Five carbon acyclic primary beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino alkanoic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1985-01-01

    The five-carbon acyclic primary beta, gamma, and delta amino alkanoic acids of the Murchison meteorite are studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion exchange chromatography. The chromatograms reveal that alpha is the most abundant monoamino alkanoic acid followed by gamma and beta, and an exponential increase in the amount of amino acid is observed as the carbon number increases in the homologous series. The influence of frictional heating, spontaneous thermal decomposition, and radiation of the synthesis of amino acids is examined. The data obtained support an amino acid synthesis process involving random combination of single-carbon precursors.

  8. Black Carbon in Sedimentary Organic Carbon in the Northeast Pacific using the Benzene Polycarboxylic Acid Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, A. I.; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Druffel, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) in the Northeast Pacific ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (UDOM) was found to be surprisingly old with a 14C age of 18,000 +/-3,000 14C years (Ziolkowski and Druffel, 2010) using the Benzene Polycarboxylic Acid (BPCA) method, while BC in sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) was found to be 2,400-12,900 14C years older than non-BC SOC (Masiello and Druffel, 1998) with a different method. Using the dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation method (Wolbach and Anders, 1989), Masiello and Druffel (1998) estimated that 12-31% of SOC in the Northeast Pacific and the Southern Ocean surface sediments was black carbon (BC). However, the dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation may over-estimate the concentration of BC, because this method is more biased toward modern (char) material (Currie et al., 2002). Alternatively, the BPCA method isolates aromatic components of BC as benzene rings substituted with carboxylic acid groups, and provides structural information about the BC. Recent modifications to the BPCA method by Ziolkowski and Druffel (2009) involve few biases in quantifying BC in the continuum between char and soot in UDOM. Here we use the BPCA method to determine the concentrations and 14C values of BC in sediments from three sites in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Constraining the difference between non-BC SOC and BC-SOC using the BPCA method allows for a more precise estimate of how much BC is present in the sediments and its 14C age. Presumably, the intermediate reservoir of BC is oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and is, in part, responsible for DOC’s great 14C age. These results can be utilized to better constrain the oceanic carbon budget as a possible sink of BC. References: Currie, L. A., Benner Jr., B. A., Kessler, J.D., et al (2002), A critical evaluation of interlaboratory data on total, elemental, and isotopic carbon in the carbonaceous particle reference material, nist srm 1649a, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., 107, 279-298. Masiello, C., and E. R. Druffel (1988), Black carbon in deep-sea sediments, Science, 280, 1911-1913. Wolbach, W., and E. Anders (1989), Elemental carbon in sediments: Determination and isotopic analysis in presence of kerogen, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 1637-1647. Ziolkowski, L. A., and E. R. Druffel (2010), Aged black carbon identified in marine dissolved organic carbon, J. Geophys. Res., 37, L16601, doi: 10.1029/2010GL043963.

  9. Sorption of acid red 57 from aqueous solution onto sepiolite.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Mahir; Demirba?, Ozkan; Celikçapa, Sermet; Do?an, Mehmet

    2004-12-10

    Sepiolite, a highly porous mineral, is becoming widely used as an alternative material in areas where sorptive, catalytic and rheological applications are required. High ion exchange capacity and high surface area and more importantly its relatively cheap price make it an attractive adsorbent. In this study, the adsorption of acid red 57 by natural mesoporous sepiolite has been examined in order to measure the ability of this mineral to remove coloured textile dyes from wastewater. For this purpose, a series of batch adsorption tests of acid red 57 from aqueous sepiolite solutions have been systematically investigated as a function of parameters such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 1h. The removal of acid red 57 decreases with pH from 3 to 9 and temperature from 25 to 55 degrees C, whereas it increases with ionic strength from 0 to 0.5 mol L(-1). Adsorption isotherms of acid red on sepiolite were determined and correlated with common isotherm equations such as Langmuir and Freundlich models. It was found that the Langmuir model appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich model. The physical properties of this adsorbent were consistent with the parameters obtained from the isotherm equations. Approximately, 21.49% weight loss was observed. The surface area value of sepiolite was 342 m2 g(-1) at 105 degrees C, and it increased to 357 m2 g(-1) at 200 degrees C. Further increase in temperature caused channel plugging and crystal structure deformation, as a result the surface area values showed a decrease with temperature. The data obtained from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures have been used to calculate some thermodynamic quantities such as the Gibbs energy, heat and entropy of adsorption. The thermodynamic data indicate that acid red 57 adsorption onto sepiolite is characterized by physical adsorption. The dimensionless separation factor (RL) have shown that sepiolite can be used for removal of acid red 57 from aqueous solutions. The sorption capacity of the sepiolite is comparable to the other available adsorbents, and it is quite cheaper. PMID:15561372

  10. Poly(lactic acid)/Carbon Nanotube Fibers as Novel Platforms for Glucose Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the development and investigation of properties of new nanostructured architecture for biosensors applications. Highly porous nanocomposite fibers were developed for use as active materials in biosensors. The nanocomposites comprised poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fibers obtained via solution-blow spinning onto indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of nanocomposite-modified ITO electrodes were investigated toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. We investigated the effect of carbon nanotube concentration and the time deposition of fibers on the sensors properties, viz., sensitivity and limit of detection. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed that the nanocomposite-modified electrodes displayed enhanced activity in the electrochemical reduction of H2O2, which offers a number of attractive features to be explored in development of an amperometric biosensor. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was further immobilized by drop coating on an optimized ITO electrode covered by poly(lactic acid)/carbon nanotube nanofibrous mats. The optimum biosensor response was linear up to 800 mM of glucose with a sensitivity of 358 nA·mM?1 and a Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) of 4.3 mM. These results demonstrate that the solution blow spun nanocomposite fibers have great potential for application as amperometric biosensors due to their high surface to volume ratio, high porosity and permeability of the substrate. The latter features may significantly enhance the field of glucose biosensors. PMID:25585633

  11. The extraction of actinides from nitric acid solutions with diamides of dipicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapka, Joseph L.; Paulenova, Alena; Alyapyshev, Mikhail Yu; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott

    2010-03-01

    Diamides of dipicolinic acid (N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-ditolyl-dipicolinamide, EtTDPA) were synthesized and evaluated for their extraction capability for actinides. In this work the extractions of neptunium(V), protactinium(V), and thorium(IV) with EtTDPA in a polar fluorinated diluent from nitric acid were investigated. EtTDPA shows a high affinity for Th(IV) even at millimolar concentrations. Np(V) and Pa(V) are both reasonably extractable with EtTDPA; however, near saturated solutions are required to achieve appreciable distribution ratios. A comparison with previously published actinide extraction data is given.

  12. The Solubility Product of NaUO2PO4.xH2O Determined in Phosphate and Carbonate Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Xia, Yuanxian; Wang, Zheming

    2005-07-01

    The solubility product of NaUO2PO4.xH2O was determined in phosphate containing solutions at low pCH+ values in the absence of carbonate and at higher pCH+ values in the presence of carbonate. NaUO2PO4.xH2O exhibited very low solubilities (~10-7 M in U) over a broad range of hydrogen ion concentrations, NaNO3 concentrations and in the absence of added carbonate. Time Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) analysis of non-carbonate solutions outside of the acidic region revealed the presence of complex mixtures of aqueous U(VI) hydroxyl or phosphate species and uranium phosphate nanoparticles. The presence of the nanoparticles made it impossible to accurately calculate a solubility product for NaUO2PO4.xH2O in the absence of carbonate and at higher pCH+ values. Therefore in order to increase the concentration of U(VI) in solution and thereby verify the solubility product calculated from the most acidic samples, we systematically introduced know concentrations of carbonate, which resulted in the formation of U(VI) carbonate complexes. Development of an accurate aqueous thermodynamic model for the aqueous U(VI) carbonate complexes then allowed calculation of a solubility product for NaUO2PO4.xH2O in the higher pH samples which was in good agreement with the values for the more acidic samples.

  13. Deterministic modeling of the corrosion of a low-carbon steel by carbon dioxide and the effect of acetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Rosas-Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The current work is carried out with the aim of developing a deterministic model of the corrosion of low-carbon steel by carbon dioxide including the effect of acetic acid. The interaction of acetic acid with the corrosion-products layer is studied and the system is modelled by considering reactions and the transport processes within the boundary layer along with protective film

  14. EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM WITH DI-ISODECYL PHOSPHORIC ACID FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTION CONTAINING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuji Morita; Masumitsu Kubota

    1988-01-01

    Extraction of Np with di-isodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA) from HN03 solution containing H2O2> was studied from the aspect of the extraction mechanism and the enhancement of the extraction rate. Neptunium initially in the pentavalent oxidation state can be extracted into DIDPA even without any redox agents, but the extraction rate is rather slow. In the present work, H2O2 was found

  15. Experimental fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during degassing of carbon dioxide and precipitation of calcite from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, K.; Winde, V.; Escher, P.; von Geldern, R.; Böttcher, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    Processes in the carbonate system of surface waters are in particular sensitive to variations of boundary conditions as, for instance, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the aqueous solution. Examples range from streams, rivers, to coastal marine waters. The flux of carbon dioxide from continental flowing waters was recently included into calculations of the global carbon budget (Butman & Raymond, 2011, Nature Geo.). These solutions, are often supersaturated in carbon dioxide with respect to the atmosphere. The degassing of carbon dioxide is associated with a kinetically controlled fractionation of the stable carbon isotopes, which has to be considered in balancing water-air carbon dioxide fluxes. The degassing process additionally leads to the super-saturation of the aqueous solution with respect to calcium carbonate. Stable isotope fractionation is of particular value to identify and quantify processes at the water-gas phase interface and link these non-equilibrium processes to the formation mechanisms of calcite and the hydrodynamics of surface waters. Experiments were carried out with or without inert N2 gas flow to degas carbon dioxide from initially supersaturated solutions. Natural solutions used are from different stations of the Elbe estuary, the Jade Bay, the backbarrier tidal area of Spiekeroog Island, carbonate springs of Rügen Island, and the Baltic Sea coastline. Results are compared experiments using bottled mineral waters. By following the (physico) chemical changes in the solutions (pH, TA, Ca PHREEQC modeling) it was found, that two evolutionary stages can be differentiated. Reaction progress led to the preferential liberation of carbon dioxide containing the light carbon isotope, following a Rayleigh-type process. After an induction period, where only degassing of carbon dioxide took place, a second stage was observed where calcite began to form from the highly supersaturated solutions. In this stage the carbonate system of the solution was controlled by both, degassing and carbonate precipitation, still leading to an enrichment of the heavier carbon isotope in the residual DIC. The experimental results are evaluated for both periods, and the influence of salinity and pH is extracted. Acknowledgement: Parts of this study were supported by BMBF within the BIOACID project

  16. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-09-06

    Plutonium (IV) is only marginally soluble in alkaline solution. Precipitation of plutonium using sodium or potassium hydroxide to neutralize acidic solutions produces a gelatinous solid that is difficult to filter and an endpoint that is difficult to control. If the pH of the solution is too high, additional species precipitate producing an increased volume of solids separated. The use of magnesium oxide as a reagent has advantages. It is added as a solid (volume of liquid waste produced is minimized), the pH is self-limiting (pH does not exceed about 8.5), and the solids precipitated are more granular (larger particle size) than those produced using KOH or NaOH. Following precipitation, the raffinate is expected to meet criteria for disposal to tank farms. The solid will be heated in a furnace to dry it and convert any hydroxide salts to the oxide form. The material will be cooled in a desiccator. The material is expected to meet vault storage criteria.

  17. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of bacterial fatty acids in a seagrass dominated system

    E-print Network

    Jones, Walter Brian

    2001-01-01

    . The stable carbon isotope ratios ([ð]¹³C) of branched chain fatty acids, iso- and anteiso-15:0 (i&a15:0) found only in bacteria were used to assess carbon utilization. The [ð]¹³C of total organic carbon (TO¹³C) and the ubiquitous fatty acid 16:0 were used...

  18. Polyelectrolyte and carbon nanotube multilayers made from ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuya; Zhu, Jian; Qin, Ming; Ho, Szushen; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2010-10-01

    The inevitable contact of substrates with water during the traditional practice of layer-by-layer assembly (LBL) creates problems for multiple potential applications of LBL films in electronics. To resolve this issue, we demonstrate here the possibility of a LBL process using ionic liquids (ILs), which potentially eliminates corrosion and hydration processes related to aqueous media and opens additional possibilities in structural control of LBL films. ILs are also considered to be one of the best "green" processing solvents, and hence, are advantageous in respect to traditional organic solvents. Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS) were dispersed in a hydrophilic IL and successfully deposited in the LBL fashion. To produce electroactive thin films with significance to electronics, a similar process was realized for PSS-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-PSS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Characterization of the coating using standard spectroscopy and microscopy techniques typical of the multilayer field indicated that there are both similarities and differences in the structure and properties of LBL films build from ILs and aqueous solutions. The films exhibited electrical conductivity of 10(2) S m(-1) with transparency as high as 98% for visible light, which is comparable to similar parameters for many carbon nanotube and graphene films prepared by both aqueous LBL and other methods. PMID:20931147

  19. Electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with ?-solanine and ?-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 ?M to 28 ?M and the detection limit was 0.3 ?M. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors. PMID:24287539

  20. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with ?-solanine and ?-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 ?M to 28 ?M and the detection limit was 0.3 ?M. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors. PMID:24287539

  1. Advanced oxidation (H2O2 and/or UV) of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT-OH and CNT-COOH) and its influence on the stabilization of CNTs in water and tannic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Czech, Bo?ena; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Wi?cek, Agnieszka

    2015-05-01

    The properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with -OH and -COOH groups during simulated water treatment with H2O2 and/or UV were tested. There following properties of CNTs were investigated: specific surface area, elemental composition (CHN), dynamic light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and changes in the CNTs structure were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of CNTs with H2O2 and/or UV affected their properties. This effect, however, was different depending on the functionalization of CNTs and also on the factor used (UV and/or H2O2). H2O2 plays a key role as a factor modifying the surface of CNT-OHs, whereas the properties of CNT-COOHs were most affected by UV rays. A shortening of the nanotubes, exfoliation, the opening of their ends, and changes in the surface charge were observed as a result of the action of UV and/or H2O2. The changes in observed parameters may influence the stability of the aqueous suspensions of CNTs. PMID:25734505

  2. Carbon Footprint of Telemedicine Solutions - Unexplored Opportunity for Reducing Carbon Emissions in the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Holmner, Åsa; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The healthcare sector is a significant contributor to global carbon emissions, in part due to extensive travelling by patients and health workers. Objectives To evaluate the potential of telemedicine services based on videoconferencing technology to reduce travelling and thus carbon emissions in the healthcare sector. Methods A life cycle inventory was performed to evaluate the carbon reduction potential of telemedicine activities beyond a reduction in travel related emissions. The study included two rehabilitation units at Umeå University Hospital in Sweden. Carbon emissions generated during telemedicine appointments were compared with care-as-usual scenarios. Upper and lower bound emissions scenarios were created based on different teleconferencing solutions and thresholds for when telemedicine becomes favorable were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to pinpoint the most important contributors to emissions for different set-ups and use cases. Results Replacing physical visits with telemedicine appointments resulted in a significant 40–70 times decrease in carbon emissions. Factors such as meeting duration, bandwidth and use rates influence emissions to various extents. According to the lower bound scenario, telemedicine becomes a greener choice at a distance of a few kilometers when the alternative is transport by car. Conclusions Telemedicine is a potent carbon reduction strategy in the health sector. But to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation, a paradigm shift might be required where telemedicine is regarded as an essential component of ordinary health care activities and not only considered to be a service to the few who lack access to care due to geography, isolation or other constraints. PMID:25188322

  3. Carbon isotope fractionation in phospholipid fatty acid biomarkers of bacteria and fungi native to an acid mine drainage lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin R. Cowie; Gregory F. Slater; Luc Bernier; Lesley A. Warren

    2009-01-01

    This study identifies isotope signatures associated with autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial communities that may provide a means to determine carbon cycling relationships in situ for acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) of carbon sources, bulk cells, and membrane phospholipids (PLFA) were measured for autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial enrichment cultures from a mine tailings impoundment in northern

  4. Shear-thickening flow of suspensions of carbon nanofibers in aqueous PVA solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasufumi Otsubo; Masahito Fujiwara; Masahiro Kouno; Kazuya Edamura

    2007-01-01

    The suspensions of carbon nanofibers in aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions were prepared in the presence of spherical carbon\\u000a black particles, and the steady-shear viscosity and dynamic viscoelasticity were measured for complex suspensions. Although\\u000a the single suspensions of carbon black are highly stable, the flocculation of carbon nanofibers is promoted by the addition\\u000a of carbon black particles. The complex suspensions show

  5. Bias-dependent amino-acid-induced conductance changes in short semi-metallic carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Bias-dependent amino-acid-induced conductance changes in short semi-metallic carbon nanotubes G the interaction between short semi-metallic carbon nanotubes and different amino acids using molecular dynamics different mechanisms of nanotube-conductance-change upon adsorption of amino acids: one due to the change

  6. Isotopic fractionations associated with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonate minerals: Insights from first-principles theoretical

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Isotopic fractionations associated with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonate minerals: Insights 27 May 2009; available online 23 June 2009 Abstract Phosphoric acid digestion has been used with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates at 25 °C are 10.72&, 0.220&, 0.137&, 0.593& for, respectively, 18 O

  7. Modeling of Water-rock interaction in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids

    E-print Network

    sulfuric and carbonic acids E. Beaulieu, Y. Godd´eris, D. Labat, C. Roelandt, D. Calmels, J. Gail- lardet in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids. E. Beaulieu1 , Y. Goddéris1 , D. Labat1, a simulation is performed removing the contribution of sulfuric acid to the weathering system. The main

  8. Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Methanol in Sulfuric Acid Solutions Measured by Raman Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Methanol in Sulfuric Acid Solutions Measured by Raman % sulfuric acid solutions was followed using Raman spectroscopy. Because methanol reacts to form protonated that the speciation of both methanol and sulfuric acid may be important in determining these transport coefficients

  9. UPTAKE OF SHORT-CHAIN ALCOHOLS BY SULFURIC ACID SOLUTIONS USING RAMAN AND VIBRATIONAL SUM FREQUENCY

    E-print Network

    UPTAKE OF SHORT-CHAIN ALCOHOLS BY SULFURIC ACID SOLUTIONS USING RAMAN AND VIBRATIONAL SUM FREQUENCY-liquid interface of 0 to 96.5 wt% sulfuric acid (SA) solutions has been observed directly using vibrational sum in either the neat methanol or concentrated sulfuric acid spectra. This peak is attributed to the singly

  10. Elevated carbon dioxide increases salicylic acid in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Segal, Lauren M; Niziolek, Olivia K; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) are increasing in the atmosphere, affecting soybean (Glycine max L.) phytohormone signaling and herbivore resistance. Whether the impact of elevated CO(2) on phytohormones and induced defenses is a generalized response within this species is an open question. We examined jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) under ambient and elevated CO(2) concentrations with and without Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) damage and artificial damage across six soybean cultivars (HS93-4118, Pana, IA 3010, Loda, LN97-15076, and Dwight). Elevated CO(2) reduced constitutive levels of JA and related transcripts in some but not all soybean cultivars. In contrast to the variation in JA, constitutive levels of salicylic were increased universally among soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO(2). Variation in hormonal signaling may underpin observed variation in the response of insect herbivores and pathogens to plants grown under elevated CO(2). PMID:23321090

  11. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 °C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. At 25 °C, for 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 11 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2.5 g/L and 0.8 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd in 4 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate at 10 °C is about 1.5 g/L. For 6 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate, the solubility of Gd at 10 °C is about 10 g/L. Gadolinium nitrate is very soluble in HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd is linear as a function of HNO{sub 3} from 343 g/L Gd in 2.88 M HNO{sub 3} to 149 g/L in 8.16 M HNO{sub 3}. Below 2.88 M HNO{sub 3}, the solubility of Gd approaches a limit of about 360 g/L. However, there are no data available below 1.40 M HNO{sub 3}, which has a Gd solubility of 353 g/L.

  12. Surface activated carbon nanospheres for fast adsorption of silver ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Song, Xianghua; Gunawan, Poernomo; Jiang, Rongrong; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Wang, Kean; Xu, Rong

    2011-10-30

    We report the synthesis and activation of colloidal carbon nanospheres (CNS) for adsorption of Ag(I) ions from aqueous solutions. CNS (400-500 nm in diameter) was synthesized via simple hydrothermal treatment of glucose solution. The surface of nonporous CNS after being activated by NaOH was enriched with -OH and -COO(-) functional groups. Despite the low surface area (<15m(2)/g), the activated CNS exhibited a high adsorption capacity of 152 mg silver/g. Under batch conditions, all Ag(I) ions can be completely adsorbed in less than 6 min with the initial Ag(I) concentrations lower than 2 ppm. This can be attributed to the minimum mass transfer resistance as Ag(I) ions were all deposited and reduced as Ag(0) nanoparticles on the external surface of CNS. The kinetic data can be well fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorbed silver can be easily recovered by dilute acid solutions and the CNS can be reactivated by the same treatment with NaOH solution. The excellent adsorption performance and reusability have also been demonstrated in a continuous mode. The NaOH activated CNS reported here could represent a new type of low-cost and efficient adsorbent nanomaterials for removal of trace Ag(I) ions for drinking water production. PMID:21862215

  13. Electrochemical investigation of copper deposition onto silicon from hydrofluoric acid and buffered hydrofluoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangming

    For the fabrication of ULSI circuits, the silicon surface should be free of metallic and particulate contamination and be atomically smooth. Heavy metal contaminants have detrimental effects on the yield of microelectronic processing and reliability of solid state devices by increasing the junction leakage current, degrading the integrity of gate oxide and reducing the oxide breakdown voltage. It has been demonstrated that the contamination level for most metals has to be controlled below 10sp{10} atoms/cmsp2 for sub-quarter micron processing. Some transition and noble metal ions such as copper, silver and gold are known to deposit on silicon surfaces in acidic fluoride based solutions. Among them, copper has been the focus of most research due to the widespread use of copper in microelectronic industry. To investigate the mechanisms by which copper deposits on silicon surfaces in HF and BHF solutions, different electrochemical techniques were used, including dc polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of electrochemical measurements, in conjunction with various surface characterization techniques, such as TXRF, AFM and TEM, reveal the rates of reactions that occur at silicon/solution interface can be affected by many factors, such as silicon dopant type and doping levels, ionic strength of electrolytes, illumination conditions and the use of additives. For example, under darkness, the amount of copper deposition is nearly one order of magnitude less than that under illumination for p-type silicon in both HF and BHF solutions and n-type silicon in HF solutions. In BHF solutions, n-type silicon is very close to its flat band condition where illumination plays little role. The addition of copper ions in BHF solutions not only causes metal contamination, but also generates severe surface roughness due to the masking effect of copper on the anisotropic etching of silicon in BHF solutions. Local etching rate of 1nm/min was measured on the silicon sample prepared in 100 ppb Cusp{2+} BHF solutions. Some additives such as surfactants and hydrochloric acid can effectively reduce the reaction rates of silicon corrosion and copper deposition by either blocking the active reaction sites or form copper ion complexes.

