Science.gov

Sample records for carboxylic acid function

  1. Green process for chemical functionalization of nanocellulose with carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Espino-Pérez, Etzael; Domenek, Sandra; Belgacem, Naceur; Sillard, Cécile; Bras, Julien

    2014-12-01

    An environmentally friendly and simple method, named SolReact, has been developed for a solvent-free esterification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) surface by using two nontoxic carboxylic acids (CA), phenylacetic acid and hydrocinnamic acid. In this process, the carboxylic acids do not only act as grafting agent, but also as solvent media above their melting point. Key is the in situ solvent exchange by water evaporation driving the esterification reaction without drying the CNC. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses showed no significant change in the CNC dimensions and crystallinity index after this green process. The presence of the grafted carboxylic was characterized by analysis of the "bulk" CNC with elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and (13)C NMR. The ability to tune the surface properties of grafted nanocrystals (CNC-g-CA) was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The hydrophobicity behavior of the functionalized CNC was studied through the water contact-angle measurements and vapor adsorption. The functionalization of these bionanoparticles may offer applications in composite manufacturing, where these nanoparticles have limited dispersibility in hydrophobic polymer matrices and as nanoadsorbers due to the presence of phenolic groups attached on the surface. PMID:25353612

  2. Target-Specific Capture of Environmentally Relevant Gaseous Aldehydes and Carboxylic Acids with Functional Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, McKenzie L; Guerra, Fernanda D; Dhulekar, Jhilmil; Alexis, Frank; Whitehead, Daniel C

    2015-10-12

    Aldehyde and carboxylic acid volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present significant environmental concern due to their prevalence in the atmosphere. We developed biodegradable functional nanoparticles comprised of poly(d,l-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethyleneimine) (PDLLA-PEG-PEI) block co-polymers that capture these VOCs by chemical reaction. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) preparation involved nanoprecipitation and surface functionalization with branched PEI. The PDLLA-PEG-PEI NPs were characterized by using TGA, IR, (1) H?NMR, elemental analysis, and TEM. The materials feature 1°, 2°, and 3° amines on their surface, capable of capturing aldehydes and carboxylic acids from gaseous mixtures. Aldehydes were captured by a condensation reaction forming imines, whereas carboxylic acids were captured by acid/base reaction. These materials reacted selectively with target contaminants obviating off-target binding when challenged by other VOCs with orthogonal reactivity. The NPs outperformed conventional activated carbon sorbents. PMID:26331393

  3. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Functional Groups with Carbodiimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Stutzman, John R.; Forrest, William P.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase modification of carboxylic acid functionalities is performed via ion/ion reactions with carbodiimide reagents [ N-cyclohexyl- N'-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide (CMC) and [3-(3-Ethylcarbodiimide-1-yl)propyl]trimethylaminium (ECPT)]. Gas-phase ion/ion covalent chemistry requires the formation of a long-lived complex. In this instance, the complex is stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the fixed charge quaternary ammonium group of the carbodiimide reagent cation and the analyte dianion. Subsequent activation results in characteristic loss of an isocyanate derivative from one side of the carbodiimide functionality, a signature for this covalent chemistry. The resulting amide bond is formed on the analyte at the site of the original carboxylic acid. Reactions involving analytes that do not contain available carboxylic acid groups (e.g., they have been converted to sodium salts) or reagents that do not have the carbodiimide functionality do not undergo a covalent reaction. This chemistry is demonstrated using PAMAM generation 0.5 dendrimer, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the model peptide DGAILDGAILD. This work demonstrates the selective gas-phase covalent modification of carboxylic acid functionalities.

  4. Density Functional Theory Study on the Interactions of Metal Ions with Long Chain Deprotonated Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Mehandzhiyski, Aleksandar Y; Riccardi, Enrico; van Erp, Titus S; Koch, Henrik; Åstrand, Per-Olof; Trinh, Thuat T; Grimes, Brian A

    2015-10-01

    In this work, interactions between carboxylate ions and calcium or sodium ions are investigated via density functional theory (DFT). Despite the ubiquitous presence of these interactions in natural and industrial chemical processes, few DFT studies on these systems exist in the literature. Special focus has been placed on determining the influence of the multibody interactions (with up to 4 carboxylates and one metal ion) on an effective pair-interaction potential, such as those used in molecular mechanics (MM). Specifically, DFT calculations are employed to quantify an effective pair-potential that implicitly includes multibody interactions to construct potential energy curves for carboxylate-metal ion pairs. The DFT calculated potential curves are compared to a widely used molecular mechanics force field (OPLS-AA). The calculations indicate that multibody effects do influence the energetic behavior of these ionic pairs and the extent of this influence is determined by a balance between (a) charge transfer from the carboxylate to the metal ions which stabilizes the complex and (b) repulsion between carboxylates, which destabilizes the complex. Additionally, the potential curves of the complexes with 1 and 2 carboxylates and one counterion have been examined to higher separation distance (20 Å) by the use of relaxed scan optimization and constrained density functional theory (CDFT). The results from the relaxed scan optimization indicate that near the equilibrium distance, the charge transfer between the metal ion and the deprotonated carboxylic acid group is significant and leads to non-negligible differences between the DFT and MM potential curves, especially for calcium. However, at longer separation distances the MM calculated interaction potential functions converge to those calculated with CDFT, effectively indicating the approximate domain of the separation distance coordinate where charge transfer between the ions is occurring. PMID:26331433

  5. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Poole, Loree J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  6. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  7. Preparation of non-covalently functionalized graphene using 9-anthracene carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bose, Saswata; Kuila, Tapas; Mishra, Ananta Kumar; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2011-10-01

    A simple way of achieving stable aqueous dispersion of graphene by non-covalent functionalization using 9-anthracene carboxylic acid has been successfully accomplished. Unlike in chemically reduced graphene, the C-sp(2) network of the graphene remains undistorted and therefore of superior quality. The non-covalent functionalization facilitates the exfoliation of graphite layers in a polarity controlled combination of media. A detailed exfoliation mechanism is proposed based on the controlled experiment and is supported by the data from UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction studies. Formation of monolayer graphene has been confirmed from Raman spectroscopy. The graphene based ultracapacitor shows a high value of specific capacitance (148 F g(-1)). PMID:21911926

  8. Preparation of non-covalently functionalized graphene using 9-anthracene carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Saswata; Kuila, Tapas; Mishra, Ananta Kumar; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2011-10-01

    A simple way of achieving stable aqueous dispersion of graphene by non-covalent functionalization using 9-anthracene carboxylic acid has been successfully accomplished. Unlike in chemically reduced graphene, the C-sp2 network of the graphene remains undistorted and therefore of superior quality. The non-covalent functionalization facilitates the exfoliation of graphite layers in a polarity controlled combination of media. A detailed exfoliation mechanism is proposed based on the controlled experiment and is supported by the data from UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction studies. Formation of monolayer graphene has been confirmed from Raman spectroscopy. The graphene based ultracapacitor shows a high value of specific capacitance (148 F g - 1).

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and bioactivity of carboxylic acid-functionalized titanium dioxide nanobelts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surface modification strategies to reduce engineered nanomaterial (ENM) bioactivity have been used successfully in carbon nanotubes. This study examined the toxicity and inflammatory potential for two surface modifications (humic acid and carboxylation) on titanium nanobelts (TNB). Methods The in vitro exposure models include C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages (AM) and transformed human THP-1 cells exposed to TNB for 24 hrs in culture. Cell death and NLRP3 inflammasome activation (IL-1? release) were monitored. Short term (4 and 24 hr) in vivo studies in C57BL/6, BALB/c and IL-1R null mice evaluated inflammation and cytokine release, and cytokine release from ex vivo cultured AM. Results Both in vitro cell models suggest that the humic acid modification does not significantly affect TNB bioactivity, while carboxylation reduced both toxicity and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In addition, short term in vivo exposures in both C57BL/6 and IL-1R null mouse strains demonstrated decreased markers of inflammation, supporting the in vitro finding that carboxylation is effective in reducing bioactivity. TNB instillations in IL-1R null mice demonstrated the critical role of IL-1? in initiation of TNB-induced lung inflammation. Neutrophils were completely absent in the lungs of IL-1R null mice instilled with TNB for 24 hrs. However, the cytokine content of the IL-1R null mice lung lavage samples indicated that other inflammatory agents, IL-6 and TNF-? were constitutively elevated indicating a potential compensatory inflammatory mechanism in the absence of IL-1 receptors. Conclusions Taken together, the data suggests that carboxylation, but not humic acid modification of TNB reduces, but does not totally eliminate bioactivity of TNB, which is consistent with previous studies of other long aspect ratio nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:25179214

  10. Langmuir 1985,1,725-740 725 Acid-Base Behavior of Carboxylic Acid Groups Covalently

    E-print Network

    Deutch, John

    Langmuir 1985,1,725-740 725 Acid-Base Behavior of Carboxylic Acid Groups Covalently Attached: August 7, 1985 Oxidation of polyethylene with chromic acidfsulfuric acid generates a material (PE-C02H) having a high density of carboxylic acid and ketone functionalities in a thin surface layer

  11. Aqueous infrared carboxylate absorbances: Aliphatic di-acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; McVey, I.F.

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of 18 aliphatic di-carboxylic acids are reported as a function of pH. The spectra show isosbestic points and intensity changes which indicate that Beer's law is obeyed, and peak frequencies lie within previously reported ranges for aqueous carboxylates and pure carboxylic acids. Intensity sharing from the symmetric carboxylate stretch is evident in many cases, so that bands which are nominally due to alkyl groups show increased intensity at higher pH. The asymmetric stretch of the HA- species is linearly related to the microscopic acidity constant of the H2A species, with ??pK 2 intervening atoms). The results suggest that aqueous ATR-FTIR may be able to estimate 'intrinsic' pKa values of carboxylic acids, in addition to providing quantitative estimates of ionization. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biocompatible polymers coated on carboxylated nanotubes functionalized with betulinic acid for effective drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Julia M; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abd Gani, Shafinaz; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2016-02-01

    Chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes are highly suitable and promising materials for potential biomedical applications like drug delivery due to their distinct physico-chemical characteristics and unique architecture. However, they are often associated with problems like insoluble in physiological environment and cytotoxicity issue due to impurities and catalyst residues contained in the nanotubes. On the other hand, surface coating agents play an essential role in preventing the nanoparticles from excessive agglomeration as well as providing good water dispersibility by replacing the hydrophobic surfaces of nanoparticles with hydrophilic moieties. Therefore, we have prepared four types of biopolymer-coated single walled carbon nanotubes systems functionalized with anticancer drug, betulinic acid in the presence of Tween 20, Tween 80, polyethylene glycol and chitosan as a comparative study. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies confirm the bonding of the coating molecules with the SWBA and these results were further supported by Raman spectroscopy. All chemically coated samples were found to release the drug in a slow, sustained and prolonged fashion compared to the uncoated ones, with the best fit to pseudo-second order kinetic model. The cytotoxic effects of the synthesized samples were evaluated in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (3T3) at 24, 48 and 72 h. The in vitro results reveal that the cytotoxicity of the samples were dependent upon the drug release profiles as well as the chemical components of the surface coating agents. In general, the initial burst, drug release pattern and cytotoxicity could be well-controlled by carefully selecting the desired materials to suit different therapeutic applications. PMID:26704543

  13. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.

    1998-04-28

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  14. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Dickson, Todd Jay (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0.degree. and 80.degree. C. in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  15. An experimental and density functional study on conformational and spectroscopic analysis of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Mehmet; Karabacak, Mehmet; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2015-02-25

    In this article, a brief conformational and spectroscopic characterization of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (5-MeOICA) via experimental techniques and applications of quantum chemical methods is presented. The conformational analysis of the studied molecule was determined theoretically using density functional computations for ground state, and compared with previously reported experimental findings. The vibrational transitions were examined by measured FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic data, and also results obtained from B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals in combination with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The recorded proton and carbon NMR spectra in DMSO solution were analyzed to obtain the exact conformation. Due to intermolecular hydrogen bondings, NMR calculations were performed for the dimeric form of 5-MeOICA and so chemical shifts of those protons were predicted more accurately. Finally, electronic properties of steady compound were identified by a comparative study of UV absorption spectra in ethanol and water solution and TD-DFT calculations. PMID:25255480

  16. An experimental and density functional study on conformational and spectroscopic analysis of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinar, Mehmet; Karabacak, Mehmet; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2015-02-01

    In this article, a brief conformational and spectroscopic characterization of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (5-MeOICA) via experimental techniques and applications of quantum chemical methods is presented. The conformational analysis of the studied molecule was determined theoretically using density functional computations for ground state, and compared with previously reported experimental findings. The vibrational transitions were examined by measured FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic data, and also results obtained from B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals in combination with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The recorded proton and carbon NMR spectra in DMSO solution were analyzed to obtain the exact conformation. Due to intermolecular hydrogen bondings, NMR calculations were performed for the dimeric form of 5-MeOICA and so chemical shifts of those protons were predicted more accurately. Finally, electronic properties of steady compound were identified by a comparative study of UV absorption spectra in ethanol and water solution and TD-DFT calculations.

  17. Redox-neutral palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization to form isoindolinones with carboxylic acids or anhydrides as readily available starting materials.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong-Wen; Ding, Wei; Jiang, Kun; Shuai, Li; Yuan, Yi; Wei, Ye; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2015-06-01

    An operationally simple, Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization is described for the synthesis of important and useful isoindolinones from readily available carboxamides and carboxylic acids or anhydrides. The reactions proceed efficiently with a broad range of substrates under redox-neutral reaction conditions and tolerate a diversity of functional groups. The mechanistic investigation suggests that the reactions involve C-H activation, nucleophilic addition, ?-O elimination, and dehydration steps. PMID:25978091

  18. High fluorescence emission of carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene/BaTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites and rare earth metal complexes: Preparation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, X. T.; Showkat, A. M.; Wang, Z.; Lim, K. T.

    2015-03-30

    Noble fluorescence nanocomposite compound based on barium titanate nanoparticles (BTO), polystyrene (PSt), and terbium ion (Tb{sup 3+}) was synthesized by a combination of surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and coordinate chemistry. Initially, a modification of surface of BTO was conducted by an exchange process with S-benzyl S’-trimethoxysilylpropyltrithiocarbonate to create macro-initiator for polymerization of styrene. Subsequently, aryl carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene grafted barium titanate (BTO-g-PSt-COOH) was generated by substitution reaction between 4-(Chloromethyl) benzoic acid and PSt chains. The coordination of the nanohybrids with Tb{sup 3+} ions afforded fluorescent Tb{sup 3+} tagged aryl carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene grafted barium titanate (BTO-g-PSt-Tb{sup 3+}) complexes. Structure, morphology, and fluorescence properties of nanohybrid complexes were investigated by respective physical and spectral studies. FT-IR and SEM analyses confirmed the formation of BTO-g-PSt-Tb{sup 3+}nanohybrids. Furthermore, TGA profiles demonstrated the grafting of aryl carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene on BTO surface. Optical properties of BTO-g-PSt-Tb{sup 3+} complexes were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  19. High fluorescence emission of carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene/BaTiO3 nanocomposites and rare earth metal complexes: Preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X. T.; Showkat, A. M.; Wang, Z.; Lim, K. T.

    2015-03-01

    Noble fluorescence nanocomposite compound based on barium titanate nanoparticles (BTO), polystyrene (PSt), and terbium ion (Tb3+) was synthesized by a combination of surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and coordinate chemistry. Initially, a modification of surface of BTO was conducted by an exchange process with S-benzyl S'-trimethoxysilylpropyltrithiocarbonate to create macro-initiator for polymerization of styrene. Subsequently, aryl carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene grafted barium titanate (BTO-g-PSt-COOH) was generated by substitution reaction between 4-(Chloromethyl) benzoic acid and PSt chains. The coordination of the nanohybrids with Tb3+ ions afforded fluorescent Tb3+ tagged aryl carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene grafted barium titanate (BTO-g-PSt-Tb3+) complexes. Structure, morphology, and fluorescence properties of nanohybrid complexes were investigated by respective physical and spectral studies. FT-IR and SEM analyses confirmed the formation of BTO-g-PSt-Tb3+nanohybrids. Furthermore, TGA profiles demonstrated the grafting of aryl carboxylic acid functionalized polystyrene on BTO surface. Optical properties of BTO-g-PSt-Tb3+ complexes were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  20. Cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates as catalyst prototypes for self-induced hydrogenation of carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Naruto, Masayuki; Saito, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in bio-renewable and petrochemical sources of carbon. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to yield alcohols produces water as the only byproduct, and thus represents a possible next generation, sustainable method for the production of these alternative energy carriers/platform chemicals on a large scale. Reported herein are molecular insights into cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates ([Ru(OCOR)]+) as prototypical catalysts for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. The substrate-derived coordinated carboxylate was found to function initially as a proton acceptor for the heterolytic cleavage of dihydrogen, and subsequently also as an acceptor for the hydride from [Ru–H]+, which was generated in the first step (self-induced catalysis). The hydrogenation proceeded selectively and at high levels of functional group tolerance, a feature that is challenging to achieve with existing heterogeneous/homogeneous catalyst systems. These fundamental insights are expected to significantly benefit the future development of metal carboxylate-catalysed hydrogenation processes of bio-renewable resources. PMID:26314266

  1. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Ames

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate counterparts of similar thickness (Nafion{trademark} 111). Additionally, nitric acid separation efficiencies ({alpha}) were approximately one order of magnitude higher for the carboxylate solution cast films when compared to Nafion{trademark} 111. The second phase of our work included the generation of thin carboxylate films made by the chemical synthesis perfluoro sulfonate and mixed sulfonate/carboxylate polymers from a perfluoro sulfonyl fluoride precursor, the characterization of the newly generated material, and a study of the transport characteristics of these membranes. Transport studies consisted of the dehydration of nitric acid feeds by pervaporation. In addition, the initial hypothesis was expanded to include demonstration that transmembrane flux and separation efficiencies are a function of the ratio between sulfonate and carboxylate terminated side chains of the perfluoro ionomer. Investigations demonstrated the ability to generate in- house films with varying sulfonate/carboxylate concentrations from commercially available perfluoro sulfonyl fluoride material, and showed that the converted films could be characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Finally, the mixed films where subjected to nitric acid dehydration transport tests and a relationship was found to exist between sulfonate/carboxylate pendant chain ratio and both flux and water separation capability. In summary, experimental results confirmed that, when compared to Nafion 111{trademark}, the mixed film's bulk fluxes decrease by approximately three orders of magnitude and the water separation factor increases by as much as two orders of magnitude as the carboxylate side-chain content was increased from 0 (pure sulfonate film) to 53 mole%, supporting the hypothesis given for this effort. It was observed that the water selectivity improved for both the solution cast perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films when judged against similar perfluoro sulfonate materials. Of great benefit was that during the investigation a number of research tools w

  2. Vibrational coupling in carboxylic acid dimers.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Chayan K; Hazra, Montu K; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2005-09-22

    The vibrational level splitting in the ground electronic state of carboxylic acid dimers mediated by the doubly hydrogen-bonded networks are investigated using pure and mixed dimers of benzoic acid with formic acid as molecular prototypes. Within the 0-2000-cm(-1) range, the frequencies for the fundamental and combination vibrations of the two dimers are experimentally measured by using dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy in a supersonic jet expansion. Density-functional-theory calculations predict that most of the dimer vibrations are essentially in-phase and out-of-phase combinations of the monomer modes, and many of such combinations show significantly large splitting in vibrational frequencies. The infrared spectrum of the jet-cooled benzoic acid dimer, reported recently by Bakker et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11180 (2003)], has been used along with the dispersed fluorescence spectra to analyze the coupled g-u vibrational levels. Assignments of the dispersed fluorescence spectra of the mixed dimer are suggested by comparing the vibronic features with those in the homodimer spectrum and the predictions of density-functional-theory calculation. The fluorescence spectra measured by excitations of the low-lying single vibronic levels of the mixed dimer reveal that the hydrogen-bond vibrations are extensively mixed with the ring modes in the S1 surface. PMID:16392485

  3. Molecular level computational studies of polyethylene and polyacrylonitrile composites containing single walled carbon nanotubes: effect of carboxylic acid functionalization on nanotube-polymer interfacial properties

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatpanah, Shayesteh; Bohlén, Martin; Bolton, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular mechanics (MM) methods have been used to investigate additive-polymer interfacial properties in single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)—polyethylene and SWNT—polyacrylonitrile composites. Properties such as the interfacial shear stress and bonding energy are similar for the two composites. In contrast, functionalizing the SWNT with carboxylic acid groups leads to an increase in these properties, with a larger increase for the polar polyacrylonitrile composite. Increasing the percentage of carbon atoms that were functionalized from 1 to 5% also leads to an increase in the interfacial properties. In addition, the interfacial properties depend on the location of the functional groups on the SWNT wall. PMID:25229056

  4. Mild Conversion of ?-Diketones and ?-Ketoesters to Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Jiao, Jingliang

    2013-01-01

    A mild protocol for the conversion of ?-ketoesters and ?-diketones to carboxylic acids using CAN in CH3CN is described. The method is compatible with a number of functional groups, and can generate carboxylic acids under neutral conditions at room temperature. The reaction is fast and general, providing an alternative method to the commonly used malonic ester acid preparation. Initial mechanistic studies show that initial oxidation of the enol form of the ?-dicarbonyl initiates the reaction. The presence of nitrate as an oxidant ligand or as an additive is critical for success of the reaction. PMID:16749782

  5. Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing 

    E-print Network

    Dong, Jipeng

    2010-01-14

    OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  6. Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation 

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Shelly Ann

    2000-01-01

    carboxylate salts are concentrated and reacted with a low-molecular-weight tertiary amine and carbon dioxide to precipitate calcium carbonate. In a distillation column, the low-molecular-weight amine carboxylate reacts with a high-molecular-weight tertiary...

  7. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions. PMID:26721276

  8. Pyrolysis Mechanisms of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.; Eskay, T.P.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-12-31

    Although decarboxylation of carboxylic acids is widely used in organic synthesis, there is limited mechanistic information on the uncatalyzed reaction pathways of aromatic carboxylic acids at 300-400 {degrees} C. The pyrolysis mechanisms of 1,2-(3,3-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane, 1,2-(4,4-dicarboxylphenyl)ethane, 1-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4- biphenyl)ethane, and substituted benzoic acids have been investigated at 325-425 {degrees} C neat and diluted in an inert solvent. Decarboxylation is the dominant pyrolysis path. Arrhenius parameters, substituent effects, and deuterium isotope effects are consistent with decarboxylation by an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Pyrolysis of benzoic acid in naphthalene, as a solvent, produces significant amounts of 1- and 2-phenylnaphthalenes. The mechanistic pathways for decarboxylation and arylation with be presented.

  9. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  11. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  12. Ethane-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas functionalized with high loadings of carboxylic acid groups: synthesis, bifunctionalization, and fabrication of metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deka, Juti Rani; Kao, Hsien-Ming; Huang, Shu-Ying; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Ting, Chun-Chiang; Rath, Purna Chandra; Chen, Ching-Shiun

    2014-01-13

    Well-ordered periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) functionalized with high contents of carboxylic acid (?COOH) groups, up to 85?mol?% based on silica, were synthesized by co-condensation of 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTEE) and carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt (CES) under acidic conditions by using alkyl poly(oxyethylene) surfactant Brij?76 as a structure-directing agent. A variety of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), (13) C- and (29) Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to characterize the products. The materials thus obtained were used as an effective support to synthesize metal nanoparticles (Ag and Pt) within the channel of 2D hexagonal mesostructure of PMOs. The size and distribution of the nanoparticles were observed to be highly dependent on the interaction between the carboxylic acid functionalized group and the metal precursors. The size of Pt nanoparticles reduced from 3.6 to 2.5?nm and that of Ag nanoparticles reduced from 5.3 to 3.4?nm with the increase in the ?COOH loading from 10 to 50?%. PMID:24338957

  13. Microbial Transformation of Esters of Chlorinated Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Paris, D. F.; Wolfe, N. L.; Steen, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Two groups of compounds were selected for microbial transformation studies. In the first group were carboxylic acid esters having a fixed aromatic moiety and an increasing length of the alkyl component. Ethyl esters of chlorine-substituted carboxylic acids were in the second group. Microorganisms from environmental waters and a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida U were used. The bacterial populations were monitored by plate counts, and disappearance of the parent compound was followed by gas-liquid chromatography as a function of time. The products of microbial hydrolysis were the respective carboxylic acids. Octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for the compounds were measured. These values spanned three orders of magnitude, whereas microbial transformation rate constants (kb) varied only 50-fold. The microbial rate constants of the carboxylic acid esters with a fixed aromatic moiety increased with an increasing length of alkyl substituents. The regression coefficient for the linear relationships between log kb and log Kow was high for group 1 compounds, indicating that these parameters correlated well. The regression coefficient for the linear relationships for group 2 compounds, however, was low, indicating that these parameters correlated poorly. PMID:16346459

  14. Analysis of Chiral Carboxylic Acids in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Hein, J. E.; Aponte, J. C.; Parker, E. T.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Homochirality of amino acids in proteins and sugars in DNA and RNA is a critical feature of life on Earth. In the absence of a chiral driving force, however, reactions leading to the synthesis of amino acids and sugars result in racemic mixtures. It is currently unknown whether homochirality was necessary for the origins of life or if it was a product of early life. The observation of enantiomeric excesses of certain amino acids of extraterrestrial origins in meteorites provides evidence to support the hypothesis that there was a mechanism for the preferential synthesis or destruction of a particular amino acid enantiomer [e.g., 1-3]. The cause of the observed chiral excesses is un-clear, although at least in the case of the amino acid isovaline, the degree of aqueous alteration that occurred on the meteorite parent body is correlated to the isovaline L-enantiomeric excess [3, 4]. This suggests that chiral symmetry is broken and/or amplified within the meteorite parent bodies. Besides amino acids, there have been only a few reports of other meteoritic compounds found in enantiomeric excess: sugars and sugar acids [5, 6] and the hydroxy acid lactic acid [7]. Determining whether or not additional types of molecules in meteorites are also present in enantiomeric excesses of extraterrestrial information will provide insights into mechanisms for breaking chiral symmetry. Though the previous measurements (e.g., enantiomeric composition of lactic acid [7], and chiral carboxylic acids [8]) were made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the potential for increased sensitivity of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses is important because for many meteorite samples, only small sample masses are available for study. Furthermore, at least in the case of amino acids, many of the largest amino acid enantiomeric excesses were observed in samples that contained lower abundances (tens of ppb) of a given amino acid enantiomer. In the present work, we describe our efforts to develop highly sensitive LC-MS methods for the analysis of chiral carboxylic acids including hydroxy acids.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  16. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative trifluoroethylation of aryl alkynyl carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jinil; Park, Kyungho; Choe, Juseok; Min, Hongkeun; Song, Kwang Ho; Lee, Sunwoo

    2014-04-01

    A trifluoroethylation of alkynes through a palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling reaction was developed. When alkynyl carboxylic acids and ICH2CF3 were allowed to react with [Pd(?(3)-allyl)Cl]2/XantPhos and Cs2CO3 in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 80 °C for 1 h, the desired products were formed in good yields. This catalytic system showed high functional group tolerance. PMID:24628537

  17. Carboxylic acids: effective inhibitors for calcium sulfate precipitation?

    E-print Network

    Benning, Liane G.

    Carboxylic acids: effective inhibitors for calcium sulfate precipitation? TAHER RABIZADEH 1] ABSTRACT Results are reported here of an investigation into the effects of three carboxylic acid additives (tartaric, maleic and citric acids) on the precipitation of calcium sulfate phases. Precipitation reactions

  18. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Strong-acid, carboxyl-group structures in fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia. 1. Minor structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wershaw, R.L.; Reddy, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the strong-acid characteristics (pKa 3.0 or less) of fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia, was conducted. Quantitative determinations were made for amino acid and sulfur-containing acid structures, oxalate half-ester structures, malonic acid structures, keto acid structures, and aromatic carboxyl-group structures. These determinations were made by using a variety of spectrometric (13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrometry) and titrimetric characterizations on fulvic acid or fulvic acid samples that were chemically derivatized to indicate certain functional groups. Only keto acid and aromatic carboxyl-group structures contributed significantly to the strong-acid characteristics of the fulvic acid; these structures accounted for 43% of the strong-acid acidity. The remaining 57% of the strong acids are aliphatic carboxyl groups in unusual and/or complex configurations for which limited model compound data are available.

  20. Ozone-driven photochemical formation of carboxylic acid groups from alkane groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Day, D. A.; Shields, J. E.; Russell, L. M.

    2011-03-01

    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in atmospheric particles, and they play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. During measurements in coastal California in the summer of 2009, carboxylic acid functional groups were highly associated with trajectories from an industrial region with high organic mass (OM), likely from fossil fuel combustion emissions. The concentration of carboxylic acid groups peaked during daytime, suggesting a photochemical secondary formation mechanism. This daytime increase in concentration was tightly correlated with O3 mixing ratio, indicating O3 was the likely driver in acid formation. Based on the diurnal cycles of carboxylic acid and alkane groups, the covariation of carboxylic acid groups with O3, and the composition of the Combustion factor resulted from the factor analyses, gas-phase alkane oxidation by OH radicals to form dihyfrofuran followed by further oxidation of dihydrofuran by O3 is the likely acid formation mechanism. Using the multi-day average of the daytime increase of carboxylic acid group concentrations and m/z 44-based Aged Combustion factor, we estimated the lower-bound contributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in 12-h daytime of processing in a single day to be 30% of the carboxylic acid groups and 25-45% of the Combustion factor concentration. These unique ambient observations of photochemically-driven acid formation suggest that gas-phase alkanes might be important sources of SOA formation in this coastal region.

  1. Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Kabalka, George W. (Knoxville, TN); Srivastava, Rajiv R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-03-14

    Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed.

  2. MULTIVALENT CARBOXYLIC ACIDS TO MODIFY THE PROPERTIES OF ZEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carboxylic acids having more than one carboxylic acid moiety have been evaluated in zein melt formulations produced in a torque rheometer. These reagents are effective plasticizers for zein, lowering zein viscosity and delaying the onset of rapid viscosity increase. These reagents have been shown ...

  3. Preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakar (Durham, NC); Spivey, James Jerry (Cary, NC); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  4. Preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-09-15

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  5. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. )

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  6. Inhibition of 5-Oxoprolinase by 2-Imidazolidone-4-Carboxylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Werf, Paul; Stephani, Ralph A.; Orlowski, Marian; Meister, Alton

    1973-01-01

    L-2-Imidazolidone-4-carboxylic acid is an effective competitive inhibitor of the reaction catalyzed by 5-oxoprolinase, in which 5-oxo-L-proline (L-pyroglutamic acid, L-2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid, L-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid) is converted to L-glutamate, with concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP and orthophosphate. L-2-Imidazolidone-4-carboxylate decreased the rate of metabolism of 5-oxo-L-[14C]proline to 14CO2 by rat-kidney slices but had no effect on the metabolism of [14C]glutamate. Mice injected with L-2-imidazolidone-4-carboxylate exhibited greatly reduced ability to metabolize 5-oxo-L-proline, but metabolized glutamate at an essentially normal rate. The findings provide an approach to an animal model for the human condition 5-oxoprolinuria, in which there is apparently a deficiency of renal 5-oxoprolinase activity. The evidence indicates that 5-oxoproline is a normal metabolite. PMID:4514988

  7. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids with a homogeneous cobalt catalyst.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Ties J; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Elsevier, Cornelis J; de Bruin, Bas

    2015-10-16

    The reduction of esters and carboxylic acids to alcohols is a highly relevant conversion for the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industries and for biomass conversion. It is commonly performed using stoichiometric reagents, and the catalytic hydrogenation of the acids previously required precious metals. Here we report the homogeneously catalyzed hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to alcohols using earth-abundant cobalt. This system, which pairs Co(BF4)2·6H2O with a tridentate phosphine ligand, can reduce a wide range of esters and carboxylic acids under relatively mild conditions (100°C, 80 bar H2) and reaches turnover numbers of up to 8000. PMID:26472903

  8. Structure and luminescent property of complexes of aryl carboxylic acid-functionalized polystyrene with Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Baojiao; Shi, Nan; Qiao, Zongwen

    2015-11-01

    Via polymer reactions, naphthoic acid (NA) and benzoic acid (BA) were bonded onto the side chains of polystyrene (PS), respectively, and two aryl carboxylic acid-functionalized polystyrenes, PSNA and PSBA, were obtained. Using PSNA and PSBA as macromolecule ligands and Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions as central ions, various luminescent binary polymer-rare earth complexes were prepared. At the same time, with 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and 4,4'-bipyridine (Bipy) as small-molecule co-ligands, various ternary polymer-rare earth complexes were also prepared. On the basis of characterizing PSNA, PSBA and complexes, the relationship between structure and luminescent property for these prepared complexes were mainly investigated. The study results show that the macromolecule ligands PSNA and PSBA, or the bonded NA and BA ligands, can strongly sensitize the fluorescence emissions of Eu(3+) ion or Tb(3+) ion, but the sensitization effect is strongly dependent on the structure of the ligands and the property of the central ions, namely it is strongly dependent on the matching degree of energy levels. The fluorescence emission of the binary complex PS-(NA)3-Eu(III) is stronger than that PS-(BA)3-Eu(III), indicating ligand NA has stronger sensitization action for Eu(3+) ion than ligand BA; the binary complex PS-(BA)3-Tb(III) emit strong characteristic fluorescence of Tb(3+) ion, displaying that ligand BA can strongly sensitize Tb(3+) ion, whereas the binary complex PS-(NA)3-Tb(III) nearly does not emit the characteristic fluorescence of Tb(3+) ion, showing that ligand NA does not sensitize Tb(3+) ion. The fluorescence intensity of the ternary complexes is much stronger than that of the binary complexes in the same series. PMID:26086996

  9. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  10. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721.2950 Section 721.2950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic...

  11. Preparation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides

    DOEpatents

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Tustin, G.C.

    1998-01-20

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising mixed oxides of vanadium, phosphorus and, optionally, a third component selected from titanium, aluminum or, preferably silicon.

  12. Preparation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides

    DOEpatents

    Spivey, James Jerry (Cary, NC); Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav (Durham, NC); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising mixed oxides of vanadium, phosphorus and, optionally, a third component selected from titanium, aluminum or, preferably silicon.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10529 - Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified...Chemical Substances § 721.10529 Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified...substance identified generically as cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10529 - Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified...Chemical Substances § 721.10529 Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified...substance identified generically as cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic...

  15. Amine-based systems for carboxylic acid recovery

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Several carboxylic acids are prominent commercial products, and their number and importance will probably grow. Getting these acids out of aqueous solution is necessary in petrochemical manufacture, fermentation, and the environmentally and economically important recovery from waste streams. In this paper, the authors discuss the methods possible to extract acids such as citric, lactic, and succinic from complex mixtures. Carboxylic acids are also readily made by fermentation and are among the most attractive substances that could be manufactured from biomass. Branches of this cycle lead to acetic, lactic, propionic, and formic acids, among others. Carboxylic acids are promising intermediates in a bioprocessing complex, because the oxygen of the biomass is placed in a form that is useful for further reaction with many other products. Citric acid is manufactured on a large scale by fermentation, and lactic and fumaric acids, among others, were manufactured that way in the past.

  16. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Halpern, Yuval (Skokie, IL)

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  17. Oxidation of carboxylic acids by horseradish peroxidase results in prosthetic heme modification and inactivation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liusheng; Colas, Christophe; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2004-10-13

    Hemoproteins are powerful oxidative catalysts. However, despite the diversity of functions known to be susceptible to oxidation by these catalysts, it is not known whether they can oxidize carboxylic acids to carboxylic radicals. We report here that incubation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at acidic pH with H(2)O(2) in acetate buffer results in rapid modification of the heme group and loss of catalytic activity. Mass spectrometry and NMR indicate that an acetoxy group is covalently bound to the delta-meso-carbon in the modified heme. A heme with a hydroxyl group on the 8-methyl is also formed as a minor product. These reactions do not occur if protein-free heme and H(2)O(2) are co-incubated in acetate buffer, if the HRP reaction is carried out at pH 7, in the absence of H(2)O(2), or if citrate rather than acetate buffer is used. A similar heme modification is observed in incubations with n-caproic and phenylacetic acids. A mechanism involving oxidation of the carboxyl group to a carboxylic radical followed by addition to the delta-meso-position is proposed. This demonstration of the oxidation of a carboxylic acid solidifies the proposal that a carboxylic radical mediates the normal covalent attachment of the heme to the protein in the mammalian peroxidases and CYP4 family of P450 enzymes. The hemoprotein-mediated oxidation of carboxylic acids, ubiquitous natural constituents, may play other roles in biology. PMID:15469283

  18. Separation of certain carboxylic acids utilizing cation exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Sopher, David W. (Maarssenbroek, NL)

    1984-01-01

    A method of substantially separating monofunctional lower carboxylic acids from a liquid mixture containing the acids wherein the pH of the mixture is adjusted to a value in the range of from about 1 to about 5 to form protonated acids. The mixture is heated to an elevated temperature not greater than about 100.degree. C. and brought in contact with one side of a perfluorinated cation exchange membrane having sulfonate or carboxylate groups or mixtures thereof with the mixture containing the protonated acids. A pressure gradient can be established across the membrane with the mixture being under higher pressure, so that protonated monofunctional lower carboxylic acids pass through the membrane at a substantially faster rate than the remainder of the mixture thereby substantially separating the acids from the mixture.

  19. Separation of certain carboxylic acids utilizing cation exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Sopher, D.W.

    1983-05-09

    A method of substantially separating monofunctional lower carboxylic acids from a liquid mixture containing the acids wherein the pH of the mixture is adjusted to a value in the range of from about 1 to about 5 to form protonated acids. The mixture is heated to an elevated temperature not greater than about 100/sup 0/C and brought in contact with one side of a perfluorinated cation exchange membrane having sulfonate or carboxylate groups or mixtures thereof with the mixture containing the protonated acids. A pressure gradient can be established across the membrane with the mixture being under higher pressure, so that protonated monofunctional lower carboxylic acids pass through the membrane at a substantially faster rate than the remainder of the mixture thereby substantially separating the acids from the mixture.

  20. Dissociation of equimolar mixtures of aqueous carboxylic acids in ionic liquids: role of specific interactions.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shashi Kant; Kumar, Anil

    2015-04-30

    Hammett acidity function observes the effect of protonation/deprotonation on the optical density/absorbance of spectrophotometric indicator. In this work, the Hammett acidity, H0, of equimolar mixtures of aqueous HCOOH, CH3COOH, and CH3CH2COOH was measured in 1-methylimidazolium-, 1-methylpyrrolidinium-, and 1-methylpiperidinium-based protic ionic liquids (PILs) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based aprotic ionic liquid (AIL) with formate (HCOO(-)) anion. Higher H0 values were observed for the equimolar mixtures of aqueous carboxylic acids in protic ionic liquids compared with those of the aprotic ionic liquid because of the involvement of the stronger specific interactions between the conjugate acid of ionic liquid and conjugate base of carboxylic acids as suggested by the hard-soft acid base (HSAB) theory. The different H0 values for the equimolar mixtures of aqueous carboxylic acids in protic and aprotic ionic liquids were noted to depend on the activation energy of proton transfer (Ea,H(+)). The higher activation energy of proton transfer was obtained in AIL, indicating lower ability to form specific interactions with solute than that of PILs. Thermodynamic parameters determined by the "indicator overlapping method" further confirmed the involvement of the secondary interactions in the dissociation of carboxylic acids. On the basis of the thermodynamic parameter values, the potential of different ionic liquids in the dissociation of carboxylic acids was observed to depend on the hydrogen bond donor acidity (?) and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity (?), characteristics of specific interactions. PMID:25839210

  1. IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbo n A. Acid/Base properties

    E-print Network

    Frey, Terry

    IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbo n A. Acid/Base properties 1. carboxyl group is proton donor ! weak acid 2. amino group is proton acceptor ! weak base 3. At physiological p natural amino acids (few exceptions) 2. 20 different R groups C. Classification based on R-group - know

  2. Carboxylic acid functionalization prevents the translocation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes at predicted environmentally relevant concentrations into targeted organs of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouara, Abdelli; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yinxia; Tang, Meng; Wang, Haifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Dayong

    2013-06-01

    Carboxyl (-COOH) surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) can be used for targeted delivery of drugs and imaging. However, whether MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations exert certain toxic effects on multicellular organisms and the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. In the present study, we applied the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate the properties of MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations by comparing the effects of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-COOH exposure on C. elegans from L1-larvae to adult at concentrations of 0.001-1000 ?g L-1. Exposure to MWCNTs could potentially damage the intestine (primary targeted organ) at concentrations greater than 0.1 ?g L-1 and functions of neurons and reproductive organ (secondary targeted organs) at concentrations greater than 0.001 ?g L-1. Carboxyl modification prevented the toxicity of MWCNTs on the primary and the secondary targeted organs at concentrations less than 100 ?g L-1, suggesting that carboxyl modification can effectively prevent the adverse effects of MWCNTs at environmentally relevant concentrations. After exposure, MWCNTs-COOH (1 mg L-1) were translocated into the spermatheca and embryos in the body through the primary targeted organs. However, MWCNTs-COOH (10 ?g L-1) were not observed in spermatheca and embryos in the body of nematodes. Moreover, relatively high concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH exposed nematodes might have a hyper-permeable intestinal barrier, whereas MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations effectively sustained the normally permeable state for the intestinal barrier. Therefore, we elucidated the cellular basis of carboxyl modification to prevent toxicity of MWCNTs at environmentally relevant concentrations. Our data highlights the key role of biological barriers in the primary targeted organs to block toxicity formation from MWCNTs, which will be useful for the design of effective prevention strategies against MWCNTs toxicity.Carboxyl (-COOH) surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) can be used for targeted delivery of drugs and imaging. However, whether MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations exert certain toxic effects on multicellular organisms and the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. In the present study, we applied the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate the properties of MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations by comparing the effects of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-COOH exposure on C. elegans from L1-larvae to adult at concentrations of 0.001-1000 ?g L-1. Exposure to MWCNTs could potentially damage the intestine (primary targeted organ) at concentrations greater than 0.1 ?g L-1 and functions of neurons and reproductive organ (secondary targeted organs) at concentrations greater than 0.001 ?g L-1. Carboxyl modification prevented the toxicity of MWCNTs on the primary and the secondary targeted organs at concentrations less than 100 ?g L-1, suggesting that carboxyl modification can effectively prevent the adverse effects of MWCNTs at environmentally relevant concentrations. After exposure, MWCNTs-COOH (1 mg L-1) were translocated into the spermatheca and embryos in the body through the primary targeted organs. However, MWCNTs-COOH (10 ?g L-1) were not observed in spermatheca and embryos in the body of nematodes. Moreover, relatively high concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH exposed nematodes might have a hyper-permeable intestinal barrier, whereas MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations effectively sustained the normally permeable state for the intestinal barrier. Therefore, we elucidated the cellular basis of carboxyl modification to prevent toxicity of MWCNTs at environmentally relevant concentrations. Our data highlights the key role of biological barriers in the primary targeted organs to block toxicity formation from MWCNTs, which will be useful for the design of effective prevention strategies against MWCNTs toxicity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10

  3. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 1. Separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.; Perry, G.J.

    2006-02-15

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt has been investigated. The retention mechanism of aromatic carboxylic acids was discussed on the basis of both ion-pair partition model and ion-exchange model. The retention behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids possessing one (or two) carboxylic acid group(s) followed the ion-pair partition model, where linear free energy relationship was observed between the capacity factor and the extraction equilibrium constants of benzoic acid and naphthalene carboxylic acid. Besides, the retention behavior followed ion-exchange model with increasing the number of carboxylic acids, where the capacity factor of benzene polycarboxylic acids is proportional to the association constants between aromatic acids and quaternary ammonium ions calculated on the basis of an electrostatic interaction model.

  4. Dissolving Carboxylic Acids and Primary Amines on the Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid carboxylic acids (or primary amines) with limited solubility in water are dissolved by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (or hydrochloric acid) on the stage of an overhead projector using simple glassware and very small quantities of chemicals. This effective and colorful demonstration can be used to accompany discussions of the…

  5. Novel Lactate Transporters from Carboxylic Acid-Producing Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  6. Silver-catalyzed protodecarboxylation of heteroaromatic carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pengfei; Sanchez, Carolina; Cornella, Josep; Larrosa, Igor

    2009-12-17

    A simple and highly efficient protodecarboxylation procedure for a variety of heteroaromatic carboxylic acids catalyzed by Ag(2)CO(3) and AcOH in DMSO is described. This methodology can also perform the selective monoprotodecarboxylation of several aromatic dicarboxylic acids. PMID:19924891

  7. Amide Bond Formation via Reversible, Carboxylic Acid-Promoted Lactone Aminolysis

    E-print Network

    Foley, Megan A.

    A rapid carboxylic acid-promoted lactone aminolysis is reported. A number of carboxylic acids were found to promote this amide bond-forming transformation, with aliphatic acids being the most efficient. This reaction is ...

  8. A new synthesis of indole 5-carboxylic acids and 6-hydroxy-indole-5-carboxylic acids in the preparation of an o-hydroxylated metabolite of vilazodone.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Timo; Böttcher, Henning

    2004-05-17

    A major metabolite of the potential antidepressant vilazodone formed in rat, dog, monkey and human liver microsomes is the 5-cyano-6-hydroxy-1H-indole derivative. For the construction of the salicyl-like substituted indole we adapted a synthesis of carmoxirole using Japp-Klingemann type Fischer-indole synthesis protocols. Functional group interconversion of carboxylic acid via carboxamide into cyanide was performed with methanesulfonic acid chloride. PMID:15109678

  9. Acid-catalyzed carboxylic acid esterification and ester hydrolysis mechanism: acylium ion as a sharing active intermediate via a spontaneous trimolecular reaction based on density functional theory calculation and supported by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongchang; Wang, Yilei; Hua, Ruimao

    2015-11-11

    By DFT calculation, we found that acid-catalyzed carboxylic acid esterification and ester hydrolysis are brief two-step reactions. First, the carboxylic acid hydroxyl-oxygen or ester alkyl-oxygen is protonated, which generates a highly active acylium ion. The protonation requires an activation energy (Ea) of 4-10 kcal mol(-1), and is the rate-controlling step of the esterification or hydrolysis. Sequentially, the acylium ion spontaneously reacts with two alcohol or two water molecules to form a neutral product molecule; this is a trimolecular reaction. The acylium ion is the highly active intermediate shared by esterification and hydrolysis. ESI-MS data for several typical carboxylic acids confirmed that their acylium ions are easily generated. For 2,4,6-trialkylbenzoic acid and its ester, the two unsubstituted carbons in the benzene ring are very easily protonated, and we have thus revealed the root of the success of Newman's method. Based on these results, the popular esterification and hydrolysis mechanism in organic chemistry textbooks is incorrect. PMID:26445892

  10. Current methods used for the production of carboxylic acid

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    want to move into the production of bio-based chemical building blocks with sustainability and cost-saving in mind, for example companies that produce polymers, solvents and fine chemicals on a global Advantages that some relevant bio-based carboxylic acids, and hence their esters, are projected to become multi

  11. Decarboxylative Fluorination of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids via Photoredox Catalysis

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    Decarboxylative Fluorination of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids via Photoredox Catalysis Sandrine Ventre-promoted photoredox catalysis. This operationally simple, redox-neutral fluorination method is amenable to a wide radicals, which upon rapid CO2- extrusion and F· transfer from a fluorinating reagent yield the desired

  12. Decarboxylative homocoupling of (hetero)aromatic carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Cornella, Josep; Lahlali, Hicham; Larrosa, Igor

    2010-11-21

    A variety of hetero(aromatic) carboxylic acids are shown to undergo decarboxylative homocoupling, mediated by a Pd/Ag system. This novel methodology for the synthesis of symmetrical biaryls avoids the use of haloarenes and organometallic compounds as starting materials. PMID:20882244

  13. Chemolithoautotrophy and mixotrophy in the thiophene-2-carboxylic acid-utilizing xanthobacter tagetidis

    PubMed

    Padden; Kelly; Wood

    1998-03-01

    Xanthobacter tagetidis grew as a chemolithotrophic autotroph on thiosulfate and other inorganic sulfur compounds, as a heterotroph on thiophene-2-carboxylic acid, acetic acid and alpha-ketoglutaric acid, and as a mixotroph on thiosulfate in combination with thiophene-2-carboxylic acid and/or acetic acid. Autotrophic growth on one-carbon organosulfur compounds, and intermediates in their oxidation are also reported. Thiosulfate enhanced the growth yields in mixotrophic cultures, presumably by acting as a supplementary energy source, since ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was only active in thiosulfate-grown cells and was not detected in mixotrophic cultures using thiosulfate with thiophene-2-carboxylic acid. Bacteria grown on thiophene-2-carboxylic acid also oxidized sulfide, thiosulfate and tetrathionate, indicating these as possible sulfur intermediates in thiophene-2-carboxylic acid degradation. Thiosulfate and tetrathionate were oxidized completely to sulfate and, consequently, did not accumulate as products of thiophene-2-carboxylic acid oxidation in growing cultures. Km and Vmax values for the oxidation of thiosulfate, tetrathionate or sulfide were 13 &mgr;M and 83 nmol O2 min-1 (mg dry wt.)-1, respectively; thiosulfate and tetrathionate became autoinhibitory at concentrations above 100 &mgr;M. The true growth yield (Ymax) on thiophene-2-carboxylic acid was estimated from chemostat cultures (at dilution rates of 0.034-0.094 h-1) to be 112.2 g mol-1, with a maintenance coefficient (m) of 0.3 mmol thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (g dry wt.)-1 h-1, and the maximum specific growth rate (&mgr;max) was 0.116 h-1. Growth in chemostat culture at a dilution rate of 0. 041 h-1 indicated growth yields [g dry wt. (mol substrate)-1] of 8.1 g (mol thiosulfate)-1, 60.9 g (mol thiophene-2-carboxylic acid)-1, and 17.5 g (mol acetic acid)-1, with additive yields for growth on mixtures of these substrates. At a dilution rate of 0.034 h-1, yields of 57.8 g (mol alpha-ketoglutaric acid)-1 and 60.7 g (mol thiophene-2-carboxylic acid)-1 indicated some additional energy conservation from oxidation of the thiophene-sulfur. SDS-PAGE of cell-free preparations indicated a polypeptide (Mr, 21.0 kDa) specific to growth on thiophene-2-carboxylic acid for which no function can yet be ascribed: no metabolism of thiophene-2-carboxylic acid by cell-free extracts was detected. It was shown that X. tagetidis exhibits a remarkable degree of metabolic versatility and is representative of facultatively methylotrophic and chemolithotrophic autotrophs that contribute significantly to the turnover of simple inorganic and organic sulfur compounds (including substituted thiophenes) in the natural environment. PMID:9477260

  14. Strong-acid, carboxyl-group structures in fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia. 2. Major structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wershaw, R.L.; Reddy, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polycarboxylic acid structures that account for the strong-acid characteristics (pKa1 near 2.0) were examined for fulvic acid from the Suwannee River. Studies of model compounds demonstrated that pKa values near 2.0 occur only if the ??-ether or ??-ester groups were in cyclic structures with two to three additional electronegative functional groups (carboxyl, ester, ketone, aromatic groups) at adjacent positions on the ring. Ester linkage removal by alkaline hydrolysis and destruction of ether linkages through cleavage and reduction with hydriodic acid confirmed that the strong carboxyl acidity in fulvic acid was associated with polycarboxylic ??-ether and ??-ester structures. Studies of hypothetical structural models of fulvic acid indicated possible relation of these polycarboxylic structures with the amphiphilic and metal-binding properties of fulvic acid.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10381 - Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and carboxylic acid anhydride, methacrylate terminated polyester...Substances § 721.10381 Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10381 - Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy...721.10381 Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy...generically as cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether,...

  17. Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sam H.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the roots of the common names of organic compounds most likely to be encountered by undergraduate organic chemistry students. Includes information for 19 amino acids, 17 aromatic compounds, and 21 carboxylic acids. (WRM)

  18. Synthesis of Terminal Allenes via a Copper-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Coupling Reaction of Alkynyl Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeongah; Choi, Jinseop; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, In Seon; Nam, Kye Chun; Kim, Jimin; Lee, Sunwoo

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of terminal allenes via a copper-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling reaction was developed. Aryl alkynyl carboxylic acid, paraformaldehyde, and dicyclohexylamine were reacted with CuI (20 mol %) in diglyme at 100 °C for 2 h to produce the terminal allene in moderate to good yields. The method showed good functional group tolerance. PMID:26618610

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaïtilingom, M.; Charbouillot, T.; Deguillaume, L.; Maisonobe, R.; Parazols, M.; Amato, P.; Sancelme, M.; Delort, A.-M.

    2011-02-01

    Clouds are multiphasic atmospheric systems in which the dissolved organic compounds, dominated by carboxylic acids, are subject to multiple chemical transformations in the aqueous phase. Among them, solar radiation, by generating hydroxyl radicals (•OH), is considered as the main catalyzer of the reactivity of organic species in clouds. We investigated to which extent the active biomass existing in cloud water represents an alternative route to the chemical reactivity of carboxylic acids. Pure cultures of seventeen bacterial strains (Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Frigoribacterium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Rhodococcus), previously isolated from cloud water and representative of the viable community of clouds were first individually incubated in two artificial bulk cloud water solutions at 17 °C and 5 °C. These solutions mimicked the chemical composition of cloud water from "marine" and "continental" air masses, and contained the major carboxylic acids existing in the cloud water (i.e. acetate, formate, succinate and oxalate). The concentrations of these carboxylic compounds were monitored over time and biodegradation rates were determined. In average, they ranged from 2 ×10-19 for succinate to 1 × 10-18 mol cell-1 s-1 for formate at 17 °C and from 4 × 10-20 for succinate to 6 × 10-19 mol cell-1 s-1 for formate at 5 °C, with no significant difference between "marine" and "continental" media. In parallel, irradiation experiments were also conducted in these two artificial media to compare biodegradation and photodegradation of carboxylic compounds. To complete this comparison, the photodegradation rates of carboxylic acids by •OH radicals were calculated from literature data. Inferred estimations suggested a significant participation of microbes to the transformation of carboxylic acids in cloud water, particularly for acetate and succinate (up to 90%). Furthermore, a natural cloud water sample was incubated (including its indigenous microflora); the rates of biodegradation were determined and compared to the photodegradation rates involving •OH radicals. The biodegradation rates in "natural" and "artificial" cloud water were in the same order of magnitude; this confirms the significant role of the active biomass in the aqueous reactivity of clouds.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  2. Electron mobility enhancement in ZnO thin films via surface modification by carboxylic acids

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul G.

    Electron mobility enhancement in ZnO thin films via surface modification by carboxylic acids Josef://apl.aip.org/authors #12;Electron mobility enhancement in ZnO thin films via surface modification by carboxylic acids Josef a monolayer of organic molecules with carboxylic acid attachment groups increases the field-effect electron

  3. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic...Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic...substance identified generically as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic...Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic...substance identified generically as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid...

  5. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  6. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  7. Carboxylic Acids as Indicators of Parent Body Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner N. R.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Alpha-hydroxy and alpha-amino carboxylic acids found on the Murchison meteorite are deuterium enriched. It is postulated that they arose from a common interstellar scurce: the reaction of carbonyl compounds in an aqueous mixture containing HCN and NH3. Carbonyl compounds react with HCN to form alpha-hydroxy nitriles, RR'CO + HCN right and left arrow RR'C(OH)CN. If ammonia is also present, the alpha-hydroxy nitriles will exist in equilibrium with the alpha-amino nitriles, RR'C(OH)CN + NH3 right and left arrow - RRCNH2CN + H2O. Both nitrites are hydrolyzed by water to form carboxylic acids: RR'C(OH)CN + H2O yields RR'C(OH)CO2H and RR'C(NH2)CN + H2O yields RR'C(NH2)CO2H.

  8. Electrocarboxylation: towards sustainable and efficient synthesis of valuable carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Matthessen, Roman; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The near-unlimited availability of CO2 has stimulated a growing research effort in creating value-added products from this greenhouse gas. This paper presents the trends on the most important methods used in the electrochemical synthesis of carboxylic acids from carbon dioxide. An overview is given of different substrate groups which form carboxylic acids upon CO2 fixation, including mechanistic considerations. While most work focuses on the electrocarboxylation of substrates with sacrificial anodes, this review considers the possibilities and challenges of implementing other synthetic methodologies. In view of potential industrial application, the choice of reactor setup, electrode type and reaction pathway has a large influence on the sustainability and efficiency of the process. PMID:25383120

  9. Facile Synthesis of Spirocyclic Lactams from ?-Keto Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Sun, Xianyu; Yu, Wenbo; Rai, Rachita; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Mitchell, Lauren A; Jiang, Chao; MacKerell, Alexander D; Xue, Fengtian

    2015-06-19

    A facile synthesis of spirocyclic lactams starting from ?-keto carboxylic acids via a one-pot cascade reaction involving a Curtius rearrangement and an intramolecular nucleophilic addition of the enol carbon to the isocyanate intermediate is reported. The same conditions have also been used for the generation of fused cyclic lactams with similar good yields. The synthetic value of this method has been demonstrated by efficient synthesis of tetracyclic spirolactam 8 and pentacyclic spirolactam 9. PMID:26043081

  10. Ozone-driven daytime formation of secondary organic aerosol containing carboxylic acid groups and alkane groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Day, D. A.; Shields, J. E.; Russell, L. M.

