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Sample records for carcinoma caov-3 cells

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  2. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. [Hereditary renal cell carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A; Stöhr, C G; Junker, K

    2010-10-01

    Renal cell carcinomas occur in several hereditary tumor syndromes. These renal tumors frequently have a specific histopathological appearance which can be a sign for a hereditary cause of the disease. The genetic alterations responsible for most of these tumor syndromes were identified in recent years. Interestingly, renal cell carcinomas show specific histopathological features in each of the hereditary renal cancer syndromes. Clear cell and often cystic renal cell carcinomas occur in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), while oncocytomas and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas are found in the Birt-Hugg-Dube syndrome, often also as hybrid tumors. Well differentiated papillary carcinomas (Type 1 according to the WHO) are found in the hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma (HPRC). In contrast, poorly diffentiated papillary renal cell carcinomas (Type 2 according to the WHO) occur in combination with leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas of the skin and uterus in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome (HLRCC). The various genetic causes for these hereditary tumor syndromes open up new therapeutic possibilities, some of which are already being investigated in clinical studies. PMID:20960197

  6. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  7. Novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex Mono-Pt induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells, distinct from cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yang-Miao; Zhang, Li; Huang, Bin; Tao, Fei-Fei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Zi-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Failure to engage apoptosis appears to be a leading mechanism of resistance to traditional platinum drugs in patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, an alternative strategy to induce cell death is needed for the chemotherapy of this apoptosis-resistant cancer. Here we report that autophagic cell death, distinct from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, is triggered by a novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex named Mono-Pt in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Mono-Pt-induced cell death has the following features: cytoplasmic vacuolation, caspase-independent, no nuclear fragmentation or chromatin condensation, and no apoptotic bodies. These characteristics integrally indicated that Mono-Pt, rather than cisplatin, initiated a nonapoptotic cell death in Caov-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with Mono-Pt but not with cisplatin produced an increasing punctate distribution of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and an increasing ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Mono-Pt also caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, Mono-Pt-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of either BECN1 or ATG7 gene expression, or by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1. Moreover, the effect of Mono-Pt involved the AKT1-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway and MAPK1 (ERK2)/MAPK3 (ERK1) signaling, since the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased, while the MAPK1/3 inhibitor U0126 decreased Mono-Pt-induced autophagic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Mono-Pt exerts anticancer effect via autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant ovarian cancer. These findings lead to increased options for anticancer platinum drugs to induce cell death in cancer. PMID:23580233

  8. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this disorder is a type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma , that develops around the time of puberty. Other ... if: You or any family members have nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, especially if you are planning to have ...

  9. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature.

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  11. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramahi, Emma; Choi, Jehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Eng, Tony Y.

    2011-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine neoplasm with a high mortality rate. Though the etiology is not precisely known, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) DNA has been found recently in a large percentage of MCC tumors. Other suggested risk factors include sun-exposure, immunosuppression and a history of prior malignancy. Work-up of patients with MCC most notably includes nodal staging via clinical exam or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The prognosis for most patients with MCC is poor, and the rarity of MCC precludes the prospective, randomized clinical trials necessary to elucidate optimum treatment protocols. Most published data support the use of a multimodality approach centered around surgical excision with negative margins, SNLB to establish the presence or absence of nodal metastases, adjuvant radiothearpy (RT) to decrease the risk of recurrence, and systemic chemotherapy in the case of widespread disease. PMID:21422993

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically ...

  14. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  15. Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Węklar, Daria; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

  16. Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Béchade, Dominique; Desjardin, Marie; Salmon, Emma; Désolneux, Grégoire; Bécouarn, Yves; Evrard, Serge; Fonck, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm that accounts for 1–2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Here we report two cases of ACC and describe their clinical features, the therapies used to treat them, and their prognosis. The first patient was a 65-year-old woman who had an abdominal CT scan for a urinary infection. Fortuitously, a rounded and well-delimited corporeal pancreatic tumor was discovered. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration revealed an ACC. During the puncture, a hypoechoic cavity appeared inside the lesion, corresponding to a probable necrotic area. Treatment consisted of a distal splenopancreatectomy. The second patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain. An abdominal CT scan showed a cephalic pancreatic lesion and two hepatic metastases. An EUS-guided fine needle aspiration showed a pancreatic ACC. The patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX regimen), which enabled an objective response after 6 cycles.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianjun; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed greatly over the past 15 years. Progress in the surgical management of the primary tumor and increased understanding of the molecular biology and genomics of the disease have led to the development of new therapeutic agents. The management of the primary tumor has changed owing to the realization that clean margins around the primary lesion are sufficient to prevent local recurrence, as well as the development of more sophisticated tools and techniques that increase the safety of partial nephrectomy. The management of advanced disease has altered even more dramatically as a result of new agents that target the tumor vasculature or that attenuate the activation of intracellular oncogenic pathways. This review summarizes data from prospective randomized phase III studies on the surgical management and systemic treatment of RCC, and provides an up to date summary of the histology, genomics, staging, and prognosis of RCC. It describes the management of the primary tumor and offers an overview of systemic agents that form the mainstay of treatment for advanced disease. The review concludes with an introduction to the exciting new class of immunomodulatory agents that are currently in clinical trials and may form the basis of a new therapeutic approach for patients with advanced RCC. PMID:25385470

  18. Radiographic Kinetics of Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Ali; Raval, Amar; Pridjian, Andrew; Birbe, Ruth; Trabulsi, Edouard J

    2016-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common entity often managed surgically with excellent survival benefits. We report a rare case of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with aggressive growth kinetics after palliative resection captured radiographically. PMID:27041470

  19. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  20. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  1. [Merkel cell carcinoma (trabecular carcinoma) of the skin].

    PubMed

    Zala, L; Armagni, C; Krebs, A

    1983-04-01

    The Merkel cell carcinoma was first designated some years ago by the descriptive term trabecular carcinoma. Both names refer to a skin tumor occurring in elderly patients. This is another example where ultrastructural differentiating criteria are necessary for a definite diagnosis i.e., identification of so-called neurosecretory-like granules by electron microscopy. We report clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and histogenetic aspects of such a disease in a woman suffering from a metastasizing Merkel cell carcinoma. PMID:6853165

  2. Renal small cell carcinoma (neuroendocrine carcinoma) without features of transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Oikawa, H; Yashima, A; Sugimura, J; Okamoto, T; Fujioka, T

    1998-05-01

    Seventeen cases of renal small cell carcinoma have been reported in the literature. Approximately half of the reported cases show combined features of transitional cell carcinoma. Presented herein is a case of renal small cell carcinoma in a 37-year-old Japanese male who had been treated for 10 years with famotidine for duodenal ulcer. He suffered from sudden-onset chest pain at presentation and myxoma of the right atrium was suspected. He was treated by atriotomy and a tumor was removed from the right atrium and pulmonary artery. Histological examination, however, revealed it to be small cell carcinoma. Accordingly, a radical operation was performed for the removal of a tumor found in the right kidney. Histological examination of the tumor confirmed the presence of renal small cell carcinoma without any features of transitional cell carcinoma. It is reported that long-term administration of an histamine 2 (H2) receptor antagonist may produce carcinoid tumors in rodents and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia in humans. The possible relationship between neuroendocrine carcinoma and H2 receptor antagonist therapy is discussed. PMID:9704349

  3. Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Rainey, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The human adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids are produced from unique cell types located within the three distinct zones of the adrenal cortex. Disruption of adrenal steroid production results in a variety of diseases that can lead to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and androgen excess. The adrenal cortex is also a common site for the development of adenomas, and rarely the site for the development of carcinomas. The adenomas can lead to diseases associated with adrenal steroid excess, while the carcinomas are particularly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In vitro cell culture models provide an important tool to examine molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling both the normal and pathologic function of the adrenal cortex. Herein we discuss the human adrenocortical cell lines and their use as model systems for adrenal studies. PMID:21924324

  4. Multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shoji, T; Lee, J; Hong, S H; Oh, C H; Kim, W K; Bhawan, J

    1998-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common of all skin cancers and the most prevalent one among Caucasians. Rarely, these tumors are seen in other races. We report a 77-year-old Korean woman who presented with multiple darkly pigmented enlarging nodules on her scalp, face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had first noted a 6-mm pigmented lesion on her left eyebrow 10 years previously. Since then, other lesions had appeared in many locations on her body. She had been otherwise healthy and without a history of exposure to arsenic or radiation. There was no family history of skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum, or basal cell nevus syndrome. On physical examination, multiple darkly pigmented dome-shaped papules and nodules were present on her scalp, face, right forearm, lower abdomen, and inguinal areas. They ranged in size from 0.5 mm to 2 cm. The larger ones showed central ulceration. Multiple biopsy specimens from different sites showed pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, there was no evidence of nevus sebaceus, xeroderma pigmentosum, basal cell nevus syndrome, or immunodeficiency. Clinical workup including chest radiography, abdominal ultrasound, bone scan, and brain computerized axial tomography scan did not demonstrate primary or secondary tumors. The results of serologic and hematologic tests were also within normal limits. This is an unusual case report of multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas in an Asian woman without any predisposing risk factors. PMID:9557792

  5. Immunotherapy in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, R M

    1999-06-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma continue to present a therapeutic challenge. Current therapeutic approaches involve surgery and various types of immunotherapy. The rationale for this latter form of therapy include the observations of spontaneous tumor regression, the presence of a T-cell-mediated immune response, and the tumor responses observed in patients receiving cytokine therapy. Analysis of prognostic factors in these patients demonstrates that clinical responses occur most frequently in individuals with good performance status. The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2, aldesleukin [Proleukin], interferon-alfa (Intron A, Roferon-A), or the combination produce responses in 15% to 20% of patients. Randomized trials suggest that administration of interferon-alfa may result in a modest improvement in median survival. Investigation of the molecular genetics of renal cell carcinoma and the presence of T-lymphocyte immune dysregulation have suggested new therapeutic strategies. Further preclinical and clinical studies investigating inhibitors of angiogenesis or pharmacologic methods to reverse immune dysregulation are ongoing. Therapeutic results in patients with renal cell carcinoma remain limited, and investigational approaches are warranted. PMID:10378218

  6. Spectral morphometric characterization of breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Barshack, I; Kopolovic, J; Malik, Z; Rothmann, C

    1999-01-01

    The spectral morphometric characteristics of standard haematoxylin and eosin breast carcinoma specimens were evaluated by light microscopy combined with a spectral imaging system. Light intensity at each wavelength in the range of 450–800 nm was recorded for 104 pixels from each field and represented as transmitted light spectra. A library of six characteristic spectra served to scan the cells and reconstruct new images depicting the nuclear area occupied by each spectrum. Fifteen cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma and six cases of lobular carcinoma were examined; nine of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma and three of the lobular carcinoma showed an in situ component. The spectral morphometric analysis revealed a correlation between specific patterns of spectra and different groups of breast carcinoma cells. The most consistent result was that lobular carcinoma cells of in situ and infiltrating components from all patients showed a similar spectral pattern, whereas ductal carcinoma cells displayed spectral variety. Comparison of the in situ and the infiltrating ductal solid, cribriform and comedo carcinoma cells from the same patient revealed a strong similarity of the spectral elements and their relative distribution in the nucleus. The spectrum designated as number 5 in the library incorporated more than 40% of the nuclear area in 74.08% of the infiltrating lobular cells and in 13.64% of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells (P < 0.001). Spectrum number 2 appeared in all infiltrating ductal cells examined and in none of the lobular cells. These results indicate that spectrum number 5 is related to infiltrating lobular carcinoma, whereas spectrum number 2 is characteristic for infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells. Spectral similarity mapping of central necrotic regions of comedo type in situ carcinoma revealed nuclear fragmentation into defined segments composed of highly condensed chromatin. We conclude that the spectral morphometric features found for

  7. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is not a single and separate entity. Images PMID:4031101

  8. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  9. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Bruno Nagel; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Goulart; Vedovato, Bruno César; Barrese, Tomas Zecchini; Fernandes, Roni de Carvalho; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely aggressive and rare tumor. Even though small cell carcinoma most commonly arises from the lungs there are several reports of small cell carcinoma in extrapulmonary sites. Due to its low frequency there is no well-established management for this disease. We report the case of a 61 year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent radical cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We also reviewed the literature for the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25517085

  10. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  11. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. PMID:27461832

  12. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes.

    PubMed

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-12-16

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  13. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  14. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Gaopande, Vandana L.; Joshi, Avinash R.; Khandeparkar, Siddhi G. S.; Deshmukh, Sanjay D.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is a very rare skin tumor. It commonly presents in the old age and the common sites are head, neck and extremities. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination with immunohistochemical correlation. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma stage IIIB with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy that on FNAB showed metastatic deposits of the tumor. PMID:26225333

  15. [Relationship of renal cell carcinoma and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Masanauskiene, Edita; Naudziūnas, Albinas; Jankauskiene, Laima; Unikauskas, Alvydas

    2009-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality due to renal cell carcinoma has increased worldwide over the last 30 years. Renal cell carcinoma accounts for about 90-95% of all renal tumors. The mean age of patients with this type of tumor ranges between 50 and 70 years. It is important to note that primary arterial hypertension as well as obesity and smoking are considered as independent risk factors for renal cell carcinoma. The increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as the severity of arterial hypertension may have an impact on development of renal cell carcinoma. We describe the case of a 45-year-old male patient with hypertensive crisis. Computed tomography scan revealed renal cell carcinoma, which was confirmed histologically after surgical treatment. PMID:20173406

  16. Alcohol and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. It enhances the permeability of the oral epithelium, acts as a solvent for tobacco carcinogens, induces basal-cell proliferation, and generates free radicals and acetaldehyde, which have the capacity to cause DNA damage. Alcohol-associated malnutrition and immune suppression may further promote carcinogenesis. However, acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is the critical agent by which prolonged and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol also acts synergistically with the products of tobacco combustion in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23971298

  17. Intraglomerular micrometastasis of squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Kumar, Sajal; Chenal, Mario E.; Nicosia, Roberto F.

    2012-01-01

    Intraglomerular metastasis is a rare manifestation of disseminated malignancies. We present here a case of intraglomerular metastatic carcinoma diagnosed as an incidental finding on a kidney biopsy in a 62-year-old male presenting with acute renal failure and metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. A proliferative lesion composed of highly atypical epithelial cells was found within a capillary loop and adjacent urinary space of an isolated glomerulus, which was immunoreactive for markers of squamous cell carcinoma. This case is a reminder that circulating cancer cells can occasionally lodge in glomeruli and appear as micrometastasis in kidney biopsies performed for the evaluation of renal dysfunction. PMID:25874083

  18. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  19. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta.

    PubMed

    Can, Nhu Thuy T; Robertson, Patricia; Zaloudek, Charles J; Gill, Ryan M

    2013-09-01

    A pregnant 29-year-old gravida 4, para 3 woman with Stage IIB cervical cancer was admitted at 33 weeks and 4 days of gestation and delivered a healthy neonate. Her placenta was small but otherwise grossly unremarkable. Microscopic examination revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. An immunohistochemical stain for p16 was positive in the carcinoma cells, supporting metastasis from the cervical tumor. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta is very rare. We report a case and discuss metastatic cancer during pregnancy with recommendations for infant follow-up. PMID:23896714

  1. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  4. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  5. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  6. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  7. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Gülçiçek, Osman Bilgin; Solmaz, Ali; Özdoğan, Kamil; Erçetin, Candaş; Yavuz, Erkan; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Çelebi, Fatih; Altınay, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach accounts for less than 1% of all gastric malignancies. Less than 100 cases were reported in the literature. Therefore, knowledge about management and prognosis of the disease is limited. Surgical approach is the basic form of treatment. In this study we confirmed a case of primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma with the aim of contribution to the literature, which is seen rare, and the diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. PMID:27528817

  8. Everolimus in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    2010-08-01

    Everolimus (also known as RAD-001; Afinitor®) is an orally active inhibitor of the intracellular protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency recently approved everolimus for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on the basis of the results of a randomized phase III clinical trial. In the trial, 10 mg daily everolimus was effective and well tolerated by patients with advanced RCC, whose disease had progressed while under the treatment with sunitinib and/or sorafenib. Everolimus treatment led to 36% of 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate and 31% of 3-month PFS rate. Most of the adverse events were mild to moderate (grade 1-2) in severity. The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were stomatitis, fatigue, pneumonitis and infections. Clinical trials on everolimus in combination with sunitinib, sorafenib, imatinib and vatalanib for the treatment of RCC are ongoing. PMID:20830316

  9. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment. PMID:23924557

  10. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  11. Evolving Immunotherapy Approaches for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Susanna A; Cohen, Justine V; Kluger, Harriet M

    2016-09-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) continues to be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is typically resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy, and while targeted therapies have activity and prolong progression-free and overall survival, responses are usually not durable. Modulating the immune system with cytokine therapy, vaccine therapy, cell therapy, and checkpoint inhibitors offers hope of prolonged survival. Standard and emerging immune therapy approaches and combinations of immune therapies and other modalities are reviewed. PMID:27475806

  12. TERT Promoter Mutations Are Frequent in Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Griewank, Klaus G.; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Möller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. PMID:24260374

  13. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  14. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Penticuff, Justin C; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of “targeted therapies”. Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC. PMID:26309897

  15. [Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of larynx as an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tiken, Elif Eda; Çolpan Öksüz, Didem; Batur, Şebnem; Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Öz, Büge; Öz, Ferhan; Uzel, Ömer; Turkan, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and lip. It is rarely observed in the respiratory and digestive tract and may present more aggressively. The incidence of distant metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancers is low and the lungs are the most common metastatic sites. Metastasis to the soft tissue, skin, and adrenal glands from the laryngeal region is very uncommon. In this article, we report a 58-year-old female case who underwent postoperative radiation therapy with the diagnosis of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and developed metastasis to the soft tissue and adrenal gland at the early period. PMID:27107606

  16. Genomic landscape of small cell carcinoma of the breast contrasted to small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    McCullar, Brennan; Pandey, Manjari; Yaghmour, George; Hare, Felicia; Patel, Kruti; Stein, Matthew; Feldman, Rebecca; Chandler, Jason C; Martin, Michael G

    2016-07-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer that is associated with extremely poor outcomes [1]. In an effort to identify possible targets for treatment, we utilized comprehensive genomic profiling in small cell carcinoma of the breast. Under an IRB approved protocol, we identified patients with small cell carcinoma of the breast and small cell carcinoma of the lung profiled by Caris Life Sciences between 2007 and 2015. Tumors were assessed with up to 25 immunohistochemical stains, in situ hybridization of cMET, EGFR, HER2, PIK3CA, and TOP2A, and next generation sequencing as well as Sanger sequencing of 47 genes. 19 patients with small cell carcinoma of the breast were identified, median age was 58 years (range 37-79) and 42 % had metastatic disease at presentation; for comparison, 58 patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were identified (66 [36-86], 65 % metastatic). By immunohistochemistry, 31 % of small cell carcinoma of the breast patients expressed ER, 13 % expressed PR, and 16 % expressed AR; small cell carcinoma of the lung patients expressed ER 0 %, PR 2 %, and AR 6 %. Small cell carcinoma of the breast and small cell carcinoma of the lung patients had similar patterns of other immunohistochemical expression (0 v 0 % PDL1, 50 v 42 % PD1, and 77 v 95 % TOP2A, respectively). All small carcinoma of the breast and small cell carcinoma of the lung patients were negative for HER2 and cMET amplification by in situ hybridization. Next generation sequencing revealed TP53 mutations in 75 % of patients both with small cell carcinoma of the breast and small cell carcinoma of the lung and PIK3CA mutations in 33 % of small cell carcinoma of the breast patients but no small cell carcinoma of the lung patients (Fisher's exact test p = 0.005, OR 0.02 [0.00-0.52]). No other mutations were found in small cell carcinoma of the breast patients and no other mutation occurred in over 10 % of small cell carcinoma of the

  17. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas. PMID:27232353

  18. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a potential mimic of conventional clear cell renal carcinoma on core biopsy.

    PubMed

    Liddell, Heath; Mare, Anton; Heywood, Sean; Bennett, Genevieve; Chan, Hin Fan

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) is a recently described, relatively uncommon variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a reported incidence of 4.1%. Thought to only arise in those with end stage renal disease, CCP-RCC is increasingly identified in those without renal impairment. CCP-RCCs have unique morphologic, genetic, and immunohistochemical features distinguishing them from both conventional clear cell renal cell carcinomas and papillary renal cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, these tumors are positive for CK7 and negative for CD10 and racemase. This is in contrast to conventional cell renal cell carcinomas (CK7 negative, CD10 positive) and papillary cell carcinomas (CK7, CD10, and racemase positive). These tumours appear to be indolent in nature, with no current documented cases of metastatic spread. We present the case of a 42-year-old female who presented with an incidental finding of a renal mass that on a core biopsy was reported as clear cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. She subsequently underwent a radical nephrectomy and further histological examination revealed the tumor to be a clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. PMID:25709850

  19. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Turajlic, Samra; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2015-12-01

    This SnapShot summarizes current knowledge about the key features in mutational landscape, major pathways, and tumor evolution and heterogeneity in renal cell carcinoma, as well as the most recent advances in therapeutic development. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26638079

  20. Combined salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suspected of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Enokida, Tomohiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Kuno, Hirofumi; Mukaigawa, Takashi; Tahara, Makoto; Sakuraba, Minoru; Hayashi, Ryuichi

    2016-08-01

    A 76-year-old Japanese woman had noticed an asymptomatic and palpable mass in her left parotid gland region for 20 years. The tumor had showed rapid growth during the last two months. Therefore, the tumor was clinically suspected of being a malignant tumor and was surgically resected. A histopathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of two different histopathological neoplastic components accompanied by hyalinized fibrosis at the center of the tumor. The two-neoplastic components were squamous cell carcinoma and salivary duct carcinoma. The tumor was suspected to be a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma after considering the clinical course and the histopathological findings, such as hyalinized fibrosis at the center of the tumor. There was no evidence of recurrence at 30 months after the surgical resection. PMID:27435055

  1. Urothelial carcinoma: Stem cells on the edge

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, William D.; Matsui, William; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; He, Xiaobing; Ling, Shizhang; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    Tumors are heterogeneous collections of cells with highly variable abilities to survive, grow, and metastasize. This variability likely stems from epigenetic and genetic influences, either stochastic or hardwired by cell type-specific lineage programs. That differentiation underlies tumor cell heterogeneity was elegantly demonstrated in hematopoietic tumors, in which rare primitive cells (cancer stem cells (CSCs)) resembling normal hematopoietic stem cells are ultimately responsible for tumor growth and viability. Because of the compelling clinical implications CSCs pose—across the entire spectrum of cancers—investigators applied the CSC model to cancers arising in tissues with crudely understood differentiation programs. Instead of relying on differentiation, these studies used empirically selected markers and statistical arguments to identify CSCs. The empirical approach has stimulated important questions about “stemness” in cancer cells as well as the validity and stoichiometry of CSC assays. The recent identification of urothelial differentiation programs in urothelial carcinomas (UroCas) supports the idea that solid epithelial cancers (carcinomas) develop and differentiate analogously to normal epithelia and provides new insights about the spatial localization and molecular makeup of carcinoma CSCs. Importantly, CSCs from invasive UroCas (UroCSCs) appear well situated to exchange important signals with adjacent stroma, to escape immune surveillance, and to survive cytotoxic therapy. These signals have potential roles in treatment resistance and many participate in druggable cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss the implications of these findings in understanding CSCs and in better understanding how UroCas form, progress, and should be treated. PMID:20012172

  2. "Basal Cell Blanche": A Diagnostic Maneuver to Increase Early Detection of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quach, Olivia Leigh; Barry, Megan; Roberts Cruse, Allison; Wilson, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas represent one of the most common skin cancers and often present initially in the primary care setting. Subtle basal cell carcinomas may be difficult to detect, and early detection of these carcinomas remains important in limiting patient morbidity. In this article, we present a simple diagnostic maneuver, "basal cell blanche," to increase early detection of basal cell carcinomas. PMID:27170799

  3. A Case of Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Do, Mi Ok; Kim, Seong Hyun; Hahm, Jeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a well-defined variant of squamous cell cancer in which significant portions of the neoplastic proliferation show a pseudoglandular or tubular microscopic pattern. It usually presents as a nodule with various colors, and it is accompanied by scaling, crusting, and ulceration on the sun-exposed areas of older aged individuals. Histologically, the tumor consists of a nodular, epidermal-derived proliferation that forms island-like structures. At least focally or sometimes extensively, the tumor cells shows a loss of cohesion within the central gland-like or tubular spaces. This tumor resembles the structure of eccrine neoplasms, but it is negative for dPAS, CEA and mucicarmine and it is only positive for EMA and cytokeratins. Herein we report a case of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma that occurred on the face of an 82-year-old woman. PMID:27303210

  4. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. AZD1775, Docetaxel, and Cisplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Borderline Resectable Stage III-IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-04

    Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Oral Cavity Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Villaflor, Victoria; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2016-06-01

    A case of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of the oral cavity is described in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article. CT demonstrated a solid and cystic mass arising from the mandible. Histology demonstrated variably-sized nests of clear to pale eosinophilic cells with occasional central necrosis embedded in a hyalinized to fibrocellular stroma. The specimen was also positive for the characteristic rearrangement of the EWSR1 (22q12) locus in 93.5 % of interphase cells. PMID:25994920

  7. Laryngeal acinic cell carcinoma following thyroid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, J.F.; McLean, W.C.; Cantrell, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Only three examples of acinic cell carcinoma of the larynx or trachea are found in the recent literature. A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the subglottic larynx and trachea was diagnosed and treated at the University of Virginia Medical Center. To our knowledge this is the first such case with a prior history of radiation to the neck. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who was irradiated for hyperthyroidism 46 years ago. When seen she also had parathyroid hyperplasia and multiple thyroid adenomas, conditions that frequently follow irradiation of the thyroid in children. These findings in this case support the concept that radiation may be responsible for inducing this tumor, which otherwise rarely occurs in this location. The use of electron microscopy was extremely useful in the diagnosis of this tumor. She was treated with total laryngectomy and right neck dissection and is now free of disease one year after surgery.

  8. Neoadjuvant treatment for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Yoshida, Naoya; Baba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are types of esophageal cancer, one of the most aggressive malignant diseases. Since both histological types present entirely different diseases with different epidemiology, pathogenesis and tumor biology, separate therapeutic strategies should be developed against each type. While surgical resection remains the dominant therapeutic intervention for patients with operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), alternative strategies are actively sought to reduce the frequency of post-operative local or distant disease recurrence. Such strategies are particularly sought in the preoperative setting. Currently, the optimal management of resectable ESCC differs widely between Western and Asian countries (such as Japan). While Western countries focus on neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard treatment in Japan. Importantly, each country and region has established its own therapeutic strategy from the results of local randomized control trials. This review discusses the current knowledge, available data and information regarding neoadjuvant treatment for operable ESCC. PMID:24834142

  9. Thyroid metastasis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S M M; Hashemipour, S; Salehi, S; Kazemifar, A M; Madani, P S

    2016-04-01

    The thyroid gland is a rare site for cancer metastasis. We report a 75-year-old man who was referred with a history of hematuria and generalized bone pain for the past few months. He had a past history of partial left lobe thyroidectomy for follicular adenoma. Subsequently he was referred for a thyroid mass and a subtotal thyroidectomy showed a poorly-differentiated carcinoma. On the latest admission, the patient underwent resection of a bladder tumour with malignant histology and an immunohistochemical profile of CK7+/CK20+/34 Beta E12+/CEA-/PSA-. Re-examination of thyroid sections with immunohistochemical stains revealed the malignant cells to be CK7+/CK20+/34 Beta E12+/CEA-/TTF1-. The findings were compatible with metastasis of the bladder transitional cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.Scans revealed multiple liver and bone metastases. The patient died 2 months after the diagnosis. PMID:27126668

  10. Comprehensive Cytomorphologic Analysis of Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Comparison to Small Cell Carcinoma and Non-pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokhwi; Chu, Jinah; Kim, Hojoong; Han, Joungho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is frequently challenging and differential diagnosis with small cell carcinoma is often difficult. Methods: Eleven cytologically diagnosed cases of pulmonary AdCC were collected and reviewed according to fifteen cytomorphologic characteristics: small cell size, cellular uniformity, coarse chromatin, hyperchromasia, distinct nucleolus, frequent nuclear molding, granular cytoplasm, organoid cluster, sheet formation, irregular border of cluster, hyaline globule, hyaline basement membrane material, individual cell necrosis or apoptotic body, and necrotic background. Twenty cases of small cell carcinoma and fifteen cases of non-pulmonary AdCC were also reviewed for the comparison. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified between pulmonary AdCC and small cell carcinoma in fourteen of the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria (differences in sheet formation were not statistically significant). Cellular uniformity, distinct nucleolus, granular cytoplasm, distinct cell border, organoid cluster, hyaline globule, and hyaline basement membrane material were characteristic features of AdCC. Frequent nuclear molding, individual cell necrosis, and necrotic background were almost exclusively identified in small cell carcinoma. Although coarse chromatin and irregular cluster border were observed in both, they favored the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Hyaline globules were more frequently seen in non-pulmonary AdCC cases. Conclusions: Using the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria described by this study, pulmonary AdCC could be successfully distinguished from small cell carcinoma. Such a comprehensive approach to an individual case is recommended for the cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary AdCC. PMID:26477588

  11. Renal cell carcinoma and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lands, R; Foust, J

    1996-04-01

    A previously healthy man who became bedridden because of malaise, fatigue, and weakness was found to have an autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). In the course of his evaluation for the AIHA, he was found, coincidentally, to have a renal cell carcinoma. The AIHA was marginally responsive to therapy with corticosteroids, but it resolved promptly after excision of the cancer. This case represents probably a rarely observed association between a nonhematologic malignancy and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. PMID:8614893

  12. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Christopher J; Crooks, Daniel R; Sourbier, Carole; Schmidt, Laura S; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Linehan, W Marston

    2016-04-11

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease made up of a number of different cancer types, with distinct histologies, clinical courses, therapeutic responses, and genetic drivers. Germline mutations in 14 genes have been associated with increased risk of RCC and can result in HIF pathway activation, chromatin dysregulation, and altered metabolism. Knowledge of these pathway alterations can inform the development of targeted therapeutic approaches. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27070709

  13. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  14. Pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sahni, Sonu; Iftikhar, Asma; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for majority of all primary renal neoplasms. Classic manifestations of RCC include the triad of flank pain, hematuria and a palpable renal mass. Patients with RCC can develop various extra renal manifestations including involvements of the lungs, inferior vena cava, liver and the bones. The pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma include metastatic disease including endobronchial, pleural, parenchymal or lymph node metastasis, pleural effusion or hemothorax. Pulmonary embolism and tumor embolism is another common manifestation of renal cell carcinoma. RCC is a highly vascular tumor and can cause pulmonary arterio-venous fistulas leading to high output failure. Rarely, RCC can also present with paraneoplastic presentations including cough or bilateral diaphragm paralysis. Drugs used to treat RCC have been associated with drug related pneumonitis and form an important differential diagnosis in patients with RCC on therapy presenting with shortness of breath. In this review we discuss the various pulmonary manifestations of RCC. A high index of suspicion with these presentations can lead to an early diagnosis and assist in instituting an appropriate intervention. PMID:26525375

  15. Pulmonary Metastasectomy 31 Years After Surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yui; Harada, Aya; Aoki, Masaya; Kamimura, Go; Wakida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Yokomakura, Naoya; Kariatsumari, Kota; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami

    2015-06-01

    An 82-year-old man underwent a left upper lobectomy for a solitary tumor on suspicion of lung cancer. Histopathologic findings of the resected specimen showed clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which was diagnosed as a metastasis from kidney cancer concealed for 31 years after nephrectomy. The Ki-67 labeling index of the metastatic tumor was high (36.1%). A few cases of recurrent renal cell carcinoma after a long interval from initial diagnosis have been seen. However, pulmonary metastasectomy more than 30 years after radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma has not been reported. This remarkable case provides new and valuable clinical insights into metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26046874

  16. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  17. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    PubMed

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:22502759

  18. Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.A. III; Robbins, K.T.; Stephens, J.; Dimery, I.W.; Batsakis, J.G.

    1987-02-01

    The aggressiveness of small (oat) cell carcinoma of the larynx presents a therapeutic challenge to the oncologist. Since the first description of this type of carcinoma in 1972, 52 patients have been reported in the literature and a variety of treatment regimens have been used. The purpose of this study was to report two new cases and review all previous reports to determine the disease's biological behavior, clinical manifestations, and optimum treatment. Thirty-five percent of the tumors were transglottic, and 27% were supraglottic. Fifty-four percent of patients had regional metastases at initial presentation and 17.6% had distant metastases. The median survival was 10 months for all patients. Patients who were treated with chemotherapy with or without other modalities had the best 2-year survival rates (52.2%). Forty-one percent of patients had regional recurrence only, 12.5% had regional recurrence and distant metastases, and 2% developed distant metastases only. We conclude that patients with oat cell carcinoma of the larynx should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is best reserved for persistent and recurrent disease at the primary site and neck.

  19. Obstructive jaundice in small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar Pour, Ali; Masir, Noraidah; Isa, Mohd Rose

    2015-08-01

    Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) commonly metastasizes to distant organs. However, metastasis to the pancreas is not a common event. Moreover, obstructive jaundice as a first clinical presentation of SCLC is extremely unusual. This case reports a 51-year-old male with SCLC, manifesting with obstructive jaundice as the initial clinical presentation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograghy (ERCP) and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed a mass at the head of the pancreas. The patient underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure). Histopathology revealed a chromogranin- A-positive poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. No imaging study of the lung was performed before surgery. A few months later, a follow-up CT revealed unilateral lung nodules with ipsilateral hilar nodes. A lung biopsy was done and histopathology reported a TTF- 1-positive, chromogranin A-positive, small cell carcinoma of the lung. On review, the pancreatic tumour was also TTF-1-positive. He was then treated with combination chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide). These findings highlight that presentation of a mass at the head of pancreas could be a manifestation of a metastatic tumour from elsewhere such as the lung, and thorough investigations should be performed before metastases can be ruled out. PMID:26277673

  20. Ablative therapies in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chan, A A; Ahrar, K; Matin, S F

    2011-09-01

    We reviewed the use of ablative therapies in the management of renal cell carcinoma. We performed a PubMed search of the English language literature using the keywords "ablation" and "renal carcinoma." Pertinent articles specific to the technologic advancement of ablative therapy and clinical outcomes were selected for review. Intermediate-term oncologic outcomes of cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are acceptable but are not quite as good as for surgical excision based nearly all on retrospective studies. No randomized studies have been performed comparing excisional and ablative therapies. Careful selection of patients and tumor characteristics results in improved outcomes. Diagnostic biopsy for tissue confirmation is mandatory and should even be considered post therapy after 6-12 months in patients with a concern about recurrence. Ablative therapies are associated with decreased morbidity, less severe complication rates, and excellent preservation of renal function in comparison with surgical excision. The majority of recurrences occur early, but long-term surveillance is required as delayed recurrences are also possible and the long-term oncologic efficacy is not yet established. Ablation can be delivered percutaneously or laparoscopically, and the superiority of one over the other remains controversial. The percutaneous approach is more cost effective and causes less perinephric desmoplasia. Nearly all data on ablation are retrospective and, with few exceptions, from single institutions. Ablative therapy is an appealing option for the management of small renal tumors shown to be renal cell carcinoma on biopsy in patients who are unsuitable candidates for surgical extirpation. PMID:21993322

  1. A Study of Varlilumab (Anti-CD27) and Sunitinib in Patients With Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Kidney Diseases; Kidney Neoplasms; Urogenital Neoplasms; Urologic Diseases; Urologic Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Clear-cell Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

  2. Management of High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is an increasing public health concern, representing the second most common cancer in the United States. High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents a subgroup of this disease, where patients are at higher risk of metastasis and death. To date, there are no accepted criteria for defining or managing these patients. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and outlines reasonable management strategies based on available data. PMID:20725546

  3. Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    V, Pavithra; Shalini, C.N. Sai; Priya, Shanmuga; Rani, Usha; Rajendiran, S; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and a very aggressive tumour. Once being considered to be a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, evidence has proven that most of the tumours express one or more markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. The behaviour of this rare malignancy is different from that of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high propensity for nodal and distant metastases. Hence, there is a need to highlight this histopathological entity. PMID:24701511

  4. Prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Duncavage, Eric J; Zehnbauer, Barbara A; Pfeifer, John D

    2009-04-01

    It has recently been shown that Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare and often lethal cutaneous malignancy, frequently harbors a novel clonally integrated polyomavirus aptly named Merkel cell polyomavirus. We aimed to study the prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, using specimens from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. In our archives we identified 41 cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (from 29 different patients). Of these, 20 cases were primary cutaneous tumors, 4 were local recurrences, and 17 were metastases. PCR using two previously published primer sets, LT1 (440 bp amplicon) and LT3 (308 bp amplicon), as well as a novel primer set MCVPS1 (109 bp amplicon), was performed on all cases. Selected PCR products were sequenced to confirm amplicon identity. In addition, the MCVPS1 products were digested with BamH1, yielding an 83 bp product. Amplifiable DNA was recovered in all 41 study cases. The detection rate of Merkel cell polyomavirus for each of the three primer sets was 22 of 29 patients (76%) for MCVPS1, 12 of 29 (41%) for LT3, and 8 of 29 (28%) for LT1. The variation between primer set detection rates was largely due to poor DNA quality, as supported by poor amplification of the higher molecular weight markers in size control ladder products and the fact that all cases that were positive by LT1 and LT3 were positive by MCVPS1. Our findings provide further evidence to link Merkel cell polyomavirus with a possible role in the oncogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma. On a more practical level, our paraffin-optimized primer set may be used as an ancillary test to confirm the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma in the clinical setting or for screening other rare tumor types for the causative virus, especially those tumor types that are underrepresented in frozen tissue repositories. PMID:19252474

  5. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  6. Thymoquinone induces apoptosis and increase ROS in ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Taha, M M E; Sheikh, B Y; Salim, L Z A; Mohan, S; Khan, A; Kamalidehghan, B; Ahmadipour, F; Abdelwahab, S I

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa is also known for its properties as a traditional herbal healing for many ailments. In this study, the anticancer properties of thyomquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of N. sativa, were studied using ovarian cancer cell line (Caov-3 cells). The anti-proliferative activity of TQ was determined using MTT and the apoptosis was investigated using Flowcytometry and Annexin-V Assays. Multiparameteric cytotoxicity bioassays were used to quantify the changes in cell permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis-involved cell markers were examined to verify cell death mechanism. The MTT-assay showed that TQ induces anti-proliferative activity on Caov-3 with an IC50 of 6.0±0.03 μg/mL, without any cytotoxic activity towards WRL-68 normal hepatocytes. A significant induction of early phase of apoptosis was shown by annexin-V analysis. Treatment of Caov-3 cells with TQ induces decreases in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential. Visible decrease in the nuclear area was also observed. A significant decrease is observed in Bcl-2 while Bax is down-regulated. TQ-triggered ROS-mediated has found to be associated with Hsp70 dysregulation, an indicator of oxidative injury. We found that TQ induced anti-cancer effect involves intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and cellular oxidative stress. Our results considered collectively indicated that thyomquinone may be a potential agent for ovarian cancer drug development. PMID:27262811

  7. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. PMID:26589365

  8. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-11

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  9. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S.; Hassan, Mohammad J.; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up. PMID:26629388

  10. Combination therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Current therapy for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of the serial administration of single agents. Combinations of VEGF and mTOR inhibitors have been disappointing in previous randomized trials. However, the combination of lenvatinib, a multitargeted agent that inhibits VEGF as well as FGF receptors, and everolimus demonstrated promising results in a randomized phase II trial. Moreover, the emergence of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors has spawned the investigation of combinations of these agents with VEGF inhibitors and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. These ongoing phase III trials in conjunction with the development of predictive biomarkers and agents inhibiting novel therapeutic targets may provide much needed advances in this still largely incurable disease. PMID:27047959

  11. Plasminogen receptors on rat colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Durliat, M.; Komano, O.; Correc, P.; Bertrand, O.; Cochet, S.; Caignard, A.; Martin, F.; Burtin, P.

    1992-01-01

    Cells from rat carcinoma cell lines PROb (giving progressive tumours) and REGb (giving regressive tumours) have cell surface receptors which bind specifically rat plasminogen and plasmin. Affinity for Pg was found to be higher in PROb (Kd = 10(-7) M) than in REGb cells (Kd = 5.10(-7) M) but with a concomitant decrease in the number of binding sites, 0.9 x 10(6)/cell (range from 0.6 to 1.2 x 10(6)) in PROb vs 3.6 x 10(6)/cell (range 1.2 to 6 x 10(6)) in REGb cells. The number and the affinity of binding sites varied in an opposite way in PROb and REGb cells. The difference in affinity parameters was unrelated to the degree of invasiveness of tumour cells in syngenetic rats. Bound plasmin retained its enzymatic activity, which indicates that its binding does not involve the catalytic active site. In cell solubilisates plasminogen receptor appeared as one major band situated in the area of 50-60 kDa. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:1322156

  12. Aggressive Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast with Osteoclastic Giant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Kathleen; Zhang, Yanhong; Tomic, Mary; Lindfors, Karen; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon type of malignancy that is aggressive but can mimic other benign breast neoplastic processes on imaging. We present a case of a young female patient who presented with a rapidly progressing metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells subtype. There have been only very rare published reports of this pathologic subtype of metaplastic carcinoma containing osteoclastic giant cells. PMID:26629304

  13. Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Great Imitator

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Indraneel; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Suresh; Talreja, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRC) is a rare renal tumor. Patients are usually asymptomatic; it is usually detected incidentally, during imaging studies for Bosniak type III and type IV renal cysts. These tumors rarely metastasize. The role of targeted therapy in such rare tumors is still controversial. We report a case of TCRC initially presented as a Bosniak type II renal cyst and was discovered ultimately to be a metastatic disease. This type of presentation might broaden our understanding of this rare disease. PMID:27601972

  14. Spontaneous Regression of Primitive Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin tumor that mainly occurs in the elderly with a generally poor prognosis. Like all skin cancers, its incidence is rising. Despite the poor prognosis, a few reports of spontaneous regression have been published. We describe the case of a 89-year-old male patient who presented two MCC lesions of the scalp. Following biopsy the lesions underwent complete regression with no clinical evidence of residual tumor up to 24 months. The current knowledge of MCC and the other cases of spontaneous regression described in the literature are reviewed. PMID:26788270

  15. Aldesleukin in advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schmidinger, Manuela; Hejna, Michael; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2004-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2-3% of all malignancies. The most common subtype [85%] is the clear cell variant. A total of 30% of patients present with metastatic disease at diagnosis and another 30-40% will develop metastases during the course of the disease. Conventional cancer treatment is not effective, but cytokines including recombinant interleukin-2 (aldesleukin) have demonstrated clinical activity of various degrees. This drug profile provides a review of the literature on studies using aldesleukin in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Aldesleukin has been used in different dose schedules applying various administration routes, as either monotherapy or in combination with other cytokines, chemotherapy, endocrine treatment and adoptive cellular immunotherapy. Although a large number of randomized trials have been performed with different treatment strategies, it still remains uncertain whether the dose or combination of aldesleukin with other agents substantially influence treatment outcome. It appears that factors other than those that are treatment related are responsible for the course of the disease. PMID:15606326

  16. Contemporary Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stukalin, Igor; Alimohamed, Nimira; Heng, Daniel Y C

    2016-04-15

    The introduction of targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The current standard of care focuses on the inhibition of angiogenesis through the targeting of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Over the past few years, research exploring novel targeted agents has blossomed, leading to the approval of various targeted therapies. Furthermore, results from the CheckMate025 and the METEOR trials have brought about two additional novel options: the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab and the MET/VEGFR/AXL inhibitor cabozantinib, respectively. With the variety of therapeutic agents available for treatment of mRCC, research examining appropriate sequencing and combinations of the drugs is ongoing. This review discusses the role of prognostic criteria, such as those from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) criteria. It also covers the current standard of treatment for mRCC with targeted therapy in first-, second-, and third-line setting. Additionally, the novel mechanism of action of nivolumab and cabozantinib, therapeutic sequencing and ongoing clinical trials are discussed. PMID:27471582

  17. Contemporary Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stukalin, Igor; Alimohamed, Nimira; Heng, Daniel Y.C.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The current standard of care focuses on the inhibition of angiogenesis through the targeting of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Over the past few years, research exploring novel targeted agents has blossomed, leading to the approval of various targeted therapies. Furthermore, results from the CheckMate025 and the METEOR trials have brought about two additional novel options: the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab and the MET/VEGFR/AXL inhibitor cabozantinib, respectively. With the variety of therapeutic agents available for treatment of mRCC, research examining appropriate sequencing and combinations of the drugs is ongoing. This review discusses the role of prognostic criteria, such as those from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) criteria. It also covers the current standard of treatment for mRCC with targeted therapy in first-, second-, and third-line setting. Additionally, the novel mechanism of action of nivolumab and cabozantinib, therapeutic sequencing and ongoing clinical trials are discussed. PMID:27471582

  18. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the forehead: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rudić, Milan; Kranjcec, Zoran; Lisica-Sikić, Natasa; Kovacić, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6 cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carcinomas are rare tumors and are usually result of a long duration and patient neglect. In comparison to the ordinary basal cell carcinoma these tumors have a higher metastatic potential. Surgical resection with negative surgical margin is the best possible treatment option. PMID:22816239

  19. A Case of Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mehrtens, Sarah; Veitch, David; Kulakov, Elizabeth; Perrett, Conal M.

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old lady presented with multiple recurring painful lesions over her thighs, arms, and back. Past medical history included a left sided nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma and a hysterectomy for multiple uterine fibroids (leiomyomas). Histopathological examination revealed changes consistent with pilar leiomyomas. Gene mutation analysis confirmed a diagnosis of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon autosomal dominant condition characterised by the concurrent presentation of cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas. Renal cell carcinoma associated with this condition is more aggressive and a significant cause of mortality. Due to this association with potentially fatal renal cell carcinoma we felt that it was important to highlight this case with an update on pathophysiology and management. PMID:27144040

  20. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Amir, H; Mbonde, M P; Kitinya, J N

    1992-11-01

    The Tanzania Cancer Registry at Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was reviewed for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in non-albino African subjects. The data was analysed for age, sex, site and predisposing factors. Our results were then compared with studies previously carried out in Tanzania, elsewhere in Africa and also on Blacks in America. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin was found to be a common malignancy, and the commonest skin cancer. Its peak was in the 40-49 years age group though it could occur in children under five years of age. The most affected site was the lower limb, followed by the head and the neck. The penis in the male and the vulva in the female were the third most affected sites. The scalp and the lip were more affected in females than males. Chronic trauma, chronic ulcers, and scars were the main predisposing risk factors to the lower limb and the scalp, while ultra violet radiation to the head and neck, and smegma of the uncircumcised penis were thought to be predisposing risk factors. PMID:1308840

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Lifeso, R.M.; Bull, C.A.