  14. Acid–base equilibrium in aqueous solutions of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid as studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gryff-Keller; A. Kraska-Dziadecka

    13C NMR spectra of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid in aqueous solutions of various acidities and for various solute concentrations have been recorded and interpreted. The spectra recorded at pH=2 and below contain the signals of the neutral solute molecule exclusively, while the ones recorded at pH=7 and above only the signals of the appropriate anion, which has been confirmed by theoretical GIAO-DFT

  15. The Effect of Temperature and Acid Concentration on Corrosion of Low Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anees A. Khadom; Aprael S. Yaro; Abdul Amir; H. Kadum; Ahmed S. AlTaie

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The effect of different temperatures and acid conc entrations on the corrosion of low carbon steel in hydrochloric acid were addressed in this study. Approach: The effect of temperature was explained by application of Arrhenius equation and transition state theory, while the acid concentration effect was explained u sing reaction kinetic equations. The combined effect of temperature and

  16. Polyelectrolyte and carbon nanotube multilayers made from ionic liquid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Takuya; Zhu, Jian; Qin, Ming; Ho, Szushen; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2010-10-01

    The inevitable contact of substrates with water during the traditional practice of layer-by-layer assembly (LBL) creates problems for multiple potential applications of LBL films in electronics. To resolve this issue, we demonstrate here the possibility of a LBL process using ionic liquids (ILs), which potentially eliminates corrosion and hydration processes related to aqueous media and opens additional possibilities in structural control of LBL films. ILs are also considered to be one of the best ``green'' processing solvents, and hence, are advantageous in respect to traditional organic solvents. Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS) were dispersed in a hydrophilic IL and successfully deposited in the LBL fashion. To produce electroactive thin films with significance to electronics, a similar process was realized for PSS-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-PSS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Characterization of the coating using standard spectroscopy and microscopy techniques typical of the multilayer field indicated that there are both similarities and differences in the structure and properties of LBL films build from ILs and aqueous solutions. The films exhibited electrical conductivity of 102 S m-1 with transparency as high as 98% for visible light, which is comparable to similar parameters for many carbon nanotube and graphene films prepared by both aqueous LBL and other methods.The inevitable contact of substrates with water during the traditional practice of layer-by-layer assembly (LBL) creates problems for multiple potential applications of LBL films in electronics. To resolve this issue, we demonstrate here the possibility of a LBL process using ionic liquids (ILs), which potentially eliminates corrosion and hydration processes related to aqueous media and opens additional possibilities in structural control of LBL films. ILs are also considered to be one of the best ``green'' processing solvents, and hence, are advantageous in respect to traditional organic solvents. Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS) were dispersed in a hydrophilic IL and successfully deposited in the LBL fashion. To produce electroactive thin films with significance to electronics, a similar process was realized for PSS-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-PSS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Characterization of the coating using standard spectroscopy and microscopy techniques typical of the multilayer field indicated that there are both similarities and differences in the structure and properties of LBL films build from ILs and aqueous solutions. The films exhibited electrical conductivity of 102 S m-1 with transparency as high as 98% for visible light, which is comparable to similar parameters for many carbon nanotube and graphene films prepared by both aqueous LBL and other methods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Aggregation of PEI and PSS in [EMIm][EtSO4], detailed FTIR data, water-contact angle for (PEI/PSS)10 multilayers, and XPS survey spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00333a

  17. Comparison of peak shape in hydrophilic interaction chromatography using acidic salt buffers and simple acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Heaton, James C; Russell, Joseph J; Underwood, Tim; Boughtflower, Robert; McCalley, David V

    2014-06-20

    The retention and peak shape of neutral, basic and acidic solutes was studied on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases that showed both strong and weak ionic retention characteristics, using aqueous-acetonitrile mobile phases containing either formic acid (FA), ammonium formate (AF) or phosphoric acid (PA). The effect of organic solvent concentration on the results was also studied. Peak shape was good for neutrals under most mobile phase conditions. However, peak shapes for ionised solutes, particularly for basic compounds, were considerably worse in FA than AF. Even neutral compounds showed deterioration in performance with FA when the mobile phase water concentration was reduced. The poor performance in FA cannot be entirely attributed to the negative impact of ionic retention on ionised silanols on the underlying silica base materials, as results using PA at lower pH (where their ionisation is suppressed) were inferior to those in AF. Besides the moderating influence of the salt cation on ionic retention, it is likely that salt buffers improve peak shape due to the increased ionic strength of the mobile phase and its impact on the formation of the water layer on the column surface. PMID:24813934

  18. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  19. Release of nitrous acid and nitrogen dioxide from nitrate photolysis in acidic aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Scharko, Nicole K; Berke, Andrew E; Raff, Jonathan D

    2014-10-21

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) is an abundant component of aerosols, boundary layer surface films, and surface water. Photolysis of NO3(-) leads to NO2 and HONO, both of which play important roles in tropospheric ozone and OH production. Field and laboratory studies suggest that NO3¯ photochemistry is a more important source of HONO than once thought, although a mechanistic understanding of the variables controlling this process is lacking. We present results of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy measurements of NO2 and HONO emitted during photodegradation of aqueous NO3(-) under acidic conditions. Nitrous acid is formed in higher quantities at pH 2-4 than expected based on consideration of primary photochemical channels alone. Both experimental and modeled results indicate that the additional HONO is not due to enhanced NO3(-) absorption cross sections or effective quantum yields, but rather to secondary reactions of NO2 in solution. We find that NO2 is more efficiently hydrolyzed in solution when it is generated in situ during NO3(-) photolysis than for the heterogeneous system where mass transfer of gaseous NO2 into bulk solution is prohibitively slow. The presence of nonchromophoric OH scavengers that are naturally present in the environment increases HONO production 4-fold, and therefore play an important role in enhancing daytime HONO formation from NO3(-) photochemistry. PMID:25271384

  20. Effects of intravenous solutions on acid-base equilibrium: from crystalloids to colloids and blood components.

    PubMed

    Langer, Thomas; Ferrari, Michele; Zazzeron, Luca; Gattinoni, Luciano; Caironi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous fluid administration is a medical intervention performed worldwide on a daily basis. Nevertheless, only a few physicians are aware of the characteristics of intravenous fluids and their possible effects on plasma acid-base equilibrium. According to Stewart's theory, pH is independently regulated by three variables: partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strong ion difference (SID), and total amount of weak acids (ATOT). When fluids are infused, plasma SID and ATOT tend toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid. Depending on their composition, fluids can therefore lower, increase, or leave pH unchanged. As a general rule, crystalloids having a SID greater than plasma bicarbonate concentration (HCO?-) cause an increase in plasma pH (alkalosis), those having a SID lower than HCO?- cause a decrease in plasma pH (acidosis), while crystalloids with a SID equal to HCO?- leave pH unchanged, regardless of the extent of the dilution. Colloids and blood components are composed of a crystalloid solution as solvent, and the abovementioned rules partially hold true also for these fluids. The scenario is however complicated by the possible presence of weak anions (albumin, phosphates and gelatins) and their effect on plasma pH. The present manuscript summarises the characteristics of crystalloids, colloids, buffer solutions and blood components and reviews their effect on acid-base equilibrium. Understanding the composition of intravenous fluids, along with the application of simple physicochemical rules best described by Stewart's approach, are pivotal steps to fully elucidate and predict alterations of plasma acid-base equilibrium induced by fluid therapy. PMID:25432555

  1. Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. I - Six carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Gandy, W. E.; Pizzarello, S.

    1981-01-01

    Six of the seven chain isomers of six-carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids (leucine isomers) have been either identified or confirmed in hot-water extracts of the Murchison meteorite using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion exchange chromatography. 2-Amino-2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutyric acid, pseudoleucine, and 2-methylnorvaline were positively identified by GC-MS. These amino acids have not been previously reported to occur in natural materials and may be uniquely meteoritic in origin. The presence of leucine and isoleucine (including the diastereoisomer, alloisoleucine) was confirmed. Peaks corresponding to norleucine were seen by ion-exchange and gas chromatography but characteristic mass spectra were not obtained. The alpha-branched chain isomers in this series are quantitatively the most significant. These results are compared with literature data on amino acid synthesis by electrical discharge and Fischer-Tropsch-type catalysis. Neither model system produces an amino acid suite that is completely comparable to that found in the Murchison meteorite.

  2. Modeling of dissolution patterns for carbonate acidizing in the porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Fereshteh; Esmaeilzadeh, Feridun; Mowla, Dariush

    2012-05-01

    Matrix acidizing is a common technique to stimulate wells for improving well inflow performance. In this treatment that is widely used in the oil industry, acid solution is injected into the formation to dissolve some minerals to increase permeability of carbonate near the wellbore. The aim of the treatment is to create empty channels called wormholes. Wormholing in carbonate rocks is a complex 3-D phenomenon. Matrix acidizing generally should be applied when a well has a high skin factor that cannot be attributed to partial penetration, perforation efficiency or other mechanical aspects of the completion. Obviously, it is of extreme importance to quantify the skin factor to evaluate the effectiveness of stimulation treatments. When wormholes extend beyond the damaged zone or connect with natural fissures in the formation, a negative skin effect is obtained. An ideal matrix treatment restores the permeability in the near wellbore region to a value at least as high as the original undamaged permeability; it accomplishes this over the entire completed interval and it leaves the formation in the treated region with high relative permeability to the oil and/or gas phase. Designing a treatment should strive to achieve this ideal at the lowest possible cost, which requires consideration of the many physical and chemical interactions taking place between the injected fluids and the reservoir minerals and fluids. In this work, a threescale continuum model is used to model reactive dissolution of carbonate rocks in radial flow. Both the Darcy and pore scale physics such as mass transfer of acid molecules to the mineral surface and subsequent reaction at the surface, changing pore structure and variations in reservoir permeability are included in this model. Partial differential equations obtained from the model, have been solved by numerical method. The influence of reservoir temperature on optimum injection rate is investigated. Results show that optimum injection rate increases with temperature.

  3. Differential effects of insulin signaling on individual carbon fluxes for fatty acid synthesis in brown adipocytes

    E-print Network

    Yoo, Hyuntae

    Considering the major role of insulin signaling on fatty acid synthesis via stimulation of lipogenic enzymes, differential effects of insulin signaling on individual carbon fluxes for fatty acid synthesis have been ...

  4. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol headgroup [5]. In this study we would like to go one step further and look into the effect of a more complex organic compound, CA. We used ambient pressure XPS on a vacuum liquid microjet. The continuously refreshed free-flowing aqueous filament under vacuum permits photoelectron spectroscopy measurements from volatile aqueous interfaces in absence of beam damage [6]. Measurements were made at the SIM beam line of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The ability to tune the photon energy (150-2000 eV) is crucial to get precise component ratios as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy and thus probe depth, thus allowing to determine relative concentrations of citric acid and bromide at the surface and in the bulk, respectively. REFERENCES [1] Clifford and Donaldson, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 9809-9814, (2007). [2] Oldridge and Abbatt, J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 2590-2598, (2011). [3] S. Ghosal et al., Science 307, 563 (2005). [4] M.A. Brown et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 4778 (2008). [5] M. Krisch et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13497 (2007). [6] M.A. Brown et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 231 (2012).

  5. Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solution onto carbon prepared from Arundo donax root

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Zhang; Yan Li; Chenglu Zhang; Yuming Jing

    2008-01-01

    Arundo donax root carbon (ADRC), a new adsorbent, was prepared from Arundo donax root by carbonization. The surface area of the adsorbent was determined 158m2\\/g by N2 adsorption isotherm. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution using ADRC as adsorbent. The effects of various parameters such as solution pH (3–10), carbon

  6. Uptake of Hypobromous Acid (HOBr) by Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions: Low-Temperature Solubility and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Ashbourn, Samatha F. M.; Rammer, Thomas A.; Golden, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species linking inorganic bromine to the chlorine and odd hydrogen chemical families. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, with an effective Henry's law coefficient, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol/L/atm. H* is inversely dependent on temperature, with Delta H = -46.2 kJ/mol and Delta S = -106.2 J/mol/K for 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions. Our study includes temperatures which overlap both previous measurements of HOBr solubility. For uptake into aqueous 45 wt% H2SO4, the solubility can be described by log H* = 3665/T - 10.63. For 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4, log H* = 2412/T - 5.55. At temperatures colder than approx. 213 K, the solubility of HOBr in 45 wt% H2SO4 is noticeably larger than in 70 wt% H2SO4. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols should contain equilibrium concentrations of HOBr which equal or exceed those of HBr. Our measurements indicate chemical reaction of HOBr upon uptake into aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases followed by evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2, particularly at 70 wt% H2SO4.

  7. Organic compounds in olive mill wastewater and in solutions resulting from hydrothermal carbonization of the wastewater.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Baskyr, I

    2013-09-01

    Organic components in olive mill wastewater (OMW) were analyzed by exhaustive solvent extraction of the lyophilisate followed by pre-chromatographic derivatization techniques and GC/MS-analysis of the extracts. Simple biophenols including tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (OH-Tyr) and homovanillic alcohol as well as complex biophenols including decarbomethoxy ligostride aglycon and decarbomethoxy oleuropein aglycon proved most abundant analytes. Hydroxylated benzoic and cinnamic acids are less abundant, which may indicate a humification process to have occurred. The pattern of organic components obtained from native OMW was compared with that obtained from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of the waste product. Former results provided strong evidence that HTC of OMW at 220°C for 14h results in an almost complete hydrolysis of complex aglycons. However, simple biophenols were not decomposed on hydrothermal treatment any further. Phenol and benzenediols as well as low molecular weight organic acids proved most abundant analytes which were generated due to HTC. Similarly to aglycons, lipids including most abundant acylglycerines and less abundant wax esters were subjected almost quantitatively to hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions. Fatty acids (FAs) released from lipids were further decomposed. The pathways of volatile analytes in both native OMW and aqueous HTC solutions were studied by solventless headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extraction. Basically, a wide array low molecular alcohols and ketones occurring in native OMW survived the HTC process. PMID:23648325

  8. Water-soluble organic carbon, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, and ?-dicarbonyls in the tropical Indian aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandra Mouli Pavuluri; Kimitaka Kawamura; T. Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    Tropical aerosol (PM10) samples (n = 49) collected from southeast coast of India were studied for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2–C12), ketocarboxylic acids (C2–C9), and ?-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal), together with analyses of total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Their distributions were characterized by a predominance of oxalic acid followed by terephthalic (t-Ph), malonic, and succinic acids. Total concentrations

  9. Large-scale production of anhydrous nitric acid and nitric acid solutions of dinitrogen pentoxide

    DOEpatents

    Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Quong, Roland (Oakland, CA); Rigdon, Lester P. (Livermore, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for a large scale, electrochemical production of anhydrous nitric acid and N.sub.2 O.sub.5. The method includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous-HNO.sub.3 at the anode, while reducing aqueous HNO.sub.3 at the cathode, in a flow electrolyzer constructed of special materials. N.sub.2 O.sub.4 is produced at the cathode and may be separated and recycled as a feedstock for use in the anolyte. The process is controlled by regulating the electrolysis current until the desired products are obtained. The chemical compositions of the anolyte and catholyte are monitored by measurement of the solution density and the concentrations of N.sub.2 O.sub.4.

  10. Poly(carbonate ester)s Based on Units of 6-Hydroxyhexanoic Acid and Glycerol

    E-print Network

    (trimethylene carbon- ate), and most notably poly(glycolic acid) and poly(lactic acid), have met wide acceptance or succinic acids have also been reported.20 Poly( -caprolactone) is one polymer that has been used widely- lactone) is because of its slow degradation rate which does not create acidic microenvironments like poly(glycolic

  11. Modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with tannic acid for the adsorption of La, Tb and Lu ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanshan Tong; Shujie Zhao; Weihong Zhou; Ruigang Li; Qiong Jia

    We have prepared an environmental friendly sorbent by modifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes with tannic acid. The adsorption\\u000a of La (III), Tb (III) and Lu (III) as a function of contact time, initial solution pH, and quantity of adsorbent was studied\\u000a using a batch technique. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms can be used to describe the process. The major adsorption\\u000a mechanisms

  12. Effects of various acidic and alkaline solutions used to dissolve urinary calculi on the rabbit urothelium.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, T; Erol, K; Gürer, F; Bayçu, C; Açikalin, E; Cingi, M I

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that infection-induced stones (apatite, struvite), uric acid and cystine calculi in the urinary tract can be managed by the use of certain chemical solutions. We investigated the effects of various acidic and alkaline solutions on the rabbit urothelium. Acidic solutions (pH: 4.2) caused more urothelial injury as compared to alkaline solutions (pH: 7.6). Ureteral injury was more severe than the bladder injury. Magnesium-containing solutions caused less injury to the urothelium. PMID:2219567

  13. Activated carbon enhanced ozonation of oxalate attributed to HO oxidation in bulk solution and surface oxidation: effect of activated carbon dosage and pH.

    PubMed

    Xing, Linlin; Xie, Yongbing; Minakata, Daisuke; Cao, Hongbin; Xiao, Jiadong; Zhang, Yi; Crittenden, John C

    2014-10-01

    Ozonation of oxalate in aqueous phase was performed with a commercial activated carbon (AC) in this work. The effect of AC dosage and solution pH on the contribution of hydroxyl radicals (HO) in bulk solution and oxidation on the AC surface to the removal of oxalate was studied. We found that the removal of oxalate was reduced by tert-butyl alcohol (tBA) with low dosages of AC, while it was hardly affected by tBA when the AC dosage was greater than 0.3g/L. tBA also inhibited ozone decomposition when the AC dosage was no more than 0.05g/L, but it did not work when the AC dosage was no less than 0.1g/L. These observations indicate that HO in bulk solution and oxidation on the AC surface both contribute to the removal of oxalate. HO oxidation in bulk solution is significant when the dosage of AC is low, whereas surface oxidation is dominant when the dosage of AC is high. The oxalate removal decreased with increasing pH of the solution with an AC dosage of 0.5g/L. The degradation of oxalate occurs mainly through surface oxidation in acid and neutral solution, but through HO oxidation in basic bulk solution. A mechanism involving both HO oxidation in bulk solution and surface oxidation was proposed for AC enhanced ozonation of oxalate. PMID:25288554

  14. REMOVAL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE, AMMONIA AND NITRITE IONS FROM WATER SOLUTIONS USING MODIFIED ACTIVE CARBONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. LUPASCU; RAISA NASTAS; M. CIOBANU; TATIANA ARAPU; V. RUSU

    Modified active carbons were used for removal of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and nitrite ions from water solutions. Obtained\\u000a results demonstrate that active carbon oxidized with H2O2 following impregnation with Co(II) possesses higher adsorption capacity for NH4\\u000a + compared with unimpregnated samples. It was established that active carbon obtained from nut shells has better oxidation\\u000a properties compared with active carbons obtained

  15. Carbonic Acid by Ion Implantation in Water_solarCarbon Dioxide Ice Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, J. R.; Palumbo, M. E.; Strazzulla, G.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of experiments performed by keV ion (He and H) bombardment of frozen mixtures of H 2O:CO 2and of pure CO 2ice. Using keV He ions we confirm the already reported measurement of carbonic acid (H 2CO 3) production in an ice mixture of frozen water and carbon dioxide (1:1) after irradiation by 0.7 MeV H ions (Moore, M. H., and R. K. Khanna 1991. Spectrochim. Acta47, 255-262; Moore, M. H., R. K. Khanna, and B. Donn 1991. J. Geophys. Res. E96(2), 17,541-17,545.). Contrary to a previous report (Pirronello, V., W. L. Brown, L. J. Lanzerotti, K. J. Marcantonio, and E. H. Simmons 1982. Astrophys. J.262, 636-640.), formaldehyde (H 2CO), if any, is not a major product. Implantation with hydrogen ions demonstrates that carbonic acid is formed even if the irradiated target is pure CO 2; i.e., the implanted ion is incorporated into the target and forms new bonds. Some possible astrophysical applications on Solar System objects or (pre-solar) interstellar grains are discussed.

  16. Raman spectroscopic study of the conformation of dicarboxylic acid salts in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kunio; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Umemura, Matome

    1986-08-01

    It is already known that the molecules of long chain monocarboxylic acid salts have a tendency to form micelles in aqueous solutions, the molecular chain taking the all- trans zigzag structure. However it is considered difficult for dicarboxylic acid salts to adopt the same structure as the monocarboxylic acid salts as they have two carboxyl groups, one on each end of the molecular chain. Therefore, a special structure is expected to exist for dicarboxylic acid salts in aqueous solution. In order to examine this, Raman spectra of suberic acid salt and azelaic acid salt in aqueous solution were measured and the normal vibrational calculation carried out, showing that dicarboxylic acid salts have a helical structure in aqueous solution.

  17. On the black carbon problem and its solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) warms air temperatures in at least seven major ways: (a) directly absorbing downward solar radiation, (b) absorbing upward reflected solar radiation when it is situated above bright surfaces, such as snow, sea ice, and clouds, (c) absorbing some infrared radiation, (d) absorbing additional solar and infrared radiation upon obtaining a coating, (e) absorbing radiation multiply reflected within clouds when situated interstitially between cloud drops, (f) absorbing additional radiation when serving as CCN or scavenged inclusions within cloud drops, and (g) absorbing solar radiation when deposited on snow and sea ice, reducing the albedos of both. Modeling of the climate effects of BC requires treatment of all these processes in detail. In particular, treatment of BC absorption interstitially between cloud drops and from multiply-dispersed cloud drop BC inclusions must be treated simultaneously with treatment of cloud indirect effects to determine the net effects of BC on cloud properties. Here, results from several simulations of the effects of BC from fossil fuel and biofuel sources on global and regional climate and air pollution health are summarized. The simulations account for all the processes mentioned. Results are found to be statistically significant relative to chaotic variability in the climate system. Over time and in steady state, fossil-fuel soot plus biofuel soot are found to enhance warming more than methane. The sum of the soots causes less steady-state warming but more short term warming than does carbon dioxide. Thus eliminating soot emissions from both sources may be the fastest method of reducing rapid climate warming and possibly the only method of saving the Arctic ice. Eliminating such emissions may also reduce over 1.5 million deaths worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Short term mitigation options include the targeting of fossil-fuel and biofuel BC sources with particle traps, new stove technologies, and rural electrification. However, the real solution, to be implemented over a 20-40 year period is complete conversion of the combustion infrastructure to electricity and electrolytic hydrogen, where the electricity is all produced by near-zero emitting wind, water, and solar (WWS) based energy technologies. Such a conversion would reduce BC and greenhouse gases simultaneously with cooling aerosol particles. This would ramp down the presence of both warming and cooling agents, but still cause net reduction of global warming, while reducing devastating health impacts that are occurring from both warming and cooling aerosols.

  18. Starch saccharification by carbon-based solid acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Daizo; Hara, Michikazu

    2010-06-01

    The hydrolysis of cornstarch using a highly active solid acid catalyst, a carbon material bearing SO 3H, COOH and OH groups, was investigated at 353-393 K through an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an artificial neural network (ANN). ANOVA revealed that reaction temperature and time are significant parameters for the catalytic hydrolysis of starch. The ANN model indicated that the reaction efficiency reaches a maximum at an optimal condition (water, 0.8-1.0 mL; starch, 0.3-0.4 g; catalyst, 0.3 g; reaction temperature, 373 K; reaction time, 3 h). The relationship between the reaction and these parameters is discussed on the basis of the reaction mechanism.

  19. Habit modification of calcium carbonate in the presence of malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Zhaofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Huang Jianhua [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)], E-mail: jhhuang@zstu.edu.cn

    2007-02-15

    The ability of malic acid to control calcium carbonate morphology has been investigated by aging calcium chloride solution in the presence of urea in a 90 deg. C bath. Malic acid favors the formation of calcite. A transition from single block to aggregate with special morphology occurs upon increasing malic acid concentration. The morphological development of CaCO{sub 3} crystal obviously depends on the starting pH. CaCO{sub 3} crystal grows from spindle seed to dumbbell in the pH regime from 7 to 11; while it evolves from spindle seed, through peanut, to sphere at pH=11.5. Both dumbbell and sphere consist of rods that are elongated along c-axis and capped with three smooth, well-defined rhombic {l_brace}1 0 4{r_brace} faces. A tentative growth mechanism is proposed based on the fractal model suggested by R. Kniep and S. Busch [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 35 (1996) 2624]. - Graphical abstract: Dumbbell-like CaCO{sub 3} particles obtained in the presence of malic acid.

  20. Hydrothermal Carbonization: a feasible solution to convert biomass to soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesch, Walter; Tesch, Petra; Pfeifer, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    The erosion of fertile soil is a severe problem arising right after peak oil (Myers 1996). That this issue is not only a problem of arid countries is shown by the fact that even the European Commission defined certain milestones to address the problem of soil erosion in Europe (European Commission 2011). The application of bio-char produced by torrefaction or pyrolysis for the remediation, revegetation and restoration of depleted soils started to gain momentum recently (Rillig 2010, Lehmann 2011, Beesley 2011). Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a promising thermo-chemical process that can be applied to convert organic feedstock into fertile soil and water, two resources which are of high value in regions being vulnerable to erosion. The great advantage of HTC is that organic feedstock (e.g. organic waste) can be used without any special pretreatment (e.g. drying) and so far no restrictions have been found regarding the composition of the organic matter. By applying HTC the organic material is processed along a defined pathway in the Van Krevelen plot (Behrendt 2006). By stopping the process at an early stage a nutritious rich material can be obtained, which is known to be similar to terra preta. Considering that HTC-coal is rich in functional groups and can be derived from the process under "wet" conditions, it can be expected that it shall allow soil bacteria to settle more easily compared to the bio-char derived by torrefaction or pyrolysis. In addition, up to 10 tons process water per ton organic waste can be gained (Vorlop 2009). Thus, as organic waste, loss of fertile soil and water scarcity becomes a serious issue within the European Union, hydrothermal carbonization can provide a feasible solution to address these issues of our near future. The presentation reviews the different types of feedstock investigated for the HTC-Process so far and gives an overview on the current stage of development of this technology. References Beesley L., Moreno-Jiménez E., Gomez-Eyles J.L., Harris H., Robinson B., Sizmur T.: A review of biochars' potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils. Environmental Pollution (159), p. 3269 - 3282, 2011. Behrendt F.: Direktverflüssigung von Biomasse - Reaktionsmechanismen und Produktverteilungen Institut für Energietechnik, Technische Universität Berlin Studie im Auftrag der Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung; Projektnummer 114-50-10-0337/05-B, 2006. European Commission: "Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe", COM(2011) 571. Lehmann J., Rillig M.C., Thies J., Masiello C.A., Hockaday W.C., Crowley D.: Biochar effects on soil biota - A review, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, p. 1-25, 2011. Myers Norman: "Environmental services of biodiversity", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 93, pp. 2764 - 2769, 1996. Rillig M.C., Wagner M., Salem M., Antunes P.M., George C., Ramke H.G., Titirici M.M., Antonietti M.: Material derived from hydrothermal carbonization: effects on plant growth and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Applied Soil Ecology (45), p. 238 - 242, 2010. Vorlop K.D., Schuchardt F., Prüße U.: Hydrothermale Carbonisierung Analyse und Ausblicke. FNR-Fachgespräch, Berlin, 2009.