    2011-08-01

    Carboxylic acids are present in substantial quantities in atmospheric particles, and they play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. During measurements in coastal California in the summer of 2009, carboxylic acid functional groups were exclusively associated with a fossil fuel combustion factor derived from factor analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements and closely correlated with oxygenated organic factors from aerosol mass spectrometry measurements. The high fraction of acid groups and the high ratio of oxygen to carbon in this factor suggest that this factor is composed of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products of combustion emissions from the upwind industrial region (the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach). Another indication of the photochemically-driven secondary formation of this combustion-emitted organic mass (OM) was the daytime increase in the concentrations of acid groups and the combustion factors. This daytime increase closely tracked the O3 mixing ratio with a correlation coefficient of 0.7, indicating O3 was closely associated with the SOA maximum and thus likely the oxidant that resulted in acid group formation. Using a pseudo-Lagrangian framework to interpret this daytime increase of carboxylic acid groups and the combustion factors, we estimate that the carboxylic acid groups formed in a 12-h daytime period of one day ("Today's SOA") accounted for 25-33 % of the measured carboxylic acid group mass, while the remaining 67-75 % (of the carboxylic acid group mass) was likely formed 1-3 days previously (the "Background SOA"). A similar estimate of the daytime increase in the combustion factors suggests that "Today's SOA" and the "Background SOA" respectively contributed 25-50 % and 50-75 % of the combustion factor (the "Total SOA"), for a "Total SOA" contribution to the OM of 60 % for the project average. Further, size-resolved spectrometric and spectroscopic characterization of the particle OM indicate that the majority of the OM formed by condensation of gas-phase oxidation products. This unique set of measurements and methods to quantify and characterize photochemically and ozone-linked carboxylic acid group formation provide independent and consistent assessments of the secondary fraction of OM, which could result from second generation products of the oxidation of gas-phase alkane (molecules).

  11. Unique adsorption behaviors of carboxylic acids at rutile TiO2(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan-Yan; Gong, Xue-Qing

    2015-11-01

    The coverage-dependent adsorption behavior of acetic acid (CH3COOH) on rutile TiO2(110) was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, corrected by on-site Coulomb corrections and long-range dispersion interactions. The p(2 × 1) and c(2 × 2) domains of dissociatively adsorbed acetic acid under different coverages have been studied in detail regarding their structural and energetic properties. Adsorptions of formic acid (HCOOH) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) were also considered for better understanding the adsorption behaviors of carboxylic acids. Our calculation results show that carboxylic acids prefer to dissociatively adsorb in bridging bidentate configuration, and it induces significant surface relaxation at the adsorption site, which also affects other surface atoms nearby. Interestingly, we have shown that such adsorption-induced relaxations still maintain bond symmetries for surface Ti cations within the p(2 × 1) domain while they are drastically broken within the c(2 × 2) domain, giving rise to unstable Ti cations at the surface. This work not only explains the long-lasting puzzle of the preferable occurrence of p(2 × 1) domain for the adsorbed carboxylic acids at rutile TiO2(110), it also proposes a novel scheme that metal oxide surfaces may follow when they are involved in the processes like surface functionalization and self-assembly.

  12. Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

  13. Formation of biologically relevant carboxylic acids during the gamma irradiation of acetic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid with gamma rays produced several carboxylic acids in small yield. Their identification was based on the technique of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Some of these acids are Krebs Cycle intermediates. Their simultaneous formation in experiments simulating the primitive conditions on the earth suggests that metabolic pathways may have had their origin in prebiotic chemical processes.

  14. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  15. Merging Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis: Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling of Carboxylic Acids with Vinyl Halides

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    Merging Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis: Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling of Carboxylic Acids: Decarboxylative cross-coupling of alkyl carboxylic acids with vinyl halides has been accomplished through to a variety of -oxy and -amino acids, as well as simple hydrocarbon-substituted acids. Diverse vinyl iodides

  16. Interactions of amino acids, carboxylic acids, and mineral acids with different quinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Dipjyoti; Deka, Himangshu; Samanta, Shyam Sundar; Guchait, Subrata; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-03-01

    A series of quinoline containing receptors having amide and ester bonds are synthesized and characterised. The relative binding abilities of these receptors with various amino acids, carboxylic acids and mineral acids are determined by monitoring the changes in fluorescence intensity. Among the receptors bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate shows fluorescence enhancement on addition of amino acids whereas the other receptors shows fluorescence quenching on addition of amino acids. The receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy) propanamide has higher binding affinity for amino acids. However, the receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide having similar structure do not bind to amino acids. This is attributed to the concave structure of the former which is favoured due to the presence of methyl substituent. The receptor bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate do not bind to hydroxy carboxylic acids, but is a good receptor for dicarboxylic acids. The crystal structure of bromide and perchlorate salts of receptor 2-bromo-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-propanamide are determined. In both the cases the amide groups are not in the plane of quinoline ring. The structure of N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide, N-(2-methoxyphenethyl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide and their salts with maleic acid as well as fumaric acid are determined. It is observed that the solid state structures are governed by the double bond geometry of these two acid. Maleic acid forms salt in both the cases, whereas fumaric acid forms either salt or co-crystals.

  17. Two Dimensional Polyamides Prepared From Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids And Amines.

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi Heng (East Lansing, MI); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Danzig, Morris (Northbrook, IL); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2002-07-17

    A polyamide and a process for preparing the polyamide are disclosed. The process comprises reacting in a reaction mixture a monomer selected from unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids, anhydrides of unsaturated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof, and a first amine to form an intermediate reaction product in the reaction mixture, wherein the first amine is selected from RR.sub.1 NH, RNH.sub.2, RR.sub.1 NH.sub.2.sup.+, RNH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof, wherein R and R.sub.1 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, and reacting the intermediate reaction product and a second amine to form a polyamide, wherein the second amine is selected from R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH, R.sub.2 NH.sub.2, R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH.sub.2.sup.+, R.sub.2 NH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof wherein R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R, R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone formed by the polyamide. In one version of the invention, the monomer is selected from maleic anhydride, maleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof. In another version of the invention, the first amine is an alkylamine, such as tetradecylamine, and the second amine is a polyalkylene polyamine, such as pentaethylenehexamine. In yet another version of the invention, the first amine and the second amine are olefinic or acetylenic amines, such as the reaction products of an alkyldiamine and an acetylenic carboxylic acid. The first amine and the second amine may be the same or different depending on the desired polyamide polymer structure.

  18. Rapid isolation of carboxylic acid from petroleum using high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.B.; Stierwalt, B.K.; Thomson, J.S.; Treese, C.A.

    1985-10-01

    A normal-phase HPLC method is described for rapid (1h) separation of carboxylic acids as a class from crude oils and petroleum distillates. Yields of carboxylic acids from several heavy California crude oils as well as midboiling petroleum distillates generated during the API-60 project are reported. Also, four tricyclic terpenoid acids with m/e values of 320, 334, 376, and 376 have been identified and quantified in carboxylic acid concentrations from several oils. The general variability in carboxylic acid species present in different petroleums is discussed along with the suitability of the proposed method for studies requiring analysis of large numbers of oils. 16 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Chemoselective Boron-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Activation of Carboxylic Acids for Mannich-Type Reactions.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuya; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hideoki; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2015-06-10

    The carboxyl group (COOH) is an omnipresent functional group in organic molecules, and its direct catalytic activation represents an attractive synthetic method. Herein, we describe the first example of a direct catalytic nucleophilic activation of carboxylic acids with BH3·SMe2, after which the acids are able to act as carbon nucleophiles, i.e. enolates, in Mannich-type reactions. This reaction proceeds with a mild organic base (DBU) and exhibits high levels of functional group tolerance. The boron catalyst is highly chemoselective toward the COOH group, even in the presence of other carbonyl moieties, such as amides, esters, or ketones. Furthermore, this catalytic method can be extended to highly enantioselective Mannich-type reactions by using a (R)-3,3'-I2-BINOL-substituted boron catalyst. PMID:26011419

  20. Carboxylic Acid Fullerene (C60) Derivatives Attenuated Neuroinflammatory Responses by Modulating Mitochondrial Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shefang; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Keman; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Yange; Jiang, Yuanqin; Yang, Peiyan

    2015-12-01

    Fullerene (C60) derivatives, a unique class of compounds with potent antioxidant properties, have been reported to exert a wide variety of biological activities including neuroprotective properties. Mitochondrial dynamics are an important constituent of cellular quality control and function, and an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell dysfunctions. This study aimed to assess the effects of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives (C60-COOH) on mitochondrial dynamics and elucidate its associated mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cell model. Using a cell-based functional screening system labeled with DsRed2-mito in BV-2 cells, we showed that LPS stimulation led to excessive mitochondrial fission, increased mitochondrial localization of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), both of which were markedly suppressed by C60-COOH pretreatment. LPS-induced mitochondria reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were also significantly inhibited by C60-COOH. Moreover, we also found that C60-COOH pretreatment resulted in the attenuation of LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that carboxylic acid C60 derivatives may exert neuroprotective effects through regulating mitochondrial dynamics and functions in microglial cells, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of the neuroprotective properties of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives. PMID:26058514

  1. Carboxylic Acid Fullerene (C60) Derivatives Attenuated Neuroinflammatory Responses by Modulating Mitochondrial Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shefang; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Keman; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Yange; Jiang, Yuanqin; Yang, Peiyan

    2015-05-01

    Fullerene (C60) derivatives, a unique class of compounds with potent antioxidant properties, have been reported to exert a wide variety of biological activities including neuroprotective properties. Mitochondrial dynamics are an important constituent of cellular quality control and function, and an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell dysfunctions. This study aimed to assess the effects of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives (C60-COOH) on mitochondrial dynamics and elucidate its associated mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cell model. Using a cell-based functional screening system labeled with DsRed2-mito in BV-2 cells, we showed that LPS stimulation led to excessive mitochondrial fission, increased mitochondrial localization of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), both of which were markedly suppressed by C60-COOH pretreatment. LPS-induced mitochondria reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (? ?m) were also significantly inhibited by C60-COOH. Moreover, we also found that C60-COOH pretreatment resulted in the attenuation of LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that carboxylic acid C60 derivatives may exert neuroprotective effects through regulating mitochondrial dynamics and functions in microglial cells, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of the neuroprotective properties of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives.

  2. Carboxyl functionalization of ultrasmall luminescent silicon nanoparticles through thermal hydrosilylation

    E-print Network

    Braun, Paul

    Carboxyl functionalization of ultrasmall luminescent silicon nanoparticles through thermal and optical properties of silicon nanoparticles (Si-np) are a strong function of size,17,18 allowing them use as environmentally sensitive probes, similar to work that was done with porous silicon

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaïtilingom, M.; Charbouillot, T.; Deguillaume, L.; Maisonobe, R.; Parazols, M.; Amato, P.; Sancelme, M.; Delort, A.-M.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this work was to compare experimentally the contribution of photochemistry vs. microbial activity to the degradation of carboxylic acids present in cloud water. For this, we selected 17 strains representative of the microflora existing in real clouds and worked on two distinct artificial cloud media that reproduce marine and continental cloud chemical composition. Photodegradation experiments with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of hydroxyl radicals were performed under the same microcosm conditions using two irradiation systems. Biodegradation and photodegradation rates of acetate, formate, oxalate and succinate were measured on both media at 5 °C and 17 °C and were shown to be on the same order of magnitude (around 10-10-10-11 M s-1). The chemical composition (marine or continental origin) had little influence on photodegradation and biodegradation rates while the temperature shift from 17 °C to 5 °C decreased biodegradation rates of a factor 2 to 5. In order to test other photochemical scenarios, theoretical photodegradation rates were calculated considering hydroxyl (OH) radical concentration values in cloud water estimated by cloud chemistry modelling studies and available reaction rate constants of carboxylic compounds with both hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. Considering high OH concentration ([OH] = 1 × 10-12 M) led to no significant contribution of microbial activity in the destruction of carboxylic acids. On the contrary, for lower OH concentration (at noon, [OH] = 1 × 10-14 M), microorganisms could efficiently compete with photochemistry and in similar contributions than the ones estimated by our experimental approach. Combining these two approaches (experimental and theoretical), our results led to the following conclusions: oxalate was only photodegraded; the photodegradation of formate was usually more efficient than its biodegradation; the biodegradation of acetate and succinate seemed to exceed their photodegradation.

  4. Integrated process for preparing a carboxylic acid from an alkane

    DOEpatents

    Benderly, Abraham (Elkins Park, PA); Chadda, Nitin (Radnor, PA); Sevon, Douglass (Fairless Hills, PA)

    2011-12-20

    The present invention relates to an integrated process for producing unsaturated carboxylic acids from the corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane. The process begins with performance of thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions which convert a C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane to its corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkene, and which involve exothermically converting a portion of an alkane to its corresponding alkene by oxidative dehydrogenation in an exothermic reaction zone, in the presence of oxygen and a suitable catalyst, and then feeding the products of the exothermic reaction zone to an endothermic reaction zone wherein at least a portion of the remaining unconverted alkane is endothermically dehydrogenated to form an additional quantity of the same corresponding alkene, in the presence of carbon dioxide and an other suitable catalyst. The alkene products of the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions are then provided to a catalytic vapor phase partial oxidation process for conversion of the alkene to the corresponding unsaturated carboxylic acid or nitrile. Unreacted alkene and carbon dioxide are recovered from the oxidation product stream and recycled back to the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions.

  5. Titania-promoted carboxylic acid alkylations of alkenes and cascade addition-cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Manley, David W; McBurney, Roy T; Miller, Phillip; Walton, John C; Mills, Andrew; O'Rourke, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    Photochemical reactions employing TiO2 and carboxylic acids under dry anaerobic conditions led to several types of C-C bond-forming processes with electron-deficient alkenes. The efficiency of alkylation varied appreciably with substituents in the carboxylic acids. The reactions of aryloxyacetic acids with maleimides resulted in a cascade process in which a pyrrolochromene derivative accompanied the alkylated succinimide. The selectivity for one or other of these products could be tuned to some extent by employing the photoredox catalyst under different conditions. Aryloxyacetic acids adapted for intramolecular ring closures by inclusion of 2-alkenyl, 2-aryl, or 2-oximinyl functionality reacted rather poorly. Profiles of reactant consumption and product formation for these systems were obtained by an in situ NMR monitoring technique. An array of different catalyst forms were tested for efficiency and ease of use. The proposed mechanism, involving hole capture at the TiO2 surface by the carboxylates followed by CO2 loss, was supported by EPR spectroscopic evidence of the intermediates. Deuterium labeling indicated that the titania likely donates protons from surface hydroxyl groups as well as supplying electrons and holes, thus acting as both a catalyst and a reaction partner. PMID:24437519

  6. Evolution for exogenous octanoic acid tolerance improves carboxylic acid production and membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Royce, Liam A; Yoon, Jong Moon; Chen, Yingxi; Rickenbach, Emily; Shanks, Jacqueline V; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-05-01

    Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical, but as with many biorenewables, their toxicity to microbial biocatalysts limits their fermentative production. While it is generally accepted that membrane damage is the main mechanism of fatty acid toxicity, previous metabolic engineering efforts that increased membrane integrity did not enable increased carboxylic acid production. Here we used an evolutionary approach to improve tolerance to exogenous octanoic acid, with the goal of learning design strategies from this evolved strain. This evolution of an Escherichia coli MG1655 derivative at neutral pH in minimal media produced a strain with increased tolerance not only to octanoic acid, but also to hexanoic acid, decanoic acid, n-butanol and isobutanol. This evolved strain also produced carboxylic acids at a 5-fold higher titer than its parent strain when expressing the Anaerococcus tetradius thioesterase. While it has been previously suggested that intracellular acidification may contribute to carboxylic acid toxicity, we saw no evidence that the evolved strain has increased resistance to this acidification. Characterization of the evolved strain membrane showed that it had significantly altered membrane polarization (fluidity), integrity (leakage) and composition relative to its parent. The changes in membrane composition included a significant increase in average lipid length in a variety of growth conditions, including 30°C, 42°C, carboxylic acid challenge and ethanol challenge. The evolved strain has a more dynamic membrane composition, showing both a larger number of significant changes and larger fold changes in the relative abundance of membrane lipids. These results highlight the importance of the cell membrane in increasing microbial tolerance and production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. PMID:25839166

  7. Separation of Aliphatic and Aromatic Carboxylic Acids by Conventional and Ultra High Performance Ion Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Fotouh R.; Kirkpatrick, Christine L.; Danielson, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    An ion exclusion chromatography (IELC) comparison between a conventional ion exchange column and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) dynamically surfactant modified C18 column for the separation of an aliphatic carboxylic acid and two aromatic carboxylic acids is presented. Professional software is used to optimize the conventional IELC separation conditions for acetylsalicylic acid and the hydrolysis products: salicylic acid and acetic acid. Four different variables are simultaneously optimized including H2SO4 concentration, pH, flow rate, and sample injection volume. Thirty different runs are suggested by the software. The resolutions and the time of each run are calculated and feed back to the software to predict the optimum conditions. Derringer’s desirability functions are used to evaluate the test conditions and those with the highest desirability value are utilized to separate acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, and acetic acid. These conditions include using a 0.35 mM H2SO4 (pH 3.93) eluent at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1 and an injection volume of 72 ?L. To decrease the run time and improve the performance, a UHPLC C18 column is used after dynamic modification with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Using pure water as a mobile phase, a shorter analysis time and better resolution are achieved. In addition, the elution order is different from the IELC method which indicates the contribution of the reversed-phase mode to the separation mechanism. PMID:24285874

  8. Selenium Catalyzed Oxidation of Aldehydes: Green Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids and Esters.

    PubMed

    Sancineto, Luca; Tidei, Caterina; Bagnoli, Luana; Marini, Francesca; Lenardão, Eder J; Santi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a selenium-containing catalyst in water is here reported as a new ecofriendly protocol for the synthesis of variously functionalized carboxylic acids and esters. The method affords the desired products in good to excellent yields under very mild conditions starting directly from commercially available aldehydes. Using benzaldehyde as a prototype the gram scale synthesis of benzoic acid is described, in which the aqueous medium and the catalyst could be recycled at last five times while achieving an 87% overall yield. PMID:26060915

  9. Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

  10. Molecular Self-Assembly of Enantiopure Heptahelicene-2-Carboxylic Acid on Calcite (1014)

    E-print Network

    Kühnle, Angelika

    1014-01-01

    Molecular Self-Assembly of Enantiopure Heptahelicene-2-Carboxylic Acid on Calcite (1014)-heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid ((M)-[7]HCA) on the calcite (1014) cleavage plane under ultrahigh vacuum along the calcite [0110] direction. Here, we investigate the enantiopure (M)- [7]HCA compound, resulting

  11. 40 CFR 721.10529 - Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt iron manganese oxide... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10529 Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid... substance identified generically as cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (PMN P-12-35)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10529 - Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt iron manganese oxide... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10529 Cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid... substance identified generically as cobalt iron manganese oxide, carboxylic acid-modified (PMN P-12-35)...

  13. On the Mechanism of the Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Olefination of Arene Carboxylic Acids.

    E-print Network

    On the Mechanism of the Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Olefination of Arene Carboxylic Acids. Crystallographic Characterization of Non-Phosphine Palladium(II) Intermediates and Observation of a palladium-mediated decarboxylative olefination of arene carboxylic acids are presented, providing

  14. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  19. Carboxylic Acids as A Traceless Activation Group for Conjugate Additions: A Three-Step Synthesis of ()-Pregabalin

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    Carboxylic Acids as A Traceless Activation Group for Conjugate Additions: A Three-Step Synthesis: The direct application of carboxylic acids as a traceless activation group for radical Michael additions has of a broad series of carboxylic acids, including hydrocarbon-substituted, - oxy, and -amino acids, provides

  20. ANALYSIS OF PERFLUORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN SOILS II: OPTIMIZATION OF CHROMATOGRAPHY AND EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary p...

  1. Electrochemiluminescence sensor for melamine based on a Ru(bpy)3(2+)-doped silica nanoparticles/carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion composite film modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomei; Lian, Sai; Ma, Ying; Peng, Aihong; Tian, Xiaotian; Huang, Zhiyong; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor for the determination of melamine (MEL) was developed based on a Ru(bpy)3(2+)-doped silica nanoparticles (RUDS)/carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CMWCNTs)/Nafion composite film modified electrode. The homogeneous spherical RUDS were synthesized by a reverse microemulsion method. As Ru(bpy)3(2+) were encapsulated in the RUDS, Ru(bpy)3(2+) dropping from the modified electrode can be greatly prevented, which is helpful for obtaining a stable ECL signal. Moreover, to improve the conductivity of the film and promote the electron transfer rate on electrode surface, CMWCNTs with excellent electrical conductivity and large surface area were applied in the construction of the sensing film. As CMWCNTs acted as electron bridges making more Ru(bpy)3(2+) participate in the reaction, the ECL intensity was greatly enhanced. Under the optimum conditions, the relative ECL signal (?IECL) was proportional to the logarithmic MEL concentration ranging from 5×10(-13) to 1×10(-7)molL(-1) with a detection limit of 1×10(-13)molL(-1). To verify the reliability, the thus-fabricated ECL sensor was applied to determine the concentration of MEL in milk. Based on these investigations, the proposed ECL sensor exhibited good feasibility and high sensitivity for the determination of MEL, promising the applicability of this sensor in practical analysis. PMID:26695338

  2. Carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain via mixed culture fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Wan, Caixia

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain (BSG) via mixed culture fermentation. The results showed that the distribution of fermentation products was significantly affected by pH conditions and the addition of electron donors. Lactic acid was the dominant component under acidic and alkaline conditions while volatile fatty acids (VFAs) became dominant under the neutral condition. Furthermore, the neutral condition favored the chain elongation of carboxylic acids, especially with ethanol as the electron donor. Ethanol addition enhanced valeric acid and caproic acid production by 44% and 167%, respectively. Lactic acid addition also had positive effects on VFAs production under the neutral condition but limited to C2-C4 products. As a result, propionic acid and butyric acid production was increased by 109% and 152%, respectively. These findings provide substantial evidence for regulating carboxylic acid production during mixed culture fermentation of BSG by controlling pH and adding electron donors. PMID:25698409

  3. Recovery of carboxylic acids at pH greater than pK{sub a}

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, L.A.

    1993-08-01

    Economics of producing carboxylic acids by fermentation is often dominated, not by the fermentation cost, but by the cost of recovering and purifying the acids from dilute aqueous solutions. Experiments were performed to measure uptakes of lactic and succinic acids as functions of pH by basic polymeric sorbents; sorbent regeneration was also tested. Performance at pH > pK{sub a} and regenerability depend on sorbent basicity; apparent pK{sub a} and monomer pK{sub a} can be used to predict sorbent performance. Two basic amine extractants, Alamine 336 and Amberlite LA-2, in were also studied; they are able to sustain capacity to higher pH in diluents that stabilize the acid-amine complex through H bonding. Secondary amines perform better than tert-amines in diluents that solvate the additional proton. Competitive sulfate and phosphate, an interference in fermentation, are taken up by sorbents more strongly than by extractants. The third step in the proposed fermentation process, the cracking of the trimethylammonium (TMA) carboxylate, was also examined. Because lactic acid is more soluble and tends to self-esterify, simple thermal cracking does not remove all TMA; a more promising approach is to esterify the TMA lactate by reaction with an alcohol.

  4. Enantiopure synthesis of all four stereoisomers of carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Avenoza, Alberto; Barriobero, José I; Busto, Jesús H; Peregrina, Jesús M

    2003-04-01

    The retro-Dieckmann reaction has been used as a stereodivergent synthetic tool on N-Boc-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester to obtain enantiopure trans- and cis-5-(carboxymethyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid methyl esters. These disubstituted pyrrolidines have been used as starting materials to develop concise and straightforward syntheses of all four stereoisomers of carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid methyl esters. In this way, we have confirmed unequivocally the stereochemistry of two carbapenams isolated from strains of Serratia and Erwinia species. PMID:12662066

  5. Keto-Enol Tautomerizations Catalyzed by Water and Carboxylic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, G.

    2009-12-01

    The ability of weakly-bound complexes to influence the kinetics of gas phase reactions, particularly in atmospheric chemistry, has long been speculated. This study uses quantum chemistry and statistical reaction rate theory to identify that bound water molecules can significantly reduce barriers to intramolecular hydrogen shift reactions, via a double-hydrogen-shift mechanism. The bound water molecule directly participates in the hydrogen shift reaction, exchanging a H atom with its counterpart. For the vinyl alcohol to acetaldehyde keto-enol tautomerization this mechanism cuts the reaction barrier approximately in half, reducing it by over 30 kcal mol-1. In contrast, while a non-participatory ‘bystander’ water molecule also reduces the hydrogen shift barrier, it is only by around 3 kcal/mol. When a carboxylic acid replaces water in the double-hydrogen-shift mechanism the barrier to keto-enol tautomerization is decimated, reduced to less than 6 kcal/mol (around 15 kcal/mol in the reverse direction). This results from reduced strain in the hydrogen shift transition state, and achieves enol lifetimes in the troposphere that become short on relevant timescales. Rapid enol to ketone isomerizations are currently required to explain the oxidation products of isoprene. The wider significance of rapid hydrogen shift reactions in atmospherically relevant molecules and radicals is also explored.

  6. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids discharged from the Yodo River Basin, Japan.

    PubMed

    Niisoe, Tamon; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Yan, Junxia; Zhao, Can; Oshima, Masayo; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-11-01

    We investigated perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 7-14 carbon atoms (C7-C14) in the Yodo River system in 2013. C7-C11 were detected at most sampling sites. The range and median of total PFCAs (?PFCAs) concentrations were 1.0-89.7 and 11.2 ng L(-1), respectively. The dominant component was C8 (average for all samples=53.3±8.8%), followed by C7 (19.2±6.7%) and C9 (17.6±7.1%). The levels of C8 were confirmed to decrease greatly over the last 10 years. We assessed the fluxes in C7-C11 discharged from the basin based on the concentrations in river water and river flow rate. The flux of discharged ?PFCAs was 237.0 g d(-1) at the most downriver point of the assessment areas. Considering the variability in flow rate due to precipitation, the annual ?PFCAs flux was estimated to be 86.5-173.4 kg y(-1). Identification and quantification of PFCAs sources is difficult because the strength of the sources changes with time, and available information is quite limited. Further monitoring and investigation are necessary to understand sources of PFCAs, as well as their potential for human exposure. PMID:26037820

  7. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

  8. Effects of intermediate metabolite carboxylic acids of TCA cycle on Microcystis with overproduction of phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shijie; Dai, Jingcheng; Xia, Ming; Ruan, Jing; Wei, Hehong; Yu, Dianzhen; Li, Ronghui; Jing, Hongmei; Tian, Chunyuan; Song, Lirong; Qiu, Dongru

    2015-04-01

    Toxic Microcystis species are the main bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwaters. It is imperative to develop efficient techniques to control these notorious harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we present a simple, efficient, and environmentally safe algicidal way to control Microcystis blooms, by using intermediate carboxylic acids from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The citric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid all exhibited strong algicidal effects, and particularly succinic acid could cause the rapid lysis of Microcystis in a few hours. It is revealed that the Microcystis-lysing activity of succinic acid and other carboxylic acids was due to their strong acidic activity. Interestingly, the acid-lysed Microcystis cells released large amounts of phycocyanin, about 27-fold higher than those of the control. On the other hand, the transcription of mcyA and mcyD of the microcystin biosynthesis operon was not upregulated by addition of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and other carboxylic acids. Consider the environmental safety of intermediate carboxylic acids. We propose that administration of TCA cycle organic acids may not only provide an algicidal method with high efficiency and environmental safety but also serve as an applicable way to produce and extract phycocyanin from cyanobacterial biomass. PMID:25342454

  9. (S) 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylsulfonylamino)acetic acid. Structure, acidity and its alkali carboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Hernández, Angélica M.; Contreras, Rosalinda; Suárez-Moreno, Galdina V.; Montes-Tolentino, Pedro; Ramos-García, Iris; González, Felipe J.; Flores-Parra, Angelina

    2015-03-01

    The structure and the preferred conformers of (S) 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylsulfonylamino)acetic acid (1) are reported. Compound 1 is a derivative of the unnatural aminoacid the (S) phenyl glycine. The X-ray diffraction analyses of the complexes of 1 with water, methanol, pyridine and its own anion are discussed. In order to add information about the acidity of the COOH and NH protons in compound 1, its pKa in DMSO and those of N-benzyl-p-tolylsulfonamide and (S) N-methylbenzyl-p-tolylsulfonamide were determined by cyclic voltammetry. Data improved the scarce information about pKa in DMSO values of sulfonamides. The products of the reactions of compound 1 with one and two equivalents of LiOH, NaOH and KOH in methanol were analyzed. Crystals of the lithium (2) and sodium (3) carboxylates and the dipotassium sulfonylamide acetate (7) were obtained, they are coordination polymers. In compound 2, the lithium is bound to four oxygen atoms with short bond lengths. The coordination of the lithium atom to two carboxylates gives an infinite ribbon by formation of fused six membered rings. In the crystal of compound 3, two pentacoordinated sodium atoms are bridged by three oxygen atoms, one from a water molecule and two from DMSO. The short distance between the sodium atoms (3.123 Å), implies a metal-metal interaction. The sodium couples are linked by two carboxylate groups, forming a planar ribbon of fused twelve membered rings. A notable discovery was a water molecule quenched in the middle of the ring, with a tetra coordinated oxygen atom in a square planar geometry. In compound 7, the carboxylate and the amide are bound to heptacoordinated potassium atoms. The 2D polymer of 7 has a sandwich structure, with the carboxylate and potassium atoms in the inner layer covered by the aromatic rings.

  10. Low molecular weight carboxylic acids in oxidizing porphyry copper tailings.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard; Blowes, David W; Dickhout, Ralph; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf

    2005-04-15

    The distribution of low molecular weight carboxylic acids (LMWCA) was investigated in pore water profiles from two porphyry copper tailings impoundments in Chile (Piuquenes at La Andina and Cauquenes at El Teniente mine). The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the distribution of LMWCA, which are interpreted to be the metabolic byproducts of the autotroph microbial community in this low organic carbon system, and (2) to infer the potential role of these acids in cycling of Fe and other elements in the tailings impoundments. The speciation and mobility of iron, and potential for the release of H+ via hydrolysis of the ferric iron, are key factors in the formation of acid mine drainage in sulfidic mine wastes. In the low-pH oxidation zone of the Piuquenes tailings, Fe(III) is the dominant iron species and shows high mobility. LMWCA, which occur mainly between the oxidation front down to 300 cm below the tailings surface at both locations (e.g., max concentrations of 0.12 mmol/L formate, 0.17 mmol/L acetate, and 0.01 mmol/L pyruvate at Piuquenes and 0.14 mmol/L formate, 0.14 mmol/L acetate, and 0.006 mmol/L pyruvate at Cauquenes), are observed at the same location as high Fe concentrations (up to 71.2 mmol/L Fe(II) and 16.1 mmol/L Fe(III), respectively). In this zone, secondary Fe(III) hydroxides are depleted. Our data suggest that LMWCA may influence the mobility of iron in two ways. First, complexation of Fe(III), through formation of bidentate Fe(III)-LMWCA complexes (e.g., pyruvate, oxalate), may enhance the dissolution of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides or may prevent precipitation of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides. Soluble Fe(III) chelate complexes which may be mobilized downward and convert to Fe(II) by Fe(III) reducing bacteria. Second, monodentate LMWCA (e.g., acetate and formate) can be used by iron-reducing bacteria as electron donors (e.g., Acidophilum spp.), with ferric iron as the electron acceptor. These processes may, in part, explain the low abundances of secondary Fe(III) hydroxide precipitates below the oxidation front and the high concentrations of Fe(II) observed in the pore waters of some low-sulfide systems. The reduction of Fe(III) and the subsequent increase of iron mobility and potential acidity transfer (Fe(II) oxidation can result in the release of H+ in an oxic environment) should be taken in account in mine waste management strategies. PMID:15884343

  11. Photophysics of indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C): Heavy atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka; Ga??cki, Krystian; Wysocki, Stanis?aw

    2013-12-01

    In this study the effect of carboxylic group substitution in the 2 and 5 position of indole ring on the photophysics of the parent indole chromophore has been studied. The photophysical parameters crucial in triplet state decay mechanism of aqueous indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C) have been determined applying our previously proposed methodology based on the heavy atom effect and fluorescence and phosphorescence decay kinetics [Kowalska-Baron et al., 2012]. The determined time-resolved phosphorescence spectra of I2C and I5C are red-shifted as compared to that of the parent indole. This red-shift was especially evident in the case of I2C and may indicate the possibility of hydrogen bonded complex formation incorporating carbonyl Cdbnd O, the NH group of I2C and, possibly, surrounding water molecules. The possibility of the excited state charge transfer process and the subsequent electronic charge redistribution in such a hydrogen bonded complex may also be postulated. The resulting stabilization of the I2C triplet state is manifested by its relatively long phosphorescence lifetime in aqueous solution (912 ?s). The relatively short phosphorescence lifetime of I5C (56 ?s) may be the consequence of more effective ground-state quenching of I5C triplet state. This hypothesis may be strengthened by the significantly larger value of the determined rate constant of I5C triplet state quenching by its ground-state (4.4 × 108 M-1 s-1) as compared to that for indole (6.8 × 107 M-1 s-1) and I2C (2.3 × 107 M-1 s-1). The determined bimolecular rate constant for triplet state quenching by iodide kqT1 is equal to 1 × 104 M-1 s-1; 6 × 103 M-1 s-1 and 2.7 × 104 M-1 s-1 for indole, I2C and I5C, respectively. In order to obtain a better insight into iodide quenching of I2C and I5C triplet states in aqueous solution, the temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate constants for iodide quenching of the triplet states has been expressed in Arrhenius form. The linearity of the obtained Arrhenius plots clearly indicated the existence of one temperature-dependent non-radiative process for the de-excitation of I2C and I5C triplet state in the presence of iodide. This process may be attributed to the solute-quenching by iodide and, most probably, proceeds via reversibly formed exciplex. The activation energies obtained from linear Arrhenius plots (1.89 kcal/mol for I5C; 2.55 kcal/mol for I2C) are smaller as compared to that for diffusion controlled reactions in aqueous solution (about 4 kcal/mol), which may indicate the great importance of the electrostatic interactions between solute and iodide ions in lowering the energy barrier needed for the formation of the triplet-quencher complex. Based on the theoretical predictions (at the DFT(CAM-B3LYP)/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory) and careful analysis of the obtained FTIR spectra it may be concluded that in the solid state I2C and I5C molecules form associates by intermolecular NH⋯Odbnd C and OH⋯Odbnd C hydrogen bonding interactions, whereas the existence of intramolecular NH⋯Odbnd C interactions in the solid state of I2C and I5C is highly unlikely.

  12. Photophysics of indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C): heavy atom effect.

    PubMed

    Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka; Ga??cki, Krystian; Wysocki, Stanis?aw

    2013-12-01

    In this study the effect of carboxylic group substitution in the 2 and 5 position of indole ring on the photophysics of the parent indole chromophore has been studied. The photophysical parameters crucial in triplet state decay mechanism of aqueous indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C) have been determined applying our previously proposed methodology based on the heavy atom effect and fluorescence and phosphorescence decay kinetics [Kowalska-Baron et al., 2012]. The determined time-resolved phosphorescence spectra of I2C and I5C are red-shifted as compared to that of the parent indole. This red-shift was especially evident in the case of I2C and may indicate the possibility of hydrogen bonded complex formation incorporating carbonyl CO, the NH group of I2C and, possibly, surrounding water molecules. The possibility of the excited state charge transfer process and the subsequent electronic charge redistribution in such a hydrogen bonded complex may also be postulated. The resulting stabilization of the I2C triplet state is manifested by its relatively long phosphorescence lifetime in aqueous solution (912 ?s). The relatively short phosphorescence lifetime of I5C (56 ?s) may be the consequence of more effective ground-state quenching of I5 C triplet state. This hypothesis may be strengthened by the significantly larger value of the determined rate constant of I5C triplet state quenching by its ground-state (4.4 × 10(8)M(-1)s(-1)) as compared to that for indole (6.8 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1)) and I2C (2.3 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1)). The determined bimolecular rate constant for triplet state quenching by iodide [Formula: see text] is equal to 1 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1); 6 × 10(3)M(-1)s(-1) and 2.7 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) for indole, I2 C and I5 C, respectively. In order to obtain a better insight into iodide quenching of I2C and I5C triplet states in aqueous solution, the temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate constants for iodide quenching of the triplet states has been expressed in Arrhenius form. The linearity of the obtained Arrhenius plots clearly indicated the existence of one temperature-dependent non-radiative process for the de-excitation of I2C and I5C triplet state in the presence of iodide. This process may be attributed to the solute-quenching by iodide and, most probably, proceeds via reversibly formed exciplex. The activation energies obtained from linear Arrhenius plots (1.89 kcal/mol for I5 C; 2.55 kcal/mol for I2 C) are smaller as compared to that for diffusion controlled reactions in aqueous solution (about 4 kcal/mol), which may indicate the great importance of the electrostatic interactions between solute and iodide ions in lowering the energy barrier needed for the formation of the triplet-quencher complex. Based on the theoretical predictions (at the DFT(CAM-B3LYP)/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory) and careful analysis of the obtained FTIR spectra it may be concluded that in the solid state I2 C and I5 C molecules form associates by intermolecular NH · · · OC and OH · · · OC hydrogen bonding interactions, whereas the existence of intramolecular NH · · · OC interactions in the solid state of I2C and I5C is highly unlikely. PMID:23933843

  13. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Coupling of Acrylic Acids with Unsaturated Oxime Esters: Carboxylic Acids Serve as Traceless Activators

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ?,?-Unsaturated carboxylic acids undergo Rh(III)-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling with ?,?-unsaturated O-pivaloyl oximes to provide substituted pyridines in good yield. The carboxylic acid, which is removed by decarboxylation, serves as a traceless activating group, giving 5-substituted pyridines with very high levels of regioselectivity. Mechanistic studies rule out a picolinic acid intermediate, and an isolable rhodium complex sheds further light on the reaction mechanism. PMID:24512241

  14. Biological Roles and Therapeutic Potential of Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Kashan

    2011-01-01

    In the recent past, deorphanization studies have described intermediates of energy metabolism to activate G protein-coupled receptors and to thereby regulate metabolic functions. GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B, formerly known as the nicotinic acid receptor family, are encoded by clustered genes and share a high degree of sequence homology. Recently, hydroxy-carboxylic acids were identified as endogenous ligands of GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B, and therefore these receptors have been placed into a novel receptor family of hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA) receptors. The HCA1 receptor (GPR81) is activated by the glycolytic metabolite 2-hydroxy-propionic acid (lactate), the HCA2 receptor is activated by the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, and the HCA3 receptor (GPR109B) is a receptor for the ?-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. While HCA1 and HCA2 receptors are present in most mammalian species, the HCA3 receptor is exclusively found in humans and higher primates. HCA receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and mediate anti-lipolytic effects in adipocytes through Gi-type G protein-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. HCA2 and HCA3 inhibit lipolysis during conditions of increased ?-oxidation such as prolonged fasting, whereas HCA1 mediates the anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in the fed state. As HCA2 is a receptor for the established anti-dyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid, HCA1 and HCA3 also represent promising drug targets and several synthetic ligands for HCA receptors have been developed. In this article, we will summarize the deorphanization and pharmacological characterization of HCA receptors. Moreover, we will discuss recent progress in elucidating the physiological and pathophysiological role to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the HCA receptor family for the treatment of metabolic disease. PMID:22654812

  15. The effect of carboxylic acid anions on the stability of framework mineral grains in petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, D.B.; Surdam, R.C.; Ewing, R.E. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper presents experimental and empirical evidence to show that carboxylic acid anions (CAA's) are a major diagenetic control on first-cycle basins in Jurassic-to-Pleistocene reservoirs in the 80-to-120{degrees}C thermal window.

  16. Pilot-scale fermentation of office paper and chicken manure to carboxylic acids 

    E-print Network

    Moody, Andrew Garret

    2006-08-16

    This project focused on scaling up the laboratory fermentation of biomass to carboxylic acids. Four 1050-gallon tanks were used to simulate four-stage countercurrent fermentation. Most laboratory fermentations have been performed with 1-L fermentors...

  17. The conversion of corn stover and pig manure to carboxylic acids with the MixAlco process 

    E-print Network

    Black, Amanda Spring

    2013-02-22

    The MixAlco process, developed by Dr. Mark T. Holtzapple, uses anaerobic fermentation to convert waste biomass into carboxylate salts which can then be manipulated into carboxylic acids, ketones and alcohols. This project focuses on the application...

  18. Human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PYCR1) acts on ?(1)-piperideine-6-carboxylate generating L-pipecolic acid.

    PubMed

    Struys, Eduard A; Jansen, Erwin E W; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-05-01

    We have conducted biochemical studies with commercial available pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (PYCR1) to investigate whether this enzyme plays a role in L-lysine degradation. Our recent studies with antiquitin/ALDH7A1 deficient fibroblasts revealed an alternative genesis of L-pipecolic acid, and we then hypothesized that PYCR1 was responsible for the conversion of ?(1)-piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C) into pipecolic acid. We here present evidence that PYCR1 is indeed able to produce L-pipecolic acid from P6C preparations, and the observed K m for this conversion is of the same magnitude as the K m described for the conversion of P5C to L-proline by PYCR1. Urine samples from antiquitin deficient individuals, who accumulate P6C, were also incubated with PYCR1 which resulted in a marked decrease of P6C and a huge increase of L-pipecolic acid as measured by LC-MS/MS, confirming that indeed PYCR1 generates L-pipecolic acid from P6C. PMID:24431009

  19. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

    1992-07-21

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Role of Carboxylic Acids in Metabolite Signaling in Arabidopsis Leaves1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Finkemeier, Iris; König, Ann-Christine; Heard, William; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Pham, Phuong Anh; Leister, Dario; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Sweetlove, Lee J.

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptional response to metabolites is an important mechanism by which plants integrate information about cellular energy and nutrient status. Although some carboxylic acids have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression for select transcripts, it is unclear whether all carboxylic acids have the same effect, how many transcripts are affected, and how carboxylic acid signaling is integrated with other metabolite signals. In this study, we demonstrate that perturbations in cellular concentrations of citrate, and to a lesser extent malate, have a major impact on nucleus-encoded transcript abundance. Functional categories of transcripts that were targeted by both organic acids included photosynthesis, cell wall, biotic stress, and protein synthesis. Specific functional categories that were only regulated by citrate included tricarboxylic acid cycle, nitrogen metabolism, sulfur metabolism, and DNA synthesis. Further quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of specific citrate-responsive transcripts demonstrated that the transcript response to citrate is time and concentration dependent and distinct from other organic acids and sugars. Feeding of isocitrate as well as the nonmetabolizable citrate analog tricarballylate revealed that the abundance of selected marker transcripts is responsive to citrate and not downstream metabolites. Interestingly, the transcriptome response to citrate feeding was most similar to those observed after biotic stress treatments and the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Feeding of citrate to mutants with defects in plant hormone signaling pathways did not completely abolish the transcript response but hinted at a link with jasmonic acid and gibberellin signaling pathways. Our results suggest that changes in carboxylic acid abundances can be perceived and signaled in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by as yet unknown signaling pathways. PMID:23487434

  1. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine:Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase, an Enzyme Involved in Floral Scent

    E-print Network

    Pichersky, Eran

    S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine:Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase, an Enzyme Involved in Floral compound in C. breweri, from salicylic acid and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). The native en- zyme is a dimer with a subunit molecular weight of 40.3 kDa, and it has a Km for salicylic acid of 24 M and a Km

  2. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  3. Theoretical modeling of the OH stretch infrared spectrum of carboxylic acid dimers based on first-principles anharmonic couplings

    E-print Network

    Zwier, Timothy S.

    Theoretical modeling of the OH stretch infrared spectrum of carboxylic acid dimers based on first, Wisconsin 53706-1396 Received 20 September 2002; accepted 28 October 2002 Carboxylic acid dimers serve, and OH bend internal coordinates for the formic acid and benzoic acid dimers. These are then projected

  4. Non-catalytic reaction of isonitriles and carboxylic acids en route to amide type linkages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuechen; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2008-01-01

    This protocol describes the preparation of an N-methyl-asparagine linked glycosyl amino acid, based on a reaction between carboxylic acids and isonitriles. Under microwave/thermolysis, carboxylic acids can couple with isonitriles without external catalyst, to afford N-formyl-amides, which may be further advanced to the corresponding amides, N-methyl amide, and N-methyloyl amide. The example reaction of ?-galactopyranosyl isonitrile (7) with a protected aspartic acid under microwave condition in 30 minutes stereoselectively leads to a ?-galactopyranosyl-N-formyl-asparagine 9. Further chemical transformations readily convert 9 into ?-galactopyranosyl-N-methyl-asparagine (11). PMID:18833204

  5. Analysis of carbonaceous biomarkers with the Mars Organic Analyzer microchip capillary electrophoresis system: carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Amanda M; Tjin, Caroline Chandra; Chiesl, Thomas N; Mathies, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The oxidizing surface chemistry on Mars argues that any comprehensive search for organic compounds indicative of life requires methods to analyze higher oxidation states of carbon with very low limits of detection. To address this goal, microchip capillary electrophoresis (?CE) methods were developed for analysis of carboxylic acids with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA). Fluorescent derivatization was achieved by activation with the water soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) followed by reaction with Cascade Blue hydrazide in 30 mM borate, pH 3. A standard containing 12 carboxylic acids found in terrestrial life was successfully labeled and separated in 30 mM borate at pH 9.5, 20 °C by using the MOA CE system. Limits of detection were 5-10 nM for aliphatic monoacids, 20 nM for malic acid (diacid), and 230 nM for citric acid (triacid). Polyacid benzene derivatives containing 2, 3, 4, and 6 carboxyl groups were also analyzed. In particular, mellitic acid was successfully labeled and analyzed with a limit of detection of 300 nM (5 ppb). Analyses of carboxylic acids sampled from a lava tube cave and a hydrothermal area demonstrated the versatility and robustness of our method. This work establishes that the MOA can be used for sensitive analyses of a wide range of carboxylic acids in the search for extraterrestrial organic molecules. PMID:21790324

  6. Metabolism of cyclohexane carboxylic acid by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Küver, J; Xu, Y; Gibson, J

    1995-11-01

    Cyclohexane carboxylate supported relatively rapid growth (doubling times 7-8 h) of Rhodopseudomonas palustris under oxic or photosynthetic conditions, but did not serve as a substrate for either of the known aromatic CoA ligases. A CoA ligase that thioesterifies cyclohexane carboxylate was partially purified and did not cross react immunologically with the two CoA ligases purified previously from this bacterium. Crude extracts of R. palustris cells grown with a range of aromatic or alicyclic acids contained a dehydrogenase that reacted with cyclohexane carboxyl-CoA or cyclohex-1-ene carboxyl-CoA, using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol or ferricenium ion as electron carrier. This activity was not detected in extracts of adipate-, glutamate-, or succinate-grown cells. No oxidation or reduction of nonesterified cyclohexane carboxylate or cyclohexene carbocylate was detected in extracts of cells grown with aromatic or aliphatic substrates, neither aerobically nor anaerobically. A constitutively expressed thioesterase that hydrolyzed cyclohexane carboxyl-CoA and also some alicyclic and aliphatic CoA derivatives was purified and characterized. The enzyme had little or no activity on benzoyl-CoA or 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA. The presence of a thioesterase that effectively hydrolyzes cyclohexane carboxyl-CoA suggests that transient production of cyclohexane carboxylate is a physiological response to temporary excess of reductant during metabolism of aromatic compounds. PMID:8572887

  7. Measuring the concentration of carboxylic acid groups in torrefied spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Khazraie Shoulaifar, Tooran; Demartini, Nikolai; Ivaska, Ari; Fardim, Pedro; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-11-01

    Torrefaction is moderate thermal treatment (?200-300°C) to improve the energy density, handling and storage properties of biomass fuels. In biomass, carboxylic sites are partially responsible for its hygroscopic. These sites are degraded to varying extents during torrefaction. In this paper, we apply methylene blue sorption and potentiometric titration to measure the concentration of carboxylic acid groups in spruce wood torrefied for 30min at temperatures between 180 and 300°C. The results from both methods were applicable and the values agreed well. A decrease in the equilibrium moisture content at different humidity was also measured for the torrefied wood samples, which is in good agreement with the decrease in carboxylic acid sites. Thus both methods offer a means of directly measuring the decomposition of carboxylic groups in biomass during torrefaction as a valuable parameter in evaluating the extent of torrefaction which provides new information to the chemical changes occurring during torrefaction. PMID:22940339

  8. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Genes in Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-Hong; Xu, Jing; Chang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1–7) of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment.These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production. PMID:25690030

  9. Discovery of a Novel Series of CRTH2 (DP2) Receptor Antagonists Devoid of Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Antagonism of the CRTH2 receptor represents a very attractive target for a variety of allergic diseases. Most CRTH2 antagonists known to date possess a carboxylic acid moiety, which is essential for binding. However, potential acid metabolites O-acyl glucuronides might be linked to idiosynchratic toxicity in humans. In this communication, we describe a new series of compounds that lack the carboxylic acid moiety. Compounds with high affinity (Ki < 10 nM) for the receptor have been identified. Subsequent optimization succeeded in reducing the high metabolic clearance of the first compounds in human and rat liver microsomes. At the same time, inhibition of the CYP isoforms was optimized, giving rise to stable compounds with an acceptable CYP inhibition profile (IC50 CYP2C9 and 2C19 > 1 ?M). Taken together, these data show that compounds devoid of carboxylic acid groups could represent an interesting alternative to current CRTH2 antagonists in development. PMID:24900284

  10. Catalytic N-Alkylation of Amines Using Carboxylic Acids and Molecular Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Sorribes, Iván; Cabrero-Antonino, Jose R; Vicent, Cristian; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-10-28

    A convenient, practical and green N-alkylation of amines has been accomplished by applying readily available carboxylic acids in the presence of molecular hydrogen. Applying an in situ formed ruthenium/triphos complex and an organic acid as cocatalyst, a broad range of alkylated secondary and tertiary amines are obtained in good to excellent yields. This novel method is also successfully applied for the synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted N-methyl/alkyl anilines through a direct three-component coupling reaction of the corresponding amines, carboxylic acids, and CO2 as a C1 source. PMID:26484397

  11. Fourier transform infrared study on hydrogen bonding species of carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Morio; Iwai, Yoshio; Nakajima, Taro; Arai, Yasuhiko

    1999-05-06

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been given much attention recently as one of the new separation technologies in the chemical industry. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to determine the equilibrium constants of the dimerization for carboxylic acid (acetic acid or palmitic acid) and the amount of hydrogen bonding species between carboxylic acid and ethanol in supercritical CO{sub 2}. Experiments were carried out at 308.2--313.2 K and 10.0--20.0 MPa. The noticeable band was the C{double_bond}O stretching band for carboxylic acid. In the binary system (supercritical CO{sub 2} + carboxylic acid), the equilibrium constants of the dimerization between the carboxylic acid monomer and dimer decrease with increasing pressure and temperature. The equilibrium constants of palmitic acid are larger than those of acetic acid. In a ternary system (supercritical CO{sub 2} + carboxylic acid + ethanol), the amount of hydrogen bonding species between carboxylic acid and ethanol in supercritical CO{sub 2} increases with the increasing mole fraction of added ethanol. Furthermore, the authors confirm that the solubility enhancement by ethanol used as an entrainer in supercritical CO{sub 2} related to the amount of hydrogen bonding species between carboxylic acid and ethanol.

  12. A mechanistic analysis of the increase in the thermal stability of proteins in aqueous carboxylic acid salt solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, J. K.; Bhat, R.

    1999-01-01

    The stability of proteins is known to be affected significantly in the presence of high concentration of salts and is highly pH dependent. Extensive studies have been carried out on the stability of proteins in the presence of simple electrolytes and evaluated in terms of preferential interactions and increase in the surface tension of the medium. We have carried out an in-depth study of the effects of a series of carboxylic acid salts: ethylene diamine tetra acetate, butane tetra carboxylate, propane tricarballylate, citrate, succinate, tartarate, malonate, and gluconate on the thermal stability of five different proteins that vary in their physico-chemical properties: RNase A, cytochrome c, trypsin inhibitor, myoglobin, and lysozyme. Surface tension measurements of aqueous solutions of the salts indicate an increase in the surface tension of the medium that is very strongly correlated with the increase in the thermal stability of proteins. There is also a linear correlation of the increase in thermal stability with the number of carboxylic groups in the salt. Thermal stability has been found to increase by as much as 22 C at 1 M concentration of salt. Such a high thermal stability at identical concentrations has not been reported before. The differences in the heat capacities of denaturation, deltaCp for RNase A, deduced from the transition curves obtained in the presence of varying concentrations of GdmCl and that of carboxylic acid salts as a function of pH, indicate that the nature of the solvent medium and its interactions with the two end states of the protein control the thermodynamics of protein denaturation. Among the physico-chemical properties of proteins, there seems to be an interplay of the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that lead to an overall stabilizing effect. Increase in surface free energy of the solvent medium upon addition of the carboxylic acid salts appears to be the dominant factor in governing the thermal stability of proteins. PMID:10210200

  13. Automatic analyzer for highly polar carboxylic acids based on fluorescence derivatization-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Todoroki, Kenichiro; Nakano, Tatsuki; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Goto, Kanoko; Tomita, Ryoko; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Min, Jun Zhe; Inoue, Koichi; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive, versatile, and reproducible automatic analyzer for highly polar carboxylic acids based on a fluorescence derivatization-liquid chromatography (LC) method was developed. In this method, carboxylic acids were automatically and fluorescently derivatized with 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-PZ) in the presence of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride by adopting a pretreatment program installed in an LC autosampler. All of the DBD-PZ-carboxylic acid derivatives were separated on the ODS column within 30 min by gradient elution. The peak of DBD-PZ did not interfere with the separation and the quantification of all the acids with the exception of lactic acid. From the LC-MS/MS analysis, we confirmed that lactic acid was converted to an oxytriazinyl derivative, which was further modified with a dimethoxy triazine group of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM). We detected this oxytriazinyl derivative to quantify lactic acid. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) for the examined acids ranged from 0.19 to 1.1 µm, which correspond to 95-550 fmol per injection. The intra- and inter-day precisions of typical, highly polar carboxylic acids were all <9.0%. The developed method was successfully applied to the comprehensive analysis of carboxylic acids in various samples, which included fruit juices, red wine and media from cultured tumor cells. PMID:25082081

  14. Carboxylic acid effects on the size and catalytic activity of magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan; Parchegani, Fatemeh; Alavi, Sohaila

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) were successfully synthesized in diethylene glycol in the presence of carboxylic acids. They were characterized using XRD, SEM and FTIR. Carboxylic acid plays a critical role in determining the morphology, particle size and size distribution of the resulting particles. The results show that as-prepared magnetite nanoparticles are monodisperse and highly crystalline. The nanoparticles can be easily dispersed in aqueous media and other polar solvents due to coated by a layer of hydrophilic polyol and carboxylic acid ligands in situ. Easily prepared Fe3O4-NPs have been shown to be an active, recyclable, and highly selective catalyst for the epoxidation of cyclic olefins with aqueous 30% H2O2. PMID:25302421

  15. Determination of the asphaltene and carboxylic acid content of a heavy oil using a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Stephen A; Wilson, Rab; Parnell, John; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2009-03-21

    Heavy oil utilisation is set to increase over the coming decades as reserves of conventional oil decline. Heavy oil differs from conventional oil in containing relatively large quantities of asphaltene and carboxylic acids. The proportions of these compounds greatly influence how oil behaves during production and its utilisation as a fuel or feedstock. We report the development of a microfluidic technique, based on a H-cell, that can extract the carboxylic acid components of an oil and assess its asphaltene content. Ultimately this technology could yield a field-deployable device capable of performing measurements that facilitate improved resource management at the point of resource-extraction. PMID:19255665

  16. The sorption of anthracene onto goethite and kaolinite in the presence of some benzene carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Angove, Michael J; Fernandes, Milena B; Ikhsan, Jaslin

    2002-03-15

    The uptake of anthracene from dilute aqueous solutions onto goethite and kaolinite was investigated at 25 degrees C, first in the absence and then in the presence of three benzene carboxylic acids: phthalic acid (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid), trimesic acid (-1,3,5-), and mellitic acid (-1,2,3,4,5,6-). Carboxylic acid concentrations were 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 mM. Anthracene (0.20 microM) did not adsorb strongly onto the pure mineral surfaces, but in the presence of phthalic acid a substantial increase in anthracene uptake was observed, particularly for the goethite systems. Trimesic and mellitic acids did not enhance anthracene uptake. Phthalate and proton adsorption data have been used to model phthalate adsorption onto the mineral surfaces using an extended constant capacitance surface complexation model. This model was then successfully adapted to account for the observed increase in anthracene uptake, where anthracene molecules were assumed to interact with adsorbed phthalate. We propose that the enhancement of anthracene adsorption in the presence of phthalic acid is due to an increase in the hydrophobicity of the mineral surface once phthalic acid molecules adsorb. The same effect was not observed for the other benzene carboxylates because of their greater polarity. PMID:16290467

  17. Simple quantification of surface carboxylic acids on chemically oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hyejin; Kim, Seong-Taek; Lee, Jong Doo; Yim, Sanggyu

    2013-02-01

    The surface of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was chemically oxidized using nitric acid and sulfuric-nitric acid mixtures. Thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy revealed that the use of acid mixtures led to higher degree of oxidation. More quantitative identification of surface carboxylic acids was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and acid-base titration. However, these techniques are costly and require very long analysis times to promptly respond to the extent of the reaction. We propose a much simpler method using pH measurements and pre-determined pKa value in order to estimate the concentration of carboxylic acids on the oxidized MWCNT surfaces. The results from this technique were consistent with those obtained from XPS and titration, and it is expected that this simple quantification method can provide a cheap and fast way to monitor and control the oxidation reaction of MWCNT.