    1985-06-15

    Between January 1976 and January 1983, 37 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities have been treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre by the authors. Each case has arisen in an area of preexisting scar or sinus. Twenty-nine cases were treated by definitive amputation, with 2 local recurrences and 12 nodal metastases. Seven cases had local excision, with three local recurrences and two nodal metastases. Recurrence rate was highest in Grade II and Grade III lesions, and 11 of 15 cases with Grade II disease had metastases to the regional lymph nodes an average of 5 months after surgery. With Grade I disease patients, 4 of 15 had nodal metastases an average of 5 months after surgery. Prophylactic regional nodal irradiation or node dissection was performed in seven cases. None of these cases have shown nodal metastases at an average of 24 months following definitive surgery and radiation. Routine prophylactic regional node irradiation is recommended in all cases of peripheral squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Histone modifications: implications in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ellis, Leigh; Pili, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, an estimated 64,770 men and women were diagnosed with malignancy of the kidney and renal pelvis, of which 13,570 succumbed to their disease. Common genetic aberrations in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) include loss of function of the VHL gene in clear-cell RCC, overexpression of the c-MET gene in papillary RCC type I, deficiency in the FH gene in papillary RCC type II and loss of heterozygozity of the BHD gene in chromophobe RCC. Recent studies illustrate epigenetic silencing of VHL, as well as alterations in histone modifications and their governing enzymes. The possibility of reversing these epigenetic marks has resulted in efforts to target these changes by utilizing inhibitors of HDACs, DNA methyltransferases and, recently, histone methyltransferases in preclinical and clinical studies. This article focuses on potential therapeutic interventions, and the implications of histone modifications and related enzyme alterations in RCC. PMID:23895657

  3. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  4. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. Transformation of Merkel cell carcinoma to ganglioneuroblastoma in intracranial metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lach, Boleslaw; Joshi, Sangeeta S; Murty, Naresh; Huq, Nasimul

    2014-09-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor occasionally demonstrating aberrant differentiation to other epithelial and nonepithelial cell lines. We describe a case of Merkel cell carcinoma displaying unique patterns of differentiation in the primary focus and brain metastasis. The skin primary was almost uniformly small cell carcinoma positive for epithelial and neuroendocrine markers, with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein- and cytokeratin 20-positive cells. The neoplasm contained giant cells immunoreactive for neurofilament and negative for epithelial markers. The neck lymph node metastasis was a typical neuroendocrine Merkel cell carcinoma positive for cytokeratin 20. A solitary dural intracranial metastasis displayed features of aggressive ganglioneuroblastoma, expressing many neuronal antigens with no evidence of glial or epithelial differentiation. After total gross resection, the tumor recurred within 3 months, and the patient developed skeletal metastases and died 6 months after craniotomy. PMID:24996688

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  7. Transitional cell carcinoma forming a perirenal cyst in a cat.

    PubMed

    Raffan, E; Kipar, A; Barber, P J; Freeman, A I

    2008-03-01

    An eight-year-old, neutered male Burmese cat presented with five days vomiting and anorexia. Physical examination, clinical pathology and diagnostic imaging findings suggested a perirenal pseudocyst. After partial resection of the perirenal capsule clinical signs temporarily resolved, but the cat was euthanased 34 days postoperatively as a result of seizures and recurrence of vomiting. Postoperative histopathology showed neoplastic transitional cells within and lining the resected perirenal capsule; a diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma was confirmed post-mortem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this presentation of transitional cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma should be a differential diagnosis for the aetiology of perirenal pseudocyst. PMID:17784930

  8. Lung Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma: ACase Report of Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tao; Song, Ying-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a rare malignant cancer composed of sarcoma and sarcoma-like elements with spindle or giant cell features. We report the case of a 60-year-old male with past medical history of right renal cell carcinoma 2 years earlier. Apulmonary nodule was detected in the left upper lobe, 23 months after nephrectomy. Systemic positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (PET-CT) revealed one high metabolic mass shadow in the left upper lobe. Chest CTscan with contrast revealed a left upper lobe mass (2.9 x 2.5 cm). The case was suspected to be a lung metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. After surgery, the pathology revealed PSC-giant cell carcinoma. The tumor's pathology and treatment methods are discussed. PMID:27376226

  9. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Charles; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Poulsen, Michael; Martin, Jarad; Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  10. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

    PubMed Central

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  11. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks.

    PubMed

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  12. [Outlook: Future therapy of renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Lothar; Miller, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Targeted therapies have fundamentally altered the therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Sunitinib today is an internationally recommended reference standard in first-line therapy; other drugs such as Temsirolimus, Everolimus, Bevacizumab (in combination with Interferon-alpha) and Sorafenib are part of the therapeutic arsenal. Practitioners thus have now more and better therapeutic options at hand, leading to a significantly improved prognosis for mRCC patients. Numerous ongoing research activities aim at the improvement of the benefits of the new compounds in the metastatic situation or application earlier in the course of the disease. Key aspects of future development in RCC are the optimization of the current therapy options by developing new targeted therapies, the search for the best combinations and sequences including the role of nephrectomy and the assessment in the adjuvant or neo-adjuvant setting. The following contribution provides an overview of ongoing studies, thus giving insight into the future therapy of RCC. PMID:20164673

  13. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:26169313

  14. Atypical presentation of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Infante-Cossio, Pedro; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Gonzalez-Perez, Luis-Miguel; Gonzalez-Cardero, Eduardo; Sanchez-Gallego, Felicia

    2012-09-01

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of odontogenic origin. The usual clinical presentation of CCOC is a mass of progressive growth in the mandible sometimes accompanied with loss of teeth, pain, or bleeding. We describe a rare case of CCOC that showed an atypical presentation not previously described in the literature like a fast-growing painless mass in the retromolar area that reached a considerable size in a few days that caused obstruction of the airway. The presence of airway obstruction required immediate treatment, which consisted of a surgical excision of the tumor via a hemimandibulectomy. This clinical report highlights the possibility of odontogenic tumors presenting like a rapid-growing mass and the importance of clinical differential diagnosis of such presentation. PMID:22976710

  15. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their childhood. Multiple BCCs were seen in 79.3% and 10.3% of patients with history and without history of radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusions: X-ray radiation is still a major etiologic factor in developing BCC in northern Iran. Patients with positive history for radiotherapy have higher rate of recurrence. PMID:26114066

  16. [Thyroid's metastasis of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Scanelli, Giovanni; Aimoni, Claudia; Marchetti, Elisabetta; Geminiani, Matteo; Pastore, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 58 years old man, affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, who underwent left tonsillectomy with bilateral neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. After a 6 months period, the patient began to suffer from dysphonia, dysphagia and loss of weight: a painless neoformation was detected at the right lobe of the tyhroid, resulted a metastasis of the tonsillar neoplasm. The search for intranodular thyroglobulin was negative; the patient underwent thyroidectomy which showed a massive infiltration of the right cricothyroid space, cricoid and thyroid wing cartilage necrosis and intralaryngeal tumor infiltration. The authors describe the thyroid metastasis treatment, present an up-to-date review of the literature and suggest a thyroid careful clinical evaluation in every patient with a previous history of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:16229323

  17. Emerging surgical treatments for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Husain, Fatima Z; Badani, Ketan K; Sfakianos, John P; Mehrazin, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of renal cell carcinoma has evolved considerably over the last few years. While total nephrectomy is necessary at times, nephron-sparing surgery, with a goal of renal function preservation, should always be considered. Although open partial nephrectomy is considered the gold standard approach for nephron-sparing surgery, laparoscopic- or robotic-assisted techniques allow urologists to perform renal surgery less invasively, with excellent long-term oncological outcomes. Cryotherapy and radiofrequency ablation are less invasive management approaches for carefully selected patients with small renal masses. Active surveillance should be considered in elderly or patients who are unfit for surgery. Ultimately, the method chosen for management of a renal mass is an informed decision made by the physician and patient. PMID:26892144

  18. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder.

    PubMed

    Haid, Max; Gahju, Badri; Schulz, Craig; Sterner, David; Falconer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the gall bladder (SCCGB) is a rare condition, with only 53 prior cases reported in the world literature when our case was first diagnosed. Our patient was found to have limited stage disease and was treated with sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, etoposide/carboplatin chemotherapy followed by consolidating loco-regional radiation therapy. She is alive and well without evidence of disease more than 132 months since diagnosis. We describe here our experience in the diagnosis, staging workup, treatment, and surveillance of a case of SCCGB and review the published literature. Treated aggressively with currently available methods, patients with limited stage SCCGB can have an excellent prognosis. The authors' intent is to provide a reasonable plan of treatment for other physicians facing such an unusual patient. PMID:27197345

  19. Sequential scintigraphic staging of small cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bitran, J.D.; Bekerman, C.; Pinsky, S.

    1981-04-15

    Thirty patients with small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung were sequentially staged following a history and physical exam with liver, bran, bone, and gallium-67 citrate scans. Scintigraphic evaluation disclosed 7 of 30 patients (23%) with advanced disease, stage IIIM1. When Gallium-67 scans were used as the sole criteria for staging, they proved to be accurate and identified six of the seven patients with occult metastatic disease. Gallium-67 scans proved to be accurate in detecting thoracic and extrathoracic metastases in the 30 patients with SCC, especially within the liver and lymph node-bearing area. The diagnostic accuracy of gallium-67 fell in regions such as bone or brain. Despite the limitations of gallium-67 scanning, the authors conclude that these scans are useful in staging patients with SCC and should be the initial scans used in staging such patients.

  20. Biventricular metastatic invasion from cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Karan; Evans, Matthew C; Shkullaku, Melsjan; Schillinger, Rachel; White, Charles S; Roque, Dana M

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the heart has been previously described with primary lung and breast carcinoma, lymphoma, leukaemia, mesothelioma and melanoma. However, left-ventricular cardiac metastasis from primary cervical squamous cell carcinoma is poorly described. This report describes the clinical presentation of a patient with cardiac metastatic invasion from cervical cancer. PMID:27371746

  1. Unexpected maspin immunoreactivity in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Turdean, Sabin Gligore; Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Neagoe, Radu Mircea; Sala, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor, which multifactorial etiopathogenesis seems to be related to ultraviolet radiation, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), and immunosuppression. In this paper, we present three cases of diagnosed MCC in apparently healthy Caucasians, two of them located in a sun-exposed area. They represented 0.25 % of all cutaneous malignant tumors diagnosed in our department. In the first case, MCC was diagnosed in the frontal region of a 67-year-old male, the second case was located in the right thigh of a 55-year-old female, whereas the third case involved the upper trunk of a 62-year-old female. All of these cases were diagnosed in the pT1 stage, having a diameter smaller than 2 cm, but the invasion depth involved the hypodermis. Microscopically, they consisted of small cells with round-oval nuclei having finely dispersed chromatin and well-defined nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells displayed positivity for keratin 20 and neuroendocrine markers, being negative for keratin 7 and S100 protein. Maspin immunoreactivity was seen in cases 1 and 3. Not one of the cases expressed DOG-1 or even TTF-1. Furthermore, this is the first report in literature about maspin positivity in MCC that might be related to sun exposure. PMID:26607425

  2. Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Renu; Somanathan, Thara; Kattoor, Jayasree

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma (OGCC) is an exceptionally rare malignant odontogenic epithelial tumor. It is characterized by ameloblastic-like islands of epithelial cells with aberrant keratinization in the form of ghost cells with varying amounts of dysplastic dentin. Malignant histological characteristics include infiltration, cellular pleomorphism, numerous mitosis and necrosis. Its biological behavior varies from slow-growing locally invasive lesions to rapidly growing highly aggressive tumors. OGCC metastasizing to distant sites is extremely rare. Only three cases of metastasis have been reported in literature. We are reporting the case of a 54-year-old male patient who presented with tender swelling in the malar region. Histopathological examination revealed OGCC and he received postoperative radiotherapy. Two years later, he presented with a lung mass. Biopsy from the lung lesion showed the same morphology as that of maxillary tumor with scattered ghost cells. This case points to the aggressive behavior of OGCC and its metastatic potential. It also highlights the need for long-term follow-up of these patients. PMID:26980967

  3. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma in Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Çamtosun, Ahmet; Çelik, Huseyin; Altıntaş, Ramazan; Akpolat, Nusret

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of bladder, which does not have a common and accepted treatment protocol, is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. It is mostly pulmonary originated; however, it can rarely be seen in extrapulmonary sites. We presented an interesting and uncommon case, in which the transitional cell tumor was found in the transurethral resection specimen, but the small cell carcinoma was detected in the final radical cystectomy material. PMID:26788399

  4. Sciatica leading to the discovery of a renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Amine Lakmichi, Mohamed; Jarir, Redouane; Kabour, Jamal; Dahami, Zakaria; Said Moudouni, Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell cancer is not exceptional in kidney cancer (30% of patients with kidneyl cancer). Its prognosis is particularly severe. However, sciatic neuralgia (sciatica) remains an exceptional revealing clinical sign of this disease. The authors report the case of a patient admitted with right sciatica as chief complain, leading to the discovery of a renal cell carcinoma. Although uncommon, renal cell carcinoma spine metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of back pain and sciatica. PMID:22355428

  5. Sciatica leading to the discovery of a renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Kabour, Jamal; Dahami, Zakaria; Said Moudouni, Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell cancer is not exceptional in kidney cancer (30% of patients with kidneyl cancer). Its prognosis is particularly severe. However, sciatic neuralgia (sciatica) remains an exceptional revealing clinical sign of this disease. The authors report the case of a patient admitted with right sciatica as chief complain, leading to the discovery of a renal cell carcinoma. Although uncommon, renal cell carcinoma spine metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of back pain and sciatica. PMID:22355428

  6. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Ohe, Chisato; Kawakami, Fumi; Mikami, Shuji; Furuya, Mitsuko; Matsuura, Keiko; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Nagashima, Yoji; Zhou, Ming; Petersson, Fredrik; López, José I; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Amin, Mahul B

    2014-01-01

    The disease concept of clear cell (tubulo) papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) as a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma has been recently established. First described in the setting of end stage renal disease, this tumor type is more frequently recognized and encountered in a sporadic setting. In this article, we provide an overview of the recent understanding of this tumor. Macroscopically, tumors are well circumscribed with well-developed tumor capsule. Histologically, the tumor cells are cuboidal to low columnar cell with clear cytoplasm and papillary and tubulo-papillary configuration. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells generally show diffuse expression for cytokeratin 7, CA9 (cup-shaped pattern), HIF-1, GLUT-1 and high molecular weight cytokeratin, but negative for AMACR, RCC Ma and TFE3. CD10 is negative or focally positive in most tumors. Genetically, this tumor has no characteristics of clear cell RCC or papillary RCC. Prognostically, patients with CCP-RCC behave in an indolent fashion in all previously reported cases. In conclusion, although this tumor has been integrated into recent International Society of Urologic Pathology Classification of renal neoplasia, both aspects of disease concept and clinical behavior are yet to be fully elucidated. Further publications of large cohorts of patients will truly help understand the biologic potential and the molecular underpinnings of this tumor type. PMID:25550767

  7. Granule membrane protein 140 (GMP140) binds to carcinomas and carcinoma-derived cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Aruffo, A; Dietsch, M T; Wan, H; Hellström, K E; Hellström, I

    1992-01-01

    The glycoproteins granule membrane protein 140 (GMP140), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), and Leu-8 are members of a family of glycoprotein receptors (selectins or LEC-CAMs) that play an important role in adhesive interactions between circulating leukocytes and vascular endothelium. Recently it has been reported that ELAM-1 is able to mediate the binding of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 to cytokine-activated vascular endothelium, suggesting that tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium, a prerequisite for tumor extravasation and metastasis, is in part the result of adhesive interactions between blood-borne tumor cells and cell surface proteins expressed by vascular endothelium. Here, using an approach in which soluble immunoglobulin chimeras of the GMP140 and ELAM-1 receptors were prepared and used to carry out immunohistological studies, we establish that GMP140 binds to tumor cells in a variety of human carcinoma tissue sections (colon, lung, and breast), whereas ELAM-1 binds exclusively to tumor cells in colon carcinoma tissue sections. In addition, GMP140 was found to bind to the cell surface of a number of cell lines derived from various carcinomas but not from melanomas, whereas ELAM-1 bound only colon carcinoma cell lines. We further investigated the nature of the ligands of GMP140 and ELAM-1 on the surface of the carcinoma cells and found that the GMP140 ligand on the surface of tumor cells appears to be distinct from that expressed on the myeloid cell line HL-60. Neuraminidase treatment of a breast carcinoma cell line does not affect, or in some instances increases, GMP140 binding, whereas it completely abolishes GMP140 binding to HL-60 cells. On the other hand, the ligand of ELAM-1 on both the colon carcinoma and HL-60 cells is neuraminidase sensitive in accord with its identification as sialyl-CD15. Parallel results were obtained with neuraminidase-treated frozen carcinoma tissue sections. The present findings form the basis

  8. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma--an overview.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Adam J; Welch, Chris M; Zevallos, Jose P; Patel, Samip N

    2014-09-01

    Inhaled or chewed tobacco is equally addictive and harmful and used daily by over 1 billion people. In addition to increased rates of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancers, tobacco is the leading preventable cause of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to tobacco, consumption and abuse of alcohol, and betel nut quid significantly contribute to the burden of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Dental visits are excellent opportunities to identify primary lesions in the oral cavity. This review highlights relevant anatomy, epidemiology, pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment options for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25284574

  9. A patient with Multiple myeloma and Renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Farhad; Ghalamkari, Marziye; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Khatuni, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of two malignancies is rarely seen. A little association between hematologic malignancies especially multiple myeloma and renal cell carcinoma has been reported in the recent past. Several case series revealed a bidirectional association between these two malignancies which may be due to the common risk factors, similar cytokine growth requirements and clinical presentation. Here, we aim to describe a patient who had multiple myeloma and in his work up renal cell carcinoma was found out incidentally. We would like to create awareness among clinicians for the coincidence of Renal cell carcinoma and Multiple myeloma. PMID:27047652

  10. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat. PMID:27010306

  11. Three Dimensional Culture of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Organoids

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Cynthia A.; Martinez, Michele L.; Duru, Nadire; Meyers, Frederick J.; Tarantal, Alice F.

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas arise from the nephron but are heterogeneous in disease biology, clinical behavior, prognosis, and response to systemic therapy. Development of patient-specific in vitro models that efficiently and faithfully reproduce the in vivo phenotype may provide a means to develop personalized therapies for this diverse carcinoma. Studies to maintain and model tumor phenotypes in vitro were conducted with emerging three-dimensional culture techniques and natural scaffolding materials. Human renal cell carcinomas were individually characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR to establish the characteristics of each tumor. Isolated cells were cultured on renal extracellular matrix and compared to a novel polysaccharide scaffold to assess cell-scaffold interactions, development of organoids, and maintenance of gene expression signatures over time in culture. Renal cell carcinomas cultured on renal extracellular matrix repopulated tubules or vessel lumens in renal pyramids and medullary rays, but cells were not observed in glomeruli or outer cortical regions of the scaffold. In the polysaccharide scaffold, renal cell carcinomas formed aggregates that were loosely attached to the scaffold or free-floating within the matrix. Molecular analysis of cell-scaffold constructs including immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR demonstrated that individual tumor phenotypes could be sustained for up to 21 days in culture on both scaffolds, and in comparison to outcomes in two-dimensional monolayer cultures. The use of three-dimensional scaffolds to engineer a personalized in vitro renal cell carcinoma model provides opportunities to advance understanding of this disease. PMID:26317980

  12. Metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma to the brain.

    PubMed

    Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Metastases represent the most common tumors of the central nervous system, with clear cell renal cell carcinomas showing a particular predilection to involve the brain. This report documents an unusual case of a patient with a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma presenting with a brain metastasis. A 58-year-old man presented with stroke-like symptomatology, including expressive aphasia, right side facial weakness, headaches and vomiting. CT imaging demonstrated a 4.7 cm left frontal lobe hemorrhagic mass. He underwent surgery with excision of the mass, which was marked by sheets of large cells with lightly eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm. PAX8 staining was positive and a diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma of probably renal origin was rendered. Subsequently, CT imaging of the abdomen revealed a 12.9 cm left renal mass. The patient underwent a left nephrectomy and a diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was made. The tumor was noted to extend into the perirenal fat and to have involved a paraaortic lymph node. Re-review of the frontal lobe lesion confirmed the tumor was the same. Chromophobe renal cell carcinomas are far less common than clear cell tumors, are less likely to metastasize, and generally have a more favorable overall prognosis. When they metastasize, they most commonly involve the liver, lung and lymph nodes, in contrast to the more common clear cell carcinomas that typically spread to the lungs, bone and brain. PMID:26589090

  13. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  14. Primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    JIN, SHIHUA; WANG, GANG; YU, CHENGFAN; LI, NINGCHEN

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare; 7 patients with the disease have been reported previously. All these patients were males with transitional cell carcinoma. The current study reports the case of a 61-year-old woman, who presented with gross hematuria following a radical nephrectomy for local clear cell renal carcinoma. A computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a mass on the ureteral stump. The patient underwent a left ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision. The histological diagnosis was high-grade transitional cell carcinoma of the ureteral stump, with focal interstitial cancer cell infiltrates. There was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 35 months. In addition, the present study reviewed the literature for previous patients with ureteral stump carcinoma following a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma; 7 previous patients with the disease were identified. The present study suggests that, if patients who have previously undergone a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma present with hematuria, the possibility of ureteral stump carcinoma should be considered, particularly in East Asian countries. The existence or a history of bladder carcinoma should be considered as a high-risk factor for developing ureteral stump carcinoma. A ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision should be performed once ureteral stump carcinoma is diagnosed. PMID:27123110

  15. Biphasic components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinomas are molecularly similar to each other, but distinct from, non-sarcomatoid renal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Kanishka; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Wani, Khalida; Patel, Lalit R; Voicu, Horatiu; Torres-Garcia, Wandaliz; Verhaak, Roel G W; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2015-10-01

    Sarcomatoid transformation, wherein an epithelioid carcinomatous tumour component coexists with a sarcomatoid histology, is a predictor of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Our understanding of sarcomatoid change has been hindered by the lack of molecular examination. Thus, we sought to characterize molecularly the biphasic epithelioid and sarcomatoid components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma and compare them to non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We examined the transcriptome of the epithelioid and sarcomatoid components of advanced stage sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=43) and non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) from independent discovery and validation cohorts using the cDNA microarray and RNA-seq platforms. We analyzed DNA copy number profiles, generated using SNP arrays, from patients with sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=10) and advanced non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=155). The epithelioid and sarcomatoid components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma had similar gene expression and DNA copy number signatures that were, however, distinct from those of high-grade, high-stage non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Prognostic clear cell renal cell carcinoma gene expression profiles were shared by the biphasic components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma and the sarcomatoid component showed a partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signature. Our genome-scale microarray-based transcript data were validated in an independent set of sarcomatoid and non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinomas using RNA-seq. Sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma is molecularly distinct from non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma, with its genetic programming largely shared by its biphasic morphological components. These data explain why a low percentage of sarcomatoid histology augurs a poor prognosis; suggest the

  16. Scalp metastases of a renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Chavez, Guadalupe; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Lacy-Niebla, Rosa Maria; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    An 80-year-old man presented with a localized tumor of the right occipital scalp. The tumor was a 1-cm, bright red-purple, ulcerated, and crusted exophytic nodule on a smooth base (Figure 1). The lesion had grown asymptomatically over 18 months except for profuse bleeding induced by minimal trauma. It was extirpated with the clinical diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma vs. renal metastasis to the scalp. The patient's medical history included a transurethral prostatic resection 3 years earlier and, 1 year later, a right nephrectomy for a 2-kg kidney tumor verbally reported as "benign." The patient also had a 2-year history of untreated high blood pressure. Histopathologically, the excised tissue was an exo-endophytic nodule of a solid form composed of pleomorphic neoplastic cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, surrounded by fibrous collagen septae, blood vessel proliferation, and areas of hemorrhage (Figures 2 and 3). The histopathologic diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma was supported by immunohistochemistry with positive epithelial membrane antigen staining (Figure 4). Cytokeratins 7 and 20 were nonreactive. Laboratory studies revealed hematuria and elevated creatinine and urea nitrogen levels, but no malignant cells were observed in five urinary cytologies. Renal ultrasound showed the presence of two simple cysts in the left kidney and data compatible with chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:16687987

  17. Bone Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    About one-third of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have bone metastasis that are often osteolytic and cause substantial morbidity, such as pain, pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. The presence of bone metastasis in RCC is also associated with poor prognosis. Bone-targeted treatment using bisphosphonate and denosumab can reduce skeletal complications in RCC, but does not cure the disease or improve survival. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of tumor-induced changes in the bone microenvironment is needed to develop effective treatment. The “vicious cycle” hypothesis has been used to describe how tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment to drive bone destruction and tumor growth. Tumor cells secrete factors like parathyroid hormone-related peptide, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor, which stimulate osteoblasts and increase the production of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). In turn, the overexpression of RANKL leads to increased osteoclast formation, activation and survival, thereby enhancing bone resorption. This review presents a general survey on bone metastasis in RCC by natural history, interaction among the immune system, bone and tumor, molecular mechanisms, bone turnover markers, therapies and healthcare burden. PMID:27338367

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma. Part 1: Basal Cell Carcinoma Has Come of Age.

    PubMed

    Deng, Min; Marsch, Amanda F; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Almost 2 centuries after its recognition, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common cancer worldwide, with a 30% overall lifetime risk in the United States and an incidence that continues to increase annually. The increasing incidence of BCC is multifactorial and likely correlates to multiple risk factors, including exposure to both ionizing and UV radiation. Despite its relatively indolent growth, what was once referred to as a rodent ulcer or basal cell epithelioma is now identified as a full-fledged malignancy. The authors describe the societal burden of this disease and characterize its malignant potential, emphasizing associated clinical and histopathologic prognostic features. PMID:26380507

  19. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-27

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  20. Unclassified Renal Cell Carcinoma With Medullary Phenotype Versus Renal Medullary Carcinoma: Lessons From Diagnosis in an Italian Man Found to Harbor Sickle Cell Trait

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Smith, Steven C.; Massa, Simona; Renne, Salvatore L.; Brambilla, Simona; Peschechera, Roberto; Graziotti, Pierpaolo; Roncalli, Massimo; Amin, Mahul B.

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the kidney. It affects individuals of African descent and all cases reported show evidence of sickle cell trait. We reviewed an unusual carcinoma arising in a white man, the ninth in the literature. The tumor demonstrated features associated with renal medullary carcinoma, or unclassified renal cell carcinoma, medullary phenotype as recently described; the presence of sickle cell trait confirmed the diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. This case is helpful in the differential diagnosis with non-sickle cell associated “renal cell carcinoma, unclassified with medullary phenotype,” and study of this spectrum of tumors is ongoing. PMID:26793557

  1. Extensive Presentation of Penile Carcinoma Cuniculatum a Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Low Malignant Potential.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mohabe A; Okorji, Onyinyechukwu; Gagucas, Raul

    2016-09-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is an uncommon variation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been documented in a few cases at various locations of the body such as penis, foot, jaw, oropharynx and esophagus. In this case, a 79-year-old male presents with a penile mass, which he underwent a total penectomy. Histology of the mass was defined as carcinoma cuniculatum with negative margins and no lymphovascular invasion. This variant of SCC rarely metastasizes. A joint decision was made to observe lymph nodes. It is important to differentiate the different SCC because patient care can be guided based on the pathology. PMID:27313988

  2. Uterine Clear Cell Carcinoma of Postmenopausal Woman: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Clear cell carcinoma typically occurs in the ovaries, and very rarely occurs in the endometrium; it accounts for less than 3% of all endometrial cancers. It is presumed that clear cell carcinomas are of Müllerian duct origin, and an association with exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or other nonsteroidal follicle stimulating hormones has been described. We report a case of a postmenopausal woman who presented with vaginal bleeding without a specific medical history. Under the impression of an endometrial mass, we performed a laparoscopic operation. Pathologic results showed clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Depth of invasion was 0.2 cm out of a 0.5 cm total thickness, and the rectal shelf mass was clear cell carcinoma. We report the case with a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:27617248

  3. Uterine Clear Cell Carcinoma of Postmenopausal Woman: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo-Ho; Park, Jung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Clear cell carcinoma typically occurs in the ovaries, and very rarely occurs in the endometrium; it accounts for less than 3% of all endometrial cancers. It is presumed that clear cell carcinomas are of Müllerian duct origin, and an association with exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or other nonsteroidal follicle stimulating hormones has been described. We report a case of a postmenopausal woman who presented with vaginal bleeding without a specific medical history. Under the impression of an endometrial mass, we performed a laparoscopic operation. Pathologic results showed clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Depth of invasion was 0.2 cm out of a 0.5 cm total thickness, and the rectal shelf mass was clear cell carcinoma. We report the case with a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:27617248

  4. Recent advances in the management of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Ana M.; Nanus, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have significantly improved over the past few years with the recent approval of two new agents resulting in prolonged progression-free and overall survival. PMID:27019698

  5. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  6. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  8. Mutational Analysis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Erstad, Derek J.; Cusack, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge. PMID:25329450

  9. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Krause, Mirja; Samoylenko, Anatoly; Vainio, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:27322325

  10. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Krause, Mirja; Samoylenko, Anatoly; Vainio, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:27322325

  11. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  12. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK. PMID:18190354

  13. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, W. Marston; Spellman, Paul T.; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Creighton, Chad J.; Fei, Suzanne S.; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A.; Murray, Bradley A.; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D.; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M.; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D.M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Ho, Thai; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y.; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J.; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Reuter, Victor E.; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl Simon; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D.; Penny, Robert J.; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W. Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T.; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R.; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Drummond, Jennifer; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D. Neil; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Moore, Richard A.; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N.; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J. Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L.; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J.; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C.; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K.; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L.; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M.; Winemiller, Cythnia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary renal cell carcinoma, accounting for 15% of renal cell carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma; no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. Methods We performed comprehensive molecular characterization utilizing whole-exome sequencing, copy number, mRNA, microRNA, methylation and proteomic analyses of 161 primary papillary renal cell carcinomas. Results Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas were found to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with Type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups based on molecular differences that influenced patient survival. MET alterations were associated with Type 1 tumors, whereas Type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-ARE pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was found in a distinct subset of Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma characterized by poor survival and mutation of the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Conclusions Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas are clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway are associated with Type 1 and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway with Type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in Type 2 convey a poor prognosis. Furthermore, Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma consists of at least 3 subtypes based upon molecular and phenotypic features. PMID:26536169

  14. PICSAR: Long Noncoding RNA in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunhai; Morgan, Stefanie L; Wang, Kevin C

    2016-08-01

    It is increasingly evident that long noncoding RNAs may play the roles of both oncogenes and tumor suppressors during cancer development. A new study from Piipponen et al. provides evidence that a long noncoding RNA, PICSAR, promotes cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. Because specific inhibition of PICSAR suppresses tumor growth, this long noncoding RNA may serve as a useful diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27450499

  15. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  16. Genomic Heterogeneity of Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Jérôme; Molinié, Vincent; Escudier, Bernard; Camparo, Philippe; Su, Xiaoping; Yao, Hui; Tamboli, Pheroze; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Picken, Maria; Garcia, Marileila; Multani, Asha S.; Pathak, Sen; Wood, Christopher G.; Tannir, Nizar M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is a rare subtype of kidney cancer involving the TFEB/TFE3 genes. We aimed to investigate the genomic and epigenetic features of this entity. Experimental design Cytogenomic analysis was performed with 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays on 16 tumor specimens and 4 cell lines. LINE-1 methylation, a surrogate marker of DNA methylation, was performed on 27 cases using pyrosequencing. Results tRCC showed cytogenomic heterogeneity, with 31.2% and 18.7% of cases presenting similarities with clear-cell and papillary RCC profiles, respectively. The most common alteration was a 17q gain in 7 tumors (44%), followed by a 9p loss in 6 cases (37%). Less frequent were losses of 3p and 17p in 5 cases (31%) each. Patients with 17q gain were older (P = 0.0006), displayed more genetic alterations (P < 0.003) and had a worse outcome (P = 0.002) than patients without it. Analysis comparing gene-expression profiling of a subset of tumors bearing 17q gain and those without suggest large scale dosage effects and TP53 haploinsufficiency without any somatic TP53 mutation identified. Cell-line based cytogenetic studies revealed that 17q gain can be related to isochromosome 17 and/or to multiple translocations occurring around 17q breakpoints. Finally, LINE-1 methylation was lower in tRCC tumors from adults compared to tumors from young patients (71.1% vs. 76.7%, P = 0.02). Conclusions Our results reveal genomic heterogeneity of tRCC with similarities to other renal tumor subtypes and raise important questions about the role of TFEB/TFE3 translocations and other chromosomal imbalances in tRCC biology. PMID:23817689

  17. Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma With Borderline Features of Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: Combined Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Cytogenetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Gupta, Nilesh S; Eble, John N; Rogers, Craig G; Michalowski, Susan; Zhang, Shaobo; Wang, Mingsheng; Grignon, David J; Cheng, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is increasingly recognized as a distinct tumor with unique morphology, immunohistochemistry, and cytogenetics. Histopathology often mimics clear cell renal cell carcinoma; however, metastasis has not been reported, emphasizing the clinical value of recognizing these likely nonaggressive tumors. We studied tumors with borderline morphology of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, utilizing immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization or karyotyping. Tumors from 22 patients (ages 33 to 82 y) were analyzed. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma-like morphology varied from 10% to 90% of the tumor (median 25%). Sources of resemblance included: branched glands (95%), nuclear alignment (68%), small papillary tufts (32%), focal branching papillae (27%), and prominent papillary structures (9%). Carbonic anhydrase IX uniformly revealed diffuse positivity. Staining for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) was focal (64%) or negative (18%) in most tumors (82%); however, >50% labeling was present in 4 (18%). Reactivity for both CD10 and α-methyl-acyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR) was usually present (median 80% and 60% of cells). Seven tumors showed reactivity for high-molecular weight keratin (32%). Chromosome 3p loss was confirmed in 15 tumors (68%), including 4/7 with labeling for high-molecular weight keratin or >50% reactivity for CK7. A discordant immunohistochemical pattern typically correlates with loss of material from chromosome 3p in tumors with incomplete morphology of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, supporting classification as clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Diffuse labeling for CK7 can uncommonly be observed in clear cell renal cell carcinomas confirmed to have chromosome 3p loss, although these do not exhibit the expected staining pattern of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, including positivity for CD10 and AMACR. PMID:26457355

  18. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  19. The Effect of Sortilin Silencing on Ovarian Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemimanesh, Fatemeh; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Talebi, Saeed; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Hemmati, Shayda; Hadavi, Reza; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Farzi, Maryam; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2014-01-01

    Background Our preliminary data on the protein expression of SORT1 in ovarian carcinoma tissues showed that sortilin was overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma patients and cell lines, while non-malignant ovaries expressed comparably lower amount of this protein. In spite of diverse ligands and also different putative functions of sortilin (NTR3), the function of overexpressed sortilin in ovarian carcinoma cells is an intriguing subject of inquiry. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the functional role of sortilin in survival of ovarian carcinoma cell line. Methods Expression of sortilin was knocked down using RNAi technology in the ovarian carcinoma cell line, Caov-4. Silencing of SORT1 expression was assessed using real-time qPCR and Western blot analyses. Apoptosis induction was evaluated using flow cytometry by considering annexin-V FITC binding. [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay was also used to evaluate cell proliferation capacity. Results Real-time qPCR and Western blot analyses showed that expression of sortilin was reduced by nearly 70-80% in the siRNA transfected cells. Knocking down of sortilin expression resulted in increased apoptosis (27.5±0.48%) in siRNA-treated ovarian carcinoma cell line. Sortilin silencing led to significant inhibition of proliferation (40.1%) in siRNA-transfected Caov-4 cells as compared to mock control-transfected counterpart (p < 0.05). Conclusion As it was suspected from overexpression of sortilin in ovarian tumor cells, a cell survival role for sortilin can be deduced from these results. In conclusion, the potency of apoptosis induction via silencing of sortilin expression in tumor cells may introduce sortilin as a potential candidate for developing a novel targeted therapy in patients with ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25215181

  20. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven ‘pure’ Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52–89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression. PMID:26022453

  1. Primary Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nipple

    PubMed Central

    Pendse, Avani A.; O'Connor, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cutaneous cancers; however, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple is extremely rare. Among the few reported cases, the majority have occurred in older women with rare cases seen in younger women and male patients. Our patient presented with an exophytic mass of the right nipple while pregnant. A superficial biopsy was reviewed at an outside institution and then at our institution and diagnosed as squamous papilloma and then as hyperkeratosis of the nipple, respectively. The subsequent excisional biopsy revealed multiple nests of tumor cells extending into the dermis with associated chronic inflammatory infiltrate, and the lesion was diagnosed as a primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple. Following that, a wide local excision of the excision site and sampling of the regional lymph nodes were negative for carcinoma. Due to the rarity of this diagnosis, it is not known whether prognosis and response to therapy differ from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at other sites. Therefore, risk stratification and therapy have been based on those for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26798535

  2. Human papillomavirus in vulvar and vaginal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hietanen, S.; Grénman, S.; Syrjänen, K.; Lappalainen, K.; Kauppinen, J.; Carey, T.; Syrjänen, S.

    1995-01-01

    A number of reports associate human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer and cancer cell lines derived from this tumour type. Considerably fewer reports have focused on the role of HPV in carcinomas from other sites of female anogenital squamous epithelia. In this study we have tested for the presence of HPV in eight low-passage vulvar carcinoma cell lines and one extensively passaged cell line, A431. One cell line from a primary vaginal carcinoma was included. The presence of the HPV was evaluated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), by Southern blot analysis and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. General primer-mediated PCR was applied by using primers from the L1 region, E1 region and HPV 16 E7 region. Southern blot hybridisation was performed under low-stringency conditions (Tm = -35 degrees C) using a whole genomic HPV 6/16/18 probe mixture and under high stringency conditions (Tm = -18 degrees C) with the whole genomic probes of HPV 16 and 33. HPV 16 E6-E7 mRNA was assessed by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). HPV was found in only one vulvar carcinoma cell line, UM-SCV-6. The identified type, HPV 16, was integrated in the cell genome and could be amplified with all primers used. Also E6-E7 transcripts were found in these cells. Five original tumour biopsies were available from the HPV-negative cell lines for in situ hybridisation. All these were HPV negative with both the HPV 6/16/18 screening probe mixture under low stringency and the HPV 16 probe under high stringency. The results indicate that vulvar carcinoma cell lines contain HPV less frequently than cervical carcinoma cell lines and suggest that a significant proportion of vulvar carcinomas may evolve by an HPV-independent mechanism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7599042

  3. Alveolar-cell carcinoma: a problem in sputum cytodiagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, A I; Cole, M; Dunnill, M S

    1982-01-01

    Cytology and histology are correlated in a series of 22 cases chosen to illustrate the differential diagnosis between clusters of benign bronchial or bronchiolar cells seen in sputum, and those of alveolar cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma with alveolar spread. Alveolar-cell carcinoma is characterised by clusters of small epithelial cells in spherical or irregular formations, none showing enough polarity to distinguish a smooth or palisaded surface. The appearances are most distinctive if vacuolation is absent. The diagnosis cannot, however, be confidently made in all cases from morphological features of cells in sputum. Images PMID:6294147

  4. Renal Cell Carcinoma in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping; Cornejo, Kristine M.; Sadow, Peter M.; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Mingsheng; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Zhong; Oliva, Esther; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Feldman, Adam S.; Paul, Elahna; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Jane J.; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Young, Robert H.; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in 2-4% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Previous reports have noted a variety of histologic appearances in these cancers, but the full spectrum of morphologic and molecular features has not been fully elucidated. We encountered 46 renal epithelial neoplasms from 19 TSC patients and analyzed their clinical, pathological and molecular features, enabling separation of these 46 tumors into three groups. The largest subset of tumors (n=24) had a distinct morphological, immunological and molecular profile, including prominent papillary architecture and uniformly deficient SDHB expression prompting the novel term “TSC-associated papillary RCC.” The second group (n=15) was morphologically similar to a hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT) while the last 7 renal epithelial neoplasms of group 3 remained unclassifiable. The TSC-associated papillary RCCs (PRCC) had prominent papillary architecture lined by clear cells with delicate eosinophilic cytoplasmic thread-like strands that occasionally appeared more prominent and aggregated to form eosinophilic globules. All 24 (100%) of these tumors were the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade 2 or 3 with mostly basally located nuclei. Tumor cells from 17 of 24 TSC-associated PRCC showed strong, diffuse labeling for CA-IX (100%), CK7 (94%), vimentin (88%), CD10 (83%), and were uniformly negative for succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB), TFE3 and AMACR. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were found in 2 tumors, whereas chromosome 3p deletion and TFE3 translocations were not detected. In this study, we reported a sizable cohort of renal tumors seen in TSC and were able to identify them as different morphotypes which may help to expand the morphologic spectrum of TSC-associated RCC. PMID:24832166

  5. Renal cell carcinoma in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Cornejo, Kristine M; Sadow, Peter M; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Mingsheng; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Zhong; Oliva, Esther; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nussbaum, Robert L; Feldman, Adam S; Paul, Elahna; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Yu, Jane J; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Young, Robert H; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in 2% to 4% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Previous reports have noted a variety of histologic appearances in these cancers, but the full spectrum of morphologic and molecular features has not been fully elucidated. We encountered 46 renal epithelial neoplasms from 19 TSC patients and analyzed their clinical, pathologic, and molecular features, enabling separation of these 46 tumors into 3 groups. The largest subset of tumors (n=24) had a distinct morphologic, immunologic, and molecular profile, including prominent papillary architecture and uniformly deficient succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) expression prompting the novel term "TSC-associated papillary RCC (PRCC)." The second group (n=15) were morphologically similar to a hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT), whereas the last 7 renal epithelial neoplasms of group 3 remained unclassifiable. The TSC-associated PRCCs had prominent papillary architecture lined by clear cells with delicate eosinophilic cytoplasmic thread-like strands that occasionally appeared more prominent and aggregated to form eosinophilic globules. All 24 (100%) of these tumors were International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade 2 or 3 with mostly basally located nuclei. Tumor cells from 17 of 24 TSC-associated PRCCs showed strong, diffuse labeling for carbonic anhydrase IX (100%), CK7 (94%), vimentin (88%), and CD10 (83%) and were uniformly negative for SDHB, TFE3, and AMACR. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were found in 2 tumors, whereas chromosome 3p deletion and TFE3 translocations were not detected. In this study, we reported a sizable cohort of renal tumors seen in TSC and were able to identify them as different morphotypes, which may help to expand the morphologic spectrum of TSC-associated RCC. PMID:24832166

  6. A tale of two cancers: Complete genetic analysis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma contrasts with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Catherine C; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2015-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas undertook a comprehensive genetic analysis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, the first of the rare tumor types to be analyzed. This analysis identified the putative region of origin as the distal nephron. Alterations in mitochondrial function, mtDNA mutations, and recurrent structural rearrangements within the TERT promoter region were also identified. PMID:27308442

  7. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology. PMID:26813941

  8. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology. PMID:26813941

  9. Endoscopic screening for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Nourouzi, Alireza; Pourshams, Akram; Semnani, Shahryar; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud

    2013-06-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth common cancer and the sixth most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains the most common type of EC in the developing world and an important health problem in high-risk areas. Most of ESCC cases present in late stages, resulting in delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Prevention is the most effective strategy to control ESCC. Primary and secondary preventive methods may be considered for ESCC. In primary prevention, we try to avoid known risk factors. The aim of the secondary preventive method (ESCC screening programs) is to detect and eliminate premalignant precursor lesion of ESCC, preventing its progression into advanced stages. Similar to all population-based screening programs, any screening for early detection of ESCC must be cost-effective; otherwise, screening may not be indicated in that population. Endoscopy with iodine staining has been accepted as a population-level ESCC screening program in some high-risk areas including parts of China. This method may be too expensive and invasive in other high-risk communities. Nonendoscopic methods may be more applicable in these populations for population-based screenings. The limitations (questionable validity and costs) of new endoscopic imaging modalities, including narrow-band imaging (NBI), made them inappropriate to be used in population-level ESCC screening programs. Low-cost, less-invasive endoscopic imaging methods with acceptable diagnostic performance may make screening of ESCC in high-risk areas cost-effective. PMID:23725069

  10. Oral squamous cell carcinoma around dental implants.

    PubMed

    Czerninski, Rakefet; Kaplan, Ilana; Almoznino, Galit; Maly, Alexander; Regev, Eran

    2006-10-01

    It is well documented that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is related to risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption as well as premalignant lesions and conditions such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus (OLP), and previous malignancy of the upper respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. Osseointegrated dental implants are rarely reported in association with OSCC. This article presents 2 cases of OSCC adjacent to dental implants in patients at risk for oral cancer--1 was a heavy smoker with OLP; the other had a history of previous oral and colon cancer. Six additional cases of malignancy adjacent to dental implants were retrieved from the literature; the majority of cases had at least 1 recognized risk factor for oral cancer. Although such cases are rarely reported, patients at risk for oral cancer, especially those with multiple existing risk factors, that present with failing dental implants should be thoroughly evaluated to rule out the presence of malignancy disguised as peri-implant disease. PMID:17017632

  11. The effective treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Lucy Anne

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of all skin cancers and its incidence is rising by between 3-8% each year (Szeimies and Karrer, 2006). As a result, the development of new therapeutic strategies and treatment methods for the removal of BCC is crucial in combating what is a growing problem. Surgical techniques, such as Mohs micrographic surgery, cryotherapy/cryosurgery, curettage and carbon dioxide laser therapy, as well as non-surgical techniques, such as radiotherapy, are recognized as potential options. The aim of this article is to critically review some of the current literature in order to substantiate the efficacy of destructive and non-surgical techniques as reliable alternatives to surgery for the management/removal of BCCs. The success rate, cosmetic outcome, pain and discomfort, recurrence rates, and the cost associated with each method are explored and discussed. Results of the review indicate that no one treatment is completely superior. According to the research, simple excision and Mohs micrographic surgery provide the lowest recurrence rates. However, in relation to success rates, patients tolerance of the treatment and cosmetic outcomes, and depending on the type of BCC involved, other treatment methods do offer reliable alternatives. PMID:19329898

  12. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Chandan J; Thingujam, Usha; Panda, Ananya; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-07-28

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT (pCT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. pCT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using pCT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of pCT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs. PMID:26217456

  13. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buti, Sebastiano; Bersanelli, Melissa; Donini, Maddalena; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC. PMID:25992216

  14. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Renal Cell Carcinoma Staging.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Raghunandan; Beland, Michael D; Blaufox, M Donald; Moreno, Courtney Coursey; Gore, John L; Harvin, Howard J; Heilbrun, Marta E; Liauw, Stanley L; Nguyen, Paul L; Nikolaidis, Paul; Preminger, Glenn M; Purysko, Andrei S; Raman, Steven S; Taffel, Myles T; Wang, Zhen J; Weinfeld, Robert M; Remer, Erick M; Lockhart, Mark E

    2016-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-3% of all visceral malignancies. Preoperative imaging can provide important staging and anatomic information to guide treatment decisions. Size of the primary tumor and degree of local invasion, such as involvement of perinephric fat or renal sinus fat, and tumor thrombus in renal veins and inferior vena cava are important detriments to local staging of primary tumor. Both kidneys are assessed for presence of other synchronous lesions. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and application by the panel of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27016804

  15. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura S; Linehan, W Marston

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an autosomal-dominant hereditary syndrome, which is caused by germline mutations in the FH gene that encodes the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH). HLRCC patients are predisposed to develop cutaneous leiomyomas, multiple, symptomatic uterine fibroids in young women resulting in early hysterectomies, and early onset renal tumors with a type 2 papillary morphology that can progress and metastasize, even when small. Since HLRCC-associated renal tumors can be more aggressive than renal tumors in other hereditary renal cancer syndromes, caution is warranted, and surgical intervention is recommended rather than active surveillance. At-risk members of an HLRCC family who test positive for the familial germline FH mutation should undergo surveillance by annual magnetic resonance imaging from the age of 8 years. Biochemical studies have shown that FH-deficient kidney cancer is characterized by a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis. It is hoped that through ongoing clinical trials evaluating targeted molecular therapies, an effective form of treatment for HLRCC-associated kidney cancer will be developed that will offer an improved prognosis for individuals affected with HLRCC-associated kidney cancer. PMID:25018647

  16. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura S; Linehan, W Marston

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an autosomal-dominant hereditary syndrome, which is caused by germline mutations in the FH gene that encodes the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH). HLRCC patients are predisposed to develop cutaneous leiomyomas, multiple, symptomatic uterine fibroids in young women resulting in early hysterectomies, and early onset renal tumors with a type 2 papillary morphology that can progress and metastasize, even when small. Since HLRCC-associated renal tumors can be more aggressive than renal tumors in other hereditary renal cancer syndromes, caution is warranted, and surgical intervention is recommended rather than active surveillance. At-risk members of an HLRCC family who test positive for the familial germline FH mutation should undergo surveillance by annual magnetic resonance imaging from the age of 8 years. Biochemical studies have shown that FH-deficient kidney cancer is characterized by a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis. It is hoped that through ongoing clinical trials evaluating targeted molecular therapies, an effective form of treatment for HLRCC-associated kidney cancer will be developed that will offer an improved prognosis for individuals affected with HLRCC-associated kidney cancer. PMID:25018647

  17. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  18. A Case of Gastric Cancer with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Components, and Intramural Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Akagi, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 67 Final Diagnosis: Gastric cancer with neuroendocrine carcinoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Total gastrectomy • splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Many neuroendocrine carcinomas exhibit medullary infiltration and expanded proliferation. Differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma is frequently seen in the superficial region in many neuroendocrine carcinoma cases. However, the present case showed non-medullary infiltration and signet ring cell carcinoma in the superficial region, with intramural metastases distributed throughout the whole of the stomach. Case Report: A 67-year-old man was referred to our institution for treatment of gastric cancer. Type IIc-like advanced gastric cancer was detected in the greater curvature of the middle body of the stomach. The patient underwent total gastrectomy, splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction with curative resection. The tumor was diagnosed as a large-cell endocrine carcinoma of the stomach. A solid growth of signet ring cells was seen in the mucosa and submucosa. Intramural metastases were observed in many other depressed lesions. Large-cell carcinoma invaded the submucosa, mainly in the intramural metastatic site. Metastasis to one lesser curvature lymph node was also seen on histological examination. The final diagnosis was a gastric cancer of type 0–IIc (T4a) [M] (with intramural metastases) at T4aN1H0P0M0 Stage IIIA. This patient has remained alive without recurrence for 72 months after surgery. Conclusions: We recommend close preoperative examination of neuroendocrine carcinoma, taking intramural metastases into consideration. PMID:27102318

  19. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191

  20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas: Mystery and Facts.