  1. Improved acid neutralisation capacity assessment of iron carbonates by titration and theoretical calculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A Weber; J. E Thomas; W. M Skinner; R. St. C Smart

    2004-01-01

    The acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of a rock sample containing significant amounts of Fe carbonates, as conducted to determine net acid production potential (NAPP), can be a difficult parameter to determine. Various ANC tests are available to determine the ANC of carbonates. This work does not attempt to create another ANC test protocol; rather, it provides a refinement for existing

  2. THE SOLAR NEBULA ON FIRE: A SOLUTION TO THE CARBON DEFICIT IN THE INNER SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Astrophysical Research Center for the Structure and Evolution of the Cosmos, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Nomura, Hideko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: jelee@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu, E-mail: nomura@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2010-02-10

    Despite a surface dominated by carbon-based life, the bulk composition of the Earth is dramatically carbon poor when compared to the material available at formation. Bulk carbon deficiency extends into the asteroid belt representing a fossil record of the conditions under which planets are born. The initial steps of planet formation involve the growth of primitive sub-micron silicate and carbon grains in the Solar Nebula. We present a solution wherein primordial carbon grains are preferentially destroyed by oxygen atoms ignited by heating due to stellar accretion at radii <5 AU. This solution can account for the bulk carbon deficiency in the Earth and meteorites, the compositional gradient within the asteroid belt, and for growing evidence for similar carbon deficiency in rocks surrounding other stars.

  3. FEATURE ARTICLE Unified Molecular Picture of the Surfaces of Aqueous Acid, Base, and Salt Solutions

    E-print Network

    FEATURE ARTICLE Unified Molecular Picture of the Surfaces of Aqueous Acid, Base, and Salt Solutions inorganic ions. Molecular dynamics calculations show that in salt solutions and bases the positively charged, consequently, these acids (unlike bases and salts) reduce the surface tension of water. The results

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from nitric acid solutions with organophosphorus reagents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuehe Lin; C. M. Wai; N. G. Smart

    1995-01-01

    Extraction techniques for the recovery of uranium and transuranic elements from acid waste solutions are important in nuclear waste management. This paper examines the feasibility of extracting uranyl and thorium ions from nitric acid solutions with supercritical COâ containing the different organophosphorus reagents. In this study, an organophosphorus reagent is dissolved in supercritical COâ by passing the fluid through a

  5. THE EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS BY TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Sato

    1958-01-01

    The effects of nitric acid concentration, uranyl nitrate concentration, ; and temperature were investigated in order to determine the optiinum conditions ; for the extraction of uranyl nitrate froin nitric acid solutions by TBP. It is ; apparent from the results that greater than 97% extraction is obtained when ; uranyl nitrate solution of less than 10 g\\/1 concentration and

  6. Density, actidity, and conductivity measurements of uranyl nitrate\\/nitric acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Botts; R. J. Raridon; D. A. Costanzo

    1978-01-01

    Conductivity, density, and acidity (pH) measurements were made on a series of uranyl nitrate solutions under conditions closely simulating the process used to load weak acid resins in the preparation of the HTGR recycle fuel particle. To relate these parameters to the uranium and nitrate concentrations of the solutions, a least-squares fit of the experimental data and mathematical expressions resulting

  7. Interaction of limestone grains and acidic solutions from the oxidation of pyrite tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Simón; F. Martín; I. García; P. Bouzac; C. Dorronsoro; J. Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    To characterise the coatings formed and to analyse element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase, suspensions were prepared with four grain sizes of limestone and three different amounts of acidic solution from oxidized pyrite tailings. In all cases, red coatings with three different layers covered the grain surface, sealing off the acidic solution. The inner layer was composed mainly

  8. USE OF THE COMPOSITION AND STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO OF MICROBIAL FATTY ACIDS TO STUDY CARBON CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotopic ratio (Gamma 13C) of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAS) in soils and sediments as indicators of live microbial biomass levels and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil organic matter (SO...

  9. Carbonate equilibria in hydrothermal systems: First ionization of carbonic acid in NaCl media to 300°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Patterson; G. H. Slocum; R. H. Busey; R. E. Mesmer

    1982-01-01

    The ionization quotients of aqueous carbon dioxide (carbonic acid) have been precisely determined in NaCl media to 5 m and from 50° to 300°C using potentiometric apparatus previously developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The pressure coefficient was also determined to 250°C in the same media. These results have been combined with selected information in the literature and modeled in

  10. Acid-base characteristics of organic carbon in the HUMEX Lake Skjervatjern

    SciTech Connect

    Kortelainen, P.; David, M.B.; Roila, T.; Maekinen, I. (National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-01-01

    The Humic Lake Acidification Experiment (HUMEX) was launched in 1988 to study the role of humic substances in the acidification of surface waters and the impacts of acidic deposition on the chemical and biological properties of humic substances. This subproject was designed to determine the contribution of organic acids to the acidity of Lake Skjervatjern (the HUMEX Lake) and the impacts of the acidification on the characteristics of organic carbon. In order to get an empirical measure for organic acidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was fractionated, isolated, and base-titrated from each half of Lake Skjervatjern. Hydrophobic acids were the dominant organic carbon fraction; the total organic acid content was generally greater than 80% of the DOC. The reliability of the fractionation procedure was tested with synthetic acids and the Nordic Fulvic acid. The DOC fractions did not show high variation over the 1.5-y acidification period. Hydrophilic acids had consistently greater exchange acidities compared to hydrophobic acids, averaging 12.9 [mu]eq/mg DOC vs. 10.9 [mu]eq/mg DOC, respectively. The dissociation of organic acids during acid-base titrations clearly increased with increasing pH. The high organic anion contribution to the ion balances indicates that humic matter is an important acidity source in Lake Skjervatjern. There are slight signs that the contribution of organic acids to overall lake acidity has decreased since acidification was initiated. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Genetic and environmental factors involved in increased resistance of brook trout to sulfuric acid solutions and mine acid polluted waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDERICK A. SWARTS; WILLIAM A. DUNSON; JAMES E. WRIGHT

    1978-01-01

    Several strains of hatchery-reared brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), were exposed to low pH in the laboratory (sulfuric acid solutions) and in the field (mine acid polluted waters). Wild brook trout were also used in some field tests. Tests were both acute and chronic (up to 2 mo). Pronounced strain differences in survival ability were detected among embryonic, juvenile, and

  12. Effect of activated carbon surface oxygen- and/or nitrogen-containing groups on adsorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Biniak, S.; Pakula, M.; Szymanski, G.S.; Swiatkowski, A.

    1999-08-31

    The adsorption properties of a modified activated carbon with various oxygen-and/or nitrogen-containing surface groups toward copper ions was studied. Previously de-ashed and chemically modified commercial activated carbon D-43/1 (carbo-Tech, Essen, Germany) was used. The chemical properties of the modified carbon surface were estimated by standard neutralization titration with HCl, NaOH, and HaOC{sub 2}{sub 5}. The adsorption of Cu{sup 2+} ions on three modified activated carbons from aqueous CuSO{sub 4} solution of various pH was measured. The carbon samples with adsorbed Cu{sup 2+} ions were analyzed by spectroscopic methods (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). In addition, an electrochemical measurement (cyclic voltammetry) was performed using powdered activated carbon electrodes. While the modification procedures employed alter the surface only slightly, they strongly influence the surface chemical structure. Basic groups are predominant in the heat-treated samples; acidic functional groups are predominant in the oxidized sample. Both the copper cation adsorption studies and the spectral and electrochemical measurements show that adsorbed ions interact with the carbon surface in different ways. The number of adsorbed ions depends on the nature and quantity of surface acid-base functionalities and on the pH equilibrium in the aqueous solution. The possible mechanisms of interactions between metal ions and carbon surface functionalities are summarized and discussed.

  13. Determination of tannic acid by adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry at porous pseudo-carbon paste electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijian Xu; Nongyue He; Jingjing Du; Yan Deng

    2008-01-01

    A novel and sensitive electrochemical sensor based on porous pseudo-carbon paste electrode (PPCPE) for tannic acid detection is described. PPCPE is fabricated by mixing calcium carbonate microspheres as the template, graphite powders as the filler, and pyrrole as the precursor of polymer which actually acted as the paste. After the polymerization of pyrrole catalyzed by Fe3+, the template calcium carbonate

  14. A novel amperometric sensor for ascorbic acid based on poly(Nile blue A) and functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kul, Dilek; Ghica, M Emilia; Pauliukaite, Rasa; Brett, Christopher M A

    2013-07-15

    A new type of modified electrode sensor for ascorbic acid has been prepared by deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and poly(Nile blue A) on the surface of glassy carbon electrodes. Nile blue A was electropolymerised either beneath (directly on glassy carbon) or onto the MWCNT layer by potential cycling in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6.0. Characterisation of the modified electrodes was carried out by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Quantitative determination of ascorbate was achieved by cyclic voltammetry and fixed potential amperometry in phosphate buffer solution at pH 5.3. The modified electrodes exhibited good sensitivity, wide linear range, a detection limit of 1.6 ?M and good stability, showing that they can be used as sensors for ascorbic acid. There is no interference from compounds commonly found in clinical and pharmaceutical samples and the determination of ascorbic acid in commercial tablet samples was successfully performed. PMID:23622528

  15. NMR Analyses of Order and Dynamics in Poly(p-Benzamide)/ Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    NMR Analyses of Order and Dynamics in Poly(p-Benzamide)/ Sulfuric Acid Solutions Min Zhou, Veronica sulfuric acid. Quantitative determinations of order in the liquid crystal phases arising in these systems liquid crystalline dopes when dissolved in strong mineral acids at ap- propriate concentrations.10

  16. Probing counterion modulated repulsion and attraction between nucleic acid duplexes in solution

    E-print Network

    Das, Rhiju

    Probing counterion modulated repulsion and attraction between nucleic acid duplexes in solution Yu for review June 22, 2004) Understanding biological and physical processes involving nucleic acids of the ion atmosphere that surrounds nucleic acids. We have used a simple model DNA system to determine how

  17. Quantitative prediction of 3D solution shape and flexibility of nucleic acid nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Dietz, Hendrik

    Quantitative prediction of 3D solution shape and flexibility of nucleic acid nanostructures Do designed using nucleic acids. INTRODUCTION Programmable self-assembly of complementary single- stranded nucleic acids is a versatile approach to designing sophisticated nanoscale structures (2­4). Scaffolded

  18. Separation of Uranium from Nitric and Hydrochloric-Acid Solutions with Extractant-Coated Magnetic Microparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. KAMINSKI; L. NUÑEZ

    2000-01-01

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process utilizes selective magnetic microparticle composites to separate dissolved metals from solution. In this study, MACS particles were coated with neutral and acidic organophosphorus extractants,octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO), tributyl phosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA or HDEHP) and were evaluated for the separation of uranyl ions from nitric- and hydrochloric-acid solutions.

  19. H2SO4 vapor pressure of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Marti; Anne Jefferson; Xiao Ping Cai; Chad Richert; Peter H. McMurry; Fred Eisele

    1997-01-01

    Few measurements of H2SO4 vapor pressure have been made for sulfuric acid in the temperature and concentration ranges of atmospheric interest because of the very low pressures involved (below 10-4Pa, or 10-6torr); no such measurements appear to have been made for sulfuric acid solutions neutralized with ammonia. This work presents measurements of H2SO4 vapor pressure for aqueous sulfuric acid solutions

  20. Study On Adsorption of Bromate From Aqueous Solution On Modified Activated Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tong-Mian Liu; Fu-Yi Cui; Zhi-Wei Zhao; Dong-Mei Liu; Qi Zhu; Huan Wang

    2010-01-01

    A coal-based activated carbon was treated chemically with nitric acid, sodium hydroxide and ammonia for its surface modification, and its adsorption capacity was investigated with bromate. Several techniques were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of these materials including BET, XPS, pHpzc and Boehm titration. The results indicated that the specific surface area of the activated carbon decreased after oxidation

  1. Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Oxalic Acid that Contains Dissolved Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Mickalonis, John I.; Subramanian, Karthik H.

    2012-10-11

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid (OA) will be used to chemically clean the tanks after waste retrieval is completed. The waste tanks at SRS were constructed from carbon steel materials and thus are vulnerable to corrosion in acidic media. In addition to structural impacts, the impact of corrosion on the hydrogen generated during the process must be assessed. Electrochemical and coupon immersion tests were used to investigate the corrosion mechanism at anticipated process conditions. The testing showed that the corrosion rates were dependent upon the reduction of the iron species that had dissolved in solution. Initial corrosion rates were elevated due to the reduction of the ferric species to ferrous species. At later times, as the ferric species depleted, the corrosion rate decreased. On the other hand, the hydrogen evolution reaction became more dominant.

  2. Characterization of carbon nanotube thin films formed using electronic-grade carbon nanotube aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuliang; Janzen, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of great interests for a wide range of applications because of their unique structural, mechanical, electrical, optical, thermal, and chemical properties. Particularly, CNT thin films can be used as mechanically flexible, electrically conductive, and broadband optically transparent electrodes in various optoelectronic devices. However, one crucial obstacle to implementing CNT-based applications has been the unavailability of pure CNTs suitable for direct industrial use. The as-produced CNTs are very fluffy soot, and thus extremely difficult to be handled in the device fabrication process. Although CNTs can be grown directly on a substrate from the catalyst deposited on the substrate surface, the growing temperature is very high, typically > 900°C, which represents a big challenge to device fabrication and integration. Another issue is that the catalyst on the substrate surface must be removed without affecting the grown CNTs. In the raw CNT soot, there is always a considerable amount of impurities, including metallic particles from the catalyst and carbonaceous impurities from the chemical reaction by-products. Such impurities can greatly degrade the properties of CNT thin films. The production of electronic-grade CNT aqueous solutions, which contain only individually suspended pure CNTs without any kind of surfactant, is a critical milestone for implementing CNT-based applications. By using such solutions, pure CNT thin films of various densities can be formed through common solution-casting processes, such as spin coating, spray coating, micro-dispensing, and ink-jet printing. The properties of these pure CNT thin films will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Comparison of CO2 and oxygen DC submerged thermal plasmas for decomposition of carboxylic acid in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, S.; Hekmat-Ardakan, A.; Soucy, G.

    2014-11-01

    The feasibility of the carboxylic acid decomposition with two different direct current (DC) thermal plasma torches was investigated. An oxygen DC submerged thermal plasma torch and a newly designed submerged DC plasma torch operating with a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane (CO2/CH4) were used. Sebacic acid was selected as a representative of pollutants in the most wastewater produced by chemical process industries. The effect of different operational conditions including treatment time, the reactor pressure as well as the role of oxidizing agents such as (H2O2) were investigated on the decomposition rate of sebacic acid. Concentration of sebacic acid was quantified by Ion Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (IC/MS). The oxygen plasma showed higher decomposition rate in basic medium. Adding H2O2 into aqueous solution enhanced the sebacic acid decomposition rate with the CO2/CH4 plasma up to the same decomposition rate of the oxygen plasma. Increasing the pressure also increased the decomposition rate for both plasmas with an increase twice higher for the CO2/CH4 plasma than that of the oxygen plasma. This work therefore presents the conditions in which these plasmas can provide the same decomposition rate for contaminants in aqueous solution.

  4. Removal of chromium(VI) from wastewater using phosphoric acid treated activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganthi, N.

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon prepared by phosphoric acid treatment of tamarind nuts (seeds) was investigated for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The characteristics of phosphorylated tamarind nut carbon (PTNC) were evaluated for porosity and surface area. The effect of contact time, pH, adsorbent dose and particle size variation were studied to evaluate the potential applicability of carbon for treating Cr(VI) containing wastewater. The adsorbent data were modeled by Langmiur and Freundlich classical adsorption isotherms. The kinetic studies showed that Cr(VI) adsorption on PTNC was in compliance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption studies indicated that ion-exchange mechanism was operating. The continuous adsorption was studied in glass columns of 2.5 cm diameter using electroplating wastewater to ascertain the practical applicability of PTNC in large scale. The mechanism of adsorption was found to be ion-exchange process and was supported by FTIR spectroscopy. The surface modification after adsorption was confirmed by SEM studies.

  5. Metallocene/carbon hybrids prepared by a solution process for supercapacitor applications

    E-print Network

    Mao, Xianwen

    Efficient and scalable solution-based processes are not generally available to integrate well-studied pseudocapacitive materials (i.e., metal oxides and conducting polymers) with other components such as porous carbon, ...

  6. Oxalic acid complexes: promising draw solutes for forward osmosis (FO) in protein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-03-01

    Highly soluble oxalic acid complexes (OACs) were synthesized through a one-pot reaction. The OACs exhibit excellent performance as draw solutes in FO processes with high water fluxes and negligible reverse solute fluxes. Efficient protein enrichment was achieved. The diluted OACs can be recycled via nanofiltration and are promising as draw solutes. PMID:25697506

  7. CO2 Capture Using Activated Amino Acid Salt Solutions in a Membrane Contactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Gang Lu; Yan Ji; Hui Zhang; Min-Dong Chen

    2010-01-01

    An activated solution based on amino acid salt was proposed as a CO2 absorbent. Piperazine (PZ) was selected as an activating agent and added into the aqueous glycine salt to form the activated solution. A coupling process, which associated the activated solution with a PP hollow fiber membrane contactor, was set up. An experimental and theoretical analysis for CO2 capture

  8. Chemical milling of quartz using a solution based on organic solvents and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Neumeier

    2002-01-01

    The use of hydrofluoric acid solution in chemically milling, etching and polishing quartz has been accepted for many years. Several papers have been presented addressing aqueous HF solutions. In this paper the use of a solution based on organic solvents and anhydrous HF to chemically mill or etch mesa structures in quartz plates is investigated. The etch rate figures and

  9. Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC) solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo properties, electrical semiconductors, stress transfer, additives with low thermal PMC processing and new coating possibilities. PMID:25635227

  10. Carbon Compounds in Pyrolysates and Amino Acids in Extracts of Apollo 14 Lunar Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VINCENT E. MODZELESKI; JUDITH E. MODZELESKI; M. A. JABBAR MOHAMMED; LOIS ANNE NAGY; BARTHOLOMEW NAGY; WILLIAM S. McEWAN; HAROLD C. UREY; PAUL B. HAMILTON

    1973-01-01

    The analysis of seven samples brought back by the Apollo 14 astronauts is described. Carbon was present in the gases evolved to between 76 and 161 p.p.m. Glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine were among the most abundant amnio acids found.

  11. Wormhole initiation and propagation of emulsified acid in carbonate cores using computerized tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shameem Siddiqui; Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din; Aon A. Khamees

    2006-01-01

    Emulsified acids are widely used for stimulating carbonate reservoirs. This study examines alternate ways to evaluate the performance of emulsified acids by using a non-destructive visual-based technique. Using advanced image processing software and techniques, it was possible to examine the dissolution patterns created by emulsified acids at different operating conditions. Computerized Tomography (CT) was successful in monitoring wormhole initiation and

  12. Kinetics of esterification of aromatic carboxylic acids over zeolites H? and HZSM5 using dimethyl carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharath R. Kirumakki; N. Nagaraju; Komandur V. R. Chary; Sankarasubbier Narayanan

    2003-01-01

    Esterification of benzoic acid and substituted benzoic acids has been carried out efficiently over zeolite H? and HZSM5 in an autoclave using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as the methylating agent. The wide applicability of this esterification method to esterify a wide range of aromatic carboxylic acids has been demonstrated. This method is a viable and safe alternative to other esterification processes,

  13. Hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae II. Fatty acid, char, and algal nutrient products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Heilmann; Lindsey R. Jader; Laurie A. Harned; Michael J. Sadowsky; Frederick J. Schendel; Paul A. Lefebvre; Marc G. von Keitz; Kenneth J. Valentas

    2011-01-01

    A process for isolation of three products (fatty acids, chars and nutrient-rich aqueous phases) from the hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae is described. Fatty acid products derived from hydrolysis of fatty acid ester groups in the microalgae were obtained in high yield and were found to be principally adsorbed onto the char also created in the process. With the highest lipid-containing

  14. Activated carbon fibers from Nomex by chemical activation with phosphoric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabián Suárez-Garc??a; Amelia Mart??nez-Alonso; Juan M. D Tascón

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) by phosphoric acid activation of Nomex [poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide)] polyaramid fibers was studied. Nomex pyrolysis in the presence of phosphoric acid was followed by thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy in order to establish the nature of transformations involved. Then, ACFs were obtained by impregnating Nomex with different amounts of phosphoric acid, followed by pyrolysis and

  15. Anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karthik Subramanian; John Mickalonis

    2005-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes, primarily consisting of concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions, are stored in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated solutions of 10M NaOH and various concentrations of NaNO3 (0.01–2.0M) was determined in order to predict the caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) susceptibility of the

  16. Preparation of activated carbons from Iris tectorum employing ferric nitrate as dopant for removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wang, Man; Huang, Ji; Huang, Lihui

    2013-12-01

    Ferric nitrate was employed to modify activated carbon prepared from Iris tectorum during H?PO? activation and ability of prepared activated carbon for removal of tetracycline (TC) was investigated. The properties of the activated carbon samples with or without ferric nitrate, ITAC-Fe and ITAC, were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N? adsorption/desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Boehm's titration. The results showed that mixing with iron increased the BET surface area, total pore volume and the adsorption capacity as compared to the original carbon. FTIR and Boehm's titration suggested that ITAC-Fe was characteristic of more acidic functional groups than ITAC. Adsorption of TC on both samples exhibited a strong pH-dependent behavior and adsorption capacity reduced rapidly with the increasing solution pH. The adsorption kinetics agreed well with the pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption isotherms data were well described by Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 625.022 mg/g for ITAC and 769.231 mg/g for ITAC-Fe. The present work suggested that ITAC-Fe could be used to remove tetracycline effectively from aqueous solutions. PMID:24021870

  17. Reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and bromoform by anthrahydroquinone disulfonate and humic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, G.P.; Reinhard, M.