  18. Hydrogen bonds in 1:1 complex of piperidine-3-carboxylic acid with salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszak-Adamska, El?bieta; Dega-Szafran, Zofia; Krociak, Magdalena; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Szafran, Miros?aw

    2009-02-01

    The 1:1 complex between the zwitterionic piperidinium-3-carboxylate (P3C) and salicylic acid (SAL), P3C·SAL, has been characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and by DFT calculations. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with a = 11.6477(7), b = 9.1754(6), c = 23.5833(12) Å. An O sbnd H⋯O bridge (2.537(1) Å) links the SAL and P3C moieties. The proton in this H bond is located closer to the salicylic carboxylate group. In the P3C moiety, the piperidine ring adopts the chair conformation, and the carboxylate group is in the axial orientation and is stabilized by an intramolecular N +sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond of 2.847(1) Å. In the crystal packing, two P3C·SAL units form a centrosymmetric dimer through a pair of intermolecular N +sbnd H⋯O bonds of 2.801(1) Å. The dimers form a zigzag chain linked via another N +sbnd H⋯O bond (2.799(1) Å). In the structures of the monomeric [P3C·SAL] and dimeric [(P3C·SAL) 2] species optimized by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations, both the inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are shorter than in the crystal. The FTIR spectrum shows a broad absorption in the 3100-2400 cm -1 region attributed to ?NH and ?OH vibrations. The broad absorption in the 1500-600 cm -1 region is attributed to the O sbnd H·O hydrogen bonds. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been analyzed to elucidate the structure of the P3C·SAL complex in solution. The GIAO magnetic isotropic shielding tensors have been used to predict the 1H and 13C chemical shifts in DMSO solution.

  19. Direct conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive extraction 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Xin

    2008-10-10

    (e.g., acetic acid) and fuels (e.g., ethanol). Historically, calcium carbonate has been used as the buffer. Recently, it was found that using ammonium bicarbonate as the buffering agent enhances the fermentation conversion. In this case..., fermentation broth contains ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium acetate, propionate, butyrate, pentanoate). Therefore, the downstream processing steps (including extraction, purification, esterification, and product separation) must be compatible...

  20. Templating route for mesostructured calcium phosphates with carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Nobuaki; Hori, Hideki; Kimura, Tatsuo; Oumi, Yasunori; Sano, Tsuneji

    2008-11-18

    Mesostructured calcium phosphates constructed by ionic frameworks were synthesized using carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants in mixed solvent systems of ethanol and water. A lamellar mesostructured calcium phosphate was prepared using palmitic acid as an anionic surfactant, as in the case using n-alkylamines. A wormhole-like mesostructured calcium phosphate can be obtained using dicarboxyl N-lauroyl- l-glutamic acid, whose headgroup is larger than that of palmitic acid. Similar mesostructured product was obtained using 4-dodecyldiethylenetriamine with a large headgroup containing two primary amine groups. Interactions of carboxyl and primary amino groups in the surfactant molecules with inorganic species are quite important for the formation of mesostructured calcium phosphates. The Ca/P molar ratio of mesostructured calcium phosphates was strongly affected by the molecular structure of surfactants containing carboxyl and primary amino groups. Ca-rich materials can be obtained using carboxylic acid-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.7) rather than amine-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.0). PMID:18947246

  1. Precipitation stripping of neodymium from carboxylate extractant with aqueous oxalic acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Tetuya )

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes a precipitation stripping method in which neodymium ions are stripped from carboxylate extractant in organic solvent and simultaneously precipitated with aqueous oxalic acid solution. For the single-stage process, a quantitative criterion for precipitating oxalate powders was derived theoretically, and stripping experiments were done under the precipitation conditions. The resultant precipitates were neodymium oxalate, which is completely free from contamination by the carboxylate extractant and the organic solvent. The overall rate of stripping was controlled by the transfer of neodymium carboxylate in the organic solution, indicating that the presence of oxalic acid in the aqueous phase has no effect on the stripping rate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining the conventional stripping and precipitation stages in a solvent extraction process for separation and purification of rare earths.

  2. Interconversion of biologically important carboxylic acids by radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1978-01-01

    The interconversion of a group of biologically important polycarboxylic acids (acetic, fumaric, malic, malonic, succinic, citric, isocitric, tricarballylic) under gamma-ray or ultraviolet radiation was investigated. The formation of high molecular weight compounds was observed in all cases. Succinic acid was formed in almost all radiolysis experiments. Citric, malonic, and succinic acids appeared to be relatively insensitive to radiation. Interconversion of the polycarboxylic acids studied may have occurred under the effect of radiation in the prebiotic earth.

  3. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at PHS close to or above the pK.sub.a of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Tung, Lisa A. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH.sub.a into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. the acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carobxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia.

  4. Acyl Radicals from Aromatic Carboxylic Acids by Means of Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergonzini, Giulia; Cassani, Carlo; Wallentin, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    Simple and abundant carboxylic acids have been used as acyl radical precursor by means of visible-light photoredox catalysis. By the transient generation of a reactive anhydride intermediate, this redox-neutral approach offers a mild and rapid entry to high-value heterocyclic compounds without the need of UV irradiation, high temperature, high CO pressure, tin reagents, or peroxides. PMID:26403148

  5. Selective deuteration of (hetero)aromatic compounds via deutero-decarboxylation of carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Rachel; Nikmal, Arif; Cornella, Josep; Larrosa, Igor

    2012-04-28

    A practical, mild and highly selective protocol for the monodeuteration of a variety of arenes and heteroarenes is presented. Catalytic amounts of Ag(I) salts in DMSO/D(2)O are shown to facilitate the deutero-decarboxylation of ortho-substituted benzoic and heteroaromatic ?-carboxylic acids in high yields with excellent levels of deuterium incorporation. PMID:22418863

  6. Toward Molecular Nanowires Self-Assembled on an Insulating Substrate: Heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid on Calcite (101j4)

    E-print Network

    Kühnle, Angelika

    acid on Calcite (101j4) Philipp Rahe,,§ Markus Nimmrich,,§ Andreas Greuling, Jens Schu¨tte, Irena G) cleavage plane of calcite. The molecule used is racemic heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid, which forms

  7. Regioselective Enzymatic ?-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the ?-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the ?-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  8. Factors influencing the rate of non-enzymatic activation of carboxylic and amino acids by ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The nonenzymatic formation of adenylate anhydrides of carboxylic and amino acids is discussed as a necessary step in the origin of the genetic code and protein biosynthesis. Results of studies are presented which have shown the rate of activation to depend on the pKa of the carboxyl group, the pH of the medium, temperature, the divalent metal ion catalyst, salt concentration, and the nature of the amino acid. In particular, it was found that of the various amino acids investigated, phenylalanine had the greatest affinity for the adenine derivatives adenosine and ATP. Results thus indicate that selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides were important during prebiotic chemical evolution, and may have played a major role in the origin of protein synthesis and genetic coding.

  9. Enhanced Production of Carboxylic Acids by Engineering of Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  10. Butane-1,2,3,4-tetra-carboxylic acid dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Wu, Jiang; Zhu, Hong-Lin; Lin, Jian-Li

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(8)H(10)O(8)·2H(2)O, contains one half-mol-ecule of butane-1,2,3,4-tetra-carboxylic acid and a water mol-ecule, with the complete tetra-acid generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. Inter-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bonds form an extensive three-dimensional network, which consolidates the crystal packing. PMID:21582554

  11. Butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxylic acid dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Wu, Jiang; Zhu, Hong-Lin; Lin, Jian-li

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C8H10O8·2H2O, contains one half-mol­ecule of butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxylic acid and a water mol­ecule, with the complete tetra-acid generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. Inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds form an extensive three-dimensional network, which consolidates the crystal packing. PMID:21582554

  12. Structural, spectroscopic, and computational studies of [2,2?-bithiophene]-5-carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Mathivathanan, Logesh; de Lill, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of [2,2?-bithiophene]-5-carboxylic acid was obtained from in-situ decarboxylation of [2,2?-bithiophene]-5,5?-dicarboxylic acid during solvothermal treatment. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies were conducted in solution and solid-state on these two molecules as well as the precursor, 2,2?-bithiophene. These molecules were modeled using DFT level of theory to explain the observed structural features and spectroscopy.

  13. Profiling of chiral and achiral carboxylic acid metabolomics: synthesis and evaluation of triazine-type chiral derivatization reagents for carboxylic acids by LC-ESI-MS/MS and the application to saliva of healthy volunteers and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Takahiro; Kuwabara, Tomohiro; Maeda, Toshio; Noge, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Yutaka; Inoue, Koichi; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2015-01-01

    Novel triazine-type chiral derivatization reagents, i.e., (S)-1-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-amine (DMT-3(S)-Apy) and (S)-4,6-dimethoxy-N-(pyrrolidin-3-yl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (DMT-1(S)-Apy), were developed for the highly sensitive and selective detection of chiral carboxylic acids by UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Among the synthesized reagents, DMT-3(S)-Apy was a more efficient chiral reagent for the enantiomeric separation of chiral carboxylic acids in terms of separation efficiency by reversed-phase chromatography and detection sensitivity by ESI-MS/MS. The DMT-3(S)-Apy was used for the determination of 13 carboxylic acids in human saliva of healthy volunteers and diabetic patients. Various biological carboxylic acids including chiral carboxylic acids, and mono- and di-carboxylic acids were clearly identified in the saliva of healthy persons and diabetic patients. The concentrations of carboxylic acids detected in the saliva of diabetic patients were relatively higher than those in the healthy persons. Furthermore, the concentration of D-lactic acid (LA) and the ratio of D/L-LA in the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy persons. The low ratio of D/L-LA in healthy persons was also identified to be independent of age and sex. These results suggest that the determination of the D/L-LA ratio in saliva might be applicable for the diagnosis of diabetes. Based on these observations, DMT-3(S)-Apy seems to be a useful chiral derivatization reagent for the determination not only of chiral carboxylic acids but also achiral ones. In conclusion, the proposed method using DMT-3(S)-Apy is useful for the carboxylic acid metabolomics study of various specimens. PMID:25366977

  14. Do carboximide-carboxylic acid combinations form co-crystals? The role of hydroxyl substitution on the formation of co-crystals and eutectics.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Gautam, Raj; Cherukuvada, Suryanarayan; Guru Row, Tayur N

    2015-05-01

    Carboxylic acids, amides and imides are key organic systems which provide understanding of molecular recognition and binding phenomena important in biological and pharmaceutical settings. In this context, studies of their mutual interactions and compatibility through co-crystallization may pave the way for greater understanding and new applications of their combinations. Extensive co-crystallization studies are available for carboxylic acid/amide combinations, but only a few examples of carboxylic acid/imide co-crystals are currently observed in the literature. The non-formation of co-crystals for carboxylic acid/imide combinations has previously been rationalized, based on steric and computed stability factors. In the light of the growing awareness of eutectic mixtures as an alternative outcome in co-crystallization experiments, the nature of various benzoic acid/cyclic imide combinations is established in this paper. Since an additional functional group can provide sites for new intermolecular inter-actions and, potentially, promote supramolecular growth into a co-crystal, benzoic acids decorated with one or more hydroxyl groups have been systematically screened for co-crystallization with one unsaturated and two saturated cyclic imides. The facile formation of an abundant number of hydroxybenzoic acid/cyclic carboximide co-crystals is reported, including polymorphic and variable stoichiometry co-crystals. In the cases where co-crystals did not form, the combinations are shown invariably to result in eutectics. The presence or absence and geometric disposition of hydroxyl functionality on benzoic acid is thus found to drive the formation of co-crystals or eutectics for the studied carboxylic acid/imide combinations. PMID:25995843

  15. Dual effects of aliphatic carboxylic acids on cresolase and catecholase reactions of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Gheibi, N; Saboury, A A; Haghbeen, K; Rajaei, F; Pahlevan, A A

    2009-10-01

    Catecholase and cresolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) were studied in presence of some n-alkyl carboxylic acid derivatives. Catecholase activity of MT achieved its optimal activity in presence of 1.0, 1.25, 2.0, 2.2 and 3.2 mM of pyruvic acid, acrylic acid, propanoic acid, 2-oxo-butanoic acid, and 2-oxo-octanoic acid, respectively. Contrarily, the cresolase activity of MT was inhibited by all type of the above acids. Propanoic acid caused an uncompetitive mode of inhibition (K(i)=0.14 mM), however, the pyruvic, acrylic, 2-oxo-butanoic and 2-oxo-octanoic acids showed a competitive manner of inhibition with the inhibition constants (K(i)) of 0.36, 0.6, 3.6 and 4.5 mM, respectively. So, it seems that, there is a physical difference in the docking of mono- and o-diphenols to the tyrosinase active site. This difference could be an essential determinant for the course of the catalytic cycle. Monophenols are proposed to bind only the oxyform of the tyrosinase. It is likely that the binding of acids occurs through their carboxylate group with one copper ion of the binuclear site. Thus, they could completely block the cresolase reaction, by preventing monophenol binding to the enzyme. From an allosteric point of view, n-alkyl acids may be involved in activation of MT catecholase reactions. PMID:19555185

  16. A simple method for the determination of enantiomeric excess and identity of chiral carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Leo A; Maynor, Marc S; Dragna, Justin M; da Cruz, Gabriella M; Lynch, Vincent M; Canary, James W; Anslyn, Eric V

    2011-08-31

    The association between an achiral copper(II) host (1) and chiral carboxylate guests was studied using exciton-coupled circular dichroism (ECCD). Enantiomeric complexes were created upon binding of the enantiomers of the carboxylate guests to the host, and the sign of the resultant CD signal allowed for determination of the configuration of the studied guest. The difference in magnitudes and shapes of the CD signals, in conjunction with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed for the identity of the guest to be determined successfully. A model was created for the host-guest complexes which successfully predicts the sign of the observed CD signal. Further, Taft parameters were used in the model, leading to rationalization of the observed magnitudes of the CD signals. Finally, the enantiomeric excess (ee) of unknown samples of three chiral carboxylic acid guests was determined with an average absolute error of ±3.0%. PMID:21780788

  17. Tandem decarboxylative hydroformylation-hydrogenation reaction of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids toward aliphatic alcohols under mild conditions employing a supramolecular catalyst system.

    PubMed

    Diab, Lisa; Gellrich, Urs; Breit, Bernhard

    2013-10-28

    A new atom economic catalytic method for a highly chemoselective reduction of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids to the corresponding saturated alcohols under mild reaction conditions, compatible with a wide range reactive functional groups, is reported. The new methodology consists of a novel tandem decarboxylative hydroformylation/aldehyde reduction sequence employing a unique supramolecular catalyst system. PMID:24022335

  18. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  19. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Ratcliff, Matthew A. (Lakewood, CO); Palasz, Peter D. (Lakewood, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

  20. 40 CFR 180.426 - 2-[4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for residues...5-oxo-1H -imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for residues...5-oxo-1H -imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid, in or on the raw...

  1. 40 CFR 180.426 - 2-[4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for residues...5-oxo-1H -imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for residues...5-oxo-1H -imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid, in or on the raw...

  2. Design of co-crystals/salts of some Nitrogenous bases and some derivatives of thiophene carboxylic acids through a combination of hydrogen and halogen bonds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The utility of N-heterocyclic bases to obtain molecular complexes with carboxylic acids is well studied. Depending on the solid state interaction between the N-heterocyclic base and a carboxylic acid a variety of neutral or ionic synthons are observed. Meanwhile, pyridines and pyrimidines have been frequently chosen in the area of crystal engineering for their multipurpose functionality. HT (hetero trimers) and LHT (linear heterotetramers) are the well known synthons that are formed in the presence of pyrimidines and carboxylic acids. Results Fourteen crystals involving various substituted thiophene carboxylic acid derivatives and nitrogenous bases were prepared and characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The 14 crystals can further be divided into two groups [1a-7a], [8b-14b] based on the nature of the nitrogenous base. Carboxylic acid to pyridine proton transfer has occurred in 3 compounds of each group. In addition to the commonly occurring hydrogen bond based pyridine/carboxylic acid and pyrimidine/carboxylic acid synthons which is the reason for assembly of primary motifs, various other interactions like Cl…Cl, Cl…O, C–H…Cl, C-H…S add additional support in organizing these supermolecules into extended architectures. It is also interesting to note that in all the compounds ?-? stacking occurs between the pyrimidine-pyrimidine or pyridine-pyridine or acid-acid moieties rather than acid-pyrimidine/pyridine. Conclusions In all the compounds (1a-14b) either neutral O–H…Npyridyl/pyrimidine or charge-assisted Npyridinium-H…Ocarboxylate hydrogen bonds are present. The HT (hetero trimers) and LHT (linear heterotetramers) are dominant in the crystal structures of the adducts containing N-heterocyclic bases with two proton acceptors (1a-7a). Similar type supramolecular ladders are observed in 5TPC44BIPY (8b), TPC44BIPY (9b), TPC44TMBP (11b). Among the seven compounds [8b-14b] the extended ligands are linear in all except for the TMBP (10b, 11b, 12b). The structure of each compound depends on the dihedral angle between the carboxyl group and the nitrogenous base. All these compounds indicate three main synthons that regularly occur, namely linear heterodimer (HD), heterotrimer (HT) and heterotetramer (LHT). PMID:24655545

  3. DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH NON-SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND OPTICAL DETECTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of carboxylic acids using non-suppressed conductivity and UV detections is described. he background conductance of I-octanesulfonic acid, hexane sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid at varying concentrations was determined. sing 0.2 MM I-octanesulfonic acid as a mobile p...

  4. DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH NON-SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND OPTICAL DETECTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of carboxylic acids using non-suppressed conductivity and UV detections is described. The background conductance of 1-octanesulfonic acid, hexane sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid at varying concentrations was determined. Using 0.2 mM 1-octanesulfonic acid as a mobile...

  5. Water chemical ionization mass spectrometry of aldehydes, ketones esters, and carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.

    1986-11-01

    Chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI) of aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds using water as the reagent gas provides intense pseudomolecular ions and class-specific fragmentation patterns that can be used to identify aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters. The length of ester acyl and alkyl groups can easily be determined on the basis of loss of alcohols from the protonated parent. Water CI provides for an approximately 200:1 selectivity of carbonyl species over alkanes. No reagent ions are detected above 55 amu, allowing species as small as acetone, propanal, acetic acid, and methyl formate to be identified. When deuterate water was used as the reagent, only the carboxylic acids and ..beta..-diketones showed significant H/D exchange. The use of water CI to identify carbonyl compounds in a wastewater from the supercritical water extraction of lignite coal, in lemon oil, and in whiskey volatiles is discussed.

  6. Identification of a Chemoreceptor for C2 and C3 Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    García, Vanina; Reyes-Darias, Jose-Antonio; Martín-Mora, David; Morel, Bertrand; Matilla, Miguel A; Krell, Tino

    2015-08-15

    Chemoreceptors are at the beginnings of chemosensory signaling cascades that mediate chemotaxis. Most bacterial chemoreceptors are functionally unannotated and are characterized by a diversity in the structure of their ligand binding domains (LBDs). The data available indicate that there are two major chemoreceptor families at the functional level, namely, those that respond to amino acids or to Krebs cycle intermediates. Since pseudomonads show chemotaxis to many different compounds and possess different types of chemoreceptors, they are model organisms to establish relationships between chemoreceptor structure and function. Here, we identify PP2861 (termed McpP) of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a chemoreceptor with a novel ligand profile. We show that the recombinant McpP LBD recognizes acetate, pyruvate, propionate, and l-lactate, with KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) values ranging from 34 to 107 ?M. Deletion of the mcpP gene resulted in a dramatic reduction in chemotaxis toward these ligands, and complementation restored a native-like phenotype, indicating that McpP is the major chemoreceptor for these compounds. McpP has a CACHE-type LBD, and we present data indicating that CACHE-containing chemoreceptors of other species also mediate taxis to C2 and C3 carboxylic acids. In addition, the LBD of NbaY of Pseudomonas fluorescens, an McpP homologue mediating chemotaxis to 2-nitrobenzoate, bound neither nitrobenzoates nor the McpP ligands. This work provides further insight into receptor structure-function relationships and will be helpful to annotate chemoreceptors of other bacteria. PMID:26048936

  7. The dimerization of ?1-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Hope, D. B.; Horncastle, K. C.; Aplin, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    The l-amino acid oxidase of Mytilus edulis has been used to oxidize l-lysine on a large scale in the presence of catalase. The ?-oxo acid derived from lysine cyclizes to a Schiff base, which readily dimerizes. The dimer undergoes spontaneous dehydration and decarboxylation to form 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydropyrido[3,2-a]-indolizin-10(4bH)-one. This structure was established by a study of its molecular weight and infrared, nuclear-magnetic-resonance and mass spectra. PMID:5584009

  8. Preferential Interaction of Na+ over K+ to Carboxylate-functionalized Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elucidating mechanistic interactions between specific ions (Na+/ K+) and nanoparticle surfaces to alter particle stability in polar media has received little attention. We investigated relative preferential binding of Na+ and K+ to carboxylate-functionalized silver nanoparticles ...

  9. Anhydrosugar and sugar alcohol organic markers associated with carboxylic acids in particulate matter from incense burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Wu, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Chi-Ru

    2010-09-01

    Aerosol from the burning two types of sandalwood-based incense, Hsing Shan and Lao Shan, was analyzed to characterize the chemical profile of total particulate matter emitted. The total particulate matter (PM) mass emission factors were 46.3 ± 2.68 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan incense and 43.7 ± 1.08 mg g -1 of Lao Shan incense. Chemical analysis of emissions from the two types of incense revealed that of the 25 components in four groups characterized, anhydrosugars formed the major group, at 46.7-52.2% w/w of the identified particulate and 1078.3-1169.8 ?g g -1 of incense, followed by inorganic salts at 30.4-31.8% w/w of identified particulate and 681.6-734.0 ?g g -1 of incense, carboxylic acids at 12.0-17.1% w/w of the identified particulate and 268.6-392.8 ?g g -1 of incense, and sugar alcohols at 4.44-5.38% w/w of the identified particulate and 102.3-120.6 ?g g -1 of incense. More anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols were emitted from Lao Shan incense than from Hsing Shan incense whereas more carboxylic acids and organic salts were emitted from Hsing Shan than from Lao Shan. These differences were due to structural and functional differences in the young sandalwood used to make Hsing Shan and the aged sandalwood used to make Lao Shan. The anhydrosugar levoglucosan, used as a marker of biomass burning, was always the most abundant species in emitted PM for both incenses ( Lao Shan 21.7 mg g -1 of PM and Hsing Shan 18.7 mg g -1). K + and Cl - were the second most abundant components (K + and Cl - were summed), accounting for 10.6 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan PM and 9.85 mg g -1 of Lao Shan PM. The most abundant carboxylic acids in the emissions were formic, acetic, succinic, glutaric and phthalic acid. The latter is a fragrance ingredient and a potential health hazard and was twice as prevalent in Lao Shan emissions. Xylitol was the most prevalent of the sugar alcohols at 35.7-36.6% w/w of total identified sugar alcohols. These abundant species are potential markers for incense burning. K +, levoglucosan, mannosan and xylitol are already reported in discriminator ratios for wood burning and it is proposed here that these can and should also apply to incense burning. The calculated discriminator ratios for two types of incense burning reported here are 0.229-0.288 for K/Levo, 12.5-13.5 for Levo/Manno, and 21.5-23.7 for the novel discriminator ratio Levo/Xylitol.

  10. Enols of Carboxylic Acid Amides with -Electron-Withdrawing Substituents

    E-print Network

    Sklenak, Stepan

    , Stepan Sklena´k, and Zvi Rappoport* Contribution from the Department of Organic Chemistry and the Miner were ascribed to stabilization of the acid form by resonative electron donation from the heteroatom X (X ) OH, OR, NRR, OCOR, halogen; cf. hybrid 2b, eq 1).2a A similar resonative electron donation from

  11. Metal-Free Coupling of 2-Vinylphenols and Carboxylic Acids: An Access to 3-Acyloxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jijun; Shao, Ying; Zheng, Hao; Cheng, Jiang; Wan, Xiaobing

    2015-11-01

    A new coupling reaction between 2-vinylphenols and carboxylic acids was developed to synthesize 3-acyloxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans using Bu4NI as a catalyst and t-BuOOH as an oxidant. This simple and practical methodology is notable due to the ability to complete it under metal-free conditions, with easily available precursors, resulting in a product with high atom economy and high functional group tolerance. Upon the basis of experimental observations and literature, a plausible mechanism is proposed. PMID:26457863

  12. The Debaryomyces hansenii carboxylate transporters Jen1 homologues are functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Soares-Silva, Isabel; Ribas, David; Foskolou, Iosifina P; Barata, Beatriz; Bessa, Daniela; Paiva, Sandra; Queirós, Odília; Casal, Margarida

    2015-12-01

    We have functionally characterized the four Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) Jen1 homologues of Debaryomyces hansenii (Dh) by heterologous expression in S. cerevisiae. Debaryomyces hansenii cells display mediated transport for the uptake of lactate, acetate, succinate and malate. DHJEN genes expression was detected by RT-PCR in all carbon sources assayed, namely lactate, succinate, citrate, glycerol and glucose. The heterologous expression in the S. cerevisiae W303-1A jen1? ady2? strain demonstrated that the D. hansenii JEN genes encode four carboxylate transporters. DH27 gene encodes an acetate transporter (Km 0.94 ± 0.17 mM; Vmax 0.43 ± 0.03 nmol s(-1) mg(-1)), DH17 encodes a malate transporter (Km 0.27 ± 0.04 mM; Vmax 0.11 ± 0.01 nmol s(-1) mg(-1)) and both DH18 and DH24 encode succinate transporters with the following kinetic parameters, respectively, Km 0.31 ± 0.06 mM; Vmax 0.83 ± 0.04 nmol s(-1) mg(-1)and Km 0.16 ± 0.02 mM; Vmax 0.19 ± 0.02 nmol s(-1) mg(-1). Surprisingly, no lactate transporter was found, although D. hansenii presents a mediated transport for this acid. This work advanced the current knowledge on yeast carboxylate transporters by characterizing four new plasma membrane transporters in D. hansenii. PMID:26500234

  13. Effect of carboxylic acid of periodic mesoporous organosilicas on the fructose-to-5-hydroxymethylfurfural conversion in dimethylsulfoxide systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Saikat; Wu, Kevin C.-W. E-mail: kevinwu@ntu.edu.tw; Kao, Hsien-Ming E-mail: kevinwu@ntu.edu.tw

    2014-11-01

    This manuscript presents the preparation and catalytic application of highly ordered benzene bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) functionalized with carboxylic acid (–COOH) group at varied density. The COOH-functionalized PMOs were synthesized by one-step condensation of 1,4-bis (triethoxysilyl) benzene and carboxylic group containing organosilane carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt using Brij-76 as the template. The obtained materials were characterized by a mean of methods including powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy, and {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The potentials of the obtained PMO materials with ordered mesopores were examined as solid catalysts for the chemical conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in an organic solvent. The results showed that COOH-functionalized PMO with 10% COOH loading exhibited best results for the fructose to HMF conversion and selectivity. The high surface area, the adequate density acid functional group, and the strength of the PMO materials contributing to a promising catalytic ability were observed.

  14. Salt and co-crystal formation from 6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine and different carboxylic acid derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Yan, Pinhui; Wang, Daqi; Xu, Yijie; Jiang, Yingyan; Hu, Liangliang

    2012-05-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent interactions between the organic base of 6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine, and carboxylic acid derivatives have led to an increased understanding of the role 6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine has in binding with carboxylic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrated multicomponent organic acid-base adducts of 6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine have been prepared with the carboxylic acids as p-nitrobenzoic acid, fumaric acid, L-tartaric acid, and terephthalic acid. The four crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. All structures adopted hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthons except the salt 3. Analysis of crystal packing of the compounds under study suggests that there are Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯N, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and base components in the supramolecular assemblies.

  15. The interaction of carboxylic acids with aluminium oxides: journeying from a basic understanding of alumina nanoparticles to water treatment for industrial and humanitarian applications.

    PubMed

    Barron, Andrew R

    2014-06-14

    Carboxylic acids are found to react with aluminium oxides via a topotactic reaction such that the carboxylate acts as a bridging ligand. This reaction allows for carboxylate-functionalized alumina nanoparticles to be prepared directly from boehmite (AlOOH). Understanding the structural relationship between molecular and surface species allows for the rationalization/prediction of suitable alternative ligands as well as alternative oxide surfaces. The identity of the carboxylate substituent controls the pH stability of a nanoparticle as well as the porosity and processability of ceramics prepared by thermolysis. Through the choice of functional groups on the carboxylic acid the properties of the alumina surface or alumina nanoparticle can be tailored. For example, the solubility/miscibility of nanoparticles can be tuned to the solvent/matrix, and the wettability to be varied from hydrophobic to super hydrophilic. The choice Zwitter ionic substituents on alumina micro-/ultra-filtration membranes are found to enhance the flux and limit fouling while allowing for the facile separation of organic compounds from water. Examples are presented of purification of frac and flow-back water from oil well production as well as providing drinking water from contaminated sources in underdeveloped regions. PMID:24728503

  16. Copper-catalyzed decarboxylative sulfonylation of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Rokade, Balaji V; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2014-09-01

    Copper-catalyzed, ligand-promoted decarboxylative coupling of readily available ?,?-unsaturated acids with sodium aryl sulfinates is presented. This method provides a new avenue for the synthesis of vinyl sulfones via a decarboxylative radical coupling strategy by employing a catalytic amount of Cu(ClO4)2·6H2O, TBHP in decane as an oxidant, and 1,10-phenanthroline as a ligand. The salient feature of this method is that it furnishes exclusively the (E)-isomer. PMID:25098975

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of thermal decomposition of tert-Butylperoxyethyl esters of carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Turovskii, A.A.; Aleinikova, T.P.; Kushch, O.V.; Navrotskii, V.A.; Turovskii, N.A.

    1985-07-01

    tert-Butylperoxyethyl esters of carboxylic acids are widely used as vulcanization initiators of saturated elastomers and also as comonomers and inititators in polymerization processes. The kinetics of thermal decomposition of these esters of carboxylic acids were studied in the temperature range of 383-413/sup 0/K. The thermal stability of the peroxides is only slightly influenced by change in the substituent in the acyl part. The differences in the energies of activation are compensated by a change in the value of the preexponential factor. A mechanism of the process has been suggested and discussed. The homolytic cleavage of the -00- bond leads to the formation of inactive acyloxyethoxyl radicals, which undergo further decomposition.

  18. The pKa of the General Acid/Base Carboxyl Group of a Glycosidase Cycles during Catalysis: A 13

    E-print Network

    McIntosh, Lawrence P.

    The pKa of the General Acid/Base Carboxyl Group of a Glycosidase Cycles during Catalysis: A 13 C and hence pKa values. 13C-NMR titrations of xylanase, labeled with [-13C]glutamic acid, have revealed p with general acid-catalyzed cleavage of the glycosidic bond. The active site residues responsible for this acid/base

  19. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide nanoparticle syntheses and functionalizations for biomedical and catalytic applications, affecting understandings of surface charge and other material properties.

  20. Process for the generation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters using niobium catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav (Durham, NC); Spivey, James Jerome (Cary, NC); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A process using a niobium catalyst includes the step of reacting an ester or carboxylic acid with oxygen and an alcohol in the presence a niobium catalyst to respectively produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ester or carboxylic acid. Methanol may be used as the alcohol, and the ester or carboxylic acid may be passed over the niobium catalyst in a vapor stream containing oxygen and methanol. Alternatively, the process using a niobium catalyst may involve the step of reacting an ester and oxygen in the presence the niobium catalyst to produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acid. In this case the ester may be a methyl ester. In either case, niobium oxide may be used as the niobium catalyst with the niobium oxide being present on a support. The support may be an oxide selected from the group consisting of silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst may be formed by reacting niobium fluoride with the oxide serving as the support. The niobium catalyst may contain elemental niobium within the range of 1 wt % to 70 wt %, and more preferably within the range of 10 wt % to 30 wt %. The process may be operated at a temperature from 150 to 450.degree. C. and preferably from 250 to 350.degree. C. The process may be operated at a pressure from 0.1 to 15 atm. absolute and preferably from 0.5-5 atm. absolute. The flow rate of reactants may be from 10 to 10,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h, and preferably from 100 to 1,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h.

  1. 3-(4-Meth-oxy-phen-yl)-5-methylisoxazole-4-carb-oxy-lic acid.

    PubMed

    Chandra; Raghu, K; Srikantamurthy, N; Umesha, K B; Palani, K; Mahendra, M

    2013-03-01

    In the title compound, C12H11NO4, the dihedral angle between the benzene and isoxazole rings is 42.52?(8)°. The carb-oxy-lic acid group is close to being coplanar with the isoxazole ring [dihedral angle = 5.3?(2)°]. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of O-H?O hydrogen bonds generate R2(2)(8) loops. PMID:23476573

  2. Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acid derivatives: history, advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, James; Filonenko, Georgy A; van Putten, Robbert; Hensen, Emiel J M; Pidko, Evgeny A

    2015-06-01

    The catalytic reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives has witnessed a rapid development in recent years. These reactions, involving molecular hydrogen as the reducing agent, can be promoted by heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts. The milestone achievements and recent results by both approaches are discussed in this Review. In particular, we focus on the mechanistic aspects of the catalytic hydrogenation and highlight the bifunctional nature of the mechanism that is preferred for supported metal catalysts as well as homogeneous transition metal complexes. PMID:25941799

  3. Molecular-oxygen-promoted Cu-catalyzed oxidative direct amidation of nonactivated carboxylic acids with azoles

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wen; Mai, Shaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Summary A copper-catalyzed oxidative direct formation of amides from nonactivated carboxylic acids and azoles with dioxygen as an activating reagent is reported. The azole amides were produced in good to excellent yields with a broad substrate scope. The mechanistic studies reveal that oxygen plays an essential role in the success of the amidation reactions with copper peroxycarboxylate as the key intermediate. Transamidation occurs smoothly between azole amide and a variety of amines. PMID:26664637

  4. Removal of transition metals from dilute aqueous solution by carboxylic acid group containing absorbent polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new carboxylic acid group containing resin with cation exchange capacity, 12.67 meq/g has been used to remove Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from dilute aqueous solution. The resin has Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ removal capacity, 216 mg/g, 154 mg/g and 180 mg/g, respectively. The selectivity of the resin to ...

  5. Investigation of pyridine carboxylic acids in CM2 carbonaceous chondrites: Potential precursor molecules for ancient coenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  6. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  7. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We lso report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  8. Transferable force field for carboxylate esters: application to fatty acid methylic ester phase equilibria prediction.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Boutin, Anne

    2012-03-15

    In this work, a new transferable united-atoms force field for carboxylate esters is proposed. All Lennard-Jones parameters are reused from previous parametrizations of the AUA4 force field, and only a unique set of partial electrostatic charges is introduced for the ester chemical function. Various short alkyl-chain esters (methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate) and two fatty acid methylic esters (methyl oleate and methyl palmitate) are studied. Using this new force field in Monte Carlo simulations, we show that various pure compound properties are accurately predicted: saturated liquid densities, vapor pressures, vaporization enthalpies, critical properties, liquid-vapor surface tensions. Furthermore, a good accuracy is also obtained in the prediction of binary mixture pressure-composition diagrams, without introducing empirical binary interaction parameters. This highlights the transferability of the proposed force field and gives the opportunity to simulate mixtures of industrial interest: a demonstration is performed through the simulation of the methyl oleate + methanol mixture involved in the purification sections of biodiesel production processes. PMID:22369235

  9. Copper(II)-Promoted Cyclization/Difunctionalization of Allenols and Allenylsulfonamides: Synthesis of Heterocycle-Functionalized Vinyl Carboxylate Esters.

    PubMed

    Casavant, Barbara J; Khoder, Zainab M; Berhane, Ilyas A; Chemler, Sherry R

    2015-12-18

    A unique method to affect intramolecular aminooxygenation and dioxygenation of allenols and allenylsulfonamides is described. These operationally simple reactions occur under neutral or basic conditions where copper(II) carboxylates serve as reaction promoter, oxidant, and carboxylate source. Moderate to high yields of heterocycle-functionalized vinyl carboxylate esters are formed with moderate to high levels of diastereoselectivity. Such vinyl carboxylate esters could serve as precursors to ?-amino and ?-oxy ketones and derivatives thereof. PMID:26624861

  10. Activation of carboxylic acids by pyrocarbonates. Synthesis of symmetric anhydrides and esters of N-protected amino acids using dialkyl pyrocarbonates as condensing reagents.

    PubMed

    Pozdnev, V F

    1992-11-01

    Activation of carboxylic acids was achieved via dialkyl pyrocarbonates (ROCO)2O, R = C2H5, i-C3H7, sec-C4H9, tert.-C4H9) in aprotic solvents in the presence tertiary amines. A convenient procedure for the preparation of carboxylic acid anhydrides from carboxylic acids and di-tert.-butyl pyrocarbonate in the presence of pyridine is reported. Analogously, di-isopropyl- or diethyl pyrocarbonate may be used in the presence of N-methylmorpholine (triethylamine). With pyridine, di-isopropyl- or diethyl pyrocarbonate carboxylic acids form isopropyl- or ethyl esters, respectively. A wide variety of esters were prepared in good yields in a one-pot procedure from carboxylic acids, including N-protected amino acids, and alcohols or from phenols by means of di-tert.-butyl pyrocarbonate in the presence of pyridine (Boc2O-pyridine system). t-Butyl esters of carboxylic acids were obtained by the same procedure with 4-dimethylaminopyridine. In the absence of carboxylic acid, with 4-dimethylaminopyridine Boc2O and alcohols generate alkyl tert.-butyl carbonates. PMID:1483835

  11. Gas-Phase Partial Oxidation of Lignin to Carboxylic Acids over Vanadium Pyrophosphate and Aluminum-Vanadium-Molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Samira; Boffito, Daria C; Patience, Gregory S

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a complex polymer that is a potential feedstock for aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids by cleaving the ?-O-4 and 5-5' linkages. In this work, a syringe pump atomizes an alkaline solution of lignin into a catalytic fluidized bed operating above 600?K. The vanadium heterogeneous catalysts convert all the lignin into carboxylic acids (up to 25?% selectivity), coke, carbon oxides, and hydrogen. Aluminum-vanadium-molybdenum mostly produced lactic acid (together with formic acid, acrylic acid, and maleic anhydride), whereas the vanadium pyrophosphate catalyst produced more maleic anhydride. PMID:26361086

  12. A Convenient, General Synthesis of 1,1-Dimethylallyl Esters as Protecting Groups for Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Minoo; Lipton, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    Carboxylic acids were converted in high yield to their 1,1-dimethylallyl (DMA) esters in two steps. Palladium-catalyzed deprotection of DMA esters was shown to be compatible with tert-butyl, benzyl and Fmoc protecting groups, and Fmoc deprotection could be carried out selectively in the presence of DMA esters. DMA esters were also shown to be resistant to nucleophilic attack, suggesting that they will serve as alternatives to tert-butyl esters when acidic deprotection conditions need to be avoided. PMID:15816730

  13. A Novel Aromatic Carboxylic Acid Inactivates Luciferase by Acylation of an Enzymatically Active Regulatory Lysine Residue

    PubMed Central

    Nakagomi, Madoka; Fujimaki, Nobuko; Ito, Ai; Toda, Takahiro; Fukasawa, Hiroshi; Shudo, Koichi; Tomita, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    Firefly luciferase (Luc) is widely used as a reporter enzyme in cell-based assays for gene expression. A novel aromatic carboxylic acid, F-53, reported here for the first time, substantially inhibited the enzymatic activity of Luc in a Luc reporter screening. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses showed that F-53 modifies Luc at lysine-529 via amidation of the F-53 carboxyl group. The lysine-529 residue of Luc, which plays a regulatory catalytic role, can be acetylated. Luc also has a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthase activity. An in vitro assay that involved both recombinant Luc and mouse liver microsomes identified F-53-CoA as the reactive form produced from F-53. However, whereas the inhibitory effect of F-53 is observed in Hela cells that transiently expressed Luc, it is not observed in an in vitro assay that involves recombinant Luc alone. Therefore, insights into the activities of certain mammalian transferases can be translated to better understand the acylation by F-53. The insights from this study about the novel inhibitory modification mechanism might help not only to avoid misinterpretation of the results of Luc-based reporter screening assays but also to explain the pharmacological and toxicological effects of carboxylic acid-containing drugs. PMID:24066181

  14. Investigating the photostability of carboxylic acids exposed to Mars surface ultraviolet radiation conditions.

    PubMed

    Stalport, F; Coll, P; Szopa, C; Cottin, H; Raulin, F

    2009-01-01

    The detection and identification of organic molecules on Mars are of primary importance to establish the existence of a possible ancient prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity. The harsh environmental conditions at the surface of Mars could explain why the Viking probes-the only efforts, to date, to search for organics on Mars-detected no organic matter. To investigate the nature, abundance, and stability of organic molecules that could survive such environmental conditions, we developed a series of experiments that simulate martian surface environmental conditions. Here, we present results with regard to the impact of solar UV radiation on various carboxylic acids, such as mellitic acid, which are of astrobiological interest to the study of Mars. Our results show that at least one carboxylic acid, mellitic acid, could produce a resistant compound-benzenehexacarboxylic acid-trianhydride (C(12)O(9))-when exposed to martian surface radiation conditions. The formation of such products could contribute to the presence of organic matter in the martian regolith, which should be considered a primary target for in situ molecular analyses during future surface missions. PMID:19663761

  15. Bio-inspired amino acid oxidation by a non-heme iron catalyst modeling the action of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Baráth, Gábor; Kaizer, József; Pap, József Sándor; Speier, Gábor; El Bakkali-Taheri, Nadia; Simaan, A Jalila

    2010-10-21

    In this communication we describe the first example of a biomimetic mononuclear iron complex, [Fe(III)(Salen)Cl] (Salen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-ethylenediaminato), that highly selectively and efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACCH), ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIBH), and alanine (ALAH) to ethylene or the corresponding carbonyl compounds, mimicking the action of the non-heme iron enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO). PMID:20830340

  16. Kinetic activation of yeast mitochondrial D-lactate dehydrogenase by carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Arnaud; Vallortigara, Julie; Yoboue, Edgar D; Rigoulet, Michel; Devin, Anne

    2008-10-01

    Aerobically grown yeast cells express mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenases that localize to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The D-lactate dehydrogenase is a zinc-flavoprotein with high acceptor specificity for cytochrome c, that catalyzes the oxidation of D-lactate into pyruvate. In this paper, we show that mitochondrial respiratory rate in phosphorylating or non-phosphorylating conditions with D-lactate as substrate is stimulated by carboxylic acids. This stimulation does not affect the yield of oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, this stimulation lies at the level of the D-lactate dehydrogenase. It is non-competitive, hyperbolic and its dimension is directly related to the number of carboxylic groups on the activator. The physiological meaning of such a regulation is discussed. PMID:18640090

  17. On the role of humic acids' carboxyl groups in the binding of charged organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Smilek, Ji?í; Sedlá?ek, Petr; Kalina, Michal; Klu?áková, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Interactions of humic acids (HAs) with two cationic dyes (methylene blue and rhodamine 6G) were studied using a unique combination of diffusion and partitioning studies in HAs, containing hydrogels and batch sorption experiments. In order to investigate the involvement of carboxyl groups of HAs in these interactions, all experiments were performed for both, the original lignite HAs and HAs with selectively methylated carboxyls. The results of the diffusion experiments confirm that the interactions between the solute and humic substances have a strong impact on the rate of diffusion process. Surprisingly, the effect is almost equally approved for original and methylated HAs. On the other hand, the results of batch sorption experiments show strong improvement of the sorption capacity (methylated HAs), which is explained by changed morphology of alkylated HAs. The comparison of the results of diffusion and adsorption experiments shows that the diffusion experiments simulate the transport of solutes in natural humics containing environment more reasonably. PMID:26203865

  18. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, ?-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  19. Regulation of gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18 by phenazine-1-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Du, Xilin; Li, Yaqian; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Yuquan

    2015-01-01

    Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), an environmentally compatible redox-active metabolite produced by Pseudomonas sp., has been found to effectively protect against various phytopathogens. The objective of this study was to discover whether PCA can also act as a signaling molecule that regulates gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18. We constructed a series of PCA-producing mutant strains (high PCA, M18MSU1; low PCA, M18MS; and no PCA, M18MSP1P2) and analyzed their gene expression by using a custom microarray DNA chip. We found that the expression of PCA in both M18MSU1 and M18MS altered the expression of a total of 545 different genes; however, the higher level of PCA in M18MSU1 altered more genes (489) than did the lower level of PCA in M18MS (129). Of particular note, 73 of these genes were commonly regulated between the two mutants, indicating their importance in the downstream function of PCA. PCA molecules upregulated genes that function primarily in energy production, cell motility, secretion, and defense mechanisms and downregulated genes involved in transcription, translation, cell division, and gene expression in the prophage. We found that PCA worked to alter the expression of an efflux pump gene mexH through a SoxR-mediated mechanism; we further hypothesized that other pathways should also be affected by this interaction. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence of PCA-derived molecular responses at the transcriptional level. They also help to elucidate the future of genetically engineered P. aeruginosa strains for the production of PCA used in a number of applications. PMID:25304879

  20. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its application to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N. ); King, C.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents which increase sharply as the concentration of water in the solvent increases. This phenomenon leads to a method of regeneration for solvent-extraction processes whereby coextracted water is selectively removed from the extract, such as by stripping, thereby precipitating the acid. The removal of a minor constituent to cause precipitation reduces energy consumption, in contrast with bulk removal of solvent. Solubilities of fumaric acid were measured in a number of organic solvents, with varying amounts of water in the organic phase. Cyclohexanone and methylcyclohexanone were chosen as solvents for which detailed solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were measured for adipic, fumaric, and succinic acids in the presence of varying concentrations of water, at both 25 and 45[degrees]C. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to demonstrate the processing concept and determine the relative volatility of water to solvent in the presence of carbon.

  1. Theoretical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylic Acids at Pyrolysis Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are important in the processing of biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. They are formed from the pretreatment and pyrolysis of hemicellulose biopolymers and are released from the decomposition of sugars. They result from the deconstruction of polyhydroxyalkanoates (bacterial carbon storage polymers) from fatty acids derived from algae, bacteria, and oil crops. The thermal deoxygenation of carboxylic acids is an important step in the conversion of biomass into aliphatic hydrocarbons suitable for use in renewable biofuels and as petrochemical replacements. Decarboxylation, a primary decomposition pathway under pyrolysis conditions, represents an ideal conversion process, because it eliminates two atoms of oxygen for every carbon atom removed. Problematically, additional deoxygenation processes exist (e.g. dehydration) that are in direct competition with decarboxylation and result in the formation of reactive and more fragmented end products. To better understand the competition between decarboxylation and other deoxygenation processes and to gain insight into possible catalysts that would favor decarboxylation, we have investigated the mechanisms and thermochemistry of the various unimolecular and bimolecular deoxygenation pathways for a family of C1-C4 organic acids using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(2df,p) level of theory.

  2. Effect of carboxylic acids as compatibilizer agent on mechanical properties of thermoplastic starch and polypropylene blends.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andréa Bercini; Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2016-01-01

    In this work, polypropylene/thermoplastic starch (PP/TPS) blends were prepared as an alternative material to use in disposable packaging, reducing the negative polymeric environmental impact. Unfortunately, this material displays morphological characteristics typical of immiscible polymer blends and a compatibilizer agent is needed. Three different carboxyl acids: myristic (C14), palmitic (C16) and stearic acids (C18) were used as natural compatibilizer agent (NCA). The effects of NCA on the mechanical, physical, thermal and morphological properties of PP/TPS blends were investigated and compared against PP/TPS with and without PP-grafted maleic anhydride (PPgMA). When compared to PP/TPS, blends with C18, PPgMA and C14 presented an improvement of 25, 22 and 17% in tensile strength at break and of 180, 194 and 259% in elongation at break, respectively. The highest increase, 54%, in the impact strength was achieved with C14 incorporation. Improvements could be seen, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, in the compatibility between the immiscible components by acids incorporation. These results showed that carboxylic acids, specifically C14, could be used as compatibilizer agent and could substitute PPgMA. PMID:26453854

  3. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-chromatography using on-line complexation with copper(II) ion.

    PubMed

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to ion chromatography is proposed to improve the UV detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids separated by anion-exchange chromatography. When copper(II) ion added to the mobile phase, it forms complexes with carboxylic acids that can be detected at 240 nm. The absorbance was found to increase with increasing copper(II) ion concentration. The retention times of ?-hydroxy acids were also found to depend on the copper(II) ion concentration. Addition of acetonitrile to the mobile phase improved the separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The detection limits of the examined carboxylic acids (formate, glycolate, acetate, lactate, propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate, n-valerate, isovalerate, n-caproate) calculated at S/N=3 ranged from 0.06 to 3 ?M. The detector signal was linear over three orders of magnitude of carboxylic acid concentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze aliphatic carboxylic acids in rainwater and bread. PMID:25523885

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, Semiempirical and Biological Activities of Organotin(IV) Carboxylates with 4-Piperidinecarboxylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Saroj K.; Qanungo, Kushal; Shahid, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Organotin (IV) carboxylates with the general formulae R2Sn(Cl)L [R?=?Me (1), n-Bu (2), Ph (3)] and R3SnL [R?=?Me (4), Ph (5)] have been synthesized by the reaction of 4-piperidinecarboxylic acid (HL) with KOH and R2SnCl2 (R?=?Me, n-Bu, Ph)/R3SnCl (R?=?Me, Ph) in methanol under stirring conditions. The metal ligand binding site, structure, and stability of complexes have been verified by FT-IR, (1H, 13C) NMR, EI-MS technique, and semiempirical study. The FT-IR data indicate the bidentate chelating mode of the carboxylate ligand which is also confirmed by semiempirical study. In solution state, five and four coordinated geometry around tin was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The EI-MS data agreed well with the molecular structure of the complexes. Thermodynamic parameters and molecular descriptors were calculated by using semiempirical PM3 method. HOMO-LUMO calculations show that chlorodiorganotin complexes are more susceptible to nucleophilic attack as compared to triorganotin complexes. Computed negative heat of formation indicates that complexes 1–4 are thermodynamically stable. The organotin(IV) carboxylates displayed powerful antimicrobial activities against various strains of bacteria and fungi and their minimal inhibitory concentration were also evaluated. The complexes exhibited comparatively higher hemolytic activity as compared to free ligand. PMID:25548551

  5. Evaluating the potential of long chain n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids as biomarkers for past vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanny, Verena; Zech, Roland; Eglinton, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Leaf waxes, such as long chain n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids, may have a great potential for the reconstruction of past environmental and climate conditions (e.g. (Zech R. et al., 2013). While n-C27 and n-C29 alkanes often predominantly occur in trees and shrubs, n-C31 and n-C33 are more abundant in grasses and herbs. However, little is known about chain-length distributions of n-carboxylic acids, and very few studies have systematically investigated leaf waxes in top soils. We analyzed n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids in ~100 litter and topsoil samples from Southern Germany to Sweden. Our results show that sites under deciduous trees often contain a lot of C27 n-alkanes and C28 n-carboxylic acids. Coniferous sites are characterized by dominance in n-alkanes C29 and C31 and have relatively high concentrations of n-carboxylic acids C22 and C24. Grass sites show a Cmax at C31 for n-alkanes and at C24 or C26 for n-carboxylic acids. Differences in homologue patterns are most pronounced in the litter samples, but are well preserved also in the topsoils (0-3 cm depth, a little less in the lower topsoils from 3-10 cm). Our results illustrate the potential of combining n-alkane and n-carboxylic acid analyses for paleo-vegetation reconstructions, yet indicate that the degree of degradation may have to be taken into consideration (Zech M. et al., 2013). References: Zech, M. et al. (2013) Quat. Int. 296, 108-116. Zech, R. et al. (2013) Palaeo3, 387, 165-175.

  6. Floral Benzenoid Carboxyl Methyltransferases: From in Vitro to in Planta Function

    SciTech Connect

    Effmert,U.; Saschenbrecker, S.; Ross, J.; Negre, F.; Fraser, C.; Noel, J.; Dudareva, N.; Piechulla, B.

    2005-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT's three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in plants depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses might represent the ancestor for the presently existing floral genes which during evolution gained different expression profiles and encoded enzymes with the ability to accept structurally similar substrates.

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of [123I] Labeled Iodovinyl Amino Acids Syn-, Anti-1-Amino-3-[2-iodoethenyl]-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic Acid and 1-Amino-3-iodomethylene-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic Acid as Potential SPECT Brain Tumor Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weiping; Williams, Larry; Malveaux, Eugene; Camp, Vernon M.; Olson, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Syn- and anti-1-amino-3-[2-iodoethenyl]-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (syn-, anti-IVACBC 16, 17) and their analogue 1-amino-3-iodomethylene-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (gem-IVACBC 18) were synthesized and radioiodoinated with [123I] in 34%–43% delay-corrected yield. All these amino acids entered 9L gliosarcoma cells primarily via L-type transport in vitro with high uptake of 9–11%ID/1×106 cells. Biodistribution studies of [123I]16, 17 and 18 in rats with 9L gliosarcoma brain tumors demonstrated high tumor to brain ratios (4.7–7.3:1 at 60 minutes post injection). In this model, syn-, anti- and gem-[123I]IVACBC are promising radiotracers for SPECT brain tumor imaging. PMID:18258425

  8. Year-round records of gas and particulate carboxylic acids (formate and acetate) in the boundary layer at Dumont d'Urville (coastal Antarctica): Production of carboxylic acids from biogenic NMHC emissions from the Antarctic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Jourdain, B.

    2003-04-01

    Multiple year-round concentrations of acetic and formic acids were measured both in gas and aerosol phases at Dumont d'Urville (DDU, a coastal Antarctic site: 66^o40'S, 140^o01'E) by using mist chamber and aerosol filter sampling. Aerosol levels of the 2 carboxylates range from less than one ng m-3 in winter to 5--10 ng m-3 in summer. Comparison with gas phase concentrations shows that almost 99% of the 2 carboxylic acids are present in the gas phase. Concentrations of formic acid in the gas phase are minima in June--July (70 ng m-3) and increase regularly towards summer months when levels reach ˜400 ng m-3. Concentrations of acetic acid in the gas phase exhibit a more well-marked seasonal cycle with values remaining close to 50 ng m-3 from April to October and strongly increase during summer months (mean value of 800 ng m-3). Such a strong seasonal cycle of carboxylic acids in the high southern latitude marine boundary layer displays with observations made at numerous continental sites where a more weak seasonality is generally observed. It is suggested that carboxylic acids present at DDU mainly originate from biogenic emissions from the Antarctic ocean which are expected to closely follow annual cycle of the sea ice extent and solar radiation, affecting in particular photochemical production of alkenes from dissolved organic carbon released from phytoplancton. Summer levels of carboxylic acids are discussed in terms of air-sea fluxes of NMHCs and photochemical production of carboxylic acids from ozone-alkene reactions and HO_2 reaction with peroxyacetal radical in these poor NOx environments.