    PubMed

    Raghavapuram, Saikiran; Vaid, Arjun; Rego, Rayburn F

    2015-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is very rare as pancreas does not have any squamous cells. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. We describe such a case where in the patient presented with painless jaundice. CT and EUS confirmed the pancreatic mass biopsy of which showed squamous cell cancer. PMID:26376556

  1. Metastatic Small-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Simulating Circumscribed Choroidal Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Kate E.; Karaconji, Tanya; Thanni, Valli; Achan, Anita; Fung, Adrian T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report a case of metastatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma presenting as an isolated choroidal mass and initially misdiagnosed as a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Methods The clinical history, fundus findings, imaging, cytology and immunohistochemical features are described. Results An otherwise healthy 66-year-old man was referred for a left nasal scotoma and a diagnosis of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Cytology showed cohesive clusters of small-to-intermediate malignant cells. The atypical cells stained positively for chromogranin, thyroid transcription factor-1 and synaptophysin consistent with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Conclusion Small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma metastatic to the choroid is extremely rare; however, it is particularly aggressive and should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated choroidal lesions, even in otherwise healthy patients. PMID:27171748

  2. Prokineticins and Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lauttia, S; Sihto, H; Kavola, H; Koljonen, V; Böhling, T; Joensuu, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prokineticin-1 (PROK1) and prokineticin-2 (PROK2) are chemokine-like proteins that may influence cancer growth by regulating host defence and angiogenesis. Their significance in viral infection-associated cancer is incompletely understood. We studied prokineticins in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a skin cancer linked with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) infection. Methods: Carcinoma cell expression of PROK1 and PROK2 and their receptors (PROKR1 and PROKR2) was investigated with immunohistochemistry, and tumour PROK1 and PROK2 mRNA content with quantitative PCR from 98 MCCs. Subsets of tumour infiltrating leukocytes were identified using immunohistochemistry. Results: Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive MCCs had higher than the median PROK2 mRNA content, whereas MCPyV-negative MCCs contained frequently PROK1 mRNA. Cancers with high tumour PROK2 mRNA content had high counts of tumour infiltrating macrophages (CD68+ and CD163+ cells). Patients with higher than the median PROK2 mRNA content had 44.9% 5-year survival compared with 23.5% among those with a smaller content (hazard ratio (HR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34–0.84; P=0.005), whereas the presence of PROK1 mRNA in tumour was associated with unfavourable survival (P=0.052). Conclusions: The results suggest that prokineticins are associated with MCPyV infection and participate in regulation of the immune response in MCC, and may influence outcome of MCC patients. PMID:24496457

  3. Small cell carcinoma of the anus in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Mark A.; Hawk, Natalyn N.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Stapleford, Liza J.

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the anus is a rare tumor that has been infrequently described in the literature. In contrast to squamous cell carcinoma, which is known to be associated with high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiology of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal is not established. We present a case of a patient with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. In conjunction with recently published data demonstrating the presence of HPV in tumor specimens from patients with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal, our patient’s clinical course suggests a possible link between HPV and this rare malignancy. PMID:23730521

  4. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Arifi, Samia; Elmesbahi, Omar; Amarti Riffi, Afaf

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare entity accounting for nearly 1% of all colorectal carcinomas. It is an independent prognostic factor associated with less favorable outcome. This aggressiveness is mainly due to the intrinsic biology of these tumors. Here is an overview of the literature related to clinicopathological features, molecular biology, and management of SRCC of the colon and the rectum. PMID:26412710

  5. Intratumoral PV701 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

  6. An Integrated Metabolic Atlas of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, A Ari; Reznik, Ed; Lee, Chung-Han; Creighton, Chad J; Brannon, A Rose; Luna, Augustin; Aksoy, B Arman; Liu, Eric Minwei; Shen, Ronglai; Lee, William; Chen, Yang; Stirdivant, Steve M; Russo, Paul; Chen, Ying-Bei; Tickoo, Satish K; Reuter, Victor E; Cheng, Emily H; Sander, Chris; Hsieh, James J

    2016-01-11

    Dysregulated metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, manifested through alterations in metabolites. We performed metabolomic profiling on 138 matched clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC)/normal tissue pairs and found that ccRCC is characterized by broad shifts in central carbon metabolism, one-carbon metabolism, and antioxidant response. Tumor progression and metastasis were associated with metabolite increases in glutathione and cysteine/methionine metabolism pathways. We develop an analytic pipeline and visualization tool (metabolograms) to bridge the gap between TCGA transcriptomic profiling and our metabolomic data, which enables us to assemble an integrated pathway-level metabolic atlas and to demonstrate discordance between transcriptome and metabolome. Lastly, expression profiling was performed on a high-glutathione cluster, which corresponds to a poor-survival subgroup in the ccRCC TCGA cohort. PMID:26766592

  7. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Deneve, Jeremiah L.; Messina, Jane L.; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Walls, Brooke M.; Fisher, Kate J.; Ann Chen, Y.; Wayne Cruse, C.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. MCC from an unknown primary origin (MCCUP) can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe our single-institution experience with the diagnosis and management of MCCUP presenting as metastases to lymph nodes. Methods After institutional review board approval, our institutional database spanning the years 1998–2010 was queried for patients with MCCUP. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were assessed. Results From a database of 321 patients with MCC, 38 (12%) were identified as having nodal MCCUP. Median age was 67 years, and 79% were men. Nodal basins involved at presentation were cervical (58%), axillary/epitrochlear (21%), or inguinal/iliac (21%). CK20 staining was positive in 93% of tumors tested, and all were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Twenty-nine patients (76%) underwent complete regional lymph node dissection (LND): 3 had LND alone, ten had LND and adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 underwent LND followed by chemoradiotherapy. Definitive chemoradiotherapy without surgery was provided to six patients (16%), while radiotherapy alone was provided to three (8%). Recurrence was observed in 34% of patients. Median recurrence-free survival was 35 months. Ten patients (26%) died, five of disease and five of other causes. The median overall survival was 104 months. Conclusions Nodal MCCUP is a rare disease affecting primarily elderly white men. Recurrence is observed in approximately one-third of patients, with a 104 month median overall survival after a multimodal treatment approach consisting of surgery along with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the majority of patients. PMID:22271206

  8. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, Gary D. Wang Lishu; Chen Tong

    2007-11-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC.

  9. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26089205

  10. A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  11. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC): a rapid autopsy report of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Udager, Aaron M; Alva, Ajjai; Chen, Ying-Bei; Siddiqui, Javed; Lagstein, Amir; Tickoo, Satish K; Reuter, Victor E; Chinnaiyian, Arul M; Mehra, Rohit

    2014-04-01

    Rapid ("warm") autopsies of patients with advanced metastatic cancer provide invaluable insight into the natural history, pathobiology, and morphology of advanced and treatment-resistant tumors. Here, we report a rapid autopsy case of a hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) patient with advanced metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-the first such case described for either a primary renal tumor or HLRCC-related cancer. Mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene underlie HLRCC, a rare syndrome involving cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata and aggressive kidney tumors. Loss of heterozygosity at the wild-type FH gene locus results in profound cellular metabolic derangement, "pseudohypoxic" upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-dependent transcription, and aberrant protein succination; these molecular changes drive oncogenesis of kidney tumors in HLRCC patients. The current index patient had a high-grade RCC with classic morphologic features of HLRCC, including large nuclei with prominent eosinophilic nucleoli and perinucleolar clearing. In addition, this patient's RCC demonstrated extensive sarcomatoid and rhabdoid features-morphologies not previously well described in HLRCC-associated kidney tumors. Here, we report the extent of metastatic dissemination and supplement this unique tumor morphology with mitochondrial enzyme histochemistry and extended immunohistochemical analysis. Tumor cells strongly expressed PAX8, vimentin, CD10, and the HIF target GLUT1 and showed increased nuclear p53 accumulation; the expression of other RCC markers was negative. We also detail microscopic tubular epithelial changes in the grossly uninvolved ipsilateral renal parenchyma and demonstrate sporadic, aberrant upregulation of the HIF targets GLUT1 and CAIX in dysplastic peritumoral tubules. PMID:24625422

  12. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC): a rapid autopsy report of metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Udager, Aaron M.; Alva, Ajjai; Chen, Ying-Bei; Siddiqui, Javed; Lagstein, Amir; Tickoo, Satish K.; Reuter, Victor E.; Chinnaiyian, Arul M.; Mehra, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Rapid (“warm”) autopsies of patients with advanced metastatic cancer provide invaluable insight into the natural history, pathobiology, and morphology of advanced and treatment-resistant tumors. Here, we report a rapid autopsy case of a hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) patient with advanced metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC)—the first such case described for either a primary renal tumor or HLRCC-related cancer. Mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene underlie HLRCC, a rare syndrome involving cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata and aggressive kidney tumors. Loss of heterozygosity at the wild-type FH gene locus results in profound cellular metabolic derangement, “pseudohypoxic” upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1[alpha] (HIF-1[alpha])-dependent transcription, and aberrant protein succination; these molecular changes drive oncogenesis of kidney tumors in HLRCC patients. The current index patient had a high-grade RCC with classic morphologic features of HLRCC, including large nuclei with prominent eosinophilic nucleoli and perinucleolar clearing. In addition, this patient’s RCC demonstrated extensive sarcomatoid and rhabdoid features—morphologies not previously well described in HLRCC-associated kidney tumors. Here, we report the extent of metastatic dissemination and supplement this unique tumor morphology with mitochondrial enzyme histochemistry and extended immunohistochemical analysis. Tumor cells strongly expressed PAX8, vimentin, CD10, and the HIF target GLUT1 and showed increased nuclear p53 accumulation; the expression of other RCC markers was negative. We also detail microscopic tubular epithelial changes in the grossly uninvolved ipsilateral renal parenchyma and demonstrate sporadic, aberrant upregulation of the HIF targets GLUT1 and CAIX in dysplastic peritumoral tubules. PMID:24625422

  13. p66Shc longevity protein regulates the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Chou, Yu-Wei; Tsai, Te-Jung; Thomes, Paul; Veeramani, Suresh; Benigno, Benedict B; Walker, L DeEtte; McDonald, John F; Khan, Shafiq A; Lin, Fen-Fen; Lele, Subodh M; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-08-01

    p66Shc functions as a longevity protein in murine and exhibits oxidase activity in regulating diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated the role of p66Shc protein in regulating ovarian cancer (OCa) cell proliferation. Among three cell lines examined, the slowest growing OVCAR-3 cells have the lowest level of p66Shc protein. Transient transfection with p66Shc cDNA expression vector in OVCAR-3 cells increases cell proliferation. Conversely, knock-down of p66Shc by shRNA in rapidly growing SKOV-3 cells results in decreased cell growth. In estrogen (E2)-treated CaOV-3 cells, elevated p66Shc protein level correlates with ROS level, ErbB-2 and ERK/MAPK activation, and cell proliferation. Further, the E2-stimulated proliferation of CaOV-3 cells was blocked by antioxidants and ErbB-2 inhibitor. Additionally, in E2-stimulated cells, the tartrate-sensitive, but not the tartrate-resistant, phosphatase activity decreases; concurrently, the tyrosine phosphorylation of ErbB-2 increases. Conversely, inhibition of phosphatase activity by L(+)-tartrate treatment increases p66Shc protein level, ErbB-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, ERK/MAPK activation, and cell growth. Further, inhibition of the ERK/MAPK pathway by PD98059 blocks E2-induced ERK/MAPK activation and cell proliferation in CaOV-3 cells. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses showed that the p66Shc protein level was significantly higher in cancerous cells than in noncancerous cells in archival OCa tissues (n = 76; P = 0.00037). These data collectively indicate that p66Shc protein plays a critical role in up-regulating OCa progression. PMID:24395385

  14. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma Developing from Trichoepithelioma: Review of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, M. Ananta; Aryasomayajula, Sirish; Krishna, B.A. Rama

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign tumours but occasionally can undergo transformation to malignant neoplasms more commonly as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). The correct diagnosis between these tumours is very important because basal cell carcinoma is locally aggressive neoplasm and requires total surgical excision with wide healthy margins while trichoepithelioma needs simple excision. We describe three patients who developed basal cell carcinoma with facial trichoepitheliomas. The only clinical feature that distinguished the carcinomas from the trichoepitheliomas was their larger size, in all three patients, one patient with recurrent, hyper pigmented swelling with surface ulceration and in another patient there are multiple trichoepitheliomas, and other family members are also affected. The history, clinical features and histopathological findings were suggestive of the evolution of basal cell carcinoma directly from trichoepithelioma in our first two cases, but in the third case TE and BCC were separate lesions on face and we are uncertain about whether the BCC developed independently or by transformation from a trichoepithelioma. Based on our clinicopathological observations in the three patients and reports in the recent literature, BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoepithelioma are considered to be highly related. PMID:27134936

  16. New therapeutic options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sligh, James E

    2014-06-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common premalignant skin lesion that is frequently treated by cryosurgery. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of man, and early-stage lesions are usually cured via surgery. Advanced basal cell carcinoma may require more extensive surgery resulting in deformity, and many advanced lesions cannot be treated surgically. Several recent developments have improved therapeutic options for both conditions. Cryosurgery is still a mainstay of treatment for AK, but the introduction of effective topical agents, imiquimod cream and ingenol mebutate, has provided alternatives to cryosurgery. For advanced basal cell carcinoma, the small-molecule inhibitor vismodegib has proven to be an effective therapy for lesions that are not amenable to surgery and has demonstrated ability to achieve dramatic improvement in advanced, potentially disfiguring cancer. PMID:25268601

  17. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype. PMID:26734870

  18. Unusual renal tumour: multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Marta Morna; Niza, João Luz; Loureiro, Ana Luisa; Conceição e Silva, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC) is a rare presentation of renal cell carcinoma. Most patients are asymptomatic and frequently MCRCCs are detected incidentally. MCRCCs have good prognosis because of their low malignant potential. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with mild right flank pain and normal laboratory data. On imaging examinations, a Bosniak III cystic lesion was detected in the lower third of the right kidney. She underwent right partial nephrectomy and histopathology showed a multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade 1. In this article, we also present a review of the literature on MCRCC, highlight the correlation of the pathological and imaging characteristics of these low aggressive renal lesions, and underscore the importance of their recognition to prevent unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:26957035

  19. MET Inhibition in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zuoquan; Lee, Young H.; Boeke, Marta; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.; Liu, Zongzhi; Bottaro, Donald P.; Kluger, Harriet M.; Shuch, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most lethal form of kidney cancer. Small molecule VEGFR inhibitors are widely used but are not curative and various resistance mechanisms such as activation of the MET pathway have been described. Dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitors have recently shown clinical benefit but limited preclinical data evaluates their effects in ccRCC. Methods: An interrogation of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset was performed to evaluate oncogenic alterations in the MET/VEGFR2 pathway. We evaluated the in vitro effects of Cabozantinib, a dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, using a panel of ccRCC cell lines. Drug effects of cell viability and proliferation, migration, cell scatter, anchorage independent growth, and downstream MET/VEGFR2 signaling pathways were assessed. Results: Twelve percent of TCGA cases had possible MET/HGF oncogenic alterations with co-occurrence noted (p<0.001). MET/HGF altered cases had worse overall survival (p=0.044). Cabozantinib was a potent inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2 in vitro in our cell line panel. PI3K, MAPK and mTOR pathways were also suppressed by cabozantinib, however the effects on cell viability in vitro were modest. At nanomolar concentrations of cabozantinib, HGF-stimulated migration, invasion, cellular scattering and soft agar colony formation were inhibited. Conclusions: We provide further preclinical rationale for dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibition in ccRCC. While the MET pathway is implicated in VEGFR resistance, dual inhibitors may have direct anti-tumor effects in a patient subset with evidence of MET pathway involvement. Cabozantinib is a potent dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, significantly inhibits cell migration and invasion in vitro and likely has anti-angiogenic effects similar to other VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Future work involving in vivo models will be useful to better define mechanisms of potential anti-tumor activity. PMID:27390595

  20. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: An HPV-related Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diego F; Rodriguez, Ingrid M; Piris, Adriano; Cañete, Sofía; Lezcano, Cecilia; Velazquez, Elsa F; Fernandez-Nestosa, Maria J; Mendez-Pena, Javier E; Hoang, Mai P; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2016-07-01

    Penile clear cell carcinoma originating in skin adnexal glands has been previously reported. Here, we present 3 morphologically distinctive penile tumors with prominent clear cell features originating not in the penile skin but in the mucosal tissues of the glans surface squamous epithelium. Clinical and pathologic features were evaluated. Immunohistochemical stains were GATA3 and p16. Human papilloma virus (HPV) detection by in situ hybridization was performed in 3 cases, and whole-tissue section-polymerase chain reaction was performed in 1 case. Patients' ages were 52, 88, and 95 years. Tumors were large and involved the glans and coronal sulcus in all cases. Microscopically, nonkeratinizing clear cells predominated. Growth was in solid nests with comedo-like or geographic necrosis. Focal areas of invasive warty or basaloid carcinomas showing in addition warty or basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia were present in 2 cases. There was invasion of corpora cavernosa, lymphatic vessels, veins, and perineural spaces in all cases. p16 was positive, and GATA3 stain was negative in the 3 cases. HPV was detected in 3 cases by in situ hybridization and in 1 case by polymerase chain reaction. Differential diagnoses included other HPV-related penile carcinomas, skin adnexal tumors, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Features that support primary penile carcinoma were tumor location, concomitant warty and/or basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and HPV positivity. Clinical groin metastases were present in all cases, pathologically confirmed in 1. Two patients died from tumor dissemination at 9 and 12 months after penectomy. Clear cell carcinoma, another morphologic variant related to HPV, originates in the penile mucosal surface and is probably related to warty carcinomas. PMID:26848799

  1. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is the fourth most common histologic type of renal cell carcinoma in 290 consecutive nephrectomies for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haijun; Zheng, Shaojiang; Truong, Luan D; Ro, Jae Y; Ayala, Alberto G; Shen, Steven S

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) has recently been recognized as a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) due to its unique morphologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features and indolent clinical behavior. However, the incidence of this tumor in a nephrectomy series for renal mass has not been fully investigated. Twelve cases of CCP-RCC were identified from a total of 290 consecutive partial (n = 137) or radical nephrectomies (n = 153) for RCC from 2010 to 2012 in our hospital. In this series, CCP-RCC was the fourth most common (4.1%) kidney tumor following clear cell (conventional) (70%), papillary (16.6%), and chromophobe (5.9%) RCCs. The average age of the CCP-RCC patients was 58.2 years (range, 18-81 years), with an equal sex distribution. Four cases (33.3%) were associated with end-stage renal disease. Of the 12 CCP-RCCs, 9 presented as solitary tumors; 2 coexisted with clear cell RCC; and 1 with papillary RCC. The average size of tumors was 2.5 cm (range, 0.8-6.0 cm). All tumors were pT1 (10 pT1a and 2 pT1b). Two cases were initially misclassified as clear cell RCC. Strong positive cytokeratin 7 stain and negative stains with α-methylacyl-CoA racemase and RCC marker differentiate CCP-RCC from low-grade clear cell RCC with similar histologic features. We conclude that CCP-RCC is a common renal neoplastic entity, representing the fourth most common (4.1%) RCC. It can be easily misclassified due to its overlapping features with low-grade clear cell RCC. In equivocal cases, immunohistochemical stains with a small panel of markers (cytokeratin 7, α-methylacyl-CoA racemase, RCC marker, or CD10) are warranted in making the correct histologic classification. PMID:24182559

  2. Osseointegrated implants: a potential route of entry for squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Schache, Andrew; Thavaraj, Selvam; Kalavrezos, Nicholas

    2008-07-01

    Documented cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma in relation to osseointegrated implants are rare. We present the first case with evidence to suggest that implants provide a route of entry for squamous cell carcinoma to the mandible. PMID:18063453

  3. Malignant Pericardial Tamponade in a Case of Signet Cell Gastric Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Rakul; Prabhakaran, Sunil Prasobh; Pillai, Padmakumar Rajasekharan; Dalus, D

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of gastric signet cell carcinoma, presenting as cardiac tamponade, in a young male patient. The diagnosis of gastric signet cell carcinoma was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of the lymph node specimen in our patient. PMID:27608703

  4. Are primary renal cell carcinoma and metastases of renal cell carcinoma the same cancer?

    PubMed

    Semeniuk-Wojtaś, Aleksandra; Stec, Rafał; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is a process consisting of cells spreading from the primary site of the cancer to distant parts of the body. Our understanding of this spread is limited and molecular mechanisms causing particular characteristics of metastasis are still unknown. There is some evidence that primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases of RCC exhibit molecular differences that may effect on the biological characteristics of the tumor. Some authors have detected differences in clear cell and nonclear cell component between these 2 groups of tumors. Investigators have also determined that primary RCC and metastases of RCC diverge in their range of renal-specific markers and other protein expression, gene expression pattern, and microRNA expression. There are also certain proteins that are variously expressed in primary RCCs and their metastases and have effect on clinical outcome, e.g., endothelin receptor type B, phos-S6, and CD44. However, further studies are needed on large cohorts of patients to identify differences representing promising targets for prognostic purposes predicting disease-free survival and the metastatic burden of a patient as well as their suitability as potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, in this review we have attempted to summarize studies connected with differences between primary RCC and its metastases and their influence on the biological characteristics of renal cancer. PMID:26850779

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (non-metastatic)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumour of keratinocytes arising in the epidermis, with histological evidence of dermal invasion. Incidence varies by country, skin colour, and outdoor behaviour, and is as high as 400/100,000 in Australia. People with fair skin colour who have high sun exposure and sunburn easily with little or no tanning, people with xeroderma pigmentosum, and people who are immunosuppressed are most susceptible to squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Does the use of sunscreen help prevent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and actinic (solar) keratosis? What is the optimal margin for primary excision of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-metastatic)? Does radiotherapy after surgery affect local recurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in people with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (non-metastatic)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: sunscreens, primary excision, and radiotherapy after surgery. PMID:25137222

  6. Citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Cho, Eunyoung; Feskanich, Diane; Li, Wen-Qing; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-10-01

    Animal experiments have demonstrated the photocarcinogenic properties of furocoumarins, a group of naturally occurring chemicals that are rich in citrus products. We conducted a prospective study for citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin based on data from 41530 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010) and 63759 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) who were free of cancers at baseline. Over 24-26 years of follow-up, we documented 20840 incident BCCs and 3544 incident SCCs. Compared to those who consumed citrus products less than twice per week, the pooled multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.99-1.08] for BCC and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00-1.30) for SCC for those who consumed two to four times per week, 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.11) for BCC and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02-1.28) for SCC for five to six times per week, 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.16) for BCC and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.08-1.37) for SCC for once to 1.4 times per day and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09-1.23) for BCC and 1.21 (95% Cl: 1.06-1.38) for SCC for 1.5 times per day or more (P trend = 0.001 for BCC and 0.04 for SCC). In contrast, consumption of non-citrus fruit and juice appeared to be inversely associated with risk of BCC and SCC. Our findings support positive associations between citrus consumption and risk of cutaneous BCC and SCC in two cohorts of men and women, and call for further investigations to better understand the potential photocarcinogenesis associated with dietary intakes. PMID:26224304

  7. Genetic mutations associated with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingjian; Li, Fengjie; Zhao, Jiang; Wu, Kaijin; Qu, Cunye; Chen, Yibu; Li, Meng; Chen, Xuelian; Stucky, Andres; Zhong, Jiangjian; Li, Longkun; Zhong, Jiang F.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of death among cancer patients, yet early detection and intervention of metastasis could significantly improve their clinical outcomes. We have sequenced and analyzed RNA (Expression) and DNA (Mutations) from the primary tumor (PT), tumor extension (TE) and lymphatic metastatic (LM) sites of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) before treatment. Here, we report a three-nucleotide deletion near the C-region of Plk5 that is specifically associated with the lymphatic metastasis. This mutation is un-detectable in the PT, becomes detectable in the TE and dominates the LM tissue. So while only a few primary cancer cells carry this mutation, the majority of metastatic cells have this mutation. The increasing frequency of this mutation in metastatic tissue suggests that this Plk5 deletion could be used as an early indicator of CCRCC metastasis, and be identified by low cost PCR assay. A large scale clinical trial could reveal whether a simple PCR assay for this mutation at the time of nephrectomy could identify and stratify high-risk CCRCC patients for treatments. PMID:26908440

  8. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Du, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Xue-Min; Lv, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of liver is rare, and its prognosis is extremely poor. This study aims at reviewing the clinical data of all pathologically diagnosed liver cancer in our institute, and discussing the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of our cases of SCC and the literatures reported previously. All the patients undergoing liver surgery or biopsy for liver cancers from 2002 to 2013 in our hospital were reviewed, and the liver specimens were examined pathologically. A literature search for case reports of primary SCC of liver published until December 31, 2014, was performed on PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. The primitive data of the case reports were all included and analyzed if available. From January 2002 to October 2013, 2210 cases of liver cancer were diagnosed pathologically in our hospital. Among, 4 cases (0.2%) were diagnosed as primary SCC of liver. All were negative for hepatitis B infection, but present with liver cyst and/or hepatolithiasis. One patient underwent radical resection, but died of tumor recurrence 18 months postoperatively. One patient received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and 1 patient received laparotomy and alcohol injection, but died 9 and 4 months after surgery, respectively. The last patient received only biopsy and supportive treatment, and finally died of tumor metastasis 6 months later. From 1970 to 2014, 31 cases of primary liver SCC have been published in English previously. Thirty one cases and the 4 cases in the present study were included. The average age of the patients were 54 years (range 18–83), with a male to female ratio of 19:16. Twenty patients had liver cysts, 7 had bile duct stones, and 2 cases had both. Patients undergoing radical surgery had better prognosis than those undergoing palliative treatments (median survival 17 vs 5 months, P = 0.005, log-rank test). Patients with liver cysts seemed to have worse

  9. Acinic cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Fukuzawa, Kazuhiro; Abe, Hitoshi; Nagai, Toshihiro; Kameyama, Kaori

    2004-01-01

    A male African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), estimated to be 3 years old, presented with exophthalmos and fixed abduction of the right eye. Radiographic examination revealed a retrobulbar tumor in the right orbital cavity. The mass was surgically resected but recurred 3 months later and the hedgehog died. There was no gross or microscopic evidence of salivary or lacrimal gland involvement of the tumor at surgery or at necropsy. The histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings were those of acinic cell carcinoma, the origin of which was unknown. This is the first known case of acinic cell carcinoma in an African hedgehog. PMID:15048626

  10. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

  11. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

  12. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Julie; Malone, C. Helen; Kelly, Brent; Wagner, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin. PMID:27293916

  13. The spectrum of renal cell carcinoma in adults.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Lakshmi; Kapur, Payal; Leyendecker, John R

    2016-06-01

    The spectrum of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) includes many neoplasms with distinct cytogenetics, biologic behaviors, and imaging appearances. The advent of molecular therapies targeting different tumor types, new insights into the relative roles of biopsy and surveillance for small incidental tumors, and a growing array of nephron-sparing interventions have altered management of RCC. Similarly, the role of the radiologist is changing, and it is becoming increasingly important for radiologists to familiarize themselves with the various types of RCC. This article introduces the reader to the common and uncommon recognized types of renal cell carcinoma and discusses how these neoplasms differ in imaging appearance and behavior. PMID:27108133

  14. Anal squamous cell carcinoma: An evolution in disease and management

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Marc C; Maykel, Justin; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Anal cancer represents less than 1% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. Yet, despite the relative paucity of cases, the incidence of anal cancer has seen a steady about 2% rise each year over the last decade. As such, all healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the evaluation and treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma. While chemoradiation remains the mainstay of therapy for most patients with anal cancer, surgery may still be required in recurrent, recalcitrant and palliative disease. In this manuscript, we will explore the diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. PMID:25278699

  15. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Douglas Magno; Pontes, Flavia Sirotheau Correa; Miyahara, Ligia Akiko Ninokata; Guerreiro, Marcella Yasmin Reis; de Almeida, Maria Clara Lopes; Pontes, Helder Antonio Rebelo; Pinto, Decio Dos Santos

    2016-09-01

    Metastases to the oral cavity are extremely rare events, representing less than 1% of all malignant oral tumors. Renal cell carcinoma constitutes about 3% of solid tumors in adults, and it is the most frequent kidney neoplasm, representing about 90% of kidney malignancies. Due to the silent growth of this neoplasm, most patients have no symptoms and the diagnosis is belated, usually after metastases. The present study reports an additional patient of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the oral cavity regarding the clinical and pathologic features. PMID:27607131

  16. Renal cell carcinoma arising in ipsilateral duplex system.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Kundu, Reetu; Dalal, Usha

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are common and include a wide anatomic spectrum. Duplex systems are one of the more common renal anomalies, with the majority being asymptomatic. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these anomalies; however, certain causative genes have been implicated. The finding of renal cell carcinoma arising in a kidney with the duplication of pelvicalyceal system and ureters, as in the present case, is uncommon. The association between a duplex system and renal cell carcinoma may be more than a coincidence, requiring a deeper insight and further elucidation. PMID:26328175

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Roewe, R. J.; Uhlman, Matthew A.; Bockholt, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is an extremely rare entity, accounting for less than 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas. Fortunately, wide local excision of such lesions is generally curative. Fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the literature describing penile basal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of penile basal cell carcinoma cured with wide local excision. PMID:25298901

  18. Two Cases of Nevoid Basal Cell CarcinomaSyndrome in One Family

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dong Jin; Kwon, Yeon Sook; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2008-01-01

    The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, is an autosomal dominant multiple system disorder with high penetrance and variable expressions, although it can also arise spontaneously. The diagnostic criteria for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome include multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, multiple odontogenic keratocysts, skeletal anomalies, positive family history, ectopic calcification and neurological anomalies. We report a brother and sister who were both diagnosed with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. PMID:27303197

  19. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  20. [A case of spindle cell carcinoma of the breast].

    PubMed

    Oshida, Sayuri; Hayashi, Keiko; Habiro, Takeyoshi; Nemoto, Kazuhiko; Sengoku, Norihiko; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2014-11-01

    The patient was a 53-year-old woman in whom ultrasonography of the breast revealed a lobular mass, 14 mm in diameter, in the right AB region. Spindle cells were obtained on fine-needle aspiration biopsy, but it was not possible to diagnose whether the tumor was benign or malignant. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass with a cystic component that was darkly stained in the early phase. Needle biopsy showed a dense proliferation of atypical spindle cells with no distinct epithelial-like arrangement. The differential diagnosis included mesenchymal malignant tumors such as fibrosarcoma, some phyllodes tumors, and epithelial tumors with sarcomatoid differentiation. Immunostaining revealed that the tumor was cytokeratin (AE1/AE3)-negative, partially CAM 5.2-positive, p63-positive, S100-negative, SMA-positive, partially vimentin-positive, with a Ki-67 index of 80% and negativity for ER, PgR, and HER2. Spindle-cell carcinoma was thus diagnosed. A partial right mastectomy with sentinel lymph-node biopsy was performed. Immunostaining of the resected specimen confirmed spindle cell carcinoma. The General Rules for Clinical and Pathological Recording of Breast Cancer classify spindle cell carcinoma as a special type of invasive cancer with a sarcomatoid structure, consisting of spindle-shaped cancer cells. This type of carcinoma is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancers. PMID:25731380

  1. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  2. Prognostic role of neuroendocrine cell differentiation in human gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Su, Dan; Mao, Zhiyuan; Guo, Xiaochuan; Wang, Lijie; Bai, Li

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the significance and biologic characteristic of neuroendocrine cell differentiation (NED) in gastric carcinoma by comparing the prognosis and clinicopathologic characteristics between patients with or without NED. Retrospective analyses of neuroendocrine markers, neuron specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin A (CgA), and synaptophysin (Syn) were performed in 174 human gastric carcinoma patients. NED association was found in 21.3% gastric carcinoma patients, with or without NED, and was correlated with tumor location, cancer emboli, infiltrative depth, TNM stage and distant metastasis (P < 0.05 in each case). The 1-year and 3-year survival rate of the patients who suffered from gastric carcinoma with NED were significantly lower than those without NED. The overall survival time of patients with NED was shorter than those with gastric carcinoma without NED, with a significant difference between the two types (P = 0.037). Cumulatively, gastric carcinoma patients with NED had shorter postoperative survival time and poorer prognosis. PMID:26221337

  3. UOK 268 Cell Line for Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute’s Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties to co-develop the UOK 262 immortalized cell line as research tool to study aggressive hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)-associated recurring kidney cancer.

  4. Quiz. Correct answer to the quiz. Check your diagnosis. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Keva; Liu, Kai-Wen; Chang, I-Wei

    2015-06-01

    We incidentally observed a case of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma of an 81-year-old woman, presenting with intermittent left flank pain. It is a recently described rare renal parenchymal tumor. PMID:26328282

  5. Nuclear localization of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Sato, Yuko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ito, Hideki; Shimonohara, Nozomi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsuo, Koma; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-03-15

    To clarify whether mutations in the large T gene encoded by Merkel cell polyomavirus affect the expression and function of large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cases, we investigated the expression of large T antigen in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal antibody revealed that large T antigen was expressed in the nuclei of Merkel cell carcinoma cells with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. Deletion mutant analyses identified an Arg-Lys-Arg-Lys sequence (amino acids 277-280) as a nuclear localization signal in large T antigen. Sequence analyses revealed that there were no mutations in the nuclear localization signal in any of the eleven Merkel cell polyomavirus strains examined. Furthermore, stop codons were not observed in the upstream of the nuclear localization signal in any of the Merkel cell carcinoma cases examined. These data suggest that the nuclear localization signal is highly conserved and functional in Merkel cell carcinoma cases.

  6. Rapid induction of senescence in human cervical carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Edward C.; Yang, Eva; Lee, Chan-Jae; Lee, Han-Woong; Dimaio, Daniel; Hwang, Eun-Seong

    2000-09-01

    Expression of the bovine papillomavirus E2 regulatory protein in human cervical carcinoma cell lines repressed expression of the resident human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes and within a few days caused essentially all of the cells to synchronously display numerous phenotypic markers characteristic of cells undergoing replicative senescence. This process was accompanied by marked but in some cases transient alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and by decreased telomerase activity. We propose that the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins actively prevent senescence from occurring in cervical carcinoma cells, and that once viral oncogene expression is extinguished, the senescence program is rapidly executed. Activation of endogenous senescence pathways in cancer cells may represent an alternative approach to treat human cancers.

  7. PIKE mediates EGFR proliferative signaling in squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z; Jiang, Y; Liao, E-Y; Chen, Y; Pennypacker, S D; Peng, J; Chang, S M

    2012-12-01

    One of the key drivers for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) proliferation is activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known proto-oncogene. However, the mechanism of EGFR-dependent SCC proliferation remains unclear. Our previous studies indicate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced SCC cell proliferation requires the SH3 domain of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), but not its catalytic activity. The SH3 domain of PLC-γ1 is known to activate the short form of nuclear phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) that enhances the activity of nuclear class Ia phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) required for proliferation. However, PIKE has been described for more than a decade to be present exclusively in neuronal cells. In the present study, we found that PIKE was highly expressed in malignant human keratinocytes (SCC4 and SCC12B2) but had low expression in normal human keratinocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong nuclear staining of PIKE in human epidermal and tongue SCC specimens but little staining in the adjacent non-cancerous epithelium. Treatment of SCC4 cells with EGF-induced translocation of PLC-γ1 to the nucleus and binding of PLC-γ1 to the nuclear PIKE. Knockdown of PLC-γ1 or PIKE blocked EGF-induced activation of class Ia PI3K and protein kinase C-ζ and phosphorylation of nucleolin in the nucleus as well as EGF-induced SCC cell proliferation. However, inhibition of the catalytic activity of PLC-γ1 had little effect. These data suggest that PIKE has a critical role in EGF-induced SCC cell proliferation and may function as a proto-oncogene in SCC. PMID:22349826

  8. Effect of chaetocin on renal cell carcinoma cells and cytokine-induced killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rombo, Roman; Weiher, Hans; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G.H.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the cytotoxic effects of chaetocin on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells and the possibility to combine the effects of chaetocin with the effects of cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK) assayed by MTT assay and FACS analysis. Chaetocin is a thiodioxopiperazine produced by fungi belonging to the chaetomiaceae family. In 2007, it was first reported that chaetocin shows potent and selective ex vivo anti-cancer activity by inducing reactive oxygen species. CIK cells are generated from CD3+/CD56- T lymphocytes with double negative CD4-/CD8- phenotype that are isolated from human blood. The addition of distinct interleukins and antibodies results in the generation of CIK cells that are able to specifically target and destroy renal carcinoma cells. The results of this research state that the anti-ccRCC activity of chaetocin is weak and does not show a high grade of selectivity on clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells. Although the CIK cells show a high grade of selective anti-ccRCC activity, this effect could not be improved by the addition of chaetocin. So chaetocin seems to be no suitable agent for specific targeting ccRCC cells or for the combination therapy with CIK cells in renal cancer. PMID:27141211

  9. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: new translational therapies.

    PubMed

    Prince, Anthony; Aguirre-Ghizo, Julio; Genden, Eric; Posner, Marshall; Sikora, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma includes cancers of the mouth, throat, larynx, and lymph nodes of the neck. Although early disease is amenable to single-modality treatment with surgery or radiation, patients with advanced disease have a dramatically worse prognosis, despite potentially morbid/toxic treatment regimens involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or all 3 modalities. The present review seeks to provide an overview of current understanding and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the nonspecialist clinician or basic/translational researcher, followed by an overview of major translational approaches to the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Translational research topics addressed include targeted molecular therapy, immunotherapy, minimally invasive robotic surgery, and ablation of dormant/residual tumor cells. Despite the many potentially promising avenues of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma research, only 2 new treatment approaches (antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapy and robotic surgery) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in the past 30 years. Focused research programs involving integrated teams of clinicians, basic scientists, and translational clinician-researchers have the potential to accelerate discovery and change treatment paradigms for patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:21105129

  10. Concomitant Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Gallbladder and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Paolo; Aragona, Francesco; Territo, Valentina; Caruso, Anna Maria; Patti, Rosalia; Buscemi, Salvatore; Di Vita, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    The neuroendocrine carcinoma is defined as a high-grade malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm arising from enterochromaffin cells, usually disposed in the mucosa of gastric and respiratory tracts. The localization in the gallbladder is rare. Knowledge of these gallbladder tumors is limited and based on isolated case reports. We describe a case of an incidental finding of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder, observed after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, in a 55-year-old female, who already underwent quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer. The patient underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer and six cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. Eighteen months after surgery, the patient was free from disease. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder has poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of the reported cases, specific prognostic factors have not been identified. The coexistence of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder with another malignancy has been reported only once. The contemporary presence of the two neoplasms could reflect that bioactive agents secreted by carcinoid can promote phenotypic changes in susceptible cells and induce neoplastic transformation. PMID:25328753

  11. Identification of somatic gene mutations in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrándiz-Pulido, Carla; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Masferrer, Emili; Vivancos, Ana; Somoza, Rosa; Marés, Roso; Valverde, Claudia; Salvador, Carlos; Placer, Jose; Morote, Juan; Pujol, Ramon M; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; de Torres, Ines; Toll, Agusti; García-Patos, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of studies on somatic gene mutations and cell signaling driving penile carcinogenesis. Our objective was to analyze somatic mutations in genes downstream of EGFR in penile squamous cell carcinomas, especially the mTOR and RAS/MAPK pathways. We retrospectively analyzed somatic mutations in 10 in situ and 65 invasive penile squamous cell carcinomas by using Sequenom's Mass Spectrometry iPlex Technology and Oncocarta v1.0 Panel. The DNA was extracted from FFPE blocks and we identified somatic missense mutations in three in situ tumors and in 19 invasive tumors, mostly in PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and PDGFA genes. Somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene or RAS family genes were neither associated with tumor grade, stage or outcome, and were equally often identified in hrHPV positive and in hrHPV negative tumors that showed no p53 expression. Mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, and HRAS are frequent in penile squamous cell carcinoma and likely play a role in the development of p53-negative tumors. Although the presence of these mutations does not seem to correlate with tumoral behavior or outcome, they could be biomarkers of treatment failure with anti-EGFR mAb in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26216163

  12. Ten human carcinoma cell lines derived from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Butler, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten cell lines of human squamous carcinomas of the tongue and larynx have been established from surgical specimens removed from 36 unselected patients, in order to provide systems for investigating the invasive and tissue-destructive capacity of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. The morphology, ultrastructure and growth characteristics of the 10 lines are described. Detailed cytogenetic analysis of the first 4 lines indicates that each is karyotypically unique, with no evidence of cross-contamination. Nine of the 10 cell lines secrete immunoreactive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) in the culture medium. No correlation was demonstrated between the ability of the cell lines to secrete plasminogen activator and their capacity to grow in soft agar or as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7195729

  13. Do Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinomas Have Malignant Potential?

    PubMed

    Diolombi, Mairo L; Cheng, Liang; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2015-12-01

    There have been no recurrences or metastases of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) in 268 reported cases with follow-up in the English-language literature. We identified all our cases of CCPRCC (1990 to 2013), reviewing all cases that preceded the formal designation of the entity. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on 32 cases during their initial workup. In addition, stains for carbonic anhydrase IX and cytokeratin 7 were performed on 2 cases, one with atypical follow-up and the other with a more compact morphology, although not performed initially. An extended panel with AMACR, CD10, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was added to the case with atypical follow-up. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes 3p, 7, and 17 was performed on the latter case and on another clinically presumed metastatic tumor. In classic cases, immunohistochemical staining was not performed. Fifty-eight patients (31 women; 27 men) with follow-up data were included in our study; 39 cases were from our consult service. The patients' ages ranged from 36 to 83 years. Thirty-five patients had cystic or partially cystic lesions; 6 tumors were multifocal, 3 of which were bilateral. The majority (53 patients; 91.4%) presented with stage pT1 disease (size range, 0.2 to 8 cm), 2 patients presented with pT2 disease (8.5 and 10.3 cm), 1 patient presented with pT3 disease (6.5 cm sarcomatoid RCC focally extending out of the kidney), and pathologic stage was unavailable in 2 cases. Treatment consisted of 29 partial nephrectomies, 26 radical nephrectomies, 2 cryoablations, and 1 cyst ablation. The resection margins were negative in all but one case, with this case disease free after a 26-month period. Two patients had intraoperative tumor disruption and were disease free at 9 and 34 months. Five patients had synchronous ipsilateral renal cell carcinomas (non-CCPRCC). Mean follow-up time was 21 months (range, 1 to 175 mo), with all but 3 patients having no evidence of

  14. Metastatic metaplastic breast carcinoma mimicking pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doreen N; Kawamoto, Satomi; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Illei, Peter B; Rosenthal, Dorothy L; VandenBussche, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is a rare type of breast cancer. Metastases to the lung, which can be a major site of second primary tumor development among breast cancer patients, are difficult to distinguish from primary SCC of the lung and present a unique challenge for pathologists. There are few available discriminating immunohistochemical markers as squamous differentiation typically leads to loss of expression of characteristic primary epithelial cell markers of both breast and lung origin. GATA protein binding 3 (GATA-3) is a useful marker of breast origin in metastatic ductal and lobular carcinomas including poorly differentiated triple-negative carcinomas and some metaplastic carcinomas. Here, we present a case of metastatic SCC presenting as a solitary lung mass with regional lymph node metastases and a single satellite lesion in a patient with a history of metaplastic SCC of the breast. In addition to the routine markers of squamous differentiation, the metastases were also positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and GATA-3 on cytologic material obtained by transbronchial FNA. This suggests that immunoreactivity for ER and GATA-3 may support a diagnosis of metastatic SCC in the context of a prior metaplastic SCC of the breast. PMID:26238413

  15. Quinacrine sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL and chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenge; Gallant, Jean-Nicolas; Katz, Sharyn I; Dolloff, Nathan G; Smith, Charles D; Abdulghani, Junaid; Allen, Joshua E; Dicker, David T; Hong, Bo; Navaraj, Arunasalam; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2011-08-01

    Quinacrine has been widely explored in treatment of malaria, giardiasis, and rheumatic diseases. We find that quinacrine stabilizes p53 and induces p53-dependent and independent cell death. Treatment by quinacrine alone at concentrations of 10-20 mM for 1-2 d cannot kill hepatocellular carcinoma cells, such as HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, which are also resistant to TRAIL. However, quinacrine renders these cells sensitive to treatment by TRAIL. Co-treatment of these cells with quinacrine and TRAIL induces overwhelming cell death within 3-4 h. Levels of DR5, a pro-apoptotic death receptor of TRAIL, are increased upon treatment with quinacrine, while levels of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, are decreased. While the synergistic effect of quinacrine with TRAIL appears to be in part independent of p53, knockdown of p53 in HepG2 cells by siRNA results in more cell death after treatment by quinacrine and TRAIL. The mechanism by which quinacrine sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL and chemotherapies, and the potential for clinical application currently are being further explored. Lastly, quinacrine synergizes with chemotherapeutics, such as adriamycin, 5-FU, etoposide, CPT11, sorafenib, and gemcitabine, in killing hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and the drug enhances the activity of sorafenib to delay tumor growth in vivo. PMID:21725212

  16. Epac1 knockdown inhibits the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells by inactivating AKT/Cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Ma, Yanyan; Bast, Robert C; Li, Yue; Wan, Lu; Liu, Yanping; Sun, Yingshuo; Fang, Zhenghui; Zhang, Lining; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wei, Zengtao

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecological malignancies, and high grade serous ovarian carcinoma is the most common and most aggressive subtype. Recently, it was demonstrated that cAMP mediates protein kinase A-independent effects through Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) proteins. Epac proteins, including Epac1 and Epac2, are implicated in several diverse cellular responses, such as insulin secretion, exocytosis, cellular calcium handling and formation of cell-cell junctions. Several reports document that Epac1 could play vital roles in promoting proliferation, invasion and migration of some cancer cells. However, the expression levels and roles of Epac1 in ovarian cancer have not been investigated. In the present study, we detected the expression levels of Epac1 mRNA and protein in three kinds of ovarian cancer cells SKOV3, OVCAR3 and CAOV3. Furthermore, the effect of Epac1 knockdown on the proliferation and apoptosis of SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that there was higher expression of Epac1 mRNA and protein in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. Epac1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation of SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Decreased proliferation may be due to downregulation of Epac1-induced G1 phase arrest by inactivating the AKT/Cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway, but not to alterations in the MAPK pathway or to apoptosis. Taken together, our data provide new insight into the essential role of Epac1 in regulating growth of ovarian cancer cells and suggest that Epac1 might represent an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:27277757

  17. Circulating Tumor Cell Composition in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bublitz, Kira; Lazaridis, Lazaros; Goergens, André; Giebel, Bernd; Schuler, Martin; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Due to their minimal-invasive yet potentially current character circulating tumor cells (CTC) might be useful as a “liquid biopsy” in solid tumors. However, successful application in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has been very limited so far. High plasticity and heterogeneity of CTC morphology challenges currently available enrichment and detection techniques with EpCAM as the usual surface marker being underrepresented in mRCC. We recently described a method that enables us to identify and characterize non-hematopoietic cells in the peripheral blood stream with varying characteristics and define CTC subgroups that distinctly associate to clinical parameters. With this pilot study we wanted to scrutinize feasibility of this approach and its potential usage in clinical studies. Experimental Design Peripheral blood was drawn from 14 consecutive mRCC patients at the West German Cancer Center and CTC profiles were analyzed by Multi-Parameter Immunofluorescence Microscopy (MPIM). Additionally angiogenesis-related genes were measured by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Results We detected CTC with epithelial, mesenchymal, stem cell-like or mixed-cell characteristics at different time-points during anti-angiogenic therapy. The presence and quantity of N-cadherin-positive or CD133-positive CTC was associated with inferior PFS. There was an inverse correlation between high expression of HIF1A, VEGFA, VEGFR and FGFR and the presence of N-cadherin-positive and CD133-positive CTC. Conclusions Patients with mRCC exhibit distinct CTC profiles that may implicate differences in therapeutic outcome. Prospective evaluation of phenotypic and genetic CTC profiling as prognostic and predictive biomarker in mRCC is warranted. PMID:27101285

  18. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O.; Brockhoff, G.; Reck, A.; Zeitler, K.; Hautmann, M.; Reichert, T.E.; Schmalz, G.; Morsczeck, C.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  19. Liriodenine, an aporphine alkaloid from Enicosanthellum pulchrum, inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway and blocking cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Noraziah; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Rahman, Mashitoh Abd; Hassan, Zalila; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant from Malaysia and belongs to the Annonaceae family. This plant is rich in isoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, liriodenine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was examined as a potential anticancer agent, particularly in ovarian cancer. Liriodenine was isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability was performed to determine the cytotoxicity, whilst the detection of morphological changes was carried out by acridine orange/propidium iodide assay. Initial and late apoptosis was examined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The involvement of pathways was detected via caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 analyses. Confirmation of pathways was further performed in mitochondria using a cytotoxicity 3 assay. Apoptosis was confirmed at the protein level, including Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin, while interruption of the cell cycle was used for final validation of apoptosis. The result showed that liriodenine inhibits proliferation of CAOV-3 cells at 37.3 μM after 24 hours of exposure. Changes in cell morphology were detected by the presence of cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Early apoptosis was observed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate bound to the cell membrane as early as 24 hours. Liriodenine activated the intrinsic pathway by induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the mitochondria could be seen, with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release, whereas the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. DNA fragmentation occurred at 72 hours upon exposure to liriodenine. The presence of DNA fragmentation indicates the CAOV-3 cells undergo late apoptosis or final stage of apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis at the protein level showed overexpression of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2 and survivin. Liriodenine inhibits progression

  20. Liriodenine, an aporphine alkaloid from Enicosanthellum pulchrum, inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway and blocking cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Noraziah; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Rahman, Mashitoh Abd; Hassan, Zalila; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant from Malaysia and belongs to the Annonaceae family. This plant is rich in isoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, liriodenine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was examined as a potential anticancer agent, particularly in ovarian cancer. Liriodenine was isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability was performed to determine the cytotoxicity, whilst the detection of morphological changes was carried out by acridine orange/propidium iodide assay. Initial and late apoptosis was examined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The involvement of pathways was detected via caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 analyses. Confirmation of pathways was further performed in mitochondria using a cytotoxicity 3 assay. Apoptosis was confirmed at the protein level, including Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin, while interruption of the cell cycle was used for final validation of apoptosis. The result showed that liriodenine inhibits proliferation of CAOV-3 cells at 37.3 μM after 24 hours of exposure. Changes in cell morphology were detected by the presence of cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Early apoptosis was observed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate bound to the cell membrane as early as 24 hours. Liriodenine activated the intrinsic pathway by induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the mitochondria could be seen, with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release, whereas the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. DNA fragmentation occurred at 72 hours upon exposure to liriodenine. The presence of DNA fragmentation indicates the CAOV-3 cells undergo late apoptosis or final stage of apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis at the protein level showed overexpression of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2 and survivin. Liriodenine inhibits progression

  1. Renal cell carcinoma in a transplanted kidney: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Leonardou, Polytimi; Semelka, Richard C; Mastropasqua, Maria; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Woosley, John T

    2003-07-01

    We report the MR findings of a 42-year-old man who developed renal cell carcinoma in an allograft kidney, 10 years after transplantation. The lower pole of the transplant kidney showed a solid lesion which was well shown on the post gadolinium fat suppressed images as a heterogeneously enhancing 2 cm mass lesion. PMID:12915202

  2. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN THE GULF MENHADEN, 'BREVOORTIA PATRONUS' GOODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The communication reports a case (RTLA 3618) of squamous cell carcinoma from the gulf menhaden, Brevoortia patronus Goode, the first tumor reported from the species. The affected fish was collected in a gill net on 15 January 1986 in the northern Gulf of Mexico near Round Island,...