    1994-01-01

    The reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane (C2Cl6), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and bromoform (CHBr3) was examined at 50??C in aqueous solutions containing either (1) 500 ??M of 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHQDS), (2) 250 ??M Fe2+, or (3) 250 ??M HS-. The pH ranged from 4.5 to 11.5 for AHQDS solutions and was 7.2 in the Fe2+ solutions and 7.8 in the HS- solutions. The observed disappearance of C2Cl6 in the presence of AHQDS was pseudo-first-order and fit k??ccl4 = k0[A(OH)2] + k1[A(OH)O-] + k2[A(O)22-] where A(OH)2, A(OH)O-, and A(O)22- represent the concentrations of the three forms of the AHQDS in solution. The values of k0, k1, and k2 were ???0,0.031, and 0.24 M-1 s-1, respectively. The addition of 25 mg of C/L of humic acid or organic matter extracted from Borden aquifer solids to aqueous solutions containing 250 ??M HS- or Fe2+ increased the reduction rate by factors of up to 10. The logarithms of the rate constants for the disappearance of C2Cl6 and CCl4 in seven different experimental systems were significantly correlated; log k???ccl4 = 0-64 log k??? c2cl6 - 0.83 with r2 = 0.80. The observed trend in reaction rates of C2Cl6 > CCl4 > CHBr3 is consistent with a decreasing trend in one-electron reduction potentials. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  18. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in carminic acid for the development of catalase based biosensor for selective amperometric determination of H 2O 2 and iodate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Prakash Periasamy; Ya-Hui Ho; Shen-Ming Chen

    2011-01-01

    We report the preparation of stable dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using carminic acid (CA) as a dispersing agent. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed that MWCNT is well dispersed in CA aqueous solution and CA has been well adsorbed at MWCNT walls. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV–vis

  19. Organic Solvent Dispersions of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Toward Solutions of Pristine Nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    LETTERS Organic Solvent Dispersions of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Toward Solutions of Pristine Nanotubes Kevin D. Ausman, Richard Piner, Oleg Lourie, and Rodney S. Ruoff* Department of Physics/dispersion of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Five solvents, all featuring high electron pair donicity

  20. Ultrafiltration of Aqueous Solutions of Bromocresol Purple in the Presence of Dispersed Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Kozlov

    2003-01-01

    Ultrafiltration of solutions of Bromocresol Purple on a UFM-50M membrane in the presence of dispersed carbon was studied. The variation of the flow rate through unit surface area of the membrane and of the dye retention factor with time was traced. The influence exerted on the ultrafiltration by dye adsorption on dispersed carbon and by formation of a dynamic membrane

  1. A reactor model for gold elution from activated carbon with caustic cyanide solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Sun; W. T. Yen

    1995-01-01

    A model for the Zadra elution process was developed based on pore diffusion inside the carbon particles, the dispersed plug flow in the elution column, and the gold desorption from carbon as a first order reaction. A set of process description equations was obtained. Numerical solutions for the system equations are given using the finite difference method, and the stability

  2. Determination of carbon in aqueous solutions by atmospheric-pressure helium microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry with gas-phase sample introduction technique.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akihiro; Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-03-01

    A trace amount of carbon was determined by atmospheric-pressure helium microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (He-MIP-AES) with gas-phase sample introduction technique. This method was applied for the generation of a continuous flow of carbon dioxide by the acidification of carbonate ion and hydrogen carbonate ion for the determination of carbon. The generated carbon dioxide was separated from the solution by a simple gas-liquid separator, dried with a desiccant and swept into the MIP with helium carrier gas for analysis. Of the acids and drying agents investigated, hydrochloric acid for acidification and anhydrous calcium chloride as a desiccant were found to be the most appropriate for the generation of carbon dioxide. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best attainable detection limits at C (I) 193.09 and C (I) 247.86 nm lines were 7.89 and 8.10 microg/l with linear dynamic ranges of 100 to 10,000 and 100 to 20,000 microg/l for carbon, respectively. The presence of many diverse elements and ions was found to cause a more or less depressing interference by the proposed technique. However, no interference was observed from the following elements and ions: Ca, K, Rb, Br-, Cl-, F- and I-. Finally, the present method has been applied to the determination of carbon in several water samples. PMID:12675347

  3. Basic solutions to carbon/carbon oxidation: Science and technology. Annual technical report, 15 April 1993-14 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.R.; Chung, T.; Radovic, L.; Pantano, C.; Thrower, P.A.

    1994-05-13

    The attached report addresses the first year of a program aimed at developing basic solutions to carbon/carbon composite oxidation. In particular, one primary thrust is the development of boron containing carbons through pyrolysis of boron containing polymers. Additionally, a basic understanding of the oxidation mechanisms in carbons and boron containing carbons is being sought. Several new boron containing precursors have been synthesized, which can be converted to B/C materials after pyrolysis. In particular, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been copolymerized with a boron-containing monomer (vinylcatecholborane.) Approximately 68% of the original boron is retained after pyrolysis yielding a product with 3.4% boron. 1,4-polybutadiene (PBD) has been hydroborated to contain large amounts of boron. Model compounds have been used to prepare polydiyne with considerable amounts of boron. In the latter two cases, direct analysis for % boron is not yet available. Preliminary TGA data suggests that PBD containing boron results in a more stable structure.

  4. The comparison of fluorescent spectra on acetic acid and ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Lan, Xiufeng; Gao, Shumei; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2003-12-01

    Acetic acid and ethanol solutions can emit fluorescence when induced by 253.7nm UV-light. In this paper, fluorescence spectral characteristics of acetic acid and ethanol solutions are analyzed and studied in theory and in experiment. The results indicate that both acetic acid and ethanol can emit two fluorescence spectral bands, one is from 330nm to 493nm and the other is from 534nm to 665nm. The emitting fluorescence intensity is very sensitive to the solutions concentrations, and fluorescence quenching occurs in some solutions of the two samples. Furthermore, the physical mechanism of fluorescence emission of acetic acid and ethanol molecules is analyzed based on the theory of molecule orbital structure, and the quenching mechanism are studied by the dynamic process. Investigation on the native fluorescence spectrum of the two solvent and their characteristics will contribute to the study of the fluorescence spectra when they serve as solute, hydrolysis catalyst and food additive.

  5. New insights into structural alteration of enamel apatite induced by citric acid and sodium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojie; Klocke, Arndt; Mihailova, Boriana; Tosheva, Lubomira; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2008-07-24

    Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and complementary scanning electron microscopy were applied to analyze the surface structure of enamel apatite exposed to citric acid and to investigate the protective potential of fluorine-containing reagents against citric acid-induced erosion. Enamel and, for comparison, geological hydroxylapatite samples were treated with aqueous solutions of citric acid and sodium fluoride of different concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 mol/L for citric acid solutions and from 0.5 to 2.0% for fluoride solutions. The two solutions were applied either simultaneously or consecutively. The citric acid-induced structural modification of apatite increases with the increase in the citric acid concentration and the number of treatments. The application of sodium fluoride alone does not suppress the atomic level changes in apatite exposed to acidic agents. The addition of sodium fluoride to citric acid solutions leads to formation of surface CaF2 and considerably reduces the changes in the apatite P-O-Ca framework. However, the CaF2 globules deposited on the enamel surface seem to be insufficient to prevent the alteration of the apatite structure upon further exposure to acidic agents. No evidence for fluorine-induced recovery of the apatite structure was found. PMID:18588337

  6. Thermodynamic limitations in organic acid-carbonate systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Chatelain; I. H. Silberberg; R. S. Schechter

    1975-01-01

    Dow Chemical Co. and the University of Texas at Austin developed a correlation that permits the amount of unreacted organic acid (used in a well stimulation) to be calculated as a function of both temperature and initial acid strength. Organic acids are often used for the matrix acidization and the acid fracturing of carbonaceous formations because the rates of reaction

  7. Chemical evaluation of soil-solution in acid forest soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-solution chemistry is commonly studied in forests through the use of soil lysimeters.This approach is impractical for regional survey studies, however, because lysimeter installation and operation is expensive and time consuming. To address these problems, a new technique was developed to compare soil-solution chemistry among red spruce stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine. Soil solutions were expelled by positive air pressure from soil that had been placed in a sealed cylinder. Before the air pressure was applied, a solution chemically similar to throughfall was added to the soil to bring it to approximate field capacity. After the solution sample was expelled, the soil was removed from the cylinder and chemically analyzed. The method was tested with homogenized Oa and Bs horizon soils collected from a red spruce stand in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, a red spruce stand in east-central Vermont, and a mixed hardwood stand in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Reproducibility, effects of varying the reaction time between adding throughfall and expelling soil solution (5-65 minutes) and effects of varying the chemical composition of added throughfall, were evaluated. In general, results showed that (i) the method was reproducible (coefficients of variation were generally < 15%), (ii) variations in the length of reaction-time did not affect expelled solution concentrations, and (iii) adding and expelling solution did not cause detectable changes in soil exchange chemistry. Concentrations of expelled solutions varied with the concentrations of added throughfall; the lower the CEC, the more sensitive expelled solution concentrations were to the chemical concentrations of added throughfall. Addition of a tracer (NaBr) showed that the expelled solution was a mixture of added solution and solution that preexisted in the soil. Comparisons of expelled solution concentrations with concentrations of soil solutions collected by zero-tension and tension lysimetry indicated that expelled solution concentrations were higher than those obtained with either type of lysimeter, although there was less difference with tension lysimeters than zero-tension lysimeters. The method used for collection of soil solution should be taken into consideration whenever soil solution data are being interpreted.

  8. Effect of Na+ impregnated activated carbon on the adsorption of NH4(+)-N from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mo; Wang, Zhengfang; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-08-01

    Two kinds of activated carbons modified by Na+ impregnation after pre-treatments involving oxidation by nitric acid or acidification by hydrochloric acid (denoted as AC/N-Na and AC/HCl-Na, respectively), were used as adsorbents to remove NH4(+)-N. The surface features of samples were investigated by BET, SEM, XRD and FT-IR. The adsorption experiments were conducted in equilibrium and kinetic conditions. Influencing factors such as initial solution pH and initial concentration were investigated. A possible mechanism was proposed. Results showed that optimal NH4(+)-N removal efficiency was achieved at a neutral pH condition for the modified ACs. The Langmuir isotherm adsorption equation provided a better fit than other models for the equilibrium study. The adsorption kinetics followed both the pseudo second-order kinetics model and intra-particle kinetic model. Chemical surface analysis indicated that Na+ ions form ionic bonds with available surface functional groups created by pre-treatment, especially oxidation by nitric acid, thus increasing the removal efficiency of the modified ACs for NH4(+)-N. Na(+)-impregnated ACs had a higher removal capability in removing NH4(+)-N than unmodified AC, possibly resulting from higher numbers of surface functional groups and better intra-particle diffusion. The good fit of Langmuir isotherm adsorption to the data indicated the presence of monolayer NH4(+)-N adsorption on the active homogenous sites within the adsorbents. The applicability of pseudo second-order and intra-particle kinetic models revealed the complex nature of the adsorption mechanism. The intra-particle diffusion model revealed that the adsorption process consisted not only of surface adsorption but also intra-particle diffusion. PMID:24520687

  9. Viscosity B-coefficients and activation parameters for viscous flow of a solution of heptanedioic acid in aqueous sucrose solution.

    PubMed

    Bai, Tong-Chun; Yan, Guo-Bing

    2003-11-21

    Viscosity and density data for the system of heptanedioic acid dissolved in aqueous sucrose solution at temperature range from 288.15 to 313.15 K have been measured. The viscosity B-coefficients for heptanedioic acid in aqueous sucrose solution has been calculated. The effect of temperature and sucrose concentration on the B-coefficients is discussed. On the basis of the Feakins equation, the activation parameters (Deltamu3++, DeltaH3++, DeltaS3++, DeltaG12(0)++, DeltaH12(0)++ and DeltaS12(0)++) for viscous flow of the solution have been evaluated, together with the Gibbs energy of transfer for the solute from the ground state solvent to the hypothetical viscous transition state solvent (DeltaG3++(1-1')). The effect of sucrose concentration and temperature on the activation parameters has been discussed. PMID:14667714

  10. Reprocessing system with nuclide separation based on chromatography in hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tachibana, Yu [Department of Nuclear Safety System Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Koyama, Shi-ichi [O-oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ooarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposed system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the minor actinide separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In the reprocessing and separation processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. It was confirmed that the dissolution in the hydrochloric acid solution is easily achieved by the plasma voloxidation and by the addition of oxygen peroxide into the hydrochloric acid solution.

  11. The Formation and Stability of Carbonic Acid on Outer Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeters, Z.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Lewis, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    The radiation chemistry, thermal stability, and vapor pressure of solid-phase carbonic acid (H2CO3) have been studied with mid-infrared spectroscopy. A new procedure for measuring this molecule's radiation stability has been used to obtain intrinsic IR band strengths and half-lives for radiolytic destruction. Results are compared to literature values. We report, for the first time, measurements of carbonic acid's vapor pressure and its heat of sublimation. We also report the first observation of a chemical reaction involving solid-phase carbonic acid. Possible applications of these findings are discussed, with an emphasis on the outer Solar System.

  12. Dynamic Rheological Studies of Poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide) and Carbon Nanotube Blends in Sulfuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yutong; Liu, Zhaofeng; Gao, Xianghua; Yu, Junrong; Hu, Zuming; Liang, Ziqi

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the dynamic scanning of liquid-crystalline (LC) poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide) sulfuric acid (PPTA-H2SO4) solution, and its blend with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by using a flat plate rotational rheometer. The effects of weight concentration and molecular weight of PPTA, as well as operating temperature, on dynamic viscoelasticity of the PPTA-H2SO4 LC solution system are discussed. The transition from a biphasic system to a single-phase LC occurs in the weight concentration range of SWNTs from 0.1% to 0.2%, in which complex viscosity reaches the maximum at 0.2 wt% and the minimum at 0.1 wt%, respectively, of SWNTs. With increasing SWNT weight concentration, the endothermic peak temperature increases from 73.6 to 79.9 °C. The PPTA/SWNT/H2SO4 solution is in its plateau zone and storage modulus (G?) is a dominant factor within the frequency (?) range of 0.1–10 rad/s. As ? increases, the G? rises slightly, in direct proportion to the ?. The loss modulus (G?) does not rise as a function of ? when ? < 1 s?1, then when ? > 1 s?1 G? increases faster than G?, yet not in any proportion to the ?. PMID:20480024

  13. Multiple-acid equilibria in adsorption of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Husson, S.M.; King, C.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Equilibria were measured for adsorption of carboxylic acids from aqueous, binary-acid mixtures of lactic and succinic acids and acetic and formic acids onto basic polymeric sorbents. The experimentally determined adsorption isotherms compared well with model predictions, confirming that simple extensions from adsorption of individual acids apply. Fixed-bed studies were carried out that establish the efficacy of chromatographic fractionation of lactic and succinic acids using basic polymeric sorbents. Finally, sequential thermal and solvent regeneration of lactic and acetic acid-laden sorbents was investigated as a method to fractionate among coadsorbed volatile and nonvolatile acids. Essentially complete removal of the acetic acid from the acid-laden sorbent was achieved by vaporization under the conditions used; a small amount of loss of lactic acid (about 11%) was observed.

  14. Effect of Acid Oxidation on the Dispersion Property of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, P. S.; Ismail, A. F.; Aziz, M.

    2009-06-01

    A means of dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) via mixed acid (HNO3 and H2SO4) oxidation with different treatment durations was investigated through the solubility study of the treated carbon nanotubes in some common solvents. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) characterization of the reaction products revealed that the surface of MWCNTs was successfully functionalized with surface acidic groups. The acid-base titration demonstrated that the amount of surface acidic groups increased in parallel with the refluxing duration. The acid modified MWCNTs were found to be well dispersed in polar solvents, such as ethanol and water due to the presence of the hydrophilic acid functional groups on the surface of raw MWCNTs. Such chemical modification of carbon nanotube properties will pave the way towards the realistic applications in the nanotechnology world.

  15. Effect of niobium on massive transformation in ultra low carbon steels: a solute drag treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Suehiro; Z.-K. Liu; J. Ågren

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Nb on the ? ? ? transformation in ultra low carbon steels is examined experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that there are two modes of the massive transformation. One of them is heavily influenced by the solute drag effect of Nb. This is confirmed by a calculation based on a new model for treating the solute

  16. Metastable Equilibrium Solubility Behavior of Carbonated Apatites in the Presence of Solution Fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Zhuang; Arif A. Baig; Jeffrey L. Fox; Zeren Wang; Shane J. Colby; Anil Chhettry; William I. Higuchi

    2000-01-01

    The aims of the present investigation were to assess the applicability of the metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) concept for the carbonated apatites (CAPs) over a range of pH and a wide range of solution fluoride concentrations and to examine the hypothesis that, in the presence of solution fluoride, a surface complex with the stoichiometry of fluorapatite (FAP) governs the MES

  17. Pyrite oxidation in carbonate-buffered solution: 2. Rate control by oxide coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Nicholson; R. W. Gillham; E. J. Reardon

    1990-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of pyrite oxidation in the laboratory was studied over a period of about 10,000 hours in reactors through which a carbonate-buffered solution and air (20% Oâ) flowed continuously. Three grain size fractions were monitored. The concentration of sulfate and the mass of the effluent solution were measured periodically to calculate oxidation rates. The results indicate that the

  18. Na?-functionalized carbon quantum dots: a new draw solute in forward osmosis for seawater desalination.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun Xian; Zhao, Dieling; Zhao, Qipeng; Wang, Peng; Lu, Xianmao

    2014-07-14

    A new type of biocompatible draw solute, Na(+)-functionalized carbon quantum dots (Na_CQDs) with ultra-small size and rich ionic species, in forward osmosis (FO) is developed for seawater desalination. The aqueous dispersion of Na_CQDs demonstrates a high osmotic pressure, which allows high FO water flux and negligible reverse solute permeation. PMID:24870226

  19. Separation of ions in acidic solution by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective method for separating ionic species according to differences in their electrophoretic mobilities. CE separations of amino acids by direct detection are difficult due to their similar electrophoretic mobilities and low absorbances. However, native amino acids can be separated by CE as cations at a low pH by adding an alkanesulfonic acid to the electrolyte carrier which imparts selectivity to the system. Derivatization is unnecessary when direct UV detection is used at 185 nm. Simultaneous speciation of metal cations such as vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V) can easily be performed without complexation prior to analysis. An indirect UV detection scheme for acidic conditions was also developed using guanidine as the background carrier electrolyte (BCE) for the indirect detection of metal cations. Three chapters have been removed for separate processing. This report contains introductory material, references, and general conclusions. 80 refs.

  20. Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

  1. Effect of Hydrolysis Conditions on the Direct Formation of Nanoparticles of Ceria–Zirconia Solid Solutions from Acidic Aqueous Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Hirano; Kaname Hirai

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the cation concentration, hydrolysis temperature, and composition in the CeO2–ZrO2 system on the direct precipitation of ceria–zirconia solid solutions and the structure of the precipitates from acidic aqueous solutions of (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 and ZrOCl2 by hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. Nanometer-sized (8–10 nm) ceria–zirconia solid solution particles in a composition range of 0 to 60 mol% ZrO2

  2. Ionic-molecular composition of solutions of boron trifluoride with Lewis acids in oxygen-containing solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Lysenko; A. Yu. Shevchenko

    1987-01-01

    In nonprotogenic solvents boron trifluoride behaves as a Lewis acid that is close in strength to tin tetrachloride. The character of the ionic equilibria in ester solutions of boron trifluoride paired with other Lewis acids (halides of elements of Groups II-V) depends on the relative strengths of these acids. In solutions of boron trifluoride and stronger acids cationic forms of

  3. Ecological Engineering promotes Carbon Reduction Solutions for a Sustainable Planet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Bedford Clark

    2009-01-01

    Due to un-prescedented; social, industrial and human reproductive growth, our global society is rapidly approaching peak development, coupling with climate change factors and accelerating Earths current 'melt cycle'. Our challenge is to do more with less; to question the 'way' it has always been done; to develop innovative low carbon engineering tools; to design and mimic natural eco-systems and to

  4. Carbon monoxide … the silent killer with an audible solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward P Krenzelok; Ronald Roth; Robert Full

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for more poisoning fatalities each year than any other toxic agent. The often insidious nature of the symptom progression and its ability to imitate many common illnesses may result in the failure to diagnose a potentially fatal outcome. CO detectors equipped with an audible alarm can alert potential victims of CO poisoning before toxic sequelae

  5. Standard addition method for free acid determination in solutions with hydrolyzable ions

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in a 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 ..mu..moles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy is verifiable by reasonable agreement of the Nerst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5 percent.

  6. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  7. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  8. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  9. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  10. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  11. Investigation of texturization for crystalline silicon solar cells with sodium carbonate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Nishimoto; K Namba

    2000-01-01

    We investigate a new texturization technique for crystalline silicon solar cells with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solutions. We show the dependence of the hemispherical surface reflectance on solution temperature, the etching time and the Na2CO3 concentration. Furthermore, we investigate what element in Na2CO3 solution influences the texturing for reducing the texturing time. As a result of experiments, we find it possible

  12. Influence of Cu electroplating solutions on boron carbon nitride (BCN) film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidemitsu Aoki; Makoto Hara; Takuro Masuzumi; Motaharu K. Mazumder; Naoki Ooi; Daisuke Watanabe; Chiharu Kimura; Takashi Sugino

    2009-01-01

    Cu electroplating is required for the fabrication of Cu\\/low-k interconnections. The permeation of a plating solution into low-k films during Cu electroplating is a serious challenge for 45-nm nodes and more complex devices. We investigated the influence of Cu electroplating solutions on boron carbon nitride (BCN) as a low-k film. After dipping it into a Cu electroplating solution that contained

  13. Electronic separation of dispersed carbon nanotubes in solution by Lorentz forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charishma Subbaiah; Joshua Wood; Joseph Lyding

    2011-01-01

    Use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in industry compatible device applications requires top-down control of SWNT electronic type. Therefore, we develop a technique for SWNT electronic separation, increasing the relative distribution of metallic SWNTs in solution by a magnetically induced Lorentz force. We take solutions of SWNTs in n-methylpyrrolidone and sonicate them, making a disperse solution on which we apply

  14. Regeneration of hexamminecobalt(II) catalyzed by activated carbon treated with KOH solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-yi Cheng; Lin Yang; Li Dong; Xiang-li Long; Wei-kang Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The combined elimination of NO and SO2 can be realized by hexamminecobalt(II) solution which is formed by adding soluble cobalt(II) salt into the aqueous ammonia solution. Activated carbon is used as a catalyst to regenerate hexamminecobalt(II), Co(NH3)62+, so that NO removal efficiency can be maintained at a high level for a long time. In this study, KOH solution has been

  15. Evaluation of solution-processable carbon-based electrodes for all-carbon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ramuz, Marc P; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Wei, Peng; Wang, Chenggong; Gao, Yongli; Wu, Yingpeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-11-27

    Carbon allotropes possess unique and interesting physical, chemical, and electronic properties that make them attractive for next-generation electronic devices and solar cells. In this report, we describe our efforts into the fabrication of the first reported all-carbon solar cell in which all components (the anode, active layer, and cathode) are carbon based. First, we evaluate the active layer, on standard electrodes, which is composed of a bilayer of polymer sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes and C(60). This carbon-based active layer with a standard indium tin oxide anode and metallic cathode has a maximum power conversion efficiency of 0.46% under AM1.5 Sun illumination. Next, we describe our efforts in replacing the electrodes with carbon-based electrodes, to demonstrate the first all-carbon solar cell, and discuss the remaining challenges associated with this process. PMID:23113673

  16. Stability in aqueous solutions and acidic properties of carbenicillin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. Lapidus; N. G. Donskaya; G. S. Libinson; N. P. Tochenaya

    1976-01-01

    grade. The stability of the antibiotic was studied at concentrations of it in the solutions of 0.3-1.3 mg\\/ml in the temperature range from i0 to 70~ To maintain the required pH values we used buffer solutions with concentrations of 0.01-0.2 M: citrate (pH 3.0-5.0), phosphate (pH 6.0-8.0), and borate (pH 8.0-10.5). At lower and higher pH values we used solutions

  17. Study of the acid–base equilibria and conformational changes of double stranded polyadenylic–polyuridylic acid in aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Kudrev; R Gargallo; A Izquierdo-Ridorsa; R Tauler; E Casassas

    1998-01-01

    UV-absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy have been applied to the study of the acid–base properties of the heteropolynucleotide ribopolyadenylic–polyuridylic acid (poly(A)–poly(U)) and to the study of the possible interaction of this polynucleotide with 2,2?-bipyridyl (bipy) in aqueous solutions as a function of pH. Using soft modelling chemometric procedures based on factor analysis and multivariate curve resolution, the individual absorption

  18. Density, partial, and excess volumes of solutions of methacrylic acid in organic solvents at 293 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. V.; Van-Chin-Syan, Yu. Ya.

    2015-03-01

    The densities of solutions of methacrylic acid in acetonitrile, benzene, hexane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and acetic acid at a temperature of 293 K and atmospheric pressure are determined by means of pycnometry. The values of the excess molar volume for the studied systems and those of the partial molar volumes of the components are calculated. It is found that the excess molar volume of binary systems of methacrylic acid with benzene, hexane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and acetic acid is positive over the range of concentrations and is negative in the methacrylic acid-acetonitrile system.

  19. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  20. A model for matrix acidizing of long horizontal well in carbonate reservoirs

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Varun

    2009-06-02

    of horizontal wells is attributed to various factors such as drilling induced formation damage, high completion skins, and variable formation properties along the length of the wellbore as in the case of heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. Matrix acidizing...

  1. Surfactant Screening to Alter the Wettability and Aid in Acidizing Carbonate Formations

    E-print Network

    Yadhalli Shivaprasad, Arun Kumar

    2013-02-26

    Surfactant flooding in carbonate matrix acidizing treatment has been widely used for changing the wettability of the rock and to achieve low IFT values. Optimizing the type of surfactant and concentration for the specific oil field is very important...

  2. Solubility of uranyl nitrate in nitric acid solutions of aluminum nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Medkov, B.K.; Petrov, M.R.; Roslyakova, O.N.