  9. Occurrence of carboxylic acids in different steps of two drinking-water treatment plants using different disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2014-03-15

    The occurrence of 35 aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids within two full scale drinking-water treatment plants was evaluated for the first time in this research. At the intake of each plant (raw water), the occurrence of carboxylic acids varied according to the quality of the water source although in both cases 13 acids were detected at average concentrations of 6.9 and 4.7 ?g/L (in winter). In the following steps in each treatment plant, the concentration patterns of these compounds differed depending on the type of disinfectant applied. Thus, after disinfection by chloramination, the levels of the acids remained almost constant (average concentration, 6.3 ?g/L) and four new acids were formed (butyric, 2-methylbutyric, 3-hydroxybenzoic and 2-nitrobenzoic) at low levels (1.1-5 ?g/L). When ozonation/chlorination was used, the total concentration of the carboxylic acids in the raw water sample (4.7 ?g/L) increased up to 6 times (average concentration, 26.3 ?g/L) after disinfection and 6 new acids (mainly aromatic) were produced at high levels (3.5-100 ?g/L). Seasonal variations of the carboxylic acids under study showed that in both plants, maximum levels of all the analytes were reached in the coldest months (autumn and winter), aromatic acids only being found in those seasons. PMID:24252452

  10. PhI(OAc)2 mediated decarboxylative sulfonylation of ?-aryl-?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids: a synthesis of (E)-vinyl sulfones.

    PubMed

    Katrun, Praewpan; Hlekhlai, Sornsiri; Meesin, Jatuporn; Pohmakotr, Manat; Reutrakul, Vichai; Jaipetch, Thaworn; Soorukram, Darunee; Kuhakarn, Chutima

    2015-04-28

    A highly efficient metal-free decarboxylative sulfonylation protocol for the preparation of (E)-vinyl sulfones from of ?-aryl-?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids using sodium sulfinates and (diacetoxyiodo)benzene (PhI(OAc)2) was developed. This strategy offers a simple and expedient synthesis of (E)-vinyl sulfones bearing a wide variety of functional groups. A radical-based pathway has been proposed for this decarboxylative sulfonylation reaction. PMID:25811160

  11. Wind tunnel investigations on the retention of carboxylic acids during riming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Alexander; Szakáll, Miklós; Diehl, Karoline; Mitra, Subir K.; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    In mid-latitudes, precipitation is mainly initiated via the ice phase in mixed phase clouds. In such clouds the ice particles grow to precipitation sizes at the expense of liquid drops through riming which means that supercooled droplets collide with ice particles and subsequently freeze. Water-soluble trace substances present in the liquid phase might remain only fractionally in the ice phase after freezing. This fractionation is called retention and is an important ratio which quantifies the partitioning of atmospheric trace substances between the phases. Laboratory experiments were carried out at the Mainz vertical wind tunnel to determine the retention of lower mono- and di-carboxylic acids during riming. Due to their low molecular weight and their polarity these acids are water-soluble. In the atmosphere formic acid and acetic acid are the most abundant mono-carboxylic acids in the gas and aqueous phase, thus, they represent the major fraction of carboxylic acids in cloud water. Oxalic and malonic acid are common coatings on aerosol particles because of their relatively low saturation vapor pressure. These di-carboxylic acids might therefore promote the aerosol particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei and additionally contribute to the aqueous phase chemistry in cloud droplets. The conditions during the riming experiments in the wind tunnel were similar to those in atmospheric mixed phase clouds, i.e. temperatures from -18°C to -6 °C, liquid water contents between 0.5 and 1.5 g/m3, and liquid drop radii between 10 and 20 ?m. The liquid phase concentrations ranged from 3 to 5 mg/l (4.1 < pH < 4.5). As rime collectors captively floating ice particles and quasi-floating snowflakes with diameters between 0.6 and 1.5 cm were used. The wind speed in the vertical wind tunnel was very close to the terminal velocities of the rime collectors, thus, the ventilation during riming was in the same order of magnitude as under atmospheric riming conditions. After riming the collectors were removed from the wind tunnel, their melt water was analyzed by ion chromatography and the retention coefficients, i.e. the fractions of the species which remained in the ice phase were determined. Average retention coefficients of formic acid and acetic acid were 0.73 ± 0.07 and 0.62 ± 0.12, respectively; both oxalic and malonic acids had average retention coefficients of 0.98 ± 0.04. These variations can be explained by the fact that retention depends on the one hand on the dissociation state of the substance together with its solubility (described by the effective Henry's law constant) and on the other hand on the latent heat removal from the collector to the environment. This is affected by ventilation, shape of the rime collector, liquid water content, and droplet size.

  12. Carboxylic Acids as A Traceless Activation Group for Conjugate Additions: A Three-Step Synthesis of (±)-Pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct application of carboxylic acids as a traceless activation group for radical Michael additions has been accomplished via visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. Photon-induced oxidation of a broad series of carboxylic acids, including hydrocarbon-substituted, ?-oxy, and ?-amino acids, provides a versatile CO2-extrusion platform to generate Michael donors without the requirement for organometallic activation or propagation. A diverse array of Michael acceptors is amenable to this new conjugate addition strategy. An application of this technology to a three-step synthesis of the medicinal agent pregabalin (commercialized by Pfizer under the trade name Lyrica) is also presented. PMID:25032785

  13. Simple synthesis of carboxyl-functionalized upconversion nanoparticles for biosensing and bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Han, Gui-Mei; Li, Hui; Huang, Xiao-Xi; Kong, De-Ming

    2016-01-15

    We report a simple one-step hydrothermal method for the synthesis of hydrophilic luminescent upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) using malonic acid as the stabilizer and functional agent. Using this method, two UCNPs with different colors of upconversion luminescence were synthesized. The surface of the as-prepared UCNPs was capped with carboxyl groups, which not only resulted in the UCNPs having good dispersity in water, but also allowed further conjugation with other functional molecules, thus indicating the potential applications in biosensing and bioimaging. To demonstrate this, amino-labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was conjugated on the surface of the UCNPs. Based on the different absorption and luminescence quenching abilities of graphene oxide (GO) to ssDNA-modified UCNPs before and after exonuclease I (Exo I)-triggered hydrolysis of ssDNA, a detection platform was developed for the detection of Exo I activity with a detection limit of 0.02UmL(-1). The prepared hydrophilic UCNPs were also used successfully for in vivo upconversion luminescence imaging of nude mice. PMID:26592597

  14. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Este?vez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.

  15. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Este?vez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0more »MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.« less

  16. Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

    Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180°C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

  17. Retention of heavy metals by carboxyl functional groups of biochars in small arms range soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effectiveness of biochar for heavy metal stabilization depends upon biochar’s sorptive property and recalcitrance in soil. To understand the role of carboxyl functional groups on heavy metal stabilization, cottonseed hull biochar and flax shive steam activated biochar having low O/C ratio...

  18. Directed nucleation of monomeric and dimeric uranium(VI) complexes with a room temperature carboxyl-functionalized phosphonium ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yan; Goff, George S; Quiroz-Guzman, Mauricio; Fagnant, Daniel P; Brennecke, Joan F; Scott, Brian L; Runde, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    The carboxyl-functionalized phosphonium ionic liquid (IL), [HCTMP][Tf(2)N], enabled the directed nucleation of monomeric or dimeric uranyl(vi) compounds. This new IL is the first carboxyl-functionalized IL which is liquid at room temperature and exhibits a wider electrochemical window and lower melting point than its ammonium analogue. PMID:23296265

  19. The Biosynthetic Pathway of Indole-3-Carbaldehyde and Indole-3-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christoph; Chapman, Alexandra; Fellermeier, Franziska; Choudhary, Manisha; Scheel, Dierk; Glawischnig, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Indolic secondary metabolites play an important role in pathogen defense in cruciferous plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), in addition to the characteristic phytoalexin camalexin, derivatives of indole-3-carbaldehyde (ICHO) and indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICOOH) are synthesized from tryptophan via the intermediates indole-3-acetaldoxime and indole-3-acetonitrile. Based on feeding experiments combined with nontargeted metabolite profiling, their composition in nontreated and silver nitrate (AgNO3)-treated leaf tissue was comprehensively analyzed. As major derivatives, glucose conjugates of 5-hydroxyindole-3-carbaldehyde, ICOOH, and 6-hydroxyindole-3-carboxylic acid were identified. Quantification of ICHO and ICOOH derivative pools after glucosidase treatment revealed that, in response to AgNO3 treatment, their total accumulation level was similar to that of camalexin. ARABIDOPSIS ALDEHYDE OXIDASE1 (AAO1), initially discussed to be involved in the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, and Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 71B6 were found to be transcriptionally coexpressed with camalexin biosynthetic genes. CYP71B6 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and shown to efficiently convert indole-3-acetonitrile into ICHO and ICOOH, thereby releasing cyanide. To evaluate the role of both enzymes in the biosynthesis of ICHO and ICOOH derivatives, knockout and overexpression lines for CYP71B6 and AAO1 were established and analyzed for indolic metabolites. The observed metabolic phenotypes suggest that AAO1 functions in the oxidation of ICHO to ICOOH in both nontreated and AgNO3-treated leaves, whereas CYP71B6 is relevant for ICOOH derivative biosynthesis specifically after induction. In summary, a model for the biosynthesis of ICHO and ICOOH derivatives is presented. PMID:24728709

  20. Electrochemical properties of polyolefin nonwoven fabric modified with carboxylic acid group for battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Kang, Hae-Jeong; Ryu, Eun-Nyoung; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acid group was introduced by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polyolefine nonwoven fabric (PNF), wherein the PNF comprises at least about 60% of a polyethylene having a melting temperature at ˜132°C and no more than about 40% of a second polypropylene having a lower melting temperature at ˜162°C, for a battery separator. The AAc-grafted PNF was characterized by XPS, SEM, DSC, TGA and porosimeter. The wetting speed, electrolyte retention, electrical resistance, and tensile strength were evaluated after grafting of AAc. It was found that the wetting speed, electrolyte retention, thickness, and ion-exchange capacity increased, whereas the electrical resistance decreased with increasing grafting yield. The tensile strength decreased with increasing grafting yield, whereas the elongation decreased with increasing grafting yield.

  1. A supported polymeric liquid membrane process for removal of carboxylic acids from a waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.V.

    1999-12-31

    The removal or elimination of organic residues from aqueous waste streams represents a major need in the chemical industry. The authors have developed a new class of membrane called supported polymeric liquid membranes that are capable of removing and concentrating low molecular weight organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions, especially those that also contain high concentrations of inorganic salts. Attractive features of this membrane process include the ability to recover the contaminants in concentrated form for either recycle or more economical disposal, low pressure (ambient) operation, simple scale-up using commercial hollow fiber modules, and ease of in-situ regeneration of the polymeric liquid. The process has shown treatment feasibility for several types of aqueous waste streams. This paper describes the laboratory development activities for treating a waste stream containing a dilute mixture of C2-C6 carboxylic acids and nitric acid.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of novel dental monomer with branched carboxyl acid group.

    PubMed

    Song, Linyong; Ye, Qiang; Ge, Xueping; Misra, Anil; Laurence, Jennifer S; Berrie, Cynthia L; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-10-01

    To enhance the water miscibility and increase the mechanical properties of dentin adhesives, a new glycerol-based monomer with vinyl and carboxylic acid, 4-((1,3-bis(methacryloyloxy)propan-2-yl)oxy)-2-methylene-4-oxobutanoic acid (BMPMOB), was synthesized and characterized. Dentin adhesive formulations containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (BisGMA), and BMPMOB were characterized with regard to real-time photopolymerization behavior, water sorption, dynamic mechanical analysis, and microscale three-dimensional internal morphologies and compared with HEMA/BisGMA controls. The experimental adhesive copolymers showed higher glass transition temperature and rubbery moduli, as well as improved water miscibility compared to the controls. The enhanced properties of the adhesive copolymers indicated that BMPMOB is a promising comonomer for dental restorative materials. PMID:24596134

  3. Charge transport and structural dynamics in carboxylic-acid-based deep eutectic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Philip J; Cosby, Tyler; Holt, Adam P; Benson, Roberto S; Sangoro, Joshua R

    2014-08-01

    Charge transport and structural dynamics in the 1:2 mol ratio mixture of lidocaine and decanoic acid (LID-DA), a model deep eutectic mixture (DEM), have been characterized over a wide temperature range using broad-band dielectric spectroscopy and depolarized dynamic light scattering. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed to assess the degree of proton transfer between the neutral parent molecules. From our detailed analysis of the dielectric spectra, we have determined that this carboxylic-acid-based DEM is approximately 25% ionic at room temperature. Furthermore, we have found that the characteristic diffusion rate of mobile charge carriers is practically identical to the rate of structural relaxation at all measured temperatures, indicating that fast proton transport does not occur in LID-DA. Our results demonstrate that while LID-DA exhibits the thermal characteristics of a DEM, its charge transport properties resemble those of a protic ionic liquid. PMID:25025600

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and molecular modeling of a tetranuclear platinum(II) complex with thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbi, Pedro P.; Formiga, André L. B.; Bonk, Fábio A.; Quintão, Frederico A.; Ferraresi, Diego K. D.; Lustri, Wilton R.; Massabni, Antonio C.

    2012-07-01

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and molecular modeling of a novel tetranuclear platinum(II) complex with thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (THC) are described. Elemental analysis is consistent with the composition PtCl2C4H7NO2S·H2O. Infrared (IR) spectroscopic results and solid-state 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data indicate coordination of the ligand to Pt(II) through the nitrogen and sulfur atoms. The square planar geometry of the platinum(II) complex is completed by chlorine atoms. Density functional theory (DFT) suggests the formation of a tetrameric cluster as the most probable structure, where each THC molecule bridges between two metal centers. The compound is insoluble in water.

  5. Ascorbic acid absorption in Crohn's disease. Studies using L-(carboxyl-/sup 14/C)ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, S.H.; Shaffer, J.L.; Johns, C.W.; Bennett, R.J.; Irving, M.H.

    1989-04-01

    Total body pool and intestinal absorption of ascorbic acid were studied in 12 patients undergoing operation for Crohn's disease (six with fistulae and six without) and in six control patients undergoing operation for reasons other than Crohn's disease. L-(carboxyl-/sup 14/C)Ascorbic acid, 0.19-0.40 megabecquerels (MBq), was given orally. After a period of equilibration, the labeled ascorbic acid was flushed out of the patient's body tissues using large doses of unlabeled ascorbic acid. Intestinal absorption of ascorbic acid, assessed from the total cumulative urinary /sup 14/C recovery, was found to be similar in patients with fistulizing Crohn's disease (73.9 +/- 8.45%), those without fistulas (72.8 +/- 11.53%), and in controls (80.3 +/- 8.11%). Total body pools of ascorbic acid, calculated using the plasma /sup 14/C decay curves, were similar in patients with Crohn's disease with fistulas (17.1 +/- 5.91 mg/kg), patients without fistulas (9.6 +/- 3.58 mg/kg), and in controls (13.3 +/- 4.28 mg/kg). The results indicate that ascorbic acid absorption is normal in patients with both fistulizing and nonfistulizing Crohn's disease. The results suggest that routine supplements of vitamin C are not necessary unless oral ascorbic acid intake is low.

  6. Supported Palladium Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Aryl Halides, Alkenylsilanes, and Organoboronic Acids Employing Oxalic Acid as the C1 Source.

    PubMed

    Shil, Arun K; Kumar, Sandeep; Reddy, C Bal; Dadhwal, Sumit; Thakur, Vandna; Das, Pralay

    2015-11-01

    Polystyrene-supported palladium(0) (Pd@PS) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst have been developed for caboxylation of aryl halides, alkenylsilanes, and organoboronic acids to produce the corresponding carboxylic acids with minor quantities of corresponding aldehydes using bench-stable and inexpensive oxalic acid as the C1 source under focused microwave irradiation. The close vicinity of oxalic acid to Pd@PS maintained through ionic bonding helped to produce CO2 over the catalytic surface that concurrently participated in the carboxylation reaction. PMID:26479944

  7. Enzymes Involved in a Novel Anaerobic Cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Johannes W.; Meier, Anne-Katrin; Mergelsberg, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHC) has so far been studied only in Rhodopseudomonas palustris, in which CHC is activated to cyclohexanoyl coenzyme A (cyclohexanoyl-CoA [CHCoA]) and then dehydrogenated to cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA (CHeneCoA). This intermediate is further degraded by reactions of the R. palustris-specific benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway of aromatic compounds. However, CHeneCoA is not an intermediate in the degradation of aromatic compounds in all other known anaerobic bacteria; consequently, degradation of CHC was mostly unknown in anaerobic bacteria. We identified a previously unknown CHC degradation pathway in the Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter metallireducens by determining the following CHC-induced in vitro activities: (i) the activation of CHC to CHCoA by a succinyl-CoA:CHC CoA transferase, (ii) the 1,2-dehydrogenation of CHCoA to CHeneCoA by CHCoA dehydrogenase, and (iii) the unusual 1,4-dehydrogenation of CHeneCoA to cyclohex-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA. This last represents a previously unknown joint intermediate of the CHC and aromatic compound degradation pathway in bacteria other than R. palustris. The enzymes catalyzing the three reactions were purified and characterized as specific enzymes after heterologous expression of the encoding genes. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that expression of these genes was highly induced during growth with CHC but not with benzoate. The newly identified CHC degradation pathway is suggested to be present in nearly all CHC-degrading anaerobic bacteria, including denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and fermenting bacteria. Remarkably, all three CHC degradation pathways always link CHC catabolism to the catabolic pathways of aromatic compounds. We propose that the capacity to use CHC as a carbon source evolved from already-existing aromatic compound degradation pathways. PMID:25112478

  8. Determination of carboxylic acids in vinegars and in Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena by HPLC and GC methods.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, Marina; Lambertini, Paolo; Manzini, Daniela; Marchetti, Andrea; Ulrici, Alessandro

    2002-09-11

    The presence of carboxylic acids in grape products has been investigated for a long time by researchers, from both the qualitative and quantitative points of view. Evaluation of carboxylic acids requires the study and optimization of some operative variables which are strictly related to the matrix. In particular, the determination of organic acids in real matrixes such as Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale of Modena (ABTM; a traditional balsamic vinegar made from cooked grape must) is often difficult because of the presence of numerous interferences that need to be removed by separation techniques. To this aim, in the present work a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method with C18 and NH(2) exchangers was used to clean the ABTM samples prior to analysis or further treatments. Both HPLC and GC techniques were used to determine organic acids. The efficiency of these two different analytical techniques in the study of ABTM acidic composition has been evaluated. Both methods separately were not able to supply all the data related to carboxylic acids. In particular, HPLC allows acetic and lactic acids quantification, but gluconic and succinic acids are better determined by GC. As far as tartaric, citric, and malic acids are concerned, both HPLC and GC methods give statistically equivalent results. The variation of the single acidic species composition along a series of casks furnished interesting information regarding the chemical transformations taking place during the aging process of this product. PMID:12207457

  9. Synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated esters via a chemo-enzymatic chain elongation approach by combining carboxylic acid reduction and Wittig reaction

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yitao; Yao, Peiyuan; Du, Yuncheng; Feng, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Summary ?,?-Unsaturated esters are versatile building blocks for organic synthesis and of significant importance for industrial applications. A great variety of synthetic methods have been developed, and quite a number of them use aldehydes as precursors. Herein we report a chemo-enzymatic chain elongation approach to access ?,?-unsaturated esters by combining an enzymatic carboxylic acid reduction and Wittig reaction. Recently, we have found that Mycobacterium sp. was able to reduce phenylacetic acid (1a) to 2-phenyl-1-ethanol (1c) and two sequences in the Mycobacterium sp. genome had high identity with the carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) gene from Nocardia iowensis. These two putative CAR genes were cloned, overexpressed in E. coli and one of two proteins could reduce 1a. The recombinant CAR was purified and characterized. The enzyme exhibited high activity toward a variety of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids, including ibuprofen. The Mycobacterium CAR catalyzed carboxylic acid reduction to give aldehydes, followed by a Wittig reaction to afford the products ?,?-unsaturated esters with extension of two carbon atoms, demonstrating a new chemo-enzymatic method for the synthesis of these important compounds. PMID:26664647

  10. Novel carboxylic acid acylating agents, derivatives thereof, concentrate and lubricant compositions containing the same, and processes for their preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.E.; Meinhardt, N.A.

    1980-11-18

    Carboxylic acid acylating agents are derived from polyalkenes such as polybutenes, and a dibasic, carboxylic reactant such as maleic or fumaric acid or certain derivatives thereof. These acylating agents are characterized in that the polyalkenes from which they are derived have a mn value of about 1300 to about 5000 and a mw/mn value of about 1.5 to about 4. The acylating agents are further characterized by the presence within their structure of at least 1.3 groups derived from the dibasic, carboxylic reactant for each equivalent weight of the groups derived from the polyalkene. The acylating agents can be reacted with a further reactant subject to being acylated such as polyethylene polyamines and polyols (e.g., pentaerythritol) to produce derivatives useful per se as lubricant additives or as intermediates to be subjected to post-treatment with various other chemical compounds and compositions, such as epoxides, to produce still other derivatives useful as lubricant additives.

  11. Effects of carboxylic acids on the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Tauer, J.E.; Robertson, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Federal mandate of 1991-1995 on the use of scrap tires in Federal roadway construction sparked a major interest in gaining a fundamental understanding of the behavior of rubber in asphalt. This study is a systematic elucidation of what chemistry controls the final crumb rubber modified asphalt (CRMA) product quality. We discovered that the type and total acid content in the asphalt are the most influential chemical factors that determine the changes in the important roadway properties of shear modulus (G*) and loss angle ({delta}) of CRMA. Low acid (<0.005 m/L) asphalts were modified with three types of carboxylic acid and each made into CRMA using typical field mixing conditions of 1 hour at 175{degrees}C. Rheological measurements were then made at various storage times up to 192 hours following storage at both 156 and 200{degrees}C. We found the changes in CRMA theological properties correspond to the acid type spiked into the asphalt.

  12. A mechanistic study on the Hooker oxidation: synthesis of novel indane carboxylic acid derivatives from lapachol.

    PubMed

    Eyong, Kenneth O; Puppala, Manohar; Kumar, Ponminor Senthil; Lamshöft, Marc; Folefoc, Gabriel N; Spiteller, Michael; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2013-01-21

    The Hooker oxidation is one of the most intriguing transformations wherein lapachol (1) is readily converted to norlapachol (2) in very good yield. This one-pot reaction involves a very intricate mechanism in which the alkyl side chain of lapachol is shortened by one carbon unit. Previous studies have unequivocally established the involvement of an indane carboxylic acid derivative 3, as a key intermediate (Hooker intermediate), and its simultaneous conversion to norlapachol (2) via the oxidative cleavage of vicinol diol and subsequent intramolecular aldol reaction of the resulting keto acid. However, the formation of the key Hooker intermediate 3 from lapachol (1) remains ambiguous. The present study has thrown some light on the formation of the key intermediate 3 from lapachol (1) via benzilic acid rearrangement of the corresponding labile o-diquinone intermediate 8 derived from lapachol. The involvement of o-diquinone intermediate 8 in the Hooker oxidation has been further established by trapping of this labile intermediate as the corresponding phenazine derivative 9. The involvement of benzilic acid rearrangement as a key step in the Hooker oxidation is further shown with a variety of o-quinones prepared from lapachol (1). PMID:23196897

  13. Understanding Potential Exposure Sources of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Mary A.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Barton, Catherine A.; Botelho, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates perspectives from analytical chemistry, environmental engineering, and industrial hygiene to better understand how workers may be exposed to perfluorinated carboxylic acids when handling them in the workplace in order to identify appropriate exposure controls. Due to the dramatic difference in physical properties of the protonated acid form and the anionic form, this family of chemicals provides unique industrial hygiene challenges. Workplace monitoring, experimental data, and modeling results were used to ascertain the most probable workplace exposure sources and transport mechanisms for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its ammonium salt (APFO). PFOA is biopersistent and its measurement in the blood has been used to assess human exposure since it integrates exposure from all routes of entry. Monitoring suggests that inhalation of airborne material may be an important exposure route. Transport studies indicated that, under low pH conditions, PFOA, the undissociated (acid) species, actively partitions from water into air. In addition, solid-phase PFOA and APFO may also sublime into the air. Modeling studies determined that contributions from surface sublimation and loss from low pH aqueous solutions can be significant potential sources of workplace exposure. These findings suggest that keeping surfaces clean, preventing accumulation of material in unventilated areas, removing solids from waste trenches and sumps, and maintaining neutral pH in sumps can lower workplace exposures. PMID:20974675

  14. Transition metal ion-assisted photochemical generation of alkyl halides and hydrocarbons from carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, Jack; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2012-03-14

    Near-UV photolysis of aqueous solutions of propionic acid and aqueous Fe3+ in the absence of oxygen generates a mixture of hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene and butane), carbon dioxide, and Fe2+. The reaction becomes mildly catalytic (about five turnovers) in the presence of oxygen which converts a portion of alkyl radicals to oxidizing intermediates that reoxidize Fe2+. The photochemistry in the presence of halide ions (X? = Cl?, Br?) generates ethyl halides via halogen atom abstraction from FeXn3?n by ethyl radicals. Near-quantitative yields of C2H5X are obtained at ?0.05 M X?. Competition experiments with Co(NH3)5Br2+ provided kinetic data for the reaction of ethyl radicals with FeCl2+ (k = (4.0 ± 0.5) × 106 M?1 s?1) and with FeBr2+ (k = (3.0 ± 0.5) × 107 M?1 s?1). Photochemical decarboxylation of propionic acid in the presence of Cu2+ generates ethylene and Cu+. Longer-chain acids also yield alpha olefins as exclusive products. These reactions become catalytic under constant purge with oxygen which plays a dual role. It reoxidizes Cu+ to Cu2+, and removes gaseous olefins to prevent accumulation of Cu+(olefin) complexes and depletion of Cu2+. The results underscore the profound effect that the choice of metal ions, the medium, and reaction conditions exert on the photochemistry of carboxylic acids.

  15. ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND PHENOLS AS THEIR PENTAFLUOROBENZYL DERIVATIVES: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH A NOVEL CHEMICAL IONIZATION REAGENT, PFBOH. (R826247)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The complex photochemical transformations of biogenic
    hydrocarbons such as isoprene and of anthropogenic
    hydrocarbons such as aromatics are an important source
    of carboxylic acids in the troposphere. The
    identification
    of unknown carboxylic acids can be difficul...

  16. Facile Synthesis of Carboxylic Functionalized MFe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Zn) Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ruimin; Lu, Li; Huang, Haiping; Liu, Shanhu; Niu, Jingyang

    2015-07-01

    A facile one-pot solvothermal method was developed for the synthesis of carboxylic functionalized MFe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Zn) nanospheres. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer were used to characterize the morphologies, compositions and properties of the functionalized materials. Results show that all of the products were cubic spinel structures and exhibited hierarchical sphere-like morphologies, which were composed of primary nanocrystals. The MFe2O4 present advantageous functionality and good water dispensability due to the preferential exposure of uncoordinated carboxylate groups on their respective surfaces. These properties make them ideal candidates for various important applications such as drug delivery, bioseparation, and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26373101

  17. Short-chain carboxylic acids from gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) uropygial secretions vary with testosterone levels and photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Rebecca J; Levin, Tera C; Owen, Jennifer C; Garvin, Mary C

    2010-07-01

    The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting because of their potential importance in olfactory interactions within and across species. We used solid-phase microextraction headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect and identify volatiles in uropygial secretions of gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis), a North American migratory bird. We consistently detected the following carboxylic acids: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic. We tested for the effect of lengthened photoperiod and/or exogenous testosterone on volatile signal strength and found a negative effect of lengthened photoperiod on the signal strength of propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, and butanoic acids, suggesting a trade-off between their production and heightened night-time activity associated with lengthened photoperiod. Signal strength of propanoic and 2-methylpropanoic acids was lower in birds treated with exogenous testosterone than in birds treated with placebos. Sex did not affect signal strength of any of the volatile compounds. PMID:20346408

  18. Deoxynucleoside triphosphates bearing histamine, carboxylic acid, and hydroxyl residues--synthesis and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Hollenstein, Marcel

    2013-08-21

    Modified nucleoside triphosphates (dA(Hs)TP, dU(POH)TP, and dC(Val)TP) bearing imidazole, hydroxyl, and carboxylic acid residues connected to the purine and pyrimidine bases through alkyne linkers were prepared. These modified dN*TPs were excellent substrates for various DNA polymerases in primer extension reactions. Moreover, the combined use of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) and the modified dNTPs led to efficient tailing reactions that rival those of natural counterparts. Finally, the triphosphates were tolerated by polymerases under PCR conditions, and the ensuing modified oligonucleotides served as templates for the regeneration of unmodified DNA. Thus, these modified dN*TPs are fully compatible with in vitro selection methods and can be used to develop artificial peptidases based on DNA. PMID:23817514

  19. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistant mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with increased salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lehle, F.R.; Murphy, M.A.; Khan, R.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Nineteen mutant Arabidopsis families resistant to the proline analog azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (ACA) were characterized in terms of NaCl tolerance and proline content. Mutants were selected from about 64,000 progeny of about 16,000 self-pollinated Columbia parents which had been mutated with ethyl methane sulfonate during seed imbibition. Selections were performed during seed germination on aseptic agar medium containing 0.2 to 0.25 mM ACA. Nineteen mutant families, 12 clearly independent, retained resistance to ACA in the M{sub 4} generation. Based on germination on 150 mM NaCl, 13 of the mutant families were more tolerant than the wild type. Two mutants of intermediate resistance to ACA were markedly more salt tolerant than the others. Four mutant families appeared to overproduce proline. Of these, only 3 showed slight increases in salt tolerance.

  20. Hemp oil ingestion causes positive urine tests for delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Costantino, A; Schwartz, R H; Kaplan, P

    1997-10-01

    A hemp oil product (Hemp Liquid Gold) was purchased from a specialty food store. Fifteen milliliters was consumed by seven adult volunteers. Urine samples were taken from the subjects before ingestion and at 8, 24, and 48 h after the dose was taken. All specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay with SYVA EMIT II THC 20, THC 50, and THC 100 kits. The tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA) concentration was determined on all samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (5). A total of 18 postingestion samples were submitted. Fourteen of the samples screened above the 20-ng cutoff, seven were above the 50-ng cutoff, and two screened greater than the 100-ng cutoff. All of the postingestion samples showed the presence of THCA by GC-MS. PMID:9323529

  1. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide on carboxylic acid-terminated self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Dai, Min; Chabal, Yves J

    2009-02-17

    In situ infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to monitor atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on carboxylic acid-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), Si(111)-(CH2)10-COOH (or COOH-SAMs), directly grafted on silicon (111) at approximately 100 degrees C. The quality of resulting Al2O3 films is comparable to Al2O3 on SiO2. Both the SAM film and the Si/SAM interface remain chemically stable during growth and upon post annealing to 400 degrees C, suggesting that the tight packing of the alkyl chains and COOH-SAM head groups presents a diffusion barrier and promotes ordered nucleation for ALD. PMID:19140733

  2. Dissociative Binding of Carboxylic Acid Ligand on Nanoceria Surface in Aqueous Solution: A Joint in Situ Spectroscopic Characterization and First-Principles Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhou; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Weina; Yang, Ping; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Hongfei

    2013-11-21

    Carboxylic acid is a common ligand anchoring group to functionalize nanoparticle surfaces. Its binding structures and mechanisms as a function of the oxidation states of metal oxide nanoparticle surfaces are not well characterized experimentally. We present an in situ sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) study on the binding of deuterated acetic acid on ceria nanoparticles in the aqueous solution. In the SFG experiment, ceria nanoparticles were deposited on the flat surface of a CaF2 hemisphere in contact with acetic acid solutions. While the ceria nanoparticle deprotonated the acetic acid, the CaF2 surface could not. Thus, the binding of the deprotonated acetic acid on ceria can be selectively probed. SFG spectra revealed that the binding modes of the carboxylate group depend on the oxidation states of the ceria surfaces. SFG polarization analysis suggested that the bidentate chelating and bridging binding modes co-exist on the reduced ceria surfaces, while the oxidized ceria surfaces are dominated by the bidentate bridging mode. The direct spectroscopic evidence helps to clarify the binding structures and mechanisms on the ceria nanoparticles. Furthermore, the middle-infrared (IR) transparent CaF2 and its chemical inertness make CaF2 and similar substrate materials good candidates for direct SFG-VS measurement of nanoparticle surface reactions and binding chem-istry.

  3. Selective nickel- and manganese-catalyzed decarboxylative cross coupling of some ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids with cyclic ethers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Xiang; Wang, Yan-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Xing, Ya-Lan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2014-01-01

    A nickel- and manganese-catalyzed decarboxylative cross coupling of ?, ?-unsaturated carboxylic acids with cyclic ethers such as tetrahydrofuran and 1, 4-dioxane was developed. Oxyalkylation was achieved when nickel acetate was used as catalyst, while manganese acetate promoted the reaction of alkenylation. PMID:25502282

  4. Transition-Metal-Free Tandem Chlorocyclization of Amines with Carboxylic Acids: Access to Chloroimidazo[1,2-?]pyridines.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xinsheng; Xie, Ying; Bai, Siyi; Deng, Yuanfu; Jiang, Huanfeng; Zeng, Wei

    2015-08-21

    An efficient one-pot and transition-metal-free chlorocyclization cascade of 2-aminopyridines with aliphatic carboxylic acids is reported. This transformation provides a novel approach to 2-chloro- or 3-chloro-substituted imidazo[1, 2-?]pyridines with a broad range of substrate scopes. PMID:26230657

  5. Selective Nickel- and Manganese-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Cross Coupling of Some ?,?-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Cyclic Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia-Xiang; Wang, Yan-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Xing, Ya-Lan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2014-01-01

    A nickel- and manganese-catalyzed decarboxylative cross coupling of ?, ?-unsaturated carboxylic acids with cyclic ethers such as tetrahydrofuran and 1, 4-dioxane was developed. Oxyalkylation was achieved when nickel acetate was used as catalyst, while manganese acetate promoted the reaction of alkenylation. PMID:25502282

  6. Selective Nickel- and Manganese-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Cross Coupling of Some ?,?-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Cyclic Ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Xiang; Wang, Yan-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Xing, Ya-Lan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2014-12-01

    A nickel- and manganese-catalyzed decarboxylative cross coupling of ?, ?-unsaturated carboxylic acids with cyclic ethers such as tetrahydrofuran and 1, 4-dioxane was developed. Oxyalkylation was achieved when nickel acetate was used as catalyst, while manganese acetate promoted the reaction of alkenylation.

  7. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C.; Philipp, W. H.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery is described. The separator comprises a cross linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The cross linked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. Cross linking with a polyaldehyde cross linking agent is preferred.

  8. EFFECTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS ON LIQUID-PHASE ADSORPTION OF ETHANOL AND WATER BY HIGH-SILICA ZSM-5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for each compound adsorbed on commercially available ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 140) powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures of ethanol, carboxylic acids, and water at room temperature. The amounts adsorbed were measured using a recently developed t...

  9. Diamond nanowires modified with poly[3-(pyrrolyl)carboxylic acid] for the immobilization of histidine-tagged peptides.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Palaniappan; Mazurenko, Ievgen; Zaitsev, Vladimir; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Coating boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) with a conducting polymer, poly[3-(pyrrolyl)carboxylic acid], has been reported. Polymer coating was achieved through electropolymerization of 3-(pyrrolyl)carboxylic acid at the electrode interface by amperometrically biasing the BDD NWs interface until a predefined charge has passed. The poly[3-(pyrrolyl)carboxylic acid] modified BDD NWs (PPA-BDD NWs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Using a deposition charge of 11 mC cm(-2) resulted in a thin polymer film deposition. The availability of the carboxylic groups of the polymer coated BDD NWs electrode was demonstrated through copper ion (Cu(2+)) chelation. The resulting complex was successfully used for the site-specific immobilization of histidine-tagged peptides. The binding process was followed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The Cu(2+)-chelated PPA-BDD NWs interface showed peptide loading capability comparable to those of commercially available interfaces and can be easily regenerated several times using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). PMID:25009833

  10. Syntheses, structures, and properties of multidimensional lithium coordination polymers based on aliphatic carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei-Chi; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Tseng, Feng-Shuen; Kao, Ching-Che; Chang, Ting-Guang; Senthil Raja, Duraisamy; Liu, Wei-Ren; Lin, Chia-Her

    2013-02-28

    Three lithium coordination polymers, [Li4(H2O)2(EDTA)] (1), [Li4(H2O)4(BTCA)] (2), and (H2NMe2)2[Li2(H2O)2(BTCA)] (3) (H4EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, H4BTCA = 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid, H2NMe2 = dimethyl amine), have been synthesized by reacting lithium salts with aliphatic carboxylic acids using a solvothermal method. The structures of all the three complexes have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The single crystal structure analysis revealed that complex 1 has a three-dimensional framework, whereas complex 2 has 2D sheets and complex 3 has 1D chains. In addition, these lithium complexes contain various inorganic motifs with a tetramer in 1 and 2, and discrete tetrahedra in 3 and have further been connected through organic ligands to construct multidimensional structures. Further, the electrochemical properties of complexes 1–3 have been studied to evaluate these compounds as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries with discharge capacities of around 100 mA h g(-1) in the first thirty cycles. PMID:23235699

  11. Highly stereoselective biosynthesis of (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids through rationally re-designed mutation of d-lactate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Haiwei; Qin, Tong; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    An NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH) of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was rationally re-designed for asymmetric reduction of a homologous series of ?-keto carboxylic acids such as phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), ?-ketobutyric acid, ?-ketovaleric acid, ?-hydroxypyruvate. Compared with wild-type d-nLDH, the Y52L mutant d-nLDH showed elevated activities toward unnatural substrates especially with large substitutes at C-3. By the biocatalysis combined with a formate dehydrogenase for in situ generation of NADH, the corresponding (R)-?-hydroxy carboxylic acids could be produced at high yields and highly optical purities. Taking the production of chiral (R)-phenyllactic acid (PLA) from PPA for example, 50?mM PPA was completely reduced to (R)-PLA in 90?min with a high yield of 99.0% and a highly optical purity (>99.9% e.e.) by the coupling system. The results presented in this work suggest a promising alternative for the production of chiral ?-hydroxy carboxylic acids. PMID:24292439

  12. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Molaee Tavana, Mahdieh; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times. PMID:26585017

  13. Dielectric, electric and thermal properties of carboxylic functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes impregnated polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, Sadia; Iqbal, Nadeem; Maqsood, Asghari

    2013-06-01

    The dielectric, electric and thermal properties of carboxylic functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) incorporated into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were evaluated to determine their potential in the field of electronic materials. Carboxylic functionalization of the pristine multi walled carbon tubes (Ps-MWCNT) was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns for both Ps-MWCNTs and F-MWCNTs elaborated that crystalline behavior did not change with carboxylic moieties. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were performed to elucidate the thermal stability with increasing weight % addition of F-MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. Crystallization/glass transition / melting temperatures were evaluated using differential scanning calorimeter and it was observed that glass transition and crystallization temperatures were diminished while temperatures of first and second melting transitions were progressed with increasing F-MWCNT concentration in the PDMS matrix. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were carried out to confirm the morphology, functionalization, and uniform dispersion of F-MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. Electrical resistivity at temperature range (100-300°C), dielectric loss (tan?) and dielectric parameters (epsilon/ epsilon//) were measured in the frequency range (1MHz-3GHz). The measured data simulate that the aforementioned properties were influenced by increasing filler contents in the polymer matrix because of the high polarization of conductive F-MWCNTs at the reinforcement/polymer interface.

  14. From molecular salt to pseudo CAB cocrystal: Expanding solid-state landscape of carboxylic acids based on charge-assisted COOH⋯COO- hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Benyong; Perumalla, Sathyanarayana Reddy; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-11-01

    Using three carboxylic acids, we show that the COOH⋯COO- synthon is robust for directing the cocrystallization between a carboxylic acid and a carboxylate of either the same or a chemically different molecule to form a CAB or pseudo CAB cocrystal, respectively. For a given carboxylic acid and a counterion, only one salt could be prepared. However, additional one CAB cocrystals and two pseudo CAB cocrystals could be prepared based on the COOH⋯COO- synthon. The same synthon has the potential to enable the preparation of additional molecular pseudo CAB cocrystals using other chemically distinct carboxylic acids. This significantly increased number of solid forms highlights the values of charge-assisted synthons, such as COOH⋯COO-, in crystal engineering for expanding the range of material properties of a given molecule for optimum performance in product design.

  15. Discriminating the carboxylic groups from the total acidic sites in oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by means of acid base titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Mendoza, Ernest; Pellicer, Eva; Alsina, Francesc; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2008-09-01

    This work reports on the quantitative determination of the carboxylic groups created upon HNO 3 treatment at multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surface. To this purpose, MWCNTs have been oxidized by refluxing in acid for different periods of time (from 1 h to 12 h). The main goal of the present study comprises the development of a simple analytical methodology based on Boehm's titration that enables the rapid estimation of the total carboxylic groups and their discrimination from the total oxidized sites created at MWCNT surface as a result of the acid treatment. The trends observed are correlated with Raman spectroscopy analyses.

  16. Carboxylic acid-grafted mesoporous material and its high catalytic activity in one-pot three-component coupling reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Ruth; Bhaumik, Asim; Dutta, Saikat

    2014-11-01

    A new carboxylic acid functionalized mesoporous organic polymer has been synthesized via in situ radical polymerization of divinylbenzene and acrylic acid using a mesoporous silica as a seed during the polymerization process under solvothermal conditions. The mesoporous material MPDVAA-1 has been thoroughly characterized employing powder XRD, solid state {sup 13}C cross polarization magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance, FT-IR spectroscopy, N{sub 2} sorption, HR-TEM, and NH{sub 3} temperature programmed desorption-thermal conductivity detector (TPD-TCD) analysis to understand its porosity, chemical environment, bonding, and surface properties. The mesoporous polymer was used as a catalyst for a three comp onent Biginelli condensation between various aldehydes, ?-keto esters, and urea/thioureas to give 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-ones. The reactions were carried out under conventional heating as well as solvent-free microwave irradiation of solid components, and in both the cases, the mesoporous polymer MPDVAA-1 proved to be a powerful, robust, and reusable catalyst with high catalytic efficiency.

  17. Carboxylic acid-grafted mesoporous material and its high catalytic activity in one-pot three-component coupling reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Ruth; Dutta, Saikat; Bhaumik, Asim

    2014-11-01

    A new carboxylic acid functionalized mesoporous organic polymer has been synthesized via in situ radical polymerization of divinylbenzene and acrylic acid using a mesoporous silica as a seed during the polymerization process under solvothermal conditions. The mesoporous material MPDVAA-1 has been thoroughly characterized employing powder XRD, solid state 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 sorption, HR-TEM, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption-thermal conductivity detector (TPD-TCD) analysis to understand its porosity, chemical environment, bonding, and surface properties. The mesoporous polymer was used as a catalyst for a three comp onent Biginelli condensation between various aldehydes, ?-keto esters, and urea/thioureas to give 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-ones. The reactions were carried out under conventional heating as well as solvent-free microwave irradiation of solid components, and in both the cases, the mesoporous polymer MPDVAA-1 proved to be a powerful, robust, and reusable catalyst with high catalytic efficiency.

  18. Metabolomic Analysis of Key Central Carbon Metabolism Carboxylic Acids as Their 3-Nitrophenylhydrazones by UPLC/ESI-MS

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Gagnon, Susannah; Eckle, Tobias; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple hydroxy-, keto-, di-, and tri-carboxylic acids are among the cellular metabolites of central carbon metabolism (CCM). Sensitive and reliable analysis of these carboxylates is important for many biological and cell engineering studies. In this work, we examined 3-nitrophenylhydrazine as a derivatizing reagent and optimized the reaction conditions for the measurement of ten CCM related carboxylic compounds, including glycolate, lactate, malate, fumarate, succinate, citrate, isocitrate, pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and ?-ketoglutarate as their 3-nitrophenylhydrazones using LC/MS with electrospray ionization. With the derivatization protocol which we have developed, and using negative-ion multiple reaction monitoring on a triple-quadrupole instrument, all of the carboxylates showed good linearity within a dynamic range of ca. 200 to more than 2000. The on-column limits of detection and quantitation were from high femtomoles to low picomoles. The analytical accuracies for eight of the ten analytes were determined to be between 89.5 to 114.8% (CV?7.4%, n=6). Using a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument, the isotopic distribution patterns of these carboxylates, extracted from a 13C-labeled mouse heart, were successfully determined by UPLC/MS with full-mass detection, indicating the possible utility of this analytical method for metabolic flux analysis. In summary, this work demonstrates an efficient chemical derivatization LC/MS method for metabolomic analysis of these key CCM intermediates in a biological matrix. PMID:23580203

  19. Novel Carbazole (Cbz)-Based Carboxylated Functional Monomers: Design, Synthesis, and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Ejabul; Lellouche, Jean-Paul; Naddaka, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel functional carbazole (Cbz)-based carboxylated monomers were synthesized and characterized. A Clauson-Kaas procedure, a deprotection step, amide coupling, and hydrolysis were utilized as key chemical reactions towards the multistep synthesis of monomers in good to excellent isolated yields. The design strategy was further extended to complex carbazole-COOH monomers incorporated arylazo groups as photoreactive moieties. In addition, photoreactive hybrid carbazole (Cbz)-pyrrole (Pyr)-based carboxylated monomers, comprising a pyrrole core linking a carbazole and a photoreactive phenylazide or benzophenone moiety through an amide spacer in the molecular structure, were also synthesized. The latter can be utilized for surface modification of polymeric films in their monomeric form or as polymeric microparticles (MPs). PMID:26478845

  20. Photochemical formation of silver metal films from silver salt of natural high molecular carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, Yoshiro; Takami, Akinori; Sato, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Katsuhiko; Sasanuma, Takako; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishitani, Akira

    1990-08-01

    Thin films of silver salt of alginic acid, a typical high molecular carboxylic acid in nature, were photolyzed by 253.7 nm light. On irradiating with a 15-W sterilization lamp in air at relative humidity of more than 70%, the silver alginate films first became yellow-brown colored due to formation of photolytic colloidal silver particles. When irradiation was continued, the irradiated surface of the films finally changed into clear silver mirror. The morphology of these films was observed by means of a high-resolution scanning electron microscope. Colloidal silver particles (10-50 nm diam) formed by a short-time irradiation were sparsely distributed at the film surface. As a result of prolonged irradiation for ˜180 min, film surface was covered with aggregated colloidal silver. The x-ray diffraction study of the irradiated films revealed sharp diffraction lines, indicating that the colloidal silver was in a highly crystalline state. A preliminary observation of a microtomed cross section of the film showed that colloidal silver particles had a tendency to precipitate at the irradiated side of the film. These observations were consistent with more than a 108 -fold decrease of the sheet resistance and change in transmittance spectra of the films caused by photolysis. It has been proposed that silver atoms from the silver alginate migrate and coalesce to yield the colloidal silver. The colloidal silver particles further diffuse in the film and aggregate themselves at the irradiated surface, giving rise to silver metal films.

  1. Carboxylic acid reductase is a versatile enzyme for the conversion of fatty acids into fuels and chemical commodities.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M Kalim; Turner, Nicholas J; Jones, Patrik R

    2013-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons such as fatty alcohols and petroleum-derived alkanes have numerous applications in the chemical industry. In recent years, the renewable synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons has been made possible by engineering microbes to overaccumulate fatty acids. However, to generate end products with the desired physicochemical properties (e.g., fatty aldehydes, alkanes, and alcohols), further conversion of the fatty acid is necessary. A carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) from Mycobacterium marinum was found to convert a wide range of aliphatic fatty acids (C(6)-C(18)) into corresponding aldehydes. Together with the broad-substrate specificity of an aldehyde reductase or an aldehyde decarbonylase, the catalytic conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols (C(8)-C(16)) or fatty alkanes (C(7)-C(15)) was reconstituted in vitro. This concept was applied in vivo, in combination with a chain-length-specific thioesterase, to engineer Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains that were capable of synthesizing fatty alcohols and alkanes. A fatty alcohol titer exceeding 350 mg·L(-1) was obtained in minimal media supplemented with glucose. Moreover, by combining the CAR-dependent pathway with an exogenous fatty acid-generating lipase, natural oils (coconut oil, palm oil, and algal oil bodies) were enzymatically converted into fatty alcohols across a broad chain-length range (C(8)-C(18)). Together with complementing enzymes, the broad substrate specificity and kinetic characteristics of CAR opens the road for direct and tailored enzyme-catalyzed conversion of lipids into user-ready chemical commodities. PMID:23248280

  2. Discrimination of fresh fruit juices by a fluorescent sensor array for carboxylic acids based on molecularly imprinted titania.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao

    2014-12-15

    Design of chemical sensor arrays that can discriminate real-world samples has been highly attractive in recent years. Herein a fluorescent indicator-displacement sensor array for discrimination of fresh fruit juices was developed. By coupling the unique high affinity of titania to electron-donating anions and the cross-reactivity of molecularly imprinted materials to structurally similar species, a small array was fabricated using only one rhodamine-based fluorescent dye and three synthesized materials. Citric, malic, succinic and tartaric acids were chosen as indices. The recognition mechanism was investigated by spectrofluorimetric titration using a non-linear Langmuir-type adsorption model. The proposed method was applied to discriminate thirteen fruit juices through their carboxylic acid contents. Principal component analysis of the data clearly grouped the thirteen juices with the first principal component owning 98.2% of the total variation. The comparison of the sensor array with HPLC determination of the carboxylic acids was finally made. PMID:25038646

  3. Quantitative determination of carboxylic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in honey by (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Gloria; Zuriarrain, Juan; Zuriarrain, Andoni; Berregi, Iñaki

    2016-04-01

    A method using (1)H NMR spectroscopy has been developed to quantify simultaneously thirteen analytes in honeys without previous separation or pre-concentration steps. The method has been successfully applied to determine carboxylic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic and succinic acids), amino acids (alanine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine), carbohydrates (?- and ?-glucose and fructose), ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in eucalyptus, heather, lavender, orange blossom, thyme and rosemary honeys. Quantification was performed by using the area of the signal of each analyte in the honey spectra, together with external standards. The regression analysis of the signal area against concentration plots, used for the calibration of each analyte, indicates a good linearity over the concentration ranges found in honeys, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.985 for the thirteen quantified analytes. The recovery studies give values over the 93.7-105.4% range with relative standard deviations lower than 7.4%. Good precision, with relative standard deviations over the range of 0.78-5.21% is obtained. PMID:26593586

  4. FT-IR, Laser-Raman spectra and computational analysis of 5-Methyl-3-phenylisoxazole-4-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Sert, Yusuf; Mahendra, M; Keskino?lu, S; Chandra; Srikantamurthy, N; Umesha, K B; Ç?rak, Ç

    2015-03-15

    In this study the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized anti-tumor, antiviral, hypoglycemic, antifungal and anti-HIV agent namely, 5-Methyl-3-phenylisoxazole-4-carboxylic acid has been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm(-1)) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100 cm(-1)) of the molecule in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles) have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr and DFT/M06-2X: highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09W software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated by using the same theoretical calculations. PMID:25554964

  5. FT-IR, Laser-Raman spectra and computational analysis of 5-Methyl-3-phenylisoxazole-4-carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; Mahendra, M.; Keskino?lu, S.; Chandra; Srikantamurthy, N.; Umesha, K. B.; Ç?rak, Ç.

    2015-03-01

    In this study the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized anti-tumor, antiviral, hypoglycemic, antifungal and anti-HIV agent namely, 5-Methyl-3-phenylisoxazole-4-carboxylic acid has been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100 cm-1) of the molecule in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles) have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr and DFT/M06-2X: highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09W software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated by using the same theoretical calculations.

  6. Do protic ionic liquids and water display analogous behavior in terms of Hammett acidity function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shashi Kant; Kumar, Anil

    2013-04-01

    We address an issue whether the strength of carboxylic acids in water is linear with respect to that in ionic liquids. Strength of carboxylic acids in water and different PILs using Hammett function (Ho) has revealed interesting linear correlation between the Ho function for all acids in PILs and PIL-water in spite of large structural and electronic differences. These observations suggest that different structural and electronic features of PILs and water behave analogously towards Ho. This linearity in Ho functions between PILs and PIL-water systems can be used to develop predictive method to calculate Ho values.

  7. The biosynthetic implications of acetate and glutamate incorporation into (3R,5R)-carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid and (5R)-carbapen-2-em-3-carboxylic acid by Serratia sp.

    PubMed

    Bycroft, B W; Maslen, C; Box, S J; Brown, A; Tyler, J W

    1988-09-01

    Two new beta-lactams have been isolated from strains of Serratia and Erwinia sp. and identified as (3R,5R)- and (3S,5R)-carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid. These novel carbapenams lack antibacterial activity, are resistant to both beta-lactamases I and II from Bacillus cereus and are not detected by the lactamase induction assay. Radiolabelled and stable isotope experiments have established that both metabolites together with the antibiotic 5R-carbapenem-3-carboxylic acid are glutamate and acetate derived. A number of possible pathways for the biosynthesis of these compounds as well as their relationship to the more complex members of the carbapenem family of beta-lactam antibiotics are discussed. PMID:3182403

  8. Ionic Binding of Na+ to the Carboxylic Acid Headgroup of Palmitic Acid

    E-print Network

    ). Palmitic acid is mostly protonated at the aqueous surface at neutral pH (6). However, various degrees microscopic information at the molecular level, however, with limited sensitivities. GIXD has a low scattering at the air-water interface using IRRAS introduced by Dluhy and Cornell,13 Gericke et al. later used the same

  9. Synthesis of (3S,5R)-carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid and its role in carbapenem biosynthesis and the stereoinversion problem.

    PubMed

    Stapon, Anthony; Li, Rongfeng; Townsend, Craig A

    2003-12-24

    (5R)-Carbapenem-3-carboxylic acid is the simplest structurally among the naturally occurring carbapenem beta-lactam antibiotics. It is the produced from (3S,5S)-carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid utilizing a remarkable stereoinversion/desaturation process by CarC (carbapenem synthase), an alpha-ketoglutarate dependent non-heme iron oxygenase. In this communication, we demonstrate for the first time that the epimeric (3S,5R)-carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid is an intermediate in the overall catalytic cycle to the carbapenem antibiotic. The role of alpha-ketoglutarate in the stereoinversion and desaturation processes is also examined. PMID:14677956

  10. Carboxylic and Dicarboxylic Acids Extracted from Crushed Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Gupta, Alka D.; Kumar, Devendra; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THE) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and (sup 1)H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy) analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P2(sub 1)/c with a(sub o) = 5.543 A, b(sub o) = 8.845 A, c(sub o) = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/g MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2360 C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H, and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)(sup n-). The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  11. Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids extracted from crushed magnesium oxide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F.; Gupta, A. D.; Kumar, D.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR. The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P21/c with ao = 5.543 A, bo = 8.845 A, co = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg g-1 MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2860 degrees C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)n-. The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  12. Oxidation of benzene with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed with ferrocene in the presence of pyrazine carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shul'pina, L. S.; Durova, E. L.; Kozlov, Yu. N.; Kudinov, A. R.; Strelkova, T. V.; Shul'pin, G. B.

    2013-12-01

    It is found that ferrocene in the presence of small amounts of pyrazine carboxylic acid (PCA) effectively catalyzes the oxidation of benzene to phenol with hydrogen peroxide. Two main differences upon the oxidation of two different substrates, i.e., cyclohexane and benzene, with the same H2O2-ferrocene-PCA catalytic system are revealed: the rates of benzene oxidation and hydrogen peroxide decomposition are several times lower than the rate of cyclohexane oxidation at close concentrations of both substrates, and the rate constant ratios for the reactions of oxidizing particles with benzene and acetonitrile are significantly lower than would be expected for reactions involving free hydroxyl radicals. The overall rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition, including both the catalase and oxidase routes, is lower in the presence of benzene than in the presence of cyclohexane. It is suggested on the grounds of these data that a catalytically active particle different from the one generated in the absence of benzene is formed in the presence of benzene. This particle catalyzes hydrogen peroxide decomposition less efficiently than the initial complex and generates a dissimilar oxidizing particle that exhibits higher selectivity. It is shown that reactivity of the system at higher concentrations of benzene differs from that of an initial system not containing an aromatic component with the capability of ?-coordination with metal ions.