  3. Does a new polyomavirus contribute to Merkel cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Garneski, Kelly M; DeCaprio, James A; Nghiem, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A new technique designed to hunt for non-human transcripts has identified a novel SV40-like virus present in the majority of Merkel cell carcinomas. Here we examine what it will take to determine whether or not this virus contributes to carcinogenesis. PMID:18598371

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of clear cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract.

    PubMed

    Vang, R; Whitaker, B P; Farhood, A I; Silva, E G; Ro, J Y; Deavers, M T

    2001-07-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract has been defined in terms of its clinical and histologic features; however, its immunophenotypic profile has not been fully characterized. Seventeen cases of primary clear cell carcinoma from various sites within the female genital tract (11 ovary, 5 uterus, 1 vagina) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. These tumors were assessed for the expression of cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), low and high molecular weight cytokeratin, (CAM5.2 and 34 beta E12, respectively), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Leu-M1, vimentin, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), bcl-2, p53, HER-2/neu, and CA-125. The characteristic immunoprofile for all sites was positivity for CK7, CAM5.2, 34 beta E12, CEA, Leu-M1, vimentin, bcl-2, p53, and CA-125; variably positivity for ER and HER-2/neu; and negativity for CK20 and PR. For comparison, two cases of urologic clear cell carcinoma (1 bladder, 1 urethra) were also studied, and their profile was found to be similar to the gynecologic cases. Aside from minor differences, clear cell carcinoma appears to have the same immunophenotype regardless of whether it originates in the endometrium, ovary, or genitourinary tract. Much of its profile is similar to other gynecologic adenocarcinomas, but some of the markers studied may be useful in the differential diagnosis of this tumor. PMID:11444201

  5. Discovering Biomarkers within the Genomic Landscape of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    A, Sankin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular sequencing technology have led to the discovery of numerous biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These biomarkers have the potential to predict clinical outcomes and aid in clinical management decisions. The following commentary is a review of the preliminary data on some of the most promising genetic biomarker candidates. PMID:27104219

  6. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma in proximal humerus of a dog

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Sarah; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Nykamp, Stephanie G.; Allavena, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was diagnosed in the proximal humerus of a dog that was presented with persistent right forelimb lameness with no clinical signs of urinary tract involvement. A diagnosis of TCC was made from surgical biopsy of the humeral lesion with subsequent necropsy revealing the prostatic urethra as the primary site of the tumor. PMID:22379204

  7. Basal cell carcinomas in a young woman with Steinert's disease.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, E; Cantisani, C; Giustini, S; Ambrifi, M; Soda, G; Calvieri, S

    2014-08-01

    Steinert's disease or Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by myotonia, muscular dystrophy, cataracts, hypogonadism, frontal balding, and electrocardiographic alterations.Several tumors have been associated with DM1 such as pilomatricoma, thymomas and insulinomas. Herein, we describe the unusual onset of multiple basal cell carcinomas in a young woman with DM1. PMID:25148278

  8. Chromoblastomycosis associated with a lethal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Torres, Edoardo; Beristain, Javier Gil; Lievanos, Zahide; Arenas, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dermatophytic fungi Fonsecaea, Phialophora and Cladophialophora. Usual complications include secondary infection, lymphedema and elephantiasis. Associated malignancies have been found in chronic cases. This case report describes a 72 year-old male with a 30 year history of chromoblastomycosis in the gluteal region, who went on to develop a squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:20520950

  9. Heart failure as the first manifestation of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chee Meng; Kurugulasigamoney, Gunasegaran; Ng, Lay Guat

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare case of a patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who initially presented to the hospital with symptoms of cardiac failure. Preoperative cardiac studies did not reveal any underlying ischemia. After resection of a large 14-cm left renal tumor, cardiac function was noted to improve dramatically. We discuss this case of concomitant RCC and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25598941

  10. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  11. Tracheal Resection With Carinal Reconstruction for Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Krantz, Seth B; Patterson, G Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for primary malignancies of the trachea. We present here the rare case of a lifelong nonsmoker with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea, requiring tracheal resection and anterior carinal reconstruction. Patient preparation, surgical technique, and considerations to avoid airway anastomotic complications are discussed. PMID:27343542

  12. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. ); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); Zitelli, J.A. )

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  13. COMPREHENSIVE MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CLEAR CELL RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Genetic changes underlying clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) include alterations in genes controlling cellular oxygen sensing (e.g. VHL) and the maintenance of chromatin states (e.g. PBRM1). We surveyed more than 400 tumors using different genomic platforms and identified 19 significantly mutated genes. The PI3K/Akt pathway was recurrently mutated, suggesting this pathway as a potential therapeutic target. Widespread DNA hypomethylation was associated with mutation of the H3K36 methyltransferase SETD2, and integrative analysis suggested that mutations involving the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex (PBRM1, ARID1A, SMARCA4) could have far-reaching effects on other pathways. Aggressive cancers demonstrated evidence of a metabolic shift, involving down-regulation of genes involved in the TCA cycle, decreased AMPK and PTEN protein levels, up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway and the glutamine transporter genes, increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein, and altered promoter methylation of miR-21 and GRB10. Remodeling cellular metabolism thus constitutes a recurrent pattern in ccRCC that correlates with tumor stage and severity and offers new views on the opportunities for disease treatment. PMID:23792563

  14. Intratumoral Morphologic and Molecular Heterogeneity of Rhabdoid Renal Cell Carcinoma: Challenges for Personalized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh R.; Murugan, Paari; Patel, Lalit R.; Voicu, Horatiu; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Wani, Khalida; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A.; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G.; Creighton, Chad J.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Broaddus, Russell R.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Sircar, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid histology in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma may also be influenced by molecular alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between histologic features and salient molecular changes in rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We macrodissected the rhabdoid and clear cell epithelioid components from 12 cases of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We assessed cancer related mutations from 8 cases using a clinical next generation exome sequencing platform. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=8) and non-rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) was assessed by RNA-seq and gene expression microarray. VHL (63%) showed identical mutations in all regions from the same tumor. BAP1 (38%) and PBRM1 (13%) mutations were identified in the rhabdoid but not the epithelioid component and were mutually exclusive in 3/3 cases and 1 case, respectively. SETD2 (63%) mutations were discordant between different histologic regions in 2/5 cases, with mutations called only in the epithelioid and rhabdoid components, respectively. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma was distinct from advanced stage and high grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The diverse histologic components of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma, however, showed a similar transcriptomic program, including a similar prognostic gene expression signature. Rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma is transcriptomically distinct and shows a high rate of SETD2 and BAP1 mutations and a low rate of PBRM1 mutations. Driver mutations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma are often discordant across different morphologic regions whereas the gene expression program is relatively stable. Molecular profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma may improve by assessing for gene expression and sampling tumor foci from different histologic

  15. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the colon with an elevated serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen responding to combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Copur, S; Ledakis, P; Novinski, D; Mleczko, K L; Frankforter, S; Bolton, M; Fruehling, R M; VanWie, E; Norvell, M; Muhvic, J

    2001-05-01

    Primary squamous cell colorectal carcinomas are uncommon, and their characteristics are not well known. They seem to occur most commonly in the fifth decade of life with a slight predominance for men. The most commonly reported anatomic locations are the rectum and the proximal colon. Clinical features and common diagnostic methods do not easily differentiate squamous cell colorectal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas. Because of their extremely rare occurrence, it is difficult to study their natural course, clinical behavior, and response to therapy. This report presents the case of a pure squamous cell colorectal cancer and provides a brief review of the literature, which includes 60 previously published cases. The case of a patient with T3N2M0 primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, which was initially treated with abdominoperineal resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, is presented. During the follow-up, an elevated squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) level led to restaging computed tomography scans, which confirmed recurrent metastatic disease in the liver. Response to chemotherapy with a decrease in tumor size correlated with a decrease in the serum SCC Ag level. Although SCC Ag has been used as a tumor marker for squamous cell cancers of the lung, head and neck, uterine cervix, and esophagus, this is the first reported case of a squamous cell colon carcinoma presenting with an elevated SCC Ag at the time of recurrence. In addition, this patient showed an objective partial response to combination chemotherapy, with a decrease in the serum level of this tumor marker. PMID:12445380

  17. Isodeoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber (Didancao) induces cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Isodeoxyelephantopin (IDOE) isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. (Didancao) is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of some types of cancer. The anti-cancer mechanism of IDOE remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative activity of IDOE on breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells. Methods The growth inhibitory effects of IDOE on breast carcinoma T47D cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells, and normal lymphocytes were evaluated by the MTT assay. Morphological analysis of apoptosis induction was performed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual-staining and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining. The cell cycle profile, caspase-3 expression, and annexin V staining were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results IDOE inhibited the growth of A549 and T47D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 values of 10.46 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. IDOE was not significantly toxic to normal lymphocytes. The cells became detached from the monolayer and rounded up, had fragmented nuclei and condensed chromatin, and the numbers of apoptotic cells increased (P = 0.0003). IDOE-induced cell death was associated with activated caspase-3 expression followed by cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Conclusions IDOE inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells and lung carcinoma cells and induced caspase-3-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the treated cells. PMID:24742378

  18. Collision Tumor With Renal Cell Carcinoma and Plasmacytoma: Further Evidence of a Renal Cell and Plasma Cell Neoplasm Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Berquist, Sean W.; Hassan, Abd-elrahman Said; Miakicheva, Olga; Dufour, Catherine; Hamilton, Zachary; Shabaik, Ahmed; Derweesh, Ithaar H.

    2016-01-01

    Renal solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas belong to a group of plasma cell neoplasms, which generally have been associated with renal cell carcinoma. We present a case report of a patient with collision tumor histology of extramedullary plasmacytoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the first in the known literature. Standard work-up for a plasma cell neoplasm was conducted and the mass was resected. The patient remains disease-free at 28 months post-surgery. The report calls into question pre-surgical renal mass biopsy protocol and suggests a relationship between renal cell carcinoma and plasma cell neoplasms. PMID:27175345

  19. Collision Tumor With Renal Cell Carcinoma and Plasmacytoma: Further Evidence of a Renal Cell and Plasma Cell Neoplasm Relationship?

    PubMed

    Berquist, Sean W; Hassan, Abd-Elrahman Said; Miakicheva, Olga; Dufour, Catherine; Hamilton, Zachary; Shabaik, Ahmed; Derweesh, Ithaar H

    2016-05-01

    Renal solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas belong to a group of plasma cell neoplasms, which generally have been associated with renal cell carcinoma. We present a case report of a patient with collision tumor histology of extramedullary plasmacytoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the first in the known literature. Standard work-up for a plasma cell neoplasm was conducted and the mass was resected. The patient remains disease-free at 28 months post-surgery. The report calls into question pre-surgical renal mass biopsy protocol and suggests a relationship between renal cell carcinoma and plasma cell neoplasms. PMID:27175345

  20. Isolated adrenal masses in nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Bernardino, M.E.; Miller, J.I.; Mansour, K.; Greene, D.; Davis, W.A.

    1984-10-01

    Computed tomography has become an important diagnostic modality in the preoperative staging of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. The adrenal glands represent one of the most frequent sites of metastasis. Therefore, an isolated adrenal mass discovered on preoperative thoracoabdominal CT poses a diagnostic problem. Three hundred thirty patients with histologically proved nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma were evaluated. Thirty-two had adrenal masses without further evidence of disease in the abdomen, Eight of these 32 masses were metastases, 17 were proved adenomas, and 7 did not undergo biopsy. Thus an isolated adrenal mass is more likely benign than metastatic, and biopsy is advocated prior to withholding potentially curative surgery.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva: A diagnostic enigma

    PubMed Central

    Bharanidharan, R; Dineshkumar, T; Raghavendhar, Karthik; Kumar, A Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignant neoplasm affecting the oral cavity; early detection is an important criterion for achieving high cure rate. Occasionally, it may be misdiagnosed because of its variable and innocuous clinical appearance. Carcinomas of the gingiva are a unique subset of OSCC, constituting approximately 10% of OSCCs and can mimic a multitude of oral lesions especially those of inflammatory origin with benign features, often leading to delay in the diagnosis and hence delayed treatment. This article reports a rare case of gingival OSCC in a 62-year-old female patient mimicking an inflammatory gingival mass. PMID:26604512

  2. Biphasic Squamoid Alveolar Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Distinctive Subtype of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Hes, Ondrej; Condom Mundo, Enric; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Lopez, Jose I; Martinek, Petr; Vanecek, Tomas; Falconieri, Giovanni; Agaimy, Abbas; Davidson, Whitney; Petersson, Fredrik; Bulimbasic, Stela; Damjanov, Ivan; Jimeno, Mireya; Ulamec, Monika; Podhola, Miroslav; Sperga, Maris; Pane Foix, Maria; Shelekhova, Ksenya; Kalusova, Kristyna; Hora, Milan; Rotterova, Pavla; Daum, Ondrej; Pivovarcikova, Kristyna; Michal, Michal

    2016-05-01

    Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma (BSARCC) has been recently described as a distinct neoplasm. Twenty-one cases from 12 institutions were analyzed using routine histology, immunohistochemistry, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Tumors were removed from 11 male and 10 female patients, whose age ranged from 53 to 79 years. The size of tumors ranged from 1.5 to 16 cm. Follow-up information was available for 14 patients (range, 1 to 96 mo), and metastatic spread was found in 5 cases. All tumors comprised 2 cell populations arranged in organoid structures: small, low-grade neoplastic cells with scant cytoplasm usually lining the inside of alveolar structures, and larger squamoid cells with more prominent cytoplasm and larger vesicular nuclei arranged in compact nests. In 9/21 tumors there was a visible transition from such solid and alveolar areas into papillary components. Areas composed of large squamoid cells comprised 10% to 80% of total tumor volume. Emperipolesis was present in all (21/21) tumors. Immunohistochemically, all cases were positive for cytokeratin 7, EMA, vimentin, and cyclin D1. aCGH (confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization) in 5 analyzable cases revealed multiple numerical chromosomal changes including gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 in all cases. These changes were further disclosed in 6 additional cases, which were unsuitable for aCGH. We conclude that tumors show a morphologic spectrum ranging from RCC with papillary architecture and large squamoid cells to fully developed BSARCC. Emperipolesis in squamoid cells was a constant finding. All BSARCCs expressed CK7, EMA, vimentin, and cyclin D1. Antibody to cyclin D1 showed a unique and previously not recognized pattern of immunohistochemical staining. Multiple chromosomal aberrations were identified in all analyzable cases including gains of chromosomes 7 and 17, indicating that they are akin to papillary RCC. Some BSARCCs were

  3. Renal cell carcinoma and occupational exposure to chemicals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Mao, Y; White, K

    2002-05-01

    This study assesses the effect of occupational exposure to specific chemicals on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in Canada. Mailed questionnaires were used to obtain data on 1279 (691 male and 588 female) newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma cases and 5370 population controls in eight Canadian provinces, between 1994 and 1997. Data were collected on socio-economic status, smoking habit, alcohol use, diet, residential and occupational histories, and years of exposure to any of 17 chemicals. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using unconditional logistic regression. The study found an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in males only, which was associated with occupational exposure to benzene; benzidine; coal tar, soot, pitch, creosote or asphalt; herbicides; mineral, cutting or lubricating oil; mustard gas; pesticides; and vinyl chloride. Compared with no exposure to the specific chemical, the adjusted ORs were 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.6), 2.1 (1.3-3.6), 1.4 (1.1-1.8), 1.6 (1.3-2.0), 1.3 (1.1-1.7), 4.6 (1.7-12.5), 1.8 (1.4-2.3) and 2.0 (1.2-3.3), respectively; an elevated risk was also associated with exposure to cadmium salts and isopropyl oil. The risk of renal cell carcinoma increased with duration of exposure to benzene, benzidine, cadmium, herbicides and vinyl chloride. Very few females were exposed to specific chemicals in this study; further research is needed to clarify the association between occupational exposure to chemicals and renal cell carcinoma in females. PMID:12063361

  4. Fusobacterium nucleatum and T-cells in Colorectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Yamauchi, Mai; Inamura, Kentaro; Kim, Sun A; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Nowak, Jonathan A.; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Kostic, Alecsandar D.; Giannakis, Marios; Watanabe, Hideo; Bullman, Susan; Milner, Danny A.; Harris, Curtis C.; Giovannucci, Edward; Garraway, Levi A.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Dranoff, Glenn; Chan, Andrew T.; Garrett, Wendy S.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Importance Evidence indicates a complex link between gut microbiome, immunity, and intestinal tumorigenesis. To target the microbiota and immunity for colorectal cancer prevention and therapy, a better understanding of the relationship between microorganisms and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is needed. Experimental evidence suggests that Fusobacterium nucleatum may promote colonic neoplasia development by down-regulating antitumor T-cell-mediated adaptive immunity. Objective To test the hypothesis that higher amount of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinoma tissue is associated with lower density of T-cells in tumor tissue. Design A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on colorectal carcinoma cases in two U.S. nationwide prospective cohort studies. The amount of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinoma tissue was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay; we equally dichotomized positive cases (high versus low). Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess associations of the amount of Fusobacterium nucleatum with densities (quartiles) of T-cells in tumor tissue, controlling for clinical and tumor molecular features, including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status. We adjusted two-sided α level to 0.013 for multiple hypothesis testing. Setting The Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Participants 598 colon and rectal carcinoma cases. Main outcomes and measures Densities of CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO (PTPRC)+, and FOXP3+ T-cells in tumor tissue, determined by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted image analysis. Results Fusobacterium nucleatum was detected in colorectal carcinoma tissue in 76 (13%) of 598 cases. Compared with Fusobacterium nucleatum-negative cases, Fusobacterium nucleatum-high cases were inversely associated with the density of CD3+ T-cells

  5. Gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma 20 years after radical nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Ebru; Kala, Mehtap; Karaman, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas account for 2–3% of malignant neoplasms in adults. The lung, soft tissues and bone represent the most frequent sites of distant metastasis in renal cell carcinoma. Gastric metastasis is rare. Our case was a 72-year-old man with complaints of fatigue and loss of appetite. In history, he had unergone radical nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma in 1993. A polypoid lesion was observed in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histopathology of gastric biopsy specimen was reported as renal cell carcinoma. In English literature, there are 50 cases diagnosed as gastric metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. To date, there are only 4 cases with extremely late gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a rare case which underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma and found to have gastric metastasis at 20. year of his follow-up. PMID:27274897

  6. Review of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Deepu George; Rooban, T; Janani, V; Joshua, E; Rao, UK; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Malignancies are usually preceded by the presence of various paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which could be the indirect and/or remote effects of the metabolites produced by neoplastic cells. PNS manifested by oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, which is the most common head and neck malignancy, are highlighted in this review. Knowledge of the clinical spectrum of these syndromes will equip the oral physician for early diagnosis and management of these hidden malignancies, especially of the pharyngeal region. PMID:21731261

  7. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: When Does Size Matter for Radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Michelle; Lee, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a very aggressive, rare cancer of the skin. It has a high propensity for local, regional, and distant recurrence and has recently been associated with a viral etiology from the recently diagnosed Merkel Cell Polyoma Virus. The optimal management remains controversial. We discuss the case of a man with a 26 cm axillary lymph node metastasis of unknown primary treated with radiotherapy. PMID:26858924

  8. Differential senescence capacities in meibomian gland carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shengfang; Gilson, Eric; Jia, Renbing; Ye, Jing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-15

    Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells, and the expression levels of the telomere capping shelterin complex, P53, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Decreased protein levels of the shelterin subunits, shortened telomere length, over-expressed Ki-67, and Bcl2 as well as mutations in P53 were detected both in MGC and BCC. It suggests that the decreased protein levels of the shelterin complex and the shortened telomere length contribute to the tumorigenesis of MGC and BCC. However, several parameters distinguish MGC from BCC samples: (i) the mRNA level of the shelterin subunits decreased in MGC but it increased in BCC; (ii) P53 was more highly mutated in MGC; (iii) Siah1 mRNA was over-expressed in BCC; (iv) BCC samples contain a higher level of senescent cells; (v) Ki-67 and Bcl2 expression were lower in BCC. These results support a model where a preserved P53 checkpoint in BCC leads to cellular senescence and reduced tumor proliferation as compared to MGC. PMID:26437300

  9. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Premalignancy and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Ramesh, K.; Gudiseva, Swetha; Bala, Sekar; Sundar, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer has multifactorial aetiology and is a multistep process involving initiation, promotion and tumour progression. Cellular proliferation is one of the important indicators for the biologic aggressiveness of a malignant lesion. The dysregulated proliferation may be a significant change to determine the potential prognosis of various malignant tumours. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as an indicator for clinical aggressiveness in oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods A total of 50 blocks were taken from the Department of Oral Pathology which was diagnosed previously histopathologically. It comprised of normal oral mucosa (10), dysplasia (10) and grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (30) of patients between the age group of 40–60 years. From each block, sections of 4 micro metre thicknesses were prepared and placed on poly- L lysine coated slides. These sections were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal proliferating cell antibody (PC10). The stained slides were evaluated by a single examiner for cell count. Results A comparison between study groups and controls showed a probability value (p-value) < 0.05. Significant increase in the proliferative index from the normal to oral squamous cell carcinoma was noticed. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed maximum proliferative index followed by moderately differentiated, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, dysplasia and normal mucosa. Conclusion Present study concluded that PCNA index can be used to assess the proliferation and aggressiveness in dysplasia and different grades oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26266215

  10. Myoepithelial cells in lobular carcinoma in situ: distribution and immunophenotype.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jindal, Sonali; Martel, Maritza; Wu, Yaping; Schedin, Pepper; Troxell, Megan

    2016-09-01

    Myoepithelial cells have important physical and paracrine roles in breast tissue development, maintenance, and tumor suppression. Recent molecular and immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated phenotypic alterations in ductal carcinoma in situ-associated myoepithelial cells. Although the relationship of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and myoepithelial cells was described in 1980, further characterization of LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells is lacking. We stained 27 breast specimens harboring abundant LCIS with antibodies to smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, smooth muscle actin, and calponin. Dual stains for E-cadherin/smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and CK7/p63 were also performed. In each case, the intensity and distribution of staining in LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells were compared with normal breast tissue on the same slide. In 78% of the cases, LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells demonstrated decreased staining intensity for one or more myoepithelial markers. The normal localization of myoepithelial cells (flat against the basement membrane, pattern N) was seen in 96% of LCIS, yet 85% of cases had areas with myoepithelial cell cytoplasm oriented perpendicular to the basement membrane (pattern P), and in 30% of cases, myoepithelial cells appeared focally admixed with LCIS cells (pattern C). This study characterizes detailed architectural and immunophenotypic alterations of LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells. The finding of variably diminished staining favors application of several myoepithelial immunostains in clinical practice. The interaction of LCIS with myoepithelial cells, especially in light of the perpendicular and central architectural arrangements, deserves further mechanistic investigation. PMID:27195907

  11. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma-like tumors in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease are unrelated to sporadic clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Zhang, Shaobo; Eble, John N; Grignon, David J; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo; Wang, Mingsheng; Gobbo, Stefano; Baldridge, Lee Ann; Cheng, Liang

    2013-08-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) shares morphologic overlap with clear cell renal cell carcinoma, although it lacks chromosome 3p and VHL gene abnormalities. Rare cases have been reported in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) patients (germline mutation of the VHL gene), the significance of which is uncertain. We analyzed morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features in 14 CCPRCC-like tumors and 13 clear cell renal cell carcinomas from 12 patients with VHL disease. Gross appearance of CCPRCC-like tumors ranged from yellow-orange to tan, red-brown, or extensively cystic. Histologic features included: small papillary tufts (79%), branched tubules (71%), branched papillae (64%), flattened peripheral cysts (64%), and apically aligned nuclei (43%). Almost all CCPRCC-like tumors (82%) lacked the characteristic immunoprofile of sporadic CCPRCC (CK7, CAIX, CD10, AMACR), often showing diffuse CD10 labeling (64%), negative or focal CK7 reactivity (55%), or both (18%). Three tumors (27%) showed strong AMACR staining. Chromosome 3p deletion was often present (82%), similar to that observed in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (80%); no CCPRCC-like tumor had chromosome 7 or 17 abnormalities. In summary, tumors that histologically resemble CCPRCC sometimes occur in patients with VHL disease but usually lack the characteristic immunohistochemical and molecular profile, suggesting that they do not share the same pathogenesis. PMID:23648463

  12. Gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with a trilineage cell differentiation: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pericleous, Marinos; Toumpanakis, Christos; Lumgair, Heather; Caplin, Martyn E; Morgan-Rowe, Luke; Clark, Ian; Luong, Tu Vinh

    2012-05-01

    Most gastric neuroendocrine tumours are well differentiated and considered as neuroendocrine neoplasms, whilst poorly differentiated lesions are considered as neuroendocrine carcinomas and account for only 6-16% of gastric neuroendocrine tumours. Gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas are rare malignancies usually composed of a neuroendocrine carcinoma and an adenocarcinoma with a variable grade of differentiation. Here, we report an unusual and rare gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with a trilineage cell differentiation including a neuroendocrine carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and a squamous cell carcinoma. A brief discussion of the histopathological features, biological behaviour and treatment of this rare tumour type is presented. PMID:22740822

  13. Gastric Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma with a Trilineage Cell Differentiation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pericleous, Marinos; Toumpanakis, Christos; Lumgair, Heather; Caplin, Martyn E.; Morgan-Rowe, Luke; Clark, Ian; Luong, Tu Vinh

    2012-01-01

    Most gastric neuroendocrine tumours are well differentiated and considered as neuroendocrine neoplasms, whilst poorly differentiated lesions are considered as neuroendocrine carcinomas and account for only 6–16% of gastric neuroendocrine tumours. Gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas are rare malignancies usually composed of a neuroendocrine carcinoma and an adenocarcinoma with a variable grade of differentiation. Here, we report an unusual and rare gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with a trilineage cell differentiation including a neuroendocrine carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and a squamous cell carcinoma. A brief discussion of the histopathological features, biological behaviour and treatment of this rare tumour type is presented. PMID:22740822

  14. Acanthosis Nigricans associated with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferraz de Campos, Fernando Peixoto; Narvaez, Margarita Rosa Aveiga; Reis, Paola Vasconcellos Soares; Gomes, Augusto Cesar Marins; Paraskevopoulos, Daniela Kallíope de Sá; Santana, Frederico; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN), an entity recognized since the 19th century, is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistant conditions, endocrinopathies, drugs, chromosome abnormalities and neoplasia. The latter, also known as malignant AN, is mostly related to abdominal neoplasms. Malignant AN occurs frequently among elderly patients. In these cases, the onset is subtle, and spreading involves the flexural regions of the body, particularly the axillae, palms, soles, and mucosa. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most frequent associated neoplasia, but many others have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although already reported, is rarely associated with malignant AN. The authors report the case of a woman who was being treated for depression but presented a long-standing and marked weight loss, followed by darkening of the neck and the axillary regions. Physical examination disclosed a tumoral mass in the left flank and symmetrical, pigmented, velvety, verrucous plaques on both axillae, which is classical for AN. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a huge renal mass, which was resected and further diagnosed as a RCC. The post-operative period was uneventful and the skin alteration was evanescent at the first follow-up consultation. The authors call attention to the association of AN with RCC. PMID:27284539

  15. Acanthosis Nigricans associated with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Narvaez, Margarita Rosa Aveiga; Reis, Paola Vasconcellos Soares; Gomes, Augusto Cesar Marins; Paraskevopoulos, Daniela Kallíope de Sá; Santana, Frederico; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN), an entity recognized since the 19th century, is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistant conditions, endocrinopathies, drugs, chromosome abnormalities and neoplasia. The latter, also known as malignant AN, is mostly related to abdominal neoplasms. Malignant AN occurs frequently among elderly patients. In these cases, the onset is subtle, and spreading involves the flexural regions of the body, particularly the axillae, palms, soles, and mucosa. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most frequent associated neoplasia, but many others have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although already reported, is rarely associated with malignant AN. The authors report the case of a woman who was being treated for depression but presented a long-standing and marked weight loss, followed by darkening of the neck and the axillary regions. Physical examination disclosed a tumoral mass in the left flank and symmetrical, pigmented, velvety, verrucous plaques on both axillae, which is classical for AN. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a huge renal mass, which was resected and further diagnosed as a RCC. The post-operative period was uneventful and the skin alteration was evanescent at the first follow-up consultation. The authors call attention to the association of AN with RCC. PMID:27284539

  16. Derivation of ductlike cell lines from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma of the rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, O. S.; Faris, R. A.; Bell, R. H.; Kuhlmann, E. T.; Longnecker, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Two cell lines were derived from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma that had been established from a primary carcinoma of the pancreas in an azaserine-treated Lewis rat. The cultured tumor cells initially produced amylase, but production of exocrine enzymes ceased after 1-2 weeks in culture. The cultured cells were tumorigenic in Lewis rats, and one line produced solid tumors composed of ductlike structures surrounded by dense fibrous tissue. The second cell line produced partially solid and partially cystic tumors with a mixed phenotype of squamous, mucinous, and glandular areas when it grew in vivo following regrafting. Both cell lines lost structural and immunohistochemical acinar cell markers while acquiring duct cell markers during culture and regrafting. These studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that ductlike carcinomas can arise from neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells in rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8391218

  17. Diagnosis and treatment in primary bladder small cell carcinoma: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Ekin, Gokhan; Ipekci, Tumay; Budak, Salih; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-03-01

    Small cell bladder carcinoma is a rare and frequently fatal disease. It can be distinguished from classical urothelial carcinoma microscopically and immunohistochemically. Small cell bladder carcinoma has histologically similar properties with other small cell carcinomas in other organs. It has a worse prognosis when compared to urothelial bladder cancer. Multimodal treatments are recommended although there is no widely accepted consensus regarding to the treatment algorithm because of its rarity. In this review, clinical properties and diagnosis of small cell bladder carcinoma, its histopathological and immunohistochemical properties and treatment modalities are examined. PMID:27072176

  18. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epigenomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans. PMID:22175027

  19. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kacerovska, Denisa; Nemcova, Jana; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of an eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was an 85-year-old man, who had a 2.5x2.5-cm, brown-colored ulcerated nodule, with a fragile, flesh-colored bleeding surface located beyond the metacarpophalangeal joint of the second finger of his left hand. Histopathologically, there were areas of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, alternating with the typical area of ESFA characterized by anastomosing cords, strands, and columns of epithelial cells extending from the crusted epidermis into a thickened, edematous, myxoid vascular-rich dermis. Immunohistochemically, the areas with dysplastic epithelium were positive for p16, whereas the benign ESFA parts tested negative. Human papillomavirus was detected in the lesional tissue by polymerase chain reaction, and the subsequent sequencing analysis demonstrated that the virus was close to human papillomavirus type 107. PMID:19033931

  20. A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Mimicking Granuloma Pyogenicum

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Won Woo; Chung, Ji Min; Jung, Kyoung Eun; Park, Jong Wook

    2008-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known for its frequent metastasis and particularly to the lungs, liver, bones and brain, but metastasis to the skin is rare. We report here on a case of metastatic RCC in a 73-year-old man who presented with a 1.5 cm sized, moist, beefy-red and exophytic nodule on the scalp. The lesion had grown rapidly for 2 months and it clinically mimicked granuloma pyogenicum. A skin biopsy revealed a solid mass composed of clear cells with clear cytoplasm and oval hyperchromatic nuclei, and they were arranged in an alveolar pattern. As skin metastasis from renal cell carcinoma signals widespread systemic metastasis and a poor prognosis, clinicians should conduct a careful inspection of the skin of a patient with RCC and they should also have a high index of suspicion for finding a primary internal organ malignancy in the RCC patients who present with a skin lesion. PMID:27303209

  1. The cell surface GRP78 facilitates the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Xiu; Li, Hong-Dan; Zhao, Song; Zhao, Liang; Song, Hui-Juan; Wang, Guan; Guo, Qing-Jun; Luan, Zhi-Dong; Su, Rong-Jian

    2013-01-01

    Invasion is a major characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma and one of the main causes of refractory to treatment. We have previously reported that GRP78 promotes the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma although the mechanism underlying this change remains uncertain. In this paper, we explored the role of the cell surface GRP78 in the regulation of cancer cell invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We found that neutralization of the endogenous cell surface GRP78 with the anti-GRP78 antibody inhibited the adhesion and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines Mahlavu and SMMC7721. However, forced expression of the cell surface GRP78 facilitated the adhesion and invasion in SMMC7721. We further demonstrated that inhibition of the endogenous cell surface GRP78 specifically inhibited the secretion and activity of MMP-2 but did not affect the secretion and activity of MMP-9. We also found that inhibition of the cell surface GRP78 increased E-Cadherin expression and decreased N-Cadherin level. On the contrary, forced expression of the cell surface GRP78 increased N-Cadherin expression and decreased E-Cadherin level, suggesting that the cell surface GRP78 plays critical role in the regulation of EMT process. These findings suggest that the cell surface GRP78 plays a stimulatory role in the invasion process and may be a potential anti-invasion target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24383061

  2. Long-term survival in uterine clear cell carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Bengt; Persson, Jan; Ranstam, Jonas; Willén, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCC) and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) are rare entities that differ in clinical behavior from endometrial adenocarcinoma. Compared with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, they more often metastasize early and more commonly in the upper abdomen including the omentum. Treatment programs of UCC and UPSC at different stages vary and range from no adjuvant therapy in stage Ia to a wide variety of chemotherapies and radiotherapies in more advanced stages. This study presents the outcome of 109 patients with UCC or UPSC treated according to essentially the same treatment program from May 1993 to December 2004. Most patients were treated with a simple hysterectomy with no further adjuvant treatment. In stage Ia, 2/46 patients died of their disease and amongst all the stages, 30/109 patients died of their disease. These survival outcomes are comparable to or better than those presented previously. PMID:20944161

  3. Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with a Gingival Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Kamal E.H.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic deposits to the oral cavity are exceptionally rare. The commonest tumor types metastasizing to the oral cavity include lung and breast carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma is believed to be the third most common infra clavicular tumor to metastasize to the head and neck. We report a case where an oral cavity deposit was the initial presentation for an occult clear cell renal carcinoma. Additional therapeutic options, including immunotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and participation in a clinical trial, should be discussed with the patient despite the poor overall prognosis. PMID:27478584

  4. A case of renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tai-Di; Lee, Li-Yu

    2014-02-01

    Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is an uncommon but well-documented phenomenon. We present a case of a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasizing to an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. A 74-year-old woman with a past history of clear cell RCC status after radical nephrectomy underwent right modified radical mastectomy for an enlarging breast mass 3 years after nephrectomy. Histological examination revealed a small focus with distinct morphological features similar to clear cell RCC encased in the otherwise typical IDC. Immunohistochemical studies showed that this focus was positive for CD10 and vimentin, in contrast to the surrounding IDC, which was negative for both markers and positive for Her2/neu. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical features, the patient was diagnosed with metastasis of clear cell RCC to the breast IDC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a breast neoplasm as the recipient tumor in tumor-to-tumor metastasis. PMID:24530247

  5. Characterisation of thyroid medullary carcinoma TT cell line.

    PubMed

    Zabel, M; Grzeszkowiak, J

    1997-01-01

    TT cell line is the best known stabilized cell line derived from the human medullary thyroid carcinoma. The ultrastructural characteristics of these cells include well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, a prominent Golgi apparatus and a considerable number of secretory granules. Numerous hormones were immunocytochemically demonstrated in TT cells of which calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are the products of the same gene but an alternative RNA processing. TT cells were found to produce some other hormones as well, namely ACTH, neurotensin, enkephalin, PTHrP, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), serotonin but also functional proteins of the chromogranin group, synaptophysin, NSE, calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Some marker proteins have been detected in the cytosol (CEA) and in the cytoskeleton (alpha-tubulin, cytokeratin). The influence of numerous factors on the secretory activity of these cells has been demonstrated so far, including effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, glucocorticoids, sex steroids, cAMP, gastrin-releasing peptide, sodium butyrate, phorbol esters, ionomycin and forskolin. The investigators performed on the TT cell line demonstrate that this is the most reliable model system for the human parafollicular cells developed so far, in comparison to other cell lines derived from the medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. PMID:9046062

  6. [A study on survival rates of oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, G S; Chen, C H

    1996-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is seen predominantly after the fourth decade of life. We have retrospectively reviewed 103 patients (92 males and 11 females) with squamous cell carcinoma, which were confirmed by histopathologic examination and treated by surgical excision at Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital from 1987 to 1991. The age of the patients ranged from 23 to 87 years. 39.8% of cases occurred on the buccal mucosa, 27.2% on the tongue, 15.5% on the gingiva of mandible, 8% on the maxilla, 7.8% on the lower lip and 1% on the floor of the mouth. 23.3% of the patients had stage I disease, 14.6% were stage II, 43.7% were stage III and 18.4% stage IV. Of 103 patients treated with wide excision, about 65% (17/103) of patients treated with wide excision and radical neck dissection or suprahyoid neck dissection, and 41% (42/103) were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. 96% (99/103) of our cases have completed a minimum follow-up period of 3 years. The sex and age of the patients did not influence survival significantly. The 5-year survival rates were 62% for patients with stage I disease, 80% for patients with stage II disease, 42% for patients with stage III, and 19% for patients with stage IV disease. Stage at initial presentation was an important factor influencing survival. The location of the primary tumor did not significantly influence survival for early stage tumors (stage I & II). In terminal stage tumors (stage III & IV). those with carcinomas of the floor of the mouth, gingiva of the mandible, lip, and maxilla had a 5-year survival of 15%, those with carcinomas of the tongue had a 5-year survival of 47%, and those with carcinomas of the buccal mucosa had a favorable survival rate of 53%. The differences were significant (P = 0.017). PMID:8699569

  7. CD133 promotes gallbladder carcinoma cell migration through activating Akt phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Jiaojiao; Ai, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the fifth most common malignancy of gastrointestinal tract. The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is extremely terrible partially due to metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying gallbladder carcinoma metastasis remain largely unknown. CD133 is a widely used cancer stem cell marker including in gallbladder carcinoma. Here, we found that CD133 was highly expressed in gallbladder carcinoma as compared to normal tissues. CD133 was located in the invasive areas in gallbladder carcinoma. Down-regulation expression of CD133 inhibited migration and invasion of gallbladder carcinoma cell without obviously reducing cell proliferation. Mechanism analysis revealed that down-regulation expression of CD133 inhibited Akt phosphorylation and increased PTEN protein level. The inhibitory effect of CD133 down-regulation on gallbladder carcinoma cell migration could be rescued by Akt activation. Consistent with this, addition of Akt inhibitor Wortmannin markedly inhibited the migration ability of CD133-overexpressing cells. Thus, down-regulation of CD133 inhibits migration of gallbladder carcinoma cells through reducing Akt phosphorylation. These findings explore the fundamental biological aspect of CD133 in gallbladder carcinoma progression, providing insights into gallbladder carcinoma cell migration. PMID:26910892

  8. Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma: Report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Mehar C.; Uppal, Manpreet; Chumber, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the kidney are rare, and present a unique diagnostic challenge. We report the case of an elderly male who presented with a large cystic neoplasm, which was a diagnostic dilemma clinically and radiologically. Histopathological examination showed a tumour composed of variably sized tubules lined by atypical cells having large round nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Hobnailing was seen at places. Tumour cells were immunopositive for pancytokeratin, vimentin, CD10, CK19 and AMACR, confirming a diagnosis of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC). PMID:26425234

  9. Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma: Report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Mehar C; Uppal, Manpreet; Chumber, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the kidney are rare, and present a unique diagnostic challenge. We report the case of an elderly male who presented with a large cystic neoplasm, which was a diagnostic dilemma clinically and radiologically. Histopathological examination showed a tumour composed of variably sized tubules lined by atypical cells having large round nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Hobnailing was seen at places. Tumour cells were immunopositive for pancytokeratin, vimentin, CD10, CK19 and AMACR, confirming a diagnosis of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC). PMID:26425234

  10. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  11. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Gurudutt, Vivek V; Genden, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  12. Personalized targeted therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Keneng; Li, Yicheng; Li, Jianying; D'Amico, Thomas A; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma continues to heavily burden clinicians worldwide. Researchers have discovered the genomic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which holds promise for an era of personalized oncology care. One of the most pressing problems facing this issue is to improve the understanding of the newly available genomic data, and identify the driver-gene mutations, pathways, and networks. The emergence of a legion of novel targeted agents has generated much hope and hype regarding more potent treatment regimens, but the accuracy of drug selection is still arguable. Other problems, such as cancer heterogeneity, drug resistance, exceptional responders, and side effects, have to be surmounted. Evolving topics in personalized oncology, such as interpretation of genomics data, issues in targeted therapy, research approaches for targeted therapy, and future perspectives, will be discussed in this editorial. PMID:26167067

  13. Multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy: an emphasis on squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nathaniel W.; Sensibaugh, Jordan; Ardeshiri, Ardaland; Blanchard, Adam; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Our previous study reported a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.2% in rapidly detecting Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs) when nuclei were stained with acridine orange. Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCCs) and infiltrative BCCs remain difficult to detect. More complete screening can be achieved utilizing both acridine orange for nuclei staining and eosin for cytoplasmic contrast, using two lasers to excite the two stains independently. Nuclear fluorescence is achieved by staining with acridine orange (0.5mM, 60 s), and cytoplasmic fluorescence is achieved by staining with eosin working solution (30 s). This work shows good morphological contrast of SCC and infiltrative BCC with eosin, acridine orange, and reflectance, and presents a means for rapid SCC and infiltrative BCC detection in fresh skin excisions using multimodal confocal microscopy. In addition, digital staining is shown to effectively simulate hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology with confocal mosaics.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Kwon, Young Suk; Labib, Mina; Foran, David J.; Singer, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    As the most common neoplasm arising from the kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to have a significant impact on global health. Conventional cross-sectional imaging has always served an important role in the staging of RCC. However, with recent advances in imaging techniques and postprocessing analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now has the capability to function as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarker for RCC. For this narrative literature review, a PubMed search was conducted to collect the most relevant and impactful studies from our perspectives as urologic oncologists, radiologists, and computational imaging specialists. We seek to cover advanced MR imaging and image analysis techniques that may improve the management of patients with small renal mass or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26609190

  15. Penis keratoacanthoma transforming into squamous cell carcinoma: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fei; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Yihong; Liu, Jianye; Tang, Yuxin; Tang, Jin; Yao, Kun; Xia, Bing; Dai, Yingbo

    2015-01-01

    Keratoacanthoma is variously regarded as a benign epithelial tumor, characterized by a rapid-growing and solitary flesh-colored nodule with a central keratin plug on the sun-exposed skin. Under certain circumstances, it can transform into squamous cell carcinoma. In this paper, we present a case of a 50-year-old man with a 2.5 × 3 × 2.2 cm mass on his penis stub-end. The patient was treat with a partial penectomy after further expert discussions and histopathology the lesion demonstrated penis keratoacanthoma. He received a partial penectomy again and the pathological result revealed squamous cell carcinoma this time. This case indicates that undergoing a partial penectomy on initial diagnosis of a penile tumor secondary to penile keratoacanthoma should be considered because of its high malignant potency. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe the malignant conversion of penis keratoacanthoma. PMID:26885065

  16. Animal models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Martin, Chelsea K; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common oral cancer worldwide. Local bone invasion into the maxilla or mandible and metastasis to regional lymph nodes often result in a poor prognosis, decreased quality of life and shortened survival time for HNSCC patients. Poor response to treatment and clinical outcomes are the major concerns in this aggressive cancer. Multiple animal models have been developed to replicate spontaneous HNSCC and investigate genetic alterations and novel therapeutic targets. This review provides an overview of HNSCC as well as the traditional animal models used in HNSCC preclinical research. The value and challenges of each in vivo model are discussed. Similarity between HNSCC in humans and cats and the possibility of using spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) as a model for HNSCC in translational research are highlighted. PMID:26965084

  17. Investigational agents in metastatic basal cell carcinoma: focus on vismodegib

    PubMed Central

    Batty, Nicolas; Kossoff, Ellen; Dy, Grace K

    2012-01-01

    Vismodegib (GDC-0449, 2-chloro-N-(4-chloro-3-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzamide, Erivedge™) is a novel first-in-human, first-in class, orally bio-available Hedgehog pathway signaling inhibitor of the G-protein coupled receptor-like protein smoothened (SMO) which was approved in the United States on January 2012. This signaling pathway is involved in the carcinogenesis of several types of tumor, as exemplified by basal cell carcinoma. This review focuses on the role of the Hedgehog pathway in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma, the pharmacology and the clinical activity of vismodegib, as well as a brief summary of investigational agents in development targeting this pathway.