    1988-11-01

    The solubility of uranyl nitrate in nitric acid solutions of aluminum nitrate at 25/sup 0/C containing 10, 20 and 30 mass % of nitric acid has been studied by the isothermal method. The Schreinemakers method has been used to establish the composition of the solid phases, which has been confirmed by crystallographic and thermographic studies. Data are presented on the viscosity and density of saturated solutions.

  3. Factors affecting acid neutralizing capacity in the Adirondack region of New York: a solute mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mari; Mitchell, Myron J; Driscoll, Charles T; Roy, Karen M

    2005-06-01

    High rates of acidic deposition in the Adirondack region of New York have accelerated acidification of soils and surface waters. Annual input-output budgets for major solutes and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) were estimated for 43 drainage lake-watersheds in the Adirondacks from 1998 to 2000. Sulfate was the predominant anion on an equivalent basis in both precipitation and drainage export. Calcium ion had the largest cation drainage export, followed by Mg2+. While these watersheds showed net nitrogen (N) retention, the drainage losses of SO4(2-), Cl-, base cations, and ANC exceeded their respective inputs from precipitation. Land cover (forest type and wetlands) affected the export of SO4(2-), N solutes, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The relationships of solute export with elevation (negative for base cations and Cl-, positive for NO3- and H+) suggest the importance of the concomitant changes of biotic and abiotic watershed characteristics associated with elevational gradients. The surface water ANC increased with the sum of base cations and was greatest in the lakes with watersheds characterized by thick deposits of glacial till. The surface water ANC was also higher in the lake-watersheds with lower DOC export. Some variation in lake ANC was associated with variability in acidic deposition. Using a classification system previously developed for Adirondack lakes on the basis primarily of surficial geology, lake-watersheds were grouped into five classes. The calculated ANC fluxes based on the major sinks and sources of ANC were comparable with measured ANC for the thick-till (I) and the medium-till lake-watersheds with low DOC (II). The calculated ANC was overestimated for the medium-till with high DOC (III) and the thin-till with high DOC (V) lake-watersheds, suggesting the importance of naturally occurring organic acids as an ANC sink, which was not included in the calculations. The lower calculated estimates than the measured ANC for the thin-till lake-watersheds with low DOC (IV) were probably due to the mobilization of Al as an ANC source in these watersheds that were highly sensitive to strong acid inputs. Our analysis of various drainage lakes across the Adirondacks on the basis of solute mass balances, coupled with the use of a lake classification system and GIS data, demonstrates that the lake-watersheds characterized by shallow deposits of glacial till are highly sensitive to acidic deposition not only in the southwestern Adirondack region where previous field-based studies were intensively conducted but also across the entire Adirondack region. Moreover, the supply of organic acids and Al mobilization substantially modify the acid-base status of surface waters. PMID:15984785

  4. Hydrogen absorption of titanium in acidic fluoride solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken’ichi Yokoyama; Toshio Ogawa; Kenzo Asaoka; Jun’ichi Sakai

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption of commercial pure titanium in acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) solutions of various concentrations has been examined by hydrogen thermal-desorption analysis. In immersion in the 2.0% APF solution of pH 5.0 at 25°C, the amount of absorbed hydrogen increased with immersion time and then saturated at approximately 800–900mass ppm. During the early stage of the 24h immersion, the amount

  5. Impact of humic/fulvic acid on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using nanomaterials: a review.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wang-Wang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Bin-Bin

    2014-01-15

    Nowadays nanomaterials have been widely used to remove heavy metals from water/wastewater due to their large surface area and high reactivity. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) exist ubiquitously in aquatic environments and have a variety of functional groups which allow them to complex with metal ions and interact with nanomaterials. These interactions can not only alter the environmental behavior of nanomaterials, but also influence the removal and transportation of heavy metals by nanomaterials. Thus, the interactions and the underlying mechanisms involved warrant specific investigations. This review outlined the effects of HA/FA on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by various nanomaterials, mainly including carbon-based nanomaterials, iron-based nanomaterials and photocatalytic nanomaterials. Moreover, mechanisms involved in the interactions were discussed and potential environmental implications of HA/FA to nanomaterials and heavy metals were evaluated. PMID:24095965

  6. Branched chain amino acid-enriched solutions in the septic patient. A randomized, prospective trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bower, R H; Muggia-Sullam, M; Vallgren, S; Hurst, J M; Kern, K A; LaFrance, R; Fischer, J E

    1986-01-01

    A prospective, randomized trial was undertaken to compare the nutritional efficacy in surgical stress of a standard amino acid solution and two branched chain-enriched amino acid solutions: one enriched primarily with valine, the other with leucine. The study comprised 37 patients in the surgical intensive care unit who received isocaloric, isonitrogenous parenteral nutrition started within 24 hours of the onset of major operation, injury, or sepsis. Nitrogen retention was marginally but statistically significantly better on days 5, 7, and 10 in both groups of patients receiving the branched chain-enriched solutions, but differences in cumulative nitrogen balance were not statistically significant. Amino acid composition appeared to be important in that the group receiving the leucine-enriched solution appeared to maintain hepatic protein synthesis better (as manifest by higher short-turnover plasma protein concentrations) and required less exogenous insulin to maintain euglycemia. Improved outcome was not seen in the groups receiving the branched chain-enriched solutions. PMID:3079994

  7. Behaviors of acrylamide/itaconic acid hydrogels in uptake of uranyl ions from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Karadag, E.; Saraydin, D. [Cumhuriyet Univ., Sivas (Turkey); Gueven, O. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1995-12-01

    In this study, adsorptions of uranyl ions from two different aqueous uranyl solutions by acrylamide-itaconic acid hydrogels were investigated by a spectroscopic method. The hydrogels were prepared by irradiating with {gamma}-radiation. In the experiment of uranyl ions adsorption, Type II adsorption was found. One gram of acrylamide-itaconic acid hydrogels sorbed 178-219 mg uranyl ions from the solutions of uranyl acetate, 42-76 mg uranyl ions from the aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate, while acrylamide hydrogel did not sorb any uranyl ion. For the hydrogel containing 40 mg of itaconic acid and irradiated to 3.73 kGy, swelling of the hydrogels was observed in water (1660%), in the aqueous solution of uranyl acetate (730%), and in the aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate (580%). Diffusions of water onto hydrogels were a non-Fickian type of diffusion, whereas diffusions of uranyl ions were a Fickian type of diffusion.

  8. Acid resistance contributes to the high-pressure carbon dioxide resistance of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Soichi; Shimazaki, Junji; Kawaharada, Kazumichi; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Aoyagi, Hiroki; Wakabayashi, Hidekazu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Effect of deletion of acid resistant genes of E. coli on the high-pressure carbon dioxide (HPC) resistance was investigated. Genes coding amino acid decarboxylases, such as lysine, arginine, and glutamate decarboxylase, were found to contribute to HPC resistance. Protonophore-treated cells showed hypersensitivity to HPC, confirming that HPC induced cytoplasm acidification and exerted severe damage on cells by intrusion of gaseous carbon dioxide into cytoplasm. PMID:25119308

  9. Catalytic synthesis of benzoic esters with carbon-based solid acid from coal tar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haie Hao; Baojun Ma; Jinxin Ma; Sun Yuan; Wanyi Liu

    2011-01-01

    A new carbon-based solid acid catalyst (C- SO3H) was prepared by simultaneous cross- linking coal tar with benzaldehyde,hoist temperature -curing ,sulphonation in sulfuric acid and was characterized by FT-IR,TG-DTG,XRD and neutralization potentiometric titration, and SEM techniques. The results indicated that there is the high density of SO3H groups in forming amorphous coke consisting of polycyclic aromatic carbon sheets, and the

  10. The effect of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning on the equilibria between cell membranes and the electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Petelska, Aneta D; Koty?ska, Joanna; Figaszewski, Zbigniew A

    2015-02-01

    The effect of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning on equilibria between cell membranes and surrounding ions was described using a theoretical four-equilibria model. The model was developed to obtain parameters characterizing the interactions between solution ions and erythrocyte or thrombocyte membrane surface. The parameters are the total surface concentrations of both acidic and basic groups C A, C B and their association constants with solution ions K AH, K BOH. These parameters were used to calculate the theoretical values of surface charge density. The model was validated by comparison of these values to experimental data, which were determined from the electrophoretic mobility measurements of the blood cells. The experimental and theoretical surface charge density values agree at pH 2-8, and at higher pH, the deviation was observed. PMID:25416423

  11. Heterogeneous freezing of single sulphuric acid solution droplets: laboratory experiments utilising an acoustic levitator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ettner; S. K. Mitra; S. Borrmann

    2004-01-01

    The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of single binary sulphuric acid solution droplets were measured in dependency of acid concentration down to temperatures as low as -70°C. In order to avoid influence of supporting substrates on the freezing characteristics, the droplets were suspended by means of an acoustic levitator. The droplets contained immersed particles of graphite, kaolin or montmorillonite in order to

  12. Heterogeneous freezing of single sulfuric acid solution droplets: laboratory experiments utilizing an acoustic levitator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ettner; S. K. Mitra; S. Borrmann

    2004-01-01

    The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of single binary sulfuric acid solution droplets were measured in dependency of acid concentration down to temperatures as low as -50°C. In order to avoid influence of supporting substrates on the freezing characteristics, a new technique has been developed to suspend the droplet by means of an acoustic levitator. The droplets contained immersed particles of graphite,

  13. Catalytic currents of hydrogen in solutions of W(VI) and mandelic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Chikryzova, E.G.; Mashinskaya, S.Ya.

    1986-04-10

    An investigation was made of catalytic polarographic currents of hydrogen in acid dilute solutions of W(VI) with excess of mandelic acid. The nature of the current was studied, and a scheme for the catalytic process is proposed. The reduction of hydrogen ions is catalyzed by the complex (W(OH)HM)/sup 2 +/ adsorbed on the dropping mercury electrode.

  14. Solubility of uranyl nitrate in nitric acid solutions of aluminum nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Medkov; M. R. Petrov; O. N. Roslyakova

    1988-01-01

    The solubility of uranyl nitrate in nitric acid solutions of aluminum nitrate at 25°C containing 10, 20 and 30 mass % of nitric acid has been studied by the isothermal method. The Schreinemakers method has been used to establish the composition of the solid phases, which has been confirmed by crystallographic and thermographic studies. Data are presented on the viscosity

  15. Waste acid/metal solution reduction and recovery by vacuum distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.O.; Wilcox, W.A.; Johnson, N.T.; Bowdish, F.W. [Viatec Recovery Systems, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Processes involving distillation under reduced pressure were developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory several years ago to recover spent acid solutions generated during the manufacture of nuclear fuel for the N-Reactor at the Hanford site. Following construction and testing of a pilot-plant, the technology was licensed to Viatec Recovery Systems, Inc. for commercialization. The technology developed included specialized distillation and rectification of volatile acids, removal of water and/or volatile acid from sulfuric acid, and precipitation of salts. A key feature of the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) technology is the development and use of advanced thermoplastic and fluoropolymer materials of construction in all critical process equipment. The technology was then expanded to include crystallization to recover metal salts for possible reuse. Economic and environmental advantages of the procedures include recovery of acids for reuse, simplification or elimination of the disposal of waste solutions, and possible recovery of metals. Industries expected to benefit from such applications include galvanizing, electroplating, sand leaching and any where metals are cleaned in acid solutions. Currently a modular system has been assembled for recovery of several different spent acid solutions.

  16. VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY Water Solutions of Boric Acid and Sugar for Management of German

    E-print Network

    VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY Water Solutions of Boric Acid and Sugar for Management of German Cockroach cockroaches in a commercial swine nursery. Bait, consisting of 1 or 2% boric acid and 0.5 M sucrose in cockroach populations. When baits were withdrawn in the summer, the cockroach population increased sig- ni

  17. The effect of confinement on dynamics and rheology of dilute deoxyribose nucleic acid solutions. II. Effective

    E-print Network

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    The effect of confinement on dynamics and rheology of dilute deoxyribose nucleic acid solutions. II the effect of confinement on deoxyribose nucleic acid rheology and chain dynamics. We present results these findings to microchannel flows to study the rhe- ology and chain dynamics of dilute deoxyribose nucleic

  18. Activated carbon fibers/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite scaffolds: preparation and characterizations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanni; Han, Hao; Quan, Haiyu; Zang, Yongju; Wang, Ning; Ren, Guizhi; Xing, Melcolm; Wu, Qilin

    2014-10-01

    The present work is a first trial to introduce activated carbon fibers (ACF) with high adsorption capacity into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), resulting in a novel kind of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. ACF, prepared via high-temperature processing of carbon fibers, are considered to possess bioactivity and biocompatibility. The ACF/PLGA composite scaffolds are prepared by solvent casting/particulate leaching method. Increments in both pore quantity and quality over the surface of ACF as well as a robust combination between ACF and PLGA matrix are observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The high adsorption capacity of ACF is confirmed by methylene blue solution absorbency test. The surfaces of ACF are affiliated with many hydrophilic groups and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, the SEM images show that cells possess a favorable spreading morphology on the ACF/PLGA scaffolds. Besides, vivo experiments are also carried out to evaluate the histocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. The results show that ACF have the potential to become one of the most promising materials in biological fields. PMID:25175194

  19. The use of coiled tubing during matrix acidizing of carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.L.; Milne, A.

    1995-10-01

    A laboratory and field study directed at improved well performance of horizontal wells is discussed. During the study, several wells were matrix acidized using bullhead and coiled tubing placement techniques. The study performed in carbonate reservoirs indicates acid placed with coiled tubing diverted with foam provides excellent zone coverage and damage removal. Conventional bullhead techniques do not result in effective damage removal. The study emphasizes the evaluation of the treatment results and the development of improved acidizing techniques. Laboratory simulations of matrix acidizing indicate proper placement techniques are essential. This observation is supported by field data in oil wells completed in carbonate reservoirs. The key to successful damage removal is (1) the placement of acid via coiled tubing and (2) proper diversion. Production logging and well performance data support this claim. The proposed treatment is applicable in both horizontal and vertical wells completed in carbonate reservoirs.

  20. Degradation of H-acid and its derivative in aqueous solution by ionising radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pálfi; E. Takács; L. Wojnárovits

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of high-energy radiation induced degradation of H-acid (4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonic acid, (I)) and its derivative, 4-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonic acid (II) (central parts of a large number of azo dyes), was investigated in aqueous solutions. These compounds can be efficiently destroyed by the OH and hydrated electron intermediates produced during water radiolysis. As the first step of degradation mainly cyclohexadienyl-type radicals form, however,

  1. The growth of wheat plants in humic acid solutions under axenic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vaughan; D. J. Linehan

    1976-01-01

    A technique is described for growing wheat plants in nutrient solutions containing C14-labelled humic acid under axenic conditions. The general appearance of axenic plants was indistinguishable from plants grown in association with microbes. C14-labelled humic acid enhanced the growth of both roots and shoots showing that by-products of microbial degradation of humic acid are unnecessary for this enhanced plant growth.

  2. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC, and Steubenville, OH.

  3. Chitosan-calcium carbonate composites by a biomimetic process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukun Zhang; K. E. Gonsalves

    1995-01-01

    The crystal growth of calcium carbonate on a chitosan substrate was achieved using a supersaturated calcium carbonate solution, by using various additives, such as 6-aminocaproic acid (6AA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA). Polyacrylic acid modified the chitosan-film surface and promoted the nucleation of calcium carbonate crystals. In the absence of polyacrylic acid, sporadic nucleation and crystallization was observed via optical microscopy.

  4. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in aqueous solution in the thermally activated persulfate system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minhui; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian; Miao, Zhouwei; Zang, Xueke; Wu, Xiaoliang

    2015-04-01

    Thermal activation of persulfate (PS) has been identified to be effective in the destruction of organic pollutants. The feasibility of carbon tetrachloride (CT) degradation in the thermally activated PS system was evaluated. The experimental results showed that CT could be readily degraded at 50°C with a PS concentration of 0.5M, and CT degradation and PS consumption followed the pseudo-first order kinetic model. Superoxide radical anion (O2(-)) was the predominant radical species responsible for CT degradation and the split of CCl was proposed as the possible reaction pathways for CT degradation. The process of CT degradation was accelerated by higher PS dose and lower initial CT concentration. No obvious effect of the initial pH on the degradation of CT was observed in the thermally activated PS system. Cl(-), HCO3(-), and humic acid (HA) had negative effects on CT degradation. In addition, the degradation of CT in the thermally activated PS system could be significantly promoted by the solvents addition to the solution. In conclusion, the thermally activated PS process is a promising option in in-situ chemical oxidation/reduction remediation for degrading highly oxidized organic contaminants such as CT that is widely detected in contaminated sites. PMID:25544995

  5. Carbon dioxide and organic acids: origin and role in burial diagenesis (Texas Gulf Coast Tertiary)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lundegard

    1985-01-01

    Carbon dioxide produced by decarboxylation of organic matter is not a dominant factor in secondary porosity development. Material balance calculations indicate the amount of feldspar and carbonate dissolution that has taken place in Tertiary sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast far exceeds that which is explainable by decarboxylation. Other potential sources of acid for dissolution reactions include reverse weathering reactions

  6. USE OF THE COMPOSITION AND STABLE CARBONIISOTOPE RATIO OF MICROBIAL FATTY ACIDS TO STUDY CARBON CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotopic ratio (*13C) of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils and sediments as indicators of live microbial biomass levels and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil organic matter (SOM) cy...

  7. Chemical modification of carbon fiber surfaces by nitric acid oxidation followed by reaction with tetraethylenepentamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. U. Pittman; G.-R. He; B. Wu; S. D. Gardner

    1997-01-01

    Amino groups react rapidly with both isocyanates and epoxides. Thus, to prepare carbon fibers which might exhibit enhanced adhesion to both polyurethanes and epoxy resin matrices, attempts were made to introduce a high surface amine concentration onto high-strength carbon fibers (derived from PAN) by nitric acid oxidation followed by reaction with excess tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). Fibers were oxidized with concentrated (70%)

  8. SIMULTANEOUS INHIBITION OF CARBON AND NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN A FOREST SOIL BY SIMULATED ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid Precipitation may alter the rates of microbial processes in soil that are important for forest productivity. Acidification of soil can result in a depression of carbon mineralization. The present study was designed to determine whether the inhibition of carbon mineralization...

  9. Corrosion behavior of cold rolled steel in peracetic acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Qu; Shuan Jiang; Lei Li; Wei Bai; Jun Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of cold rolled steel in different concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) has been studied by electrochemical technique at 0°C, 10°C, 20°C and 30°C, respectively. Electrochemical parameters like corrosion potential, corrosion current density and corrosion rate were determined. The results show that concentrations of PAA and test temperatures can affect the corrosion rate obviously. The corrosion rate increases

  10. A mechanistic study of copper electropolishing in phosphoric acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Mansson

    2005-01-01

    The microelectronics industry is using copper as the interconnect material for microchips. A study of copper electropolishing is important for the process development of a new, low downforce approach, which is being developed to replace chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of the copper overburden. A promising technology is a combination of electropolishing with conventional CMP. Electropolishing of copper in phosphoric acid

  11. The dissociation of ethylenedithiodiacetic acid in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochergina, L. A.; Vasil'Ev, V. P.; Krutov, D. V.; Krutova, O. N.

    2007-05-01

    The dissociation of ethylenedithiodiacetic acid (H2Edtda) was studied by potentiometric titration at 298.15 K and ionic strength values of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 against the background of sodium and lithium nitrates. The concentration and thermodynamic dissociation constants were determined.

  12. Removal characteristics of As(III) and As(V) from acidic aqueous solution by steel making slag.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chamteut; Rhee, Sungsu; Oh, Myounghak; Park, Junboum

    2012-04-30

    This study focused on the environmental risk of steel making slag itself, arsenic removal mechanism and re-leaching possibility of arsenic to aqueous state after the adsorption. The purpose of the study is to promote the use of steel making slag as a low-cost adsorbent for arsenic in aqueous system. Calcium was easily dissolved out from the slag and become the dominant substance in the leachate. Some of the calcium could form amorphous calcium carbonate in alkaline condition, and arsenic in the aqueous solution would be removed by being co-precipitated with or adsorbed onto the amorphous calcium carbonate. Most of the amorphous calcium carbonate containing arsenic would be bound to amorphous iron oxide of the slag. When the slag was used as an adsorbent for arsenic removal, a little amount of toxic chemicals were leached from the slag itself under pH 0.8 to 13.6. Also, 70-80% of arsenic laden on the slag was bound to amorphous iron oxide which would not easily desorb unless given a reducing and complexing condition. Showing 95-100% removal efficiency near initial pH 2, the slag, therefore, could be used as an appropriate adsorbent for eliminating arsenic in acidic aqueous solution. PMID:22349716

  13. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  14. Hydrogen absorption behavior of beta titanium alloy in acid fluoride solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Ogawa; Ken’ichi Yokoyama; Kenzo Asaoka; Jun’ichi Sakai

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption behavior of a beta titanium alloy in acid fluoride solutions has been analyzed by hydrogen thermal desorption. The amount of absorbed hydrogen increased with immersion time in a 2.0% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) solution. In the case of an immersion time of 60h, the amount of absorbed hydrogen exceeded 10000 mass ppm. In contrast, the amount of hydrogen

  15. DYNAMIC CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS IN HUMIC AND FULVIC ACID SOLUTIONS. (R828158)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conductivity changes of dilute aqueous humic and fulvic acids solutions were monitored after the addition of small quantities of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn. The solutions were stirred at a constant and reproducible rate, and measurements proceeded until stable conductivities were atta...

  16. Integrated 3D Acid Fracturing Model for Carbonate Reservoir Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Wu, Xi

    2014-06-23

    in integrating fracture propagation, acid transport and dissolution, and well performance models in a seamless fashion for acid fracturing design. In this new approach, the fracture geometry data of a hydraulic fracture is first obtained from commercial models...

  17. Application of Lactobacillus immobilized by Activated Carbon Fiber in Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Starch Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Peng; Chi, Guoda; Huang, Chenyong

    2010-11-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) as the carrier of Lactobacillus was introduced into fermenting system, and a method of modifying the surface of ACF by HNO3-Fe (III) was established. Factors that affect ACF carrier's effect on immobilization of Lactobacillus were studied. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and FeCl3 solutions were respectively used to modify the surface properties of ACF. The amount of Fe (III) carried on ACF surface was 0.1563 mol/kg after ACF surface was modified by HNO3 for 5 h and then by 0.1 mol/L FeCl3 for 4 h, when the thickness of Lactobacillus on a single silk of carrier reached 40 ?m. When ACF modified by HNO3-Fe (III) was applied in the fermentation of lactic acid in starch industry wastewater, the fermentation period reduced by 8 h and the output of L-lactic acid was 65.5 g/L, which was 3.3% more than that fermented without the carrier.

  18. Acidizing wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1966-01-01

    A method of increasing the permeability of a rock formation by acidizing is applicable to silicate-bearing formations containing alkaline-earth-metal ions and alkali- metal ions which would have a reducing effect on the permeability of the formation. A carbonate solution is injected into the formation to convert any calcium sulfate to calcium carbonate. This is followed by injecting hydrochloric acid to

  19. Towards a Long-Term Solution to Carbon Dioxide Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamiel Gabriel; Huawei Han

    2006-01-01

    The growing threat of global warming caused by the burning of fossil fuels has led scientists to explore solutions such as underground injection of CO2. Possible alternatives for CO2 storage include the oceans, deep saline reservoirs and depleted oil and gas reservoirs. One of the key issues to be addressed with regard to underground reservoir storage is CO2 loss from

  20. Hydrothermal fluxes of solutes, carbon, and heat to Himalayan rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Jared Evans

    2003-01-01

    Hot springs flow along the base of the Himalayan front in the Narayani river basin of central Nepal. The springs flow near the Main Central Thrust (MCT), in a zone characterized by active uplift and high incision and erosion rates. Water-rock interaction at depth results in hydrothermal fluids with high solute loads. Himalayan rivers flowing through the zones of geothermal

  1. Column chromatographic boron isotope separation at 5 and 17 MPa with diluted boric acid solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Musashi; Takao Oi; Motoyuki Matsuo; Masao Nomura

    2008-01-01

    Boron isotopic fractionation factor (S) between boron taken up in strongly basic anion exchange resin and boron in aqueous solution was determined by breakthrough column chromatography at 5 and 17MPa at 25°C, using 0.1mM boric acid solution as feed solution. The S values obtained were 1.018 and 1.012, respectively, which were smaller than the value reported by using the same

  2. Solid-State Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Humic Acids at High Magnetic Field Strengths

    E-print Network

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    commonplace in studies of humic substances in soils and sediments, but when modern high-field spectrometersSolid-State Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Humic Acids at High Magnetic Field Strengths were insignificant, and spectral interference due humic acids taken under a variety of conditions. We

  3. Duboscic acid: a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor with an unprecedented triterpenoidal carbon skeleton from Duboscia macrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Wafo, Pascal; Kamdem, Ramsay S T; Ali, Zulfiqar; Anjum, Shazia; Khan, Shamsun Nahar; Begum, Afshan; Krohn, Karsten; Abegaz, Berhanu M; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2010-12-17

    Duboscic acid (1), a triterpenoid with a unique carbon backbone, was isolated from Duboscia macrocarpa Bocq. It is the first member of a new class of triterpenoids, for which the name "dubosane" is proposed. Duboscic acid has a potent ?-glucosidase inhibition, and its structure was unambiguously deduced by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. PMID:21090700

  4. Carbon Isotope Compositions of Fatty Acids in Mussels from Newfoundland Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Dena E.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.