  13. Subcellular localization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mei-Chu; Chou, Shu-Jen; Kuang, Lin-Yun; Charng, Yee-Yung; Yang, Shang Fa

    2002-05-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of ACC to the gaseous plant hormone, ethylene. Although the enzyme does not contain a typical N-terminal consensus sequence for the transportation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), it has recently been shown to locate extracellularly by immunolocalization study. It was of interest to examine whether the enzyme contains a signal peptide that is overlooked by structure prediction. We observed that the in vitro translated apple ACC oxidase was not co-processed or imported by the canine pancreatic rough microsomes, a system widely used to identify signal peptide for protein translocation across ER, suggesting that apple ACC oxidase does not contain a signal peptide for ER transport. A highly specific polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant apple ACC oxidase was used to examine the subcellular localization of the enzyme in apple fruit (Malus domestica, var. Golden Delicious). The location of ACC oxidase appeared to be mainly in the cytosol of the apple fruit pericarp tissue as was demonstrated by electron microscopy using immunogold-labeled antibodies. The pre-immune serum or pre-climacteric fruit control gave essentially no positive signal. Based on these observations, we conclude that ACC oxidase is a cytosolic protein. PMID:12040102

  14. Phenazine carboxylic acid production and rhizome protective effect of endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Jasim, B; Anisha, C; Rohini, Sabu; Kurian, Jacob Manoj; Jyothis, Mathew; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-05-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is cultivated commercially in most parts of the world especially in India for its culinary and medicinal applications. One of the major challenges that limit the yield of ginger is rhizome rot disease caused by organisms including Pythium myriotylum. A feasible ecofriendly method is yet to be devised to prevent the plant from this threatening disease. Recent studies on plant microbiome show the possibility of having endophytic organisms with plant protective characteristics associated with the plants. Because of the uniquely evolved underground nature of the ginger rhizome and its peculiar survival in soil for a long time, many interesting endophytic microbes with plant protective characters can be well expected from it. In the current study, previously isolated endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa from ginger was investigated in detail for its effect on Pythium myriotylum. The rhizome protective effect of the organism was also studied by co-inoculation studies, which confirmed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa has very potent inhibitory effect on Pythium myriotylum. On further studies, the active antifungal compound was identified as phenazine 1-carboxylic acid. PMID:24353040

  15. Isotachophoresis on a chip with indirect fluorescence detection as a field deployable system for analysis of carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Smejkal, Petr; Breadmore, Michael C; Guijt, Rosanne M; Foret, František; Bek, Fritz; Macka, Mirek

    2012-11-01

    ITP with indirect fluorescence detection (IFD) was introduced three decades ago. Despite this fact, the method has never become widely adopted. The main aim of this work was to utilize the ITP-IFD for the separation of carboxylic acids by using a commercially available, portable, microfluidic chip electrophoresis system. On the 16.8-mm effective length separation channel, a maximum of eight carboxylic acids could be separated, with LOD values in a range from 0.12 to 0.4 mM. The commercial chips used for all experiments have multichannel structures important for analysis of more than one sample per a chip in case of standard use. This multichannel structure was used to investigate the possibility of multiple sample loading for ITP separation. Application of ITP-IFD was investigated for analysis of benzoate in diet soft drinks and the results were in good agreement with results of a CE method. PMID:23065658

  16. Formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids in ozonated surface water and wastewater: a clear relationship with fluorescence changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Tang, Xiangyu; Kim, Jaeshin; Korshin, Gregory V

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids in ozonated surface water and municipal wastewater secondary effluent and addressed correlations between the generation of these compounds and concurrent changes of the fluorescence of natural/effluent organic matter (NOM/EfOM) substrates. Ozonation was effective in removing fluorophores in all excitation/emission matrix (EEM) regions, with those operationally assigned to humic- and protein-like species showing relatively higher reactivity than fulvic-like species. Examination of HO exposures and attendant changes of fluorescence-based parameters allows establishing strong linear relationships between formation of the aldehydes and carboxylic acids and the relative changes of integrated fluorescence (?IF/IF0). This demonstrates the feasibility of surrogate monitoring of the formation of biodegradable ozonation by-products via online measurements of water/wastewater EEM fluorescence. PMID:25576127

  17. Short-chain carboxylic acids, a new class of teratogens: studies of potential biochemical mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Coakley, M.E.; Rawlings, S.J.; Brown, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Certain short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCA) appear to share a common teratogenic potential, although the structural requirements for activity remain obscure. By using a whole rat embryo culture model system, several biochemical processes have been examined, either as potential initial sites of teratogenic action or as early steps in the pathway to malformation. Valproate, methoxyacetate, and butyrate were the prototype SCCA examined. Measurement of (/sup 14/C)glucose utilization and lactate production confirmed that energy production by the early organogenesis embryo is predominantly from glycolysis. While the positive control agent, iodoacetate, caused a significant inhibition of lactate production, none of the SCCA affected this process or glucose utilization at teratogenic concentrations. Pinocytosis by the visceral yolk sac (VYS) was measured by the uptake of (/sup 125/I)polyvinylpyrrolidone. This process ultimately supplies the embryo with amino-acids and is essential for normal development. SCCA induce morphological abnormalities of the VYS in embryo culture. Pinocytosis was slightly reduced by valproate, but not the other SCCA. However, comparison with the action of an antiserum, for which inhibition of pinocytosis is the initial teratogenic insult, suggests that this is not the mechanism for valproate. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into embryo or yolk sac was not affected after 3 hr of SCCA exposure, but there was a marked effect of the positive control, hydroxyurea. This suggests that DNA synthesis is not directly influenced by SCCA. It can be concluded that SCCA do not exert their teratogenic effects by actions on glycolysis; maintenance of cellular acetyl CoA; pinocytosis or DNA synthesis. These observations contrast with preliminary results which suggest significant effects of SCCA on embryonic and yolk sac lipid metabolic pathways.

  18. Endogenous Levels and Transport of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid in Stamens of Ipomoea nil (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Kiss, H G; Koning, R E

    1989-05-01

    Filament and corolla growth in flowers of Ipomoea nil are inhibited by ethylene production. Anthers inhibited filament growth in vitro during younger stages of development even in the presence of the growth promoter gibberellic acid (GA(3)). To test whether the anthers could be sources of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) endogenous levels of ACC and ethylene production were monitored using gas chromatography. To also test whether the filaments could be transport vectors for ACC the movement of [(14)C]ACC was assessed by scintillation counting from donor agarose blocks, through filament sections, and into receiver agarose blocks. While ACC levels fluctuated in anthers 87 to 21 h before anthesis, anthers contained increased levels of ACC from 15 to 6 hours before anthesis. Ethylene production also fluctuated but peak levels were shifted about 6 hours closer to anthesis than ACC levels within the anthers. Both ACC and ethylene levels in filaments showed fluctuations similar to those in the anthers. [(14)C]ACC movement became increasingly basipetal during development. Older stages showed greater polar [(14)C]ACC efflux rates, while all stages showed constant polar influx rates. Low levels of endogenous ACC were transported basipetally from the anther through the filament into agarose blocks at all stages of development. Corresponding levels of endogenous ethylene production remained constant between the various stages during ACC transport. We have evidence that stamens of I. nil have a role as source tissues and transport vectors for ACC, to stimulate corolla growth, such as corolla unfolding and senescence. PMID:16666727

  19. Synergistic rhodium(II) carboxylate and brønsted acid catalyzed multicomponent reactions of enalcarbenoids: direct synthesis of ?-pyrrolylbenzylamines.

    PubMed

    Dawande, Sudam Ganpat; Kanchupalli, Vinaykumar; Lad, Bapurao Sudam; Rai, Jyoti; Katukojvala, Sreenivas

    2014-07-18

    The design of a synergistic rhodium(II) carboxylate and BINOL phosphoric acid catalyzed efficient multicomponent reaction of enaldiazo compounds, arylamines, and aryl aldehydes leading to the first transition-metal-catalyzed direct synthesis of valuable ?-pyrrolylbenzylamines is disclosed. The reaction is proposed to involve a transient ammonium ylide of a new class of electrophilic rhodium enalcarbenoid, its regioselective Mannich reaction, and a cyclocondensation cascade. The methodology was used in a highly diastereoselective synthesis of a binaphthyl based chiral pyrrole. PMID:24988365

  20. Structure of six anhydrous molecular salts assembled from noncovalent associations between carboxylic acids and bis-N-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Guo, Ming; Wang, Daqi

    2012-08-01

    Six crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from bis(N-imidazolyl) and carboxylic acids (3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, and phthalic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. The six compounds are all organic salts. In salts 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 the corresponding bis(imidazole) derivatives are diprotonated, while in 3, the corresponding bis(imidazole) derivative is only monoprotonated. All supramolecular architectures of the salts 1-6 involve extensive Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O, CH⋯O, and CH2⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. All the salts displayed 3D framework structures under the cooperation of these weak interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the N+sbnd H⋯O-, Osbnd H⋯O, and Nsbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and ditopic imidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic salts.

  1. 14,15-Epoxyeicosa-5,8,11-trienoic Acid (14,15-EET) Surrogates: Carboxylate Modifications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 eicosanoid 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5,8,11-trienoic acid (14,15-EET) is a powerful endogenous autacoid that has been ascribed an impressive array of physiologic functions including regulation of blood pressure. Because 14,15-EET is chemically and metabolically labile, structurally related surrogates containing epoxide bioisosteres were introduced and have become useful in vitro pharmacologic tools but are not suitable for in vivo applications. A new generation of EET mimics incorporating modifications to the carboxylate were prepared and evaluated for vasorelaxation and inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Tetrazole 19 (ED50 0.18 ?M) and oxadiazole-5-thione 25 (ED50 0.36 ?M) were 12- and 6-fold more potent, respectively, than 14,15-EET as vasorelaxants; on the other hand, their ability to block sEH differed substantially, i.e., 11 vs >500 nM. These data will expedite the development of potent and specific in vivo drug candidates. PMID:25119815

  2. Evaluation of a 7-Methoxycoumarin-3-carboxylic Acid Ester Derivative as a Fluorescent, Cell-Cleavable, Phosphonate Protecting Group.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Andrew J; Shippy, Rebekah R; Kilcollins, Ashley M; Li, Jin; Hsiao, Chia-Hung Christine; Barney, Rocky J; Geng, M Lei; Wiemer, David F

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cleavable protecting groups often enhance cellular delivery of species that are charged at physiological pH. Although several phosphonate protecting groups have achieved clinical success, it remains difficult to use these prodrugs in live cells to clarify biological mechanisms. Here, we present a strategy that uses a 7-methoxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid ester as a fluorescent protecting group. This strategy was applied to synthesis of an (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl diphosphate (HMBPP) analogue to assess cellular uptake and human V?9V?2 T?cell activation. The fluorescent ester displayed low cellular toxicity (IC50 >100??m) and strong T?cell activation (EC50 =0.018??m) relative to the unprotected anion (EC50 =23??m). The coumarin-derived analogue allowed no-wash analysis of biological deprotection, which revealed rapid internalization of the prodrug. These results demonstrate that fluorescent groups can be applied both as functional drug delivery tools and useful biological probes of drug uptake. PMID:26503489

  3. Short branched-chain C6 carboxylic acids result in increased growth, novel 'unnatural' fatty acids and increased membrane fluidity in a Listeria monocytogenes branched-chain fatty acid-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Sen, Suranjana; Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Hantak, Michael P; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2015-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotolerant food borne pathogen, responsible for the high fatality disease listeriosis, and expensive food product recalls. Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) of the membrane play a critical role in providing appropriate membrane fluidity and optimum membrane biophysics. The fatty acid composition of a BCFA-deficient mutant is characterized by high amounts of straight-chain fatty acids and even-numbered iso fatty acids, in contrast to the parent strain where odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids predominate. The presence of 2-methylbutyrate (C5) stimulated growth of the mutant at 37°C and restored growth at 10°C along with the content of odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids. The C6 branched-chain carboxylic acids 2-ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate also stimulated growth to a similar extent as 2-methylbutyrate. However, 3-methylpentanoate was ineffective in rescuing growth. 2-Ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate led to novel major fatty acids in the lipid profile of the membrane that were identified as 12-ethyltetradecanoic acid and 12-methylpentadecanoic acid respectively. Membrane anisotropy studies indicated that growth of strain MOR401 in the presence of these precursors increased its membrane fluidity to levels of the wild type. Cells supplemented with 2-methylpentanoate or 2-ethylbutyrate at 10°C shortened the chain length of novel fatty acids, thus showing homeoviscous adaptation. These experiments use the mutant as a tool to modulate the membrane fatty acid compositions through synthetic precursor supplementation, and show how existing enzymes in L. monocytogenes adapt to exhibit non-native activity yielding unique 'unnatural' fatty acid molecules, which nevertheless possess the correct biophysical properties for proper membrane function in the BCFA-deficient mutant. PMID:26225744

  4. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  5. 40 CFR 180.426 - 2-[4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for residues. A tolerance is established for residues of the herbicide 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H -imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline...

  6. Amino acid N-malonyltransferases from mung beans. Action on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and D-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Phillips, A T; Arteca, R N

    1993-12-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) N-malonyltransferase from etiolated mung bean hypocotyls was examined for its relationship to D-phenylalanine N-malonyltransferase and other enzymes which transfer malonyl groups from malonyl-CoA to D-amino acids. Throughout a 3600-fold purification the ratio of D-phenylalanine N-malonyltransferase activity to ACC N-malonyltransferase activity was unchanged. Antibodies raised against purified ACC N-malonyltransferase 55-kDa protein were also able to precipitate all D-phenylalanine-directed activity from partially purified mung bean extracts. The irreversible inhibitors phenylglyoxal and tetranitromethane reduced malonyltransferase activity towards D-phenylalanine to the same extent as that for ACC. In addition, several other D-amino acids, particularly D-tryptophan and D-tyrosine, were able to inhibit action towards both ACC and D-phenylalanine. These lines of evidence suggest that a single enzyme is capable of promoting malonylation of both ACC and D-phenylalanine. Km values for D-phenylalanine and malonyl-CoA were found to be 48 and 43 microM, respectively; these values are 10-fold lower than the corresponding values when ACC was substrate. Coenzyme A was a noncompetitive (mixed type) product inhibitor towards malonyl-CoA at both unsaturated and saturated ACC concentrations. The enzyme was also inhibited uncompetitively at high concentrations of malonyl-CoA. We propose that the enzyme follows an Ordered Bi-Bi reaction pathway, with the amino acid substrate being bound initially. PMID:8244971

  7. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 2. Application for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.V.; Perry, G.J.

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt was optimized using the solvent gradient method. This method was applied for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products. It was confirmed that the analytical data using this method were consistent with those determined using gas chromatography.

  8. How CO2 Interacts with Carboxylic Acids: A Rotational Study of Formic Acid-CO2.

    PubMed

    Vigorito, Annalisa; Gou, Qian; Calabrese, Camilla; Melandri, Sonia; Maris, Assimo; Caminati, Walther

    2015-10-01

    The rotational spectra of the 1:1 formic acid-carbon dioxide molecular complex and of its monodeuterated isotopologues are analysed in the 6.5-18.5 and 59.6-74.4 GHz frequency ranges using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer and a free-jet absorption millimetre wave spectrometer, respectively. Precise values of the rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants are obtained from the measured frequencies, and quadrupole coupling constants are determined from the deuterium hyperfine splittings. Structural parameters are estimated from the moments of inertia and their differences among isotopologues: the complex has a planar structure with the two subunits held together by a HC(O)OH???O=C=O (2.075 Å) and a HC(OH)O???CO2 (2.877 Å) interactions. The ab initio intermolecular binding energy, obtained at the counterpoise corrected MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level of calculation, is De =17 kJ?mol(-1). PMID:26247850

  9. Pyrimidine-2-carboxylic Acid as an Electron-Accepting and Anchoring Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhifang; Li, Xin; Ågren, Hans; Hua, Jianli; Tian, He

    2015-12-01

    We report a new dye (INPA) adopting pyrimidine-2-carboxylic acid as an electron-accepting and anchoring group to be used in dye-sensitized solar cells. IR spectral analysis indicates that the anchoring group may form two coordination bonds with TiO2 and so facilitate the interaction between the anchoring group and TiO2. The INPA-based cell exhibits an overall conversion efficiency of 5.45%, which is considerably higher than that obtained with cyanoacrylic acid commonly used as the electron acceptor. PMID:26581583

  10. Amide Bond Cleavage: The Acceleration Due to a 1,3-Diaxial Interaction with a Carboxylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Gerschler, Jared J.; Wier, Kevin A.; Hansen, David E.

    2008-01-01

    To independently assess the contribution of ground-state pseudoallylic strain to the enormous rates of amide bond cleavage in tertiary amide derivatives of Kemp’s triacid, we have studied four amide derivatives of (1?-3?-5?)-5-t-butyl-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid. Our results confirm that absent pseudoallylic strain, a 1,3-diaxial interaction of an amide with a carboxylic acid leads to only a 2,400-fold increase in the rate of amide bond cleavage as compared with the rate of hydrolysis of an unactivated peptide bond. PMID:17221991

  11. Halogen-induced organic aerosol (XOA) formation and decarboxylation of carboxylic acids by reactive halogen species - a time-resolved aerosol flow-reactor study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofner, Johannes; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2013-04-01

    Reactive halogen species (RHS) are released to the atmosphere from various sources like photo-activated sea-salt aerosol and salt lakes. Recent studies (Cai et al., 2006 and 2008, Ofner et al., 2012) indicate that RHS are able to interact with SOA precursors similarly to common atmospheric oxidizing gases like OH radicals and ozone. The reaction of RHS with SOA precursors like terpenes forms so-called halogen-induced organic aerosol (XOA). On the other hand, RHS are also able to change the composition of functional groups, e.g. to initiate the decarboxylation of carboxylic acids (Ofner et al., 2012). The present study uses a 50 cm aerosol flow-reactor, equipped with a solar simulator to investigate the time-resolved evolution and transformation of vibrational features in the mid-infrared region. The aerosol flow-reactor is coupled to a home-made multi-reflection cell (Ofner et al., 2010), integrated into a Bruker IFS 113v FTIR spectrometer. The reactor is operated with an inlet feed (organic compound) and a surrounding feed (reactive halogen species). The moveable inlet of the flow reactor allows us to vary reaction times between a few seconds and up to about 3 minutes. Saturated vapours of different SOA precursors and carboxylic acids were fed into the flow reactor using the moveable inlet. The surrounding feed inside the flow reactor was a mixture of zero air with molecular chlorine as the precursor for the formation of reactive halogen species. Using this setup, the formation of halogen-induced organic aerosol could be monitored with a high time resolution using FTIR spectroscopy. XOA formation is characterized by hydrogen-atom abstraction, carbon-chlorine bond formation and later, even formation of carboxylic acids. Several changes of the entire structure of the organic precursor, caused by the reaction of RHS, are visible. While XOA formation is a very fast process, the decarboxylation of carboxylic acids, induced by RHS is rather slow. However, XOA formation from aliphatic or aromatic precursors is coupled to the formation of carboxylic acids by saturation of reactive radical sites with oxygen, but carboxylic acids themselves can be destroyed by RHS, leading to further fragmentation of the carbon structure. References Cai, X., and Griffin, R. J.: Secondary aerosol formation from the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons by chlorine atoms, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14206/14201-D14206/14214, 2006. Cai, X., Ziemba, L. D., and Griffin, R. J.: Secondary aerosol formation from the oxidation of toluene by chlorine atoms, Atmos. Environ., 42, 7348-7359, 2008. Ofner, J., Krüger, H.-U., and Zetzsch, C.: Circular multireflection cell for optical spectroscopy, Appl. Opt., 49, 5001-5004, 2010. Ofner, J., Balzer, N., Buxmann, J., Grothe, H., Schmitt-Kopplin, Ph., Platt, U., and Zetzsch, C.: Halogenation processes of secondary organic aerosol and implications on halogen release mechanisms, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5787-5806, 2012.

  12. Spectral and biological evaluation of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide derived from 1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, J J; Leung, Kai P; Chai, Hanbo; Hicks, Rickey P

    2015-03-15

    Ac-GF(A6c)G(A6c)K(A6c)G(A6c)F(A6c)G(A6c)GK(A6c)KKKK-amide (A6c=1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid) is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that exhibits in vitro inhibitory activity against drug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterococcus faecium at concentrations ranging from 10.9 to 43?M. Spectroscopic investigations were conducted to determine how this AMP interacts with simple membrane model systems in order to provide insight into possible mechanisms of action. CD and 2D-(1)H NMR experiments indicated this AMP on binding to SDS and DPC micelles adopts conformations with varying percentages of helical and random coil conformers. CD investigations in the presence of three phospholipid SUVs consisting of POPC, 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC revealed: (1) The interactions occurring with POPC SUVs have minimal effect on the conformational diversity of the AMP yielding conformations similar to those observed in buffer. (2) The interactions with 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC SUVs exhibited a greater influence on the percentage of different conformers contributing to the CD spectra. (3) The presence of a high of percentage of helical conformers was not observed in the presence of SUVs as was the case with micelles. This data indicates that the diversity of surface bound conformations adopted by this AMP are very different from the diversity of conformations adopted by this AMP on insertion into the lipid bilayer. CD spectra of this AMP in the presence of SUVs consisting of LPS isolated from P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli exhibited characteristics associated with various helical conformations. PMID:25684423

  13. Chemical Analysis and Transplacental Transfer of Oseltamivir and Oseltamivir Carboxylic Acid in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Wu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    In view of the limited information on the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir (OSE) during pregnancy, this study aims to evaluate the placental transportation of OSE and its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylic acid (OCA) in rats. A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system coupled to an in vivo transplacental model has been developed to determine OSE and OCA in the placenta, amniotic fluids and fetus of 13-day pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Concentrations of OSE and OCA in plasma, amniotic fluids, placenta, and fetus were measured by the validated LC-MS/MS after OSE administration (10 mg/kg, iv). The pharmacokinetic data of both analytes were examined by non-compartmental modeling. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of OCA in maternal plasma was found to be 3.6 times larger than that of OSE. The AUCs of OCA in both amniotic fluid and fetus were significantly decreased, in comparison with that in maternal plasma (reduced by 76.7 and 98.1%, respectively). We found that both OSE and OCA can penetrate the placenta, amniotic fluids and fetus in rats during pregnancy; however, the penetration of OCA was much lower than that of OSE. The mother-to-fetus transfer ratio was defined as AUCfetus/AUCmother. The data demonstrated that the mother-to-fetus transfer ratio of OSE and OCA were 1.64 and 0.019, respectively, suggesting that OSE, but not OCA, penetrated through the placenta. Moreover, OCA might not be easily metabolized in the fetus due to the lack of carboxylase in the fetus. PMID:23056234

  14. Capillary zone electrophoresis for U(VI) and short chain carboxylic acid sorption studies on silica and rutile.

    PubMed

    Sladkov, Vladimir; Zhao, Yujia; Mercier-Bion, Florence

    2011-02-15

    Capillary zone electrophoresis was used to study the uranyl and short chain carboxylic acid sorption on silica and rutile. The separation and the simultaneous determination (in a single run) of a number of short chain carboxylic acids (oxalic, formic, acetic and propionic) and U(VI) with direct UV detection is developed for the analysis of solutions after the sorption experiments. The reverse polarity mode is used (the injection is performed at the negative end). The matrix effect of Si(IV) (possible silica dissolution product) and perchlorate (added for constant ionic strength in sorption experiments) on the separation of U(VI) and organic acids is investigated. The influence of methanol addition in carrier electrolyte on the separation selectivity of given analytes is also studied. Under the chosen conditions (carbonate buffer (ionic strength of 0.1M), pH 9.8, 0.15 mM of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, 25% (v/v) of methanol) the calibration curves are plotted. They are linear in two ranges of concentration from ?1×10(-5) to ?1×10(-3) M for oxalate, acetate, propionate, U(VI) and ?1×10(-4) to ?1×10(-3) for formate. The accuracy of the procedure is checked by the "added-found" method in simulation solutions. The relative standard deviations of the concentrations found are within the range of 1-10% and the recovery is in the range of 90-115%. This method is applied for the analysis of aqueous samples issued from sorption experiments on silica and rutile. The obtained results indicate that the given organic acids decrease uranium sorption both on silica and rutile. These experiments demonstrate that short chain carboxylic acids can influence the mobility and the chemistry of U(VI) in the environment. PMID:21238757

  15. Simple Formation of C60 and C60-Ferrocene Conjugated Monolayers Anchored onto Silicon Oxide with Five Carboxylic Acids and Their Transistor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Y Itoh; B Kim; R Gearba; N Tremblay; R Pindak; Y Matsuo; E Nakamura; C Nuckolls

    2011-12-31

    C{sub 60} and C{sub 60}-ferrocene conjugated molecule bearing five carboxylic acids successfully anchor onto a silicon oxide surface as a monolayer through a simple method of simply dipping an amino-terminated surface into the solution of the C{sub 60} derivatives. The monolayer structure was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and IR spectroscopy to reveal that the molecules are standing presenting its C{sub 60} spherical face at the surface. The electronic effect of the C{sub 60} monolayer and the ferrocene-functionalized C{sub 60} monolayer in OFET devices was investigated. When an n-type OFET was fabricated on the ferrocene functionalized monolayer, we see an enhancement in the mobility. When a p-type OFET was made the ferrocene-functionalized C{sub 60} monolayer showed a lowering of the carrier mobility.

  16. Equilibrium 2H/ 1H fractionations in organic molecules. II: Linear alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L.; Nielsen, Robert J.; Goddard, William A., III

    2009-12-01

    Equilibrium 2H/ 1H fractionation factors (? eq) for various H positions in alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols, and ethers were calculated between 0 and 100 °C using vibrational frequencies from ab initio QM calculations (B3LYP/6-311G**). Results were then corrected using a temperature-dependent linear calibration curve based on experimental data for H ? in ketones ( Wang et al., 2009). The total uncertainty in reported ? eq values is estimated at 10-20‰. The effects of functional groups were found to increase the value of ? eq for H next to electron-donating groups, e.g. sbnd OR, sbnd OH or sbnd O(C dbnd O)R, and to decrease the value of ? eq for H next to electron-withdrawing groups, e.g. sbnd (C dbnd O)R or sbnd (C dbnd O)OR. Smaller but significant functional group effects are also observed for H ? and sometimes H ?. By summing over individual H positions, we estimate the equilibrium fractionation relative to water to be -90‰ to -70‰ for n-alkanes and around -100‰ for pristane and phytane. The temperature dependence of these fractionations is very weak between 0 and 100 °C. Our estimates of ? eq agree well with field data for thermally mature hydrocarbons (? 2H values between -80‰ and -110‰ relative to water). Therefore the observed ? 2H increase of individual hydrocarbons and the disappearance of the biosynthetic ? 2H offset between n-alkyl and linear isoprenoid lipids during maturation of organic matter can be confidently attributed to H exchange towards an equilibrium state. Our results also indicate that many n-alkyl lipids are biosynthesized with ? 2H values that are close to equilibrium with water. In these cases, constant down-core ? 2H values for n-alkyl lipids cannot be reliably used to infer a lack of isotopic exchange.

  17. Metabolism of Benzoic Acid by Bacteria: 3,5- Cyclohexadiene-1,2-Diol-1-Carboxylic Acid Is an Intermediate in the Formation of Catechol

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Albey M.

    1971-01-01

    3,5-Cyclohexadiene-1,2-diol-1-carboxylic acid (1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxy-benzoic acid) is converted enzymatically to catechol in cell extracts from Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Azotobacter, and three Pseudomonas species. This enzymatic activity is present only in cultures which have been grown in the presence of benzoic acid, and which convert benzoic acid to catechol rather than to protocatechuic acid. The reaction is assayed by the concomitant formation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The conversion of [14C]benzoic acid to [14C]dihydrodihydroxybenzoic acid is demonstrated in cell extracts. A scheme for the conversion of benzoic acid to catechol in bacteria is presented, involving the formation of dihydrodihydroxybenzoic acid from benzoic acid by a dioxygenase which is unstable in cell extracts, followed by the dehydrogenation and decarboxylation of dihydrodihydroxybenzoic acid to catechol by a previously undescribed enzyme. Experiments with anthranilic acid and phthalic acid suggest that dihydrodihydroxybenzoic acid is a metabolite unique to benzoic acid metabolism. Two new methods for assaying benzoic acid dioxygenase are suggested. PMID:4399343

  18. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of alkynyl carboxylic acids and aryl halides.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeongju; Jang, Mihee; Lee, Sunwoo

    2009-02-01

    2-Octynoic acid and phenylpropiolic acid were employed for the palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling reaction and with a variety of aryl halides. The former needed 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane (dppb) as a ligand and the latter tri-tert-butylphosphine (P(t)Bu(3)), and both required 2 equiv of tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) for full conversion. These reactions showed high reactivities and tolerance of functional groups such as vinyl, ester, ether, ketone, and amine. PMID:19099411

  19. Acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function

    E-print Network

    Jining Gao

    2010-03-16

    In this paper we set up the theory of acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function, based on the theory, we point out a reason to doubt the truth of the Riemann hypothesis and also as a consequence, we give out some new RH equivalences.

  20. 10-Iodo-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic Acids Are Selective Inhibitors of DYRK1A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase DYRK1A has been suggested to act as one of the intracellular regulators contributing to neurological alterations found in individuals with Down syndrome. For an assessment of the role of DYRK1A, selective synthetic inhibitors are valuable pharmacological tools. However, the DYRK1A inhibitors described in the literature so far either are not sufficiently selective or have not been tested against closely related kinases from the DYRK and the CLK protein kinase families. The aim of this study was the identification of DYRK1A inhibitors exhibiting selectivity versus the structurally and functionally closely related DYRK and CLK isoforms. Structure modification of the screening hit 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid revealed structure–activity relationships for kinase inhibition and enabled the design of 10-iodo-substituted derivatives as very potent DYRK1A inhibitors with considerable selectivity against CLKs. X-ray structure determination of three 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids cocrystallized with DYRK1A confirmed the predicted binding mode within the ATP binding site. PMID:25730262

  1. Determination of carboxylic acids in water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after continuous extraction and derivatisation.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2012-05-15

    This paper describes a new approach for the determination of monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids (35 compounds) in water. The analytes, in acid medium (pH ? 1.3), were sorbed on an 80 mg LiChrolut EN-Supelclean ENVI-18 (1:1) column and subsequently eluted with methanol. After evaporation of the extract to ? 10 ?L, the analytes were spiked with 60 ?L of the derivatising reagent and derivatised in a household microwave oven for 3 min. Among the reagents tested (BF(3)/1-butanol; acetyl chloride/1-butanol; isobutyl chloroformate/1-butanol; trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide, N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)acetamide, N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and trimethylchlorosilane), the best results in terms of reaction yield and stability of the derivatives were obtained with the mixture of 1% trimethylchlorosilane in N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. Microwave assisted derivatisation was used as an alternative heating approach for the rapid silylation of carboxylic acids. The proposed method proved to be a suitable analytical procedure for several types of carboxylic acids in water, with limits of detection within the range 0.6-15 ng L(-1), precision values from 4.0 to 6.0% (as within-day relative standard deviation) and recoveries from 93 to 101% for all the target analytes. PMID:22483903

  2. Carboxylate-assisted ruthenium-catalyzed alkyne annulations by C-H/Het-H bond functionalizations.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Lutz

    2014-02-18

    To improve the atom- and step-economy of organic syntheses, researchers would like to capitalize upon the chemistry of otherwise inert carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds. During the past decade, remarkable progress in organometallic chemistry has set the stage for the development of increasingly viable metal catalysts for C-H bond activation reactions. Among these methods, oxidative C-H bond functionalizations are particularly attractive because they avoid the use of prefunctionalized starting materials. For example, oxidative annulations that involve sequential C-H and heteroatom-H bond cleavages allow for the modular assembly of regioselectively decorated heterocycles. These structures serve as key scaffolds for natural products, functional materials, crop protecting agents, and drugs. While other researchers have devised rhodium or palladium complexes for oxidative alkyne annulations, my laboratory has focused on the application of significantly less expensive, yet highly selective ruthenium complexes. This Account summarizes the evolution of versatile ruthenium(II) complexes for annulations of alkynes via C-H/N-H, C-H/O-H, or C-H/N-O bond cleavages. To achieve selective C-H bond functionalizations, we needed to understand the detailed mechanism of the crucial C-H bond metalation with ruthenium(II) complexes and particularly the importance of carboxylate assistance in this process. As a consequence, our recent efforts have resulted in widely applicable methods for the versatile preparation of differently decorated arenes and heteroarenes, providing access to among others isoquinolones, 2-pyridones, isoquinolines, indoles, pyrroles, or ?-pyrones. Most of these reactions used Cu(OAc)2·H2O, which not only acted as the oxidant but also served as the essential source of acetate for the carboxylate-assisted ruthenation manifold. Notably, the ruthenium(II)-catalyzed oxidative annulations also occurred under an ambient atmosphere of air with cocatalytic amounts of Cu(OAc)2·H2O. Moreover, substrates displaying N-O bonds served as "internal oxidants" for the syntheses of isoquinolones and isoquinolines. Detailed experimental mechanistic studies have provided strong support for a catalytic cycle that relies on initial carboxylate-assisted C-H bond ruthenation, followed by coordinative insertion of the alkyne, reductive elimination, and reoxidation of the thus formed ruthenium(0) complex. PMID:23379589

  3. Improved preparation of haloalkyl bridged carboxylic ortho esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protection of a carboxylic acid function as a bridged ortho ester derivative enables the use of strong basic conditions in the synthetic strategy. For example, a protected 3-halopropionic acid can behave like an alkyl halide because the protons, alpha to the halide function, are less acidic. Ester...

  4. L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Promsote, Wanwisa; Veeranan-Karmegam, Rajalakshmi; Ananth, Sudha; Shen, Defen; Chan, Chi-Chao; Lambert, Nevin A.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Oxidant- and inflammation-induced damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is central to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, developing novel strategies to protect these cells is important. We reported previously on the robust antioxidant and therefore cell-protective effects of the cysteine pro-drug L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC) in cultured human RPE cells. New reports citing a novel anti-inflammatory role for OTC in addition to the known glutathione-stimulating and antioxidant properties emerged recently; however, this role has not been evaluated in RPE cells or in intact retina. Given the crucial causative roles of oxidative stress and inflammation in AMD pathogenesis, knowing whether OTC might exhibit a similar benefit in this cell and tissue type has high clinical relevance; thus, we evaluated OTC in the present study. Methods ARPE-19 and primary RPE cells isolated from wild-type, Gpr109a?/?, or Slc5a8?/? mouse eyes were exposed to TNF-? in the presence or absence of OTC, followed by analysis of IL-6 and Ccl2 expression with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (i.e., IL-1?, TGF-?, ABCG1, ABCA1, reduced glutathione, and dihydroethidium) were evaluated in Ccl2?/?/Cx3cr1?/? double knockout mice on rd8 background (DKO rd8) treated with OTC (10 mg/ml) in drinking water for a period of 5 months. Results OTC treatment significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of IL-6 and Ccl2 in TNF-?-stimulated ARPE-19 cells. Studies conducted using DKO rd8 animals treated with OTC in drinking water confirmed these findings. Cellular and molecular markers of inflammation were significantly suppressed in the retinas of the OTC-treated DKO rd8 animals. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo studies of the possible mechanism(s) to explain these actions revealed that although OTC is an agonist of the anti-inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor GPR109A and a transportable substrate of the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter SMCT1 (SLC5A8), these properties may play a role but do not explain entirely the anti-inflammatory effects this compound elicits in cultured RPE cells and the intact mouse retina. Conclusions This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report of the suppressive effects of OTC on inflammation in cultured RPE cells and on inflammation and oxidative stress in the retina in vivo. PMID:24426777

  5. The Synthetic Elicitor 2-(5-Bromo-2-Hydroxy-Phenyl)-Thiazolidine-4-Carboxylic Acid Links Plant Immunity to Hormesis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Salus, Melinda; Bektas, Yasemin; Schroeder, Mercedes; Knoth, Colleen; Vu, Trang; Roberts, Philip; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Eulgem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic elicitors are drug-like compounds that induce plant immune responses but are structurally distinct from natural defense elicitors. Using high-throughput screening, we previously identified 114 synthetic elicitors that activate the expression of a pathogen-responsive reporter gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we report on the characterization of one of these compounds, 2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-phenyl)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (BHTC). BHTC induces disease resistance of plants against bacterial, oomycete, and fungal pathogens and has a unique mode of action and structure. Surprisingly, we found that low doses of BHTC enhanced root growth in Arabidopsis, while high doses of this compound inhibited root growth, besides inducing defense. These effects are reminiscent of the hormetic response, which is characterized by low-dose stimulatory effects of a wide range of agents that are toxic or inhibitory at higher doses. Like its effects on defense, BHTC-induced hormesis in Arabidopsis roots is partially dependent on the WRKY70 transcription factor. Interestingly, BHTC-induced root hormesis is also affected in the auxin-response mutants axr1-3 and slr-1. By messenger RNA sequencing, we uncovered a dramatic difference between transcriptional profiles triggered by low and high doses of BHTC. Only high levels of BHTC induce typical defense-related transcriptional changes. Instead, low BHTC levels trigger a coordinated intercompartmental transcriptional response manifested in the suppression of photosynthesis- and respiration-related genes in the nucleus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria as well as the induction of development-related nuclear genes. Taken together, our functional characterization of BHTC links defense regulation to hormesis and provides a hypothetical transcriptional scenario for the induction of hormetic root growth. PMID:26530314

  6. Trace Amounts of Furan-2-Carboxylic Acids Determine the Quality of Solid Agar Plates for Bacterial Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Shintaro; Isoda, Reika; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background Many investigators have recognised that a significant proportion of environmental bacteria exist in a viable but non-culturable state on agar plates, and some researchers have also noticed that some of such bacteria clearly recover their growth on matrices other than agar. However, the reason why agar is unsuitable for the growth of some bacteria has not been addressed. Methodology/Principal Findings According to the guide of a bioassay for swarming inhibition, we identified 5-hydroxymethylfuran-2-carboxylic acid (5-HMFA) and furan-2-carboxylic acid (FA) as factors that inhibit bacterial swarming and likely inhibit extracellular polysaccharide production on agar. The furan-2-carboxylic acids 5-HMFA and FA effectively inhibited the swarming and swimming of several environmental bacteria at concentrations of 1.8 and 2.3 µg L?1 (13 and 21 nmol L?1), respectively, which are equivalent to the concentrations of these compounds in 0.3% agar. On Luria-Bertani (LB) plates containing 1.0% agar that had been previously washed with MeOH, a mixture of 5-HMFA and FA in amounts equivalent to their original concentrations in the unwashed agar repressed the swarming of Escherichia coli K12 strain W3110, a representative swarming bacterium. Conclusions/Significance Agar that contains trace amounts of 5-HMFA and FA inhibits the proliferation of some slow-growing or difficult-to-culture bacteria on the plates, but it is useful for single colony isolation due to the ease of identification of swarmable bacteria as the non-swarmed colonies. PMID:22848437

  7. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  8. Chemo-enzymatic Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 4-methylcyclohexanone via kinetic resolution of racemic carboxylic acids: direct access to enantioenriched lactone.

    PubMed

    Dro?d?, Agnieszka; Chrobok, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the asymmetric chemo-enzymatic Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of prochiral 4-methylcyclohexanone to (R)-4-methylcaprolactone in the presence of (±)-4-methyloctanoic acid, Candida Antarctica lipase B and 30% aq. H2O2 has been developed. A mechanism for the asymmetric induction based on kinetic resolution of racemic carboxylic acids is proposed. PMID:26612109

  9. Effect of charged amino acid side chain length on lateral cross-strand interactions between carboxylate- and guanidinium-containing residues in a ?-hairpin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Liu, Shing-Lung; Chiu, Wen-Chieh; Fang, Chun-Jen; Chang, Hsien-Chen; Wang, Wei-Ren; Yang, Po-An; Li, Jhe-Hao; Huang, Shing-Jong; Huang, Shou-Ling; Cheng, Richard P

    2015-05-01

    ?-Sheet is one of the major protein secondary structures. Oppositely charged residues are frequently observed across neighboring strands in antiparallel sheets, suggesting the importance of cross-strand ion pairing interactions. The charged amino acids Asp, Glu, Arg, and Lys have different numbers of hydrophobic methylenes linking the charged functionality to the backbone. To investigate the effect of side chain length of guanidinium- and carboxylate-containing residues on lateral cross-strand ion pairing interactions at non-hydrogen-bonded positions, ?-hairpin peptides containing Zbb-Agx (Zbb = Asp, Glu, Aad in increasing length; Agx = Agh, Arg, Agb, Agp in decreasing length) sequence patterns were studied by NMR methods. The fraction folded population and folding energy were derived from the chemical shift deviation data. Peptides with high fraction folded populations involved charged residue side chain lengths that supported high strand propensity. Double mutant cycle analysis was used to determine the interaction energy for the potential lateral ion pairs. Minimal interaction was observed between residues with short side chains, most likely due to the diffused positive charge on the guanidinium group, which weakened cross-strand electrostatic interactions with the carboxylate side chain. Only the Aad-Arg/Agh interactions with long side chains clearly exhibited stabilizing energetics, possibly relying on hydrophobics. A survey of a non-redundant protein structure database revealed that the statistical sheet pair propensity followed the trend Asp-Arg < Glu-Arg, implying the need for matching long side chains. This suggested the need for long side chains on both guanidinium-bearing and carboxylate-bearing residues to stabilize the ?-hairpin motif. PMID:25646959

  10. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, SUCCiOlC acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

  11. Systematic evaluation and optimization of modification reactions of oligonucleotides with amines and carboxylic acids for the synthesis of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Raphael M; Samain, Florent; Abd Elrahman, Maaly; Mikutis, Gediminas; Nauer, Angela; Zimmermann, Mauro; Scheuermann, Jörg; Hall, Jonathan; Neri, Dario

    2014-08-20

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries are collections of small molecules, attached to DNA fragments serving as identification barcodes, which can be screened against multiple protein targets, thus facilitating the drug discovery process. The preparation of large DNA-encoded chemical libraries crucially depends on the availability of robust synthetic methods, which enable the efficient conjugation to oligonucleotides of structurally diverse building blocks, sharing a common reactive group. Reactions of DNA derivatives with amines and/or carboxylic acids are particularly attractive for the synthesis of encoded libraries, in view of the very large number of building blocks that are commercially available. However, systematic studies on these reactions in the presence of DNA have not been reported so far. We first investigated conditions for the coupling of primary amines to oligonucleotides, using either a nucleophilic attack on chloroacetamide derivatives or a reductive amination on aldehyde-modified DNA. While both methods could be used for the production of secondary amines, the reductive amination approach was generally associated with higher yields and better purity. In a second endeavor, we optimized conditions for the coupling of a diverse set of 501 carboxylic acids to DNA derivatives, carrying primary and secondary amine functions. The coupling efficiency was generally higher for primary amines, compared to secondary amine substituents, but varied considerably depending on the structure of the acids and on the synthetic methods used. Optimal reaction conditions could be found for certain sets of compounds (with conversions >80%), but multiple reaction schemes are needed when assembling large libraries with highly diverse building blocks. The reactions and experimental conditions presented in this article should facilitate the synthesis of future DNA-encoded chemical libraries, while outlining the synthetic challenges that remain to be overcome. PMID:25061844

  12. Relative Quantification of Carboxylic Acid Metabolites by Liquid-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry Using Isotopic Variants of Cholamine

    PubMed Central

    Lamos, Shane M.; Shortreed, Michael R.; Frey, Brian L.; Belshaw, Peter J.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2008-01-01

    Labeling reagents that differ only in their isotopic composition offer a powerful approach to achieve relative quantification between samples by ESI-MS. Heavy and light isotopic forms of cholamine, which contain a positively charged quaternary ammonium group, were synthesized and tested as new labeling reagents for the relative quantification of carboxylic acid-containing metabolites, specifically fatty acids. The positive charge on cholamine ensures that the labeled product is also positively charged under all LC/MS conditions, regardless of mobile phase pH. This leads to high ionization efficiency and correspondingly high detection sensitivity, demonstrated here for the analysis of fatty acids in positive ion mode ESI-MS after reverse-phase separation under acidic conditions. Good accuracy and precision were obtained by mixing heavy- and light-labeled hydrolyzed egg lipid extracts in different known ratios. The relative quantification results for ten observed fatty acids had an average absolute error of 4.6% and an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.6%. The labeling strategy yielded a median CV of 6% when employed for fatty acid analysis of eggs from chickens fed various dietary supplements. PMID:17563114

  13. Direct Synthesis of Amides from Carboxylic Acids and Amines Using B(OCH2CF3)3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    B(OCH2CF3)3, prepared from readily available B2O3 and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, is as an effective reagent for the direct amidation of a variety of carboxylic acids with a broad range of amines. In most cases, the amide products can be purified by a simple filtration procedure using commercially available resins, with no need for aqueous workup or chromatography. The amidation of N-protected amino acids with both primary and secondary amines proceeds effectively, with very low levels of racemization. B(OCH2CF3)3 can also be used for the formylation of a range of amines in good to excellent yield, via transamidation of dimethylformamide. PMID:23586467

  14. Cloning and characterization of a benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene involved in floral scent production from lily (Lilium 'Yelloween').

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Sun, M; Li, L L; Xie, X H; Zhang, Q X

    2015-01-01

    In lily flowers, the volatile ester methyl benzoate is one of the major and abundant floral scent compounds; however, knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of methyl benzoate remains unknown for Lilium. In this study, we isolated a benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BSMT) gene, LiBSMT, from petals of Lilium 'Yelloween'. The gene has an open reading frame of 1083 base pairs (bp) and encodes a protein of 41.05 kDa. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of LiBSMT revealed 40-50% similarity with other known benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases in other plant species, and revealed homology to BSMT of Oryza sativa. Heterologous expression of this gene in Escherichia coli yielded an enzyme responsible for catalyzing benzoic acid and salicylic acid to methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that LiBSMT was preferentially expressed in petals. Moreover, the expression of LiBSMT in petals was developmentally regulated. These expression patterns correlate well with the emission of methyl benzoate. Our results indicate that LiBSMT plays an important role in floral scent methyl benzoate production and emission in lily flowers. PMID:26600510

  15. Silylesterification of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling between carboxylic and hydrosilane functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffer, J.-F.; Detriche, S.; Nagy, J. B.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2014-06-01

    Surface modification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs) with silicon based anchoring groups (R-SiR3) is a relatively uncommon approach of the CNTs functionalization. Hydrosilane derivatives constitute an attractive subclass of compounds for silanization reactions on the CNTs surface. In this work, we report on the ZnCl2 catalytically controlled reaction (hydrosilane dehydrogenative cross-coupling, DHCC) of fluorinated hydrosilane probes with the carboxylic functions present on the surface of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with essentially alcohol groups are also used to compare the selectivity of zinc chloride toward carboxylic groups. To assess the efficiency of functionalization, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the different samples. Solubility tests on the oxidized and silanized MWNTs are also carried out in the framework of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory to apprehend at another scale the effect of DHCC.

  16. THz and mid-IR spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs: methyl and carboxylic acid groups.

    PubMed

    Ioppolo, S; McGuire, B A; Allodi, M A; Blake, G A

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in astrochemistry concerns the synthesis and survival of complex organic molecules (COMs) throughout the process of star and planet formation. While it is generally accepted that most complex molecules and prebiotic species form in the solid phase on icy grain particles, a complete understanding of the formation pathways is still largely lacking. To take full advantage of the enormous number of available THz observations (e.g., Herschel Space Observatory, SOFIA, and ALMA), laboratory analogs must be studied systematically. Here, we present the THz (0.3-7.5 THz; 10-250 cm(-1)) and mid-IR (400-4000 cm(-1)) spectra of astrophysically-relevant species that share the same functional groups, including formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and acetone ((CH3)2CO), compared to more abundant interstellar molecules such as water (H2O), methanol (CH3OH), and carbon monoxide (CO). A suite of pure and mixed binary ices are discussed. The effects on the spectra due to the composition and the structure of the ice at different temperatures are shown. Our results demonstrate that THz spectra are sensitive to reversible and irreversible transformations within the ice caused by thermal processing, suggesting that THz spectra can be used to study the composition, structure, and thermal history of interstellar ices. Moreover, the THz spectrum of an individual species depends on the functional group(s) within that molecule. Thus, future THz studies of different functional groups will help in characterizing the chemistry and physics of the interstellar medium (ISM). PMID:25302394

  17. Functional nucleic acid probes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2006-10-03

    The present invention provides functional nucleic acid probes, and methods of using functional nucleic acid probes, for binding a target to carry out a desired function. The probes have at least one functional nucleic acid, at least one regulating nucleic acid, and at least one attenuator. The functional nucleic acid is maintained in an inactive state by the attenuator and activated by the regulating nucleic acid only in the presence of a regulating nucleic acid target. In its activated state the functional nucleic acid can bind to its target to carry out a desired function, such as generating a signal, cleaving a nucleic acid, or catalyzing a reaction.

  18. Five binary supramolecular organic salts constructed from 2-aminoheterocyclic compounds and carboxylic acid derivatives through strong and weak non-covalent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Wenbiao; Liu, Li; Wang, Daqi; He, Haidong; Shi, Tao; Lin, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Studies concentrating on hydrogen bonding between the base of 2-aminoheterocyclic compounds 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine, 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine, and carboxylic acid derivatives have led to an increased understanding of the role 2-aminoheterocyclic compounds have in binding with carboxylic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrous multicomponent adducts of 2-aminoheterocyclic compounds such as 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine, and 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine have been prepared with 2-chloronicotinic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, maleic acid, and phthalic acid. The five crystalline forms reported are organic salts of which the crystals and complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All supramolecular architectures of salts 1- 5 are stabilized by N sbnd H···O hydrogen bonds as well as other non-covalent interactions. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D structure.

  19. Comparison of CO2 and oxygen DC submerged thermal plasmas for decomposition of carboxylic acid in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, S.; Hekmat-Ardakan, A.; Soucy, G.

    2014-11-01

    The feasibility of the carboxylic acid decomposition with two different direct current (DC) thermal plasma torches was investigated. An oxygen DC submerged thermal plasma torch and a newly designed submerged DC plasma torch operating with a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane (CO2/CH4) were used. Sebacic acid was selected as a representative of pollutants in the most wastewater produced by chemical process industries. The effect of different operational conditions including treatment time, the reactor pressure as well as the role of oxidizing agents such as (H2O2) were investigated on the decomposition rate of sebacic acid. Concentration of sebacic acid was quantified by Ion Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (IC/MS). The oxygen plasma showed higher decomposition rate in basic medium. Adding H2O2 into aqueous solution enhanced the sebacic acid decomposition rate with the CO2/CH4 plasma up to the same decomposition rate of the oxygen plasma. Increasing the pressure also increased the decomposition rate for both plasmas with an increase twice higher for the CO2/CH4 plasma than that of the oxygen plasma. This work therefore presents the conditions in which these plasmas can provide the same decomposition rate for contaminants in aqueous solution.

  20. New silver(I) coordination polymers constructed from pyrazine derivatives and aromatic carboxylic acids: Syntheses, structures and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Huang, Hua-Qi; Mei, Hong-Xin; Wang, Dan-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Xiang; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2015-11-01

    Five one-dimensional to three-dimensional coordination polymers have been synthesized by 2-chlorobenzoic acid (HL1), 2-nitrobenzoic acid (HL2), o-toluic acid (HL3), 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (tpyz) and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (mpyz) in the presence of NH3·H2O in mixed solvents systems, namely, {Ag4(tpyz)2(L1)4}n (1), {Ag2(tpyz) (L2)2}n (2), {Ag2(tpyz) (L3)2}n (3), {Ag2(mpyz) (L1)2}n (4), {Ag(mpyz) (L2) (H2O)}n (5). All the complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 shows a 3D framework. The tpyz ligand links 1D chain which was connected by silver atom and L1 anion into 3D framework. Compounds 2 and 4 possess a similar 2D network with (4, 4) topology. Complex 3 also exhibits a two-dimensional structure. There is a 1D silver chain in 3, which is the main difference from 2 and 4. So, 3 shows three-connected (4 8, 3) topology. For 5, only one oxygen of L2 coordinated to Ag(I) ions. The L2 anions were arranged in both sides of the chain, which was connected by silver atoms and mpyz ligands. Then, the uncoordinated carboxylate oxygen with coordinated water 1molecule oxygen through the hydrogen bond made the resultant structure to a 3D framework. Complexes 1-5 spanning from one-dimensional chains to three-dimensional framework suggest that carboxylates and the kinds of pyrazine derivatives play significant roles in the formation of such coordination architectures. The photoluminescence and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the complexes were also investigated.

  1. Intramolecular sp(3) Functionalization of Cyclopropyl ?-Amino Acid-Derived Benzamides.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Carolyn L; Belouin, Audrey V; Charette, André B

    2016-01-01

    Intramolecular Pd-catalyzed functionalization of cyclopropyl ?-amino acid-derived benzamides proceeds without silver or pivalate additives. Both electronically and sterically diverse ethyl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolone-3-carboxylates were accessible in good to excellent yields. PMID:26624806

  2. Effective removal of cationic dyes using carboxylate-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Han; Zhou, Yanmei; Yu, Fang; Wang, Enze; Min, Yinghao; Huang, Qi; Pang, Lanfang; Ma, Tongsen

    2015-12-01

    A novel carboxylate-functionalized adsorbent (CNM) based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was prepared and adsorptive removal of multiple cationic dyes (crystal violet, methylene blue, malachite green and basic fuchsin) were investigated. The maximum cationic dyes uptakes ranged from 30.0 to 348.9mgg(-1) following the order of: CNM>CNCs>raw cellulose. Furthermore, the removal of crystal violet by CNM was investigated representatively where kinetics, thermodynamics and isotherm analysis were employed to explain in-depth information associated with the adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model and thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Meanwhile, isothermal study demonstrated a monolayer adsorption behavior following the Langmuir model with a calculated maximum absorption capacity of 243.9mgg(-1), which is higher than those of many other reported adsorbents. These findings prefigure the promising potentials of CNM as a versatile adsorbent for the efficient removal of cationic dyes from wastewater. PMID:26298027

  3. Langmuir-Blodgett film of amphiphilic C[sub 60] carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Tachibana, Hiroaki; Azumi, Reiko; Tanaka, Motoo; Nakamura, Takayoshi ); Yunome, Gen; Abe, Masahiko ); Yamago, Shigeru; Nakamura, Eiichi )

    1995-02-01

    An amphiphilic C[sub 60] molecule with a substituent having a hydrophilic carboxylic group at the end was found to form a monolayer at the air-water interface and the structure of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film (Z-type) was elucidated. The shortest distance between the C[sub 60] was estimated to be 0.95 nm using a limiting area per molecule of 0.78 nm[sup 2] at the air-water interface, assuming the close packing of the C[sub 60] moiety in two dimensions. Adjacent C[sub 60] moieties have an electronic interaction which was shown in the red-shift of the characteristics bands in the UV/vis absorption spectrum of the LB film compared with that of a solution spectrum. Several lines of evidence suggested that the molecule has an oblique orientation in the LB film and exists in a pairwise manner due to the dimer formation of the carboxylic groups within a monolayer, not between the adjacent monolayers. The AFM observations revealed that the surface of a single-layer LB film, which consists of domains of ca. 0.1 [mu]m in diameter, is rather smooth and that the undulation is [+-] 1 nm for most of the surface except for defects such as vacancy and bilayer regions. The area fractions of the monolayer, the vacancy, and the bilayer regions were estimated to be 88 [+-] 7, 7 [+-] 5, 5 [+-] 3%, respectively. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ethylene-enhanced catabolism of ( sup 14 C)indole-3-acetic acid to indole-3-carboxylic acid in citrus leaf tissues. [Citrus sinensis

    SciTech Connect

    Sagee, O.; Riov, J.; Goren, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Exogenous ({sup 14}C)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is conjugated in citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissues to one major substance which has been identified as indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp). Ethylene pretreatment enhanced the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)IAA to indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), which accumulated as glucose esters (ICGlu). Increased formation of ICGlu by ethylene was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in IAAsp formation. IAAsp and ICGlu were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Formation of ICGlu was dependent on the concentration of ethylene and the duration of the ethylene pretreatment. It is suggested that the catabolism of IAA to ICA may be one of the mechanisms by which ethylene endogenous IAA levels.

  5. An 17O nuclear quadrupole resonance study of some carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosnan, S. G. P.; Edmonds, D. T.; Poplett, I. J. F.

    Using the new technique of doule resonance with coupled multiplets the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra of 17O, naturally abundant at both the C?O and C?O?H sites in formic acid acrylic acid, fumaric acid, ?-oxalic acid, ? oxalic acid, maleic acid, acetic acid, and substituted acetic acids, were measured. The specimens were frozen solutions or powdered solids. For the C?O?H site fine structure is observed on the spectral lines attributable to magnetic interaction with the neighboring proton. Analysis of the structure gives the sign of the quadrupole coupling constant and also information about the principal axes of the electric field gradient at the 17O nucleus. A simple Townes and Dailey analysis is carried out for the C?O?H site.