  18. Personalized targeted therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Keneng; Li, Yicheng; Li, Jianying; D'Amico, Thomas A; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma continues to heavily burden clinicians worldwide. Researchers have discovered the genomic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which holds promise for an era of personalized oncology care. One of the most pressing problems facing this issue is to improve the understanding of the newly available genomic data, and identify the driver-gene mutations, pathways, and networks. The emergence of a legion of novel targeted agents has generated much hope and hype regarding more potent treatment regimens, but the accuracy of drug selection is still arguable. Other problems, such as cancer heterogeneity, drug resistance, exceptional responders, and side effects, have to be surmounted. Evolving topics in personalized oncology, such as interpretation of genomics data, issues in targeted therapy, research approaches for targeted therapy, and future perspectives, will be discussed in this editorial. PMID:26167067

  19. Adipocyte Secreted Factors Enhance Aggressiveness of Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ângela; Pereira, Sofia S.; Costa, Madalena; Morais, Tiago; Pinto, Ana; Fernandes, Rúben; Monteiro, Mariana P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and risk of mortality of prostate cancer. One of the proposed mechanisms underlying this risk association is the change in adipokines expression that could promote the development and progression of the prostate tumor cells. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of preadipocyte and adipocyte secretome in the proliferation, migration and invasion of androgen independent prostate carcinoma cells (RM1) and to assess cell proliferation in the presence of the adiposity signals leptin and insulin. RM1 cells were co-cultured in with preadipocytes, adipocytes or cultured in their respective conditioned medium. Cell proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and XTT viability test. Cell migration was evaluated using a wound healing injury assay of RM1 cells cultured with conditioned media. Cellular invasion of RM1 cells co-cultured with adipocytes and preadipocytes was assessed using matrigel membranes. Preadipocyte conditioned medium was associated with a small increase in RM1 proliferation, while adipocytes conditioned media significantly increased RM1 cell proliferation (p<0.01). Adipocytes also significantly increased the RM1 cells proliferation in co-culture (p <0.01). Cell migration was higher in RM1 cells cultured with preadipocyte and adipocyte conditioned medium. RM1 cell invasion was significantly increased after co-culture with preadipocytes and adipocytes (p <0.05). Insulin also increased significantly the cell proliferation in contrast to leptin, which showed no effect. In conclusion, prostate carcinoma cells seem to be influenced by factors secreted by adipocytes that are able to increase their ability to proliferate, migrate and invade. PMID:25928422

  20. Gallbladder small cell carcinoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Toshiyuki; Haraguchi, Masashi; Irie, Junji; Yoshimoto, Tomoko; Uehara, Ryohei; Ito, Shinichiro; Tokai, Hirotaka; Noda, Kazumasa; Tada, Nobuhiro; Hirabaru, Masataka; Inoue, Keiji; Minami, Shigeki; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-12-01

    Gallbladder small cell carcinoma (SCC) comprises only 0.5 % of all gallbladder cancer and consists of aggressive tumors with poor survival outcomes against current treatments. These tumors are most common in elderly females, particularly those with cholecystolithiasis. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with gallbladder small cell carcinoma. The patient had intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal pain and was admitted to our hospital due to suspected acute cholecystitis. She regularly received medical treatment for diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. On initial laboratory evaluation, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were markedly elevated. She underwent computed tomography (CT) for screening. CT images showed a thick-walled gallbladder containing multiple stones and multiple 3-cm-sized round nodular lesions, which were suggestive of metastatic lymph nodes. After percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage was performed, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of enlarged lymph nodes resulted in a diagnosis of small cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. However, we could not identify the primary lesion before the surgery because of no decisive factors. We performed cholecystectomy because there was a possibility of cholecystitis recurrence risk and also partial liver resection because we suspected tumor invasion. The final pathological diagnosis was neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder, small cell type. The tumor stage was IVb, T3aN1M1. The patient died 13 weeks after the surgery. In the present paper, we review the current available English-language literature of gallbladder SCC. PMID:27457076

  1. Metastasis suppressor proteins in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Onder; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer; Atasoy, Pınar; Yulug, Isik G

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) are common human carcinomas. Despite having metastasizing capacities, they usually show less aggressive progression compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of other organs. Metastasis suppressor proteins (MSPs) are a group of proteins that control and slow-down the metastatic process. In this study, we established the importance of seven well-defined MSPs including NDRG1, NM23-H1, RhoGDI2, E-cadherin, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 in cSCCs. Protein expression levels of the selected MSPs were detected in 32 cSCCs, 6 in situ SCCs, and two skin cell lines (HaCaT, A-431) by immunohistochemistry. The results were evaluated semi-quantitatively using the HSCORE system. In addition, mRNA expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR in the cell lines. The HSCOREs of NM23-H1 were similar in cSCCs and normal skin tissues, while RGHOGDI2, E-cadherin and AKAP12 were significantly downregulated in cSCCs compared to normal skin. The levels of MKK4, NDRG1 and CD82 were partially conserved in cSCCs. In stage I SCCs, nuclear staining of NM23-H1 (NM23-H1nuc) was significantly lower than in stage II/III SCCs. Only nuclear staining of MKK4 (MKK4nuc) showed significantly higher scores in in situ carcinomas compared to invasive SCCs. In conclusion, similar to other human tumors, we have demonstrated complex differential expression patterns for the MSPs in in-situ and invasive cSCCs. This complex MSP signature warrants further biological and experimental pathway research. PMID:27215390

  2. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  3. Primary small cell undifferentiated (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shetty, Premalatha

    2014-01-01

    Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) of the paranasal sinuses is an extremely rare and distinctive tumor with aggressive clinical behavior. Moreover, SNECs originating in the head and neck region have been reported to be highly aggressive and to have a poor prognosis. This report describes a patient with a maxillary sinus SNEC who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24639904

  4. Alveolar cell carcinoma: diagnostic pitfalls in evaluating the chest roentgenogram

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, M.S.; Bailey, W.C.

    1985-02-01

    A report is given of two patients with initial symptoms of congestive heart failure who had an extensive work-up that failed to reveal any signs of pulmonary malignancy. Subsequent biopsy by fiberoptic bronchoscopy confirmed alveolar cell carcinoma in both cases, suggesting that bronchoscopy with biopsy should be considered in patients with congestive heart failure if pulmonary edema does not resolve with appropriate therapy. 11 references, 2 figures.

  5. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Prostatic Small Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Solitary, spinal epidural metastasis (SEM) that is not related to vertebral metastasis is very rare. And solitary SEM from prostatic cancer is rarely found in previously published reports. However, it is clinically significant due to the possibility of neurologic dysfunction, and it can be assessed by MRI. In this report, we show a case of solitary SEM arising from prostatic small cell carcinoma detected by MRI. PMID:27413569

  6. Pulmonary Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis due to Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guddati, Achuta K.; Marak, Creticus P.

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease with a high rate of mortality. It is known to metastasize to the lung, liver, bone and brain. However, manifestation through lymphatic spread to the lungs is rare. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is commonly observed in malignancies of the breast, lung, pancreas, colon and cervix. It is unusual to observe lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs due to renal cell carcinoma. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs may result in severe respiratory distress and may be the direct cause of death. Currently, there are no known modalities of preventing or slowing lymphangitic carcinomatosis besides treating the primary tumor. However, early detection may change the course of the disease and may prolong survival. This is compounded by the difficulty involved in diagnosing lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lung which frequently involves lung biopsy. Immunohistochemical studies are often used in conjunction with regular histochemistry in ascertaining the primary tumor and in differentiating it from pulmonary metastasis. In this case report, we describe the presentation and clinical course of renal cell carcinoma in a patient which manifested as lymphangitis carcinomatosa of the lungs. The patient underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor with lymph node resection but presented with a fulminant lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs within two weeks. Immunohistochemistry of the tissue obtained by the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis which was subsequently corroborated during his autopsy. This case illustrates the necessity of an urgent follow-up of chemotherapy and immunotherapy in such patients. PMID:22679431

  7. Nuclear cysteine cathepsin variants in thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tedelind, Sofia; Poliakova, Kseniia; Valeta, Amanda; Hunegnaw, Ruth; Yemanaberhan, Eyoel Lemma; Heldin, Nils-Erik; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Weber, Ekkehard; Kopitar-Jerala, Nataša; Turk, Boris; Bogyo, Matthew; Brix, Klaudia

    2010-08-01

    The cysteine peptidase cathepsin B is important in thyroid physiology by being involved in thyroid prohormone processing initiated in the follicular lumen and completed in endo-lysosomal compartments. However, cathepsin B has also been localized to the extrafollicular space and is therefore suggested to promote invasiveness and metastasis in thyroid carcinomas through, e.g., ECM degradation. In this study, immunofluorescence and biochemical data from subcellular fractionation revealed that cathepsin B, in its single- and two-chain forms, is localized to endo-lysosomes in the papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line KTC-1 and in the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines HTh7 and HTh74. This distribution is not affected by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) incubation of HTh74, the only cell line that expresses a functional TSH-receptor. Immunofluorescence data disclosed an additional nuclear localization of cathepsin B immunoreactivity. This was supported by biochemical data showing a proteolytically active variant slightly smaller than the cathepsin B proform in nuclear fractions. We also demonstrate that immunoreactions specific for cathepsin V, but not cathepsin L, are localized to the nucleus in HTh74 in peri-nucleolar patterns. As deduced from co-localization studies and in vitro degradation assays, we suggest that nuclear variants of cathepsins are involved in the development of thyroid malignancies through modification of DNA-associated proteins. PMID:20536394

  8. RENAL CELL CARCINOMA METASTASIS TO THE SINONASAL CAVITY: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marijan; Krvavica, Ana; Rudić, Milan

    2015-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3% of all adult malignant tumors. Common sites of metastases are lungs, bone, liver, brain and adrenal glands. Metastatic disease to the head and neck ranges from 15% to 30%. The 5-year survival rate after nephrectomy is 60%-75%, but with multiorgan metastases the 5-year survival rate is significantly lower, 0-7%. A case is presented of a female patient diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma metastases to the paranasal sinuses, diagnosed and treated at the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, Zadar General Hospital, Zadar, Croatia. The tumor was surgically removed. Unfortunately, the patient died one year after the procedure due to multiorgan failure. Although metastases of renal cell carcinoma to the head and neck are very rare, it should be first suspected when investigating a metastatic tumor in this region. Surgical excision offers the best hope for long term survival. In case of unresectable tumor, other treatment options should be considered such as radiotherapy, immunotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:26415321

  9. Cardenolide glycosides from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea exhibit carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward renal adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Tomofumi; Kuroda, Minpei; Matsuo, Yukiko; Kubo, Satoshi; Tamura, Chikako; Sakamoto, Nami; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Four cardenolide glycosides, glucodigifucoside (2), 3'-O-acetylglucoevatromonoside (9), digitoxigenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-3-O-acetyl-β-D-digitoxopyranoside (11), and purpureaglycoside A (12), isolated from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human renal adenocarcinoma cell line ACHN. These compounds exhibited significantly lower IC50 values against ACHN than that against normal human renal proximal tubule-derived cell line HK-2. In particular, 2 exhibited the most potent and carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity, with a sixfold lower IC50 value against ACHN than that against HK-2. Measurement of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor levels revealed that upregulation of p21/Cip1 expression was involved in the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity of 2. Further, compound 2 also exhibited the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. PMID:25345317

  10. Renal-cell carcinomas in end-stage kidneys: a clinicopathological study with emphasis on clear-cell papillary renal-cell carcinoma and acquired cystic kidney disease-associated carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Ramneesh; Alexiev, Borislav A

    2012-02-01

    Clear-cell papillary renal-cell carcinoma (CCPC) and acquired cystic kidney disease-associated carcinoma (ACDAC) are neoplasms with distinct morphological characteristics that behave less aggressively than conventional renal-cell carcinomas. End-stage kidney specimens from 61 patients (47 males and 14 females) with 109 renal-cell carcinomas were selected. Papillary renal-cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy (61/109, 56%), followed by CCPC (20/109, 18%). The CCPC showed a papillary or tubular/solid architecture, clear cytoplasm, low nuclear grade, and a distinct immunohistochemical profile (RCC-, vimentin+, CK7+, p504S-). ACDAC displayed a variety of architectural patterns, eosinophilic cytoplasm, high nuclear grade, intratumoral calcium oxalate deposits, and an immunohistochemical profile similar to type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinoma (RCC+, vimentin+, CK7-/+, p504S+). Less than 5% (3/69) of pathologically staged renal-cell carcinomas in end-stage kidneys presented with lymphogenous and/or hematogenous metastases. PMID:21791489

  11. Establishment of an ASPL-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma cell line (S-TFE).

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Megumi; Masumori, Naoya; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2013-06-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma is a rare disease diagnosed in children and adolescents in the advanced stage with an aggressive clinical course. Various gene fusions including the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene located on chromosome X cause the tumor. We established an Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma cell line from a renal tumor in a 18-y-old Japanese female and named it "S-TFE." The cell line and its xenograft demonstrated definite gene fusion including TFE3. They showed strong nuclear staining for TFE3 in immunohistochemistry, TFE3 gene rearrangement in dual-color, break-apart FISH analysis and ASPL-TFE3 type 1 fusion transcripts detected by RT-PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Although many renal cell carcinoma cell lines have been established and investigated, only a few cell lines are recognized as Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma. S-TFE will be useful to examine the characteristics and drug susceptibility of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma. PMID:23760492

  12. Retinoic acid-induced neural differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Villeneuve, E M; Rudnicki, M A; Harris, J F; McBurney, M W

    1983-01-01

    We have previously shown that the P19 line of embryonal carcinoma cells develops into neurons, astroglia, and fibroblasts after aggregation and exposure to retinoic acid. The neurons were initially identified by their morphology and by the presence of neurofilaments within their cytoplasm. We have more fully documented the neuronal nature of these cells by showing that their cell surfaces display tetanus toxin receptors, a neuronal cell marker, and that choline acetyl-transferase and acetyl cholinesterase activities appear coordinately in neuron-containing cultures. Several days before the appearance of neurons, there is a marked decrease in the amount of an embryonal carcinoma surface antigen, and at the same time there is a substantial decrease in the volumes of individual cells. Various retinoids were able to induce the development of neurons in cultures of aggregated P19 cells, but it did not appear that polyamine metabolism was involved in the effect. We have isolated a mutant clone which does not differentiate in the presence of any of the drugs which are normally effective in inducing differentiation of P19 cells. This mutant and others may help to elucidate the chain of events triggered by retinoic acid and other differentiation-inducing drugs. Images PMID:6656766

  13. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  14. Radiation and taxol effects on synchronized human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geard, C.R.; Jones, J.M. )

    1994-06-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the plant derived chemotherapeutic agent taxol alone and in combination with ionizing radiation on synchronous and asynchronous human cervical carcinoma cells and to define the mechanistic basis for this cytotoxic response. Asynchronous and synchronous cells (obtained by modified mitotic shake-off) derived from carcinomas of the human uterine cervix were treated with a range of concentrations of taxol (0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 nM) for either 8, 24, or 48 h. Synchronized cell cycling was evaluated by counting mitotic indices and by uptake of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd). Cells were irradiated ([sup 137]Cs [gamma] rays at 1.12 Gy/min) alone and after taxol treatment and plating efficiencies and radiosensitivity determined. Taxol treatment resulted in a dose time dependent loss of colony forming ability with 10 nM for 24 h producing about 10% cell survival. Irradiating taxol treated cells resulted in a strictly additive response in contrast to previous supra-additive results with astrocytoma and melanoma cells. Mitotically synchronized cells rapidly moved into G[sub 1] phase with a second mitotic peak at 28 h (total cycle time). Taxol treatment resulted in a continued accumulation of mitoses, and a failure and/or delay of entry of a fraction of cells into S phase after a G[sub 1] phase of at least 10 h. That is, taxol effects cell cycling at a stage other than G[sub 2]/M. Irradiating (3 Gy) synchronized cells showed a 10-fold variation in sensitivity, with mitosis as the most sensitive phase with taxol alone resulting in some cytotoxicity and combined effects additive or less than additive. This may explain the failure to obtain taxol radiosensitization with these cells and it may indicate that taxol has a multiplicity of actions with differences in effectiveness likely between cells of different origins. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Down-regulation of laminin-5 in breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, K. J.; Kwan, C. P.; Nagasaki, K.; Zhang, X.; O'Hare, M. J.; Kaelin, C. M.; Burgeson, R. E.; Pardee, A. B.; Sager, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laminin-5 (ln-5), a large heterotrimeric glycoprotein consisting of an alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2 chain, is a component of epithelial cell basement membranes that functions as a ligand of the alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 4 integrins to regulate cell adhesion, migration, and morphogenesis. The ln-5 chains show tissue-specific patterns of regulation in tumors derived from different tissues. For example, ln-5 is often up-regulated in gliomas, gastric carcinomas, and squamous carcinomas and down-regulated in prostate and basal cell carcinomas. Ln-5 expression patterns may represent useful tumor markers and help to elucidate the role of ln-5 in tumor progression in different tissue types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have studied ln-5 expression patterns in the breast. mRNA levels were examined in tumor and normal breast epithelial cell lines, tissue samples, and immunomagnetically sorted primary cultures using differential display, Northern blotting, and hybridization arrays. Protein levels were examined by immunoprecipitation. Gene integrity was assessed by Southern blotting of representative cell types. RESULTS: Ln-5 alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2 mRNA expression was found to be markedly down-regulated in a panel of breast tumor cell lines when compared with normal breast epithelial cells. Ln-5 mRNA was expressed at relatively high levels in MCF-10A immortal normal breast epithelial cells, long-term cultures of normal breast cells, and sorted primary cultures of normal breast luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Reduced, but detectable, levels of ln-5 tended to be expressed in cell lines derived from early-stage breast tumors, whereas expression was generally not detected in cell lines derived from later-stage tumors. In breast tumor tissue specimens, expression of ln alpha 3 and beta 3 mRNAs tended to be reduced relative to levels observed in adjacent nontumor tissue, whereas in gamma 2 levels were elevated in specimens with increased amounts of

  16. Activation of antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes by fusions of human dendritic cells and breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianlin; Avigan, David; Chen, Dongshu; Wu, Zekui; Koido, Shigeo; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Kufe, Donald

    2000-01-01

    We have reported that fusions of murine dendritic cells (DCs) and murine carcinoma cells reverse unresponsiveness to tumor-associated antigens and induce the rejection of established metastases. In the present study, fusions were generated with primary human breast carcinoma cells and autologous DCs. Fusion cells coexpressed tumor-associated antigens and DC-derived costimulatory molecules. The fusion cells also retained the functional potency of DCs and stimulated autologous T cell proliferation. Significantly, the results show that autologous T cells are primed by the fusion cells to induce MHC class I-dependent lysis of autologous breast tumor cells. These findings demonstrate that fusions of human breast cancer cells and DCs activate T cell responses against autologous tumors. PMID:10688917

  17. Expression of squamous cell carcinoma markers and adenocarcinoma markers in primary pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Masai, Kyohei; Tsuta, Koji; Kawago, Mitsumasa; Tatsumori, Takahiro; Kinno, Tomoaki; Taniyama, Tomoko; Yoshida, Akihiko; Asamura, Hisao; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Recent clinical trials have revealed that accurate histologic typing of non-small cell lung cancer is essential. Until now, squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) markers have not been thoroughly analyzed for pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). We analyzed the expression of 8 markers [p63, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, SOX2, CK7, desmocollin 3, thyroid transcription factor-1 (8G7G3/1 and SPT24), and napsin A] in 224 NECs. SOX2 (76.2%) had the greatest expression for NECs. CK5/6 (1.4%), desmocollin 3 (0.5%), and napsin A (0%) were expressed less or not at all in NECs. Although our investigated markers have been reported useful for differentiating between SQC and ADC, some of them were also present in a portion of pulmonary NECs. In our study, CK5/6 and desmocollin 3 were highly specific markers for SQC, and napsin A was highly specific for ADC. These markers are recommended for diagnosis of poorly differentiated non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:23060301

  18. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability. PMID:26581612

  19. Trefoil factor 3 as a novel biomarker to distinguish between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-05-01

    In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an additional

  20. Molecular differential diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bugert, P.; Kovacs, G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent application of molecular cytogenetic techniques has resulted in a new type of genetic classification of renal cell tumors. The key aspect of the novel diagnostic concept is reflected by biologically distinct entities, each characterized by a specific combination of genetic changes. To work out a diagnostic/prognostic approach, we have applied polymorphic microsatellite markers for a quick analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction, of 82 tumor specimens. We compared the results to previously evaluated cytogenetic and histological data. All nonpapillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas, which make up approximately 90% of all malignant renal cell tumors, and a subset of renal oncocytomas were correctly diagnosed by detection of loss of heterozygosity at chromosomal sites 1, 2, and 3p. Allelic losses at chromosomal regions 8p, 9p, and 14q are associated with an advanced pathological stage of nonpapillary renal cell carcinomas. A loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21, in addition to those at chromosomes 1 and 2, confirm the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell tumors. Using this approach, the differential diagnosis of renal cell tumors could be carried out within 1 or 2 days. Images Figure 2 PMID:8952540

  1. Heparanase augments inflammatory chemokine production from colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Naoki; Higashi, Nobuaki; Kogane, Yusuke; Waki, Michihiko; Shida, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshio; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Nakajima, Motowo; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2016-01-22

    To explore possible roles of heparanase in cancer-host crosstalk, we examined whether heparanase influences expression of inflammatory chemokines in colorectal cancer cells. Murine colorectal carcinoma cells incubated with heparanase upregulated MCP-1, KC, and RANTES genes and released MCP-1 and KC proteins. Heparanase-dependent production of IL-8 was detected in two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Addition of a heparanase inhibitor Heparastatin (SF4) did not influence MCP-1 production, while both latent and mature forms of heparanase augmented MCP-1 release, suggesting that heparanase catalytic activity was dispensable for MCP-1 production. In contrast, addition of heparin to the medium suppressed MCP-1 release in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, targeted suppression of Ext1 by RNAi significantly suppressed cell surface expression of heparan sulfate and MCP-1 production in colon 26 cells. Taken together, it is concluded that colon 26 cells transduce the heparanase-mediated signal through heparan sulfate binding. We propose a novel function for heparanase independent of its endoglycosidase activity, namely as a stimulant for chemokine production. PMID:26713365

  2. Effects of two genes coding squamous cell carcinoma antigen on the diagnosis and treatment of cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qi’nan; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Chenchen; Liu, Yanjuan; Chen, Zhuo; Lu, Fuer; Huang, Guangying

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of expressions of SCCA1 and SCCA2 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma on its diagnosis, treatment evaluation and prognosis analysis. M ethod s : Seventy-six cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients enrolled in our hospital from October 2011 to April 2013 were selected, and another 76 healthy females (without cervical tissue lesions) were enrolled as the control. SCCA1 and SCCA2 expressions in the two groups were compared by RT-PCR. The serodiagnosis results before and after chemotherapy were compared to clarify the effects of SCCA2 expression. Results: The two groups had similar relative SCCA1 expression rates that were not significantly correlated with pathological factors. Before chemotherapy, the relative expression rates of SCCA2 were significantly higher in the patients with later stage (t=6.018, P=0.00082<0.05) and lymphatic metastasis (t=6.281, P=0.00192<0.05). After treatment, relative SCCA2 expression rate was decreased more significantly in the effective group than that in the ineffective group (t=10.27893, P=0.02815<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of SCCA1 failed to indicate the onset, diagnosis and prevention of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, whereas that of SCCA2 worked as one of the tumor markers. PMID:24772127

  3. Endonucleases induced TRAIL-insensitive apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geel, Tessa M.; Meiss, Gregor; Gun, Bernardina T. van der; Kroesen, Bart Jan; Leij, Lou F. de; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Arunas; Kokkinidis, Michael; Ruiters, Marcel H.; McLaughlin, Pamela M.; Rots, Marianne G.

    2009-09-10

    TRAIL induced apoptosis of tumor cells is currently entering phase II clinical settings, despite the fact that not all tumor types are sensitive to TRAIL. TRAIL resistance in ovarian carcinomas can be caused by a blockade upstream of the caspase 3 signaling cascade. We explored the ability of restriction endonucleases to directly digest DNA in vivo, thereby circumventing the caspase cascade. For this purpose, we delivered enzymatically active endonucleases via the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-18{sup Registered-Sign }:DOPE to both TRAIL-sensitive and insensitive ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR and SKOV-3, respectively). Functional nuclear localization after delivery of various endonucleases (BfiI, PvuII and NucA) was indicated by confocal microscopy and genomic cleavage analysis. For PvuII, analysis of mitochondrial damage demonstrated extensive apoptosis both in SKOV-3 and OVCAR. This study clearly demonstrates that cellular delivery of restriction endonucleases holds promise to serve as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of resistant ovarian carcinomas.

  4. Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, D L; Pope, E R; Payne, J T; West, M K; Tompson, R V; Tate, D

    2000-01-01

    Eleven dogs with naturally occurring oral squamous cell carcinomas were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using Photochlor (HPPH) as the photosensitizer. The largest length of the tumours measured in a two-dimensional plane ranged from 0.9 to 6.8 cm. Seven of the tumours invaded underlying bone as determined by radiograph appearance. Photochlor was injected intravenously at a dose of 0.3 mg kg–1. Forty-eight hours later the tumours were treated. Tumours with a surface to base depth of greater than 1 cm were surgically reduced to less than 1 cm. Irradiation with 665 nm light with an energy density of 100 J cm–2was administered. Eight dogs were considered cured with no tumour recurrence for at least 17 months after treatment. Local treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas with PDT appears to give results similar to those obtained with surgical removal of large portions of the mandible or maxilla. The cosmetic results with PDT are superior to those of radical surgical removal. The new sensitizer, Photochlor, appears effective for oral squamous carcinomas with results similar to those reported for other sensitizers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10755404

  5. Labeling index in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Balzi, M.; Ninu, B.M.; Becciolini, A.; Scubla, E.; Boanini, P.; Gallina, E.; Gallo, O.; Fini-Storchi, O.; Bondi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    Two cell kinetic parameters, the 3H-thymidine labeling index (TLI) and the mitotic index (MI), were studied in vitro on fragments of squamous cell carcinoma tissue of the larynx. They were evaluated to identify those elements able to characterize the growth of these solid tumors. The values of these parameters were analyzed as a function of the clinical stage and the involvement of the regional lymph nodes. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the TLI from stage T1 to T3. No statistically significant differences in the TLI values were observed between the patients with positive and negative lymph nodes.

  6. Gorlin's syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Thompson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is a condition inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It involves many organs, but principally affects the skin, skeleton, and endocrine and nervous systems. The most common features are multiple nervi and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, benign jaw cysts, dyskeratotic pits in the palms and soles, rib and vertebral abnormalities, brachymetacarpalism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. In 14 patients, 4 of whom belonged to one family, the age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 11 to 63 years. Ten patients are alive, but five are severely disfigured by carcinomas. Two patients died of complications resulting from uncontrolled tumours, and two died of other cancers. New skin tumours constantly develop; small ones can be excised, but large ones require extensive surgery with or without radiotherapy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:7116263

  7. KRAS Mutations in Canine and Feline Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Crozier, C; Wood, G A; Foster, R A; Stasi, S; Liu, J H W; Bartlett, J M S; Coomber, B L; Sabine, V S

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals may serve as valuable models for studying human cancers. Although KRAS is the most commonly mutated gene in human ductal pancreatic cancers (57%), with mutations frequently occurring at codons 12, 13 and 61, human pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) lack activating KRAS mutations. In the present study, 32 pancreatic ACC samples obtained from 14 dogs and 18 cats, including seven metastases, were analyzed for six common activating KRAS mutations located in codons 12 (n = 5) and 13 (n = 1) using Sequenom MassARRAY. No KRAS mutations were found, suggesting that, similar to human pancreatic ACC, KRAS mutations do not play a critical role in feline or canine pancreatic ACC. Due to the similarity of the clinical disease in dogs and cats to that of man, this study confirms that companion animals offer potential as a suitable model for investigating this rare subtype of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27290644

  8. The role of WNT signalling in urothelial cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I

    2015-10-01

    Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder is one of the most common malignancies, causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is unique among the epithelial carcinomas as two distinct pathways to tumourigenesis appear to exist: low grade, recurring papillary tumours usually contain oncogenic mutations in FGFR3 or HRAS whereas high grade, muscle invasive tumours with metastatic potential generally have defects in the pathways controlled by the tumour suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma. Over the last two decades, a number of transgenic mouse models of UCC, containing deletions or mutations of key tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes, have helped us understand the mechanisms behind tumour development. In this summary, I present my work investigating the role of the WNT signalling cascade in UCC. PMID:26274747

  9. Catecholaminergic neurons result from intracerebral implantation of embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, B E; Nothias, F; Lazar, M; Jouin, H; Nicolas, J F; Peschanski, M

    1993-01-01

    A replication-defective retrovirus was used to introduce the marker gene nlsLacZ into the murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line PCC7-S-aza-R-1009. Undifferentiated EC cells were implanted into the central nervous system of adult rats. One month later, the grafted cells continued to express the nlsLacZ gene. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of EC-derived neurons. These neurons were capable of expressing tyrosine hydroxylase and extended neurites into the host parenchyma. EC-derived glial cells could not be detected. There was no evidence of tumorigenicity. These results demonstrate the utility of EC cells for introduction of exogenous gene products into the central nervous system in experimental models of gene therapy. Images PMID:8094557

  10. Circulating Tumor Cells Measurements in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiappini, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women. During the past 20 years, the incidence of HCC has tripled while the 5-year survival rate has remained below 12%. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) reflects the aggressiveness nature of a tumor. Many attempts have been made to develop assays that reliably detect and enumerate the CTC during the development of the HCC. In this case, the challenges are (1) there are few markers specific to the HCC (tumor cells versus nontumor cells) and (2) they can be used to quantify the number of CTC in the bloodstream. Another technical challenge consists of finding few CTC mixed with million leukocytes and billion erythrocytes. CTC detection and identification can be used to estimate prognosis and may serve as an early marker to assess antitumor activity of treatment. CTC can also be used to predict progression-free survival and overall survival. CTC are an interesting source of biological information in order to understand dissemination, drug resistance, and treatment-induced cell death. Our aim is to review and analyze the different new methods existing to detect, enumerate, and characterize the CTC in the peripheral circulation of patients with HCC. PMID:22690340

  11. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  12. Atypical presentations and rare metastatic sites of renal cell carcinoma: a review of case reports

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a potentially lethal cancer with aggressive behavior and a propensity for metastatic spread. Due to the fact that the patterns of metastases from renal cell carcinomas are not clearly defined, there have been several reports of cases of renal cell carcinoma associated with rare metastatic sites and atypical presenting symptoms. The present review focuses on these atypical rare clinical presentations of renal cell carcinomas both at the time of diagnosis of the primary tumor but also in the years after radical nephrectomy. PMID:21888643

  13. Inhibitory effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Junping; Liu, Yang; Yin, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    Ras homology GTPase activation protein 6 (Arhgap6), as a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins, performs vital functions on the regulation of actin polymerization at the plasma membrane during several cellular processes. The role of Arhgap6 in the progression and development of cancer remains nearly unknown. This study aimed at exploring the effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma. Human cervical cancer cells HeLa and SiHa were transduced with a lentivirus targeting Arhgap6 (Arhgap6+), while CaSki and C4-1 cells were transfected with miRNA. Cell proliferation was identified by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis were identified by flow cytometry. The capacity of cell migration, invasion, and adhesion were detected by Transwell assay. Further, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to analyze the expression levels of Arhgap6 and several tumor-related genes. Co-immunoprecipitation assay was performed to validate the interaction between Arhgap6 and Rac3 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3). Results showed that Arhgap6 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion of cervical carcinoma, induced cell apoptosis, and caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase (n = 3, p < 0.05). Expression of the tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes were up- and down-regulated respectively by Arhgap6, and Rac3 was proved to be the target of Arhgap6. Besides, in in vivo assays, tumor size and weight were destructed in Arhgap6+ athymic nude mouse. This study indicated that Arhgap6 may play a role in the treatment of cervical cancer as a tumor supressor. PMID:26628301

  14. [Cell oncogene expression in normal, metaplastic, dysplastic epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Petrov, S V; Mazurenko, N N; Sukhova, N M; Moroz, I P; Katsenel'son, V M; Raĭkhlin, N T; Kiselev, F L

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of the protein expression c-myc, ets 1, ets 2, TPR-met, c-fos, c-jun, c-ras-pan, p53, yes, src in 79 samples of normal, metaplastic squamous epithelium, intraepithelial and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix was performed using polyclonal rabbit antibodies to the synthetic peptides homologous active areas of corresponding oncoproteins. Higher content of myc, fos, ets2, p53, ras is noted in metaplasia, dysplasia and in tumours as compared to the normal tissues. Protein myc is revealed in the cytoplasm at a grave dysplasia and in the nucleus in the intraepithelial carcinoma: this may serve as a criterion at a differential diagnosis of these conditions. Expression of the oncoproteins fos, ets2, p53, src in the metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma was higher than in the true squamous cell (ectocervical) carcinoma. When compared to the advanced carcinomas, increase of ets2, p53, and at some degree that of myc, the increase is noted in the latter. Invasive carcinoma with a high level of oncoproteins showed a tendency to the synchronization of myc and ras expression. Poor prognosis was associated with a low level (before treatment) of the expression of the majority of the oncoproteins studied. PMID:7848100

  15. TERT promoter mutations in renal cell carcinomas and upper tract urothelial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Liu, Tiantian; Liu, Li; Liu, Jikai; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Chang; Ge, Nan; Ren, Hongbo; Yan, Keqiang; Hu, Sanyuan; Björkholm, Magnus; Fan, Yidong; Xu, Dawei

    2014-04-15

    TERT promoter mutations are identified in many malignancies including bladder cancer (BC) and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). In contrast, no mutations were found in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as reported in a recent study. Because the mutant TERT promoter in urine DNA was recently tested as a marker for BC, it is important to ascertain whether these mutations are truly absent in RCCs. Here we determined TERT promoter mutations in 109 patients with RCC and 14 patients with UTUC. The mutations were found in 9/96 (9.3%) clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tumors and 1/8 (13%) chromophobe RCC tumors. Among ccRCC patients, the mutation was correlated with the advanced stages and metastasis, and higher TERT expression. Among UTUCs, the mutation was detected in tumors from 3/5 (60%) patients with renal pelvic cancer and 1/9 (11%) patients with ureter cancer. The mutation was also detected in 1 of 4 urine samples from patients with mutation+ UTUC. Collectively, TERT promoter mutations do occur in RCCs and are associated with aggressive disease. The mutation is more frequent in renal pelvic cancer. Thus, the mutant TERT promoter found in urine may come from not only BC, but also RCC or UTUC. PMID:24742867

  16. [Malignant cystosarcoma phylloides and squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. A rare tumor combination].

    PubMed

    Hunger, E; Türk, R; Wurster, K

    1984-10-01

    A case of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the stroma of cystosarcoma phylloides malignum is reported. A short review of prognosis and therapy is given on comparable cases. It is not uncommon to find squamous cell metaplasias in the dilated ducts of cystosarcoma phylloides. The combination of squamous cell carcinoma with this tumour, however, is a rarity. PMID:6097500

  17. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rishi; Nguyen, Jeremy; Weidenhaft, Mandy Crause; Shores, Nathan; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6 cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive) surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient's poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas. PMID:24804133

  18. Fibroblast activation protein predicts prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    López, José I; Errarte, Peio; Erramuzpe, Asier; Guarch, Rosa; Cortés, Jesús M; Angulo, Javier C; Pulido, Rafael; Irazusta, Jon; Llarena, Roberto; Larrinaga, Gorka

    2016-08-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is a complex disease with only partial response to therapy and scarce reliable clinical parameters indicative of progression and survival. Fibroblast activation protein expression has been correlated with prognosis in several malignancies but never in renal cancer. We aim to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of fibroblast activation protein in 208 clear cell renal cell carcinomas and to evaluate its impact on the prognosis and survival. A positive cytoplasmic immunostaining of this protein in the stromal fibroblasts associated to cancer cells is associated with large tumor diameter (≥4cm), high-grade (G3/4) tumors, and high-stage (≥pT3) tumors. Fibroblast activation protein-positive cases had significantly shorter survivals after 5 (P=.00015), 10 (P=.0000042), and 15 (P=.000043) years of follow-up, with a hazard ratio of 0.31. Multivariate analysis showed that fibroblast activation protein (P=.00117) was stronger than grade and stage in predicting clinical aggressiveness in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. This study confirms the usefulness of fibroblast activation protein detection in the stromal fibroblast associated to cancer in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and adds a new immunohistochemical marker to predict clinical behavior in these patients. PMID:27063470

  19. Ovarian malignant mixed germ cell tumor with clear cell carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Zai-Ping; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumors of germ origin. Most patients are adolescent and young women, approximately two-thirds of them are under 20 years of age, occasionally in postmenopausal women. But clear cell carcinoma usually occurs in older patients (median age: 57-year old), and closely related with endometriosis. Here we report a case of a 55-year old woman with right ovarian mass that discovered by B ultrasonic. Her serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Pathological examination revealed the tumor to be a mixed germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma and mature teratoma) with clear cell carcinoma in a background of endometriosis. Immunohistochemical staining showed SALL4 and PLAP were positive in germ cell tumor area, hCG, CD30 and OCT4 were positive in epithelial-like cells and giant synctiotrophoblastic cells, AFP, AAT, CD117 and Glyp3 were positive in yolk sac component, EMA and CK7 were positive in clear cell carcinoma, CD10 was positive in endometrial cells of endometriotic area. She was treated with surgery followed by seven courses of chemotherapy. She is well and serum levels of hCG and AFP have been decreased to normal levels. PMID:25674278

  20. Ovarian malignant mixed germ cell tumor with clear cell carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Zai-Ping; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumors of germ origin. Most patients are adolescent and young women, approximately two-thirds of them are under 20 years of age, occasionally in postmenopausal women. But clear cell carcinoma usually occurs in older patients (median age: 57-year old), and closely related with endometriosis. Here we report a case of a 55-year old woman with right ovarian mass that discovered by B ultrasonic. Her serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Pathological examination revealed the tumor to be a mixed germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma and mature teratoma) with clear cell carcinoma in a background of endometriosis. Immunohistochemical staining showed SALL4 and PLAP were positive in germ cell tumor area, hCG, CD30 and OCT4 were positive in epithelial-like cells and giant synctiotrophoblastic cells, AFP, AAT, CD117 and Glyp3 were positive in yolk sac component, EMA and CK7 were positive in clear cell carcinoma, CD10 was positive in endometrial cells of endometriotic area. She was treated with surgery followed by seven courses of chemotherapy. She is well and serum levels of hCG and AFP have been decreased to normal levels. PMID:25674278

  1. A Phase Ib/II Study of BYL719 and Cetuximab in Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (RM HNSCC) Patients Who Are Resistant or Ineligible/Intolerant to Platinum-based Chemotherapy.; Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. Osteoactivin Promotes Migration of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Arosarena, Oneida A; Dela Cadena, Raul A; Denny, Michael F; Bryant, Evan; Barr, Eric W; Thorpe, Ryan; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-08-01

    Nearly 50% of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) die of metastases or locoregional recurrence. Metastasis is mediated by cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Osteoactivin (OA) overexpression plays a role in metastases in several malignancies. The aims were to determine how integrin interactions modulate OA-induced OSCC cell migration; and to investigate OA effects on cell survival and proliferation. We confirmed OA mRNA and protein overexpression in OSCC cell lines. We assessed OA's interactions with integrins using adhesion inhibition assays, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation. We investigated OA-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cell survival. Integrin inhibition effects on OA-mediated cell migration were determined. We assessed effects of OA knock-down on cell migration and proliferation. OA is overexpressed in OSCC cell lines, and serves as a migration-promoting adhesion molecule. OA co-localized with integrin subunits, and co-immunoprecipitated with the subunits. Integrin blocking antibodies, especially those directed against the β1 subunit, inhibited cell adhesion (P = 0.03 for SCC15 cells). Adhesion to OA activated MAPKs in UMSCC14a cells and OA treatment promoted survival of SCC15 cells. Integrin-neutralizing antibodies enhanced cell migration with OA in the extracellular matrix. OA knock-down resulted in decreased proliferation of SCC15 and SCC25 cells, but did not inhibit cell migration. OA in the extracellular matrix promotes OSCC cell adhesion and migration, and may be a novel target in the prevention of HNSCC spread. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1761-1770, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26636434

  3. AB241. Cancer stem cell-like side population cells in clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line 769P

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Wang, Dao-Hu; Chen, Jun-Xing; Qiu, Shao-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background Although cancers are widely considered to be maintained by stem cells, the existence of stem cells in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has seldom been reported, in part due to the lack of unique surface markers. We here identified cancer stem cell-like cells with side population (SP) phenotype in five human RCC cell lines. Methods We here identified cancer stem cell-like cells with side population (SP) phenotype in five human RCC cell lines. Results Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 769P, a human clear cell RCC cell line, contained the largest amount of SP cells among five cell lines. These 769P SP cells possessed characteristics of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation, as well as strong resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that were possibly related to the ABCB1 transporter. In vivo experiments with serial tumor transplantation in mice also showed that 769P SP cells formed tumors in NOD/SCID mice. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that 769P SP cells have the properties of cancer stem cells, which may play important roles in tumorigenesis and therapy-resistance of RCC.

  4. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matei, C; Tampa, M; Poteca, T; Panea-Paunica, G; Georgescu, SR; Ion, RM; Popescu, SM; Giurcaneanu, C

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology. PMID:23599819

  5. Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Chang, Chun-Chao; Fang, Chia-Lang; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two distinct human gastric carcinoma cell lines, AGS and NCI-N87. We demonstrate that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Noteworthy is that the AGS cells were generally more sensitive than the NCI-N87 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by the activation of caspase-3, leading to nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These preclinical studies suggest that aloe-emodin represents a suitable and novel chemotherapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of human gastric carcinoma. PMID:17637488

  6. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with vaginal and brain metastases: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Momah, Tobe; Dhanan, Etwaru; Xiao, Phillip; Kondamudi, Vasantha

    2009-01-01

    There are very few cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma with metastases to the vagina and brain reported in the literature. Our case study highlights this rare clinical occurrence and its associated complications including pulmonary embolism. In addition we discuss current management guidelines for treating and diagnosing the disease, and how this management improves prognosis.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes facilitate nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Si; Zhang, Qicheng; Xia, Yunfei; You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Bao, Lili; Li, Li; You, Yiwen; Gu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types, are reported to exert multiple effects on tumor development. However, the relationship between MSCs and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells remains unclear. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that can be released by several cell types, including MSCs. Exosomes, which can carry membrane and cytoplasmic constituents, have been described as participants in a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the interaction between MSCs and NPC cells. The data showed that MSCs secreted 40-100 nm heterogeneous small vesicles, which were defined as exosomes. Incubation of NPC cells with MSC-derived exosomes resulted in the uptake of exosomes by the cells, which promoted their proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis. After an extended treatment duration, the tumor cells showed morphological changes and significant changes in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Moreover, we found that FGF19 was highly expressed in MSC-exosomes and that exosomes stimulated NPC progression by activating the FGF19-FGFR4-dependent ERK signaling cascade and by modulating the EMT. All of these data indicated that exosomes participate in a novel mechanism by which MSCs influence NPC progression. PMID:27186416

  8. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Submandibular Salivary Gland with Sialo-Cutaneous Fistula: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sanjiv S.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary glands are rare entities. Most common malignant tumour of submandibular gland is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histological finding of squamous cell carcinoma is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. Metastasis from distant primary squamous malignancy, direct invasion from cutaneous or mucosal squamous carcinoma, squamous component of mucoepidermoid carcinoma or primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary origin are some of the possible causes. Of these, the latter is distinctly uncommon. Primary squamous malignancy is diagnosed only after ruling out other possible explanations. A positive mucin stain in the tumour or synchronous/ metachronous squamous carcinoma elsewhere excludes the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma. Primary squamous carcinoma is seen most commonly in parotid gland and rarely in submandibular gland. We present a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of right submandibular salivary gland in a 45-year old-man. This case is presented for the rare entity of primary squamous cell carcinoma in submandibular salivary gland. PMID:26435997

  9. Epithelial dysplasia immediately adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Shear, M

    1985-08-01

    A number of workers have attempted to identify dysplastic features which may be predictors of malignant change, by prospective studies of dysplastic lesions. In the present study we have looked at dysplastic changes immediately adjacent to established squamous carcinomas in an attempt to determine whether any predictors can be identified in this way. Eighty cases were included in the study for whom information on tobacco usage was known. Clinical details were recorded. Histological features in epithelium immediately adjacent to the carcinoma were studied in representative sections. Eighteen specific histological characteristics were noted as present or absent. Data were transferred by Conversational Monitoring System (CMS) terminal, processed and analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Computer package. Only 8 patients were non-smokers (10%). Dysplastic changes in adjacent epithelium were frequently multicentric. Changes appear to occur first in the basal layer in the form of disturbance of polarity or basal cell hyperplasia, while other dysplastic features are absent. The feature referred to as basal cell hyperplasia appears, in fact, to represent disturbed epithelial maturation. In 80% of cases increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appears to result from a decrease in cytoplasmic volume rather than increased nuclear size. A defect in RNA synthesis may be a factor. A sharp decrease in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of adjacent epithelium, compared with that of the carcinoma, was observed. Russell bodies were noted in 5 of the 8 lesions in non-smokers (63%) and in 16 of 72 lesions in smokers (22%) (p less than 0.001; Chi2 17.65). PMID:3928850

  10. Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hong; Tian, Xin; Liu, Ou-Sheng; Fang, Xiao-Dan; Quan, Hong-Zhi; Xie, Shang; Gao, Shan; Tang, Zhan-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes. PMID:25126189

  11. Deciphering Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Multidimensional Genomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Ewan A.; Enfield, Katey S. S.; Tsui, Ivy F. L.; Chari, Raj; Lam, Stephen; Alvarez, Carlos E.; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) arise in a wide range of tissues including skin, lung, and oral mucosa. Although all SqCCs are epithelial in origin and share common nomenclature, these cancers differ greatly with respect to incidence, prognosis, and treatment. Current knowledge of genetic similarities and differences between SqCCs is insufficient to describe the biology of these cancers, which arise from diverse tissue origins. In this paper we provide a general overview of whole genome approaches for gene and pathway discovery and highlight the advancement of integrative genomics as a state-of-the-art technology in the study of SqCC genetics. PMID:21234096

  12. Neglected basal cell carcinoma in a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hassan A; Lee, Hui Bae Harold; Nunery, William R

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent from patients with mental disorders can be a complicated and involved process, potentially resulting in decisions contrary to the advice of physicians. We present a schizophrenic patient with an invasive basal cell carcinoma involving the periocular structures and the right orbit. Exenteration was recommended with en bloc resection of the tumor. The ethical and legal committees decided against surgical intervention. Rather, the patient was admitted for medical treatment of his mental illness. A multidisciplinary approach with consultation of a psychiatrist, social worker, and ethical and legal committees is often necessary in the care of patients with mental illness. PMID:19033856

  13. Penoscrotal lymphedema associated with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Crawley, David; Haddock, Peter; Jackson, Max; Kamradt, Jeffrey; Kesler, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    A 64-year-old male presented with lower back pain, radiating in a sciatic-type distribution, swelling in his lower abdomen and right leg, and edema of the scrotum and penile shaft. A sonogram and CT imaging indicated an enhancing mass in the right kidney and a spinal metastasis. The right lower extremity and penoscrotal lymphedema was caused by lymphatic obstruction due to a sacral metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. He was treated with cytoreductive nephrectomy, radiation and a systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Pelvic imaging is suggested to determine whether malignant lymphatic obstruction is present when presented with idiopathic penoscrotal edema. PMID:26267035

  14. Renal cell carcinoma arising in a regressed multicystic dysplastic kidney.

    PubMed

    Rackley, R R; Angermeier, K W; Levin, H; Pontes, J E; Kay, R

    1994-11-01

    Controversy surrounds the management of multicystic dysplastic kidney. Recent advances in radiological imaging have resulted in a higher incidence of its detection, and they provide an accurate noninvasive means of diagnosis and followup. Consequently, the need for surgical removal of these lesions is being reevaluated. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma arising from solid renal dysplasia associated with a regressed multicystic dysplastic kidney. We emphasize the potential risk of nonoperative management of these lesions and further define the spectrum of malignant degeneration associated with renal dysplasia. PMID:7933196

  15. Spinal cord metastasis in small cell carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Holoye, P.; Libnoch, J.; Cox, J.; Kun, L.; Byhardt, R.; Almagro, U.; McCelland, S.; Chintapali, K.