    1994-09-01

    This paper examines the carbon isotopic compositions of free fatty acids of two species of mussels (i.e. Mytilus edulis and Modiolus modiolus) from two estuarine environments around Newfoundland. Gas chromatography and conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry were employed to characterize bulk fatty acids and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry was utilized to characterize the carbon isotope compositions of individual fatty acids. The bulk fatty acid distribution (dominance of 16:0, 20:5n3, 22:6n3 and 16:1) and carbon isotopic compositions (-27·3 to -25·8 per mil) indicate a dominant marine phytoplankton dietary source for the mussels. In contrast to the narrow range of bulk fatty acid ? 13C values, up to 7 per mil variation in ? 13C of individual fatty acids was observed. In general, saturated fatty acids are isotopically heavier than corresponding mono- and polyunsaturates, consistent with previously suggested kinetic isotope effect associated with de novo desaturation reactions. The depletion of 13 C in 18:4n3 compared with 22:6n3 and 20:5n3 indicates a distinct dietary source for 18:4n3. The present study shows the potential for detailed assessment of carbon flow in benthic ecosystems using fatty acids and other compound classes by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

  5. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  6. Recrystallization of calcium sulfate in phosphoric acid solutions; batchwise operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkamp, G. J.; Seckler, M. M.; Bruinsma, O. S. L.; van Rosmalen, G. M.

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented for the solvent mediated batchwise recrystallization of hemihydrate into dehydrate. The model takes into account the rates of dissolution of hemihydrate and of growth of gypsum. These rates result from the driving forces (under- and supersaturation) that are influenced by temperature and acid concentrations, and from the rate constants, which are mainly affected by impurities. Secondary nucleation can be neglected with respect to the observed recrystallization rates. The presented model can also be applied more generally.

  7. A comparison of water solubility enhancements of organic solutes by aquatic humic materials and commercial humic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chlou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.; Brinton, T.I.; Malcolm, R.L.; Leenheer, J.A.; MacCarthy, P.

    1987-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of 1,1-bis(p-chloro-phenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (p,p???-DDT), 2,4,5,2???,5???-pentachlorobiphenyl (2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB), and 2,4,4???-tri-chlorobiphenyl (2,4,4???-PCB) by dissolved organic matter have been studied with the following samples: (1) acidic water samples from the Suwannee River, Georgia, and the Sopchoppy River, Florida; (2) a humic extract of a nearly neutral pH water from the Calcasieu River, Louisiana; (3) commercial humic acids from the Aldrich Chemical Co. and Fluka-Tridom Chemical Corp. The calculated partition coefficients on a dissolved organic carbon basis (Kdoc) for organic solutes with water samples and aquatic humic extracts from this and earlier studies indicate that the enhancement effect varies with the molecular composition of the aquatic humic materials. The Kdoc values with water and aquatic humic samples are, however, far less than the observed Kdoc values obtained with the two commercial samples, by factors of about 4-20. In view of this finding, one should be cautious in interpreting the effects of the dissolved organic matter on solubility enhancement of organic solutes on the basis of the use of commercial humic acids.

  8. On the formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3) in solar system ices Weijun Zheng a,b

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    On the formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3) in solar system ices Weijun Zheng a,b , Ralf I. Kaiser b) of the formation pro- cesses. Our experimental results indicate that carbonic acid might be present in the solar with energetic electrons in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Our laboratory studies confirm that ­ besides carbon

  9. Adsorption of nickel(II) from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from almond husk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halil Hasar

    2003-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from almond husk by activating without (MAC-I) and with (MAC-II) H2SO4 at different temperatures. The ability of the activated carbon to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption has been investigated under several conditions such as pH, carbonisation temperature of husk, initial concentration of metal ions, contact time, and adsorbent concentration. Optimal conditions were pH

  10. Evolution of pH and chemical composition of pore solution in carbonated concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Pu; Linhua Jiang; Jinxia Xu; Hongqiang Chu; Yi Xu; Yan Zhang

    An investigation of carbonation in concrete, the pH and chemical composition change of the pore solution in concrete with different degrees of carbonation, was presented. The concrete samples were manufactured using ordinary portland cement and fly ash with dimension of 100mm diameter by 3mm in height, and six different mix proportions. The concrete samples were exposed to the environment (CO2

  11. Urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid in workers exposed to carbon disulfide.

    PubMed

    Yang, X F; Lee, B L; New, A L; Ong, H Y; Ma, L; Zhang, Q; Ong, C N

    1996-03-01

    Homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), two end products of dopamine metabolism, were measured in 60 workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS(2)) in a rayon factory and in 48 unexposed workers. The airborne CS(2) concentrations in eight major exposure zones of the plant were measured monthly over a period of 4 years, from 1990 to 1994. In addition, the exposure concentrations and exposure history of each worker were integrated to estimate the overall lifetime exposure. Industrial hygiene data showed that the geometric mean concentrations of CS(2) in the plant ranged from 2.68 to 20.19 ppm, and more than 15% of the studied population had been repeatedly exposed to CS(2) at concentrations exceeding the ACGIH recommended time-weighted average of 10 ppm. The results showed that there was a significantly lower level and a higher proportion of CS(2) workers with decreased HVA and VMA excretion. However, there were no statistical correlations between the two dopaminergic metabolites and the mean CS(2) concentration, and years of employment. In contrast, significant dose-effect relationships were observed between these two metabolites and the integrated cumulative exposure (ICE) variable. The correlation coefficients for ICE and HVA, and ICE and VMA were -0.35 (p < 0.01) and -0.20 (p <0.05), respectively. These data suggest that chronic exposure to CS(2) was associated with measurable reduction in catecholamine metabolite concentrations. This finding is compatible with the earlier observations in laboratory animals that CS(2) exposures interfere with neurochemical metabolism. PMID:8833779

  12. Mathematical Model of Carbon Dioxide Absorption into Mixed Aqueous Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Mores; Nicolas Scenna; Sergio Mussati

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model of CO2 chemical absorption system using MDEA (MethylDiEthanolAmine) and PZ (Piperazine) aqueous solutions is investigated. Precisely, the complex reactive absorption behavior is modeled by an NLP mathematical model. The resulting mathematical model is implemented in GAMS and CONOPT is used as NLP solver. The proposed model will allow to optimize the operating conditions to

  13. Investigation of inhibition effect of some amino acids against steel corrosion in HCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Majidi, M. R.; Seyyedi, K.

    2004-03-01

    The inhibition effect of three amino acids against steel corrosion in HCl solutions has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization method. Corrosion data such as corrosion rate, corrosion potential ( Ecorr) and corrosion resistance ( Rp) were determined by extrapolation of the cathodic and anodic Tafel region. Adsorption isotherm was investigated by weight-loss measurement. The used amino acids were alanine, glycine and leucine. The effect of inhibitor concentration and acid concentration against inhibitor action was investigated. The inhibition efficiency (IE) depended on the type of amino acid and its concentration. The inhibition effect ranged from 28 to 91%. The amino acids act as a corrosion inhibitor in HCl solution through adsorption on the steel surface and adsorption follows Langmuir isotherm.

  14. Stable carbon isotope ratios of fatty acids in seagrass and redhead ducks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Trust Hammer; Marilyn L. Fogel; Thomas C. Hoering

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acids were extracted from roots and rhizomes of the seagrass, Halodule wrightii, and from subcutaneous fat tissues of eight redhead ducks (Aythya americana) collected either in Texas or South Dakota. Stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) of individual fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography\\/combustion\\/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC\\/C\\/IRMS). In cases where individual fatty acids were not completely resolved by

  15. Arsenopyrite mineral based electrochemical sensor for acid–base titrations in ? -butyrolactone and propylene carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zorka Stani?; Jelena Stepanovi?; Zoran Simi?

    \\u000a Abstract  A novel acid–base sensor based on the natural mineral arsenopyrite for titrations in ?-butyrolactone and propylene carbonate is validated and studied. This sensor, which requires only small sample volumes, was\\u000a employed for the titrations of some important organic acids (benzoic, anthranilic, and salicylic acid) with potassium hydroxide.\\u000a A stable stationary potential was attained at the arsenopyrite electrode in ?-butyrolactone and

  16. Roles of oleic acid during micropore dispersing preparation of nano-calcium carbonate particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiuxin Jiang; Jie Liu; Chang Liu; Gaowen Zhang; Xinghou Gong; Jianing Liu

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, nano-calcium carbonate powder was prepared by micropore dispersion method with assistance of oleic acid as surfactant. CO2 gas was dispersed into the Ca(OH)2\\/H2O slurry via a glass micropore-plate with the diameter of micropore about 20?m. To investigate the effect of oleic acid on the size of CaCO3 particles, different amount of oleic acid was added in

  17. Simplified Fixed Bed Design Models for the Adsorption of Acid Dyes on Novel Pine Cone Derived Activated Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahdi Hadi; Mohammad Reza Samarghandi; Gordon McKay

    2011-01-01

    A novel activated carbon has been prepared by the activation of ground pine cones using phosphoric acid activation, and the\\u000a nitrogen Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area was 869 m2 g?1. Equilibrium isotherms were performed to assess the capacity of the activated carbon using two acidic dyes, namely Acid Blue\\u000a 113 and Acid Black 1. The monolayer equilibrium isotherm capacities of Acid Blue 113 and

  18. X-ray microtomography of hydrochloric acid propagation in carbonate rocks.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Oliveira, T J L; Cruz, F B; Lopes, R T; Lima, I

    2015-02-01

    Acid treatments are used in the oil and gas industry, to increase the permeability of the carbonate reservoirs by creating preferential channels, called wormholes. Channels formation is strongly influenced by acid type and injection rate. The aim of this study is to evaluate some characteristics of the microporous system of carbonate rocks, before and after acidizing. For that purpose X-ray high-resolution microtomography was used. The results show that this technique can be used as a reliable method to analyze microstructural characteristics of the wormholes. PMID:25485884

  19. Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres and their acid catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Jianming; Zhang, Yuxiao; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres bearing sulfonic acid groups (MPCS-SO3H) were prepared by incomplete carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by sulfonation and removal of the template. The composition and porous structure of the obtained carbon spheres were investigated by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. The catalytic properties of the MPCS-SO3H were evaluated by esterification of ethanol with acetic acid, indicating that MPCS-SO3H possess remarkable catalytic performance (high stability and acid catalytic ability) for the esterification.

  20. Interfacial structures of acidic and basic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, C.; Ji, N.; Waychunas, G.; Shen, Y.R.

    2008-10-20

    Phase-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was used to study water/vapor interfaces of HCl, HI, and NaOH solutions. The measured imaginary part of the surface spectral responses provided direct characterization of OH stretch vibrations and information about net polar orientations of water species contributing to different regions of the spectrum. We found clear evidence that hydronium ions prefer to emerge at interfaces. Their OH stretches contribute to the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum. Their charges create a positive surface field that tends to reorient water molecules more loosely bonded to the topmost water layer with oxygen toward the interface, and thus enhances significantly the 'liquid-like' band in the spectrum. Iodine ions in solution also like to appear at the interface and alter the positive surface field by forming a narrow double-charge layer with hydronium ions. In NaOH solution, the observed weak change of the 'liquid-like' band and disappearance of the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum indicates that OH{sup -} ions must also have excess at the interface. How they are incorporated in the interfacial water structure is however not clear.

  1. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, N. V.; Trofymenko, S. I.; Poddubnaya, O. I.; Tsyba, M. M.; Sapsay, V. I.; Klymchuk, D. O.; Puziy, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 °C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (SBET = 2081 m2/g, Vtot = 1.1 cm3/g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0-2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7-5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7-7.4; 8.8-9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1-10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  2. The kinetics of oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. V.; Kochergin, B. A.; Antina, E. V.

    2012-07-01

    The results of a comparative study of the oxidation of bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and their mixture in aqueous solutions under the action of air oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are presented. The observed and true rate constants for the oxidation reactions were determined. It was shown that the oxidation of tetrapyrrole pigment occurred under these conditions bypassing the stage of biliverdin formation to monopyrrole products. Simultaneous oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid was shown to be accompanied by the inhibition of ascorbic acid oxidation by bilirubin, whereas ascorbic acid itself activated the oxidation of bilirubin.

  3. Prediction of acidity in acetonitrile solution with COSMO-RS.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Frank; Leito, Ivo; Kaljurand, Ivari; Kütt, Agnes; Klamt, Andreas; Diedenhofen, Michael

    2009-04-15

    The COSMO-RS method, a combination of the quantum chemical dielectric continuum solvation model COSMO with a statistical thermodynamics treatment for realistic solvation simulations, has been used for the prediction of pK(a) values in acetonitrile. For a variety of 93 organic acids, the directly calculated values of the free energies of dissociation in acetonitrile showed a very good correlation with the pK(a) values (r(2) = 0.97) in acetonitrile, corresponding to a standard deviation of 1.38 pK(a) units. Thus, we have a prediction method for acetonitrile pK(a) with the intercept and the slope as the only adjusted parameters. Furthermore, the pK(a) values of CH acids yielding large anions with delocalized charge can be predicted with a rmse of 1.12 pK(a) units using the theoretical values of slope and intercept resulting in truly ab initio pK(a) prediction. In contrast to our previous findings on aqueous acidity predictions the slope of the experimental pK(a) versus theoretical DeltaG(diss) was found to match the theoretical value 1/RT ln (10) very well. The predictivity of the presented method is general and is not restricted to certain compound classes. However, a systematic correction of -7.5 kcal mol(-1) is required for compounds that do not allow electron-delocalization in the dissociated anion. The prediction model was tested on a diverse test set of 129 complex multifunctional compounds from various sources, reaching a root mean square deviation of 2.10 pK(a) units. PMID:18727157

  4. Activity and stability of immobilized carbonic anhydrase for promoting CO 2 absorption into a carbonate solution for post-combustion CO 2 capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shihan Zhang; Zhaohui Zhang; Yongqi Lu; Massoud Rostam-Abadi; Andrew Jones

    2011-01-01

    An Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP) currently under development could significantly reduce the energy consumed when capturing CO2 from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants. The biocatalyst carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been found to effectively promote the absorption of CO2 into the potassium carbonate solution that would be used in the IVCAP. Two CA enzymes were immobilized onto

  5. Solution and shock-induced exsolution of argon in vitreous carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, Carey; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    To add to the knowledge of noble gas solution and exsolution in carbonaceus material, experiments were performed on vitreous carbon. Ar-rich vitreous carbon samples were prepared under vapor-saturated conditions using argon as the pressurizing medium. Solubility data were obtained for temperatures of 773 to 973 K and pressures of 250 to 1500 bars. Up to 7 wt pct Ar was dissolved in the carbon. The solubility data were compared to a thermodynamic model of argon atoms dissolving into a fixed population of 'holes' in the carbon. Two variations of the model yielded estimates of the enthalpy of solution of Ar in vitreous carbon equal to about -4700 cal/mole. Preliminary shock experiments showed that 28 percent of the total argon was released by driving 4 GPa shocks into the argon-rich carbon. It was demonstrated that shock-induced argon loss is not simply caused by the impact-induced diminution of grain size. The present value of shock pressure required for partial impact devolatilization of Ar from carbon is below the range (5-30 GPa) at which H2O is released from phyllosilicates.

  6. Infrared optical constants of H{sub 2}O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, O.B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)] [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Tolbert, M.A.; Koehler, B.G. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); and others

    1994-12-20

    The authors determined the infrared optical constants of nitric acid trihydrate, nitric acid dihydrate, nitric acid monohydrate, and solid amorphous nitric acid solutions which crystallize to form these hydrates. They have also found the infrared optical constants of H{sub 2}O ice. They measured the transmission of infrared light through thin films of varying thickness over the frequency range from about 7000 to 500 cm {sub {minus}1} at temperatures below 200 K. The authors developed a theory for the transmission of light through a substrate that has thin films on both sides. They used an iterative Kramers-Kronig technique to determine the optical constants which gave the best match between measured transmission spectra and those calculated for a variety of films of different thickness. These optical constants should be useful for calculations of the infrared spectrum of polar stratospheric clouds. 24 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Shiohara, Tomoo; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Manome, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin. PMID:19582225

  8. Study On Adsorption of Bromate From Aqueous Solution On Modified Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong-mian; Cui, Fu-yi; Zhao, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhu, Qi; Wang, Huan

    2010-11-01

    A coal-based activated carbon was treated chemically with nitric acid, sodium hydroxide and ammonia for its surface modification, and its adsorption capacity was investigated with bromate. Several techniques were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of these materials including BET, XPS, pHpzc and Boehm titration. The results indicated that the specific surface area of the activated carbon decreased after oxidation with nitric acid. But the amount of surface acidic oxygen-containing functional groups of the oxidized sample increased compared to the raw carbon and the points of zero charge (pHpzc) decreased. The specific surface area of the activated carbon also decreased after sodium hydroxide treatment and the points of zero charge increased. The changes of surface chemical properties after the ammonia treatment was opposite to the oxidized sample. As a result, the pHpzc of the carbon was increased to near pH9.3, the amount of surface basic groups was increased. Furthermore, the data of bromate adsorption on all the samples were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model well which indicates monolayer adsorption. In addition, the adsorption capacity of ammonia treatment sample was the highest and its saturated adsorption capacity reached 1.55 mg/g. A strong correlation was found between basic groups and adsorption capacity of bromate. Enhancement of basic groups was favorable for bromate removal.

  9. Adsorption of Pyridine from Aqueous Solution by Surface Treated Carbon Nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Zhao; Duan Qiu

    2007-01-01

    The surface treatment of multi?walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with acid, heat, ultrasonic, and polyvinyl alcohol has been examined. The original CNTs and four treated CNTs were first used as adsorbents to remove pyridine from water and the adsorption isotherms of pyridine on CNTs were studied. At the same time, the effect of pH, temperature, and the adsorption kinetics on the

  10. Evaluation of peritoneal dialysis solutions with amino acids and glycerol in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Faict, D; Lameire, N; Kesteloot, D; Peluso, F

    1991-01-01

    In this study a simple rat model for evaluating the ultrafiltration by peritoneal dialysis solutions is described. Anaesthetised male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with dialysis solutions. Zero, 1, 3, or 6 h later, the dialysate volume was determined directly: the abdomen was carefully opened, the intraperitoneal liquid was withdrawn with a syringe and its volume was measured. Good recovery of dialysate, highly reproducible results, and the similarity between the ultrafiltration profiles in rats and published profiles in CAPD patients for control solutions, indicate that the model is valid. The model was then used to evaluate peritoneal dialysis solutions containing a mixture of glycerol and amino acids. Both osmotic agents are chemically compatible and these mixtures provide amino acids and carbohydrates in a single solution. For three mixtures, intraperitoneal dialysate volume were determined as a function of dwell time and the formulation with the desired ultrafiltration could be selected. PMID:1857524

  11. Ultrasonic Studies of 4-Aminobutyric Acid in Aqueous Metformin Hydrochloride Solutions at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, K.; Jayabalakrishnan, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Ultrasonic speeds and density data of 4-aminobutyric acid in 0.05 M, 0.10 M, and 0.15 M aqueous metformin hydrochloride (MFHCl) solutions are measured at 308.15 K, 313.15 K, and 318.15 K. The isentropic compressibility ( k S ), the change in isentropic compressibility (? k S ), the relative change in isentropic compressibility ({? k_S/k_S^0}), the apparent molal compressibility ({k_?}), the limiting apparent molal compressibility ({k_?^0 }), the transfer limiting apparent molal compressibility ({? k_?^0}), the hydration number ( n H), and the pair and triplet interaction parameters ( k AH, k AHH) are estimated. The above parameters are used to interpret the solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions of 4-aminobutyric acid in aqueous MFHCl solutions.

  12. Fumaric acid: an overlooked form of fixed carbon in Arabidopsis and other plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Chia, D.W.; Yoder, T.J.; Reiter, W.D.; Gibson, S.I.

    2000-10-01

    Photoassimilates are used by plants for production of energy, as carbon skeletons and in transport of fixed carbon between different plant organs. Many studies have been devoted to characterizing the factors that. regulate photoassimilate concentrations in different plant species. Most studies examining photoassimilate concentrations in C{sub 3} plants have focused on analyzing starch and soluble sugars. However, work presented here demonstrates that a number of C{sub 3} plants, including the popular model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and agriculturally important plants, such as soybean [Glycine ma (L.) Merr.], contain significant quantities of furnaric acid. In fact, furnaric acid can accumulate to levels of several mg per g fresh weight in A-abidopsis leaves, often exceeding starch and soluble sugar levels. Furnaric acid is a component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, like starch and soluble sugars, can be metabolized to yield energy and carbon skeletons for production of other compounds. Fumaric acid concentrations increase with plant age and light intensity in Arabidopsis leaves. Arabidopsis phloem exudates contain significant quantities of fumaric acid, raising the possibility that fumaric acid may function in carbon transport.

  13. Adsorption of Phenol and Basic Dye on Carbon Nanotubes\\/Carbon Fabric Composites from Aqueous Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Pin Wang; Hsi-Chi Yang; Chien-Te Hsieh

    2010-01-01

    The liquid-phase adsorption of phenol and dye (basic violet 10) onto carbon nanotube (CNT)-activated carbon fabric (ACF) composites, prepared by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) approach, has been investigated. The CCVD technique enables the decoration of CNTs on microscaled ACFs, creating a hierarchy CNT-ACF composite. The as-grown nanotubes were found to have a tortuous shape and to be several

  14. Electrothermal vaporization of mineral acid solutions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: comparison with sample nebulization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Juan; Gras, Luis; van Veen, Eric H.; de Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T. C.

    1999-06-01

    The analytical behaviour of an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device for the introduction of mineral acid solutions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was evaluated. Water, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, perchloric acid and sulphuric acid in concentrations within the 0.05-1.0 mol l-1 range were studied. For all the acids tested, increasing the acid concentration increases the ion signal and deteriorates the precision. The magnitude of the signal enhancement depends on the analyte and on the acid considered. Acid solutions give rise to ion signals that are between 2 and 10 times higher than those with water. Among the acids tested, sulphuric acid provides the highest signals. The addition of palladium reduces matrix effects due to the acids and increases the signal in ETV ICP-MS. In comparison with conventional sample nebulization (CS), the ETV sample introduction system provides higher sensitivities (between 2 and 20 times higher) at the same acid concentration. The magnitude of this improvement is similar to that obtained with a microwave desolvation system (MWDS). The ETV sample introduction system gives rise to the lowest background signals from matrix-induced species. Due to this fact, the limits of detection (LODs) obtained for the isotopes affected by any interference are lower for ETV sample introduction than those obtained with the CS and the MWDS. For the isotopes that do not suffer from matrix-induced spectral interferences, the ETV gives rise to LODs higher than those obtained with the CS. For these isotopes the lowest LODs are obtained with MWDS.