  6. Effect of charged amino acid side chain length on lateral cross-strand interactions between carboxylate-containing residues and lysine analogues in a ?-hairpin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Fang, Chun-Jen; Tsai, Hsin-Yun; Yang, Min-Fan; Chang, Hsien-Chen; Liu, Shing-Lung; Kuo, Li-Hung; Wang, Wei-Ren; Yang, Po-An; Huang, Shing-Jong; Huang, Shou-Ling; Cheng, Richard P

    2013-12-23

    ?-Sheets are one of the fundamental three-dimensional building blocks for protein structures. Oppositely charged amino acids are frequently observed directly across one another in antiparallel sheet structures, suggesting the importance of cross-strand ion pairing interactions. Despite the apparent electrostatic nature of ion pairing interactions, the charged amino acids Asp, Glu, Arg, Lys have different numbers of hydrophobic methylenes linking the charged functionality to the backbone. Accordingly, the effect of charged amino acid side chain length on cross-strand ion pairing interactions at lateral non-hydrogen bonded positions was investigated in a ?-hairpin motif. The negatively charged residues with a carboxylate (Asp, Glu, Aad in increasing length) were incorporated at position 4, and the positively charged residues with an ammonium (Dap, Dab, Orn, Lys in increasing length) were incorporated at position 9. The fraction folded population and folding free energy were derived from the chemical shift deviation data. Double mutant cycle analysis was used to determine the interaction energy for the potential lateral ion pairs. Only the Asp/Glu-Dap interactions with shorter side chains and the Aad-Orn/Lys interactions with longer side chains exhibited stabilizing energetics, mostly relying on electrostatics and hydrophobics, respectively. This suggested the need for length matching of the interacting residues to stabilize the ?-hairpin motif. A survey of a nonredundant protein structure database revealed that the statistical sheet pair propensity followed the trend Asp-Lys < Glu-Lys, also implying the need for length matching of the oppositely charged residues. PMID:24328126

  7. ANALYSIS OF PERFLUORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN SOILS: DETECTION AND QUANTITATION ISSUES AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods were developed for the extraction from soil, identification, confirmation and quantitation by LC/MS/MS of trace levels of perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorinated nonanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorinated decanoic acid (PFDA). Whereas PFOA, PFNA and PFDA all can...

  8. Butane-1,2,3,4-tetra-carboxylic acid-4,4'-bipyridine (1/2).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Shi, Xue-Min; Shao, Min; Li, Ming-Xing

    2009-01-01

    The hydro-thermal reaction of butane-1,2,3,4-tetra-carboxylic acid (H(4)butca), 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy) and Mn(SO(4))(2)·H(2)O afforded a new co-crystal, C(8)H(10)O(8)·2C(10)H(8)N(2) or H(4)butca·2(bipy), in which strong O-H?N hydrogen-bonding and weak ?-? stacking [centroid-centroid distance = 3.8459?(19)?Å] inter-actions assemble the organic mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular framework. C-H?O inter-actions are also present. The whole mol-ecule has inversion symmetry. PMID:21583687

  9. Butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxylic acid–4,4?-bipyridine (1/2)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Shi, Xue-Min; Shao, Min; Li, Ming-Xing

    2009-01-01

    The hydro­thermal reaction of butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxylic acid (H4butca), 4,4?-bipyridine (bipy) and Mn(SO4)2·H2O afforded a new co-crystal, C8H10O8·2C10H8N2 or H4butca·2(bipy), in which strong O—H?N hydrogen-bonding and weak ?–? stacking [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8459?(19)?Å] inter­actions assemble the organic mol­ecules into a three-dimensional supra­molecular framework. C—H?O inter­actions are also present. The whole mol­ecule has inversion symmetry. PMID:21583687

  10. Biosynthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, an iron chelator from the gut of the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Jelena; Svoboda, Ji?í; Sattler, Martina; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    In the regurgitate (foregut content) of Spodoptera larvae we found high concentrations (0.5-5 mM) of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (8-HQA). In a survey of different lepidopteran species, this compound was only detected in species belonging to the family of Noctuidae. 8-HQA was shown to derive from tryptophan metabolism. The amount of 8-HQA in the regurgitate was strongly dependent on the tryptophan content of the diet. In the insect 8-HQA is generated from tryptophan via kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine. 8-HQA is produced by the larvae and not by their commensal gut bacteria. Analysis of different life stages of Spodoptera larvae revealed that 8-HQA is formed during the larval stage, probably acting as an iron chelator to control the gut microbiome. PMID:25356857

  11. Vibrational spectroscopic studies and molecular docking study of 2-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl]quinoline-5-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ulahannan, Rajeev T; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Musiol, Robert; Jampilek, Joseph; Van Alsenoy, Christian; War, Javeed Ahmad; Manojkumar, T K

    2015-11-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl]quinoline-5-carboxylic acid were recorded and obtained and analyzed. The vibrational wavenumbers were computed using DFT quantum chemical calculations. The geometrical parameters (SDD) of the title compound are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. Stability of the molecule arising from the hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. From the natural and Mulliken charges, it can be concluded that electrophilic substitution of the quinoline scaffold is more preferred than nucleophilic substitution. From the MEP map it is evident that the negative regions are mainly localized over the carbonyl group and are possible sites for electrophilic attack. The title compound forms a stable complex with PknB as is evident from the binding affinity values and the molecular docking study suggests that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against PknB. PMID:26046498

  12. Synthesis and endothelin receptors binding affinity of new 1,3,5- substituted pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Loredana; Modica, Maria N; Romeo, Giuseppe; Pittala, Valeria; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Siracusa, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    The interest of researchers for ligands of the endothelin receptors ETA and ETB is due to their extensive therapeutic potential. In particular, receptor antagonists are useful in a number of diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, renal failure, and atherosclerosis. In the context of our research program aimed to the development of new endothelin receptor ligands, in this paper we describe the synthesis and structure- activity relationships of a new series of 1,3,5-substituted pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivatives 27-40 possessing the structural features for ET receptors binding. New synthesized compounds were tested on ETA and ETB receptors stably expressed in CHO cells and some of them showed interesting affinity and selectivity towards ETA receptors. PMID:25229828

  13. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    PubMed Central

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Nocek, Bogus?aw

    2015-01-01

    The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to use in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. Based on the structure, it was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes. PMID:26284087

  14. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Nocek, Bogus?aw

    2015-07-28

    The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to use in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. It was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes.

  15. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Nocek, Bogus?aw

    2015-07-28

    The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to usemore »in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. It was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes.« less

  16. Solid compounds of europium and terbium with some aromatic carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Chupakhina, R.A.; Biryulina, V.N.; Kasimova, L.V.; Balakhonov, V.G.

    1986-10-20

    By the reactions of europium and terbium hydroxides with aqueous solutions of benzoic, salicylic, phthalic, and phthalaldehydic acids, compounds were obtained with the compositions: for phthalic acid M/sub 2/L/sub 3/ x 3H/sub 2/O, and for the other acids ML/sub 3/ x 3H/sub 2/O, in which M = Eu/sup 3 +/, Tb/sup 3 +/; L is the anion of the corresponding acid. The compounds of europium and terbium with phthalaldehydric acid were prepared for the first time.

  17. HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC/MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE CARBOXYLIC ACIDS USING ION-PAIR EXTRACTION AND THERMALLY INDUCED ALKYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low molecular weight volatile carboxylic acids have been analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) using post-column derivatization and a moving belt interface. In order to prevent loss of the volatile solutes during transport to the mass spec...

  18. Utilization of oriented crystal growth for screening of aromatic carboxylic acids cocrystallization with urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przyby?ek, Maciej; Zió?kowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Miros?aw; Mroczy?ska, Karina; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of molecular complex formation in the solid state of urea with benzoic acid analogues was measured directly on the crystallite films deposited on the glass surface using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Obtained solid mixtures were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simple droplet evaporation method was found to be efficient, robust, fast and cost-preserving approach for first stage cocrystal screening. Additionally, the application of orientation effect to cocrystal screening simplifies the analysis due to damping of majority of diffraction signals coming from coformers. During validation phase the proposed approach successfully reproduced both positive cases of cocrystallization (urea:salicylic acid and urea:4-hydroxy benzoic acid) as well as pairs of co-formers immiscible in the solid state (urea:benzoic acid and urea:acetylsalicylic acids). Based on validated approach new cocrystals of urea were identified in complexes with 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. In all cases formation of multicomponent crystal phase was confirmed by the appearance of new reflexes on the diffraction patterns and FTIR absorption band shifts of O-H and N-H groups.

  19. In-line and selective phase separation of medium-chain carboxylic acids using membrane electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiajie; Guzman, Juan J L; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-04-21

    We had extracted n-caproate from bioreactor broth. Here, we introduced in-line membrane electrolysis that utilized a pH gradient between two chambers to transfer the product into undissociated n-caproic acid without chemical addition. Due to the low maximum solubility of this acid, selective phase separation occurred, allowing simple product separation into an oily liquid containing ?90% n-caproic and n-caprylic acid. PMID:25792085

  20. Electronic and optical response of Ru(II) complexes functionalized by methyl, carboxylate groups: joint theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    New photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications have been recently proposed based on the hybrid Ru(II)-bipyridine-complex/semiconductor quantum dot systems. In order to attach the complex to the surface of a semiconductor, a linking bridge - a carboxyl group - is added to one or two of the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine ligands. Such changes in the ligand structure, indeed, affect electronic and optical properties and consequently, the charge transfer reactivity of Ru-systems. In this study, we apply both theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze the effects brought by functionalization of bipyridine ligands with the methyl, carboxyl, and carboxilate groups on the electronic structure and optical response of the Ru(II) bipyridine complex. First principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and linear response time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) are used to simulate the ground and excited-state structures of functionalized Ru-complexes in the gas phase, as well as in acetonitrile solution. In addition, an inelaborate Frenkel exciton model is used to explain the optical activity and splitting patterns of the low-energy excited states. All theoretical results nicely complement experimental absorption spectra of Ru-complexes and contribute to their interpretation. We found that the carboxyl group breaks the degeneracy of two low-energy optically bright excited states and red-shifts the absorption spectrum, while leaves ionization and affinity energies of complexes almost unchanged. Experimental studies show a high probability of deprotonation of the carbboxyl group in the Ru-complexes resulted in a slight blue shift and decrease of intensities of the low energy absorption peaks. Comparison of experimental and theoretical linear response spectra of deprotanated complexes demonstrate strong agreement when acetonitrile solvent is used in simulations. A polar solvent is found to play an important role in calculations of optical spectra: it stabilizes the energy of states localized on the carboxyl or carboxylate groups eliminating artificial charge transport states, which typically appear in TDDFT calculations. Thus, it is validated that the excited-state structure of the functionalized Ru-complexes, specifically in the case of the deprotonated functions, can be accurately modeled by TDDFT with the addition of a dielectric continuum in simulations.

  1. Approaches to ?-amino acids via rearrangement to electron-deficient nitrogen: Beckmann and Hofmann rearrangements of appropriate carboxyl-protected substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V Mohana

    2012-01-01

    Summary The titled approaches were effected with various 2-substituted benzoylacetic acid oximes 3 (Beckmann) and 2-substituted malonamic acids 9 (Hofmann), their carboxyl groups being masked as a 2,4,10-trioxaadamantane unit (an orthoacetate). The oxime mesylates have been rearranged with basic Al2O3 in refluxing CHCl3, and the malonamic acids with phenyliodoso acetate and KOH/MeOH. Both routes are characterized by excellent overall yields. Structure confirmation of final products was conducted with X-ray diffraction in selected cases. The final N-benzoyl and N-(methoxycarbonyl) products are ?-amino acids with both carboxyl and amino protection; hence, they are of great interest in peptide synthesis. PMID:23019476

  2. In-situ spectroscopic investigations of the redox behavior of poly(indole-5-carboxylic-acid) modified electrodes in acidic aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Talbi, H; Billaud, D; Louarn, G; Pron, A

    2001-03-01

    The oxidation of electrochemically grown poly(indole-5-carboxylic-acid) (P5CO2H) and its spectroscopic properties have been studied by in-situ spectroelectrochemical techniques. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the different modifications on the P5CO2H backbone, induced by the electrochemical oxidation in aqueous acidic solution. We have identified, on the basis of Raman spectra, the vibrational modes associated with neutral and oxidized segments of polymer. It was shown that at least three chemically and optically different species (perhaps other products too) are produced in different potential regimes upon oxidation of this polymer. The results obtained also indicate that the molecular properties of this conducting polymer are better revealed by in-situ resonant spectra than by ex-situ infrared and Raman studies. PMID:11300553

  3. In-situ spectroscopic investigations of the redox behavior of poly(indole-5-carboxylic-acid) modified electrodes in acidic aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, H.; Billaud, D.; Louarn, G.; Pron, A.

    2001-03-01

    The oxidation of electrochemically grown poly(indole-5-carboxylic-acid) (P5CO2H) and its spectroscopic properties have been studied by in-situ spectroelectrochemical techniques. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the different modifications on the P5CO2H backbone, induced by the electrochemical oxidation in aqueous acidic solution. We have identified, on the basis of Raman spectra, the vibrational modes associated with neutral and oxidized segments of polymer. It was shown that at least three chemically and optically different species (perhaps other products too) are produced in different potential regimes upon oxidation of this polymer. The results obtained also indicate that the molecular properties of this conducting polymer are better revealed by in-situ resonant spectra than by ex-situ infrared and Raman studies.

  4. Assembly of Acid-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes at Oil/Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tao; Hoagland, David; Russell, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The segregation of water-soluble acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at the oil/water interface was induced by dissolving low-molecular-weight amine-terminated polystyrene (PS-NH2) in the oil phase. Salt-bridge interactions between carboxylic acid groups of SWCNTs and amine groups of PS drove assembly of a mixed interfacial film, monitored by pendant drop tensiometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy. The influence of PS end-group functionality, PS and SWCNT concentrations, and degree of SWCNT acid modification on interfacial activity were assessed, and a sharp drop in interfacial tension was observed above a critical SWCNT concentration. Interfacial tensions were low enough to support stable oil/water emulsions. Further experiments, including potentiometric titrations and replacement of SWCNTs by other carboxyl-containing species, demonstrated that the interfacial tension drop reflects the loss of SWCNT charge as pH falls near/below the intrinsic carboxyl dissociation constant; species lacking multivalent carboxylic acid groups are inactive. The interfacial assemblies of SWCNTs appear neither ordered nor oriented. Research Advisor.

  5. Six new metal-organic frameworks with multi-carboxylic acids and imidazole-based spacers: syntheses, structures and properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Ke, Xiaohuan; Zhao, Jinbo; Deng, Kejian; Leng, Xiaoke; Tian, Zhengfang; Wen, Lili; Li, Dongfeng

    2011-11-28

    Six new metal-organic frameworks [Cu(obba)(bimb)·(obbaH(2))](n) (1), [Cu(obba)(bimb)](n) (2), [Zn(2)(obba)(2)(bimb)(2)(DMF)(2)(H(2)O)(3.5)](n) (3), [Ni(3)(2,2',4,4'-bptcH)(2)(bimb)(2)(H(2)O)(2)·(H(2)O)(2)](n) (4), [Ni(2)(bimb)(3)(H(2)O)(6)·(aobtc)·(DMF)(2)·(H(2)O)(2)](n) (5) and [Cd(3,3',4,4'-bptcH(2))(H(2)O)·(bimb)](n) (6), were obtained by reactions of 4,4'-bis(1-imidazolyl)biphenyl (bimb) and multi-carboxylic acids of 4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid) (obbaH(2)), 2,2',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylate acid (2,2',4,4'-bptcH(4)), azoxybenzene-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid (aobtcH(4)), and 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylate acid (3,3',4,4'-bptcH(4)) with corresponding metal salts under hydro/solvothermal conditions, respectively. Complexes 1-3 have entangled structures with different topologies: 1 is a 3-fold interpenetrating NbO three-dimensional (3D) network; 2 is a 3-fold interpenetrating dmp 3D net; 3 is a 6-fold interpenetrating dia 3D chiral net containing rare 1D helical chains with the same handedness. Complex 4 is an uninodal 6-connected network with a Schäfli symbol of (4(8)6(4)8(3)) based on the trinuclear Ni(II) subunits, while complexes 5 and 6 are 1D chains. Interestingly, compound 6 represents the rare example of MOFs that exhibit high photocatalytic activity for dye degradation under visible light and shows good stability towards photocatalysis. Complexes 3 and 6 exhibit intense blue emissions in the solid state at room temperature whereas 3 appears to be a good candidate of novel hybrid inorganic-organic NLO material. PMID:21971521

  6. Long-chain carboxylic acids in pyrolysates of Green River kerogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (C10-C32), as well as C14-C21 isoprenoid acids (except for C18), have been identified in anhydrous and hydrous pyrolyses products of Green River kerogen (200-400 degrees C, 2-1000 hr). These kerogen-released fatty acids are characterized by a strong even/odd predominance (CPI: 4.8-10.2) with a maximum at C16 followed by lesser amounts of C18 and C22 acids. This distribution is different from that of unbound and bound geolipids extracted from Green River shale. The unbound fatty acids show a weak even/odd predominance (CPI: 1.64) with a maximum at C14, and bound fatty acids display an even/odd predominance (CPI: 2.8) with maxima at C18 and C30. These results suggest that fatty acids were incorporated into kerogen during sedimentation and early diagenesis and were protected from microbial and chemical changes over geological periods of time. Total quantities of fatty acids produced during heating of the kerogen ranged from 0.71 to 3.2 mg/g kerogen. Highest concentrations were obtained when kerogen was heated with water for 100 hr at 300 degrees C. Generally, their amounts did not decrease under hydrous conditions with increase in temperature or heating time, suggesting that significant decarboxylation did not occur under the pyrolysis conditions used, although hydrocarbons were extensively generated.

  7. Investigation on the reactivity of ?-azidochalcones with carboxylic acids: Formation of ?-amido-1,3-diketones and highly substituted 2-(trifluoromethyl)oxazoles

    PubMed Central

    Rajaguru, Kandasamy; Mariappan, Arumugam; Suresh, Rajendran; Manivannan, Periasamy

    2015-01-01

    Summary The reaction of ?-azidochalcones with carboxylic acids has been investigated resulting in the formation of ?-amido-1,3-diketones under microwave irradiation via in situ formation of 2H-azirine intermediates. An interesting reaction is described wherein, with trifluoroacetic acid at lower temperature, it affords highly substituted 2-(trifluoromethyl)oxazoles. These flexible transformations proceed under solvent free conditions in good to excellent yields without any catalyst.

  8. Scalable and chromatography-free synthesis of 2-(2-formylalkyl)arenecarboxylic acid derivatives through the supramolecularly controlled hydroformylation of vinylarene-2-carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Dydio, Pawe?; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-05-01

    This protocol describes how to prepare 2-(2-formylalkyl)-arenecarboxylic acid derivatives, common building blocks for the synthesis of various valuable chemicals (e.g., anti-obesity and Alzheimer's disease treatment pharmaceuticals), by using the fully regioselective hydroformylation of vinyl arene derivatives. This catalytic reaction proceeds cleanly with 100% regioselectivity and chemoselectivity. The procedure is reliably scalable and can be efficiently conducted on a multigram scale. The analytically pure product is easily isolated with a nearly quantitative yield by using a simple acid-base extraction workup and avoids any tedious chromatography. This protocol details the synthesis of a bisphosphite ligand (L1) that is a pivotal element of the catalytic system used, Rh(acac)(CO)2 with ligand L1, starting from commercial building blocks. The protocol also describes a general procedure for the preparative hydroformylation of vinylarene-2-carboxylic acid derivatives to 2-formylalkylarene products, providing a representative example for the hydroformylation of 2-vinylbenzoic acid (1a) to 2-(3-oxopropane)-benzoic acid (2a). The synthesis of L1 (six chemical reactions) uses 2-nitrophenylhydrazine, 4-benzyloxybenzoylchloride and (S)-binol, and takes 5-7 working days. The actual hydroformylation reaction of each vinyl arene derivative takes ?4 h of active effort over a period of 1-3 d. PMID:24762785

  9. Calculated Third Order Rate Constants for Interpreting the Mechanisms of Hydrolyses of Chloroformates, Carboxylic Acid Halides, Sulfonyl Chlorides and Phosphorochloridates

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, T. William

    2015-01-01

    Hydrolyses of acid derivatives (e.g., carboxylic acid chlorides and fluorides, fluoro- and chloroformates, sulfonyl chlorides, phosphorochloridates, anhydrides) exhibit pseudo-first order kinetics. Reaction mechanisms vary from those involving a cationic intermediate (SN1) to concerted SN2 processes, and further to third order reactions, in which one solvent molecule acts as the attacking nucleophile and a second molecule acts as a general base catalyst. A unified framework is discussed, in which there are two reaction channels—an SN1-SN2 spectrum and an SN2-SN3 spectrum. Third order rate constants (k3) are calculated for solvolytic reactions in a wide range of compositions of acetone-water mixtures, and are shown to be either approximately constant or correlated with the Grunwald-Winstein Y parameter. These data and kinetic solvent isotope effects, provide the experimental evidence for the SN2-SN3 spectrum (e.g., for chloro- and fluoroformates, chloroacetyl chloride, p-nitrobenzoyl p-toluenesulfonate, sulfonyl chlorides). Deviations from linearity lead to U- or V-shaped plots, which assist in the identification of the point at which the reaction channel changes from SN2-SN3 to SN1-SN2 (e.g., for benzoyl chloride). PMID:26006228

  10. Multi-technique Characterization of Self-assembled Carboxylic Acid Terminated Alkanethiol Monolayers on Nanoparticle and Flat Gold Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Techane, Sirnegeda D.; Gamble, Lara J.; Castner, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 14, 25 and 40nm diameters were functionalized with different chain length (C6, C8, C11 and C16) carboxylic acid terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (COOH-SAMs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to examine the changes in surface chemistry as both AuNP diameter and SAM chain length were varied. COOH-SAMs on flat gold surfaces were also examined and compared to the COOH-SAM on AuNP results. For a given surface, as the COOH-SAM chain length increased the XPS C/Au atomic ratio increased due to an increased number of carbon atoms per molecule in the overlayer and an increased attenuation of the Au substrate signal. For the C16 COOH-SAMs, as the size of AuNPs decreased the XPS C/Au atomic ratio and the apparent SAM thickness increased due to the increased curvature of the smaller AuNPs. The C16 COOH-SAMs on the flat Au had the lowest XPS C/Au atomic ratio and apparent SAM thickness of any C16 COOH-SAM covered Au surface. The effective take-off angles of the COOH-SAMs were also calculated by comparing the apparent thickness of COOH-SAMs with literature values. The effective take-off angle for C16 COOH-SAM on 14nm, 25nm and 40nm diameter AuNPs and flat Au were found to be 57°, 53°, 51° and 39°, respectively, for data acquired in a mode that collects a wide range of photoelectron take-off angles. The effective take-off angle for C16 COOH-SAM on 14nm AuNP and flat Au decreased to 52° and 0°, respectively, for data acquired in a mode that collects a narrow range of photoelectron take-off angles. The ToF-SIMS results showed similar changes in surface chemistry with COOH-SAM chain length and AuNP size. For example, the ratio of the sum of the C1–4HxOy positive ion intensities to the sum of the Au-containing positive ions intensities increased with decreasing AuNP size and increasing COOH-SAM chain length. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode (FTIR-ATR) was used to characterize the crystallinity of the COOH-SAMs. The CH2 stretching frequencies decreased with increasing COOH-SAM chain length on flat Au. The C16 COOH-SAM on the 14nm AuNPs exhibited a crystalline-like CH2 stretching frequency. The size, size distribution, shapes and solution stability of AuNPs were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV/VIS spectroscopy. As the average diameter of the AuNPs decreased the size distribution became narrower and the shape became more spherical. PMID:21603069

  11. Studies on some iridium(III) complexes with Schiff bases derived from amino carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Pandey, O P; Sengupta, S K

    1988-12-01

    The reactions of iridium(III) chloride with different Schiff bases gave complexes of types [Ir(SB)3], [Ir(SB')Cl(H2O)2], [Ir(SB'')Cl2]n, [Ir(SB'' ')Cl(H2O)]n (SBH = Schiff bases derived from anthranilic acid and benzaldehyde, acetophenone, vanillin, cinnamaldehyde or m-hydroxyacetophenone; SB'H2 = Schiff bases derived from anthranilic acid and salicylaldehyde or o-hydroxyacetophenone; SB''H = Schiff bases derived from p-aminobenzoic acid and benzaldehyde, acetophenone, vanillin, cinnamaldehyde, or m-hydroxyacetophenone; SB'' 'H2 = Schiff bases derived from p-aminobenzoic acid and salicylaldehyde or o-hydroxyacetophenone). These complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, conductance, magnetic moment, and spectral (electronic, i.r., and 1H n.m.r.) data. The electronic spectra reveals octahedral geometry for these complexes except for [Ir(SB'')Cl2]n, which is trigonal bipyramidal. The thermal behavior of these complexes has also been studied by TG, DTG, and DSC techniques. The different kinetic parameters, viz., order of reaction, activation of energy, and heat of reaction were calculated. The antifungal and antiviral activities of the complexes with Schiff bases derived from anthranilic acid have also been investigated. PMID:3267018

  12. Enantioselective Recognition of Chiral Carboxylic Acids by a ?-Amino Acid and 1,10-Phenanthroline Based Chiral Fluorescent Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghong; Hu, Fangzhi; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Chenjiang

    2015-01-01

    A novel chiral 1,10-phenanthroline-based fluorescent sensor was designed and synthesized from optical active ?-amino acids. It used 1,10-phenanthroline moiety as a fluorescent signaling site and binding site, with optically active ?-amino acids as a chiral barrier site. Notably, the optically active ?-amino acids were obtained by a Lewis base catalyzed hydrosilylation of ?-enamino esters according to our former work. The chiral sensor has been used to conduct the enantioselective recognition of chiral mono and dicarboxylic acids derivatives. Using this fluorescent sensor, a moderate “turn-off” fluorescence-diminishment response towards enantiomer of tartaric acids, and proline was observed. It found that l-enantiomers quench the chiral fluorescence sensor more efficiently than d-enantiomers due to the absolute configuration of the ?-amino acid. PMID:25954953

  13. Assignment of functional domains involved in ADP-ribosylation and B-oligomer binding within the carboxyl terminus of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, K M; Barbieri, J T

    1994-01-01

    The roles of the carboxyl terminus of the S1 subunit (composed of 235 amino acids) of pertussis toxin in the ADP-ribosylation of transducin (Gt) and in B-oligomer binding were defined by analysis of two carboxyl-terminal deletion mutants of the recombinant S1 (rS1) subunit: C204, which is composed of amino acids 1 through 204 of S1, and C219, which is composed of amino acids 1 through 219 of S1. C204 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a stable, soluble peptide that had an apparent molecular mass of 23.4 kDa. In a linear velocity assay, the specific activity of C180 was 2% and that of C204 was 80% of the activity displayed by rS1 in catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of Gt. In addition, C204 possessed catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) that were 110% at variable Gt concentrations and 40% at variable NAD concentrations of those reported for rS1. These data showed that the catalytic activity of C204 approached the activity of S1. C204 and C219 were unable to associate with the B oligomer under conditions which promoted association of rS1 with the B oligomer. Consistent with these results, mixtures of C204 or C219 with the B oligomer did not elicit a clustering phenotype in CHO cells, whereas rS1 which had associated with the B oligomer was as cytotoxic as native pertussis toxin. These data indicate that residues between 219 and 235 are important in the association of the S1 subunit with the B oligomer. These data allow the assignment of functional regions to the carboxyl terminus of S1. Residues 195 to 204 are required for optimal ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, residues 205 to 219 link the catalytic region of S1 and a B-oligomer-binding region of S1, and residues 220 to 235 are required for association of S1 with the B oligomer. Images PMID:8168972

  14. Carboxylic acids, sulfates, and organosulfates in processed continental organic aerosol over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    E-print Network

    concentrations, consistent with a sulfuric acid epoxide hydrolysis for proposed surrogate compounds (e. This correlation suggests that in highsulfate, lowammonium conditions, the formation of organosulfate compounds particles in the marine boundary layer (MBL) are often mixtures of local primary (e.g., sea salt and organic

  15. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  16. Streptomyces kebangsaanensis sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from an ethnomedicinal plant, which produces phenazine-1-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Sarmin, Nurul' Izzah Mohd; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Franco, Christopher M M; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Latip, Jalifah; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    A spore-forming streptomycete designated strain SUK12(T) was isolated from a Malaysian ethnomedicinal plant. Its taxonomic position, established using a polyphasic approach, indicates that it is a novel species of the genus Streptomyces. Morphological and chemical characteristics of the strain were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SUK12(T) in the genus Streptomyces where it formed a distinct phyletic line with recognized species of this genus. The strain exhibited highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces corchorusii DSM 40340(T) (98.2?%) followed by Streptomyces chrestomyceticus NRRL B-3310(T) (98.1?%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 74 mol%. Chemotaxonomic data [MK-9(H8) as the major menaquinone; LL-diaminopimelic acid as a component of cell-wall peptidoglycan; C12?:?0, C14?:?0, C15?:?0 and C17?:?1 as the major fatty acids; phospholipid type II] supported the affiliation of strain SUK12(T) to the genus Streptomyces. The results of the phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic data derived from this and previous studies allowed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain SUK12(T) from the related species of the genus Streptomyces. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain SUK12(T) and S. corchorusii DSM 40340(T) is 18.85±4.55?%. Strain SUK12(T) produces phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, known as tubermycin B, an antibacterial agent. It is proposed, therefore, that strain SUK12(T) (?=?DSM 42048(T)?=?NRRL B-24860(T)) be classified in the genus Streptomyces as the type strain of Streptomyces kebangsaanensis sp. nov. PMID:23645019

  17. Evaluation of modeled cloud chemistry mechanism against laboratory irradiation experiments: The HxOy/iron/carboxylic acid chemical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yoann; Charbouillot, Tiffany; Brigante, Marcello; Mailhot, Gilles; Delort, Anne-Marie; Chaumerliac, Nadine; Deguillaume, Laurent

    2013-10-01

    Currently, cloud chemistry models are including more detailed and explicit multiphase mechanisms based on laboratory experiments that determine such values as kinetic constants, stability constants of complexes and hydration constants. However, these models are still subject to many uncertainties related to the aqueous chemical mechanism they used. Particularly, the role of oxidants such as iron and hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative capacity of the cloud aqueous phase has typically never been validated against laboratory experimental data. To fill this gap, we adapted the M2C2 model (Model of Multiphase Cloud Chemistry) to simulate irradiation experiments on synthetic aqueous solutions under controlled conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, light intensity) and for actual cloud water samples. Various chemical compounds that purportedly contribute to the oxidative budget in cloud water (i.e., iron, oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide: H2O2) were considered. Organic compounds (oxalic, formic and acetic acids) were taken into account as target species because they have the potential to form iron complexes and are good indicators of the oxidative capacity of the cloud aqueous phase via their oxidation in this medium. The range of concentrations for all of the chemical compounds evaluated was representative of in situ measurements. Numerical outputs were compared with experimental data that consisted of a time evolution of the concentrations of the target species. The chemical mechanism in the model describing the “oxidative engine” of the HxOy/iron (HxOy = H2O2, HO2rad /O2rad - and HOrad ) chemical system was consistent with laboratory measurements. Thus, the degradation of the carboxylic acids evaluated was closely reproduced by the model. However, photolysis of the Fe(C2O4)+ complex needs to be considered in cloud chemistry models for polluted conditions (i.e., acidic pH) to correctly reproduce oxalic acid degradation. We also show that iron and formic acid lead to a stable complex whose photoreactivity has currently not been investigated. The updated aqueous chemical mechanism was compared with data from irradiation experiments using natural cloud water. The new reactions considered in the model (i.e., iron complex formation with oxalic and formic acids) correctly reproduced the experimental observations.

  18. Complex formation of vanadium(V) with resorcylalhydrazides of carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Dudarev, V.I.; Dolgorev, V.A.; Volkov, A.N.

    1986-08-01

    In this work, a previous investigation of hydrazine derivatives as analytical reagents for vanadium(V) was continued. The authors studied arylalhydrazones -- derivatives of resorcylalhydrazides of anisic (RHASA), anthranilic (RHANA), and benzoic (RHBA) acids. The reagents presented differ from those studied previously by the presence of a second hydroxy group in the para-position of the benzene ring -the resorcinol fragment -- and substituents in the benzoin fragment. Such changes made it possible to increase the solubility of the reagents in aqueous medium and to estimate the change in the main spectrophotometric parameters of the analytical reaction. A rapid method was developed for the determination of vanadium in steels with the resorcylalhydrazide of anthranilic acid. The minimum determinable vanadium content is 0.18 micrograms/ml.

  19. Cleavage of the phenacyl esters of carboxylic and thiocarboxylic acids by metal alkoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, A.A.

    1988-11-20

    During the cleavage of phenacyl esters with general formula XC/sub 6/H/sub 4/COCH/sub 2/OCOR by metal alkoxides in alcohols and in ether-alcohol solutions the acids, esters, and ethers are formed as a result of cleavage of the C-C bond. The solvent participates in the formation of the ether and gives rise to transesterification of RCOOCH/sub 3/ with catalytic participation of the metal alkoxide. The reactivity of the phenacyl esters of the thio acids is much higher. Before dissociation the esters of substituted benzoins C/sub 6/H/sub 5/COCH(OCOCH/sub 3/) /times/ C/sub 6/H/sub 4/X-4 undergo irreversible rearrangement with the formation of isomeric products.

  20. Conformation of the umifenovir cation in the molecular and crystal structures of four carboxylic acid salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orola, Liana; Sarcevica, Inese; Kons, Artis; Actins, Andris; Veidis, Mikelis V.

    2014-01-01

    The umifenovir salts of maleic, salicylic, glutaric, and gentisic acid as well as the chloroform solvate of the salicylate were prepared. Single crystals of the five compounds were obtained and their molecular and crystal structures determined by X-ray diffraction. In each structure the conformation of phenyl ring with respect to the indole group of the umifenovir moiety is different. The water solubility and melting points of the studied umifenovir salts have been determined.

  1. Polar organic marker compounds in atmospheric aerosol in the Po Valley during the Supersito campaigns - Part 1: Low molecular weight carboxylic acids in cold seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Visentin, Marco; Ferrari, Silvia; Poluzzi, Vanes

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the “Supersito” project, three intensive experimental campaigns were conducted in the Po Valley (Northern Italy) in cold seasons, such as late autumn, pre-winter and deep-winter, over three years from 2011 to 2013. As a part of a study on polar marker compounds, including carboxylic acids, sugar derivatives and lignin phenols, the present study reports a detailed discussion on the atmospheric concentrations of 14 low molecular weight carboxylic acids, mainly dicarboxylic and oxo-hydroxy carboxylic acids, as relevant markers of primary and secondary organic aerosols. PM2.5 samples were collected in two monitoring sites, representing urban and rural background stations. The total quantities of carboxylic acids were 262, 167 and 249 ng m-3 at the urban site and 308, 115, 248 ng m-3 at the rural site in pre-winter, fall and deep-winter, respectively. These high concentrations can be explained by the large human emission sources in the urbanized region, combined with the stagnant atmospheric conditions during the cold seasons that accumulate the organic precursors and accelerate the secondary atmospheric reactions. The distribution profiles of the investigated markers suggest the dominant contributions of primary anthropogenic sources, such as traffic, domestic heating and biomass burning. These results are confirmed by comparison with additional emission tracers, such as anhydro-saccharides for biomass burning and fatty acids originated from different anthropogenic sources. In addition, some secondary constituents were detected in both sites, as produced by in situ photo-chemical reactions from both biogenic (e.g. pinonic acid) and anthropogenic precursors (e.g. phthalic and adipic acids). The impact of different sources from human activities was elucidated by investigating the week pattern of carboxylic and fatty acid concentrations. The weekly trends of analytes during the warmer campaign (fall 2012; mean temperature: 12 °C) may be related to emissions from motor vehicle traffic and industrial activities. Otherwise, the random pattern of the markers suggests the prevalent contribution of primary emissions from residential heating in the colder deep-winter (mean temperature: 5 °C).

  2. Five 3D supramolecular frameworks assembled from classical directional hydrogen-bonds and Csbnd H⋯O associations between carboxylic acids and bis-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Guo, Ming; Wang, Daqi; Wei, Shuaishuai; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Yingping; Cao, Xinchao; Yu, Zeyun

    2012-08-01

    Five crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from bis(N-imidazolyl) and carboxylic acid (p-nitrobenzoic acid, m-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, sebacic acid, and fumaric acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the five compounds three are organic salts (1, 3, and 5) and the other two (2, and 4) are cocrystals. In salts 1, and 5, the L1 are diprotonated, while in 3 the L1 is only monoprotonated. All supramolecular architectures of the adducts 1-5 involve extensive intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O, and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. All the complexes displayed 3D framework structure for the synergistic effect of the various noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the N+sbnd H⋯O-, Osbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and ditopic imidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary cocrystals or organic salts.

  3. Different geometrical arrangements in carboxylate coordination polymers of flexible dicarboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Deka, Himangshu; Sarma, Rupam; Kumari, Satchi; Khare, Alika; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-07-15

    Dicarboxylate coordination polymers (1-5) of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II), respectively, derived from (7-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-2-yloxy)-acetic acid (L{sub 1}H{sub 2}) are synthesized and characterized. Depending on the coordination sites around the metal centers and coordination mode of the ligand, dimensionality of these polymers varies. The dicarboxylates adopt three spatial orientations: in-plane linear coordination, out-of-plane cis coordination and out-of-plane trans coordination mode. Both the cis and trans out-of-plane coordination modes are found to exist only if the ancillary ligand pyridine is coordinated to the metal ion. When the aquoligand coordinates the in-plane linear coordination mode of L{sub 1} predominates. The coordination polymers 4 and 5 show photoluminescence in solution. The dicarboxylate of (5-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-1-yloxy)-acetic acid (L{sub 2}H{sub 2}) does not form coordination polymer under ambient conditions, but prefers to remain as uncoordinated anion providing hydrophobic confinement to hexa-aquometal(II) cation. Compound 3 crystallizes in P2{sub 1} space group and it shows broadband ultra-violet fluorescence centered at 352.9 nm on focusing 632.8 nm He:Ne laser. - Graphical abstract: Different geometrical arrangements in coordination polymers derived from (7-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-2-yloxy)-acetic acid of metal ions Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) are presented. The (5-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-1-yloxy)-acetic acid led to hexa-aquo cadmium(II) dicarboxylate. Highlights: > Structural and spectroscopic characterizations of five dicarboxylate coordination polymers of (7-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-2-yloxy)-acetic acid with different metal ions are presented. > Different geometrical arrangements of coordination polymers stabilized in solid state are described. > Photoluminescence properties of the polymers are shown. > NLO property of a copper coordination polymer is described.

  4. Interaction between carboxyl-functionalized carbon black nanoparticles and porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Song-Bae; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Yi, In-Geol

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, fullerene, and graphene, have received considerable attention due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics, leading to mass production and widespread application in industrial, commercial, and environmental fields. During their life cycle from production to disposal, however, carbon nanomaterials are inevitably released into water and soil environments, which have resulted in concern about their health and environmental impacts. Carbon black is a nano-sized amorphous carbon powder that typically contains 90-99% elemental carbon. It can be produced from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons in petroleum and coal. Carbon black is widely used in chemical and industrial products or applications such as ink pigments, coating plastics, the rubber industry, and composite reinforcements. Even though carbon black is strongly hydrophobic and tends to aggregate in water, it can be dispersed in aqueous media through surface functionalization or surfactant use. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the transport behavior of carboxyl-functionalized carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) in porous media. Column experiments were performed for potassium chloride (KCl), a conservative tracer, and CBNPs under saturated flow conditions. Column experiments was conducted in duplicate using quartz sand, iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS), and aluminum oxide-coated sand (AOCS) to examine the effect of metal (Fe, Al) oxide presence on the transport of CBNPs. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of CBNPs and chloride were obtained by monitoring effluent, and then mass recovery was quantified from these curves. Additionally, interaction energy profiles for CBNP-porous media were calculated using DLVO theory for sphere-plate geometry. The BTCs of chloride had relative peak concentrations ranging from 0.895 to 0.990. Transport parameters (pore-water velocity v, hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient D) obtained by the model fit from the tracer BTCs were 0.274±0.007 cm min-1 and 0.102±0.025 cm2 min-1, respectively. Mass recoveries of chloride were in the range of 94.7 to 101.9%, indicating that chloride behaved as a conservative tracer and that the column experiments were successful. The BTCs of CBNPs had different relative peak concentrations depending on the porous media used in the experiments. In quartz sand, the relative peak concentration was 0.768±0.005. The mass recovery of CBNPs in quartz sand was 83.1±2.7%, whereas no breakthrough of CBNPs (mass recovery = 0 %) was observed in IOCS or AOCS at the same flow rate, indicating that all CBNPs were retained in the IOCS and AOCS columns under the experimental conditions. These results indicate that metal (Fe, Al) oxides can play a significant role in the attachment of CBNPs to porous media. For the given solution conditions, both CBNPs and quartz sand were negatively charged with zeta potentials of -31.8±0.1 and -39.0±0.6 mV, respectively. Therefore, the electrostatic interactions between CBNPs and quartz sand were repulsive. Meanwhile, both IOCS and ACOS were positively charged with zeta potentials of 10.1±1.3 and 39.9±1.9 mV, respectively, such that the interaction between CBNPs and metal oxide-coated sands was electrostatically attractive, resulting in enhancement of CBNP attachment to the coated sands. Interaction energy profiles for CBNP-porous media were calculated using DLVO theory for sphere-plate geometry. Interaction energy profiles demonstrated that the interaction energy for CBNP-quartz sand was repulsive with a primary maximum (energy barrier) of 63.2 KBT, whereas the interaction energies for CBNP-IOCS and CBNP-AOCS were attractive with no energy barriers. Acknowledgement This research was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea Ministry of Environment, in 2014.

  5. 4,4'-Bipyridine-butane-1,2,3,4-tetra-carboxylic acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Najafpour, M Mahdi; Ho?y?ska, Ma?gorzata; Lis, Tadeusz

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C(10)H(8)N(2)·C(8)H(10)O(8), is an example of a system with a short O?H?N hydrogen bond [O?N = 2.565?(3)?Å]. The crystal structure comprises a 1:1 adduct between 4,4'-bipyridine and butane-1,2,3,4-tetra-carboxylic acid, where both components are centrosymmetric. The component mol-ecules are linked through strong O?H?N hydrogen bonds, forming chains extending approximately along [11]. The chains are inter-connected by O?H?O hydrogen bonds and weak stacking inter-actions involving the pyridyl rings of the 4,4'-bipyridine mol-ecules [centroid-centroid distance = 3.73?(2)?Å and inter-planar distance = 3.35?(1)?Å]. The H atom of the short O?H?N hydrogen bond is disordered over two positions with site occupancy factors of ca 0.6 and 0.4. One methylene group is disordered over two positions; the site occupancy factors are ca 0.9 and 0.1. PMID:21202711

  6. 4,4?-Bipyridine–butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxylic acid (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Najafpour, M. Mahdi; Ho?y?ska, Ma?gorzata; Lis, Tadeusz

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C10H8N2·C8H10O8, is an example of a system with a short O?H?N hydrogen bond [O?N = 2.565?(3)?Å]. The crystal structure comprises a 1:1 adduct between 4,4?-bipyridine and butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxylic acid, where both components are centrosymmetric. The component mol­ecules are linked through strong O?H?N hydrogen bonds, forming chains extending approximately along [11]. The chains are inter­connected by O?H?O hydrogen bonds and weak stacking inter­actions involving the pyridyl rings of the 4,4?-bipyridine mol­ecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.73?(2)?Å and inter­planar distance = 3.35?(1)?Å]. The H atom of the short O?H?N hydrogen bond is disordered over two positions with site occupancy factors of ca 0.6 and 0.4. One methylene group is disordered over two positions; the site occupancy factors are ca 0.9 and 0.1. PMID:21202711

  7. Assessment of exposure to carbon disulfide in viscose production workers from urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaeki, V.K.; Kivistoe, H.P.; Peltonen, K.; Helpioe, E.A.; Aitio, A. )

    1992-01-01

    The follow-up of environmental carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure and urinary excretion of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) among 20 operatives over a 4-day working week in two viscose producing factories confirmed earlier observations that TTCA is a sensitive and reliable indicator of exposure to CS2. Exposure to as low as 0.5-1.0 ppm (1.6-3.2 mg/m3) of CS2 (8-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) was associated with detectable amounts of TTCA in end-of-shift urine. Moreover, the excretion of TTCA, relative to estimated CS2 uptake, appeared surprisingly constant in the studied work force. Approximately 3% (range 2-6.5%) of absorbed CS2 was detected in urine as TTCA. The proportional TTCA excretion did not show dose dependency in the estimated CS2 dose range which varied by about 20-fold. TTCA elimination exhibited both a fast (T 1/2 6 hour) and a slow (T 1/2 68 hour) phase. The slow elimination is compatible with a high lipid solubility and reversible protein binding of CS2. Consequently, urinary excretion of TTCA, relative to CS2 exposure, increased by about a third during the workweek. Urinary TTCA concentration of 4.5 mmol/mol creatinine in a postshift sample corresponded to a TWA exposure to 10 ppm CS2 towards the end of the working week.

  8. Molecular structures and ab initio molecular orbital calculations of the optically active derivatives of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Džoli?, Zoran; Cetina, Mario; Kova?ek, Damir; Hergold-Brundi?, Antonija; Mrvoš-Sermek, Draginja; Nagl, Ante; Slade, Neda; Paveli?, Krešimir; Balzarini, Jan; De Clercq, Erik; Zerbe, Oliver; Folkers, Gerd; Scapozza, Leonardo; Mintas, Mladen

    2003-07-01

    The novel optically active derivatives of 2,2'-disubstituted-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (-)- 2 and (+)- 3 were synthesised from the spiro-azlactone (+)- 1. Oxidation of the diol moiety of (+)- 3 gave by ring enlargement the racemic mixture of 2,3-dihydrofuran derivative (±)- 6. This conversion is explained by stepwise rearrangement of the initially formed tetrasubstituted cyclopropanecarbaldehyde 4 through zwitterionic's reactive intermediate 5. The formation of (±)- 6 is preferred energetically as established by ab initio calculations of the ground states and possible intermediates for that rearrangement. The crystal structure and absolute configuration of the compounds (+)- 1, (-)- 2, (+)- 3 and (-)- 7 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. All four compounds possess Z-configuration of the cyclopropane ring. The dioxolane ring in the structures (+)- 1 and (-)- 2 adopts half-chair conformation, while the cyclopropane ring and geminally substituted groups in the structures (-)- 2, (+)- 3 and (-)- 7 possess the anticlinal conformation. The molecules of the compound (+)- 1 are connected by very weak intermolecular hydrogen bond of C-H⋯O type. In the compounds (-)- 2, (+)- 3 and (-)- 7inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds of N-H⋯O type were observed. The spiro-compound (+)- 1 exhibited a more pronounced inhibitory activity against the proliferation of murine leukemia and human T-lymphocytes cells than other type of tumor cell lines and normal human fibroblast cells.

  9. The Cytotoxicity of Benzaldehyde Nitrogen Mustard-2-Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone Being Involved in Topoisomerase II? Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Liu, Youxun; Yang, Yingli; Sun, Xingzhi; Li, Changzheng

    2014-01-01

    The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH) as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5??M , HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3??M, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0??M, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2??M) were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe2+ caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe2+ of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1) and alkylating agents (G2). BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase II?. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation. PMID:24995306

  10. Structure of the PLP Degradative Enzyme 2-Methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic Acid Oxygenase from Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and Its Mechanistic Implications

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, Kathryn M.; Mukherjee, Tathagata; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.; Cornell

    2009-06-12

    A vitamin B{sub 6} degradative pathway has recently been identified and characterized in Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099. One of the enzymes on this pathway, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase (MHPCO), is a flavin-dependent enzyme and catalyzes the oxidative ring-opening of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid to form E-2-(acetamino-methylene)succinate. The gene for this enzyme has been cloned, and the corresponding protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The crystal structure of MHPCO has been solved to 2.1 {angstrom} using SAD phasing with and without the substrate MHPC bound. These crystal structures provide insight into the reaction mechanism and suggest roles for active site residues in the catalysis of a novel oxidative ring-opening reaction.

  11. 2,3-Dihydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-isoindole-5-carboxylic acid derivatives: a novel class of small molecule heparanase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Stephen M; Hay, Philip A; Buck, Richard T; Colville, Claire S; Porter, David W; Scopes, David I C; Pollard, Faye C; Page, Martin J; Bennett, James M; Hircock, Margaret L; McKenzie, Edward A; Stubberfield, Colin R; Turner, Paul R

    2004-06-21

    A novel class of 2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-isoindole-5-carboxylic acids are described as inhibitors of the endo-beta-glucuronidase heparanase. Several of the compounds, for example, 2-[4-propylamino-5-[5-(4-chloro)phenyl-benzoxazol-2-yl]phenyl]-2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-isoindole-5-carboxylic acid (9c), display potent heparanase inhibitory activity (IC(50) 200-500 nM) and have high selectivity (>100-fold) over human beta-glucuronidase. They also show anti-angiogenic effects. Such compounds should serve as useful biological tools and may provide a basis for the design of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:15149688

  12. ACCUMULATION OF THE ANTIBIOTIC PHENAZINE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF DRYLAND WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural antibiotics are thought to function in microbial defense, fitness, competitiveness, biocontrol, communication and gene regulation activity, and antibiotic-producing species are commonly found in microbial communities throughout nature. However, the frequency and amount of antibiotic producti...

  13. Accumulation of the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in the rhizosphere of dryland cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural antibiotics are thought to function in microbial defense, fitness, competitiveness, biocontrol, communication and gene regulation. However, the frequency and amount of antibiotics produced in nature are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the geographic distribution of indigenous p...

  14. Accumulation of the Antibiotic Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid in the Rhizosphere of Dryland Cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural antibiotics are thought to function in the defense, fitness, competitiveness, biocontrol activity, communication and gene regulation of microorganisms. However, the scale and quantitative aspects of antibiotic production in natural settings are poorly understood. We addressed these fundament...

  15. Intramolecular sulfur transfer in N-enoyl oxazolidine-2-thiones promoted by Brønsted acids. Practical asymmetric synthesis of beta-mercapto carboxylic acids and mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Claudio; Oiarbide, Mikel; López, Rosa; González, Pedro B; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Saá, José M; Linden, Anthony

    2006-11-29

    The ability of Brønsted acids alone to efficiently promote the sulfur transfer process in N-enoyl oxazolidine-2-thiones to give beta-mercapto carbonyl derivatives is demonstrated. The reactions proceed with essentially perfect diastereocontrol for a range of alkyl-substituted N-enoyl oxazolidine-2-thiones (d.r. regularly above 98:2) and high selectivity for most aryl-substituted counterparts (d.r. typically above 92:8). Importantly, the reaction works remarkably well in beta,beta-disubstituted N-enoyl oxazolidine-2-thiones as well, giving rise to quaternary C-S stereocenters in selectivities usually above 95:5. The relative efficiency of a range of acids (trifluoroacetic, difluoroacetic, acetic, triflic) is assessed showing TFA and TfOH as the most efficient and acetic acid as a totally inefficient reaction promoter. The new procedure complements the Lewis acid promoted reaction previously described by our group in two aspects: First, stereodivergent results are obtained for the Lewis acid or Brønsted acid promoted reactions of beta,beta-disubstituted enoyl compounds. Second, while the Brønsted acid promoted reactions are stereospecific, providing a good correlation between the substrate E/Z configuration and products stereochemistry, the reactions mediated by Lewis acids (BF3/OEt2) provide invariant d.r. values regardless of the E/Z composition of the starting olefin. The synthetic value of the method is illustrated by (a) removal of the oxazolidinone moiety from the rearranged products under reducing conditions (NaBH4, H2O-THF) which yields beta-mercapto alcohols and (b) treatment with Sm(OTf)3 in MeOH which affords the corresponding beta-mercapto carboxylic esters, both categories of compounds being isolated in up to 97% ee. Remarkably, the method constitutes the first general approach to highly enantioenriched building blocks bearing a quaternary C-S stereocenter. On the other hand, spectroscopic and inhibition experiments are carried out that demonstrate the participation of protons also in the Lewis acid promoted reactions. Finally, the computational studies carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level give support for an activation of the substrate enoyl by complexation with two molecules of either the Brønsted or Lewis acid and serve to explain the stereochemical outcome of the reactions. PMID:17117876

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and in vitro antimicrobial, anticancer and antileishmanial activities as well interaction with Salmon sperm DNA of newly synthesized carboxylic acid derivative, 4-(4-methoxy-2-nitrophenylamino)-4-oxobutanoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; McKee, Vickie; Ullah, Hameed

    2015-03-01

    This paper stresses on the synthesis, characterization of novel carboxylic acid derivative and its application in pharmaceutics. Carboxylic acid derivatives have a growing importance in medicine, particularly in oncology. A novel carboxylic acid, 4-(4-methoxy-2-nitrophenylamino)-4-oxobutanoic acid, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR (1H, and 13C), mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray structural analysis. The structure of the title compound, C11H12N2O6, shows the molecules dimerised by short intramolecular Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The compound was screened for in vitro antimicrobial, anticancer, and antileishmanial activities as well as interaction with SS-DNA. The compound was also checked for in vitro anticancer activity against BHK-21, H-157 and HCEC cell lines, and showed significant anticancer activity. The compound was almost non-toxic towards human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) and did not show more than 7.4% antiproliferative activity when used at the 2.0 ?g/mL end concentration. It was also tested for antileishmanial activity against the promastigote form of leishmania major and obtained attractive result. DNA interaction study exposes that the binding mode of the compound with SS-DNA is an intercalative as it results in hypochromism along with minor red shift. A new and efficient strategy to identify pharmacophores sites in carboxylic acid derivative for antibacterial/antifungal activity using Petra, Osiris and Molinspiration (POM) analyses was also carried out.

  17. Endogenous Levels and Transport of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid in Stamens of Ipomoea nil (Convolvulaceae) 1

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Helen Guiragossian; Koning, Ross E.

    1989-01-01

    Filament and corolla growth in flowers of Ipomoea nil are inhibited by ethylene production. Anthers inhibited filament growth in vitro during younger stages of development even in the presence of the growth promoter gibberellic acid (GA3). To test whether the anthers could be sources of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) endogenous levels of ACC and ethylene production were monitored using gas chromatography. To also test whether the filaments could be transport vectors for ACC the movement of [14C]ACC was assessed by scintillation counting from donor agarose blocks, through filament sections, and into receiver agarose blocks. While ACC levels fluctuated in anthers 87 to 21 h before anthesis, anthers contained increased levels of ACC from 15 to 6 hours before anthesis. Ethylene production also fluctuated but peak levels were shifted about 6 hours closer to anthesis than ACC levels within the anthers. Both ACC and ethylene levels in filaments showed fluctuations similar to those in the anthers. [14C]ACC movement became increasingly basipetal during development. Older stages showed greater polar [14C]ACC efflux rates, while all stages showed constant polar influx rates. Low levels of endogenous ACC were transported basipetally from the anther through the filament into agarose blocks at all stages of development. Corresponding levels of endogenous ethylene production remained constant between the various stages during ACC transport. We have evidence that stamens of I. nil have a role as source tissues and transport vectors for ACC, to stimulate corolla growth, such as corolla unfolding and senescence. Images Figure 1 PMID:16666727

  18. Thermal pretreatment of olive mill wastewater for efficient methane production: control of aromatic substances degradation by monitoring cyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is investigated as a sustainable depurative strategy of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW). The effect of thermal pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds present in (OMWW) was investigated. The anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds, well known to be the main concern related to this kind of effluents, was monitored in batch anaerobic tests at a laboratory scale on samples pretreated at mild (80±1?°C), intermediate (90±1?°C) and high temperature (120±1?°C). The obtained results showed an increase of 34% in specific methane production (SMP) for OMWW treated at the lowest temperature and a decrease of 18% for treatment at the highest temperature. These results were related to the different decomposition pathways of the lignocellulosic compounds obtained in the tested conditions. The decomposition pathway was determined by measuring the concentrations of volatile organic acids, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) versus time. Cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) production was identified in all the tests with a maximum concentration of around 200?µmol?L(-1) in accordance with the phenols degradation, suggesting that anaerobic digestion of aromatic compounds follows the benzoyl-CoA pathway. Accurate monitoring of this compound was proposed as the key element to control the process evolution. The total phenols (TP) and total COD removals were, with SMP, the highest (TP 62.7%-COD 63.2%) at 80?°C and lowest (TP 44.9%-COD 32.2%) at 120?°C. In all cases, thermal pretreatment was able to enhance the TP removal ability (up to 42% increase). PMID:25624137

  19. Oxidation with the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-VO{sub 3}{sup -} - pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid reagent 2. Oxidation of alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Shul`pin, G.B.; Druzhinina, A.N.; Nizova, G.V.