    1984-03-01

    Among 50 patients with small cell bronchogenic carcinoma who were placed on a protocol of combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy, seven patients developed recurrence in the spinal cord. Five cases terminated in paraplegia and death. One patient with pontine recurrence recovered with local radiation therapy. One patient, diagnosed early, responded to local radiation therapy and is ambulatory. Methods of diagnosis were myelogram, computerized axial tomography, cerebro spinal fluid, chemistry and cytologies. The poor prognosis and the difficulty of diagnosis suggest that prophylactic therapy of the entire cranio-spinal axis should be evaluated.

  16. A Case of Axillary Adenoid Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Ho; Ko, Woo Tae; Lee, Jong Im

    2008-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer with a steadily increasing incidence. Ultraviolet radiation is considered the single most important risk factor for BCC, because the tumor occurs most frequently in sun-exposed areas of the body, with approximately four of five BCCs occurring on the face. BCC occurs infrequently in non-sun-exposed skin. The axilla is one of the most sun-protected areas of the body, and BCC arising at this site is very rare. We herein report a case of adenoid BCC which arose from the axilla in a 33-year-old woman. PMID:27303153

  17. Dermoscopic features of small size pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Asuka; Hara, Hiroyuki; Aikawa, Miwa; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2016-05-01

    Dermoscopic images of histologically proven pigmented basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were retrospectively assessed to compare the dermoscopic features of BCC of 3 mm or less in diameter (n = 6) with BCC of 4-6 mm in diameter (n = 11). All lesions lacked the presence of a pigment network. BCC with a diameter of 3 mm or less had fewer positive dermoscopic features compared with the 4-6 mm in diameter BCC. Multiple blue-gray globules and large blue-gray ovoid nests were frequently present. Dermoscopy is a useful tool for early diagnosis of pigmented BCC, even when they are small. PMID:26458728

  18. SATB2 is expressed in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Mari; Agnarsdóttir, Margrét; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Coter, Anna; Ponten, Fredrik

    2016-08-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive skin cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation. With immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells stain for both neuroendocrine (i.e., synaptophysin and chromogranin A) and epithelial markers. The epithelial marker cytokeratin 20 (CK20) stains positive with immunohistochemistry in a vast majority of MCCs. The expression of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein (SATB2) was analyzed in MCC (n = 20) together with other forms of skin cancer and neuroendocrine tumors (n = 51) using immunohistochemistry. The results were compared to the expression of CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. The majority of the MCCs stained positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin A (95 vs 80 % respectively), and 75 % of the MCCs showed cytoplasmic positivity for CK20 and nuclear positivity for SATB2, with two discordant cases lacking expression of one of these markers. We conclude that immunohistochemistry for SATB2 can be used as an additional marker with similar sensitivity and specificity as CK20 for the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma, suggesting a clinical utility in difficult cases where MCC is suspected. PMID:27262585

  19. Deregulation of lipid metabolism pathway genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Daker, Maelinda; Bhuvanendran, Saatheeyavaane; Ahmad, Munirah; Takada, Kenzo; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng

    2013-03-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a unique tumour of epithelial origin with a distinct geographical distribution, closely associated with the Epstein‑Barr virus (EBV). EBV‑encoded RNAs (EBERs) are small non‑polyadenylated RNAs that are abundantly expressed in latent EBV‑infected NPC cells. To study the role of EBERs in NPC, we established stable expression of EBERs in HK1, an EBV‑negative NPC cell line. Cells expressing EBERs consistently exhibited an increased growth rate. However, EBERs did not confer resistance towards cisplatin‑induced apoptosis or promote migration or invasion ability in the cells tested. Using microarray gene expression profiling, we identified potential candidate genes that were deregulated in NPC cells expressing EBERs. Gene Ontology analysis of the data set revealed that EBERs upregulate the cellular lipid metabolic process. Upregulation of low‑density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) was observed in EBER‑expressing cells. NPC cells exhibited LDL‑dependent cell proliferation. In addition, a polyphenolic flavonoid compound, quercetin, known to inhibit FASN, was found to inhibit proliferation of NPC cells. PMID:23292678

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dey, Pranab; Amir, Thasneem; Jogai, Sanjay; Al Jussar, Aisha

    2005-04-01

    In this article we described the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of five cases of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). There were four cases of metastatic lymph nodes and one case of metastatic skin lesion. All of the TCC cases were primarily in the urinary bladder and were high grade on histopathology (grade 3). Three cases showed bladder muscle involvement and two cases showed superficial TCC at the time of primary diagnosis. FNAC smears showed abundant cellularity. The cells were present in discrete and small syncytial clusters. Nuclear position of the cell was central to eccentric. Many cells showed prominent nucleoli. Cercariform cells (CCs) were noted in four cases. These cells are malignant cells with a nucleated globular body and a unipolar nontapering cytoplasmic process. Two cases showed intranuclear inclusions. Prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in three cases. In addition, cell cannibalism and attempted pearl formations were noted in two cases.In conclusion, clinical history along with the certain cytological features such as the presence of CCs, cells with eccentric nuclei, and intranuclear inclusions are helpful to diagnose metastatic TCC on FNAC material. PMID:15754372

  1. Mechanical Stress Promotes Cisplatin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Riad, Sandra; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is a commonly used platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. Its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance and multiple side effects, thereby warranting a new approach to improving the pharmacological effect of CisPt. A newly developed mathematical hypothesis suggested that mechanical loading, when coupled with a chemotherapeutic drug such as CisPt and immune cells, would boost tumor cell death. The current study investigated the aforementioned mathematical hypothesis by exposing human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to CisPt, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and mechanical stress individually and in combination. HepG2 cells were also treated with a mixture of CisPt and carnosine with and without mechanical stress to examine one possible mechanism employed by mechanical stress to enhance CisPt effects. Carnosine is a dipeptide that reportedly sequesters platinum-based drugs away from their pharmacological target-site. Mechanical stress was achieved using an orbital shaker that produced 300 rpm with a horizontal circular motion. Our results demonstrated that mechanical stress promoted CisPt-induced death of HepG2 cells (~35% more cell death). Moreover, results showed that CisPt-induced death was compromised when CisPt was left to mix with carnosine 24 hours preceding treatment. Mechanical stress, however, ameliorated cell death (20% more cell death). PMID:25685789

  2. α-Mangostin Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyun-Ho; Park, Bong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Mangosteen has long been used as a traditional medicine and is known to have antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Although the effects of α-mangostin, a natural compound extracted from the pericarp of mangosteen, have been investigated in many studies, there is limited data on the effects of the compound in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, α-mangostin was assessed as a potential anticancer agent against human OSCC cells. α-Mangostin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in OSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with little to no effect on normal human PDLF cells. α-Mangostin treatment clearly showed apoptotic evidences such as nuclear fragmentation and accumulation of annexin V and PI-positive cells on OSCC cells. α-Mangostin treatment also caused the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The expressions of the mitochondria-related proteins were activated by α-mangostin. Treatment with α-mangostin also induced G1 phase arrest and downregulated cell cycle-related proteins (CDK/cyclin). Hence, α-mangostin specifically induces cell death and inhibits proliferation in OSCC cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, suggesting that α-mangostin may be an effective agent for the treatment of OSCC. PMID:27478478

  3. Mammary serine protease inhibitor and CD138 immunohistochemical expression in ovarian serous and clear cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hasby, Eiman Adel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of mammary serine protease inhibitor (maspin) and CD138 in primary ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) as compared to low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSC) and clear cell carcinomas and investigate if the studied markers have a correlation to International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, Ki67 proliferation index, and to each other. Maspin cellular location varied significantly between studied groups with only nuclear expression seen in 46.7 % of LGSC group, mixed nuclear and cytoplasmic in 13.3, 28.6, and 20 % of LGSC, HGSC, and clear cell carcinoma, respectively, and was only cytoplasmic in 26.7, 71.4, and 80 % of LGSC, HGSC, and clear cell carcinoma, respectively. Mean maspin and CD138 counts were significantly higher in HGSC and clear cell carcinoma compared to LGSC. Both maspin and CD138 scores varied significantly between studied groups and were positively correlated with adverse prognostic factors in studied carcinomas including FIGO stage and Ki67 proliferation index. Besides, both maspin and CD138 had significant correlation to each other. These findings suggest that epithelial cytoplasmic expression of maspin and CD138 may have a significant role in tumorigenesis in ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas and clear cell carcinomas; these markers may regulate tumor cell proliferation, and their significant correlation to each other may suggest that CD138 probably induces maspin expression to protect tumor growth factors from being lysed by proteolytic enzymes. PMID:26526579

  4. An obscure cause of gastrointestinal bleeding: Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the small bowel.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Robyn L; Jalil, Salah Abdel; Razick, Manver; Jalil, Ala' Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the small intestine is a rare condition. It usually results in gastrointestinal bleeding and it could happen many years after the diagnosis with renal cell cancer. Treatment includes surgery as well as targeted agents such as tyrosine kinases. We report here the case of an 82-year-old man with a past medical history of high-grade renal cell carcinoma and right nephrectomy 6 years earlier, who presented with recurrent episodes of syncope and black stools. He underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy without evident source of bleeding. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) showed three bleeding lesions in the jejunum and ileum. Push enteroscopy revealed a proximal jejunum bleeding mass that was suspicious for malignancy. Histopathology demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinoma. Given the patient's history of high-grade renal cell carcinoma, and similarity of histologic changes to the old renal cell cancer specimen, metastatic renal cell carcinoma was felt to be the responsible etiology. PMID:26348395

  5. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Clinical and Cytomorphologic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Toll, Adam D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2013-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma is a rare malignant epithelial neoplasm with predominantly exocrine acinar differentiation and is seen primarily in older men (mean age, 62 years). The presenting symptoms are usually non-specific, and jaundice is often not present. Symptoms relating to the overproduction and release of lipase into the circulation are present in 10-15% of patients. Characteristic cytomorphologic features include a population of cells with minimal pleomorphism, eccentrically placed nuclei with a single prominent nucleoli and moderate hyperchromasia. The cytoplasm is finely granular, and the background may contain granular debris secondary to cytolysis. A significant proportion of the cases also have a minor neuroendocrine component or scattered neuroendocrine cells. Approximately 50% of patients have metastatic disease at presentation, often restricted to the regional lymph nodes and liver. The prognosis is poor, only slightly better than that of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:23667367

  6. Curcumin targets fibroblast–tumor cell interactions in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dudás, József; Fullár, Alexandra; Romani, Angela; Pritz, Christian; Kovalszky, Ilona; Hans Schartinger, Volker; Mathias Sprinzl, Georg; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of OSCC tumor cells. We hypothesized that Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells. Normal and 2 μM Curcumin-treated co-culture were performed for 4 days, followed by analysis of tumor cell invasivity, mRNA/protein expression of EMT-markers and mediators, activity measure of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and western blot analysis of signal transduction in tumor cells and fibroblasts. In Curcumin-treated co-culture, in tumor cells, the levels of nuclear factor κB (NFκBα) and early response kinase (ERK)—decreased, in fibroblasts, integrin αv protein synthesis decreased compared to corresponding cells in normal co-culture. The signal modulatory changes induced by Curcumin caused decreased release of EMT-mediators in CAFs and reversal of EMT in tumor cells, which was associated with decreased invasion. These data confirm the palliative potential of Curcumin in clinical application. - Graphical abstract: Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells by inhibiting the production of EMT mediators in CAFs and by modification of intracellular signaling in tumor cells. This causes less invasivity and reversal of EMT in tumor cells. Highlights: ► Curcumin targets tumor–fibroblast interaction in head and neck cancer. ► Curcumin suppresses mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal transition. ► Curcumin decreases the invasivity of tumor cells.

  7. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Couture, Émilie L; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-12-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  8. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris)

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Émilie L.; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  9. Rhodamine-123 Selectively Reduces Clonal Growth of Carcinoma Cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-12-01

    Rhodamine-123, a cationic laser dye, markedly reduced the clonal growth of carcinoma cells but had little effect on nontumorigenic epithelial cells in vitro. This selective inhibitory effect of Rhodamine-123 on some carcinomas is unusual since known anticancer drugs, such as arabinosyl cytosine and methotrexate, have not been shown to exhibit such selectivity in vitro.

  10. Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Curettage Followed by Imiquimod 3.75% Cream

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita V.; Birge, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States. Treatment modalities include both surgical, medical, or combination therapy. In the following case, the authors report the successful treatment of a basal cell carcinoma on the nose with curettage followed by topical imiquimod 3.75% cream. PMID:21607193

  11. microRNA-451 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion through regulation of MIF in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Wan, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Ji, Shishun; Zhang, Juanjuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression and functions of microRNA-451 have been studied in many human cancers. However, up to date, there is no study of microRNA-451 in renal cell carcinoma. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression, biological functions and molecular mechanisms of microRNA-451 in renal cell carcinoma. microRNA-451 expression level in renal cell carcinoma tissues and cell lines was measured using quantitative Real-time PCR. By using CCK8 assay, cell migration and invasion assay, we explored the functions of microRNA-451 in renal cell carcinoma. Dual-Luciferase report assay, quantitative Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms of microRNA-451 functions in renal cell carcinoma. Functional assays were also performed to explore the effects of endogenous MIF in renal cell carcinoma. In this study, we showed for the first time that microRNA-451 was significantly down-regulated in renal cell carcinomas tissues and cell lines. microRNA-451 expression level was correlated with histological grade and lymph node metastasis. In addition, microRNA-451 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of renal cell carcinomas cells. Moreover, MIF was identified as a target of microRNA-451, and down-regulation of MIF could mimic the suppressive functions of microRNA-451 in renal cell carcinomas, suggesting that microRNA-451 might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of renal cell carcinomas. PMID:26884830

  12. Clinical Significance of Langerhans Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Francisco; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Gonzalez-Moles, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Funez, Rafael; Redondo, Maximino

    2012-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) may be involved in the immunosurveillance against tumors as antigen-presenting cells. Our objective has been to determine the relevance of LC in progression of larynx squamous cell carcinomas and their relationship with different subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating cells. LCs were investigated by immunohistochemical methods using anti-CD1 antibody. LCs were detected in most of the primary tumors studied (44 out of 50) and also in metastases (6 out of 10) and recurrences (2 out of 3), but we did not find any statistical association between number of LCs and clinical-pathological parameters or survival. However, the number of LCs was increased in patients with evident infiltration of lymphocytes, mainly cytotoxic T cells. We can conclude that although LCs did not show clinical utility as prognostic marker, they may play a role in releasing an active immune response in larynx carcinomas, according to their ability to present antigens to sensitized T cells. PMID:22481933

  13. VCL-ALK Renal Cell Carcinoma in Children With Sickle-cell Trait

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathaniel E.; Deyrup, Andrea T.; Marinño-Enriquez, Adrian; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Bridge, Julia A.; Illei, Peter B.; Netto, George J.; Argani, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    We report the third case of a renal cell carcinoma bearing a fusion of the vinculin (VCL) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genes. Like the 2 other reported cases, this neoplasm occurred in a young patient (6 y old) with sickle-cell trait and demonstrated distinctive morphologic features including medullary epicenter, discohesive polygonal or spindle-shaped cells with prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles, and prominent lymphocytic infiltrate. The neoplastic cells demonstrated focal membranous labeling for ALK protein by immunohistochemistry, ALK gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and a specific VCL-ALK gene fusion by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. VCL-ALK renal cell carcinoma may represent the eighth sickle-cell nephropathy. PMID:24698962

  14. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx: A Confusing Diagnosis for the Pathologist and Clinician

    PubMed Central

    Bostanci, Asli; Ozbilim, Gulay; Turhan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) is an uncommon subtype of squamous cell carcinoma which represents 0.5% of all laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. It is a biphasic tumor consisting of the combination of a malignant mesenchymal spindle cell component and a squamous cell component that includes dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma. Although it has aggressive biological features, the probability of making a diagnosis in the early stages is high as it often leads to obstructive symptoms in the early period. Due to its low incidence, there is no clear consensus on prognostic factors and optimal treatment strategies yet. In this paper, a 60-year-old laryngeal SpCC case that was effectively treated with wide local excision followed by adjuvant radiotherapy was presented with the literature. PMID:26788392

  15. Strong Expression of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 by Renal Cell Carcinoma Correlates with Advanced Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wehler, Thomas C.; Graf, Claudine; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Brenner, Walburgis; Schadt, Jörg; Gockel, Ines; Berger, Martin R.; Thüroff, Joachim W.; Galle, Peter R.; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C.

    2008-01-01

    Diverse chemokines and their receptors have been associated with tumor growth, tumor dissemination, and local immune escape. In different tumor entities, the level of chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression has been linked with tumor progression and decreased survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of CXCR4 expression on the progression of human renal cell carcinoma. CXCR4 expression of renal cell carcinoma was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 113 patients. Intensity of CXCR4 expression was correlated with both tumor and patient characteristics. Human renal cell carcinoma revealed variable intensities of CXCR4 expression. Strong CXCR4 expression of renal cell carcinoma was significantly associated with advanced T-status (P = .039), tumor dedifferentiation (P = .0005), and low hemoglobin (P = .039). In summary, strong CXCR4 expression was significantly associated with advanced dedifferentiated renal cell carcinoma. PMID:19266088

  16. Mutational landscape of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Curtis R.; Zhou, Jane H.; Lee, J. Jack; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Peng, S. Andrew; Saade, Rami E.; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Curry, Jonathan L.; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Lai, Stephen Y; Yu, Jun; Muzny, Donna M.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Shinbrot, Eve; Covington, Kyle R.; Zhang, Jianhua; Seth, Sahil; Caulin, Carlos; Clayman, Gary L.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Weber, Randal S.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Wheeler, David A.; Frederick, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is often a disfiguring and lethal disease. Very little is currently known about the mutations that drive aggressive cSCC. Experimental Design Whole exome sequencing was performed on 39 cases of aggressive cSCC to identify driver genes and novel therapeutic targets. Significantly mutated genes were identified with MutSig or complementary methods developed to specifically identify candidate tumor suppressors based upon their inactivating mutation bias. Results Despite the very high mutational background caused by UV exposure, 23 candidate drivers were identified including the well-known cancer-associated genes TP53, CDKN2A, NOTCH1, AJUBA, HRAS, CASP8, FAT1, and KMT2C (MLL3). Three novel candidate tumor suppressors with putative links to cancer or differentiation, NOTCH2, PARD3 and RASA1, were also identified as possible drivers in cSCC. KMT2C mutations were associated with poor outcome and increased bone invasion. Conclusions The mutational spectrum of cSCC is similar to that of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and dominated by tumor suppressor genes. These results improve the foundation for understanding this disease and should aid in identifying and treating aggressive cSCC. PMID:25303977

  17. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Smaglo, Brandon G.; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Meyer, Joshua E.; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  18. Nonhomologous chromatid exchange in hereditary and sporadic renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, G; Kung, H F

    1991-01-01

    For the development of renal cell carcinomas, it has been suggested that a germ-line or somatic mutation occurs on one of the homologous chromosomes 3p, and subsequently the other 3p segment is lost. We have examined the karyotype and/or the allelic combination on chromosomes 3 and 5 by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in normal kidney and tumor samples from 28 renal cell carcinomas that developed in two patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease; we then compared the results to those of sporadic tumors. An unbalanced translocation between chromosome 3p and 5q or other chromosomes was found to be the most common aberration. We developed a model of nonhomologous chromatid exchange involving breakpoint clusters at chromosomes 3p13, 3p11.2, 5q22, and 8q11.2. Subsequent chromatid segregation may result in net loss of the 3p segment either (i) in one step or (ii) after a nondisjunctional loss of the derivative chromosome carrying the 3p segment. This general mechanism could also be implicated to explain genetic changes occurring in other types of solid tumors. Images PMID:1986366

  19. Clinical outcome of surgical treatment for periorbital basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Ogawa, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kenji; Kushida, Satoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has a predilection for the periorbital region, which is a special, prominent, cosmetic, functional area to protect the eyeball. For squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, extensive resection with reconstruction is performed. In contrast, for BCC, resection is often confined to a small to medium-sized area, necessitating higher-quality reconstructive surgery. We analyze the surgical outcomes of treatment for periorbital BCC, and evaluate reconstruction method after resection. Forty-nine patients with periorbital BCC had surgery in our hospital over 20 years. Age, gender of the patients, and size, localization, and histology of the tumor, and surgical procedures, and their early and late complications were analyzed retrospectively. BCC was most frequently occurred in the lower lid (55%), followed by inner canthus (19%), upper lid (17%), and outer canthus (9%). The histologic classifications were solid (80%), morphea (7%), mix (7%), superficial (2%), keratotic (2%), and adenoid (2%). Recurrence of the tumor was observed in 2 advanced cases in patients treated with resection of the tumor including surrounding tissue 5 mm from the margin. A rotation advancement cheek flap procedure was most frequently applied. Horizontal shift of the skin was most effective to prevent postoperative lagophthalmos. BCC occurred most frequently in the lower lid within the periorbital area. Rotation advancement of cheek flap with horizontal shift of the skin is most effective procedure in both appearance and function of the eyelid. PMID:19801921

  20. Bladder and vaginal transitional cell carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; El Rassy, Elie; van Velthoven, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of the female genital tract in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) has not been fully elucidated in women, although involvement is usually associated with a poor prognosis. The vagina, in particular, is considered to be the most commonly affected gynecological organ, with an incidence of 4% of total TCC cases. The pathogenesis of vaginal TCC is challenging to determine, although it is essential for the adequate management of the tumor and to determine the appropriate treatment. The present study reports a case of bladder TCC and metachronous vaginal TCC. The patient had a history of high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer treated by BCG and presented with a recurrent carcinoma in situ. A novel cycle of BCG was initiated but the patient had a persistent disease and a palpable mass on bimanual examination. Radical anterior pelvectomy and bilateral pelvic and inguinal lymph node dissection was performed revealing the presence of TCC of the bladder neck and the invasion into the anterior vaginal wall. The differences between local vaginal invasion and the metastatic spread from a primary bladder TCC, the occurrence of a second primary vaginal tumor and the direct implantation of TCC via urine that contains transitional cancer cells were reviewed and analyzed. Finally, a management plan was determined. PMID:27602160

  1. Significance of Parafibromin Expression in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Inju; Lee, Mija; Lim, Sharon; Hong, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parafibromin is a product of the tumor suppressor gene that has been studied as a potential indicator of tumor aggressiveness in the parathyroid, breast, colorectum, and stomach. However, the clinical significance and potential function of parafibromin expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of parafibromin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to verify its potential as a biomarker of tumor behavior. Methods: Parafibromin expression was evaluated in 30 cases of LSCC using immunohistochemistry. The correlations between parafibromin expression and clinicopathologic parameters were investigated. Results: Parafibromin expression was positive in 15 cases (50%) and negative in 15 cases (50%). Tumor size and T stage showed a statistically significant inverse relationship with parafibromin expression (p=.028 and p<.001, respectively). Parafibromin expression was not associated with age, sex, lymph node metastasis, tumor differentiation, or tumor location. There was no statistically significant relationship between parafibromin expression and progression-free survival in the patients (p>.05). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the downregulation or loss of parafibromin expression can be employed as a novel marker of tumor progression or aggressiveness in LSCC. PMID:27334641

  2. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  3. Primary retroperitoneal Merkel cell carcinoma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Sandoval, Osvaldo A.; Cuellar-Hubbe, Mario; Lino-Silva, Leonardo S.; Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa A.; López-Basave, Horacio N.; Padilla-Rosciano, Alejandro E.; León-Takahashi, Alberto M.; Herrera-Gómez, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma that affects elderly patients and typically arises in sun-exposed skin. The disease is very rare and only few cases present with no apparent skin lesion. In the retroperitoneum there are only two cases reported in the literature. Case presentation We report a case of a 54-year-old Mexican male with MCC, which presented as a large retroperitoneal mass. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the transabdominal CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed a MCC. The patient underwent preoperative chemotherapy followed by a laparotomy and the mass was successfully excised. Discussion There are two possible explanations for what occurred in our patient. The most plausible theory is the retroperitoneal mass could be a massively enlarged lymph node where precursor cells became neoplastic. This would be consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of primary nodal disease. Moreover, metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes has been reported as relatively common when compared to other sites such as liver, bone, brain and skin. The less probable theory is the non-described “regression” phenomena of a cutaneous MCC, but we are not found a primary skin lesion. Conclusion Preoperative chemotherapy and excision of the primary tumor is the surgical treatment of choice for retroperitoneal MCC. We propose that further studies are needed to elucidate the true efficacy of chemotherapy in conventional and unconventional patients with MCC. PMID:26708276

  4. [Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma--clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Szumiło, Justyna

    2008-09-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most lethal malignances of digestive tract. Epidemiological data confirmed influence of the diet especially Mediterranean one that decreases the risk of cancer. High consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, mainly citrus and tea drinking, also has a beneficial effect on decreasing incidence of the cancer. High intake of various antioxidants and natural fibers found in the plant diet as well as prolonged administration of cyclooxygenase-inhibitors, especially aspirin, plays also a protective role. Results of sparse, prospective, randomized trials on chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are not so unequivocal. Supplementation of six traditional Chinese herbs, retinamide and riboflavin provided the most promising effects, but intake of multiple vitamins and minerals, including calcium and decaffeinated green tea, was ineffective. However, the studies were performed on small populations inhabiting select Chinese provinces known for their high esophageal cancer incidence. Due to a number of limitations, the collected data cannot be compared directly to other populations who are exposed to different environmental factors and with different genetic predispositions. PMID:19112850

  5. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Smaglo, Brandon G; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Meyer, Joshua E; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M

    2015-12-22

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  6. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Simon N; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Scherer, Dominique; Hemminki, Kari; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Soriano, Virtudes; Juberias, Pablo; Saez, Berta; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Grasa, Matilde; Höiom, Veronica; Lindblom, Annika; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; van Rossum, Michelle M; Aben, Katja K H; de Vries, Esther; Santinami, Mario; Di Mauro, Maria G; Maurichi, Andrea; Wendt, Judith; Hochleitner, Pia; Pehamberger, Hubert; Gudmundsson, Julius; Magnusdottir, Droplaug N; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Holm, Hilma; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Frigge, Michael L; Blondal, Thorarinn; Saemundsdottir, Jona; Bjarnason, Hjördis; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Okamoto, Ichiro; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Hansson, Johan; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Kumar, Rajiv; Karagas, Margaret R; Nelson, Heather H; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Olafsson, Jon H; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari

    2009-08-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 x 10(-9)). A variant at 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B also confers susceptibility to BCC (rs2151280[C]; OR = 1.19, P = 6.9 x 10(-9)), as does rs157935[T] at 7q32 near the imprinted gene KLF14 (OR = 1.23, P = 5.7 x 10(-10)). The effect of rs157935[T] is dependent on the parental origin of the risk allele. None of these variants were found to be associated with melanoma or fair-pigmentation traits. A melanoma- and pigmentation-associated variant in the SLC45A2 gene, L374F, is associated with risk of both BCC and squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we report conclusive evidence that rs401681[C] in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus confers susceptibility to BCC but protects against melanoma. PMID:19578363

  7. The prospect of precision therapy for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Chiara; Brunelli, Matteo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Iacovelli, Roberto; Heng, Daniel; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The therapeutic landscape of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has greatly expanded in the last decade. From being a malignancy orphan of effective therapies, kidney cancer has become today a tumor with several treatment options. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). In this complex scenario it is important to find prognostic and predictive factors that can help in decision making in the treatment of mRCC. PMID:27453294

  8. Small cell ovarian carcinoma: genomic stability and responsiveness to therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The biology of small cell ovarian carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT), which is a rare and aggressive form of ovarian cancer, is poorly understood. Tumourigenicity, in vitro growth characteristics, genetic and genomic anomalies, and sensitivity to standard and novel chemotherapeutic treatments were investigated in the unique SCCOHT cell line, BIN-67, to provide further insight in the biology of this rare type of ovarian cancer. Method The tumourigenic potential of BIN-67 cells was determined and the tumours formed in a xenograft model was compared to human SCCOHT. DNA sequencing, spectral karyotyping and high density SNP array analysis was performed. The sensitivity of the BIN-67 cells to standard chemotherapeutic agents and to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the JX-594 vaccinia virus was tested. Results BIN-67 cells were capable of forming spheroids in hanging drop cultures. When xenografted into immunodeficient mice, BIN-67 cells developed into tumours that reflected the hypercalcemia and histology of human SCCOHT, notably intense expression of WT-1 and vimentin, and lack of expression of inhibin. Somatic mutations in TP53 and the most common activating mutations in KRAS and BRAF were not found in BIN-67 cells by DNA sequencing. Spectral karyotyping revealed a largely normal diploid karyotype (in greater than 95% of cells) with a visibly shorter chromosome 20 contig. High density SNP array analysis also revealed few genomic anomalies in BIN-67 cells, which included loss of heterozygosity of an estimated 16.7 Mb interval on chromosome 20. SNP array analyses of four SCCOHT samples also indicated a low frequency of genomic anomalies in the majority of cases. Although resistant to platinum chemotherapeutic drugs, BIN-67 cell viability in vitro was reduced by >75% after infection with oncolytic viruses. Conclusions These results show that SCCOHT differs from high-grade serous carcinomas by exhibiting few chromosomal anomalies and lacking TP53

  9. Cytomegalovirus Replicates in Differentiated but not in Undifferentiated Human Embryonal Carcinoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonczol, Eva; Andrews, Peter W.; Plotkin, Stanley A.

    1984-04-01

    To study the mode of action of human cytomegalovirus, an important teratogenic agent in human populations, the susceptibility of a pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cell line to the virus was investigated. Viral antigens were not expressed nor was infectious virus produced by human embryonal carcinoma cells after infection, although the virus was able to penetrate these cells. In contrast, retinoic acid-induced differentiated derivatives of embryonal carcinoma cells were permissive for antigen expression and infectious virus production. Replication of human cytomegalovirus in human teratocarcinoma cells may therefore depend on cellular functions associated with differentiation.

  10. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with a syncytial-type multinucleated giant tumor cell component: implications for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Kum, Jennifer B; Goheen, Michael P; Cheng, Liang; Grignon, David J; Idrees, Muhammad T

    2014-04-01

    A component of syncytial-type multinucleated tumor giant cells is uncommon in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and the histogenesis, incidence, and clinical implications of this finding are not well understood. We retrieved 13 such tumors from our pathology archives in patients with a median age of 60years, comprising 1.5% of clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Stage was typically pT4 or pT3 (each 38%). Microscopically, all tumors included a component of low-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma with usual features. Syncytial-type giant tumor cells possessed voluminous cytoplasm, usually granular and eosinophilic, and numerous nuclei similar to those of the mononuclear tumor cells. Transition between areas of mononuclear and multinucleated cells was sometimes abrupt. Other findings included necrosis (77%), hyaline globules (46%), emperipolesis (46%), and intranuclear cytoplasmic invaginations (23%). Immunohistochemical staining typically revealed both mononuclear and multinucleated cells to be positive for carbonic anhydrase IX, CD10, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and negative for β human chorionic gonadotropin, TFE3, cathepsin K, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, HMB45, CD68, smooth muscle actin, and S100. Most patients with available information (7/9) were alive with metastatic disease at the most recent follow-up. Syncytial-type giant cells are an uncommon finding associated with aggressive clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Despite the unusual appearance of this tumor component, its immunoprofile supports an epithelial lineage and argues against trophoblastic, osteoclast-like, or histiocytic differentiation. Reactivity for typical clear cell renal cell carcinoma antigens facilitates discrimination from giant cells of epithelioid angiomyolipoma or other tumors, particularly in a biopsy specimen or a metastatic tumor. PMID:24499686

  11. Langerhans cells and T cells sense cell dysplasia in oral leukoplakias and oral squamous cell carcinomas--evidence for immunosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Öhman, J; Magnusson, B; Telemo, E; Jontell, M; Hasséus, B

    2012-07-01

    Leukoplakias (LPLs) are lesions in the oral mucosa that may develop into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The objective of this study was to assess presence and distribution of dendritic Langerhans cells (LCs) and T cells in patients with LPLs with or without cell dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Biopsy specimens from patients with leukoplakias (LPLs) with or without dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were immunostained with antibodies against CD1a, Langerin, CD3, CD4, CD8 and Ki67, followed by quantitative analysis. Analyses of epithelium and connective tissue revealed a significantly higher number of CD1a + LCs in LPLs with dysplasia compared with LPLs without dysplasia. Presence of Langerin + LCs in epithelium did not differ significantly between LPLs either with or without dysplasia and OSCC. T cells were found in significantly increased numbers in LPLs with dysplasia and OSCC. The number of CD4+ cells did not differ significantly between LPLs with and without dysplasia, but a significant increase was detected when comparing LPLs with dysplasia with OSCC. CD8+ cells were significantly more abundant in OSCC and LPLs with dysplasia compared with LPLs without dysplasia. Proliferating cells (Ki67+) were significantly more abundant in OSCC compared to LPLs with dysplasia. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed colocalization of LCs and T cells in LPLs with dysplasia and in OSCC. LCs and T cells are more numerous in tissue compartments with dysplastic epithelial cells and dramatically increase in OSCC. This indicates an ongoing immune response against cells with dysplasia. PMID:22469080

  12. Chrysophanic Acid Induces Necrosis but not Necroptosis in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Caki-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chrysophanic acid, also known as chrysophanol, has a number of biological activities. It enhances memory and learning abilities, raises superoxide dismutase activity, and has anti-cancer effects in several model systems. According to previous reports, chrysophanic acid-induced cell death shares features of necrotic cell death. However, the molecular and cellular processes underlying chrysophanic acid-induced cell death remain poorly understood. Methods: Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was monitored by cell viability assay and Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) staining of renal cell carcinoma Caki-2 cells. The induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by chrysophanic acid and the suppression of ROS by anti-oxidants were evaluated by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. The expression and phosphorylation of proteins that are involved in apoptosis and necroptosis were detected by immunoblotting. Results: The extent of chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was concentration and time dependent, and dead cells mainly appeared in the PI-positive population, which is a major feature of necrosis, upon fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was associated with the generation of intracellular ROS, and this effect was reversed by pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine. Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was not associated with changes in apoptotic or necroptotic marker proteins. Conclusions: The cell death induced by chrysophanic acid resembled neither apoptotic nor necroptotic cell death in human renal cell carcinoma Caki-2 cells. PMID:27390736

  13. Mathematical modeling of the cells repair regulations in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Adi-Kusumo, Fajar; Wiraya, Ario

    2016-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant cancer which is caused by the activation of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) via some external factors. In the cells repair regulations, the p53 gene mutation can be used as the early indication of the NPC growth. The NPC growth is due to the DNA damage accumulation caused by the EBV infection. In this paper we construct the cells repair regulations model to characterize the NPC growth. The model is a 15 dimensional of first order ODE system and consists the proteins and enzymes reactions. We do some numerical simulations to show the inactivation of the phosphorylated and acetylated p53, and the chromosomal instability of p53 gene, which can be used as the earlier stage detection of NPC. PMID:27140528

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ lining the uterine cavity.

    PubMed

    Anthuenis, J; Baekelandt, J; Bourgain, C; De Rop, C

    2016-01-01

    Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia is a very common and well-known pathology. However superficial spreading of this lesion is very rare. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman with an abdominal mass, who had previously undergone a cervical conisation for a high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Anatomo-pathological examination of the mass showed a large distended fluid-filled uterus with the entire endometrium replaced by a high-grade squamous cell lesion. There were only micro-invasive foci found. The authors performed a literature search in PubMed with the following MeSH-terms: "squamous cell carcinoma" and "endometrium". Other articles were selected out of the references of previously found articles. Only 31 similar cases were found. The presentation of the cases is varies extremely and a long-term prognosis is not yet known. PMID:27048127

  15. Solid blue dot tumour: minor salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Nadaf, Afreen; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Acinic cell adenocarcinoma (ACC) is a low-grade malignant salivary neoplasm that constitutes approximately 17% of all primary salivary gland malignancies. In the head and neck region, the parotid gland is the predominant site of origin and ACC is usually more frequent in women than men. Previous radiation exposure and familial predisposition are some of the risk factors for ACC. ACCs rarely involve minor salivary glands constituting only 13–17% of all minor salivary gland tumours. Generally, a slowly enlarging mass lesion in the tail of the parotid gland is the most frequent presentation. ACC has a significant tendency to recur, metastasise and may have an aggressive evolution. Therefore, a long-term follow-up is mandatory after treatment. Here we report the case of a woman in her 60s with an ACC in association with the labial minor salivary gland, presenting in the post-treatment period of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:24928927

  16. Multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Sapdhare, Swati; Pujar, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is of particular interest because its recurrence rate is high and its behavior is aggressive. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), which is also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and with a predisposition to neoplasms. These multiple KCOTs have warranted an aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications. Recurrence of these lesions is a characteristic feature that has to be considered while explaining the prognosis to the patient. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old boy with clinical features of basal cell nevus syndrome and multiple KCOTs. In addition to the other common features, congenitally missing third molars in all the four quadrants is a feature which has not been previously reported in association with NBCCS in Indian patients. PMID:26981489

  17. Inhibitory effects of cucurbitacin B on laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingyan; Zhang, Meixia; Zhang, Hongliang; Sun, Chunyan; Deng, Yihui

    2008-10-01

    Cucurbitacins are compounds isolated from various plant families, which have been used as folk medicines for centuries in countries such as India and China because of their wide spectrum of pharmacological activities such as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Accumulated evidences have shown that cucurbitacin B inhibits the growth of numerous human cancer cell lines and tumor xenografts. To determine whether cucurbitacin B can inhibit the growth of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, in the present study we investigated the antitumor effect of cucurbitacin B on Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were treated with different concentrations of cucurbitacin B for different time. Cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell apoptosis were evaluated using MTT assay, flow cytometry, and fluorescent microscopy. It was found that cucurbitacin B exhibited significant efficacy in growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and apoptosis induction in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Measuring the modulation of regulators in the cell cycle, apoptosis and signal transductions by Western blot analysis showed that the effect of cucurbitacin B was due to suppression of the expression of p-STAT3, Bcl-2, and cyclin B1. Moreover, in vivo studies were performed in a mouse xenograft model, where cucurbitacin B inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the antitumor effect of cucurbitacin B on Hep-2 cells was due to the induction of cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis. The possible mechanisms underlying the action might be attributed to the suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation. This investigation suggests a potential clinical application of cucurbitacin B for the treatment of laryngeal cancer patients. PMID:18309509

  18. Systemic mastocytosis in a patient with ovarian germ cell carcinoma and mast cell leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, G.; Hajianpour, M.J.; Hajianpour, A.K.

    1994-09-01

    We report a 12-year-old female with a history of mixed germ cell carcinoma of the right ovary who developed a generalized skin rash after oophorectomy and chemotherapy. She also presented with periodic episodes of flushing, anemia, tachycardia, shortness of breath, high fever, hepatosplenomegaly, nausea, abdominal cramping with diarrhea, and a papuloerythematous skin rash. There was no evidence of secondary carcinoma. Skin biopsy revealed nonspecific inflammatory cells with negative staining for mast cells. Peripheral blood smear showed an increased number of mast cells, thrombocytopenia and normal white cells count. Bone marrow showed hypercellularity with 38% of the nucleated cells being mast cells. Bone marrow chromosome analysis revealed hyperdiploidy in 30% of the cells: 58-64,XX, +1, +2, +5, +6, +7, +8, +14, +16, +18, +19, +19, +20, +21, +22. She expired two months after the occurrence of systemic mastocytosis. Systemic mastocytosis has been reported in association with hematopoietic disorders and with germ cell tumors. The association between mediastinal germ cell tumors and hematological malignancies has also been observed. To our knowledge, combination of most cell leukemia, systemic mastocytosis, and ovarian germ cell carcinoma has not been observed. It is know that mutations at the locus of either proto-oncogene c-kit receptor or its ligand, mast/stem cell factor (SCF) may impair the development of three stem cell populations: hematopoietic stem cells, germ cells and melanoblasts. There have been also extensive investigations on the expression and modulation of the SCF/c-kit interaction in various malignancies. Further molecular studies in patients with germ cell tumor/hematopoietic malignancy syndrome are required to delineate underlying mechanisms.