  15. Adsorption of Furfural from Aqueous Solution onto Activated Carbon: Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashwani Kumar Sahu; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Indra Deo Mall; Dilip H. Lataye

    2008-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the influence of various experimental parameters viz. initial pH (pH0), adsorbent dose, contact time, initial concentration and temperature on the adsorptive removal of furfural from aqueous solution by commercial grade activated carbon (ACC). Optimum conditions for furfural removal were found to be pH0 ? 5.9, adsorbent dose ? 10 g\\/l of solution and equilibrium time

  16. Surface modification of carbon nanotubes for enhancing BTEX adsorption from aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chungsying Lu; Fengsheng Su; Suhkai Hu

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition method and oxidized by HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and NaOCl solutions for enhancing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene (BTEX) adsorption in an aqueous solution. The surface nature of CNTs was changed after the H2SO4, HNO3 and NaOCl oxidation, which makes CNTs that adsorb more BTEX. The NaOCl-oxidized CNTs show the

  17. Activity of Cu-activated carbon fiber catalyst in wet oxidation of ammonia solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Mao Hung

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of 200–1000mg\\/L of ammonia were oxidized in a trickle-bed reactor using Cu-activated carbon fiber (ACF) catalysts, which were prepared by incipient wet impregnation with aqueous solutions of copper nitrate that was deposited on ACF substrates. The results reveal that the conversion of ammonia by wet oxidation in the presence of Cu-ACF catalysts was a function of the metal

  18. Polyaniline–silver composites prepared by the oxidation of aniline with silver nitrate in solutions of sulfonic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrycja Bober; Miroslava Trchová; Jan Prokeš; Martin Varga; Jaroslav Stejskal

    2011-01-01

    Aniline was oxidized with silver nitrate in aqueous solutions of sulfonic acids: camphorsulfonic, methanesulfonic, sulfamic, or toluenesulfonic acids. Polyaniline–silver composites were produced slowly in 4 weeks in good yield, except for the reaction, which took place in sulfamic acid solution, where the yield was low. Polyaniline in the emeraldine form was identified with UV–visible, FTIR, and Raman spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis

  19. Electrochemical protection of zirconium in oxidizing hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yuu, T-L.; Maguire, M.

    1984-06-01

    An electrochemical protection technique using cathodic polarization to maintain zirconium below its critical repassivation potential was used to avoid pitting and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hydrochloric acid (HCI) containing ferric ions (Fe/sup +3/). Corrosion and pit penetration rates are reported for pickled, abraded, and as-received surface conditions in 10, 20, and 37% HCI containing 50, 100, or 500 ppm Fe/sup +3/ at temperatures to boiling. The pickled surface was the least susceptible to pitting in the 64 day tests. Electrochemical protection is then evaluated for total immersion, partial immersion, U-bend, and constant strain rate tensile tests. Protection is effective in eliminating pitting and SCC in 10 and 20% HCI containing Fe/sup +3/.

  20. Why strong acid pays off in carbonate reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E. Harris; C. W. Crowe; R. W. Dennis

    1966-01-01

    The properties of hydrochloric acid in concentrations greater than 15% and how they can be used to increase formation conductivity, get greater penetration, and shorten well clean-up time are discussed. The factors affecting the fracturing efficiency of a high strength acid include reaction rates, spending time, effect of calcium chloride, fracture penetration, formation etching test, and inhibition. Graphs are included

  1. Gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions. [prebiotic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  2. Formation of amino acids by cobalt-60 irradiation of hydrogen cyanide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, M. A.; Toste, A. P.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the pathway for the prebiotic origin of amino acids from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) under the action of ionizing radiation considered as an effective source of energy on the primitive earth. The irradiations were performed in a cobalt-60 source with a dose rate of 200,000 rad/hr. Seven naturally occurring amino acids are identified among the products formed by the hydrolysis of gamma-irradiated solutions of HCN: glycine, alanine, valine, serine, threonine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. The identity of these amino acids is established by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Control experiments provided evidence that the amino acids are not the result of contamination.

  3. Thermal transformation of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (trans-5-CQA) in alcoholic solutions.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

    2015-01-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA), the ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid supplied to human organisms mainly with coffee, tea, fruit and vegetables, has been one of the most studied polyphenols. It is potentially useful in pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics due to its recently discovered biomedical activity, which revived interest in its properties, isomers and natural occurrence. We found that the heating of the alcoholic solution of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid produced at least twenty compounds (chlorogenic acid derivatives and its reaction products with water and alcohol). The formation of three of them (methoxy, ethoxy and propoxy adducts) has not been reported yet. No reports exist either on methoxy adducts of 3- and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid appearing in buffered methanol/water mixtures at pH exceeding 7. We observed that the amount of each formed component depended on the heating time, type of alcohol, its concentration in alcoholic/water mixture, and pH. PMID:25148959

  4. Carbon monoxide ... the silent killer with an audible solution.

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, E P; Roth, R; Full, R

    1996-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for more poisoning fatalities each year than any other toxic agent. The often insidious nature of the symptom progression and its ability to imitate many common illnesses may result in the failure to diagnose a potentially fatal outcome. CO detectors equipped with an audible alarm can alert potential victims of CO poisoning before toxic sequelae develop. A study was conducted in which all calls to 911 concerning a CO detector in alarm or regarding possible CO poisoning were investigated by a paramedic crew; 101 possible CO exposures were investigated. CO detectors with audible alarms were the genesis of 59.4% of the calls. Detectable CO levels were found in 69.3% of the investigations, and 80% of the homes with detectors had verifiable CO concentrations. The mean CO concentration in homes with detectors was 18.6 ppm, compared with 96.6 ppm when no detector was available; 63.4% of the victims with no alarm were symptomatic, compared with 13.3% of victims with alarms. CO detectors with audible alarms were effective in alerting the potential victims of CO poisoning to its presence. Persons with CO detectors were less likely to become symptomatic from a CO exposure than those who did not have CO detectors. PMID:8765117

  5. Production and characterization of methyl ester sophorolipids with 22-carbon-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Dong; Lee, Jeongmi; Kim, Yong Bum; Han, In-Sun; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2010-05-01

    In this study, various fatty acids of 18 and 22 carbons were used as substrates to produce sophorolipids in Candida bombicola ATCC 22214. Methyl esterification of erucic acid and C22-enriched rapeseed oil generated mainly acidic sophorolipids with different degrees of saturation in the fatty acid chain, which was demonstrated by structural analysis using HPLC, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Regardless of methyl esterification, the rapeseed oil served as the best substrate for high production of sophorolipids among the tested. Methyl esterification also had no noticeable effect on the interfacial properties of sophorolipids. However, 22 carbons introduced in the fatty acid chain increased the hydrophobicity of sophorolipids, and therefore improved surface-active properties and biodegradability. PMID:20053555

  6. Improved corrosion resistance of Hastelloy G-30 in nitric\\/hydrofluoric acid solutions by welding with Inconel 72 weld wire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norby

    1992-01-01

    When welding Hastelloy G-30, secondary phases form in the weld metal. These phases cause the weld metal to be preferentially attacked in nitric acid (HN0â) solutions contaminated with minor amounts of hydrofluoric acid (HF). A post weld solution anneal and water quench is necessary to assure that these phases redissolve into the solid. When a post weld solution anneal and

  7. Colored Solutes, Precipitates and Surface Films Produced by Reactions of Organics in Sulfuric Acid Solutions at Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere Aerosol Acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Montano, S.; Berry, J.; Feick, N.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Le, H.; Khaled, K. A.; Dwisaksono, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Van Wyngarden, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt%). However, recent airborne measurements have shown that these particles may also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds (Murphy et al. 2007). Experiments combining small amounts of organics (glyoxal, methylglyoxal and/or propanal) with sulfuric acid at concentrations typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored solutions, precipitates, and even surface films that have the potential to impact chemical, optical and/or cloud-forming properties of aerosols. Surface films, in particular, would be expected to control these aerosol properties, so the kinetics of film formation were examined to determine the effects of organic mixture, acidity, temperature and exposure to sunlight. Results will be used to assess whether it is possible that such films could exist in the UT/LS in quantities that would be significant enough to impact aerosol chemistry or climate properties.

  8. Ion-exchange behavior of a number of elements on a phosphonic acid cation exchanger in hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Razbash, A.A.; Bykhovskii, D.N.; Sevast'yanov, Yu.G.

    1987-11-01

    The distribution coefficients of 23 elements between the macroporous phosphonic acid cation exchanger KRF-20t-60 and hydrochloric acid solutions with concentrations ranging from 0.1-2.0 M have been determined by a static method. The KRF-20t-60 cation exchanger has a high affinity toward Fe(III), Sc(III), and Ti(IV) ions. A discussion of the results obtained and the possibilities of their use for the separation of various elements has been carried out. An example of the removal of trace amounts of beryllium from macroscopic quantities of lithium has been presented.

  9. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  10. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  11. On the surface diffusion of Pt adatoms in acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubrías, J. J. Martínez; Hidalgo, M.; Marcos, M. L.; Velasco, J. González

    1996-10-01

    Surface diffusion coefficients, Ds, of platinum adatoms were determined by means of in situ electrochemical methods on columnar-structured Pt electrodes immersed in 1M HClO 4, 1M H 3PO 4 and 0.5M H 2SO 4 electrolytic solutions. Measurements were made at different potential values covering the range from hydrogen coverage formation to that in which platinum oxides begin to be formed. The Ds values observed confirm an adsorbate induced relaxation of the Pt surface atoms and could explain why restructuring of Pt electrodes has been observed under some experimental conditions. A study of the variation of D s with temperature leads to values of ?H?f and ?S? at three potentials, which can be explained according to interactions between adsorbates and Pt surface sites. According to the data obtained, a surface diffusion mechanism in three steps is formulated, in which different steps become rate determining at different potential ranges.

  12. Synthesis of Nanostructured Carbon through Ionothermal Carbonization of Common Organic Solvents and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuanqin; Antonietti, Markus; Fellinger, Tim-Patrick

    2015-04-27

    A combination of ionothermal synthesis and hot-injection techniques leads to novel nanocarbons made from organic solvents. Controlled addition of commonly used organic solvents into a hot ZnCl2 melt gives rise to spherical, sheetlike, and branched nanofibrous carbon nanoparticles with surprisingly high carbon efficiency. When heteroatom-containing solvents were used, the doping levels reach up to 14?wt.?% nitrogen and 13?wt.?% sulfur. Materials with high surface areas and large pore volumes of solvent carbons as high as 1666?m(2) ?g(-1) and 2.80?cm(3) ?g(-1) in addition to CO2 adsorption capacities of 4.13?mmol?g(-1) at 273?K and 1?bar can be obtained. The new method works not only for pure carbon materials, but was also extended for the synthesis of carbon/inorganic nanocomposites. ZnS@C, Ni@C, and Co@C were successfully prepared with this straightforward procedure. The obtained Ni@C nanocomposites perform well in the electrocatalytic water oxidation, comparable with commercial noble-metal catalysts. PMID:25740456

  13. Carbon-13 NMR characterization of actinyl(VI) carbonate complexes in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.L.; Hobart, D.E.; Palmer, P.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sullivan, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stout, B.E. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-07-01

    The uranyl(VI) carbonate system has been re-examined using {sup 13}C NMR of 99.9% {sup 13}C-enriched U{sup VI}O{sub 2} ({sup 13}CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} in millimolar concentrations. By careful control of carbonate ion concentration, we have confirmed the existence of the trimer, and observed dynamic equilibrium between the monomer and the timer. In addition, the ligand exchange reaction between free and coordinated carbonate on Pu{sup VI}O{sub 2}({sup 13}CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} and Am{sup VI}O{sub 2}({sup 13}CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} systems has been examined by variable temperature {sup 13}C NMR line-broadening techniques {sup 13}C NMR line-broadening techniques. A modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill NMR pulse sequence was written to allow for experimental determination of ligand exchange parameters for paramagnetic actinide complexes. Preliminary Eyring analysis has provided activation parameters of {Delta}G{sup {double_dagger}}{sub 295} = 56 kJ/M, {Delta}H{sup {double_dagger}} = 38 kJ/M, and {Delta}S{sup {double_dagger}} = {minus}60 J/M-K for the plutonyl triscarbonate system, suggesting an associative transition state for the plutonyl (VI) carbonate complex self-exchange reaction. Experiments for determination of the activation parameters for the americium (VI) carbonate system are in progress.

  14. Carbon-13 NMR characterization of actinyl(VI) carbonate complexes in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.L.; Hobart, D.E.; Palmer, P.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Sullivan, J.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Stout, B.E. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-01-01

    The uranyl(VI) carbonate system has been re-examined using {sup 13}C NMR of 99.9% {sup 13}C-enriched U{sup VI}O{sub 2} ({sup 13}CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} in millimolar concentrations. By careful control of carbonate ion concentration, we have confirmed the existence of the trimer, and observed dynamic equilibrium between the monomer and the timer. In addition, the ligand exchange reaction between free and coordinated carbonate on Pu{sup VI}O{sub 2}({sup 13}CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} and Am{sup VI}O{sub 2}({sup 13}CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} systems has been examined by variable temperature {sup 13}C NMR line-broadening techniques {sup 13}C NMR line-broadening techniques. A modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill NMR pulse sequence was written to allow for experimental determination of ligand exchange parameters for paramagnetic actinide complexes. Preliminary Eyring analysis has provided activation parameters of {Delta}G{sup {double dagger}}{sub 295} = 56 kJ/M, {Delta}H{sup {double dagger}} = 38 kJ/M, and {Delta}S{sup {double dagger}} = {minus}60 J/M-K for the plutonyl triscarbonate system, suggesting an associative transition state for the plutonyl (VI) carbonate complex self-exchange reaction. Experiments for determination of the activation parameters for the americium (VI) carbonate system are in progress.

  15. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  16. Strontium removal from caustic carbonate waste solutions using carrier coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Burgess, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    A carrier coprecipitation procedure has been developed for the radioactive strontium from caustic liquid low-level waste (LLLW) generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The from caustic liquid low-level waste (LLLW) generated at Oak two-step treatment process involves the addition of normal Sr (as SrCl{sub 2}) to the waste matrix, which is composed primarily of 0.3 M NAOH and 0.6 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The active Sr equilibrates with the normal Sr carrier and coprecipitates as SrCO{sub 3} at pH 13. A liquid/solid separation is made before the pH of the supernate is reduced to pH 8 with sulfuric acid. During the neutralization step, the aluminum in the waste precipitates as Al(OH){sub 3} Further Sr decontamination is achieved as traces of active Sr sorb to the Al(OH){sub 3} that precipitates during the neutralization step. A final liquid/solid separation is made at pH 8 to remove the sorbed active Sr.

  17. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Resistance to Sulfuric Acid Solution of Mortars with Quaternary Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhloufi, Zoubir; Bederina, Madani; Bouhicha, Mohamed; Kadri, El-Hadj

    This research consists to study the synergistic action of three mineral additions simultaneously added to the cement. This synergistic effect has a positive effect on the sustainability of limestone mortars. Tests were performed on mortars based on crushed limestone sand and manufactured by five quaternary binders (ordinary Portland cement and CPO mixed simultaneously with filler limestone, blast-furnace and natural pozzolan). The purpose of this research was to identify the resistance of five different mortars to the solution of sulfuric acid. Changes in weight loss and compressive strength measured at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days for each acid solution were studied. We followed up on the change in pH of the sulfuric acid solution at the end of each month up to 180 days.

  18. Sorption performance and mechanism of a sludge-derived char as porous carbon-based hybrid adsorbent for benzene derivatives in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingjun; Xiong, Ya; Sun, Lianpeng; Tian, Shuanghong; Xu, Xianyan; Zhao, Cunyuan; Luo, Rongshu; Yang, Xin; Shih, Kaimin; Liu, Haiyang

    2014-06-15

    A porous sludge-derived char was prepared by a new one-step pyrolytic process with citric acid-ZnCl2 mixed fabricating-pore agents. The sludge-derived char was confirmed to be a hierarchically porous hybrid adsorbent containing-elemental carbon, -highly carbonized organic species and -inorganic ash with a great surface area of 792.4m(2)g(-1). It was used as a carbon-based hybrid adsorbent for four benzene derivatives including 4-chlorophenol, phenol, benzoic acid and 4-hydroxylbenzoic acid in aqueous solution. Results showed that their sorption isotherms were nonlinear at low concentrations and linear at high concentrations. The sorption performance could be described by a multiple sorption model (QT=QA+KPCe). The order of these partition sorption coefficients (KP) of these benzene derivatives was consistent with their octanol-water partition coefficients (logKow), but those saturated amounts (QA) were inconsistent with their logKow. The inconstancy was found to be considerably dependent on the preferential interaction of benzoic acid with SiO2 in the sludge-derived char. Quantum theoretical calculation confirmed that the preferential interaction was attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonds (1.61 and 1.69?) and new Si-O bonds (1.83 and 1.87?) between the carboxyl of benzoic acid and the SiO2 surface in the sorption process. PMID:24793296

  19. Dispersion of Multi?walled Carbon Nanotubes in Aqueous Pluronic F127 Solutions for Biological Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianni Ciofani; Vittoria Raffa; Virginia Pensabene; Arianna Menciassi; Paolo Dario

    2009-01-01

    Because mass?produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are strongly aggregated and highly hydrophobic, processes to make them water soluble are required for biological applications. Suspensions in surfactant solutions are often employed. Among these, Pluronic F127 appear to be highly biocompatible if used at low concentrations. Starting from these results, this work involves a systematic study to clarify the dispersion behaviour of CNTs

  20. Radiolysis of Bicarbonate and Carbonate Aqueous Solutions: Product Analysis and Simulation of Radiolytic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Zhongli; Li Xifeng; Katsumura, Yosuke; Urabe, Osamu [University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-15

    An understanding of the radiation-induced effects in groundwater is essential to evaluate the safe geological disposal of spent fuel. In groundwater, the bicarbonate ion is the predominant and common anion; this work investigated radiation-induced chemical reactions of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions with steady-state irradiation and pulse radiolysis methods. Aqueous solutions of sodium (bi)carbonate as high as 50 mmol.dm{sup -3} were used. The formation of formate, oxalate, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were measured under different conditions. A complete set of reaction steps and reliable kinetic data for the radiolysis of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions at ionic strength close to the groundwater were proposed. Kinetic calculations were completed based on the proposed reaction steps and the kinetic data obtained in the present work. The results from the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental results. With these proposed reaction steps and kinetic data, computer simulation can be performed to predict the yield of radiolytic products of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions as a function of irradiation time and used to evaluate the safety of geological disposal options of spent fuel.

  1. Degradation of dye solution by an activated carbon fiber electrode electrolysis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhemin Shen; Wenhua Wang; Jinping Jia; Jianchang Ye; Xue Feng; An Peng

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of 29 dyes by means of an activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode electrolysis system was performed successfully. Almost all dye solutions tested were decolorized effectively in this ACF electrolysis process. Internal relationships between treatment mechanisms and chemical composition of the dye have been discussed in this paper. Generally, it is shown that higher solubility leads to greater degradation in

  2. Room temperature synthesis of protonated layered titanate sheets using peroxo titanium carbonate complex solution.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Narottam; Sinhamahapatra, Apurba; Pahari, Sandip Kumar; Bajaj, Hari C; Panda, Asit Baran

    2011-07-21

    We report the synthesis of peroxo titanium carbonate complex solution as a novel water-soluble precursor for the direct synthesis of layered protonated titanate at room temperature. The synthesized titanates showed excellent removal capacity for Pb(2+) and methylene blue. Based on experimental observations, a probable mechanism for the formation of protonated layered dititanate sheets is also discussed. PMID:21655555

  3. Sorption of metal ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions by activated carbons produced from waste

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonova, L.P.; Goba, V.E.; Kovtun, M.F.; Tarasenko, Y.A.; Khavryuchenko, V.D.; Lyubchik, S.B.; Boiko, A.N. [National Academy of Science Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-08-15

    Activated carbons produced by thermal treatment of a mixture of sunflower husks, low-grade coal, and refinery waste were studied as adsorbents of transition ion metals from aqueous solutions of various compositions. The optimal conditions and the mechanism of sorption, as well as the structure of the sorbents, were studied.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF LEACHING OF THE SLUDGE OF TUVAKOBALT PLANT USING THE AMMONIUM CARBONATE SOLUTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Timoshenko; SB RAS

    2009-01-01

    Involvement of wastes of Tuvakobalt plant into processing will allow one to recover valuable com- ponents from them: cobalt, nickel, copper etc., and at the same to abandon the wastes as a focus of the regional environmental pollution. We chose the ammonium carbonate method to transfer nonferrous metals from sludge into solution; the advantage of this method is its high

  5. Spectrophotometric measurement of total inorganic carbon in aqueous solutions using a liquid core waveguide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Byrne; Xuewu Liu; E. A. Kaltenbacher; Karen Sell

    2002-01-01

    This work describes spectrophotometric procedures for direct measurements of total inorganic carbon in aqueous solutions. The procedures used for these measurements involve CO2 equilibration across the permeable wall of a Teflon AF-2400 liquid core waveguide. The waveguide acts as both an equilibration membrane and an optical cell in which spectrophotometric pH measurements, obtained via measurements of absorbance ratios, are used

  6. Oxidation of activated carbon with aqueous solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate: Effect on ammonia adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Molina-Sabio; M. Gonçalves; F. Rodríguez-Reinoso

    2011-01-01

    An activated carbon has been oxidized with 1–10wt% aqueous solutions of sodium dichlororisocyanurate (DCI) to introduce oxygen and chlorine surface groups by chemisorption; the formation of chlorine surface groups is important when the concentration of DCI is high, the modification of the microporosity being small. The range of stability of the groups is wide, from groups decomposing at high temperature

  7. Rate Constants for Reactions of Aliphatic Carbon-Centered Radicals in Aqueous Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedatsur Neta; Jan Grodkowski; Alberta B. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for reactions of aliphatic carbon-centered radicals in aqueous solutions have been compiled and evaluated from the literature. Rate constants are included for reactions of radicals with inorganic and organic compounds and for decay by radical–radical reactions. The radicals were generated by radiolysis, photolysis, or other techniques, and their rate constants were determined generally by kinetic spectrophotometry. The

  8. Anion influence in lead removal from aqueous solution by deposition onto a vitreous carbon electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carreño; E. Sosa; I. González; C. Ponce-de-León; N. Batina; M. T. Oropeza

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the electrolytic removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions containing different electrolytes (nitrate, chloride or sulfate), by electrolysis onto reticulated vitreous carbon electrode (RVC). The efficiency of the electrolytic process of lead removal was found to be a function of electrolyte composition. The chloride containing electrolyte, provided the highest efficiency of lead removal, while removing Pb(II) from the sulfate

  9. Solution to Urban Traffic Problem Based on Low-Carbon Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Yao; Cui Jinrong

    2010-01-01

    Low-carbon development will not only provide a solution to urban traffic problems, but also generate other effects, which are energy saving, emission reduction and industrial structure adjustment. These effects are of great significance as to atmospheric environment improvement and national economic development. Therefore, we must take actions, in aspects of acknowledge, urban planning, the factors of traffic supply and demand

  10. Influence of acid functionalization on the cardiopulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and carbon black particles in mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Haiyan; McGee, John K; Saxena, Rajiv K; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Devlin, Robert B; Gilmour, M Ian

    2009-09-15

    Engineered carbon nanotubes are being developed for a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Because of their unique properties, nanotubes can impose potentially toxic effects, particularly if they have been modified to express functionally reactive chemical groups on their surface. The present study was designed to evaluate whether acid functionalization (AF) enhanced the cardiopulmonary toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as control carbon black particles. Mice were exposed by oropharyngeal aspiration to 10 or 40 microg of saline-suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), acid-functionalized SWCNTs (AF-SWCNTs), ultrafine carbon black (UFCB), AF-UFCB, or 2 microg LPS. 24 hours later, pulmonary inflammatory responses and cardiac effects were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage and isolated cardiac perfusion respectively, and compared to saline or LPS-instilled animals. Additional mice were assessed for histological changes in lung and heart. Instillation of 40 microg of AF-SWCNTs, UFCB and AF-UFCB increased percentage of pulmonary neutrophils. No significant effects were observed at the lower particle concentration. Sporadic clumps of particles from each treatment group were observed in the small airways and interstitial areas of the lungs according to particle dose. Patches of cellular infiltration and edema in both the small airways and in the interstitium were also observed in the high dose group. Isolated perfused hearts from mice exposed to 40 microg of AF-SWCNTs had significantly lower cardiac functional recovery, greater infarct size, and higher coronary flow rate than other particle-exposed animals and controls, and also exhibited signs of focal cardiac myofiber degeneration. No particles were detected in heart tissue under light microscopy. This study indicates that while acid functionalization increases the pulmonary toxicity of both UFCB and SWCNTs, this treatment caused cardiac effects only with the AF-carbon nanotubes. Further experiments are needed to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in this phenomenon. PMID:19481103

  11. Influence of acid functionalization on the cardiopulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and carbon black particles in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Haiyan [Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)], E-mail: tong.haiyan@epa.gov; McGee, John K. [Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Saxena, Rajiv K. [School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kodavanti, Urmila P. [Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Devlin, Robert B. [Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Gilmour, M. Ian [Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Engineered carbon nanotubes are being developed for a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Because of their unique properties, nanotubes can impose potentially toxic effects, particularly if they have been modified to express functionally reactive chemical groups on their surface. The present study was designed to evaluate whether acid functionalization (AF) enhanced the cardiopulmonary toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as control carbon black particles. Mice were exposed by oropharyngeal aspiration to 10 or 40 {mu}g of saline-suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), acid-functionalized SWCNTs (AF-SWCNTs), ultrafine carbon black (UFCB), AF-UFCB, or 2 {mu}g LPS. 24 hours later, pulmonary inflammatory responses and cardiac effects were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage and isolated cardiac perfusion respectively, and compared to saline or LPS-instilled animals. Additional mice were assessed for histological changes in lung and heart. Instillation of 40 {mu}g of AF-SWCNTs, UFCB and AF-UFCB increased percentage of pulmonary neutrophils. No significant effects were observed at the lower particle concentration. Sporadic clumps of particles from each treatment group were observed in the small airways and interstitial areas of the lungs according to particle dose. Patches of cellular infiltration and edema in both the small airways and in the interstitium were also observed in the high dose group. Isolated perfused hearts from mice exposed to 40 {mu}g of AF-SWCNTs had significantly lower cardiac functional recovery, greater infarct size, and higher coronary flow rate than other particle-exposed animals and controls, and also exhibited signs of focal cardiac myofiber degeneration. No particles were detected in heart tissue under light microscopy. This study indicates that while acid functionalization increases the pulmonary toxicity of both UFCB and SWCNTs, this treatment caused cardiac effects only with the AF-carbon nanotubes. Further experiments are needed to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in this phenomenon.