    1994-02-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of catalytic amounts of VO{sub 3}{sup -} and pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid into phenols (provided excess hydrocarbon is used) or into quinones (at high H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations). 2-Propanol, ethanol, cyclohexanol, and benzyl alcohol are transformed into the corresponding aldehydes and ketones under the same conditions (without a solvent or in MeCN).

  20. Convenient synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated ?-butyrolactones and ?-butyrolactams via decarboxylative iodination of paraconic acids and ?-carboxyl-?-butyrolactams using 1,3-diiodo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin.

    PubMed

    Phae-Nok, Supasorn; Kuhakarn, Chutima; Pohmakotr, Manat; Reutrakul, Vichai; Soorukram, Darunee

    2015-12-01

    A convenient synthetic approach to ?,?-unsaturated ?-butyrolactones and ?,?-unsaturated ?-butyrolactams is developed. The reaction proceeds via decarboxylative iodination of paraconic acids and ?-carboxyl-?-butyrolactams, employing 1,3-diiodo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DIH) under irradiation, followed by dehydroiodination of ?-iodo-?-butyrolactones and ?-butyrolactams providing good yields of ?,?-unsaturated ?-butyrolactones and ?-butyrolactams, which are synthetically useful building blocks in organic synthesis. PMID:26399636

  1. Carboxyl group participation in sulfate and sulfamate group transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Williams, A.

    1982-04-23

    The pH dependence for the hydrolysis of N-(2-carboxyphenyl)sulfamic acid exhibits a plateau region corresponding to participation of the carboxyl function. A normal deuterium oxide solvent isotope effect indicates that proton transfer from the carboxylic acid is concerted with sulfamate group transfer to water. Hydrolysis of salicylic sulfate and N-(2-carboxyphenyl)sulfamate in /sup 18/O-enriched water yields salicylic acid and anthranilic acids with no enrichment, excluding catalysis by neighboring nucleophilic attack on sulfur by the carboxylate group. Intermolecular catalysis by carboxylic acids is demonstrated in the hydrolysis of N-(1-naphthyl)sulfamic acid; the mechanism is shown to involve preequilibrium protonation of the nitrogen followed by nucleophilic attack on sulfur by the carboxylate anion. Fast decomposition of the acyl sulfate completes the hydrolysis; this mechanism is considered to be the most efficient but is excluded in the intramolecular case which is constrained by the electronic requirements of displacement at the sulfur atom (6-ENDO-tet).

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Grafted Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Poly(Carboxylic Acid)– Iron Particles via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sutrisno, Joko; Fuchs, Alan; Evrensel, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    This research relates to the preparation and characterization of surface grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(carboxylic acid)–micron-size iron particles via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The surface grafted polymers–iron particles result in multifunctional materials which can be used in biomedical applications. The functionalities consist of cell targeting, imaging, drug delivery, and immunological response. The multifunctional materials are synthesized in two steps. First, surface grafting is used to place polymer molecules on the iron particles surface. The second step, is conjugation of the bio-molecules onto the polymer backbone. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to confirm the presence of polymers on the iron particles. The thickness of the grafted polymers and glass transition temperature of the surface grafted polymers were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The covalent bond between grafted polymers and iron particles caused higher glass transition temperature as compared with non-grafted polymers. The ability to target the bio-molecule and provide fluorescent imaging was simulated by conjugation of rat immunoglobulin and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled anti-rat. The fluorescence intensity was determined using flow cytometry and conjugated IgG-FITC anti-rat on iron particles which was imaged using a fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25382869

  3. Retention indices, relative response factors, and mass spectra of trifluoroethyl and heptafluorobutyl esters of carboxylic acids determined by capillary GC/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.K.-T.; Vrana, R.P.; Green, J.B.

    1990-11-01

    The GC/MS characteristics of carboxylic acid esters prepared from fluorine-containing alcohols were compared to those of methyl esters. The GC retention of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (TFE) esters was less than, and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butyl (HFB) esters approximately equivalent to that of methyl esters. The peak shape of both TFE and HFB esters was slightly superior to that of methyl esters. Mass spectra of TFE and HFB aliphatic esters show significantly more intense molecular and key fragment ions than those of methyl esters. Also, owing to their significantly higher molecular weights, TFE or HFB ester molecular ions and most fragment ions of interest occur at significantly higher m/z values than most potential interfering ions. The GC retention indices, relative GC/MS total ion current response factors, and 70 eV electron impact mass spectra of about 70 TFE and 70 HFB carboxylic acid esters are reported. Results from analysis of a TFE/HFB esterified petroleum carboxylic acid concentrate are discussed in detail. 26 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Carboxylic acid reduction over silica supported Cu, Ni and Cu2In, Ni2In catalysts.

    PubMed

    Onyestyák, György; Harnos, Szabolcs

    2014-01-01

    Hydroconversion of caprylic acid as model compound was studied in a flow-through fixed-bed reactor at 21 bar total pressure and 240-360 °C reaction temperature over various hydrogenating active phases: pure metal (Cu, Ni) and intermetallic compound (Cu(2)In, Ni(2)In) nanoparticles. Different silicas produced by dissimilar methods and a commercial gama-alumina were compared as appropriate supports. Catalyst precursors were activated in reducing H(2) flow at 21 bar and 450 °C as routine pretreatment. Catalysts of high activity and selectivity for alcohol production can be obtained by varying the supports, the main metals and their indium modified bimetallic forms. Diversity of catalytic behavior reflects the complexity of the surface reactions. Caprylic alcohol formation was substantiated to proceed through caprylic aldehyde intermediates, however it can be also dehydrated to dicaprylic ether or octenes over alumina support. Silica supports, especially a less compact variant seem to be more inert for side reactions than alumina. Different morphology of studied silicas can highly influence the catalytic performances taking place over different metal particles. PMID:25551722

  5. Influence of carboxylic acid type on microstructure and magnetic properties of polymeric complex sol-gel driven NiFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessien, M. M.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Abd-Elkader, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Citric, oxalic and tartaric acids were used for synthesis of NiFe2O4 using polymeric complex precursor route. The dry precursor gels were calcined at various temperatures (400-1100 °C) for 2 h. All carboxylic acids produce iron-deficient NiFe2O4 with considerable amount of ?-Fe2O3 at 400 °C. Increase in the annealing temperature caused reaction of ?-Fe2O3 with iron-deficient ferrite phase. The amount of initially formed ?-Fe2O3 is directly correlated with stability constant and inversely correlated with the decomposition temperature of Fe(III) carboxylate precursors. In case of tartaric acid precursor, single phase of the ferrite was obtained at 450 °C. However, in case of oxalic acid and citric acid precursors, single phase ferrite was obtained at 550 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The lattice parameters were increased with increasing annealing temperature and with decreasing the amount of ?-Fe2O3. Maximum saturation magnetization (55 emu/g) was achieved using tartaric acid precursor annealed at 1100 °C.

  6. Crystal structure of 9-(4-bromo­but­yl)-9H-fluorene-9-carb­oxy­lic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Yang; Liu, Bing-Ni; Wang, Ping-Bao; Liu, Deng-Ke

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C18H17BrO2, is a key inter­mediate in the synthesis of lomitapide mesylate, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor. Its asymmetric unit contains two independent mol­ecules with slightly different conformations; the mean planes of the 4-bromo­butyl and carboxyl­ate groups in the two mol­ecules form dihedral angles of 24.54?(12) and 17.10?(18)°. In the crystal, carboxyl­ate groups are involved in O—H?O hydrogen bonding, which leads to the formation of two crystallographically independent centrosymmetric dimers. Weak inter­molecular C—H?O inter­actions further link these dimers into layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:25484705

  7. Systematic methodology for the development of biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing cascades: application to the synthesis of chiral ?-substituted carboxylic acids from ?-substituted ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tanja; Mutti, Francesco G; Humphreys, Luke D; Turner, Nicholas J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2015-01-01

    Ene-reductases (ERs) are flavin dependent enzymes that catalyze the asymmetric reduction of activated carbon-carbon double bonds. In particular, ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (e.g. enals and enones) as well as nitroalkenes are rapidly reduced. Conversely, ?,?-unsaturated esters are poorly accepted substrates whereas free carboxylic acids are not converted at all. The only exceptions are ?,?-unsaturated diacids, diesters as well as esters bearing an electron-withdrawing group in ?- or ?-position. Here, we present an alternative approach that has a general applicability for directly obtaining diverse chiral ?-substituted carboxylic acids. This approach combines two enzyme classes, namely ERs and aldehyde dehydrogenases (Ald-DHs), in a concurrent reductive-oxidative biocatalytic cascade. This strategy has several advantages as the starting material is an ?-substituted ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde, a class of compounds extremely reactive for the reduction of the alkene moiety. Furthermore no external hydride source from a sacrificial substrate (e.g. glucose, formate) is required since the hydride for the first reductive step is liberated in the second oxidative step. Such a process is defined as a hydrogen-borrowing cascade. This methodology has wide applicability as it was successfully applied to the synthesis of chiral substituted hydrocinnamic acids, aliphatic acids, heterocycles and even acetylated amino acids with elevated yield, chemo- and stereo-selectivity. A systematic methodology for optimizing the hydrogen-borrowing two-enzyme synthesis of ?-chiral substituted carboxylic acids was developed. This systematic methodology has general applicability for the development of diverse hydrogen-borrowing processes that possess the highest atom efficiency and the lowest environmental impact. PMID:25372591

  8. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37{degrees}C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by (14C)CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  9. On the microstructure of organic solutions of mono-carboxylic acids: Combined study by infrared spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Roman A.; Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo T.; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Rosta, László; Grigoryeva, Natalia A.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    The data of infrared spectroscopy (IR), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) have been combined to conclude about the nanoscale structural organization of organic non-polar solutions of saturated mono-carboxylic acids with different alkyl chain lengths for diluted solutions of saturated myristic (C14) and stearic (C18) acids in benzene and decalin. In particular, the degree of dimerization was found from the IR spectra. The structural anisotropy of the acids and their dimers was used in the treatment of the data of MD simulations to describe the solute-solvent interface in a cylindrical approximation and show its rather strong influence on SANS. The corresponding scattering length density profiles were used to fit the experimental SANS data comprising the information about the acid molecule isomerization. The SANS data from concentrated solutions showed a partial self-assembling of the acids within the nematic transition is different for two solvents due to lyophobic peculiarities.

  10. Coordination geometry of monomeric, dimeric and polymeric organotin(IV) compounds constructed from 5-bromopyridine-2-carboxylic acid and mono-, di- or tri-organotin precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Min; Yin, Han-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Wei; Jiang, Jin; Li, Chuan

    2013-03-01

    Reactions of mono-, di-, tri-alkyltin chlorides or oxide with 5-bromopyridine-2-carboxylic acid result in five new organotin(IV) compounds, [MeSn(O2CC5NH3Br)Cl2(H2O)]·(C2H5)2O (1), [(n-Bu)Sn(O2CC5NH3Br)Cl2(H2O)]·(C2H5)2O (2), {[(n-Bu)2Sn(O2CC5NH3Br)]2O}2 (3) [(n-Bu)3Sn(O2CC5NH3Br)]n (4) and [Ph3Sn(O2CC5NH3Br)]n (5), which have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, element analysis, IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR. Three different coordination modes for the ligand are demonstrated in this group of compounds: (1) bidentate mode with the pyridyl nitrogen atom and carboxyl oxygen atom for mono-alkyltin compounds 1 and 2, in which six-coordinated tin center is also bound with two chlorine ions and one water molecule; (2) compound 3 is a tetranuclear centrosymmetric dimer with a central Sn2O2 four-membered ring. The four tin atoms are linked by two bridging carboxyl groups while the remaining two act as monodentate ligands to the endo- and exo-cyclic tin atoms; (3) for tri-alkyltin compounds 4 and 5, the bidentate bridging carboxylic group coordinates with two different tin atoms through the Snsbnd Osbnd Cdbnd O ? Sn bond, and the carboxylate bridge propagates 1D polymeric chains, typical for five coordinate tin. However, in compounds 3-5, the pyridyl nitrogen atoms do not participate in the coordination. For triorganotin(IV) polymers 4 and 5, the solution studies show the collapse of the intermolecular interactions observed in the solid state to yield monomeric species.

  11. On the mechanism of Re(I)-carboxylate bond cleavage by perchloric acid: a kinetic and spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Fagioli, Ulises N; García Einschlag, Fernando S; Cobos, Carlos J; Ruiz, Gustavo T; Féliz, Mario R; Wolcan, Ezequiel

    2011-10-13

    We have studied the reaction between pz-CO(2)-Re(CO)(3)(bpy) and perchloric acid in acetonitrile by following the UV-vis and IR spectral changes in the reaction mixture. A fast equilibrium was found to be established between solvated protons, pz-CO(2)-Re(CO)(3)(bpy), and the protonated intermediate [pz-C(OH)O-Re(CO)(3)(bpy)](+) which finally yields pz-COOH and Re(CO)(3)(bpy)(CH(3)CN)(+) as reaction products. This intermediate has been characterized by UV-vis and IR spectroscopies and by DFT calculations. The fully optimized DFT/CPCM structures for pz-CO(2)-Re(CO)(3)(bpy) and [pz-C(OH)O-Re(CO)(3)(bpy)](+) were compared with the X-ray structure of pz-CO(2)-Re(CO)(3)(bpy). The structural parameters associated with the carboxyl group in the protonated intermediate are between those of pz-CO(2)-Re(CO)(3)(bpy) and pz-COOH. Multivariate curve resolution methods were employed to obtain the spectrum of the protonated intermediate and the concentration profiles from the full matrix of time-resolved UV-vis spectra. The proposed mechanism was numerically simulated by using Runge-Kutta methods. Model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression fitting of the concentration profiles, yielding values of log(K) = 4.9 ± 0.3 and k = 0.16 ± 0.03 min(-1) for the formation equilibrium constant and the decay rate constant of the protonated intermediate, respectively. PMID:21877741

  12. Spectral and in vitro antimicrobial properties of 2-oxo-4-phenyl-6-styryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhankar, Raksha P.; Rahatgaonkar, Anjali M.; Chorghade, Mukund S.; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2-oxo-4-phenyl-6-styryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid (ADP) was complexed with acetates of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). The structures of the ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by microanalysis, IR, NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility and TGA-DTA analyses. Octahedral and square planar geometries were suggested for the complexes in which the central metal ion coordinated with sbnd O donors of ligand and acetate ions. Each ligand binds the metal using carboxylate oxygens. The ligand and complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against different species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The present novel pyrimidine containing complexes could constitute a new group of antibacterial and antifungal agents.

  13. In situ infrared spectroscopic analysis of the adsorption of aliphatic carboxylic acids to TiO 2, ZrO 2, Al 2O 3, and Ta 2O 5 from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Kevin D.; McQuillan, A. James

    1999-07-01

    The adsorption of a range of aliphatic mono- and di-carboxylic acids to metal oxides has been investigated using in situ attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. Thin films of TiO 2, ZrO 2, Al 2O 3, and Ta 2O 5 were prepared by evaporation the aqueous colloid oxides on single reflection ZnSe prisms. Formic and acetic acids were found to bind to ZrO 2 and Ta 2O 5, but showed no adsorption to TiO 2 and Al 2O 3. The dicarboxylic acids, oxalic, malonic, succinic, adipic, maleic, and fumaric acids, were found to adsorb to each of the metal oxide substrates. Oxalic and malonic acids were coordinated via ester linkages involving both carboxylate groups. The longer chain dicarboxylic acids coordinated via bridging bidentate interactions through each carboxylate group.

  14. Synthesis of some 1,8-dioxoacridine carboxylic acid derivatives and the determination of their ionization constants in ethanol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayg?l?, Rukiye; Ulus, Ramazan; Ye?ilda?, ?brahim; Kübra ?nal, E.; Kaya, Muharrem; Murat Kalfa, O.; Zeybek, Bülent

    2015-03-01

    Four novel compounds of 1,8-dioxoacridine carboxylic acid derivatives (4-(3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,8-dioxo-9-phenyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroacridin-10(9H)-yl)benzoic acid, 4-(9-(4-cyanophenyl)-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroacridin-10(9H)-yl)benzoic acid, 4-(9-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroacridin-10(9H)-yl)benzoic acid, 4-(9-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroacridin-10(9H)-yl)benzoic acid) were prepared by the reaction of the 4-substitute benzaldehyde (hydrogen, hydroxyl, cyano, and 2,4-dichloro), 4-aminobenzoic acid, and 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione in the presence of p-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid. They were characterized by using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, GC-MS spectroscopic techniques. The stoichiometric ionization constants of these compounds were determined in ethanol-water mixtures of 50%, 60% and 70% ethanol (v/v) by potentiometric titration method and the ionization constants were calculated with three different ways. The effects of solvent composition and substituent groups on ionization constants of 1,8-dioxoacridine carboxylic acids were also discussed.

  15. Statistical investigation of lead removal with various functionalized carboxylate ferroxane nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Moattari, Rozita M; Rahimi, Safoora; Rajabi, Laleh; Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf; Keyhani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Four new types of carboxylate-ferroxane nanoparticles, namely; maleate ferroxane (MF), fumarateferroxane (FF), para-amino benzoate ferroxane (PABF) and para-hydroxy benzoate ferroxane (PHBF) were synthesized, characterized and used for lead removal from aqueous solutions. Lepidocrocite nanoparticles were also synthesized and characterized asa precursorforcarboxylate-ferroxanes. FTIR, SEM and DLS analysis characterized the synthesized samplesand final Pb(II) concentration were analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Performance evaluation of the nanoparticlesin adsorption process was achieved using Taguchi experimental design. Variables in adsorption process were initial pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, adsorbent typeand initial concentration of Pb(2+) ions. The initial Pb(II) concentration was the most influential factor in the adsorption process among the five factors. Adsorption of lead was performed through two possible mechanisms; ion exchange and complex formation. Maleate ferroxane performed the best lead removal efficiency among the four types of ferroxane nanostructures studied. The adsorption kinetic data described well with a pseudo-second-order model and the equilibrium data fitted well to the Frendlich isotherm. PMID:25285999

  16. Arginine analogues incorporating carboxylate bioisosteric functions are micromolar inhibitors of human recombinant DDAH-1.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Sara; Zanato, Chiara; Lewis, Benjamin C; Nair, Pramod C; Dall'Angelo, Sergio; Zanda, Matteo; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2015-12-14

    Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) is a key enzyme involved in the metabolism of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N-monomethyl arginine (NMMA), which are endogenous inhibitors of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes. Two isoforms of DDAH have been identified in humans, DDAH-1 and DDAH-2. DDAH-1 inhibition represents a promising strategy to limit the overproduction of NO in pathological states without affecting the homeostatic role of this important messenger molecule. Here we describe the design and synthesis of 12 novel DDAH-1 inhibitors and report their derived kinetic parameters, IC50 and Ki. Arginine analogue 10a, characterized by an acylsulfonamide isosteric replacement of the carboxylate, showed a 13-fold greater inhibitory potential relative to the known DDAH-1 inhibitor, L-257. Compound 10a was utilized to study the putative binding interactions of human DDAH-1 inhibition using molecular dynamics simulations. The latter suggests that several stabilizing interactions occur in the DDAH-1 active-site, providing structural insights for the enhanced inhibitory potential demonstrated by in vitro inhibition studies. PMID:26420019

  17. Rapid determination of memantine in human plasma by using nanoring carboxyl-functionalized paramagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer d-?-SPE and UFLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hai-Wen; Xia, Lei; Gong, Li-Min; Ruan, Lie-Min; Zhao, Yong-Gang

    2015-06-01

    A novel, simple, and sensitive method based on the use of dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (d-?-SPE) procedure combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the determination of memantine (ME) was developed and validated over the linearity range 0.05-10.0?µg/L with 100??L of human plasma using memantine-D6 (ME-D6) as the internal standard. The novel nanoring carboxyl-functionalized paramagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (NR-CF-Mag-MIP) was synthesized by ultrasound-assisted suspension polymerization, using ME as a template molecule, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, and divinylbenzene as a cross-linking agent. The NR-CF-Mag-MIP was used as the d-?-SPE sorbent to extract ME from human plasma samples. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of NR-CF-Mag-MIP with recoveries between 97.6 and 101%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for ME was 0.015?µg/L. Validation results on linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision, and stability, as well as on application to the analysis of samples taken up to 480?h after oral administration of 20?mg (two 10?mg capsules) of ME in healthy volunteers demonstrated the applicability to bioequivalence studies. PMID:25209851

  18. ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS USED TO SUPPORT THE MICROBIALLY MEDIATED REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in environmental microcosm samples using ion-exclusion chromatography. The chromatographic behavior of various eluents was studied to determine the ...

  19. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in target food samples and packaging--method development and screening.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Ullah, Shahid; Sandblom, Oskar; Berger, Urs

    2013-11-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters (mono-, di-, and triPAPs) are used to water- and grease-proof food packaging materials, and these chemicals are known precursors to perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Existing analytical methods for PAPs lack sample clean-up steps in the sample preparation. In the present study, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including a clean-up step for the raw extracts. The method was applied to food samples and their PAP-containing packaging materials. The optimized UPLC/MS/MS method enabled the separation and identification of a total of 4 monoPAPs, 16 diPAPs, and 7 triPAPs in the technical mixture Zonyl®-RP. For sample clean-up, weak anion exchange solid phase extraction columns were tested. PAPs standard solutions spiked onto the columns were separated into a fraction containing neutral compounds (triPAPs) and a fraction with ionic compounds (mono- and diPAPs) with recoveries between 72-110%. Method limits of quantification for food samples were in the sub to low picogram per gram range. For quantitative analysis of PAPs, compound-specific labeled internal standards showed to be essential as sorption and matrix effects were observed. Mono-, di-, and/or triPAPs were detected in all food packaging materials obtained from the Swedish market. Up to nine diPAPs were detected in the food samples, with the 6:2/6:2 and 6:2/8:2 diPAPs as the dominant compounds. DiPAP concentrations in the food samples ranged from 0.9 to 36 pg/g, which was comparable to individual PFCA concentrations in the same samples. Consumption of food packed in PAP-containing materials could be an indirect source of human exposure to PFCAs. PMID:23494682

  20. The chemistry of aminoguanidine derivatives - preparation, crystal structure, thermal properties, and molecular docking studies of aminoguanidinium salts of several carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Geib, Steven J.; Muthu Sankar, Aathi; Premkumar, Thathan; Govindarajan, Subbaiah

    2015-11-01

    The reaction of aminoguanidine bicarbonate (Amg) with oxamic, oxalic, malonic and sulfoacetic acids yielded (AmgH)H2NOC-COO (1), OOC-CONHNHC(NH2)NH2 (2) (AmgH)HOOC-CH2-COO (3) and O3S-CH2-CONHNHC(NH2)NH2 (4), respectively. For the first time, we studied the salt-forming ability of aminoguanidine with several carboxylic acids, such as oxamic, oxalic, malonic and sulphoacetic acids. We also compared the structural and thermal properties of these salts. Oxamic and malonic acids form only mono-aminoguanidinium salts, whereas oxalic acid mainly forms di-aminoguanidinium oxalate. In addition, oxalic acid forms guanylhydrazido-oxalic acid which exists as zwitter ion. Unlike other acids, sulfoacetic acid readily forms only the zwitter ionic salts (2-guanylhydrazido-oxo-methanesulfonic acid) rather than the usual simple salt. This result may be a result of the highly acidic nature of the sulfonic group, which favors acid catalyzed condensation. More significantly, for the first time, the ability guanylhydrazido-oxalic acid (2) and 2-guanylhydrazido-oxo-methanesulfonic acid (4) to inhibit human butyrylcholinesterase (human BChE) receptor has been studied with a molecular docking approach. The binding of the compounds to human BChE was examined as it is crucial to understanding the biological significance of aminoguanidine derivatives. The compounds were identified and characterized by analytical, FT-IR spectroscopic and thermal studies. Furthermore, the structures of compounds 1, 2 and 4 were confirmed by single X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallized in a monoclinic crystal system with P21/c and Cc space groups, respectively, whereas compound 4 crystalized in an orthorhombic system with a Pbca space group. All the compounds (1-4) underwent endo- followed by exothermic decomposition in the temperature range from 130 to 600 °C to yield gaseous products.

  1. Assembly of indole-2-carboxylic acid esters through a ligand-free copper-catalysed cascade process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian; Li, Zhengqiu; Wei, Jiajia; Ha, Chengyong; Pei, Duanqing; Ding, Ke

    2009-12-28

    A straightforward synthesis of indole-2-carboxylic esters was developed through a ligand-free copper-catalysed condensation/coupling/deformylation cascade process from 2-halo aryl aldehydes or ketones with ethyl isocyanoacetate. The reactions proceeded well for most of the 2-iodo-, bromo-, and chloro-substrates under room temperature or mild conditions. PMID:20024286

  2. Asymmetric Ring-Opening of Cyclopropyl Ketones with Thiol, Alcohol, and Carboxylic Acid Nucleophiles Catalyzed by a Chiral N,N'-Dioxide-Scandium(III) Complex.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong; Lin, Lili; Chang, Fenzhen; Fu, Xuan; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2015-11-01

    A highly efficient asymmetric ring-opening reaction of cyclopropyl ketones with a broad range of thiols, alcohols and carboxylic acids has been first realized by using a chiral N,N'-dioxide-scandium(III) complex as catalyst. The corresponding sulfides, ethers, and esters were obtained in up to 99?% yield and 95?% ee. This is also the first example of one catalytic system working for the ring-opening reaction of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes with three different nucleophiles, let alone in an asymmetric version. PMID:26398505

  3. Silver(I) as a widely applicable, homogeneous catalyst for aerobic oxidation of aldehydes toward carboxylic acids in water—“silver mirror”: From stoichiometric to catalytic

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingxin; Wang, Haining; Zeng, Huiying; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The first example of a homogeneous silver(I)-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes in water is reported. More than 50 examples of different aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, including natural products, were tested, and all of them successfully underwent aerobic oxidation to give the corresponding carboxylic acids in extremely high yields. The reaction conditions are very mild and greener, requiring only a very low silver(I) catalyst loading, using atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant and water as the solvent, and allowing gram-scale oxidation with only 2 mg of our catalyst. Chromatography is completely unnecessary for purification in most cases. PMID:26601150

  4. Growth Processes and Control of Two-Dimensional Structure of Carboxylic Acid-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jaegeun; Konno, Kaoru; Ito, Eisuke; Hara, Masahiko

    2005-02-01

    The growth processes and solvent effects on the two-dimensional structure of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed by 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA) on Au(111) were examined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The STM study revealed for the first time that the striped phases of 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA) on Au(111) are preferentially formed near the step edges of gold terraces in the initial stage of SAM growth. In addition, it was found that MHA SAMs prepared from a polar aprotic solvent form a more well-ordered structure and a better hydrophilic surface than those prepared from a polar protic solvent. From this study, we clearly demonstrated that the properties of solvents are very important factors in controlling the two-dimensional structure of carboxylic acid-terminated SAMs.

  5. Serum lipid-lowering properties of 6-chloro-9-[2-(6-methyl-3-pyridyl)ethyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-2-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Dalton, C; Pool, W R

    1977-03-01

    6-Chloro-9-[2-(6-methyl-3-pyridyl)ethyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride lowered serum cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, and free fatty acid levels in normal rats. The compound appeared to have a low toxicity and to be well tolerated in mice, adult and neonatal rats, and rabbits. At hypolipidemic doses, it caused a slight hepatomegaly associated with an increase in liver phospholipid and protein content. Liver N-demethylase and catalase activities were increased by the drug treatment. This acid had no in vitro antilipolytic activity and did not affect serum desmosterol-cholesterol ratios. The results indicate that it has a mechanism of action similar to clofibrate. PMID:845800

  6. Trends in Formic Acid Decomposition on Model Transition Metal Surfaces: A Density Functional Theory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Jeffrey A.; Scaranto, Jessica; Ferrin, Peter A.; Li, Sha; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2014-12-05

    We present a first-principles, self-consistent periodic density functional theory (PW91-GGA) study of formic acid (HCOOH) decomposition on model (111) and (100) facets of eight fcc metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ni, Ir, and Rh) and (0001) facets of four hcp (Co, Os, Ru, and Re) metals. The calculated binding energies of key formic acid decomposition intermediates including formate (HCOO), carboxyl (COOH), carbon monoxide (CO), water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydroxyl (OH), carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H; H2) are presented. Using these energetics, we develop thermochemical potential energy diagrams for both the carboxyl-mediated and the formate-mediated dehydrogenation mechanisms on each surface. We evaluate the relative stability of COOH, HCOO, and other isomeric intermediates (i.e., CO + OH, CO2 + H, CO + O + H) on these surfaces. These results provide insights into formic acid decomposition selectivity (dehydrogenation versus dehydration), and in conjunction with calculated vibrational frequency modes, the results can assist with the experimental search for the elusive carboxyl (COOH) surface intermediate. Results are compared against experimental reports in the literature.

  7. Identification of Novel Perfluoroalkyl Ether Carboxylic Acids (PFECAs) and Sulfonic Acids (PFESAs) in Natural Waters Using Accurate Mass Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS).

    PubMed

    Strynar, Mark; Dagnino, Sonia; McMahen, Rebecca; Liang, Shuang; Lindstrom, Andrew; Andersen, Erik; McMillan, Larry; Thurman, Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Ball, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Recent scientific scrutiny and concerns over exposure, toxicity, and risk have led to international regulatory efforts resulting in the reduction or elimination of certain perfluorinated compounds from various products and waste streams. Some manufacturers have started producing shorter chain per- and polyfluorinated compounds to try to reduce the potential for bioaccumulation in humans and wildlife. Some of these new compounds contain central ether oxygens or other minor modifications of traditional perfluorinated structures. At present, there has been very limited information published on these "replacement chemistries" in the peer-reviewed literature. In this study we used a time-of-flight mass spectrometry detector (LC-ESI-TOFMS) to identify fluorinated compounds in natural waters collected from locations with historical perfluorinated compound contamination. Our workflow for discovery of chemicals included sequential sampling of surface water for identification of potential sources, nontargeted TOFMS analysis, molecular feature extraction (MFE) of samples, and evaluation of features unique to the sample with source inputs. Specifically, compounds were tentatively identified by (1) accurate mass determination of parent and/or related adducts and fragments from in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID), (2) in-depth evaluation of in-source adducts formed during analysis, and (3) confirmation with authentic standards when available. We observed groups of compounds in homologous series that differed by multiples of CF2 (m/z 49.9968) or CF2O (m/z 65.9917). Compounds in each series were chromatographically separated and had comparable fragments and adducts produced during analysis. We detected 12 novel perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids in surface water in North Carolina, USA using this approach. A key piece of evidence was the discovery of accurate mass in-source n-mer formation (H(+) and Na(+)) differing by m/z 21.9819, corresponding to the mass difference between the protonated and sodiated dimers. PMID:26392038

  8. Solvent-induced synthesis of cobalt(II) coordination polymers based on a rigid ligand and flexible carboxylic acid ligands: syntheses, structures and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Chuanlei; Ju, Zemin; Zheng, Hegen

    2015-04-21

    Five new cobalt(ii) coordination architectures, {[Co(L)2(H2O)2]·2H2O·2NO3}n (), {[Co(L)(ppda)]·2H2O}n (), {[Co2(L)(ppda)2]2·H2O}n (), {[Co(L)(nba)]·5H2O}n (), and {[Co(L)(oba)]2·3H2O}n (), have been constructed from the rigid ligand L [L = 2,8-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)dibenzofuran] and different flexible carboxylic acid ligands [H2ppda = 4,4'-(perfluoropropane-2,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid, H2nba = 4,4'-azanediyldibenzoic acid, and H2oba = 4,4'-oxydibenzoic acid]. Depending on the nature of the solvent systems, these five different coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, PXRD and elemental analysis. Compounds , and were obtained by a one-pot method, and then we utilized the solvent-induced effect to obtain almost pure crystals of , respectively. Compound is an infinite 1D chain which is formed by L ligands and Co atoms. Compound contains a [Co2(CO2)4] secondary building unit (SBU), and can be topologically represented as a 6-connected 2-fold interpenetrating pcu net with the point symbol of {4(12)·6(3)}. Compound can be characterized as a 4-connected sql tetragonal planar network with the point symbol of {4(4)·6(2)}. In compounds and , there is a 1D chain which is formed by flexible carboxylic acid ligands and Co atoms; then the 1D chain is linked by L ligands in the tilting direction, leading to the formation of a 2D layer. Furthermore, UV-vis, TGA and magnetic properties have been investigated in detail. PMID:25778448

  9. Mechanism of in situ surface polymerization of gallic acid in an environmental-inspired preparation of carboxylated core-shell magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Ildikó Y; Szekeres, Márta; Turcu, Rodica; Sáringer, Szilárd; Illés, Erzsébet; Nesztor, Dániel; Tombácz, Etelka

    2014-12-30

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with biocompatible coatings are good candidates for MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrasting, magnetic hyperthermia treatments, and drug delivery systems. The spontaneous surface induced polymerization of dissolved organic matter on environmental mineral particles inspired us to prepare carboxylated core-shell MNPs by using a ubiquitous polyphenolic precursor. Through the adsorption and in situ surface polymerization of gallic acid (GA), a polygallate (PGA) coating is formed on the nanoparticles (PGA@MNP) with possible antioxidant capacity. The present work explores the mechanism of polymerization with the help of potentiometric acid-base titration, dynamic light scattering (for particle size and zeta potential determination), UV-vis (UV-visible light spectroscopy), FTIR-ATR (Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflection), and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) techniques. We observed the formation of ester and ether linkages between gallate monomers both in solution and in the adsorbed state. Higher polymers were formed in the course of several weeks both on the surface of nanoparticles and in the dispersion medium. The ratio of the absorbances of PGA supernatants at 400 and 600 nm (i.e., the E4/E6 ratio commonly used to characterize the degree of polymerization of humic materials) was determined to be 4.3, similar to that of humic acids. Combined XPS, dynamic light scattering, and FTIR-ATR results revealed that, prior to polymerization, the GA monomers became oxidized to poly(carboxylic acid)s due to ring opening while Fe(3+) ions reduced to Fe(2+). Our published results on the colloidal and chemical stability of PGA@MNPs are referenced thoroughly in the present work. Detailed studies on biocompatibility, antioxidant property, and biomedical applicability of the particles will be published. PMID:25517214

  10. Hydrogen radical removal causes complex overlapping isotope patterns of aromatic carboxylic acids in negative-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Watanabe, Takehiro

    2012-01-01

    We studied the ionization process of aromatic carboxylic acids, including ones with or without hydroxy groups in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), because many natural products, metabolites, and drags contain those structural units. In the actual experimental data, benzoic acid was ionized as only deprotonated molecule [M-H](-). In contrast, both of negative molecular ion M(-) and deprotonated molecule [M-H](-) were generated from 2-naphthoic acid and 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, and the ratio of negative molecular ion to deprotonated molecule M(-)/[M-H](-) was increased in 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid. In addition, the ratio of 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was much higher than those of 1- and 9-anthracenecarboxylic acids among the three isomers. Therefore, 2-substitution induced the generation of the negative molecular ion M(-), which can made us prediction of the substituted positions from their overlapping peak isotope patterns. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA) showed two deprotonated molecules, [M-H](-) and [M-H*-H](-), which was generated from a neutral hydrogen radical (H*) removal from a phenolic hydroxy group. The deprotonated molecule [M-H*-H](-) of 2,5-DHBA was the most abundant among six DHBAs and three hydroxybenzoic acids (hBAs). This observation raises the possibility that such a property of 2,5-DHBA could be a clue to explain its highest efficiency as a MALDI matrix. The order of the hydrogen radical removal from the phenolic hydroxy groups was the 3-<4-?5-positions in the DHBAs, and the 3-<4-positions in hBAs. We can distinguish among six DHBA isomers and three hBA isomers from their spectral pattern around the deprotonated molecules [M-H*-H](-) and [M-H](-). The intra-molecular hydrogen bonding between 1-carboxy and 2-hydroxy groups was an important factor in hydrogen radical removal in the hydroxylbenzoic acids and dihydroxybenzoic acids. PMID:24349906

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and crystal structure of 5-bromo-1-(2-cyano-pyridin-4-yl)-1 H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid diethylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuradha, G.; Vasuki, G.; Surendrareddy, G.; Veerareddy, A.; Dubey, P. K.

    2014-07-01

    The title compound 5-bromo-1-(2-cyano-pyridin-4-yl)-1 H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid diethylamide, C18H16BrN5O, is prepared from 5-bromoindazole-3-carboxylic acid methylester. N 1-arylation is carried out with 4-chloro-2-cyanopyridine and the resulting product is converted to diethylamide by reacting with thionyl chloride and diethylamine. The structure is identified from its FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis data and unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. There are two symmetry independent molecules in the asymmetric unit with no significant differences in bond lengths and angles. The title compound crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group , with a = 11.2330(2); b = 11.6130(2); c = 15.4710(3) Å, ? = 92.515(1)°; ? = 109.956(1)°; ? = 107.199(1)°; V = 1788.45(6)Å3 and z = 4. An intramolecular C-H…N hydrogen bond forms an S(6) ring motif in one of the unique molecules. In the crystal, two molecules are linked about a center of inversion by C-H…O hydrogen bonded dimers generating an R {2/2}(16) ring motif. The crystal packing is stabilized by C-H…N, C-H…O hydrogen bonds and ?…? stacking interactions.

  12. Comparative analysis of chemical compositions between non-transgenic soybean seeds and those from plants over-expressing AtJMT, the gene for jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyong-Hee; Kim, Do Young; Pack, In-Soon; Park, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jun Sung; Choi, Yang Do; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Kim, Chung Ho; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic overexpression of the Arabidopsis gene for jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AtJMT) is involved in regulating jasmonate-related plant responses. To examine its role in the compositional profile of soybean (Glycine max), we compared the seeds from field-grown plants that over-express AtJMT with those of the non-transgenic, wild-type (WT) counterpart. Our analysis of chemical compositions included proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, isoflavones, and antinutrients. Overexpression of AtJMT in the seeds resulted in decreased amounts of tryptophan, palmitic acid, linolenic acid, and stachyose, but increased levels of gadoleic acid and genistein. In particular, seeds from the transgenic soybeans contained 120.0-130.5% more genistein and 60.5-82.1% less stachyose than the WT. A separate evaluation of ingredient values showed that all were within the reference ranges reported for commercially available soybeans, thereby demonstrating the substantial equivalence of these transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. PMID:26593488

  13. Contribution of cytochrome P450 and UDT-glucuronosyltransferase to the metabolism of drugs containing carboxylic acid groups: risk assessment of acylglucuronides using human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Norimasa; Tagashira, Mizuka; Tsurui, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-08-01

    1.?In order to evaluate the inhibition activity of 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and (-)-borneol (borneol) against cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), the substrates of these metabolic enzymes were incubated with ABT and borneol in human hepatocytes. We found that 3?mM ABT and 300??M borneol were the most suitable experimental levels to specifically inhibit CYP and UGT. 2.?Montelukast, mefenamic acid, flufenamic acid, diclofenac, tienilic acid, gemfibrozil, ibufenac and repaglinide were markedly metabolized in human hepatocytes, and the metabolism of gemfibrozil, mefenamic acid and flufenamic acid was inhibited by borneol. With regard to repaglinide, montelukast, diclofenac and tienilic acid, metabolism was inhibited by ABT. Ibufenac was partly inhibited by both inhibitors. Zomepirac, tolmetin, ibuprofen, indomethacin and levofloxacin were moderately metabolized by human hepatocytes, and the metabolism of zomepirac, ibuprofen and indomethacin was equally inhibited by both ABT and borneol. The metabolism of tolmetin was strongly inhibited by ABT, and was also inhibited weakly by borneol. Residual drugs, telmisartan, valsartan, furosemide, naproxen and probenecid were scarcely metabolized. 3.?Although we attempted to predict the toxicological risks of drugs containing carboxylic groups from the combination chemical stability and CLint via UGT, the results indicated that this combination was not sufficient and that clinical daily dose is important. PMID:24575896

  14. Insight into 2?-Chloro-2?(2?,6?)-(Di)Halogenopicropodophyllotoxins Reacting with Carboxylic Acids Mediated by BF3·Et2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lingling; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Che, Zhiping; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Stereospecific nucleophilic substitution at the C-4? position of 2?-chloro-2?(2?,6?)-(di)halogenopicropodophyllotoxin derivatives with carboxylic acids mediated by BF3·Et2O was described. Interestingly, this stereoselective products were completely controlled by the reaction time. That is, if the reaction time was prolonged to 24.5–31?h, the resulting compounds were all transformed into the unusual C-ring aromatization products. Additionally, it demonstrated that BF3·Et2O and reaction temperature were the important factors for C-ring aromatization, and AlCl3 could be substituted for BF3·Et2O as a lewis acid for C-ring aromatization. Halogenation of E-ring of 2?-chloropodophyllotoxins with NCS or NBS also led to the same C-ring aromatization compounds. Especially compounds 5c, 6g and 7b exhibited insecticidal activity equal to that of toosendanin.

  15. Insight into 2?-Chloro-2?(2?,6?)-(Di)Halogenopicropodophyllotoxins Reacting with Carboxylic Acids Mediated by BF3?Et2O

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lingling; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Che, Zhiping; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Stereospecific nucleophilic substitution at the C-4? position of 2?-chloro-2?(2?,6?)-(di)halogenopicropodophyllotoxin derivatives with carboxylic acids mediated by BF3?Et2O was described. Interestingly, this stereoselective products were completely controlled by the reaction time. That is, if the reaction time was prolonged to 24.5–31?h, the resulting compounds were all transformed into the unusual C-ring aromatization products. Additionally, it demonstrated that BF3?Et2O and reaction temperature were the important factors for C-ring aromatization, and AlCl3 could be substituted for BF3?Et2O as a lewis acid for C-ring aromatization. Halogenation of E-ring of 2?-chloropodophyllotoxins with NCS or NBS also led to the same C-ring aromatization compounds. Especially compounds 5c, 6g and 7b exhibited insecticidal activity equal to that of toosendanin. PMID:26573374

  16. Functional characterization and expression analysis of rice ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase provide new insight into the regulation of proline and arginine catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    While intracellular proline accumulation in response to various stress conditions has been investigated in great detail, the biochemistry and physiological relevance of proline degradation in plants is much less understood. Moreover, the second and last step in proline catabolism, the oxidation of ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) to glutamate, is shared with arginine catabolism. Little information is available to date concerning the regulatory mechanisms coordinating these two pathways. Expression of the gene coding for P5C dehydrogenase was analyzed in rice by real-time PCR either following the exogenous supply of amino acids of the glutamate family, or under hyperosmotic stress conditions. The rice enzyme was heterologously expressed in E. coli, and the affinity-purified protein was thoroughly characterized with respect to structural and functional properties. A tetrameric oligomerization state was observed in size exclusion chromatography, which suggests a structure of the plant enzyme different from that shown for the bacterial P5C dehydrogenases structurally characterized to date. Kinetic analysis accounted for a preferential use of NAD+ as the electron acceptor. Cations were found to modulate enzyme activity, whereas anion effects were negligible. Several metal ions were inhibitory in the micromolar range. Interestingly, arginine also inhibited the enzyme at higher concentrations, with a mechanism of uncompetitive type with respect to P5C. This implies that millimolar levels of arginine would increase the affinity of P5C dehydrogenase toward its specific substrate. Results are discussed in view of the involvement of the enzyme in either proline or arginine catabolism. PMID:26300893

  17. Functional characterization and expression analysis of rice ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase provide new insight into the regulation of proline and arginine catabolism.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    While intracellular proline accumulation in response to various stress conditions has been investigated in great detail, the biochemistry and physiological relevance of proline degradation in plants is much less understood. Moreover, the second and last step in proline catabolism, the oxidation of ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) to glutamate, is shared with arginine catabolism. Little information is available to date concerning the regulatory mechanisms coordinating these two pathways. Expression of the gene coding for P5C dehydrogenase was analyzed in rice by real-time PCR either following the exogenous supply of amino acids of the glutamate family, or under hyperosmotic stress conditions. The rice enzyme was heterologously expressed in E. coli, and the affinity-purified protein was thoroughly characterized with respect to structural and functional properties. A tetrameric oligomerization state was observed in size exclusion chromatography, which suggests a structure of the plant enzyme different from that shown for the bacterial P5C dehydrogenases structurally characterized to date. Kinetic analysis accounted for a preferential use of NAD(+) as the electron acceptor. Cations were found to modulate enzyme activity, whereas anion effects were negligible. Several metal ions were inhibitory in the micromolar range. Interestingly, arginine also inhibited the enzyme at higher concentrations, with a mechanism of uncompetitive type with respect to P5C. This implies that millimolar levels of arginine would increase the affinity of P5C dehydrogenase toward its specific substrate. Results are discussed in view of the involvement of the enzyme in either proline or arginine catabolism. PMID:26300893

  18. Origin of the 900 cm{sup ?1} broad double-hump OH vibrational feature of strongly hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoozen, Brian L.; Petersen, Poul B.

    2015-03-14

    Medium and strong hydrogen bonds are common in biological systems. Here, they provide structural support and can act as proton transfer relays to drive electron and/or energy transfer. Infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive probe of molecular structure and hydrogen bond strength but strongly hydrogen-bonded structures often exhibit very broad and complex vibrational bands. As an example, strong hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and nitrogen-containing aromatic bases commonly display a 900 cm{sup ?1} broad feature with a remarkable double-hump structure. Although previous studies have assigned this feature to the OH, the exact origin of the shape and width of this unusual feature is not well understood. In this study, we present ab initio calculations of the contributions of the OH stretch and bend vibrational modes to the vibrational spectrum of strongly hydrogen-bonded heterodimers of carboxylic acids and nitrogen-containing aromatic bases, taking the 7-azaindole—acetic acid and pyridine—acetic acid dimers as examples. Our calculations take into account coupling between the OH stretch and bend modes as well as how both of these modes are affected by lower frequency dimer stretch modes, which modulate the distance between the monomers. Our calculations reproduce the broadness and the double-hump structure of the OH vibrational feature. Where the spectral broadness is primarily caused by the dimer stretch modes strongly modulating the frequency of the OH stretch mode, the double-hump structure results from a Fermi resonance between the out of the plane OH bend and the OH stretch modes.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10381 - Cyclic carboxylic acid, polymer with dihydroxy dialkyl ether, hydroxy substituted alkane and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...acid anhydride, methacrylate terminated polyester (generic). 721.10381 Section...acid anhydride, methacrylate terminated polyester (generic). (a) Chemical substance...acid anhydride, methacrylate terminated polyester (PMN P-10-290) is subject to...

  20. Ionization of Functional Groups: The Meaning and Use of the pKa Values Following our discussion of "weak binding forces", solubility, and LogP, we can see that the

    E-print Network

    Gates, Kent. S.

    's review a few facts about acid-base ionization reactions. The acidity for a given functional group related to the Ka is pKa: Defined as: pKa = -logKa. Consider the acid-base ionization of a common functional group found in drugs, the carboxylic acid group. The carboxylic acid group can exist

  1. Adsorption and hydrolytic activity of trypsin on a carboxylate-functionalized cation exchanger prepared from nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Rejeena, S R

    2012-09-01

    Immobilization of enzymes on polymer supports has been considered as a powerful technique in biomedical applications. In this study, a cellulose-based hydrogel, poly(acrylic acid)-modified poly(glycidylmethacrylate)-grafted nanocellulose (PAPGNC) was synthesized by graft copolymerization technique and well characterized. A pancreatic serine protease trypsin (TRY) was immobilized onto PAPGNC, under different optimized conditions. The optimum pH for TRY adsorption was found to be 6.5, and the adsorption attained equilibrium within 90 min. The kinetic data were found to follow pseudo-first-order model, which is based on solid capacity. The well agreement of equilibrium data with Langmuir isotherm model confirms the monolayer coverage of TRY onto PAPGNC surface, and the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 140.65 mg/g at 30 °C. The temperature dependence indicates an endothermic process. The relative activity of immobilized TRY in the hydrolysis of casein was higher than that of the free enzyme over broader temperature ranges. The immobilized TRY had high temperature and long-storage stability as compared to free TRY. Spent adsorbent was effectively degenerated using 0.1 M KSCN with the retention in catalytic activity of 87% even after four cycles. The present investigation shows that PAPGNC is a valuable polymer support for the recovery of TRY from aqueous solutions and subsequent casein hydrolysis. PMID:22727404

  2. A highly selective molecularly imprinted sorbent for extraction of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid - Synthesis, characterization and application in post-mortem whole blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Luli?ski, Piotr; Giebu?towicz, Joanna; Wroczy?ski, Piotr; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2015-11-13

    In this paper, the optimized synthesis and detailed characterization of novel imprinted material for selective extraction of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) were described. The prepolymeric system contained 1-allyl-2-thiourea and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in methanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethyl sulfoxide porogenic mixture and 2-aminothiazole-4-carboxylic acid which was used as the template for ATCA. This structural analog of the target analyte was found to provide the imprinted polymer with sufficient binding capacity (60.7±0.9?gg(-1)) and high selectivity (imprinting factor equal to 18.4) toward ATCA. The adsorption of ATCA was analyzed by the Langmuir model. The heterogeneous population of binding sites on the imprinted polymer was characterized by dissociation constants equal to 3.72?gL(-1) and 435?gL(-1) for high and low affinity binding sites, respectively. The morphology of the polymer was studied employing SEM and BET analyses and the composition was confirmed by EDS and (13)C CP/MAS NMR analyses. Adsorption of amino acids on the imprinted material was tested to analyze the impact of the sample components. The superiority of the imprinted sorbent was proved in a novel dispersive solid phase extraction procedure of ATCA from post-mortem whole blood with respect to the extraction efficacy on the commercial ion-exchange sorbents. The limit of quantification and limit of detection of ATCA in the new analytical method were 12?gL(-1) and 3.5?gL(-1), respectively. The recovery of ATCA was in the range of 81-89% and the precision of the method ranged from 1.5 to 2.7%. PMID:26463428

  3. Bile acid signaling and biliary functions

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hannah; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on various components of bile acid signaling in relation to cholangiocytes. Their roles as targets for potential therapies for cholangiopathies are also explored. While many factors are involved in these complex signaling pathways, this review emphasizes the roles of transmembrane G protein coupled receptor (TGR5), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the bicarbonate umbrella. Following a general background on cholangiocytes and bile acids, we will expand the review and include sections that are most recently known (within 5–7 years) regarding the field of bile acid signaling and cholangiocyte function. These findings all demonstrate that bile acids influence biliary functions which can, in turn, regulate the cholangiocyte response during pathological events.

  4. Organosulfates and Carboxylic Acids in Secondary Organic Aerosols in Coniferous Forests in Rocky Mountains (USA), Sierra Nevada Mountains (USA) and Northern Europe (Finland and Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasius, M.; Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Kristensen, T. B.; Mccubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.; Petäjä, T.; Surratt, J. D.; Worton, D. R.; Bilde, M.; Kulmala, M. T.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Levels and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosols affect their climate effects and properties. Organosulfates (OS) are formed through heterogeneous reactions involving oxidized sulfur compounds, primarily originating from anthropogenic sources. Availability of authentic standards have until now been an obstacle to quantitative investigations of OS in atmospheric aerosols. We have developed a new, facile method for synthesis and purification of OS standards. Here we have used 7 standards to quantify OS and nitrooxy organosulfates (NOS) observed in aerosols collected at four sites in coniferous forests in USA and Europe during spring or summer. The two American sites were Storm Peak Laboratory, Colorado (Rocky Mountains, elevation 3220 m a.s.l) and Sierra Nevada Mountains, California (as part of BEARPEX 2007 and 2009). The European sites were Hyytiälä Forest Station, Finland (in the boreal zone) and Silkeborg, Denmark (temperate forest). Aerosol filter samples were extracted and analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatograph coupled through an electrospray inlet to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-QTOF-MS). We identified 11 carboxylic acids using authentic standards, while 16 different OS and 8 NOS were identified based on their molecular mass and MS fragmentation patterns, as well as comparison with available standards. OS were ubiquitous in the atmospheric aerosol samples, even at the high elevation mountain station. Levels of carboxylic acids from oxidation of monoterpenes were 8-25 ng m-3 at Silkeborg and Storm Peak Laboratory, while concentrations at the sites with strong regional monoterpene emissions (Sierra Nevada Mountains and Hyytiälä) were much higher (10-200 ng m-3). At all sites, the dominant group of OS were derived from isoprene (IEPOX) and related compounds, while OS of monoterpenes showed lower concentrations, except at Hyytiälä during periods of north-westerly winds when monoterpene OS were at similar or higher levels than isoprene-derived OS. This indicates that isoprene OS were long-range transported to Hyytiälä from southerly regions with high emissions of isoprene and related compounds. Influence of formation mechanisms and long-range transport on concentrations of OS, NOS and carboxylic acids will be discussed in the presentation.

  5. 1-Azaniumylcyclobutane-1-carboxylate monohydrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butcher, Ray J.; Brewer, Greg; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C5H9NO2H2O, the amino acid is in the usual zwitterionic form involving the carboxylate group. The cyclobutane backbone of the amino acid is disordered over two conformations, with occupancies of 0.882 (7) and0.118 (7). In the crystal, NH O and OH O hydrogen bonds link the zwitterions [with the water molecule involved as both acceptor (with the NH3+) and donor (through a single carboxylate O from two different aminocyclobutane carboxylatemoities)], resulting in a two-dimensional layered structure lying parallel to (100).

  6. Di-heterometalation of thiol-functionalized peptide nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Tanmaya; Patra, Malay; Spiccia, Leone; Gasser, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    As a proof-of-principle, two hetero-bimetallic PNA oligomers containing a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl and a cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl complex have been prepared by serial combination of solid-phase peptide coupling and in-solution thiol chemistry. Solid-phase N-terminus attachment of Ru(II)-polypyridyl carboxylic acid derivative, C1, onto the thiol-functionalized PNA backbone (H-a-a-g-t-c-t-g-c-linker-cys-NH2) has been performed by standard peptide coupling method. As two parallel approaches, the strong affinity of thiols for maleimide and haloacetyl group has been exploited for subsequent post-SPPS addition of cymantrene-based organometallic cores, C2 and C3. Michael-like addition and thioether ligation of thiol functionalized PNA1 (H-gly-a-a-g-t-c-t-g-c-linker-cys-NH2) and PNA2 (C1-a-a-g-t-c-t-g-c-linker-cys-NH2) to cymantrene maleimide and chloroacetyl derivatives, C2 and C3, respectively, has been performed. The synthesized ruthenium(II)-cymantrenyl PNA oligomers have been characterized by mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and IR spectroscopy. The distinct Mn-CO vibrational IR stretches, between 1,924–2,074 cm?1, have been used as markers to confirm the presence of cymantrenyl units in the PNA sequences and the purity of the HPLC-purified PNA thioethers assessed using LC-MS. PMID:23422249

  7. Enhanced sidewall functionalization of single-wall carbon nanotubes using nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Gerard; Shao, Lidong; Ballesteros, Belin; Green, Malcolm L H

    2009-10-01

    When a sample of as-made single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is treated with nitric acid, oxidation debris are formed due to the functionalization (mainly carboxylation) of the amorphous carbon present in the sample and a continuous coating along the carbon nanotube walls is created preventing the sidewall functionalization of the SWNTs. This oxidation debris can be easily removed by an aqueous base wash leaving behind a sample with a low degree of functionality. After removal of the amorphous carbon (by steam purification) from a sample of as-made SWNTs, the resulting purified SWNTs are readily carboxylated on the walls by nitric acid treatment. The use of steam for the purification of SWNTs samples allows the removal of the amorphous carbon and graphitic layers coating the metal particles present in the sample without altering the tubular structure of the SWNTs. The exposed metal particles can then be easily removed by an acid wash. Comparison between the steam treatment and molten sodium hydroxide treatment is made. PMID:19908496

  8. Selective synthesis of either isoindole- or isoindoline-1-carboxylic acid esters by Pd(0)-catalyzed enolate arylation.