  19. Recurrent CDK1 overexpression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bednarek, K; Kiwerska, K; Szaumkessel, M; Bodnar, M; Kostrzewska-Poczekaj, M; Marszalek, A; Janiszewska, J; Bartochowska, A; Jackowska, J; Wierzbicka, M; Grenman, R; Szyfter, K; Giefing, M; Jarmuz-Szymczak, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the expression profile of four genes (CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, and CDK1) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell lines and tumor samples. With the application of microarray platform, we have shown the overexpression of these genes in all analyzed LSCC samples in comparison to non-cancer controls from head and neck region. We have selected CDK1 for further analysis, due to its leading role in cell cycle regulation. It is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family of proven oncogenic properties. The results obtained for CDK1 were further confirmed with the application of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The observed upregulation of CDK1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma has encouraged us to analyze for genetic mechanisms that can be responsible this phenomenon. Therefore, with the application of array-CGH, sequencing analysis and two methods for epigenetic regulation analysis (DNA methylation and miRNA expression), we tried to identify such potential mechanisms. Our attempts to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for observed changes failed as we did not observe significant alterations neither in the DNA sequence nor in the gene copy number that could underline CDK1 upregulation. Similarly, the pyrosequencing and miRNA expression analyses did not reveal any differences in methylation level and miRNA expression, respectively; thus, these mechanisms probably do not contribute to elevation of CDK1 expression in LSCC. However, our results suggest that alteration of CDK1 expression on both mRNA and protein level probably appears on the very early step of carcinogenesis. PMID:26912061

  20. Chemoprevention of lung squamous cell carcinoma by ginseng.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Li, Kezhen; Liu, Qian; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2013-06-01

    Ginseng has been used as a medicinal herb to maintain physical vitality for thousands of years, and it has also been shown to be a nonorgan-specific cancer preventive agent by several epidemiologic studies. However, the chemopreventive effects of Korea white ginseng (KWG) in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have not been tested. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive activity of KWG in a mouse lung SCC model. N-nitroso-trischloroethylurea (NTCU) was used to induce lung tumors in female Swiss mice, and KWG was given orally. KWG significantly reduced the percentage of lung SCCs from 26.5% in the control group to 9.1% in the KWG group and in the meantime, increased the percentage of normal bronchial and hyperplasia. KWG was also found to greatly reduce squamous cell lung tumor area from an average of 9.4% in control group to 1.5% in the KWG group. Treatment with KWG decreased Ki-67 staining, suggesting that the lung tumor inhibitory effects of KWG were partly through inhibition of proliferation. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry identified 10 ginsenosides from KWG extracts, Rb1 and Rd being the most abundant as detected in mouse blood and lung tissue. The tumor inhibitory effects of KWG are mediated by inhibition of activator protein (AP-1), as showed by in vitro study conducted on AP-1/NF-κB-dependent mouse non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. Western blotting of lung tissues also indicated that NTCU upregulated AP-1 through phosphorylation of c-jun-NH2-kinase, which was downregulated by KWG in concurrence with its chemoprevention function. These results suggest that KWG could be a potential chemopreventive agent for lung SCC. PMID:23550152

  1. Acinic cell carcinoma of breast: morphologic and immunohistochemical review of a rare breast cancer subtype.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Niamh; Sadri, Navid; Corben, Adriana D; Tan, Lee K

    2016-05-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma of breast is a rare subtype of triple-negative breast carcinoma and demonstrates extensive morphologic overlap with acinic cell carcinoma of the salivary gland. In this study, we perform a detailed morphologic and immunohistochemical description of 2 cases of this rare entity and undertake a comprehensive review of all reported cases of breast acinic cell carcinoma in the English language literature to date. One-third of reported cases of breast acinic cell carcinoma have been associated with the presence of a ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified component, which is frequently poorly differentiated. Breast acinic cell carcinoma can demonstrate focal morphologic features similar to microglandular adenosis; these areas are frequently negative for collagen IV and laminin on immunohistochemistry. The true relationship between these 2 entities remains unclear, but we advocate that microglandular adenosis-like areas at the periphery of a breast acinic cell carcinoma should be considered part of the carcinomatous process and re-excised if this process extends to the initial surgical margins. PMID:27067778

  2. Computational hepatocellular carcinoma tumor grading based on cell nuclei classification

    PubMed Central

    Atupelage, Chamidu; Nagahashi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Fumikazu; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Tokiya, Abe; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common histological type of primary liver cancer. HCC is graded according to the malignancy of the tissues. It is important to diagnose low-grade HCC tumors because these tissues have good prognosis. Image interpretation-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed to automate the HCC grading process. Generally, the HCC grade is determined by the characteristics of liver cell nuclei. Therefore, it is preferable that CAD systems utilize only liver cell nuclei for HCC grading. This paper proposes an automated HCC diagnosing method. In particular, it defines a pipeline-path that excludes nonliver cell nuclei in two consequent pipeline-modules and utilizes the liver cell nuclear features for HCC grading. The significance of excluding the nonliver cell nuclei for HCC grading is experimentally evaluated. Four categories of liver cell nuclear features were utilized for classifying the HCC tumors. Results indicated that nuclear texture is the dominant feature for HCC grading and others contribute to increase the classification accuracy. The proposed method was employed to classify a set of regions of interest selected from HCC whole slide images into five classes and resulted in a 95.97% correct classification rate. PMID:26158066

  3. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma arising in acquired cystic disease of the kidney: an immunohistochemical and genetic study.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Shiotsu, Tomoyuki; Kawada, Chiaki; Shuin, Taro; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Ohe, Chisato; Mikami, Shuji; Pan, Chin-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a recently established disease entity. However, there are few reports on genetic study of this entity. We report such a case with focus on genetic study. A 57-year-old Japanese man was found to have 3 renal tumors. Histologically, two tumors showed findings of clear cell RCC; and the other tumor showed findings of clear cell papillary RCC that was characterized by papillary growth pattern of neoplastic cells in cystic space with purely clear cell cytology. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells of clear cell papillary RCC were diffusely positive for PAX2 and cytokeratin 7, but negative for CD10, RCC Ma, and AMACR. In fluorescence in situ hybridization study for one clear cell papillary RCC, we detected polysomy for chromosome 7 and monosomy for chromosomes 17, 16, and 20. In addition, we detected mutation of VHL gene in clear cell RCC, but found no VHL gene mutation in clear cell papillary RCC. Finally, our results provide further evidence that clear cell papillary RCC may be both morphologically and genetically distinct entity from clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. PMID:20952286

  4. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Ghazi, Narges; Meshkat, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP) is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR) has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions. Methods One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs) and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group) were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%), we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18). All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230). Additionally, 15 (13.1%) SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830). The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11). A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity. Conclusion More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions. PMID:26674929

  5. Inhibitory effects of 3-bromopyruvate in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xue; Zhang, Mengxiao; Sun, Yiming; Zhao, Surong; Wei, Yingmei; Zhang, Xudong; Jiang, Chenchen; Liu, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cells depend on aerobic glycolysis for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, which is therefore targeted by therapeutic agents. The compound 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a strong alkylating agent and hexokinase inhibitor, inhibits tumor cell glycolysis and the production of ATP, causing apoptosis. 3-BrPA induces apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines HNE1 and CNE-2Z, which may be related to its molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-BrPA on the viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis and other types of programmed cell death in NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. PI staining showed significant apoptosis in NPC cells accompanied by the overproduction of ROS and downregulation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) by 3-BrPA. However, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis by decreasing ROS and facilitating the recovery of MMP. We elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying 3-BrPA activity and found that it caused mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production, leading to necroptosis of NPC cells. We investigated the effects of the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, which inhibits apoptosis but promotes death domain receptor (DR)-induced NPC cell necrosis. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) inhibits necroptosis, apparently via a DR signaling pathway and thus abrogates the effects of z-VAD‑fmk. In addition, we demonstrated the effective attenuation of 3-BrPA-induced necrotic cell death by Nec-1. Finally, animal studies proved that 3-BrPA exhibited significant antitumor activity in nude mice. The present study is the first demonstration of 3-BrPA-induced non-apoptotic necroptosis and ROS generation in NPC cells and provides potential strategies for developing agents against apoptosis‑resistant cancers. PMID:26239511

  6. Slug inhibition increases radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by upregulating PUMA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangfang; Zhou, Lijie; Wei, Changbo; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    As a new strategy, radio-gene therapy was widely used for the treatment of cancer patients in recent few years. Slug was involved in the radioresistance of various cancers and has been found to have an anti-apoptotic effect. This study aims to investigate whether the modulation of Slug expression by siRNA affects oral squamous cell carcinoma sensitivity to X-ray irradiation through upregulating PUMA. Two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC3 and HSC6) were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Slug and subjected to radiotherapy in vitro. After transfection with Slug siRNA, both HSC3 and HSC6 cells showed relatively lower expression of Slug and higher expression of PUMA. The Slug siRNA transfected cells showed decreased survival and proliferation rates, an increased apoptosis rate and enhanced radiosensitivity to X-ray irradiation. Our results revealed that Slug siRNA transfection in combination with radiation increased the expression of PUMA, which contributed to radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Thus, controlling the expression of Slug might contribute to enhance sensitivity of HSC3 and HSC6 cells toward X-ray irradiation in vitro by upregulating PUMA. PMID:27277529

  7. Cytotoxic effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Klingbeil, Ma Fátima G; Xavier, Flávia C A; Sardinha, Luiz R; Severino, Patricia; Mathor, Monica B; Rodrigues, Rodrigo V; Pinto, Décio S

    2013-11-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a complex disease with several etiologic factors and different molecular changes that may trigger certain events; it is also globally one of the most common malignancies in this topography. Extracts from Viscum album L. (VA) (mistletoe) have been used as adjuvant therapies with promising results in several types of cancer, mainly in European countries. In vitro studies have demonstrated that various types of VA may have cytotoxicity in carcinoma cells, activating the apoptotic cascade or leading cells to necrosis. This study aimed to verify the effects of three types of VA extracts (Iscador Qu Spezial, Iscador P and Iscador M) in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue cell lines SCC9 and SCC25, not previously studied. A concentration of 0.3 mg/ml (IC50) of the drugs induced apoptosis, affecting gene expression and protein levels of AKT, PTEN and CYCLIN D1. It was concluded that VA extracts have a cytotoxic effect on SCC9 and SCC25 cell lines, but while SCC9 cell line was more resistant to the action of the drugs, Iscador Qu Spezial and Iscador M have higher cytotoxic potential in both cell lines compared to Iscador P. PMID:24026291

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma of the respiratory tract following laryngeal papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lie, E S; Engh, V; Boysen, M; Clausen, O P; Kvernvold, H; Stenersen, T C; Winther, F O

    1994-03-01

    With the object to disclose an association between laryngeal papillomatosis and laryngeal carcinoma, we reviewed 102 patients with laryngeal papillomatosis treated between 1950 and 1979. Seven cases of laryngeal carcinomas were recorded and 1 patient with spread of papilloma to the bronchial tree developed a bronchial carcinoma. The time between onset of papilloma and diagnosis of carcinoma was 4-55 years (mean 24 years). For laryngeal carcinoma the ratio of observed to expected cases was 88. Of the 8 patients developing respiratory tract carcinoma, 2 had received treatment with radiation and 2 had been treated with Bleomycin. Four of these 8 patients were known smokers. This study shows that papillomatosis is more often associated with laryngeal carcinoma than previously reported. It appears, however, that laryngeal papillomas alone seldom induce carcinomas. Apart from irradiation and smoking, Bleomycin could be an important co-factor. PMID:7515551

  9. Cancer stem cells are underestimated by standard experimental methods in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gedye, Craig; Sirskyj, Danylo; Lobo, Nazleen C; Meens, Jalna; Hyatt, Elzbieta; Robinette, Michael; Fleshner, Neil; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish; Zlotta, Alexandre; Evans, Andrew; Finelli, Antonio; Jewett, Michael A S; Ailles, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Rare cancer stem cells (CSC) are proposed to be responsible for tumour propagation and re-initiation and are functionally defined by identifying tumour-initiating cells (TICs) using the xenotransplantation limiting dilution assay (LDA). While TICs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) appeared rare in NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ(-/-) (NSG) mice, xenografts formed more efficiently from small tumour fragments, indicating the LDA underestimated ccRCC TIC frequency. Mechanistic interrogation of the LDA identified multiple steps that influence ccRCC TIC quantitation. For example, tissue disaggregation destroys most ccRCC cells, common assays significantly overestimate tumour cell viability, and microenvironmental supplementation with human extracellular factors or pharmacological inhibition of anoikis increase clonogenicity and tumourigenicity of ccRCC cell lines and primary tumour cells. Identification of these previously uncharacterized concerns that cumulatively lead to substantial underestimation of TICs in ccRCC provides a framework for development of more accurate TIC assays in the future, both for this disease and for other cancers. PMID:27121191

  10. Cancer stem cells are underestimated by standard experimental methods in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gedye, Craig; Sirskyj, Danylo; Lobo, Nazleen C.; Meens, Jalna; Hyatt, Elzbieta; Robinette, Michael; Fleshner, Neil; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish; Zlotta, Alexandre; Evans, Andrew; Finelli, Antonio; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Ailles, Laurie E.

    2016-01-01

    Rare cancer stem cells (CSC) are proposed to be responsible for tumour propagation and re-initiation and are functionally defined by identifying tumour-initiating cells (TICs) using the xenotransplantation limiting dilution assay (LDA). While TICs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) appeared rare in NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ−/− (NSG) mice, xenografts formed more efficiently from small tumour fragments, indicating the LDA underestimated ccRCC TIC frequency. Mechanistic interrogation of the LDA identified multiple steps that influence ccRCC TIC quantitation. For example, tissue disaggregation destroys most ccRCC cells, common assays significantly overestimate tumour cell viability, and microenvironmental supplementation with human extracellular factors or pharmacological inhibition of anoikis increase clonogenicity and tumourigenicity of ccRCC cell lines and primary tumour cells. Identification of these previously uncharacterized concerns that cumulatively lead to substantial underestimation of TICs in ccRCC provides a framework for development of more accurate TIC assays in the future, both for this disease and for other cancers. PMID:27121191

  11. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Mandibular Gingiva – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, Sangeeta R.; Bhandare, Prachi R.; Tripathi, Nidhi; Sridharan, Gokul

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a malignancy of epithelial origin often mimicking its mesenchymal counterpart thus posing a diagnostic challenge. It is a rare biphasic malignant tumour mostly encountered in the upper aerodigestive tract. The chief differential diagnoses of spindle cell carcinoma are true superficial sarcomas and they especially need to be differentiated from fibrosarcoma. This presentation reports a spindle cell carcinoma of the gingiva and highlights the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis. It also emphasizes the importance of accurate and thorough diagnosis of malignant spindle cell lesions to determine the appropriate therapeutic modality. PMID:27042594

  12. Unusual Granular Cell Tumor of the Trachea Coexisting With Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Masquerading as Tracheal Invasion of Recurred Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This was an extremely rare case of unusual granular cell tumor of the trachea coexisting with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. We initially misdiagnosed this patient as having tracheal invasion from recurrent thyroid carcinoma even after a computed tomography scan and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of granular cell tumor of the trachea occurring simultaneously with papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27149467

  13. Photodynamic therapy in early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea; Massetti, Renato; Meroni, Emmanuele

    1995-03-01

    From 1/1985 to 7/1993, 18 patients underwent endoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) for early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma -- as two patients had two synchronous esophageal cancers, 20 lesions were treated. Tumors were staged as Tis in 7 cases and T1 in 13. The average light energy delivered was 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. To obtain a more uniform distribution of laser light in 12 cases the irradiation was performed through the wall of a transparent tube previously placed over the endoscope and advanced into the stomach. The overall results show a complete response in 14/20 (70%) tumors. Three patients developed a local recurrence, 6, 12, and 14 months after therapy. After a follow-up of 5 to 75 months, there was no evidence of disease in 10/18 patients (56%). The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 79%, and 26% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications were skin reaction in one patient and esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage, in 2 patients. Endoscopic PDT proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of superficial carcinoma of the esophagus.

  14. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma mimicking as a desquamative lesion

    PubMed Central

    Keshava, Abbayya; Gugwad, Sushma; Baad, Rajendra; Patel, Rufi

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequently encountered neoplasm in the oral cavity, which accounts for more than 90% of all cancers. Except for carcinoma of the lip vermilion, the most common sites of oral SCC are the tongue and floor of mouth, followed at a lower frequency by the soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Clinically, it may be misdiagnosed because of its variable appearances. This case report presents a case of well-differentiated SCC of gingiva. A 48-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, Karad, with a 1-year history of burning sensation and painful lesion on the gingiva from 35 to 37 (mandibular) regions. On clinical examination, desquamated gingival lesion was seen with no purulent exudation. Clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis indicated the lesion for an excisional biopsy. Histopathological examination confirmed the lesion to be a well-differentiated SCC. The patient was referred for the treatment consisting of surgical excision of the lesion. Since an early diagnosis and treatment was possible in this case, it resulted in a good prognosis. In these instances, dentist plays an important role in early detection of gingival SCC. PMID:27041843

  15. Antitumor effect of temsirolimus against oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Kurio, Naito; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Takaoka, Munenori; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2010-11-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is engaged in the molecular pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, which frequently invades the maxilla or the mandible. However, the effects of a mTOR inhibitor on bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of temsirolimus-mediated mTOR inhibition against advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma. Temsirolimus inhibited the proliferation and migration of HSC-2 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and suppressed the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in vivo. Significantly, we clearly show that temsirolimus inhibited osteoclast formation both in vitro and in vivo. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that temsirolimus decreased the mRNA expression of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand, known as an osteoclast differentiation factor in bone stromal ST2 cells. Moreover, temsirolimus normalized blood-free calcium concentration in mouse models for humoral hypercalcemia. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling is a potential target of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction, and hence we describe the efficacy of temsirolimus for the treatment of advanced oral squamous carcinoma. PMID:20858724

  16. Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: An Outcomes Study

    SciTech Connect

    Newlin, Heather E.; Iyengar, Meera; Morris, Christopher G.; Olivier, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To report survival and control rates in patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-five patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (Stages I-IIIB) who received radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy given with curative intent at University of Florida between 1963 and 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Overall survival (OS) at 5 years for Stages I, II, and III was 10%, 14%, and 7% (p = 0.0034); local-regional control at 5 years was 51%, 38%, and 29% (p = 0.0003); and freedom from metastases at 5 years was 81%, 60%, and 65% (p = 0.0689), respectively. Patients who received doses {>=} 65 Gy had improved cause-specific survival (CSS), OS, and metastasis-free survival at 5 years compared with those who received doses < 65 Gy. Five-year regional control was significantly improved with twice-daily vs. once-daily treatment (37% vs. 14%, p = 0.02). Chemotherapy significantly improved 5-year regional control (36% for patients who received chemotherapy vs. 13% for those who did not; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Dose escalation, accelerated fractionation, and combined modality therapies improve outcomes in SCC of the lung. Our review of the literature highlights the different natural history for SCC vs. other non-small cell lung cancers and emphasizes the importance of tailoring treatment strategies to individual patients. At University of Florida, we have begun treating unresectable Stage III patients with SCC of the lung using 69.6 Gy twice daily with concurrent chemotherapy.

  17. Restored expression levels of TET1 decrease the proliferation and migration of renal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    FAN, MIN; HE, XIAOZHOU; XU, XIANLIN

    2015-01-01

    Renal carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults and is responsible for ~90–95% of the cases of kidney cancer. Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) is a member of the TET family of enzymes, and is expressed at low levels in multiple malignancies. In the present study, a series of experiments were designed and performed to investigate whether the expression of TET1 is clinically correlated with clinical outcomes in renal carcinoma, and to examine the associations between TET1 expression level and the proliferation and migration in renal carcinoma cells. As a result, TET1 was observed to exhibit markedly low expression levels in 54 tumor tissue samples from 54 patients with renal carcinoma. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed a clinical correlation between low expression levels of TET1 and the prognosis of patients with renal carcinoma. When TET1 was overexpressed in renal carcinoma cells, the viability and invasive abilities of the cells were decreased, and the rate of apoptosis was increased. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that TET1 is involved in tumor inhibition in renal carcinoma by promoting cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation and invasion, which may be exploited as a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of renal carcinoma. PMID:26165803

  18. High prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan; Springer, Simeon; Nguyen, Doreen; Taheri, Diana; Guner, Gunes; Rodriguez, Maria Angelica Mendoza; Wang, Yuxuan; Kinde, Isaac; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Olson, Matthew T; Cunha, Isabela; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Ertoy, Dilek; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Kinzler, Kenneth; Vogelstein, Bert; Netto, George J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas

    2016-05-01

    TERT promoter mutations (TERT-mut) are detectable in the majority of urothelial carcinomas. The detection of TERT-mut in urine is under investigation as a potential urine-based molecular-screening assay for bladder cancer. A small but significant number of bladder carcinomas are pure squamous cell carcinoma. We sought to assess the incidence of TERT-mut in squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A retrospective search of the institutional pathology archives yielded 15 cystectomy specimens performed for squamous cell carcinoma (2000-2014). Histologic slides were reviewed by a senior urologic pathologist to confirm the diagnosis and select a representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue block for mutational analysis. All cases yielded adequate material for DNA analysis. Sequencing for TERT-mut was performed using previously described SafeSeq technique. We detected TERT-mut in 12/15 (80%) of bladder squamous cell carcinomas. TERT promoter mutations, commonly found in conventional urothelial carcinoma, are also highly prevalent in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma suggesting a common tumorigenesis and potential utility as a molecular urine-based-screening assay. PMID:26965579

  19. Spindle cell variant of ameloblastic carcinoma: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    McNaught, Michael J; Turella, Stephen J; Fallah, David M; Demsar, William J

    2015-05-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare and malignant odontogenic tumor. Approximately, 100 cases of ameloblastic carcinomas have been reported in the literature, with fewer than 10 reported cases of an even more rare variant with spindle-cell differentiation. Although it is presumed that most ameloblastic carcinomas arise de novo, it also appears capable of proliferating as carcinoma ex ameloblastoma. Without a full past history, the exact origin of these tumors can be unclear. The exact classification becomes further questionable when both an intraosseous and peripheral tumor exists. This currently reported case has been present for at least 4 years before the patient presenting for care. However, without prior biopsy, the etiology and category of this ameloblastic carcinoma is speculative. Our case represents a histologically unequivocal case of ameloblastic carcinoma. Based on tumor morphology, questions still remain, as to whether it arose de novo, or as carcinoma ex ameloblastoma. The possibility of categorizing the current lesion as a spindle cell variant also exists because of the presence of a prominent population of malignant epithelial spindled cells arranged in fascicles. The authors believe that this ameloblastic carcinoma would best be subclassified as a rare spindle cell variant, based on the prominent spindle cell component. PMID:25939122

  20. Radiosensitization by Inhibiting STAT1 in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Zhouguang; Tretiakova, Maria; Zhang Zhongfa; Li Yan; Wang Xiaozhen; Zhu, Julie Xiaohong; Gao Yuanhong; Mai Weiyuan; Furge, Kyle; Qian Chaonan; Amato, Robert; Butler, E. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been historically regarded as a radioresistant malignancy, but the molecular mechanism underlying its radioresistance is not understood. This study investigated the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a transcription factor downstream of the interferon-signaling pathway, in radioresistant RCC. Methods and Materials: The expressions of STAT1 and STAT3 in 164 human clear cell RCC samples, 47 papillary RCC samples, and 15 normal kidney tissue samples were examined by microarray expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the total and phosphorylated STAT1 expression in CRL-1932 (786-O) (human clear cell RCC), SKRC-39 (human papillary RCC), CCL-116 (human fibroblast), and CRL-1441 (G-401) (human Wilms tumor). STAT1 was reduced or inhibited by fludarabine and siRNA, respectively, and the effects on radiation-induced cell death were investigated using clonogenic assays. Results: STAT1 expression, but not STAT3 expression, was significantly greater in human RCC samples (p = 1.5 x 10{sup -8} for clear cell; and p = 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for papillary). Similarly, the expression of STAT1 was relatively greater in the two RCC cell lines. STAT1 expression was reduced by both fludarabine and siRNA, significantly increasing the radiosensitivity in both RCC cell lines. Conclusion: This is the first study reporting the overexpression of STAT1 in human clear cell and papillary RCC tissues. Radiosensitization in RCC cell lines was observed by a reduction or inhibition of STAT1 signaling, using fludarabine or siRNA. Our data suggest that STAT1 may play a key role in RCC radioresistance and manipulation of this pathway may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy.

  1. Curcumin suppresses migration and invasion of human endometrial carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, QIAN; GAO, QING; CHEN, KUNLUN; WANG, YIDONG; CHEN, LIJUAN; LI, XU

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, has historically been used in anti-cancer therapies. However, the anti-metastatic effect and molecular mechanism of curcumin in endometrial carcinoma (EC) are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to detect the anti-metastatic effects of curcumin and the associated mechanism(s) in EC. Based on assays carried out in EC cell lines, it was observed that curcumin inhibited EC cell migration and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, following treatment with curcumin for 24 h, there was a decrease in the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 as well as proteinase activity in EC cells. Moreover, curcumin treatment significantly decreased the levels of the phosphorylated form of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. MEK1 overexpression partially blocked the anti-metastatic effects of curcumin. Combined treatment with ERK inhibitor U0126 and curcumin resulted in a synergistic reduction in MMP-2/-9 expression; the invasive capabilities of HEC-1B cells were also inhibited. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing the expression and activity of MMP-2/9 via the suppression of the ERK signaling pathway, suggesting that curcumin is a potential therapeutic agent for EC. PMID:26622667

  2. Hydroxyflavanone inhibits gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhan, Zhuo; Cui, Mingfu; Gao, Yongjian; Wang, Dayu; Feng, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma (GC) is the most common primary malignancy of the digestive tract, with increasing incidence in many countries. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by 2’-hydroxyflavanone. The STAT3 pathway was performed. 2’-hydroxyflavanone reduced inhibitory effects on MGC-803 cell proliferation. 2’-hydroxyflavanone exhibited the highest inhibition rate. Treatment of MGC-803 cells with 400, 200, and 100 μg/ml 2’-hydroxyflavanone resulted in 88.9±0.7%, 81.2±0.5%, 68.4±0.5% decrease in cell viability, respectively, indicating an IC50 of 9.3 μg/ml. The 100 μg/ml 2’-hydroxyflavanone can significantly inhibit the STAT3 pathway activation. 2’-hydroxyflavanone inhibits MGC-803 cell proliferation by inhibiting STAT3 pathway activation. This extract is therefore a potential drug candidate for treatment of liver cancer. PMID:26629250

  3. Metabolic reprogramming orchestrates cancer stem cell properties in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yao-An; Wang, Chia-Yu; Hsieh, Yi-Tao; Chen, Yann-Jang; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of tumor cells endowed with self-renewal capacity and are considered as an underlying cause of tumor recurrence and metastasis. The metabolic signatures of CSCs and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of their stem cell-like properties still remain elusive. We utilized nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CSCs as a model to dissect their metabolic signatures and found that CSCs underwent metabolic shift and mitochondrial resetting distinguished from their differentiated counterparts. In metabolic shift, CSCs showed a greater reliance on glycolysis for energy supply compared with the parental cells. In mitochondrial resetting, the quantity and function of mitochondria of CSCs were modulated by the biogenesis of the organelles, and the round-shaped mitochondria were distributed in a peri-nuclear manner similar to those seen in the stem cells. In addition, we blocked the glycolytic pathway, increased the ROS levels, and depolarized mitochondrial membranes of CSCs, respectively, and examined the effects of these metabolic factors on CSC properties. Intriguingly, the properties of CSCs were curbed when we redirected the quintessential metabolic reprogramming, which indicates that the plasticity of energy metabolism regulated the balance between acquisition and loss of the stemness status. Taken together, we suggest that metabolic reprogramming is critical for CSCs to sustain self-renewal, deter from differentiation and enhance the antioxidant defense mechanism. Characterization of metabolic reprogramming governing CSC properties is paramount to the design of novel therapeutic strategies through metabolic intervention of CSCs. PMID:25483072

  4. Vaginal clear cell carcinoma in a Japanese Black cow.

    PubMed

    Michishita, Masaki; Hori, Makito; Nakahira, Rei; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2016-06-01

    During artificial insemination of an 18-year-old female Japanese Black cow, a mass that was of a hen's egg size was found in the vagina. On necropsy, the firm mass, measuring approximately 3.5 × 3.5 × 3.0 cm, was located at the superior region of the vagina. The cut surface of the mass was gray-white in color with occasional necrotic or hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the mass was composed of tumor cells arranged in solid nests of various sizes with an occasional tubular structure separated by a delicate fibrovascular stroma. The tumor cells had a hypochromatic nucleus and abundant, faintly eosinophilic cytoplasm. The tumor cells contained diastase-sensitive periodic acid-Schiff positive granules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CAM5.2 and carcinoembryonic antigen, but not for vimentin, p63, estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor, α-smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein and chromogranin A. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a clear cell carcinoma of the vagina. PMID:26852732

  5. Vaginal clear cell carcinoma in a Japanese Black cow

    PubMed Central

    MICHISHITA, Masaki; HORI, Makito; NAKAHIRA, Rei; TAKAHASHI, Kimimasa

    2016-01-01

    During artificial insemination of an 18-year-old female Japanese Black cow, a mass that was of a hen’s egg size was found in the vagina. On necropsy, the firm mass, measuring approximately 3.5 × 3.5 × 3.0 cm, was located at the superior region of the vagina. The cut surface of the mass was gray-white in color with occasional necrotic or hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the mass was composed of tumor cells arranged in solid nests of various sizes with an occasional tubular structure separated by a delicate fibrovascular stroma. The tumor cells had a hypochromatic nucleus and abundant, faintly eosinophilic cytoplasm. The tumor cells contained diastase-sensitive periodic acid-Schiff positive granules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CAM5.2 and carcinoembryonic antigen, but not for vimentin, p63, estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor, α-smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein and chromogranin A. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a clear cell carcinoma of the vagina. PMID:26852732

  6. Downregulation of CCR1 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaofeng; Fan Jia; E-mail: jiafan99@yahoo.com; Wang Xiaoying; Zhou Jian; Qiu Shuangjian; Yu Yao; Liu Yinkun; Tang Zhaoyou

    2007-04-20

    CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) has an important role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. The migration and metastasis of tumor cells shares many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is mainly regulated by chemokine receptor-ligand interactions. CCR1 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and tissues with unknown functions. In this study, we silenced CCR1 expression in the human HCC cell line HCCLM3 using artificial microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) and examined the invasiveness and proliferation of CCR1-silenced HCCLM3 cells and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The miRNA-mediated knockdown expression of CCR1 significantly inhibited the invasive ability of HCCLM3 cells, but had only a minor effect on the cellular proliferation rate. Moreover, CCR1 knockdown significantly reduced the secretion of MMP-2. Together, these findings indicate that CCR1 has an important role in HCCLM3 invasion and that CCR1 might be a new target of HCC treatment.

  7. Metabolic reprogramming orchestrates cancer stem cell properties in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao-An; Wang, Chia-Yu; Hsieh, Yi-Tao; Chen, Yann-Jang; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of tumor cells endowed with self-renewal capacity and are considered as an underlying cause of tumor recurrence and metastasis. The metabolic signatures of CSCs and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of their stem cell-like properties still remain elusive. We utilized nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CSCs as a model to dissect their metabolic signatures and found that CSCs underwent metabolic shift and mitochondrial resetting distinguished from their differentiated counterparts. In metabolic shift, CSCs showed a greater reliance on glycolysis for energy supply compared with the parental cells. In mitochondrial resetting, the quantity and function of mitochondria of CSCs were modulated by the biogenesis of the organelles, and the round-shaped mitochondria were distributed in a peri-nuclear manner similar to those seen in the stem cells. In addition, we blocked the glycolytic pathway, increased the ROS levels, and depolarized mitochondrial membranes of CSCs, respectively, and examined the effects of these metabolic factors on CSC properties. Intriguingly, the properties of CSCs were curbed when we redirected the quintessential metabolic reprogramming, which indicates that the plasticity of energy metabolism regulated the balance between acquisition and loss of the stemness status. Taken together, we suggest that metabolic reprogramming is critical for CSCs to sustain self-renewal, deter from differentiation and enhance the antioxidant defense mechanism. Characterization of metabolic reprogramming governing CSC properties is paramount to the design of novel therapeutic strategies through metabolic intervention of CSCs. PMID:25483072

  8. FHIT gene alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, L; Shuster, M; Gollin, S M; Veronese, M L; Ohta, M; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether the FHIT gene at 3p14.2 is altered in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), we examined 26 HNSCC cell lines for deletions within the FHIT locus by Southern analysis, for allelic losses of specific exons FHIT by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and for integrity of FHIT transcripts. Three cell lines exhibited homozygous deletions within the FHIT gene, 55% (15/25) showed the presence of aberrant transcripts, and 65% (13/20) showed the presence of multiple cell populations with losses of different portions of FHIT alleles by FISH of FHIT genomic clones to interphase nuclei. When the data obtained by FISH and by reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses are combined, 22 of 26 cell lines showed alterations of at least one allele of the FHIT gene. Our data indicate that the FHIT gene is disrupted in HNSCCs and hence, loss of FHIT function may be important in the development and/or progression of head and neck cancers. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8790406

  9. Ipsilateral radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William R; Herman, Michael P; Deraniyagala, Rohan L; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to update our institution's experience with ipsilateral radiation therapy (RT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar area. Outcome study of 76 patients treated between 1984 and 2012 with ipsilateral RT for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Patients had either cT1 (n = 41, 54 %) or cT2 (n = 35, 46 %) primaries and cN0 (n = 27, 36 %), cN1 (n = 15, 20 %), cN2a (n = 8, 11 %), or cN2b (n = 26, 34 %) nodal disease. Of these, 32 (42 %) patients underwent a planned neck dissection and 21 (28 %) patients received concomitant chemotherapy. Median follow-up for all patients was 7.1 years (range 0.1-27.2) and 7.8 years (range 2.1-27.2 years) for living patients. The 2- and 5-year control and survival rates were as follows: local control, 98.6 and 96.9 %; local-regional control 95.8 and 92.6 %; cause-specific survival 95.9 and 93.1 %; and overall survival, 92.1 and 83.8 %. One patient failed in the contralateral, non-radiated neck 3 years after primary treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that overall survival was significantly influenced by whether the patient had a primary tumor in the anterior tonsillar pillar versus the tonsillar fossa with the latter performing better. The incidence of severe late complications was 16 %. Ipsilateral RT for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tonsillar pillar or tonsillar fossa with no base of tongue or soft palate extension is an efficacious treatment that provides excellent control rates with a relatively low incidence of late complications. PMID:26223350

  10. Definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Levenback, Charles; Eifel, Patricia J. . E-mail: peifel@mdanderson.org

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and describe clinical treatment guidelines for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 2000, a total of 193 patients were treated with definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The patients' medical records were reviewed to obtain information about patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, as well as outcome and patterns of recurrence. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 137 months. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences assessed using log-rank tests. Results: Disease-specific survival (DSS) and pelvic disease control rates correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor size. At 5 years, DSS rates were 85% for the 50 patients with Stage I, 78% for the 97 patients with Stage II, and 58% for the 46 patients with Stage III-IVA disease (p = 0.0013). Five-year DSS rates were 82% and 60% for patients with tumors {<=}4 cm or >4 cm, respectively (p = 0.0001). At 5 years, pelvic disease control rates were 86% for Stage I, 84% for Stage II, and 71% for Stage III-IVA (p = 0.027). The predominant mode of relapse after definitive radiation therapy was local-regional (68% and 83%, respectively, for patients with stages I-II or III-IVA disease). The incidence of major complications was correlated with FIGO stage; at 5 years, the rates of major complications were 4% for Stage I, 9% for Stage II, and 21% for Stage III-IVA (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes can be achieved with definitive radiation therapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. However, to achieve these results, treatment must be individualized according to the site and size of the tumor at presentation and the response to initial external-beam radiation therapy. Brachytherapy

  11. Mixed large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: Report of a rare case and review of the literature☆

    PubMed Central

    Vardas, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Georgios; Chantziara, Maria; Papakonstantinou, Alexandros; Drakopoulos, Spiros

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Mixed large cell neuroendocrine neoplasms of the rectum are rare and aggressive neoplasms. Survival is poor due to the high rate of lymph node metastases and distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a 50-year-old male patient with a mixed large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum located 8 cm from the anal verge, treated with low anterior resection and total mesorectal excision with free surgical margins. There were lymph nodes metastases but no distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. The patient refused to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and died 6 months later due to liver failure as a result of multiple hepatic metastases. DISCUSSION There are not known predisposing factors for the development of neuroendocrine rectal carcinoma. A neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum is a rare tumor with an incidence of less than 0.1% of all colorectal malignancies. The median survival ranges from 5 to 10.4 months in several studies and there are not sufficient data in bibliography about ideal adjuvant therapy after resection of mixed squamous large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum. CONCLUSION Low anterior resection and total mesorectal excision with free surgical margins in the presence of lymph nodes metastasis is not a sufficient treatment for rectal neuroendocrine carcinoma. More studies should be done in order to determine the ideal adjuvant treatment of these rare and aggressive tumors. PMID:24240071

  12. Clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified/hyalinising clear cell carcinoma of the salivary gland: The current nomenclature, clinical/pathological characteristics and management.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Luca; Nikolarakos, Dimitrios; Keenan, Jonathon; Schaefer, Nathan; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-06-01

    Clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS)/hyalinising clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare entity in salivary gland tumour. The aim of the research is to review the current concepts and characteristics of this carcinoma. The clinical and pathological data of the disease obtained from literature and two original cases were analysed. Overall, 152 cases were reviewed up to the year 2014. The carcinomas were noted often in woman, in the seventh decade of life, located in oral cavity and as early-stages cancers. On pathological examination, they were characterized by tumour cells having clear cell morphology with hyalinised stroma. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the carcinoma is positive for cytokeratin and negative for myoepithelial differentiation. EWSR1-ATF1 fusion is specific for the carcinoma. Also, 9% of the reported cases had local nodal metastasis, with 6 cases demonstrating distant metastases at presentation. On follow-up, 22% of patients had recurrent or with persistent diseases after surgery. The time for the first recurrence could be as long as 24 years. Risk factors for recurrence include advanced stage at diagnosis and metastases at presentation. To conclude, HCCC is a low grade malignancy but have the potential for local metastases, recurrence, distant metastases and cancer-related death. PMID:27150676

  13. Incidence of Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma in Low-Grade Renal Cell Carcinoma Cases: A 12-Year Retrospective Clinicopathologic Study From a Single Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simpal; Kauffman, Eric C; Kandel, Sirisa; George, Saby; Schwaab, Thomas; Xu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized subtype of renal cell carcinoma entity after 2004 World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. CCPRCC has unique histomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. The distinction of CCPRCC from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with clear cell morphology is crucial because the former is considered to have a favorable clinical outcome. CCPRCC may be interpreted in the past as other renal cell carcinomas, particularly low-grade clear cell RCC. In this study, the frequency of CCPRCC in previously diagnosed low-grade RCC and its clinicopathologic features were examined. A total of 126 cases of stage T1a with low nuclear grade RCC were identified from 625 consecutive RCCs removed by radical/partial nephrectomy over 12-year period (2000-2011). Archival tissue sections were retrospectively reviewed along with patient medical charts. Eight cases (1.3% of all RCC, 6.3% of pT1a low grade RCC) with characteristic histologic features of CCPRCC were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Seven cases were previously diagnosed as clear cell RCC and one as multilocular cystic RCC. Radiographically, CCPRCC favored a mid-pole location in the kidneys. At a median follow-up period of 52 months (range 20-114.5 months), there were no cases of local or distant recurrence. In conclusion, CCPRCC is not uncommon among small low-grade RCC tumors. CCPRCC can be correctly recognized by its unique histomorphological features and confirmed by immunohistochemistry studies, which is important due to the excellent clinical outcome following resection. PMID:26510859

  14. Sonic hedgehog signaling promotes growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells associated with bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Honami, Tatsuki; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Okui, Tatsuo; Kurio, Naito; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and its signaling have been identified in several human cancers, and increased levels of its expression appear to correlate with disease progression and metastasis. However, the role of Shh in bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinomas, which frequently invade the maxilla or the mandible, is still unclear. In this study we show that the use of siRNA for Shh to block SHH secreted by SAS oral squamous cell carcinoma cells suppressed the tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of subcutaneous SAS xenografts in vivo. Moreover, blockade of Shh in SAS cells decreased tumor growth and osteoclast number in a tibial metaphysis mouse model. Significantly, we clearly show that SHH stimulated osteoclast formation in a co-culture system consisting of murine bone stromal ST2 cells and murine CD11b(+) bone marrow cells. These findings suggest that Shh signaling is a potential target for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction. PMID:21945071

  15. PARP and CHK inhibitors interact to cause DNA damage and cell death in mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurence; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Ridder, Thomas; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

    2013-05-01

    The present studies examined viability and DNA damage levels in mammary carcinoma cells following PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitor drug combination exposure. PARP1 inhibitors [AZD2281 ; ABT888 ; NU1025 ; AG014699] interacted with CHK1 inhibitors [UCN-01 ; AZD7762 ; LY2603618] to kill mammary carcinoma cells. PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitors interacted to increase both single strand and double strand DNA breaks that correlated with increased γH2AX phosphorylation. Treatment of cells with CHK1 inhibitors increased the phosphorylation of CHK1 and ERK1/2. Knock down of ATM suppressed the drug-induced increases in CHK1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and enhanced tumor cell killing by PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitors. Expression of dominant negative MEK1 enhanced drug-induced DNA damage whereas expression of activated MEK1 suppressed both the DNA damage response and tumor cell killing. Collectively our data demonstrate that PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitors interact to kill mammary carcinoma cells and that increased DNA damage is a surrogate marker for the response of cells to this drug combination. PMID:23917378

  16. Pulchrin A, a New Natural Coumarin Derivative of Enicosanthellum pulchrum, Induces Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells via Intrinsic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Noraziah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Mohan, Syam; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Othman, Rozana; Karimian, Hamed; Iman, Venus; Ramli, Noorlela; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Abdul Majid, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance presents a challenge in chemotherapy and has attracted research interest worldwide and particular attention has been given to natural compounds to overcome this difficulty. Pulchrin A, a new compound isolated from natural products has demonstrated novel potential for development as a drug. The identification of pulchrin A was conducted using several spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, liquid chromatography mass spectrometer, infrared and ultraviolet spectrometry. The cytotoxicity effects on CAOV-3 cells indicates that pulchrin A is more active than cisplatin, which has an IC50 of 22.3 μM. Significant changes in cell morphology were present, such as cell membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. The involvement of phosphatidylserine (PS) in apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V-FITC after a 24 h treatment. Apoptosis was activated through the intrinsic pathway by activation of procaspases 3 and 9 as well as cleaved caspases 3 and 9 and ended at the executioner pathway, with the occurrence of DNA laddering. Apoptosis was further confirmed via gene and protein expression levels, in which Bcl-2 protein was down-regulated and Bax protein was up-regulated. Furthermore, the CAOV-3 cell cycle was disrupted at the G0/G1 phase, leading to apoptosis. Molecular modeling of Bcl-2 proteins demonstrated a high- binding affinity, which inhibited the function of Bcl-2 proteins and led to cell death. Results of the current study can shed light on the development of new therapeutic agents, particularly, human ovarian cancer treatments. PMID:27136097

  17. MicroRNA profiles in various hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Asahiro; Iwama, Hisakazu; Fujihara, Shintaro; Sakamoto, Teppei; Fujita, Koji; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Himoto, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Although surgery is considered the most effective treatment for patients with HCC, its indication is restricted by limited criteria and a high relapse rate following surgery; therefore, systemic chemotherapy is required for patients with advanced-stage HCC to prolong their survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs of 18–22 nucleotides in length. It has been reported that aberrant expression of miRNAs is a feature shared by various types of human cancer. Previous studies have indicated that the modulation of non-coding RNAs, particularly miRNAs, may be a valuable therapeutic target for HCC. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the miRNA profiles associated with differentiation and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection observed in HCC cell lines. The human Alex, Hep3B, HepG2, HuH1, HuH7, JHH1, JHH2, JHH5, JHH6, HLE, HLF and Li-7 HCC cell lines were used for an miRNA array. Replicate data were analyzed following their classification into: i) Poorly- and well-differentiated human HCC cells and ii) HBV-positive and -negative human HCC cells. Out of the 1,719 miRNAs, 4 were found to be significantly upregulated and 52 significantly downregulated in the poorly-differentiated cells, as compared with the well-differentiated cells. Conversely, in the HBV-positive cells 125 miRNAs were found to be upregulated and 2 downregulated, as compared with the HBV-negative cells. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis with Pearson's correlation revealed that the miRNA expression levels were clustered both together and separately in each group. In conclusion, miRNA profile characterization based on various parameters may be a novel approach to determine the etiology of HCC.

  18. Nanosecond laser pulse induced stress waves enhanced magnetofection of human carcinoma cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durdík, Š.; Babincová, M.; Bergemann, C.; Babinec, P.

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a novel platform for efficient gene delivery into cells using magnetic force for pre-concentration of gene-magnetic nanoparticle complex on the surface of cells with subsequent nanosecond laser pulse for generation of stress waves in transfection chamber which is able to permeabilize cell membrane for the facilitated delivery of gene into the cell interior. Combination of these two physical factors increased the efficiency of three different human carcinoma cells transfection with plasmid coding green fluorescence protein from 43% to 67%, from 35% to 54%, and from 23% to 39%, for HeLa (cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), and UCI-107 (ovarian carcinoma) cells, respectively, as compared with using only magnetofection. Proposed fast, simple, and efficient method may have far reaching applications for cancer gene therapy.

  19. Decreased expression of mucin 18 is associated with unfavorable postoperative prognosis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Qi; Liu, Li; Long, Qilai; Xia, Yu; Wang, Jiajun; Xu, Jiejie; Guo, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Background: MUC18 is correlated with tumor progression and metastasis in types of malignancy. But the role of MUC18 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of MUC18 and its correlation with clinical outcomes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed in samples from 288 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We used Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models to value the association between MUC18 expression and clinical outcome. Nomogram was constructed to predict overall survival at 5 and 8 years after nephrectomy. Results: MUC18 expression was significantly decreased in tumor compared to non-tumor tissue (P<0.001). Lower MUC18 expression in tumor predicted a shorter survival time (P=0.007). By multivariate cox analysis, MUC18 was defined as an independent prognostic factor (P=0.006). The nomogram performed better in predicting 5- and 8-year overall survival than the TNM stage alone in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: MUC18 is an independent prognostic factor for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and could be incorporated with the other parameters to predict 5- and 8-year overall survival for clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients. PMID:26617818

  20. A human gall-bladder signet ring cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Nishida, T; Iwasaki, H; Johzaki, H; Tanaka, S; Watanabe, R; Kikuchi, M

    1997-06-01

    To date, very few reports of the establishment of gall-bladder cancer cell lines have appeared, although many cancer cell lines of various kinds have been established. On the other hand, no reports could be found on signet ring cell carcinoma cell lines derived from the gall-bladder and only five cell lines from the stomach. A human gall-bladder cancer cell line (FU-GBC-2) was established in tissue culture from the ascitic fluid of a 69-year-old Japanese female patient. The tumor cells growing in tissue culture exhibited the morphological characteristics of signet ring cells in phase contrast and electron microscopy. The population doubling time was 43 hours. Heterotransplantation was succeeded by inoculation into the dermis of BALB/c nude mice. An immunocytochemical study showed that most of the cultured cells were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9 and epithelial membrane antigen, but negative for vimentin. The modal chromosome number was 120 with a range of 100-124. Flow cytometry showed an aneuploidy pattern in the cultured cells at passage 30. Markedly amplified c-myc oncogene was observed by Southern blot analysis. This cell line may be useful in the study of the morphological and biological characteristics of signet ring cell carcinoma and gall-bladder adenocarcinoma. PMID:9211524

  1. Characterization of CD133{sup +} hepatocellular carcinoma cells as cancer stem/progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Nagaki, Masahito . E-mail: mnagaki@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp; Aoki, Hitomi; Motohashi, Tsutomu; Kunisada, Takahiro; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2006-12-29

    The CD133 antigen, identified as a hematopoietic stem cell marker, appears in various human embryonic epithelia including the neural tube, gut, and kidney. We herein investigated whether CD133{sup +} cells isolated from human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines possess cancer stem/progenitor cell-like properties. Among the three cell lines studied, the CD133 antigen was found to be expressed only on the surface of Huh-7 cells. CD133{sup +} cells from Huh-7 performed a higher in vitro proliferative potential and lower mRNA expressions of mature hepatocyte markers, glutamine synthetase and cytochrome P450 3A4, than CD133{sup -} population of Huh-7 cells. When either CD133{sup +} or CD133{sup -} cells were subcutaneously injected into SCID mice, CD133{sup +} cells formed tumors, whereas CD133{sup -} cells induced either a very small number of tumors or none at all. Taken together, the identification of CD133{sup +} cells could thus be a potentially powerful tool to investigate the tumorigenic process in the hepatoma system and to also develop effective therapies targeted against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy for small cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Holoye, P Y; Samuels, M L; Lanzotti, V J; Smith, T; Barkley, H T

    1977-03-21

    A three-drug combination of the chemotherapeutic agents cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, and doxorubicin hydrochloride was given to 45 patients with small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. In addition, patients with limited disease received radiation therapy to the primary tumor. The complete response rate was 44%, with a median survival of 50 weeks. The partial response rate was 29%, with a median survival of 35 weeks. Patients who did not respond to therapy showed a median survival of only 12 weeks. Twenty percent of the patients had their first recurrence in the brain, and the median survival from the time of disease recurrence was ten weeks. Bone marrow metastasis was encountered in 24% of the patient population, but this did not adversely affect survival. PMID:190427

  3. Genetic polymorphisms and HPV infection in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Limei; Song, Xicheng; Li, Guojun

    2015-10-01

    Despite declining smoking rates in the United States, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC, including oral cavity and oropharynx) is rising in young adults. The reasons have been attributed to changes in sexual behaviors and the increasingly prevalent infection of oncogenic subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), principally type16 and occasionally type18. However, only small proportion of individuals who have contracted HPV infection will develop OSCC, suggesting that there is an inter-individual variation in susceptibility to HPV infection and related OSCC. Identification of susceptible biomarkers for HPV status would be useful to identify those individuals who are susceptible to HPV infection, to refine the prognostication of HPV associated OSCC, and ultimately to improve prevention efforts for OSCC and potentially other HPV-associated diseases. Our public health OSCC prevention paradigm will need to expand beyond tobacco and alcohol control. PMID:26057719

  4. Treatment of elderly patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Elisa; Grassi, Paolo; Cavo, Alessia; Verzoni, Elena; Maggi, Claudia; De Braud, Filippo; Boccardo, Francesco; Procopio, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) increases with age, and given the constant gain in life expectancy of the general population, both localized RCC and metastatic RCC (mRCC) are more frequently observed in the elderly population. The elderly are a heterogeneous group of patients often characterized by the presence of comorbidities, different compliance to treatment and polypharmacy. Here we review the available data with the aim to analyze the safety and efficacy of new targeted therapies (TTs) in elderly mRCC patients. TTs seem to be effective in both older and younger patients, but elderly patients appear to show reduced tolerance to treatments compared to younger patients. Prospective trials are needed to better understand how to manage mRCC in elderly patients. PMID:26654225

  5. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lacko, Martin; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Boedeker, Carsten C.; Suárez, Carlos; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Takes, Robert P.

    2014-05-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed.