  12. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. PMID:23606130

  13. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin comprises 15.25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP.binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute.binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. PMID:23606130

  14. Effects of sulfuric acid rain on two model hardwood forests: throughfall, litter leachate, and soil solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.; Weber, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.6) was applied to model forests containing either sugar maple (Acer saccharum) or red alder (Alnus rubra). Water samples were collected above and below the canopy, below the litter, and from 20 cm and 1 m below the surface of the soil. While throughfall chemistry was not very different from rain chemistry, the litter leachate (the actual input to the soil) had consistently higher concentrations of calcium and magnesium, and higher pH than the acid rain. For the first 6 months, sulfate absorption by the soil prevented any apparent differences in sulfate, calcium, or magnesium concentrations in the 20-cm soil solution among plots receiving acid or control rain treatments. Sulfate concentrations on plots receiving the most acid rain (pH 3.0) then became increasingly higher than on the other plots until after 3 years, they were approximately equal to sulfate concentrations in the rain. Twenty-cm soil solutions corresponding to the pH 3.5 and 4.0 treatments responded similarly starting respectively 1 year and 2 years after initiation of exposure to acid rain. Increased calcium and magnesium concentrations and lowered pH in 20-cm soil solution occurred simultaneously with increased sulfate concentrations. No acid rain related effects were evident in the 1-m soil solution even after 3.5 years exposure to pH 3.0 sulfuric acid rain. Cation responses to increased anion concentrations followed those predicted by a computer-simulation model. However, sulfate concentrations in 20-cm soil solutions increased considerably faster than predicted by a Langmuir formulation of sulfate absorption.

  15. A facile hydrothermal approach towards photoluminescent carbon dots from amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pei, Supeng; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Mengping; Wu, Dongqing; Yang, Yuxing; Liu, Ruili

    2015-02-01

    A facile one-pot method to fabricate photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs) was developed by the hydrothermal treatment of amino acids at mild temperatures. Derived from three different kinds of amino acids including serine, histidine, and cystine, the resultant CDs show uniform spherical morphology with the diameters in the range of ?2.5-4.7nm. These amino acid derived CDs also manifest excellent photoluminescence behavior with the quantum yields (QYs) of ?7.5% and high stability. More importantly, this method provides the opportunity to modify the sizes, structures, and photoluminescent behavior of CDs by the utilization of diversified amino acids with different structural characteristics. PMID:25463184

  16. Equilibrium Speciation of Select Lanthanides in the Presence of Acidic Ligands in Homo and Heterogeneous Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy A

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores lanthanide speciation in liquid solution systems related to separation schemes involving the acidic ligands: bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), lactate, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. Equilibrium speciation of neodymium (Nd3+), sodium (Na+), HDEHP, water, and lactate in the TALSPEAK liquid-liquid extraction system was explored under varied Nd3+ loading of HDEHP in the organic phase and through extraction from aqueous HCl and

  17. Comparing the Titrations of Mixed-Acid Solutions Using Dropwise and Constant-Flow Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Charlesworth; Matthew J. Seguin; David J. Chesney

    2003-01-01

    A mixed-acid solution containing hydrochloric and phosphoric acids was used to determine the error associated with performing a real-time titration. The results were compared against those obtained by performing the titration in a more traditional dropwise addition of titrant near the equivalence points. It was found that the real-time techniques resulted in significantly decreased analysis times while maintaining a low

  18. Dependence of extraction equilibrium of monocarboxylic acid from aqueous solutions on the relative basicity of extractant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinchang Shan; Wei Qin; Youyuan Dai

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes monocarboxylic acid extraction from aqueous solution experiments, using five types of mixed solvents and 12 monocarboxylic acids. From the results of these experiments, a new mathematical model, including a new definition of extractant's basicity (pKa,BS), was developed and validated. Trioctylamine (TOA)\\/1-octanol, TOA\\/methyl iso-butyl ketone (MIBK), TOA\\/tetrachloromethane (CCl4), trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO) \\/1-octanol and TRPO\\/ kerosene, were used as

  19. Evidence for quasi-intramolecular acid-base reactions in solutions of transition metal ammine complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    László Kótai; Tibor Horváth; Klára Szentmihályi; Ágnes Keszler

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of temperature on the postulated quasi-intramolecular acid-base reactions in aqueous solutions of Cu(NH3)4(MnO4)2 and Ag(NH3)2ClO4. Pure ammonium permanganate and perchlorate were obtained above 5 °C and at room temperature, respectively, due to quasi-intramolecular acid-base reactions.

  20. Pressure-Activated Microsyringe Composite Scaffold of Poly(L-lactic acid) and Carbon Nanotubes for Bone Tissue Engineering

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    Pressure-Activated Microsyringe Composite Scaffold of Poly(L-lactic acid) and Carbon Nanotubes biocompatibility. In this study, we microfabricated three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds by mixing poly(L-lactic acid

  1. Phase equilibria in a system of aqueous arginine with an octane solution of sulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvaeva, Z. I.; Koval'chuk, I. V.; Vodop'yanova, L. A.; Soldatov, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    The extraction of arginine (Arg) from aqueous salt (0.1 M NaCl) solutions with a sulfo extractant in a wide range of pH values and amino acid concentrations was studied. The 0.1 M solution of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HD) in octane was used as an extractant. The degree of extraction was found to be high at pH 0.8-9.0. This can be explained by the effect of additional intermolecular interactions in the extractant phase involving the guanidine group of Arg.

  2. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of mesoporous activated carbon with acidic groups].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Yu-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons containing acidic groups were prepared with cotton stalk based fiber as raw materials and H3PO4 as activating agent by one step carbonization method. Effects of impregnation ratio, carbonization temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition, oxygen-containing acid functional groups and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon AC-01 for p-nitroaniline and Pb(II) was studied, and the adsorption mechanism was also suggested according to the equilibrium experimental results. The maximum yield of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk fiber reached 35.5% when the maximum mesoporous volume and BET surface area were 1.39 cm3 x g(-1) and 1 731 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The activated carbon AC-01 prepared under a H3 PO4/precursor ratio of 3:2 and activated at 900 degrees C for 90 min had a total pore volume of 1.02 cm3 x g(-1), a micoporous ratio of 31%, and a mesoporous ratio of 65%. The pore diameter of the mesoporous activated carbon was mainly distributed in the range of 2-5 nm. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) and p-nitroaniline on cotton stalk fiber activated carbon were 123 mg x g(-1) and 427 mg x g(-1), respectively, which were both higher than those for commercial activated carbon fiber ACF-CK. The equilibrium adsorption experimental data showed that mesopore and oxygen-containing acid functional groups played an important role in the adsorption. PMID:23947073

  3. Free Energetics of Carbon Nanotube Association in Pure and Aqueous Ionic Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shuching; Patel, Sandeep; Bauer, Brad A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a promising platform across a broad spectrum of applications ranging from separations technology, drug delivery, to bio(electronic) sensors. Proper dispersion of carbon nanotube materials is important to retaining the electronic properties of nanotubes. Experimentally it has been shown that salts can regulate the dispersing properties of CNTs in aqueous system with surfactants (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131:1144–1153); details of the physico-chemical mechanisms underlying such effects continue to be explored. We address the effects of inorganic monovalent salts (NaCl and NaI) on dispersion stability of carbon nanotubes. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations using non-polarizable interaction models to compute the potential of mean force between two (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in the presence of NaCl/NaI and compare to the potential of mean force between SWNTs in pure water. Addition of salts enhances stability of the contact state between two SWNT’s on the order of 4 kcal/mole. The ion-specific spatial distribution of different halide anions gives rise to starkly different contributions to the free energy stability of nanotubes in the contact state. Iodide anion directly stabilizes the contact state to a much greater extent than chloride anion. The enhanced stability arises from the locally repulsive forces imposed on nanotubes by the surface-segregated iodide anion. Within the timescale of our simulations, both NaI and NaCl solutions stabilize the contact state by equivalent amounts. The marginally higher stability for contact state in salt solutions recapitulates results for small hydrophobic solutes in NaCl solutions (Athawale et al, J. Phys. Chem. B., 112, 5661. 2008) as well as single walled carbon nanotubes in NaCl and CaCl2 aqueous solutions. PMID:22780909

  4. Stability of antimicrobial activity of peracetic acid solutions used in the final disinfection process.

    PubMed

    Costa, Solange Alves da Silva; De Paula, Olívia Ferreira Pereira; Silva, Célia Regina Gonçalves E; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The instruments and materials used in health establishments are frequently exposed to microorganism contamination, and chemical products are used before sterilization to reduce occupational infection. We evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness, physical stability, and corrosiveness of two commercial formulations of peracetic acid on experimentally contaminated specimens. Stainless steel specimens were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, blood, and saliva and then immersed in a ready peracetic acid solution: 2% Sekusept Aktiv (SA) or 0.25% Proxitane Alpha (PA), for different times. Then, washes of these instruments were plated in culture medium and colony-forming units counted. This procedure was repeated six times per day over 24 non-consecutive days. The corrosion capacity was assessed with the mass loss test, and the concentration of peracetic acid and pH of the solutions were measured with indicator tapes. Both SA and PA significantly eliminated microorganisms; however, the SA solution was stable for only 4 days, whereas PA remained stable throughout the experiment. The concentration of peracetic acid in the SA solutions decreased over time until the chemical was undetectable, although the pH remained at 5. The PA solution had a concentration of 500-400 mg/L and a pH of 2-3. Neither formulation induced corrosion and both reduced the number of microorganisms (p = 0.0001). However, the differences observed in the performance of each product highlight the necessity of establishing a protocol for optimizing the use of each one. PMID:25715037

  5. Recovery of water and acid from leach solutions using direct contact membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Kesieme, Uchenna K; Milne, Nicholas; Cheng, Chu Yong; Aral, Hal; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for acid and water recovery from a real leach solution generated by a hydrometallurgical plant. The leach solutions considered contained H2SO4 or HCl. In all tests the temperature of the feed solution was kept at 60 °C. The test work showed that fluxes were within the range of 18-33 kg/m(2)/h and 15-35 kg/m(2)/h for the H2SO4 and HCl systems, respectively. In the H2SO4 leach system, the final concentration of free acid in the sample solution increased on the concentrate side of the DCMD system from 1.04 M up to 4.60 M. The sulfate separation efficiency was over 99.9% and overall water recovery exceeded 80%. In the HCl leach system, HCl vapour passed through the membrane from the feed side to the permeate. The concentration of HCl captured in the permeate was about 1.10 M leaving behind only 0.41 M in the feed from the initial concentration of 2.13 M. In all the experiments, salt rejection was >99.9%. DCMD is clearly viable for high recovery of high quality water and concentrated H2SO4 from spent sulfuric acid leach solution where solvent extraction could then be applied to recover the sulfuric acid and metals. While HCl can be recovered for reuse using only DCMD. PMID:24569289

  6. Grafting of Polyesters from Carbon Fiber. Anionic Ring-Opening Copolymerization of Epoxides with Cyclic Acid Anhydrides Initiated by COOK Groups on the Surface of Carbon Fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Tsubokawa; Hiroshi Hamada; Yasuo Sone

    1989-01-01

    To modify the surface of carbon fiber, the anionic grafting of polyesters from potassium carboxylate (COOK) groups on the surface was investigated. The COOK groups were introduced onto the surface of carbon fiber by the reaction of carboxyl groups (introduced by the oxidation of the surface with nitric acid) with potassium hydroxide. Untreated carbon fiber has no ability to initiate

  7. Degradation of 17beta-estradiol in aqueous solution by ozonation in the presence of manganese(II) and oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liying; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Jianmeng; Ji, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Natural estrogens, such as 17beta-estradiol (E2), are the main substances responsible for estrogenic activity found in domestic sewage. In the work described herein, the degradation of E2 has been investigated by single ozonation and catalytic ozonation in the presence of manganese ion (Mn2+) and oxalic acid. The presence of Mn2+ and oxalic acid in the ozonation processes significantly improved the E2 degradation and, hence, the reduction of estrogenic activity in aqueous solution. The addition of Mn2+ and oxalic acid produced many more hydroxyl radicals in the catalytic ozonation system than in the single ozonation system. Oxidation products formed during ozonation of E2 have been identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), on the basis of which a possible reaction pathway for E2 degradation by ozonation is proposed. E2 was first oxidized to hydroxyl-semiquinone isomers, and these were subsequently degraded to low molecular weight compounds such as oxalic acid and malonic acid. The latter were easily oxidized by ozone to form carbon dioxide (CO2). The results demonstrate that the ozonation-Mn(2+)-oxalic acid system may serve as a powerful tool for removing E2, and the addition of Mn2+ and oxalic acid is favourable for the complete removal of estrogenic activity induced by steroid estrogens in aqueous solution. PMID:23530323

  8. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  9. Grafting molecularly imprinted poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) onto the surface of carbon microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongzhen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2012-06-01

    Poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) was grafted on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs), which were modified in prior by a mixed acid (HNO3 and H2SO4) oxidation and 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane silanization. Then, the molecularly imprinting polymerization was carried out towards the macromolecule PAMPS grafted on the surface of CMSs using dibenzothiophene (DBT) as template, ethylene dimethacrylate as cross-linking agent and (NH4)2S2O8 (APS) as initiator to prepare surface molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP-PAMPS/CMSs) for adsorbing DBT. The optimized conditions of grafting PAMPS, including AMPS dosage, APS content, reaction temperature and reaction time, were emphasized in this paper. The morphology of the samples was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The functional groups were analyzed qualitatively by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The grafting degree of PAMPS was investigated by thermogravimetry. The results show that the preferable AMPS dosage, APS content, reaction temperature and time were 5 g, 0.15 g, 70 °C and 12 h, respectively, for preparing PAMPS/CMSs composite on the basis of 1.0 g of silanized-CMSs. The absorbing characteristic of MIP-PAMPS/CMSs toward DBT was studied preliminarily with dynamic adsorption. In the experiment of dynamic adsorption, MIP-PAMPS/CMSs and non-imprinted polymer (NIP-PAMPS/CMSs) were compared with respect to their rapid adsorption in 1 mmol/L of DBT solution in n-hexane. When the first 1 mL of 1 mmol/L DBT solution was injected and flowed through a column packed with 0.1 g of MIP-PAMPS/CMSs, the content of DBT reduced to 0.265 mmol/L, that is, decreased significantly from 279 to 74 ppm. When 3 mL of DBT solution was flowed through the packed column, the adsorption of MIP-PAMPS/CMSs toward DBT reached saturation with the maximum adsorption amount of 1.38 × 10-2 mmol/g and the overall adsorption efficiency of 46%, while NIP-PAMPS/CMSs adsorbed only 1.66 × 10-3 mmol/g of DBT. It is suggested that the MIP-PAMPS/CMSs had much better adsorption property towards DBT than NIP-PAMPS/CMSs.

  10. Distribution and thermal desorption behavior of hydrogen in titanium alloys immersed in acidic fluoride solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Ogawa; Ken’ichi Yokoyama; Kenzo Asaoka; Jun’ichi Sakai

    2005-01-01

    The distribution and thermal desorption behavior of hydrogen in alpha titanium (commercial pure titanium) and beta titanium alloy (Ti–11.3Mo–6.6Zr–4.3Sn) immersed in acidic fluoride solutions (pH 5.0, 25±2°C) have been investigated. For alpha titanium, most of the hydrogen absorbed in the fluoride solution existed as titanium hydride within approximately 50?m from the surface of the specimen. The local hydrogen concentration in

  11. SELECTIVE RECOVERY OF GOLD FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING RESINS WITH METHYLENEDIPHOSPHONATE AND CARBOXYMETHYLPHOSPHONATE LIGANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej W. Trochimczuk

    2001-01-01

    The polymeric resins with methylenediphosphonate and carboxymethylphosphonate ligands in the ethyl ester form have been synthesized, characterized and used in the removal of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. It has been found that they are able to adsorb as much as 130–166 mg Au\\/g of the resin at high concentration of the external solutions. At low concentrations affinity of resins

  12. Nanosized barium ferrite powders prepared by spray pyrolysis from citric acid solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Ha Kim; Dae Soo Jung; Yun Chan Kang; Jeong Hoo Choi

    2009-01-01

    Highly crystalline nanosized barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) powders were prepared by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution containing a high concentration of the metal components. The precursor powders obtained from the spray solution containing citric acid were amorphous with a porous and hollow structure. Purely crystalline and fine BaFe12O19 powders were obtained after post-treatment between 700 and 1000°C and subsequent mechanical

  13. Influence of Fluoride on the Rate of Dissolution of Hydroxyapatite in Acidic Buffer Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Magrill

    1975-01-01

    The solubility of powdered hydroxyapatite (HA) in acidic buffer solution (pH 4.65) was reduced by 71% by adding sufficient fluoride (F––; either by previously treating the HA with NaF solution or by introducing NaF at the start of the dissolution) to replace approximately 25% of all surface unit cell OH–– ions. The same amount of F–– was less effective if

  14. EXTRACTION OF PLUTONIUM BY HEXONE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS CONTAINING NITRIC ACID

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1951-01-01

    A general study has been made of the chemistry of plutonium-hexone systems containing nitric acid. The greater part of the work consisted of investigating the extent to which hexone extracted plutonium from aqueous solutions. A study of aqueous Pu(III) solutions in contact with hexone showed that the small amount of plutonium appearing in the hexone phase was in the 4-valent

  15. One-Pot synthesis of phosphorylated mesoporous carbon heterogeneous catalysts with tailored surface acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Bauer, Christopher [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Soft-templated phosphorylated mesoporous carbons with homogeneous distributions of phosphate groups were prepared by a 'one-pot' synthesis method using mixtures of phosphoric acid with hydrochloric, or nitric acids in the presence of Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer. Adjusting the various ratios of phosphoric acid used in these mixtures resulted in carbons with distinct adsorption, structural and surface acidity properties. The pore size distributions (PSDs) from nitrogen adsorption at -196 C showed that mesoporous carbons exhibit specific surface areas as high as 551 m{sup 2}/g and mesopores as large as 13 nm. Both structural ordering of the mesopores and the final phosphate contents were strongly dependent on the ratios of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in the synthesis gels, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The number of surface acid sites determined from temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) were in the range of 0.3-1.5 mmol/g while the active surface areas are estimated to comprise 5-54% of the total surface areas. Finally, the conversion temperatures for the isopropanol dehydration were lowered by as much as 100 C by transitioning from the least acidic to the most acidic catalysts surface.

  16. Solvent extraction of neptunium(IV) from nitric acid solutions by sulphoxides and their mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Shukla; S. A. Pai; M. S. Subramanian

    1980-01-01

    Studies have been performed on the liquid-liquid extraction of neptunium from nitric acid solutions by di-n-hexylsulphoxide\\u000a (DHSO) di-no-octylsulphoxide (DOSO) and di-iso-amylsulphoxide (DISO) and their mixtures over a wide range of conditions. At\\u000a a given strength of the extractant, extraction of Np(IV) increases initially rapidly with increase in the acid concentration;\\u000a at high acidities, above 8M HNO3, the extraction decreases. Under

  17. Potentiometric determination of free acidity and uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Anwar; D. Mohammad

    1989-01-01

    Free acid and uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions have been determined potentiometrically using Na2SO4–NaOH, Na2SO4–Na2CO3 and (NH4)2SO4–NaOH complexant-titrant combinations. The overall recovery of nitric acid varies in the range of 95.25 to 118.5%, depending upon the acid as well as the total uranium present, while that of uranium always a positive bias ranging from 100.2 to 106.4%. The results have

  18. An Examination of the Carbon Isotope Effects Associated with Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, James H.; O'Brien, Diane M.; Emerson, David; Sun, Henry; McDonald, Gene D.; Salgado, Antonio; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    2006-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) were determined for alanine, proline, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate (aspartic acid and asparagine), glutamate (glutamic acid and glutamine), lysine, serine, glycine, and threonine from metabolically diverse microorganisms. The microorganisms examined included fermenting bacteria, organotrophic, chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, methylotrophic, methanogenic, acetogenic, acetotrophic, and naturally occurring cryptoendolithic communities from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Here we demonstrated that reactions involved in amino acid biosynthesis can be used to distinguish amino acids formed by life from those formed by nonbiological processes. The unique patterns of ?13C imprinted by life on amino acids produced a biological bias. We also showed that, by applying discriminant function analysis to the ?13C value of a pool of amino acids formed by biological activity, it was possible to identify key aspects of intermediary carbon metabolism in the microbial world. In fact, microorganisms examined in this study could be placed within one of three metabolic groups: (1) heterotrophs that grow by oxidizing compounds containing three or more carbon-to-carbon bonds (fermenters and organotrophs), (2) autotrophs that grow by taking up carbon dioxide (chemolitotrophs and phototrophs), and (3) acetoclastic microbes that grow by assimilation of formaldehyde or acetate (methylotrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and acetotrophs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that cryptoendolithic communities from Antarctica grouped most closely with the autotrophs, which indicates that the dominant metabolic pathways in these communities are likely those utilized for CO2 fixation. We propose that this technique can be used to determine the dominant metabolic types in a community and reveal the overall flow of carbon in a complex ecosystem.

  19. An examination of the carbon isotope effects associated with amino acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Scott, James H; O'Brien, Diane M; Emerson, David; Sun, Henry; McDonald, Gene D; Salgado, Antonio; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2006-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) were determined for alanine, proline, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate (aspartic acid and asparagine), glutamate (glutamic acid and glutamine), lysine, serine, glycine, and threonine from metabolically diverse microorganisms. The microorganisms examined included fermenting bacteria, organotrophic, chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, methylotrophic, methanogenic, acetogenic, acetotrophic, and naturally occurring cryptoendolithic communities from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Here we demonstrated that reactions involved in amino acid biosynthesis can be used to distinguish amino acids formed by life from those formed by nonbiological processes. The unique patterns of delta(13)C imprinted by life on amino acids produced a biological bias. We also showed that, by applying discriminant function analysis to the delta(13)C value of a pool of amino acids formed by biological activity, it was possible to identify key aspects of intermediary carbon metabolism in the microbial world. In fact, microorganisms examined in this study could be placed within one of three metabolic groups: (1) heterotrophs that grow by oxidizing compounds containing three or more carbon-to-carbon bonds (fermenters and organotrophs), (2) autotrophs that grow by taking up carbon dioxide (chemolitotrophs and phototrophs), and (3) acetoclastic microbes that grow by assimilation of formaldehyde or acetate (methylotrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and acetotrophs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that cryptoendolithic communities from Antarctica grouped most closely with the autotrophs, which indicates that the dominant metabolic pathways in these communities are likely those utilized for CO(2 )fixation. We propose that this technique can be used to determine the dominant metabolic types in a community and reveal the overall flow of carbon in a complex ecosystem. PMID:17155886

  20. Acidbase and complexation properties of gem -diphosphonic and gem -diphosphinic acids in aqueous solutions and micellar media of surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Loginova; I. V. Levin; A. G. Matveeva; S. A. Pisareva; E. E. Nifant’ev

    2004-01-01

    Acid-base and complexation properties of gem-disubstituted phosphorus acids, viz., methylenediphosphonic, 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic, P,P'-diphenylmethylene-diphosphinic, and P, P'-diphenyl-1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphinic acids, were studied in aqueous solutions and in the presence of biomimetics (micelles of ionic surfactants). The dissociation constants of the acids and stability constants of complexes with magnesium(II) and copper(II) ions were determined in aqueous solutions and microheterogeneous media containing sodium dodecyl sulfate,