    PubMed

    Solé, Daniel; Serrano, Olga

    2010-09-17

    Two efficient palladium-catalyzed intramolecular ?-arylation reactions of ?-amino acid esters have been developed that allow either 1-isoindolecarboxylic acid esters or the corresponding isoindolines to be selectively synthesized simply by a slight change of reaction conditions. PMID:20738127

  9. Biosynthesis of Germacrene A Carboxylic Acid in Chicory Roots. Demonstration of a Cytochrome P450 (+)-Germacrene A Hydroxylase and NADP+-Dependent Sesquiterpenoid Dehydrogenase(s) Involved in Sesquiterpene Lactone Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    de Kraker, Jan-Willem; Franssen, Maurice C. R.; Dalm, Marcella C. F.; de Groot, Aede; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2001-01-01

    Sprouts of chicory (Cichorium intybus), a vegetable grown in the dark, have a slightly bitter taste associated with the presence of guaianolides, eudesmanolides, and germacranolides. The committed step in the biosynthesis of these compounds is catalyzed by a (+)-germacrene A synthase. Formation of the lactone ring is the postulated next step in biosynthesis of the germacrene-derived sesquiterpene lactones. The present study confirms this hypothesis by isolation of enzyme activities from chicory roots that introduce a carboxylic acid function in the germacrene A isopropenyl side chain, which is necessary for lactone ring formation. (+)-Germacrene A is hydroxylated to germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol by a cytochrome P450 enzyme, and is subsequently oxidized to germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid by NADP+-dependent dehydrogenase(s). Both oxidized germacrenes were detected as their Cope-rearrangement products elema-1,3,11(13)-trien-12-ol and elema-1,3,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid, respectively. The cyclization products of germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol, i.e. costol, were also observed. The (+)-germacrene A hydroxylase is inhibited by carbon monoxide (blue-light reversible), has an optimum pH at 8.0, and hydroxylates ?-elemene with a modest degree of enantioselectivity. PMID:11299372

  10. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) investigations and quantum chemical calculations of 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-7-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ulahannan, Rajeev T; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Van Alsenoy, C; Musiol, Robert; Jampilek, Josef; Anto, P L

    2014-01-01

    Quinoline derivatives have good nonlinear optical properties and have been extensively studied due to their great potential application in the field of organic light emitting diodes. Quantum chemical calculations of the equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman activities of 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-7-carboxylic acid in the ground state were reported. Potential energy distribution of normal modes of vibrations was done using GAR2PED program. The synthesis, (1)H NMR and PES scan results are also discussed. Nonlinear optical behavior of the examined molecule was investigated by the determination of first hyperpolarizability. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show the chemical activity of the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated geometrical parameters are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. PMID:24287049

  11. Organic reactions for the electrochemical and photochemical production of chemical fuels from CO2 - The reduction chemistry of carboxylic acids and derivatives as bent CO2 surrogates.

    PubMed

    Luca, Oana R; Fenwick, Aidan Q

    2015-11-01

    The present review covers organic transformations involved in the reduction of CO2 to chemical fuels. In particular, we focus on reactions of CO2 with organic molecules to yield carboxylic acid derivatives as a first step in CO2 reduction reaction sequences. These biomimetic initial steps create opportunities for tandem electrochemical/chemical reductions. We draw parallels between long-standing knowledge of CO2 reactivity from organic chemistry, organocatalysis, surface science and electrocatalysis. We point out some possible non-faradaic chemical reactions that may contribute to product distributions in the production of solar fuels from CO2. These reactions may be accelerated by thermal effects such as resistive heating and illumination. PMID:26022364

  12. Vibrational spectroscopic, 1H NMR and quantum chemical computational study of 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-8-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ulahannan, Rajeev T; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Van Alsenoy, C; Musiol, Robert; Jampilek, Josef; Anto, P L

    2014-01-01

    FT-IR, FT-Raman and (1)H NMR spectra of 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-8-carboxylic acid were recorded and obtained data were confronted with the computed using Gaussian09 software package. DFT/B3LYP, B3PW91 calculations have been done using 6-31G* and SDD basis sets, to investigate the vibrational frequencies and geometrical parameters. The assignments of the normal modes are done by potential energy distribution (PED) calculations. The calculated first hyperpolarizability is comparable with the reported values of similar quinoline derivatives and is an attractive object for future studies of non-linear optics. The stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. MEP predicts the most reactive part in the molecule. The calculated (1)H NMR results are in good agreement with experimental data. PMID:24287054

  13. Identification of 11-Nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine by ion trap GC-MS-MS in the context of doping analysis.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Gerardo M; D'Angelo, Carlos; Fraguío, Mariá Sol; Centurión, Osvaldo Teme

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a sensitive and specific alternative to current gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) selected ion monitoring confirmation methods of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (cTHC) in human urine samples, in the context of doping analysis. An identification procedure based on the comparison, among suspicious and control samples, of the relative abundances of cTHC selected product ions obtained by GC-tandem MS in an ion trap is presented. The method complies with the identification criteria for qualitative assays established by sports authorities; the comparison procedure is precise, reproducible, specific, and sensitive, thus indicating that it is fit for the purpose of identification accordingly to World Antidoping Agency requirements. PMID:15768841

  14. Design, synthesis, in silico and in vitro studies of novel 4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid derivatives as potent anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Kilaru, Ravendra Babu; Valasani, Koteswara Rao; Yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Kuruva, Chandra Sekhar; Matcha, Bhaskar; Chamarthi, Naga Raju

    2014-09-15

    Since inhibitors of mucin onco proteins are potential targets for breast cancer therapy, a series of novel 4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid (1) derivatives 3a-k were synthesized by the reaction of 1 with SOCl2 followed by different bases/alcohols in the presence of triethylamine. Once synthesized and characterized, their binding modes with MUC1 were studied by molecular docking analysis using Aruglab 4.0.1 and QSAR properties were determined using HyperChem. All synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro anti-breast cancer activity against MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines by Trypan-blue cell viability assay and MTT methods. Compounds 1, 3b, 3d, 3e, 3i and 3f showed good anti-breast cancer activity. Since 1 and 3d exhibited high potent activity against MDA-MB-231 cell lines, they show could be effective mucin onco protein inhibitors. PMID:25131536

  15. Density functional theory calculation of cyclic carboxylic phosphorus mixed anhydrides as possible intermediates in biochemical reactions: implications for the Pro-Tide approach.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Antonio; Brancale, Andrea

    2012-04-15

    Cyclic acyl phosphoramidates (CAPAs) are important components in several fundamental biological reactions such as protein synthesis and phosphorylation. These structures are particularly interesting in the nucleotide pro-drug approach, Pro-Tide, since they are putative intermediates in one of the hydrolysis steps required for activation. The central role played by the amino acid carboxylate function suggests first the formation of a cyclic mixed phosphorus anhydride, rapidly followed by water attack. To investigate such speculations, we performed quantum mechanical calculations using the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory for the plausible mechanisms of action considered. In the five-membered ring case, transition state theory demonstrated how the overall, gas-phase, mechanism of action could be split into two in-line addition-elimination (A-E) steps separated by a penta-coordinate phosphorane intermediate. The difference between five-membered and six-membered ring first A-E was also explored, revealing a single step, unimolecular reaction for the six-membered ring A-E profile. Implicit solvent contribution further confirmed the importance of CAPAs as reactive intermediates in such kind of reactions. Lastly, the second A-E pathway was analyzed to understand the complete pathway of the reaction. This analysis is the first attempt to clarify the putative mechanism of action involved in the activation of Pro-Tides and casts light also on the possible mechanism of action involved in primordial protein syntheses, strengthening the hypothesis of a common cyclic mixed phosphorus anhydride species as a common intermediate. PMID:22318882

  16. P2? Benzene Carboxylic Acid Moiety Is Associated with Decrease in Cellular Uptake: Evaluation of Novel Nonpeptidic HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors Containing P2 bis-Tetrahydrofuran Moiety

    PubMed Central

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Maeda, Kenji; Fyvie, W. Sean; Steffey, Melinda; Davis, David A.; Palmer, Ira; Aoki, Manabu; Kaufman, Joshua D.; Stahl, Stephen J.; Garimella, Harisha; Das, Debananda; Wingfield, Paul T.; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    GRL007 and GRL008, two structurally related nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) containing 3(R),3a(S),6a(R)-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (bis-THF) as the P2 moiety and a sulfonamide isostere consisting of benzene carboxylic acid and benzene carboxamide as the P2? moiety, respectively, were evaluated for their antiviral activity and interactions with wild-type protease (PRWT). Both GRL007 (Ki of 12.7 pM with PRWT) and GRL008 (Ki of 8.9 pM) inhibited PRWT with high potency in vitro. X-ray crystallographic analysis of PRWT in complex with GRL007 or GRL008 showed that the bis-THF moiety of both compounds has three direct polar contacts with the backbone amide nitrogen atoms of Asp29 and Asp30 of PRWT. The P2? moiety of both compounds showed one direct contact with the backbone of Asp30? and a bridging polar contact with Gly48? through a water molecule. Cell-based antiviral assays showed that GRL007 was inactive (50% effective concentration [EC50] of >1 ?M) while GRL008 was highly active (EC50 of 0.04 ?M) against wild-type HIV-1. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/mass spectrometry-based cellular uptake assays showed 8.1- and 84-fold higher intracellular concentrations of GRL008 than GRL007 in human MT-2 and MT-4 cell extracts, respectively. Thus, GRL007, in spite of its favorable enzyme-inhibitory activity and protease binding profile, exhibited a lack of antiviral activity in cell-based assays, most likely due to its compromised cellular uptake associated with its P2? benzene carboxylic acid moiety. The anti-HIV-1 potency, favorable toxicity, and binding profile of GRL008 suggest that further optimization of the P2? moiety may improve its antiretroviral features. PMID:23877703

  17. A comprehensive classification and nomenclature of carboxyl–carboxyl(ate) supramolecular motifs and related catemers: implications for biomolecular systems

    PubMed Central

    D’Ascenzo, Luigi; Auffinger, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Carboxyl and carboxylate groups form important supramolecular motifs (synthons). Besides carboxyl cyclic dimers, carboxyl and carboxylate groups can associate through a single hydrogen bond. Carboxylic groups can further form polymeric-like catemer chains within crystals. To date, no exhaustive classification of these motifs has been established. In this work, 17 association types were identified (13 carboxyl–carboxyl and 4 carboxyl–carboxylate motifs) by taking into account the syn and anti carboxyl conformers, as well as the syn and anti lone pairs of the O atoms. From these data, a simple rule was derived stating that only eight distinct catemer motifs involving repetitive combinations of syn and anti carboxyl groups can be formed. Examples extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) for all identified dimers and catemers are presented, as well as statistical data related to their occurrence and conformational preferences. The inter-carboxyl(ate) and carboxyl(ate)–water hydrogen-bond properties are described, stressing the occurrence of very short (strong) hydrogen bonds. The precise characterization and classification of these supramolecular motifs should be of interest in crystal engineering, pharmaceutical and also biomolecular sciences, where similar motifs occur in the form of pairs of Asp/Glu amino acids or motifs involving ligands bearing carboxyl(ate) groups. Hence, we present data emphasizing how the analysis of hydrogen-containing small molecules of high resolution can help understand structural aspects of larger and more complex biomolecular systems of lower resolution. PMID:25827369

  18. 1D coordination polymers formed by tetranuclear lead(II) building blocks with carboxylate ligands: In situ isomerization of itaconic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Abhinandan; Jana, Swapan Kumar; Datta, Sayanti; Butcher, Raymond J.; Zangrando, Ennio; Dalai, Sudipta

    2013-11-15

    The synthesis of two new lead(II) coordination polymers, [Pb{sub 2}(mpic){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O)]·0.5H{sub 2}O (1) and [Pb{sub 2}(phen){sub 2}(cit)(mes)]·2H{sub 2}O (2) has been reported, where mpic=3-methyl picolinate, phen=o-phenanthroline, H{sub 2}cit=citraconic acid, H{sub 2}mes mesaconic acid. X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses showed that the complexes comprise topologically different 1D polymeric chains stabilized by weak interactions and both containing tetranuclear Pb{sub 4} units connected by carboxylate groups. In compound 1 3-methylpicolinic acid is formed in situ from 3-methyl piconitrile, and mesaconate and citraconate anions were surprisingly formed from itaconic acid during the synthesis of 2. The photoluminescence and thermal properties of the complexes have been studied. - Graphical abstract: Two new topologically different 1D coordination polymers formed by Pb{sub 4} clusters have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray analysis. The luminescence and thermal properties have been studied. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Both the complexes, made up of different ligands, forms topologycally different 1D polymeric chains containing Pb{sub 4} clusters. • The final structures are stabilized by weak interactions (H-bond, ????? stacking). • In complex 1, the 3-methylpicolinic acid is generated in situ from 3-methyl piconitrile. • Mesaconate and citraconate anions are surprisingly formed in situ from itaconic acid during the synthesis of complex 2, indicating an exceptional transformation.

  19. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 ?m) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 ?m) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  20. Novel 2-oxoimidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives as Hepatitis C virus NS3-4A serine protease inhibitors: synthesis, activity, and X-ray crystal structure of an enzyme inhibitor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Arasappan, Ashok; Njoroge, F. George; Parekh, Tejal N.; Yang, Xiaozheng; Pichardo, John; Butkiewicz, Nancy; Prongay, Andrew; Yao, Nanhua; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor

    2008-06-30

    Synthesis and HCV NS3 serine protease inhibitory activity of some novel 2-oxoimidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives are reported. Inhibitors derived from this new P2 core exhibited activity in the low {micro}M range. X-ray structure of an inhibitor, 15c bound to the protease is presented.

  1. A single point mutation in the novel PvCesA3 gene confers resistance to the carboxylic acid amide fungicide mandipropamid in Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Blum, Mathias; Waldner, Maya; Gisi, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    The grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, is one of the most devastating pathogens in viticulture. Effective control is mainly based on fungicide treatments, although resistance development in this pathogen is reported for a number of fungicides. In this study we describe for the first time the molecular mechanism of resistance to a carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicide. We identified a family of four cellulose synthase (CesA) genes containing conserved domains that are found in all processive glycosyltransferases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed their close relationship to the cellulose synthases of Phytophthora sp. Sequencing of the CesA genes in a CAA- resistant and -sensitive field isolate revealed five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting the amino acid structure of the proteins. SNP inheritance in F(1)-, F(2)- and F(3)-progeny confirmed resistance to be correlated with one single SNP located in PvCesA3. Only if present in both alleles, this SNP led to the substitution of a glycine for a serine residue at position 1105 (G1105S) in the deduced amino acid sequence, thus conferring CAA- resistance. Our data demonstrate that the identified genes are putative cellulose synthases and that one recessive mutation in PvCesA3 causes inheritable resistance to the CAA fungicide mandipropamid. PMID:20226261

  2. Complex formation equilibria of binary and ternary complexes involving 3,3-bis(1-methylimidazol-2yl)propionic acid and bio-relevant ligands as 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid with reference to plant hormone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoukry, Mohamed M.; Hassan, Safaa S.

    2014-01-01

    The formation equilibria for the binary complexes of Cu(II) with 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) and 3,3-bis(1-methylimidazol-2-yl)propionic acid (BIMP) were investigated. ACC and BIMP form the complexes 1 1 0, 1 2 0 and 1 1 -1. The ternary complexes of Cu(II) with BIMP and biorelevant ligands as some selected amino acids, peptides and DNA constituents are formed in a stepwise mechanism. The stability constants of the complexes formed were determined and their distribution diagrams were evaluated. The kinetics of hydrolysis of glycine methyl ester in presence of [Cu(BIMP)]+ was investigated by pH-stat technique and the mechanism was discussed.

  3. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Eggers Pedersen, Kathrine; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert; Greaves, Alana K; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a growing class of contaminants in the Arctic environment, and include the established perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFSAs and PFCAs of varying chain length have been reported to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptor density (dopamine-2 (D2), muscarinic cholinergic (mAChR) and gamma-butyric acid type A (GABA-A)) along with PFSA and PFCA concentrations. Average brain ?PFSA concentration was 25ng/g ww where PFOS accounted for 91%. Average ?PFCA concentration was 88ng/g ww where PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA combined accounted for 79%. The highest concentrations of PFASs were measured in brain stem, cerebellum and hippocampus. Correlative analyses were performed both across and within brain regions. Significant positive correlations were found between PFASs and MAO activity in occipital lobe (e.g. ?PFCA; rp=0.83, p=0.041, n=6) and across brain regions (e.g. ?PFCA; rp=0.47, p=0.001, ?PFSA; rp=0.44, p>0.001; n=50). GABA-A receptor density was positively correlated with two PFASs across brain regions (PFOS; rp=0.33, p=0.02 and PFDoDA; rp=0.34, p=0.014; n=52). Significant negative correlations were found between mAChR density and PFASs in cerebellum (e.g. ?PFCA; rp=-0.95, p=0.013, n=5) and across brain regions (e.g. ?PFCA; rp=-0.40, p=0.003, ?PFSA; rp=-0.37, p=0.007; n=52). AChE activity and D2 density were negatively correlated with single PFCAs in several brain regions, whereas GS activity was positively correlated with PFASs primarily in occipital lobe. Results from the present study support the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in polar bears from East Greenland have exceeded the threshold limits for neurochemical alterations. It is not known whether the observed alterations in neurochemical signaling are currently having negative effects on neurochemistry in East Greenland polar bears. However given the importance of these systems in cognitive processes and motor function, the present results indicate an urgent need for a better understanding of neurochemical effects of PFAS exposure to wildlife. PMID:25682255

  4. Genetic identification of ACC-RESISTANT2 reveals involvement of LYSINE HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER1 in the uptake of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kihye; Lee, Sumin; Song, Won-Yong; Lee, Rin-A; Lee, Inhye; Ha, Kyungsun; Koo, Ja-Choon; Park, Soon-Ki; Nam, Hong-Gil; Lee, Youngsook; Soh, Moon-Soo

    2015-03-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a biosynthetic precursor of ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone which controls a myriad of aspects of development and stress adaptation in higher plants. Here, we identified a mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana, designated as ACC-resistant2 (are2), displaying a dose-dependent resistance to exogenously applied ACC. Physiological analyses revealed that mutation of are2 impaired various aspects of exogenous ACC-induced ethylene responses, while not affecting sensitivity to other plant hormones during seedling development. Interestingly, the are2 mutant was normally sensitive to gaseous ethylene, compared with the wild type. Double mutant analysis showed that the ethylene-overproducing mutations, eto1 or eto3, and the constitutive ethylene signaling mutation, ctr1 were epistatic to the are2 mutation. These results suggest that the are2 mutant is not defective in ethylene biosynthesis or ethylene signaling per se. Map-based cloning of ARE2 demonstrated that LYSINE HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER1 (LHT1), encoding an amino acid transporter, is the gene responsible. An uptake experiment with radiolabeled ACC indicated that mutations of LHT1 reduced, albeit not completely, uptake of ACC. Further, we performed an amino acid competition assay and found that two amino acids, alanine and glycine, known as substrates of LHT1, could suppress the ACC-induced triple response in a LHT1-dependent way. Taken together, these results provide the first molecular genetic evidence supporting that a class of amino acid transporters including LHT1 takes part in transport of ACC, thereby influencing exogenous ACC-induced ethylene responses in A. thaliana. PMID:25520403

  5. Supramolecular architectures in the co-crystals involving carboxylic acids and 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, an extended bipyridyl type ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezer, Samuel; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2011-03-01

    In the present study 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (BPA) crystallizes with 2-chlorobenzoic acid (2CBA), 4-methylbenzoic acid (4MBA), phthalic acid (PA), succinic acid (SA) and adipic acid (AA) to yield co-crystals BPA.2CBA ( 1), BPA.4MBA ( 2), BPA.PA ( 3), BPA.SA ( 4) and BPA.AA ( 5) respectively. All the five co-crystals are constituted by the utilization of the R22(7) synthon, created by the combination of hard N-H⋯O and complementary soft C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. 1 and 2 illustrate the formation of three component aggregate as in both cases BPA interacts with carboxylic acids to form supramolecular ladder-type assembies. Molecular recognition in co-crystals 3-5 results in the formation of extended infinite tapes and differ further as a consequence of the soft C-H⋯O bonds and stacking interactions. Structure 3 shows the formation of zig-zag tapes while 4 and 5 form linear infinite tapes. Structure 4 shows isostructural behaviour with an analogous structure previously reported (Bowes et al. (2003) [77]).The isostructurality is because of the structural resemblance between both the entities in the co-crystals - fumaric acid/succinic acid and 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane/1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene. Compound 5 shows good degree of resemblance with another reported analogous structure-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene adipic acid. (Zhang et al. (2003) [72]). Structure 5 and the reported structure form similar supramolecular sheets through intertape interactions differing from each other only in the alignment of neighboring tapes. The linear tapes in both the cases are linked laterally through different C-H⋯O interactions and ventrally through different stacking interactions. This work illustrates the construction of different supramolecular architectures and the role of weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions in the higher level of supramolecular organization.

  6. Amino Acid Correlation Functions in Protein Structures.

    PubMed

    Kržišnik, Klemen; Urbic, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial folding of proteins from their amino acid sequences has an enormous potential in contemporary life sciences. The ability to predict secondary and tertiary structures from primary ones through the use of computers will enable a much faster and more efficient discovery of organic substances with therapeutic or otherwise bioactive potential, largely eliminating the need for synthesis and testing of large numbers of organic substances for physiological effects. Our manuscript presents an application of correlation function analysis, usually used to describe properties of liquids, to protein structures in order to elucidate statistically favored distances among amino acids. Pairwise distribution functions were calculated between C-alpha atoms of 20 amino acids in a large ensemble of Protein Data Bank structures. The correlation functions show characteristic distances in amino acid interactions. Different propensities for forming various secondary structure elements among all 210 possible amino acid pairs have been visualized and some have been interpreted. Notably, we found helices to be surprisingly common among certain pairs. PMID:26454591

  7. Competing intermolecular interactions in the high-temperature solid phases of even saturated carboxylic acids (C10H19O2H to C20H39O2H).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Calvo, Evelyn; Gbabode, Gabin; Cordobilla, Raquel; Calvet, Teresa; Cuevas-Diarte, Miquel Angel; Negrier, Philippe; Mondieig, Denise

    2009-12-01

    Structural knowledge of the high-temperature phases of saturated carboxylic acids (C(n)H(2n-1)O(2)H) from C(6)H(11)O(2)H to C(23)H(45)O(2)H is now complete. Crystal structures of the high-temperature phases of even acids from decanoic (C(10)H(19)O(2)H) to eicosanoic (C(20)H(39)O(2)H) are reported. The crystal structures of the six compounds were determined from powder X-ray diffraction data following direct space methods and refined by the Rietveld method combined with force field geometry optimization. The combination proved to be a valuable approach to obtain structures that are chemically sensible and in close agreement with the powder pattern. At the end of the process solid-state DFT calculations were applied to improve the overall accuracy of the system but in this case DFT did not render better structures. The high-temperature solid phases of even carboxylic acids are all P2(1)/c with Z=4, the molecules are united into dimers via strong hydrogen bonds. Two major types of interactions govern the crystal packing of carboxylic acids, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. A survey of the intermolecular interactions has revealed that hydrogen bonds are the dominant interaction for acids with less than 23 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain while van der Waals interactions dominate the packing for acids with more than 23 carbon atoms. PMID:19862782

  8. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  9. Adsorption of lactic acid on chiral Pt surfaces--a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Franke, J-H; Kosov, D S

    2013-02-28

    The adsorption of the chiral molecule lactic acid on chiral Pt surfaces is studied by density functional theory calculations. First, we study the adsorption of L-lactic acid on the flat Pt(111) surface. Using the optimed PBE - van der Waals (oPBE-vdW) functional, which includes van der Waals forces on an ab initio level, it is shown that the molecule has two binding sites, a carboxyl and the hydroxyl oxygen atoms. Since real chiral surfaces are (i) known to undergo thermal roughening that alters the distribution of kinks and step edges but not the overall chirality and (ii) kink sites and edge sites are usually the energetically most favored adsorption sites, we focus on two surfaces that allow qualitative sampling of the most probable adsorption sites. We hereby consider chiral surfaces exhibiting (111) facets, in particular, Pt(321) and Pt(643). The binding sites are either both on kink sites-which is the case for Pt(321) or on one kink site-as on Pt(643). The binding energy of the molecule on the chiral surfaces is much higher than on the Pt(111) surface. We show that the carboxyl group interacts more strongly than the hydroxyl group with the kink sites. The results indicate the possible existence of very small chiral selectivities of the order of 20 meV for the Pt(321) and Pt(643) surfaces. L-lactic acid is more stable on Pt(321)(S) than D-lactic acid, while the chiral selectivity is inverted on Pt(643)(S). The most stable adsorption configurations of L- and D-lactic acid are similar for Pt(321) but differ for Pt(643). We explore the impact of the different adsorption geometries on the work function, which is important for field ion microscopy. PMID:23464170

  10. Pilot Evaluation of Anti-1-amino-2-[18F] fluorocyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid (anti-2-[18F] FACPC) PET-CT in Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Savir-Baruch, Bital; Schuster, David M.; Jarkas, Nashwa; Master, Viraj A.; Nieh, Peter T.; Halkar, Raghuveer K.; Nye, Jonathon A.; Lewis, Melinda M.; Crowe, Ronald J.; Voll, Ronald J.; Camp, Vernon M.; Bellamy, Leah M.; Roberts, David L.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Anti-1-amino-2-[18F]fluorocyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid (anti-2-[18F]FACPC) is an unnatural alicyclic amino acid radiotracer with high uptake in the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line in vitro. Our goal was to determine if anti-2-[18F]FACPC is useful in the detection of prostate carcinoma. Procedures Five patients with elevated PSA (1.1–20.5 ng/mL) after curative therapy for prostate carcinoma underwent 60 min dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) of the pelvis after IV injection of 193–340 MBq of anti-2-[18F]FACPC. Uptake was compared against PET scans in the same patients with the leucine analog, anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (anti-[18F]FACBC), at similar time points and validated via pathology, clinical, and imaging follow-up. Results At 5 min, average (±SD) SUVmax of malignant lesions is 4.1(±1.3) for anti-2-[18F] FACPC and 4.3(±1.1) for anti-[18F]FACBC. Yet, blood pool activity at 5 min is significantly higher for anti-2-[18F]FACPC with average (±SD) lesion/blood pool SUVmax/SUVmean ratio of 1.4 (±0.5) vs. 3.0 (±0.9) for anti-[18F]FACBC. At 20 min, average (±SD) SUVmax of malignant lesions is 2.6 (±1.0) for anti-2-[18F]FACPC and 3.4 (±0.8) for anti-[18F]FACBC. Yet, bladder activity at 20 min is significantly more intense for anti-2-[18F] FACPC with average (±SD) lesion/bladder SUVmax/SUVmean ratio of 0.3 (±0.8) vs. 2.3 (±1.4) for anti-[18F]FACBC. Conclusions While prostate bed lesions are visible on early imaging with anti-2-[18F]FACPC, there is high blood pool activity obscuring nodes. As blood pool fades, nodal uptake decreases and high bladder activity then obscures pelvic structures. Compared with anti-[18F]FACBC, imaging characteristics for anti-2-[18F]FACPC are unfavorable for pelvic recurrent prostate carcinoma detection. PMID:20976627

  11. The direct determination of porphyrin carboxylic acids. High-pressure liquid chromatography with solvent systems containing phase-transfer agents.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Charalambides, A A; Jones, K; Magnus, I A; Ridge, R J

    1978-01-01

    A novel method for separating porphyrin polycarboxylic acids is described and illustrated by its application to the direct analysis of biological (deep-sea medusae), clinical (urine) and chemical ('haematoporphyrin derivative') samples. PMID:697743

  12. Complementary DNA cloning of the pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene and agrobacterium-mediated anti-sense genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Dong, Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to genetically modify plantlets of the Chinese yali pear to reduce their expression of ripening-associated 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) and therefore increase the shelf-life of the fruit. Primers were designed with selectivity for the conserved regions of published ACO gene sequences, and yali complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning was performed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The obtained cDNA fragment contained 831 base pairs, encoding 276 amino acid residues, and shared no less than 94% nucleotide sequence identity with other published ACO genes. The cDNA fragment was inversely inserted into a pBI121 expression vector, between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator, in order to construct the anti?sense expression vector of the ACO gene; it was transfected into cultured yali plants using Agrobacterium LBA4404. Four independent transgenic lines of pear plantlets were obtained and validated by PCR analysis. A Southern blot assay revealed that there were three transgenic lines containing a single copy of exogenous gene and one line with double copies. The present study provided germplasm resources for the cultivation of novel storage varieties of pears, therefore providing a reference for further applications of anti?sense RNA technology in the genetic improvement of pears and other fruit. PMID:26460204

  13. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Transported from Roots to Shoots Promotes Leaf Abscission in Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) Seedlings Rehydrated after Water Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Tudela, Darius; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    1992-01-01

    The effect of water stress and subsequent rehydration on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, ACC synthase activity, ethylene production, and leaf abscission was studied in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) seedlings. Leaf abscission occurred when drought-stressed plants were allowed to rehydrate, whereas no abscission was observed in plants under water stress conditions. In roots of water-stressed plants, a high ACC accumulation and an increase in ACC synthase activity were observed. Neither increase in ACC content nor significant ethylene production were detected in leaves of water-stressed plants. After rehydration, a sharp rise in ACC content and ethylene production was observed in leaves of water-stressed plants. Content of ACC in xylem fluid was 10-fold higher in plants rehydrated for 2 h after water stress than in nonstressed plants. Leaf abscission induced by rehydration after drought stress was inhibited when roots or shoots were treated before water stress with aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, inhibitor of ACC synthase) or cobalt ion (inhibitor of ethylene-forming enzyme), respectively. However, AOA treatments to shoots did not suppress leaf abscission. The data indicate that water stress promotes ACC synthesis in roots of Cleopatra mandarin seedlings. Rehydration of plants results in ACC transport to the shoots, where it is oxidized to ethylene. Subsequently, this ethylene induces leaf abscission. PMID:16652935

  14. Structure of four molecular salts assembled from noncovalent associations between carboxylic acids and aromatic bases containing benzimidazole moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Jin, Shouwen; Liang, Shanshan; Chen, Wei; Wang, Daqi

    2013-05-01

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction has enabled the elucidation of four examples of benzimidazole-acid salts, novel contributions to the extensive research into the occurrence of benzimidazole-acid compound motifs in organic salts. In their place are a series of motifs in which extensive strong classical Nsbnd H⋯O/Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) combine with other nonconventional weaker interactions. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids employed, has led to the creation of four supramolecular arrays with 3D network structure. All salts were formed in solution and obtained by the slow evaporation technique. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between acids and benzimidazole derivatives are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  15. A Mononuclear Carboxylate-Rich Oxoiron(IV) Complex: a Structural and Functional Mimic of TauD Intermediate ‘J’

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Aidan R.; Guo, Yisong; Vu, Van V.; Bominaar, Emile L.; Münck, Eckard; Que, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The pentadentate ligand nBu-P2DA (2(b), nBu-P2DA = N-(1?,1?-bis(2-pyridyl)pentyl)iminodiacetate) was designed to bind an iron center in a carboxylate-rich environment similar to that found in the active sites of TauD and other ?-ketoglutarate-dependent mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes. The iron(II) complex nBu4N[FeII(Cl)(nBu-P2DA)] (3(b)-Cl) was synthesized and crystallographically characterized to have a 2-pyridine-2-carboxylate donor set in the plane perpendicular to the Fe-Cl bond. Reaction of 3(b)-Cl with N-heterocyclic amines such as pyridine or imidazole yielded the N-heterocyclic amine adducts [FeII(N)(nBu-P2DA)]. These adducts in turn reacted with oxo-transfer reagents at ?95 °C to afford a short-lived oxoiron(IV) complex [FeIV(O)(nBu-P2DA)] (5(b)) in yields as high as 90% depending on the heterocycle used. Complex 5(b) exhibits near-IR absorption features (?max = 770 nm) and Mossbauer parameters (? = 0.04 mm/s; ?EQ = 1.13 mm/s; D = 27±2 cm?1) characteristic of an S = 1 oxoiron(IV) species. Direct evidence for an Fe=O bond of 1.66 Å was found from EXAFS analysis. DFT calculations on 5(b) in its S =1 spin state afforded a geometry-optimized structure consistent with the EXAFS data. They further demonstrated that the replacement of two pyridine donors in [FeIV(O)(N4Py)]2+ (N4Py = N,N-(bis(2-pyridyl)methyl)N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) with carboxylate donors in 5(b) decreased the energy gap between the ground S = 1 and the excited S = 2 states, reflecting the weaker equatorial ligand field of 5(b) and accounting for its larger D value. Complex 5(b) reacted readily with dihydrotoluene, methyldiphenylphosphine and ferrocene at ?60 °C, and in all cases was approximately a 5-fold more reactive oxidant than [FeIV(O)(N4Py)]2+. The reactivity differences between these two complexes may arise from a combination of electronic and steric factors. Carboxylate-rich 5(b) represents the closest structural mimic reported thus far of the oxoiron(IV) intermediate (‘J’) found in TauD and provides us with vital insights into the role carboxylate ligands play in modulating the spectroscopic and reactivity properties of the non-heme oxoiron(IV) moiety. PMID:23267430

  16. A TECHNIQUE TO RECOVER TRACER AS CARBOXYL-CARBON AND ALPHA-NITROGEN FROM AMINO ACIDS IN SOIL HYDROLYSATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isotope analysis of biochemical compounds provides an unequivocal means for detecting assimilation of tracer C and N into microbial biomass. A diffusion method recently developed to determine amino acid-N by ninhydrin oxidation of soil hydrolysates was modified to permit simultaneous collection of ...

  17. Synthesis of 2-oxazolone-4-carboxylates from 3-nosyloxy- and 3-bromo-2-ketoesters.

    PubMed

    Okonya, John F; Hoffman, Robert V; Johnson, M Catherine

    2002-02-22

    New methods for the synthesis of 2-oxazolone-4-carboxylates from 3-nosyloxy- and 3-bromo-2-ketoesters are described. Condensation of 3-nosyloxy-2-ketoesters with methyl carbamate in refluxing toluene in the presence of p-TSA provided 2-oxazolone-4-carboxylates in good yields (41-80%). Alternatively, bromination of alpha-ketoesters with CuBr2 provided 3-bromo-2-ketoesters which condensed with methyl carbamate in the presence of p-TSA and AgOTf under similar conditions to provide 2-oxazolone-4-carboxylates in comparable yields (30-79%). The 2-oxazolone-4-carboxylates bear functionality that can be elaborated to a variety of potentially useful compounds. For example, some of these heterocycles were readily N-acylated, reduced to alcohols, or saponified and coupled with amino acids. PMID:11846650

  18. Nanostructured alkyl carboxylic acid-based restricted access solvents: Application to the combined microextraction and cleanup of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Casero, N; Çabuk, H; Martínez-Sagarra, G; Devesa, J A; Rubio, S

    2015-08-26

    Alkyl carboxylic acid-based nanostructured solvents, synthesized in mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and water through self-assembly and coacervation, were proved to behave as restricted access liquids. Both physical and chemical mechanisms were found responsible for exclusion of macromolecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The potential of these solvents for extracting small molecules from complex solid samples, without interference from large biomolecules, was here evaluated. For this purpose, they were applied to the extraction of 14 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from mosses prior to their separation by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (LC-FLD). Sample treatment involved the vortex shaking of 200 mg of moss with 200 ?L of decanoic acid-based solvent for 5 min, subsequent centrifugation for 8 min and analysis of the extract by LC-FLD using external calibration. Proteins precipitated during extraction because of both the decrease of the dielectric constant of the solution caused by THF and the formation of macromolecular complexes with decanoic acid. Polysaccharides were not solubilized in the aqueous cavities of the solvent because of their size exclusion. In-house method validation was performed according to the recommendations of the European Commission Decision 202/657/EC. Method detection and quantification limits for the different PAHs were in the ranges 0.04-0.24 and 0.14-0.80 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The method was applied to the determination of different moss species collected in both polluted and unpolluted sites in the South of Spain. Recoveries were within the range 71-110%. The results obtained show that solvents with restricted access properties have the potential to expand the scope of application of restricted access materials to areas other than biological fluids because of their suitability to combine analyte isolation and sample cleanup of solid samples in a single step. PMID:26347174

  19. Inhibitory effect of medicinal plant-derived carboxylic acids on the human transporters hOAT1, hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP2B1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Si, Duan-Yun; Yi, Xiu-Lin; Liu, Chang-Xiao

    2014-02-01

    A significant number of organic carboxylic acids have been shown to influence the absorption and distribution of drugs mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs). In this study, uptake experiments were performed to assess the inhibitory effects of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, oleanolic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cynarin on hOAT1, hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP2B1. After a drug-drug interaction (DDI) investigation, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cynarin were found and validated to inhibit hOAT1 in a competitive manner, and deoxycholic acid was found to be an inhibitor of all four transporters. The apparent 50% inhibitory concentrations of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cynarin were estimated to be 133.87, 3.69, 90.03 and 6.03 ?mol·L(-1) for hOAT1, respectively. The apparent 50% inhibitory concentrations of deoxycholic acid were estimated to be 9.57 ?mol·L(-1) for hOAT3, 70.54 ?mol·L(-1) for hOATP1B1, and 168.27 ?mol·L(-1) for hOATP2B1. Because cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and cynarin are ingredients of food or food additives, the present study suggests there are new food-drug interactions to be disclosed. In addition, deoxycholic acid may be used as a probe for studying the correlation of OATs and OATPs. PMID:24636064

  20. Carboxyl-terminal domain of MUC16 imparts tumorigenic and metastatic functions through nuclear translocation of JAK2 to pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Srustidhar; Lakshmanan, Imayavaramban; Majhi, Prabin D.; Smith, Lynette M.; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Batra, Surinder K.

    2015-01-01

    MUC16 (CA125) is a type-I transmembrane glycoprotein that is up-regulated in multiple cancers including pancreatic cancer (PC). However, the existence and role of carboxyl-terminal MUC16 generated following its cleavage in PC is unknown. Our previous study using a systematic dual-epitope tagged domain deletion approach of carboxyl-terminal MUC16 has demonstrated the generation of a 17-kDa cleaved MUC16 (MUC16-Cter). Here, we demonstrate the functional significance of MUC16-Cter in PC using the dual-epitope tagged version (N-terminal FLAG- and C-terminal HA-tag) of 114 carboxyl-terminal residues of MUC16 (F114HA). In vitro analyses using F114HA transfected MiaPaCa-2 and T3M4 cells showed enhanced proliferation, motility and increased accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase with apoptosis resistance, a feature associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs). This was supported by enrichment of ALDH+ CSCs along with enhanced drug-resistance. Mechanistically, we demonstrate a novel function of MUC16-Cter that promotes nuclear translocation of JAK2 resulting in phosphorylation of Histone-3 up-regulating stemness-specific genes LMO2 and NANOG. Jak2 dependence was demonstrated using Jak2+/+ and Jak2?/? cells. Using eGFP-Luciferase labeled cells, we demonstrate enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential of MUC16-Cter in vivo. Taken together, we demonstrate that MUC16-Cter mediated enrichment of CSCs is partly responsible for tumorigenic, metastatic and drug-resistant properties of PC cells. PMID:25691062

  1. Syntheses, structures and tunable luminescence of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks based on azole-containing carboxylic acid ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dian; Rao, Xingtang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2015-10-01

    Design and synthesis of a series of isostructural lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (LnMOFs) serving as phosphors by coordinate the H2TIPA (5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid) ligands and lanthanide ions is reported. The color of the luminescence can be tuned by adjusting the relative concentration of the lanthanide ions in the host framework GdTIPA, and near-pure-white light emission can be achieved.

  2. Imaging Functional Nucleic Acid Delivery to Skin.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Roger L; Hickerson, Robyn P; González-González, Emilio; Flores, Manuel A; Speaker, Tycho P; Rogers, Faye A; Milstone, Leonard M; Contag, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Monogenic skin diseases arise from well-defined single gene mutations, and in some cases a single point mutation. As the target cells are superficial, these diseases are ideally suited for treatment by nucleic acid-based therapies as well as monitoring through a variety of noninvasive imaging technologies. Despite the accessibility of the skin, there remain formidable barriers for functional delivery of nucleic acids to the target cells within the dermis and epidermis. These barriers include the stratum corneum and the layered structure of the skin, as well as more locally, the cellular, endosomal and nuclear membranes. A wide range of technologies for traversing these barriers has been described and moderate success has been reported for several approaches. The lessons learned from these studies include the need for combinations of approaches to facilitate nucleic acid delivery across these skin barriers and then functional delivery across the cellular and nuclear membranes for expression (e.g., reporter genes, DNA oligonucleotides or shRNA) or into the cytoplasm for regulation (e.g., siRNA, miRNA, antisense oligos). The tools for topical delivery that have been evaluated include chemical, physical and electrical methods, and the development and testing of each of these approaches has been greatly enabled by imaging tools. These techniques allow delivery and real time monitoring of reporter genes, therapeutic nucleic acids and also triplex nucleic acids for gene editing. Optical imaging is comprised of a number of modalities based on properties of light-tissue interaction (e.g., scattering, autofluorescence, and reflectance), the interaction of light with specific molecules (e.g., absorbtion, fluorescence), or enzymatic reactions that produce light (bioluminescence). Optical imaging technologies operate over a range of scales from macroscopic to microscopic and if necessary, nanoscopic, and thus can be used to assess nucleic acid delivery to organs, regions, cells and even subcellular structures. Here we describe the animal models, reporter genes, imaging approaches and general strategies for delivery of nucleic acids to cells in the skin for local expression (e.g., plasmid DNA) or gene silencing (e.g., siRNA) with the intent of developing nucleic acid-based therapies to treat diseases of the skin. PMID:26530911

  3. Use of sterically hindered carboxylate ligands to model structural and functional features of dioxygen-activating centers in non-heme diiron enzymes

    E-print Network

    Lee, Dongwhan, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Chapter I. Modeling Dioxygen-Activating Centers in Non-Heme Diiron Enzymes: Carboxylate Shifts in Diiron(II) Complexes Supported by Sterically Hindered Carboxylate Ligands General synthetic routes are described for a series ...

  4. Sequential truncation of the lactose permease over a three-amino acid sequence near the carboxyl terminus leads to progressive loss of activity and stability

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, E.; Hardy, D.; Pastore, J.C.; Kaback, H.R. )

    1991-04-15

    Previous experiments are consistent with the notion that residues 396-401 (...SVFTLS...) at the carboxyl terminus of the last putative transmembrane helix of the lactose (lac) permease of Escherichia coli are important for protection against proteolytic degradation and suggest that this region of the permease may be necessary for proper folding. Stop codons (TAA) have now been substituted sequentially for amino acid codons 396-401 in the lacY gene, and the termination mutants were expressed from the plasmid pT7-5. With respect to transport, permease truncated at residue 396-or 397 is completely defective, while molecules truncated at residues 398, 399, 400, and 401, respectively, exhibit 15-25%, 30-40%, 40-45%, and 70-100% of wild-type activity. As judged by pulse-chase experiments with ({sup 35}S)methionine, wild-type permease or permease truncated at residue 401 is stable, while permease molecules truncated at position 400, 399, 398, 397, or 396 are degraded at increasingly rapid rates. The findings indicate that either the last turn of putative helix XII or the region immediately distal to helix XII is important for proper folding and protection against proteolytic degradation.

  5. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4?cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  6. Pharmacophore Elucidation and Molecular Docking Studies on 5-Phenyl-1-(3-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic Acid Derivatives as COX-2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Marc; Sippl, Wolfgang; Radwan, Awwad A.

    2010-01-01

    A set of 5-phenyl-1-(3-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid derivatives (16–32) showing anti-inflammatory activity was analyzed using a three-dimensional qualitative structure-selectivity relationship (3D QSSR) method. The CatalystHipHop approach was used to generate a pharmacophore model for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors based on a training set of 15 active inhibitors (1–15). The degree of fitting of the test set compounds (16–32) to the generated hypothetical model revealed a qualitative measure of the more or less selective COX-2 inhibition of these compounds. The results indicate that most derivatives (16, 18, 20–25, and 30–32) are able to effectively satisfy the proposed pharmacophore geometry using energy accessible conformers (Econf < 20 kcal/mol). In addition, the triazole derivatives (16–32) were docked into COX-1 and COX-2 X-ray structures, using the program GOLD. Based on the docking results it is suggested that several of these novel triazole derivatives are active COX inhibitors with a significant preference for COX-2. In principle, this work presents an interesting, comprehensive approach to theoretically predict the mode of action of compounds that showed anti-inflammatory activity in an in vivo model. PMID:21179343

  7. 7-Amino-2-methylsulfanyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid as the dimethylformamide and water monosolvates at 293?K.

    PubMed

    Canfora, Loredana; Pillet, Sebastien; Espinosa, Enrique; Ruisi, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    The molecular structure of 7-amino-2-methylsulfanyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid is reported in two crystal environments, viz. as the dimethylformamide (DMF) monosolvate, C(7)H(7)N(5)O(2)S·C(3)H(7)NO, (I), and as the monohydrate, C(7)H(7)N(5)O(2)S·H(2)O, (II), both at 293?(2)?K. The triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine molecule is of interest with respect to the possible biological activity of its coordination compounds. While the DMF solvate exhibits a layered structural arrangement through N...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, the monohydrate displays a network of intermolecular O...O and N...O hydrogen bonds assisted by cocrystallized water molecules and weak ?-? stacking interactions, leading to a different three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. Based on results from topological analyses of the electron-density distribution in X-H...O (X = O, N and C) regions, hydrogen-bonding energies have been estimated from structural information only, enabling the characterization of hydrogen-bond graph energies. PMID:20921616

  8. Engineering the central biosynthetic and secondary metabolic pathways of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1201 to improve phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kaiming; Zhou, Lian; Jiang, Haixia; Sun, Shuang; Fang, Yunling; Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xuehong; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-11-01

    The secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is an important component of the newly registered biopesticide Shenqinmycin. We used a combined method involving gene, promoter, and protein engineering to modify the central biosynthetic and secondary metabolic pathways in the PCA-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1201. The PCA yield of the resulting strain PA-IV was increased 54.6-fold via the following strategies: (1) blocking PCA conversion and enhancing PCA efflux pumping; (2) increasing metabolic flux towards the PCA biosynthetic pathway through the over-production of two DAHP synthases and blocking the synthesis of 21 secondary metabolites; (3) increasing the PCA precursor supply through the engineering of five chorismate-utilizing enzymes; (4) engineering the promoters of two PCA biosynthetic gene clusters. Strain PA-IV produced 9882mg/L PCA in fed-batch fermenation, which is twice as much as that produced by the current industrial strain. Strain PA-IV was also genetically stable and comparable to Escherichia coli in cytotoxicity. PMID:26369437

  9. The PROCESS experiment: amino and carboxylic acids under Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in low-earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpretation of future data collected by these missions is to understand the preservation of organic matter in the martian environment. Several laboratory experiments have been devoted to quantifying and qualifying the evolution of organic molecules under simulated environmental conditions of Mars. However, these laboratory simulations are limited, and one major constraint is the reproduction of the UV spectrum that reaches the surface of Mars. As part of the PROCESS experiment of the European EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station, a study was performed on the photodegradation of organics under filtered extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation that mimics Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions. Glycine, serine, phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid were exposed to these conditions for 1.5 years, and their evolution was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after their retrieval. The results were compared with data from laboratory experiments. A 1.5-year exposure to Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in space resulted in complete degradation of the organic compounds. Half-lives between 50 and 150?h for martian surface conditions were calculated from both laboratory and low-Earth orbit experiments. The results highlight that none of those organics are stable under low-Earth orbit solar UV radiation conditions. PMID:22680690

  10. An unprecedented Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling reaction of aromatic carboxylic acids in aqueous medium under air: synthesis of 3-aryl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines from aryl chlorides.

    PubMed

    Mu, Bing; Wu, Yusheng; Li, Jingya; Zou, Dapeng; Chang, Junbiao; Wu, Yangjie

    2015-12-15

    An efficient and practical protocol for palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative arylation of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxylic acids with aryl chlorides has been developed. Note that the reaction could proceed smoothly without an additive in aqueous medium under an ambient atmosphere, and the addition of H2O could effectively promote the decarboxylative arylation. Particularly noteworthy is that these results represent the first examples of Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling reactions of (hetero) aromatic carboxylic acids in aqueous medium under air, and the first successful examples of the synthesis of 3-aryl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines using cheap, diverse aryl chlorides and heteroaryl chlorides as the starting materials. PMID:26566049

  11. Synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized graphene nanosheets for high dispersion of platinum nanoparticles based on the reduction of graphene oxide via 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yinjie; Chen, Jinhua; Zheng, Xingliang; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qionghua; Lu, Cuihong

    2013-10-01

    A one-step reduction/functionalization strategy for the synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized graphene nanosheets is reported in this paper. 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde (PCA) is introduced as a new reductant for the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), serving three roles: reducing GO to graphene nanosheets (GNs), stabilizing the as-prepared GNs due to the electrostatic repulsion of the oxidation products of PCA (1-pyrenecarboxylate, PC?) on the surface of the GNs and anchoring Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) with high dispersion and small particle size. Transmission electron microscopy shows that Pt NPs with an average diameter of 1.3 ± 0.2 nm are uniformly dispersed on the surface of the PC?-functionalized GNs (PC?-GNs). The obtained Pt NPs/PC?-GNs nanohybrids have higher electrocatalytic activity and stability towards methanol oxidation in comparison with Pt NPs supported on GNs obtained by the chemical reduction of GO with the typical reductant, hydrazine. PMID:24013585

  12. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylic acids in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) from Midway Island, North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Wang, Jun; Leong, Gladys; Woodward, Lee Ann; Letcher, Robert J; Li, Qing X

    2015-11-01

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP) is a gyre of marine plastic debris in the North Pacific Ocean, and nearby is Midway Atoll which is a focal point for ecological damage. This study investigated 13 C4-C16 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four (C4, C6, C8 and C10) perfluorinated sulfonates and perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexane sulfonate [collectively perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)] in black-footed albatross tissues (collected in 2011) from Midway Atoll. Of the 18 PFCAs and PFSAs monitored, most were detectable in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues. The concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs were higher than those in most seabirds from the arctic environment, but lower than those in most of fish-eating water birds collected in the U.S. mainland. The concentrations of the PFAAs in the albatross livers were 7-fold higher than those in Laysan albatross liver samples from the same location reported in 1994. The concentration ranges of PFOS were 22.91-70.48, 3.01-6.59 and 0.53-8.35 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively, in the liver, muscle and adipose. In the liver samples PFOS was dominant, followed by longer chain PFUdA (8.04-18.70 ng g(-1) ww), PFTrDA, and then PFNA, PFDA and PFDoA. Short chain PFBA, PFPeA, PFBS and PFODA were below limit of quantification. C8-C13 PFCAs showed much higher composition compared to those found in other wildlife where PFOS typically predominated. The concentrations of PFUdA in all 8 individual albatross muscle samples were even higher than those of PFOS. This phenomenon may be attributable to GPGP as a pollution source as well as PFAA physicochemical properties. PMID:26037817

  13. Diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolated nitric oxide donor ester prodrugs of 1-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-5-aryl-1H-pyrazol-3-carboxylic acids: synthesis, nitric oxide release studies and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Khaled R A; Chowdhury, Morshed Alam; Dong, Ying; Knaus, Edward E

    2008-07-01

    A new group of hybrid nitric oxide-releasing anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-coxibs) wherein an O(2)-acetoxymethyl-1-(N-ethyl-N-methylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (11a-c) NO-donor moiety is attached directly to the carboxylic acid group of 1-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-5-aryl-1H-pyrazol-3-carboxylic acids were synthesized. The diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate compounds 11a-c all released a low amount of NO upon incubation with phosphate buffer (PBS) at pH 7.4 (7.7-9.3% range). In comparison, the percentage of NO released was significantly higher (67.5-73.6% of the theoretical maximal release of two molecules of NO/molecule of the parent hybrid ester prodrug) when the diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate ester prodrugs were incubated in the presence of rat serum. These incubation studies suggest that both NO and the anti-inflammatory 1-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-5-(4-H, 4-F or 4-Me-phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-carboxylic acid (9a-c) would be released from the parent NONO-coxib upon in vivo cleavage by non-specific serum esterases. The 1-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-5-(4-H, 4-F or 4-Me-phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-carboxylic acids (9a-c) exhibited AI activities (ID(50)=85.2-104.4 mg/kg po range) between that exhibited by the reference drugs aspirin (ID(50)=128.7 mg/kg po) and celecoxib (ID(50)=10.8 mg/kg po). Hybrid ester anti-inflammatory/NO-donor prodrugs (NONO-coxibs) offers a potential drug design concept targeted toward the development of anti-inflammatory drugs that are devoid of adverse ulcerogenic and/or cardiovascular effects. PMID:18513975

  14. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  15. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  16. Molecular structure, FT-IR, FT-Raman, NBO, HOMO and LUMO, MEP, NLO and molecular docking study of 2-[(E)-2-(2-bromophenyl)ethenyl]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ulahannan, Rajeev T; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Musiol, Robert; Jampilek, Josef; Van Alsenoy, Christian; War, Javeed Ahmad; Srivastava, S K

    2015-12-01

    The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-[(E)-2-(2-bromophenyl)ethenyl]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. Potential energy distribution of the normal modes of vibrations was done using GAR2PED program. (1)H NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out by using B3LYP functional with SDD basis set. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. MEP was performed by the DFT method and the predicted infrared intensities and Raman activities have also been reported. The calculated geometrical parameters are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. The title compound forms a stable complex with PknB as is evident from the binding affinity values and the molecular docking results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against PknB and this may result in development of new anti-tuberculostic agents. PMID:26142173

  17. Regioregular poly(thiophene-3-alkanoic acid)s: water soluble conducting polymers suitable for chromatic chemosensing in

    E-print Network

    McCullough, Richard D.

    Regioregular poly(thiophene-3-alkanoic acid)s: water soluble conducting polymers suitable carboxylic acid functionality, poly(thiophene-3-propionic acid) (PTPA, 3) and poly(thiophene-3-octanoic acid was studied. Treatment with aqueous base generated intensely colored water soluble conducting polymer salts

  18. Determination of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in water using liquid chromatography coupled to a corona-charged aerosol detector.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Chen, Mantang; Zhu, Lihua; Tang, Heqing

    2015-05-01

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are persistent pollutants being widely detected in the environment. In order to quantitatively determine PFCAs, a simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of five PFCAs was developed by coupling high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation and corona-charged aerosol detector (CAD). The PFCAs were separated on a Symmerry(®) C8 analytical column (150mm×3.9mm) under isocratic conditions with a mobile phase consisting of 5mM ammonium acetate (pH4.9±0.2) and methanol (30:70 (v/v)) at the flow rate 1mL min(-1). Ammonium acetate as ion pairing agent was added to the mobile phase for better separation and peak shapes. The elaborated method was validated for linearity, precision and accuracy. The detection limits ranged from 1.5 to 4.4?g L(-1) for PFCAs with C atoms of C4 to C8, which were decreased further to 75 to 220ng L(-1) after 20-fold preconcentration. The method was confirmed to have good precision with relative standard deviation of 0.9%-4.2% for intraday measurements and 0.9%-4.1% for interday measurements. The optimized method was applied to analyze practical wastewater samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25702982

  19. A core of three amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal region of glutamine synthetase defines its regulation in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Saelices, Lorena; Robles-Rengel, Rocío; Florencio, Francisco J; Muro-Pastor, M Isabel

    2015-05-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) type I is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism, and its activity is finely controlled by cellular carbon/nitrogen balance. In cyanobacteria, a reversible process that involves protein-protein interaction with two proteins, the inactivating factors IF7 and IF17, regulates GS. Previously, we showed that three arginine residues of IFs are critical for binding and inhibition of GS. In this work, taking advantage of the specificity of GS/IFs interaction in the model cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, we have constructed a different chimeric GSs from these two cyanobacteria. Analysis of these proteins, together with a site-directed mutagenesis approach, indicates that a core of three residues (E419, N456 and R459) is essential for the inactivation process. The three residues belong to the last 56 amino acids of the C-terminus of Synechocystis?GS. A protein-protein docking modeling of Synechocystis?GS in complex with IF7 supports the role of the identified core for GS/IF interaction. PMID:25626767

  20. Simulation and Modeling of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Carboxylic Acid Thiols on Flat and Nanoparticle Gold Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Techane, Sirnegeda D.; Baer, Donald R.; Castner, David G.

    2011-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of the 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid self-assembled monolayer (C16 COOH-SAM) layer thickness on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was performed using simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis (SESSA) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS measurements of C16 COOH SAMs on flat gold surfaces were made at 9 different photoelectron take-off angles (5o to 85o in 5o increments), corrected using geometric weighting factors and then summed together to approximate spherical AuNPs. The SAM thickness and relative surface roughness (RSA) in SESSA were optimized to determine the best agreement between simulated and experimental surface composition. Based on the glancing angle results, it was found that inclusion of a hydrocarbon contamination layer on top the C16 COOH-SAM was necessary to improve the agreement between the SESSA and XPS results. For the 16 COOH-SAMs on flat Au surfaces, using a SAM thickness of 1.1Å/CH2 group, an RSA of 1.05 and a 1.5Å CH2-contamination overlayer (total film thickness = 21.5Å) for the SESSA calculations provided the best agreement with the experimental XPS data. After applying the appropriate geometric corrections and summing the SESSA flat surface compositions, the best fit results for the 16 COOH-SAM thickness and surface roughness on the AuNPs were determined to be 0.9Å/CH2 group and 1.06 RSA with a 1.5Å CH2-contamination overlayer (total film thickness = 18.5Å). The three angstrom difference in SAM thickness between the flat Au and AuNP surfaces suggests the alkyl chains of the SAM are slightly more tilted or disordered on the AuNP surfaces.