  6. Evaluation of preoperative staging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lin-Na; He, Long-Jun; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Xin-Xin; Shan, Hong-Bo; Luo, Guang-Yu; Li, Yin; Lin, Shi-Yong; Wang, Guo-Bao; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guo-Liang; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is known for its rapid progression and poor outcomes. China has the highest incidence and mortality in the world. Diagnoses made at early stages and accurate staging are associated with better outcomes, all of which can play a significant role in the selection of treatment protocols. ESCC is staged according to the widely accepted TNM system. Common imaging modalities used in staging ESCC before treatment include endoscopy, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Endoscopic ultrasound is useful for staging tumor depth and nodal status. Narrow band imaging is valuable for early stage disease assessment. CT and PET provide additional valuable information regarding node and metastasis staging. The ability of MRI to delineate ESCC is continuously being improved and adds information regarding locoregional status to routine examinations. PMID:27547011

  7. The Mutational Landscape of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stransky, Nicolas; Egloff, Ann Marie; Tward, Aaron D.; Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Lawrence, Michael; Sougnez, Carrie; McKenna, Aaron; Shefler, Erica; Ramos, Alex H.; Stojanov, Petar; Carter, Scott L.; Voet, Douglas; Cortés, Maria L; Auclair, Daniel; Berger, Michael F.; Saksena, Gordon; Guiducci, Candace; Onofrio, Robert; Parkin, Melissa; Romkes, Marjorie; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Seethala, Raja R.; Wang, Lin; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Winckler, Wendy; Ardlie, Kristin; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S.; Getz, Gad; Golub, Todd R.; Garraway, Levi A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common, morbid, and frequently lethal malignancy. To uncover its mutational spectrum, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 74 tumor-normal pairs. The majority exhibited a mutational profile consistent with tobacco exposure; human papilloma virus was detectable by sequencing of DNA from infected tumors. In addition to identifying previously known HNSCC genes (TP53, CDKN2A, PTEN, PIK3CA, and HRAS), the analysis revealed many genes not previously implicated in this malignancy. At least 30% of cases harbored mutations in genes that regulate squamous differentiation (e.g., NOTCH1, IRF6, and TP63), implicating its dysregulation as a major driver of HNSCC carcinogenesis. More generally, the results indicate the ability of large-scale sequencing to reveal fundamental tumorigenic mechanisms. PMID:21798893

  8. Human papillomavirus tumor infection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ludmir, Ethan B.; Stephens, Sarah J.; Palta, Manisha; Willett, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been recognized for over three decades. Recently, multiple meta-analyses have drawn upon existing literature to assess the strength of the HPV-ESCC linkage. Here, we review these analyses and attempt to provide a clinically-relevant overview of HPV infection in ESCC. HPV-ESCC detection rates are highly variable across studies. Geographic location likely accounts for a majority of the variation in HPV prevalence, with high-incidence regions including Asia reporting significantly higher HPV-ESCC infection rates compared with low-incidence regions such as Europe, North America, and Oceania. Based on our examination of existing data, the current literature does not support the notion that HPV is a prominent carcinogen in ESCC. We conclude that there is no basis to change the current clinical approach to ESCC patients with respect to tumor HPV status. PMID:26029456

  9. Adjuvant Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sumanta K.

    2014-01-01

    At the present time, the standard of care for patients who have received nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is radiographic surveillance. With a number of novel targeted agents showing activity in the setting of metastatic RCC, there has been great interest in exploring the potential of the same agents in the adjuvant setting. Herein, we discuss the evolution of adjuvant trials in RCC, spanning from the immunotherapy era to the targeted therapy era. Pitfalls of current studies are addressed to provide a context for interpreting forthcoming results. Finally, we outline avenues to incorporate promising investigational agents, such as PD-1 (programmed death-1) inhibitors and MNNG transforming gene inhibitors, in future adjuvant trials. PMID:24969163

  10. Surgical considerations for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Mehrad; Thomas, Arun Z; Borregales, Leonardo D; Matin, Surena F; Wood, Christopher G; Karam, Jose A

    2015-12-01

    Among patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25-30% present with metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Despite the ever-increasing array of treatment options available for these patients, surgery remains one of the cornerstones of therapy. Proper patient selection for cytoreductive surgery is paramount to its effective use in the management of patients with metastatic RCC despite the decrease in reported morbidity rates. We explore the evolving role cytoreductive surgery in metastatic RCC spanning the immunotherapy era to the targeted therapy era. Despite significant advances in the management of patients with metastatic RCC, further evidence on the definitive role of cytoreductive surgery in the targeted therapy era is awaited through large randomized trials. PMID:26546481

  11. Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis to the Penis

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Victor D.; Darwish, Oussama M.; Henry, Mary M.; Jun, Ik C.; Siddiqui, Sameer A.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancers of the penis are extremely uncommon with less than 300 cases reported in the past 100 years. These cancers are most frequently a result of an aggressive or poorly managed primary prostate or bladder cancer and rarely a metastasis from a primary kidney tumor. Currently, there is no published literature which describes the spread of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) to the penis. In this report, we present a 55-year-old-man who presented with a large right-sided SRCC which metastasized to the base of his penis within 1 month of symptom onset. We also discuss the possible route of metastasis based on primary tumor size and location within the retroperitoneum. PMID:26257975

  12. The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Caleb F.; Ricketts, Christopher; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C.; Hacker, Kathryn E.; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A.; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A.; Bristow, Christopher A.; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Wallen, Eric M.; Smith, Angela B.; Tickoo, Satish K.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S.; Hsieh, James J.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A. Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Park, Peter J.; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A.; Linehan, W. Marston; Gibbs, Richard A.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and whole genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared to other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT up-regulation in cancer distinct from previously-observed amplifications and point mutations. PMID:25155756

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Pasić, Aida; Rados, Jaka; Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. The cases of SCC were retrospectively studied. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. In the study period, there were 1,860 cases of SCC (934 men and 926 women). The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 14.6 for men and 13.4 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 8.9 for men and 5.2 for women. The head was almost exclusive localization of SCC in both sexes. The highest SCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. These results will serve for the SCC trend monitoring in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years. PMID:22816210

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma on a syphilitic gumma: A unique presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rahima, S.; Riyaz, Najeeba; Latheef, E.N. Abdul; Shyni, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gumma is a characteristic lesion of tertiary syphilis that is rare nowadays, but still rarer is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from it. A 74-year-old male presented with throat pain and nasal twang with a past history of genital ulcer. Examination revealed a well-defined ulcer with a perforation of 1.5 cm over the hard palate with induration and nodularity at the margins. This patient also had leukoplakia over the ventral aspect of the tongue. His treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive, and biopsy revealed well-differentiated SCC from the lesion over the palate and leukoplakia with dysplasia from the lesion over the tongue. Patient is on treatment from radiotherapy. To conclude, this is a unique presentation of syphilitic gumma with palatal perforation with SCC and syphilitic leukoplakia with Ca in situ over tongue. Thus, serology for syphilis should be done in all patients with SCC of the oral cavity. PMID:26392665

  15. Free posterior tibial flap reconstruction for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to determine outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx (SCCHP) in whom the free posterior tibial flap was used for primary reconstruction of hypopharynx defects after cancer resection. Subjects and methods Between August 2009 and February 2012, 10 patients with SCCHP underwent posterior tibial flap reconstruction for hypopharynx defects. The corresponding clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results Despite the multistep and time-consuming procedure, the posterior tibial flap survival rate was 100%. Operation-induced complications did not occur in four patients. Six patients developed postoperative hypoproteinemia, four patients developed postoperative pulmonary infections, and four patients developed pharyngeal fistula. The pharyngeal and laryngeal functions of all patients were preserved. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that the posterior tibial flap is a safe and reliable choice for the reconstruction of hypopharynx defects. PMID:24884631

  16. ASCO 2006 highlights: targeted therapy for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, M Dror

    2007-06-01

    In the past few years, advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have resulted in the identification of new therapeutic targets, and ultimately, the development of new targeted agents for the treatment of the disease. This paper reviews latest data in RCC for the recently approved agents sunitinib and sorafenib, as well as other molecularly targeted drugs, presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Clinical Oncology, held in Atlanta, Georgia, in June 2006. Clinical findings to date show that these new agents are challenging the role of cytokines in this setting, and for some (e.g. sunitinib) a substantially improved efficacy profile (progression-free survival and response) over conventional cytokine therapy has been reported. While challenges remain with regard to optimal use of these agents, the outlook for patients with advanced RCC has improved considerably and there is great hope for continuing progress. PMID:17367939

  17. Ovarian large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the youngest woman.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Y S; Im, K S; Choi, D I

    2016-01-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNC) of the ovary is a rare tumor in gynecologic oncologic field. An 18-year-old woman presented with abdominal distention and a pelvic mass measuring ten cm in diameter, who previously underwent laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy due to large borderline mucinous ovarian neoplasm 18 months prior. A debulking operation was optimally performed, which included total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, bilateral paraaortic lymph node dissection, omentectomy, optimal debulking of gastrohepatic mass and subdiaphragmatic mass, and pelvic peritonectomy. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin, the patient died of progressive disease seven months after surgery. The authors report the youngest case of LCNC of the ovary, that failed chemotherapy and had the previous history of the conservative surgical treatment due to mucinous borderline tumor. PMID:27172753

  18. The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caleb F; Ricketts, Christopher J; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C; Hacker, Kathryn E; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bristow, Christopher A; Donehower, Lawrence A; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B; Tickoo, Satish K; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S; Hsieh, James J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hakimi, A Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Park, Peter J; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A; Linehan, W Marston; Gibbs, Richard A; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J

    2014-09-01

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared with other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT upregulation in cancer distinct from previously observed amplifications and point mutations. PMID:25155756

  19. Serum and Urine Biomarkers for Human Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, A. L.; Palleschi, G.; Silvestri, L.; Moschese, D.; Ricci, S.; Petrozza, V.; Carbone, A.; Di Carlo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosis is mostly achieved incidentally by imaging provided for unrelated clinical reasons. The surgical management of localized tumors has reported excellent results. The therapy of advanced RCC has evolved considerably over recent years with the widespread use of the so-called “targeted therapies.” The identification of molecular markers in body fluids (e.g., sera and urine), which can be used for screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and monitoring of drug-based therapy in RCC patients, is one of the most ambitious challenges in oncologic research. Although there are some promising reports about potential biomarkers in sera, there is limited available data regarding urine markers for RCC. The following review reports some of the most promising biomarkers identified in the biological fluids of RCC patients. PMID:25922552

  20. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the liver: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Kyung; Kim, Byung Ik; Han, Eun Na; Kim, Dong Hyung; Yoo, Jung Hee; Lee, Seung Jae; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Hong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the liver is very rare, and few cases have been reported in Korea. Primary SCC of the liver is known to be associated with hepatic cysts and intrahepatic stones. A 71-year-old male was admitted to our hospital, and a abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 10 × 6 cm mass in the liver. Analysis of a biopsy sample suggested SCC, and so our team performed a thorough workup to find the primary lesion, which was revealed hepatoma as a pure primary SCC of the liver with multiple distant metastases. The patient was treated with one cycle of radiotherapy, transferred to another hospital for hospice care, and then died 1 month after discharge. PMID:27044770

  1. The clinical implications of the genetics of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Inger; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Pinto, Peter A; Linehan, W Marston

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the advances in molecular genetics have elucidated kidney cancer gene pathways. Kidney cancer is a heterogeneous disorder. Each specific type of kidney cancer has its own histologic features, gene, and clinical course. Insight into the genetic basis of kidney cancer has been learned largely from the study of the familial or hereditary forms of kidney cancer. Extirpative surgery is currently the treatment of choice for kidney cancer that is confined to the kidney. Treatment for advanced or metastatic kidney cancer is a formidable challenge with the traditional therapies currently available. However, investigation of the Mendelian single-gene syndromes, like von Hippel Lindau (VHL: VHL gene), hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC: c-Met gene), Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD: BHD gene), and hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC: fumarate hydratase gene) provides an opportunity to develop pathway specific therapies. Advances in molecular therapeutics offer novel treatment options for patients with advanced disease. PMID:19285230

  2. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jean Y. So, P.-L.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2007-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

  3. Metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary source.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Dermot; Dean, Kylie; Nightingale, Rachael; Carlotto, Simone

    2014-01-01

    An elderly man presented to the emergency department following a motorbike accident. He had sustained chest injuries and a grade 1 splenic laceration. He had a moderate amount of free fluid and some omental standing on trauma CT, which was concerning for occult malignancy. A follow-up CT 4 weeks later showed a marked progression of the ascites and omental stranding. Ascitic tap was negative for malignancy. Tumour markers were normal. The patient developed a proximal small bowel obstruction which appeared to be related to this omental caking in the left upper quadrant on CT. Gastroduodenoscopy did not display any mass lesion. There was an external compression of the duodenum which could not be traversed with the scope. Laparoscopy showed a widespread peritoneal carcinomatosis. Biopsies of the omentum and peritoneum confirmed metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma (cytokeratin 7 and cytokeratin 20 positive). The patient was palliated but died 2 weeks after his diagnosis. PMID:24536055

  4. Human Papilloma Virus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus

    PubMed Central

    Gami, Bhavna; Kubba, Faris; Ziprin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. In the UK, the incidence is estimated at approximately 1.5 per 100,000. Most of this increase is attributed to certain at-risk populations. Persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive and men who have sex with men (MSM), Organ transplant recipients, women with a history of cervical cancer, human papilloma virus (HPV), or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are known to have a greater risk for anal cancer. This paper will focus on HPV as a risk factor for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and discusses the etiology, anatomy, pathogenesis, management of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus. PMID:25288893

  5. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  6. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  7. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma presenting as periodontal lesion in the mandibular posterior region

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Renu; Debnath, Nitai; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC) is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. It represents less than 10% of diagnosed intraoral carcinoma. Because of its close proximity to the teeth and periodontium, the tumour can mimic tooth-related benign inflammatory conditions. This case report describes a patient diagnosed with GSCC presenting as localised periodontitis. PMID:25139914

  8. A Proteomic Study of Human Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qiang; Byrum, Stephanie D.; Moreland, Linley E.; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Kannan, Aarthi; Lin, Zhenyu; Morgan, Michael; Stack, Brendan C.; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Tackett, Alan J.; Gao, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine cancer of the skin. The incidence has been quadrupled with a 5-year mortality rate of 46%, presently there is no cure for metastatic disease. Despite the contribution of Merkel cell polyomavirus, the molecular events of MCC carcinogenesis are poorly defined. To better understand MCC carcinogensis, we have performed the first quantitative proteomic comparison of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) MCC tissues using another neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid tumor of the lung) as controls. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic data has revealed that MCCs carry distinct protein expression patterns. Further analysis of significantly over-expressed proteins suggested the involvement of MAPK, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, wnt, and apoptosis signaling pathways. Our previous study and that from others have shown mTOR activation in MCCs. Therefore, we have focused on two downstream molecules of the mTOR pathway, lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) and heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNPF). We confirm over-expression of LDHB and hnRNPF in two primary human MCC cell lines, 16 fresh tumors, and in the majority of 80 tissue microarray samples. Moreover, mTOR inhibition suppresses LDHB and hnRNPF expression in MCC cells. The results of the current study provide insight into MCC carcinogenesis and provide rationale for mTOR inhibition in pre-clinical studies. PMID:25284964

  9. A Proteomic Study of Human Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qiang; Byrum, Stephanie D; Moreland, Linley E; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Kannan, Aarthi; Lin, Zhenyu; Morgan, Michael; Stack, Brendan C; Cornelius, Lynn A; Tackett, Alan J; Gao, Ling

    2013-11-25

    Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine cancer of the skin. The incidence has been quadrupled with a 5-year mortality rate of 46%, presently there is no cure for metastatic disease. Despite the contribution of Merkel cell polyomavirus, the molecular events of MCC carcinogenesis are poorly defined. To better understand MCC carcinogensis, we have performed the first quantitative proteomic comparison of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) MCC tissues using another neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid tumor of the lung) as controls. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic data has revealed that MCCs carry distinct protein expression patterns. Further analysis of significantly over-expressed proteins suggested the involvement of MAPK, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, wnt, and apoptosis signaling pathways. Our previous study and that from others have shown mTOR activation in MCCs. Therefore, we have focused on two downstream molecules of the mTOR pathway, lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) and heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNPF). We confirm over-expression of LDHB and hnRNPF in two primary human MCC cell lines, 16 fresh tumors, and in the majority of 80 tissue microarray samples. Moreover, mTOR inhibition suppresses LDHB and hnRNPF expression in MCC cells. The results of the current study provide insight into MCC carcinogenesis and provide rationale for mTOR inhibition in pre-clinical studies. PMID:25284964

  10. Chinese medicinal herbs inhibit growth of murine renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lau, B H; Ruckle, H C; Botolazzo, T; Lui, P D

    1994-01-01

    Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing immune functions. We previously showed that a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) suppressed macrophage function in vitro and that this suppression was abolished by co-incubation with extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs. We now report that these phytochemicals are capable of inhibiting growth of Renca in vivo. BALB/c mice were transplanted intraperitoneally (IP) with 1-2 x 10(5) Renca cells. One day after tumor transplant, mice were randomized into two groups. One group was treated IP, daily for 10 days, with 100 microliters of phytochemicals containing 500 micrograms each of Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, while the other group received saline as controls. A cure rate of 57% was obtained with these phytochemicals when the initial tumor load was 2 x 10(5), and 100% when the initial tumor load was 1 x 10(5). Additional experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in this protection. Splenic macrophages from tumor-bearing mice were shown to have depressed chemiluminescent oxidative burst activity, and this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Splenocytes from mice transplanted with Renca responded less favorably to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in generating lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells; again this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Our data suggest that these phytochemicals may have exerted their antitumor effects via augmentation of phagocyte and LAK cell activities. PMID:7812364

  11. Tie2 Regulates Tumor Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Daisuke; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Miyamoto, Isao; Kimura, Yasushi; Saito, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal growth factor homology domains-2 (Tie2) is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and is ubiquitous in normal tissues; however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In the current study, we investigated the expression status of Tie2 in OSCCs by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and the functional mechanisms of Tie2 using its overexpressed OSCC (oeTie2) cells and Tie2 blocking by its antibody. We found that Tie2 expression was down-regulated significantly (p < 0.05) in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oeTie2 cells showed higher cellular adhesion (p < 0.05) and lower cellular invasion (p < 0.05) compared with control cells; whereas there was similar cellular proliferation in both transfectants. Furthermore, cellular adhesion was inhibited and invasion was activated by Tie2 function-blocking antibody (p < 0.05), indicating that Tie2 directly regulates cellular adhesion and invasion. As expected, among the clinical variables analyzed, Tie2-positivity in patients with OSCC was correlated closely with negative lymph node metastasis. These results suggested for the first time that Tie2 plays an important role in tumor metastasis and may be a potential biomarker for OSCC metastasis. PMID:27053959

  12. Prognostic significance of phosphorylated RON in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hui, Marco K C; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kwok Wah; Luk, John M; Lee, Nikki P; Chung, Yvonne; Cheung, Leo C; Srivastava, Gopesh; Tsao, Sai Wah; Tang, Johnny C; Law, Simon

    2012-09-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of esophageal cancer. RON is a transmembrane receptor overexpressed in various cancers; however, the clinical significance of its phosphorylated form (pRON) is not fully deciphered. This report is the first to investigate the expression and clinical significance of pRON in human ESCC. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed an up-regulation of RON mRNA in 70% (7/10) of ESCC tissues when compared to the adjacent nontumor tissues. An overexpression of pRON protein was found in most of the ESCC cell lines studied (4/5) when compared to two non-neoplastic esophageal epithelial cells using immunoblot. In 64 ESCC tissues, pRON was localized at the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus in 15 (23.4%), 63 (98.4%) and 61 (95.3%) cases using immunohistochemistry. Patients having high expression of cytoplasmic pRON significantly associated with shorter median survival when compared to those with low expression (25.41 months vs. 14.43 months), suggesting cytoplasmic pRON as a potential marker for poor prognosis in ESCC patients. PMID:22086736

  13. Extracellular Vesicles from Ovarian Carcinoma Cells Display Specific Glycosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Joana; Gomes-Alves, Patrícia; Carvalho, Sofia B.; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M.; Altevogt, Peter; Costa, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Cells release vesicles to the extracellular environment with characteristic nucleic acid, protein, lipid, and glycan composition. Here we have isolated and characterized extracellular vesicles (EVs) and total cell membranes (MBs) from ovarian carcinoma OVMz cells. EVs were enriched in specific markers, including Tsg101, CD63, CD9, annexin-I, and MBs contained markers of cellular membrane compartments, including calnexin, GRASP65, GS28, LAMP-1, and L1CAM. The glycoprotein galectin-3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) was strongly enriched in EVs and it contained sialylated complex N-glycans. Lectin blotting with a panel of lectins showed that EVs had specific glycosignatures relative to MBs. Furthermore, the presence of glycoproteins bearing complex N-glycans with α2,3-linked sialic acid, fucose, bisecting-GlcNAc and LacdiNAc structures, and O-glycans with the T-antigen were detected. The inhibition of N-glycosylation processing from high mannose to complex glycans using kifunensine caused changes in the composition of EVs and induced a decrease of several glycoproteins. In conclusion, the results showed that glycosignatures of EVs were specific and altered glycosylation within the cell affected the composition and/or dynamics of EVs release. Furthermore, the identified glycosignatures of EVs could provide novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer. PMID:26248080

  14. Differential DNA sequence deletions from chromosomes 3, 11, 13, and 17 in squamous-cell carcinoma, large-cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the human lung

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.; Willey, J.C.; Modali, R.; Sugimura, H.; McDowell, E.M.; Resau, J.; Light, B.; Haugen, A.; Mann, D.L.; Trump, B.F.; Harris, C.C. )

    1989-07-01

    Activation of protooncogens and inactivation of putative tumor suppressor genes are genetic lesions considered to be important in lung carcinogenesis. Fifty-four cases of non-small-cell lung cancer (23 adenocarcinomas, 23 squamous-cell carcinomas, and 8 large-cell carcinomas) were examined for loss of DNA sequences at 13 polymorphic genetic loci. Loss of heterozygosity was seen more frequently in squamous-cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma. The loss of DNA sequences from the short arm of chromosome 17 (D17S1 locus) was detected in 8 of 9 heterozygous cases of squamous-cell carcinoma and in only 2 of 11 heterozygous cases of adenocarcinomas. Loss of DNA sequences from chromosome 3 was seen in 16 of 31 cases where the constitutive DNA was heterozygous-i.e., informative. Loss of heterozygosity at the chromosome 13q locus, D13S3, was seen in 9 of 21 informative cases, and in 2 cases, both adenocarcinomas, duplication of the intact DNA sequences suggested the possibility that mitotic recombination had occurred. Frequent DNA sequence deletions, including those from chromosome 17, in squamous-cell carcinomas may reflect the extensive mutagenic and clastogenic effects of tobacco smoke that may lead to inactivation of putative tumor-suppressor genes.

  15. High grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder treated by radical cystectomy: a series of small cell, mixed neuroendocrine and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sounak; Thompson, R Houston; Boorjian, Stephen A; Thapa, Prabin; Hernandez, Loren P Herrera; Jimenez, Rafael E; Costello, Brian A; Frank, Igor; Cheville, John C

    2015-10-01

    High grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (HGNEC) treated by cystectomy often carry an original diagnosis of typical urothelial carcinoma (UC). The correct diagnosis of HGNEC is critical in influencing the decision for early chemotherapy, potentially followed by cystectomy. The objective of this study was to characterise the features of HGNEC treated by radical cystectomy. The study consisted of 79 patients with HGNEC including small cell (68 patients), large cell neuroendocrine (LCNEC) (5 patients) and mixed neuroendocrine (mixed-NEC) carcinoma (6 patients) matched with 122 patients with UC, treated at our institution between 1987 and 2014. Morphometric analysis for cell and nuclear size as well as immunophenotyping for neuroendocrine markers and cell-cycle regulators were applied to tissue microarrays. Small cell, LCNEC and mixed-NEC are a morphological spectrum of high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with overlapping histological features, identical immunophenotype, Ki-67 proliferative rate and patient outcomes. Finally, the nuclear size criteria is misleading as HGNEC, particularly cases of LCNEC and mixed-NEC, may have enlarged nuclei compared to small cell carcinomas and are more prone to be misdiagnosed as UC, thereby preventing appropriate management. PMID:26308137

  16. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen-Xiu; Cao, Wen-Rong; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xue-Li; Yuan, Qian; Dang, Shou-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a newly described variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) which is composed mainly of cells with clear cytoplasm arranged in cystic and papillary patterns. We report the clinicopathologic features, prognosis and differential diagnosis of 6 Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinomas. The clinical information and follow-up data were analyzed. The patients were six males with median age of 52.5 years. Case 1 revealed dense calcification and ossification. Cases 2 and 3 contain a variably prominent smooth muscle stromal component. CA-IX, CK7, PAX-8 and VIM were positive in all cases. TFE3 and AMACR were not expressed in any tumor. CD10 was negative in 5 of 6 cases .The patients were followed for 13~55 months with no local tumor recurrences and tumor metastasis. The CCPRCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. These were low-grade and low-stage renal tumors. No lymph node or distant metastasis of the six tumors. PMID:26191150

  17. The establishment of KORCC (KOrean Renal Cell Carcinoma) database

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sangchul; Kook, Ha Rim; Lee, Eunsik; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Kwak, Cheol; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Jeong, Chang Wook; Lee, Ji Youl; Hong, Sung Hoo; Kim, Yong-June; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Seok Ho; Kim, Sung Han; Chung, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to report establishment of the 1st Web-based database (DB) system to collect renal cell carcinoma (RCC) data in Korea. Materials and Methods The new Web-based DB system was established to collect basic demographic and clinicopahtological characteristics of a large cohort of patients with RCC in Korea. Data from a total of 6,849 patients were collected from 8 tertiary care hospitals that agreed to participate in organizing the Korean Renal Cell Carcinoma (KORCC) study group as of 1 July 2015. Basic demographic and clinicopathological characteristics were collected. The data of patients who underwent surgical treatments were analyzed to characterize Korean RCC. Results We established the 1st Web-based DB of Korean RCC, a database comprising renal mass management cases from multiple centers in Korea. The data of 5,281 patients who underwent surgical management (mean follow-up, 32 months) were analyzed. The most common symptom was incidentally detected renal mass (76.9%). Clinical T1a was the most common (54.3%) stage and mean tumor size was 4.8±4.2 cm. Radical nephrectomy accounted for 62.7% of cases and an open approach was used in 50.7% and 52.2% of radical and partial nephrectomies, respectively. The 5-year overall, cancer-specific and recurrence-free survival rates were 88.1%, 92.2%, and 88.0%, respectively. Conclusions We report the 1st establishment of a Web-based DB system to collect RCC data in Korea. This DB system will provide a solid basis for the characterization of Korean RCC. PMID:26966726

  18. CT and US Findings of Multilocular Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kie Hwan; Lee, Jun Woo

    2000-01-01

    Objective Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC) is a recently described variety of renal cell carcinoma with characteristic pathologic and clinical features. The purpose of this study was to analyze the imaging findings of MCRCCs. Materials and Methods Ten adult patients with pathologically proven unilateral MCRCC who underwent renal US and CT were included in this study. The radiologic findings were retrospectively evaluated for cystic content, wall, septum, nodularity, calcification and solid portion by three radiologists who established a consensus. Imaging and postnephrectomy pathologic findings were compared. Results All patients were adults (six males and four females) and their ages ranged from 33 to 68 years (mean, 46). On US and CT images, all tumors appeared as well-defined multilocular cystic masses composed of serous or complicated fluid. In all patients, unenhanced CT scans revealed hypodense cystic portions, and in four tumors, due to the presence of hemorrhage or gelatinous fluid, some hyperdense areas were also noted. In no tumor was an expansile solid nodule seen in the thin septa, and in only one was there dystrophic calcification in a septum. Small areas of solid portion constituting less than 10% of the entire lesion were found in six of the ten tumors, and these areas were slightly enhanced on enhanced CT scans. In all patients, imaging and pathologic findings correlated closely. Conclusion On US and CT images, MCRCC appeared as a well-defined multilocular cystic mass with serous, proteinaceous or hemorrhagic fluid, with no expansile solid nodules in the thin septa, and sometimes with small slightly enhanced solid areas. Where radiologic examinations demonstrate a cystic renal mass of this kind in adult males, MCRCC should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:11752938

  19. Targeted Delivery of Peptide-Tagged DNA Lipoplexes to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ariatti, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The application of homing peptides to direct DNA and RNA lipoplexes to target cells is a rapidly evolving area of study, which may find application in corrective gene therapy for the treatment of neoplasms and other disorders of a genetic origin. Here, a step-wise account of the assembly and characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma cell-specific DNA lipoplexes and their cytotoxicity assessment in and delivery to the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 is given. PMID:27436315

  20. An overview on "cellular cannibalism" with special reference to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular cannibalism has been defined as a large cell engulfing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. It has been described in various cancers like bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cellular cannibalism has been well correlated with anaplasia, tumor aggressiveness, grading and metastatic potential. Present review focuses on significance of cannibalism in relation to cancer with special emphasis on oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26710834

  1. Successful imiquimod treatment of multiple basal cell carcinomas after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, Mirjam; Urosevic, Mirjana; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Dummer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of a 55-year-old male patient who developed five basal cell carcinomas 23 years after radiation therapy of Hodgkin's disease. In 1980 he received radiation therapy twice. Due to relapses, he was treated with aggressive polychemotherapy and underwent autologous stem cell transplantation, which then led to complete remission. Until now he is in complete remission. However, multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas have developed on irradiation fields that have been successfully treated by imiquimod. PMID:15701596

  2. Renal cell carcinoma in South Korea: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haeryoung; Cho, Nam Hoon; Kim, Dong-Sug; Kwon, Young-Mi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Rha, Seo Hee; Park, Yong Wook; Shim, Jung Weon; Lee, Sang Sook; Lee, Shi Nae; Lee, Juhie; Lee, Jin Sook; Lee, Tae-Jin; Jung, Soo Jin; Jung, Soon-Hee; Chung, Jin Haeng; Cho, Hyun Yee; Joo, Hee Jae; Choi, Yeong-Jin; Choi, Chan; Han, Woon Sup; Hur, Bang; Ro, Jae Y

    2004-12-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in South Korea is steadily becoming similar to that in Western countries. This study summarizes the results of a 3-year multicenter survey of RCC in South Korea, conducted by the Korean Genitourinary Pathology Study Group. A total of 795 cases of RCC were collected from 20 institutes between 1995 and 1997, including 686 clear cell RCCs (86.3%), 58 papillary RCCS (7.30%), 49 chromphobe RCCs (6.16%), and 2 collecting duct RCCs (0.25%). At least 5 years of follow-up was available for 627 clear cell, 54 papillary, and 49 chromophobe RCCs. All subtypes presented most frequently with stage T3aN0M0 at the time of operation, and papillary RCCs demonstrated more frequent lymph node metastasis. Overall survival was not significantly related to the histological subtype (clear cell vs papillary, P = 0.8651; clear cell vs chromophobe, P = 0.0584; papillary vs chromophobe, P = 0.0743). For clear cell RCCs, statistically significant associations were found between overall survival and sex (P = 0.0153), multiplicity (P = 0.0461), necrosis (P = 0.0191), age, sarcomatoid change, TNM stage, nuclear grade, and modality of treatment (all P <0.0001). Overall survival was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.0307), nuclear grade (P = 0.0235), multiplicity, sarcomatoid change, and TNM stage (all P <0.0001) for papillary RCCs and with the presence of sarcomatoid change (P = 0.0281), nuclear grade (P = 0.0015), treatment modality (P = 0.0328), and TNM stage (P <0.0001) for chromophobe RCCs. Age (P = 0.0125), nodal stage (P = 0.0010), and treatment modality (P = 0.0001) were significant independent prognostic indicators for clear cell RCC on multivariate analysis. This is the first multicenter study of RCC in South Korea, demonstrating the general patterns and prognostic factors of Korean RCCs. PMID:15619217

  3. Embolization for Treatment of Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Secondary to Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kobak, Jeff; Gandras, Eric J. Fleury, Linwald; Macura, Jerzy; Shams, Joseph

    2006-12-15

    Massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to metastatic renal cell carcinoma involving the jejunum is rare but has been previously described in the medical literature. Treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma are limited, but transcatheter arterial embolization can be performed to control gastrointestinal hemorrhage either alone or prior to surgical resection. We describe a case of successful transcatheter arterial embolization for control of massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma invading the jejunum and review the literature. Arteriography provided both the diagnosis of recurrent disease and the means of therapy.

  4. The First Case of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis With Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Tsubasa; Goto, Yuko; Kitazono, Ikumi; Tasaki, Takashi; Higashi, Michiyo; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Tanimoto, Akihide

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins. It is usually autoimmune and secondary to hematologic malignancy or infection. To date, only 5 case reports of PAP associated with lung cancers, including 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 3 cases of adenocarcinoma, have been published. To the best of our knowledge, no case of PAP with small cell lung carcinoma has been reported thus far. We herein report the first case of PAP associated with small cell lung carcinoma. PMID:26519525

  5. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichi; Kataoka, Masao; Hata, Junya; Akaihata, Hidenori; Ogawa, Soichiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, because microarray cluster analysis using a resected sample demonstrated that the present case belonged to the cluster group of RCC. PMID:26793589

  6. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Kataoka, Masao; Hata, Junya; Akaihata, Hidenori; Ogawa, Soichiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, because microarray cluster analysis using a resected sample demonstrated that the present case belonged to the cluster group of RCC. PMID:26793589

  7. Sarcomatoid (spindle cell) carcinoma of tongue: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Montserrat; Pennacchiotti, Gina; Valdes, Fabio; Montes, Rodrigo; Veloso, Marcelo; Matamala, Maria Angélica; Zanolli, Luis; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomatoid Carcinoma (SC) is an unusual and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma, which frequently recurs and metastasizes; for this reason, the right diagnosis is very important. It is considered to be a biphasic tumor made up of cells from squamous and spindle cells carcinoma with a sarcomatous aspect, but of epithelial origin. The diagnosis often represents a clinical-pathological challenge where the study with immunohistochemical technique (IHC) is key to the histopathological diagnosis. The reported cases related to oral mucosa are limited. In this work we present two SC cases where the use of IHC allowed us to achieve a conclusive diagnosis. PMID:25785207

  8. A case of simultaneous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomoo; Iwaya, Yugo; Iwaya, Mai; Watanabe, Takayuki; Seki, Ayako; Ochi, Yasuhide; Hara, Etsuo; Sekiguchi, Tomohiro; Hosaka, Noriko; Arakura, Norikazu; Tanaka, Eiji; Hasebe, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    A 77-year-old male with a long history of alcohol consumption and smoking was admitted for hoarseness and dysphagia. Computed tomography revealed thickening of the middle intrathoracic esophageal wall and multiple mediastinal lymph node swellings. Esophagogastroduodenoscopic examination disclosed an advanced-stage squamous cell carcinoma lesion in the middle intrathoracic esophagus with synchronous early stage Barrett's adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for the adenocarcinoma followed by chemoradiation therapy for the squamous cell carcinoma. In spite of their common risk factors, the simultaneous manifestation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and requires further study. PMID:27220657

  9. A Rare Intrascrotal Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Adawi, Essa

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma is potentially a lethal disease with in some cases aggressive behavior. The given fact that the patterns of metastases from RCC are not clearly identified, which may involve some rare metastatic locations. We present a case of 58 years old male presented with painless left scrotal mass, which was discovered to be an intrascrotal metastases appeared 3 years after nephrectomy for ipsilateral renal cell carcinoma. We believe that the rarity of the metastatic site and the intriguing possible mechanism of spread make an interesting case for clinicians and could add more follow-up measures for patients treated from renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26793583

  10. Distribution of Lgr5-positive cancer cells in intramucosal gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Takeshi; Maruyama, Yasuhiro; Iwaya, Mai; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a putative intestinal stem cell marker that is also expressed in various tumors. To analyze its pathological characteristics in mucosal gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC), we investigated Lgr5 expression in 35 intramucosal gastric SRCC patients using RNAscope, a newly developed RNA in situ hybridization technique. Lgr5 expression in individual tumor cells was scored semi-quantitatively from 0 to 400. Ki67 was also examined by immunohistochemistry, with a linear arrangement of Ki67-expressing cells present in 20 of 35 cases. This area of Ki67-expressing cells was topographically divided into upper, middle, and lower regions. All cases with linear Ki67 expression patterns also had Lgr5-positive cells arranged in a linear fashion in the lower area-which was distinct from the area of high Ki67 expression. The rate of Ki67 positivity in Lgr5-positive cells was significantly lower than that of Lgr5-negative cells in areas of high Ki67 expression. In intramucosal SRCC, the low mitotic activity of Lgr5-positive cells suggests that they may represent cancer stem cells as seen in other types of stomach carcinomas. Intramucosal SRCC may therefore contain stem cells expressing Lgr5 in the lower area of the lamina propria, akin to normal gastric pyloric mucosa. PMID:27593551

  11. Primary Malignant Mixed Germ Cell Tumour with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mandible; A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arun; Parmar, Harshad; Chacko, Rabin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell Tumours (GCT) are neoplasm derived from germ cells. GCT usually occurs inside the gonads. Extragonadal GCT’s are rare. Most common GCT associated with head and neck region are the teratomas. Of the few teratomas found in the head and neck, malignant transformation of a teratomatous element is very uncommon, and primary bone involvement within the head and neck is even rare. We present a case of primary malignant mixed germ cell Tumour involving the mandible, the present case presented malignant transformation of the epithelial component showing foci of squamous cell carcinoma within the GCT. PMID:26266228

  12. Synchronous Occurrence of Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jae Ho; Lim, Youngkyoung; Lee, You Jin

    2016-01-01

    CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) represent a spectrum of T-cell lymphoma including lymphomatoid papulosis and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Epidermis overlying cutaneous CD30+ LPD often shows epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, crusting, and ulceration and it is difficult to distinguish from carcinoma such as keratoacanthoma (KA) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Several cases of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia mimicking KA or SCC in CD30+ LPD have been reported. The relationship between CD30+ LPD and epithelial proliferations has not yet well understood. It was reported that a variety of mediators, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α and EGFR from CD30+ LPD could attribute to epidermal hyperplasia. However, separate and distinct SCC occurring in CD30+ LPD has rarely been reported. Herein, we present a rare case of coexistence of SCC and cutaneous ALCL located on the same region. PMID:27489433

  13. Arginine starvation in colorectal carcinoma cells: Sensing, impact on translation control and cell cycle distribution.

    PubMed

    Vynnytska-Myronovska, Bozhena O; Kurlishchuk, Yuliya; Chen, Oleh; Bobak, Yaroslav; Dittfeld, Claudia; Hüther, Melanie; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A; Stasyk, Oleh V

    2016-02-01

    Tumor cells rely on a continued exogenous nutrient supply in order to maintain a high proliferative activity. Although a strong dependence of some tumor types on exogenous arginine sources has been reported, the mechanisms of arginine sensing by tumor cells and the impact of changes in arginine availability on translation and cell cycle regulation are not fully understood. The results presented herein state that human colorectal carcinoma cells rapidly exhaust the internal arginine sources in the absence of exogenous arginine and repress global translation by activation of the GCN2-mediated pathway and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Tumor suppressor protein p53 activation and G1/G0 cell cycle arrest support cell survival upon prolonged arginine starvation. Cells with the mutant or deleted TP53 fail to stop cell cycle progression at defined cell cycle checkpoints which appears to be associated with reduced recovery after durable metabolic stress triggered by arginine withdrawal. PMID:26751966

  14. Overexpression of engulfment and cell motility 1 promotes cell invasion and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiarui; Liu, Guoqing; Miao, Xiongying; Hua, Songwen; Zhong, Dewu

    2011-05-01

    Engulfment and cell motility 1 (Elmo1) has been linked to the invasive phenotype of glioma cells. The use of Elmo1 inhibitors is currently being evaluated in hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC), but the molecular mechanisms of their therapeutic effect have yet to be determined. Elmo1 expression in HCC tissue samples from 131 cases and in 5 HCC cell lines was determined by immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. To functionally characterize Elmo1 in HCC, Elmo1 expression in the HCCLM3 cell line was blocked by siRNA. Cell migration was measured by wound healing and transwell migration assays in vitro. Elmo1 overexpression was significantly correlated with cell invasion and the poor prognosis of HCC. Elmo1-siRNA-treated HCCLM3 cells demonstrated a reduction in cell migration. The present study demonstrated for the first time that the suppression of Elmo1 expression inhibits cell invasion in HCC. PMID:22977532

  15. A case of small cell carcinoma in the buccal region.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, K; Nozoe, E; Hirayama, Y; Miyawaki, A; Semba, I; Nakamura, N

    2009-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) in the head and neck region is an extremely rare high-grade malignant tumor. The authors report a case of an SCC occurring in the left buccal region. An 85-year-old man exhibited left cheek swelling that rapidly increased in size. Histopathological examination revealed invasive growth of an SCC into the musculo-adipose tissue. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CD56, but negative for cytokeratin 20. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which resulted in marked regression of the tumor. Surgical resection was performed. The serum levels of NSE and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (pro-GRP) increased and multiple metastases of the tumor occurred 1 month after surgery. SCCs tend to exhibit aggressive invasion and metastasis so chemotherapy for the whole body is recommended to prevent dissemination of the tumor cells. Serum levels of NSE and pro-GRP are considered to be useful tumor markers for understanding the status of the tumor and the clinical symptoms. PMID:19464148

  16. Improved detection suggests all Merkel cell carcinomas harbor Merkel polyomavirus.

    PubMed

    Rodig, Scott J; Cheng, Jingwei; Wardzala, Jacek; DoRosario, Andrew; Scanlon, Jessica J; Laga, Alvaro C; Martinez-Fernandez, Alejandro; Barletta, Justine A; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Sadasivam, Subhashini; Holloway, Dustin T; Cooper, Dylan J; Kupper, Thomas S; Wang, Linda C; DeCaprio, James A

    2012-12-01

    A human polyomavirus was recently discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) specimens. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) genome undergoes clonal integration into the host cell chromosomes of MCC tumors and expresses small T antigen and truncated large T antigen. Previous studies have consistently reported that MCPyV can be detected in approximately 80% of all MCC tumors. We sought to increase the sensitivity of detection of MCPyV in MCC by developing antibodies capable of detecting large T antigen by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we expanded the repertoire of quantitative PCR primers specific for MCPyV to improve the detection of viral DNA in MCC. Here we report that a novel monoclonal antibody detected MCPyV large T antigen expression in 56 of 58 (97%) unique MCC tumors. PCR analysis specifically detected viral DNA in all 60 unique MCC tumors tested. We also detected inactivating point substitution mutations of TP53 in the two MCC specimens that lacked large T antigen expression and in only 1 of 56 tumors positive for large T antigen. These results indicate that MCPyV is present in MCC tumors more frequently than previously reported and that mutations in TP53 tend to occur in MCC tumors that fail to express MCPyV large T antigen. PMID:23114601

  17. Improved detection suggests all Merkel cell carcinomas harbor Merkel polyomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Rodig, Scott J.; Cheng, Jingwei; Wardzala, Jacek; DoRosario, Andrew; Scanlon, Jessica J.; Laga, Alvaro C.; Martinez-Fernandez, Alejandro; Barletta, Justine A.; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; Sadasivam, Subhashini; Holloway, Dustin T.; Cooper, Dylan J.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Wang, Linda C.; DeCaprio, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A human polyomavirus was recently discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) specimens. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) genome undergoes clonal integration into the host cell chromosomes of MCC tumors and expresses small T antigen and truncated large T antigen. Previous studies have consistently reported that MCPyV can be detected in approximately 80% of all MCC tumors. We sought to increase the sensitivity of detection of MCPyV in MCC by developing antibodies capable of detecting large T antigen by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we expanded the repertoire of quantitative PCR primers specific for MCPyV to improve the detection of viral DNA in MCC. Here we report that a novel monoclonal antibody detected MCPyV large T antigen expression in 56 of 58 (97%) unique MCC tumors. PCR analysis specifically detected viral DNA in all 60 unique MCC tumors tested. We also detected inactivating point substitution mutations of TP53 in the two MCC specimens that lacked large T antigen expression and in only 1 of 56 tumors positive for large T antigen. These results indicate that MCPyV is present in MCC tumors more frequently than previously reported and that mutations in TP53 tend to occur in MCC tumors that fail to express MCPyV large T antigen. PMID:23114601

  18. Targeting ALDHbright human carcinoma initiating cells with ALDH1A1- specific CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Visus, Carmen; Wang, Yangyang; Lozano-Leon, Antonio; Ferris, Robert L.; Silver, Susan; Szczepanski, Miroslaw J.; Brand, Randall E.; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Ferrone, Soldano; DeLeo, Albert B.; Wang, Xinhui

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Tumor cells expressing elevated aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity attributed to ALDH1/3 isoforms have been identified as ALDHbright cells and have the properties attributed to cancer initiating cells (CIC). CIC represent the subpopulation of tumor cells that are resistant to conventional cancer treatments and highly tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. They are considered to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. The ALDH1A1 isoform was previously identified as a tumor antigen recognized by CD8+ T cells. This study examines the ability of ALDH1A1-specific CD8+ T cells to eliminate ALDHbright cells and control tumor growth and metastases. Experimental Design ALDHbright cells were isolated by flow cytometry from HLA-A2+ human head and neck, breast and pancreas carcinoma cell lines using ALDEFLUOR® and tested for their tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice. ALDH1A1-specific CD8+ T cells were generated in vitro and tested for their ability to eliminate CIC in vitro and in vivo by adoptive transfer to immunodeficient mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Results ALDHbright cells isolated by flow cytometry from HLA-A2+ breast, head and neck and pancreas carcinoma cell lines at low numbers (500 cells) were tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. ALDHbright cells present in these cell lines, xenografts or surgically removed lesions were recognized by ALDH1A1-specific CD8+ T cells in vitro. Adoptive therapy with ALDH1A1-specific CD8+ T cells eliminated ALDHbright cells, inhibited tumor growth, metastases or prolonged survival of xenograft-bearing immunodeficient mice. Conclusions The results of this translational study strongly support the potential of ALDH1A1-based immunotherapy to selectively target CIC in human cancer. PMID:21856769

  19. The Trojan Horse Tale Revisited: An Eye on Metastatic Spread of Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Grajewski, Rafael S; Bosch, Jacobus J; Bruns, Heiko; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2016-02-01

    The metastatic spread of carcinoma cells is not fully understood. Here, we compare the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and intraocular metastatic cells in parotid gland carcinoma with the PBMCs of healthy donors by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We found Ber-EP4 tumor marker-positive carcinoma cells in the aqueous humor of the patient's right eye and a CD45 and Ber-EP4-expressing PBMC population in his blood. These Ber-EP4-expressing cells exhibited a monocytic-myeloid phenotype with coexpression of CD11b, CD115, and the macrophage marker CD172a (SIRP-α). Uptake of pHrodogreen revealed their phagocytic activity. Our findings suggest that the tumor cells in the anterior chamber originally derived from cell fusions between tumor cells and myeloid cells in the peripheral blood. Thus, metastases of a solid malignancy could use monocytes-macrophages as the Trojan horse to enter the eye. PMID:26608963

  20. Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts Lead the Invasion of Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells by Creating an Invasive Track

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Jia, Zhuqiang; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Fuyin; Fang, Shimeng; Li, Xiaojie; Li, Wuwei; Yang, Xuesong; Luo, Yong; Lin, Bingcheng; Liu, Tingjiao

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are critical in determining tumor invasion and metastasis. However the role of CAFs in the invasion of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is poorly understood. In this study, we isolated primary CAFs from two ACC patients. ACC-derived CAFs expressed typical CAF biomarkers and showed increased migration and invasion activity. Conditioned medium collected from CAFs significantly promoted ACC cell migration and invasion. Co-culture of CAFs with ACC cells in a microfluidic device further revealed that CAFs localized at the invasion front and ACC cells followed the track behind the CAFs. Interfering of both matrix metalloproteinase and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway inhibited ACC invasion promoted by CAFs. Overall, our study demonstrates that ACC-derived CAFs exhibit the most important defining feature of CAFs by promoting cancer invasion. In addition to secretion of soluble factors, CAFs also lead ACC invasion by creating an invasive track in the ECM. PMID:26954362