These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Lenguaje Java Avanzado  

E-print Network

Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Lenguaje Java Avanzado Sesión 2: Colecciones de datos © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA #12;Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Lenguaje Java Avanzado Java Enterprise Lenguaje Java Avanzado © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA Colecciones

Escolano, Francisco

2

Lenguaje Java Avanzado 1 Presentacin..................................................................................................................2  

E-print Network

Lenguaje Java Avanzado Índice 1 Presentación herramientas útiles para probar y depurar aplicaciones Java y Java EE. Por último, se estudiará el acceso de sesión Materiales 1. Introducción al lenguaje Java apuntes traspas ejercicios 2. Marco de

Escolano, Francisco

3

Lenguaje Java Avanzado 1 Introduccin al lenguaje Java.......................................................................................4  

E-print Network

Lenguaje Java Avanzado Índice 1 Introducción al lenguaje Java.......................................................................................4 1.1 Java......................................................................................5 1.3 Componentes de un programa Java

Escolano, Francisco

4

Asignatura: Laboratorio de materiales avanzados Centro: Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

1 de 1 Asignatura: Laboratorio de materiales avanzados Código: Centro: Facultad de Ciencias #12;2 de 2 Asignatura: Laboratorio de materiales avanzados Código: Centro: Facultad de Ciencias/Coordinator) Departamento de / Department of: Física Aplicada Facultad / Faculty: Ciencias Despacho - Módulo C-12

Elizalde, Eduardo

5

CURSO AVANZADO DE ALGEBRA: TEORIA DE MODELOS TEMA 0. ORDINALES Y CARDINALES.  

E-print Network

CURSO AVANZADO DE ´ALGEBRA: TEOR´IA DE MODELOS TEMA 0. ORDINALES Y CARDINALES. TEMA I. ESTRUCTURAS. LENGUAJES Y TEOR´IAS. I.1 Estructuras. Lenguaje. S´imbolos del lenguaje: constantes, s. de funciones y s. de. Cor. F ultrafiltro principal con {j0} F. Entonces h: iI Ai/F = Aj0 . I.3 Teor´ias. Teor´ias, teor´ia

Otero Domínguez, Margarita

6

Planificacin de la transicin a la atencin en la etapa final de la vida para los pacientes de cncer en estadio avanzado (PDQ)  

Cancer.gov

Resumen de informacin revisada por expertos sobre la preparacin necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atencin de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transicin a la etapa final de la vida en los casos de cncer en estadio avanzado.

7

Planificacin de la transicin a la atencin en la etapa final de la vida para los pacientes con cncer en estadio avanzado (PDQ)  

Cancer.gov

Resumen de informacin revisada por expertos sobre la preparacin necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atencin de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transicin a la etapa final de la vida en los casos de cncer en estadio avanzado.

8

Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments Q - T Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma : This man's skin has ... SCC is highly curable. Learn more about squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Squamous ...

9

Basal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments A - D Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer often ... skin tissue and bone. Learn more about basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Basal ...

10

Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

In the U.S., an estimated 300 people are diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma each year.1 If detected at an early stage, this type of cancer can often be successfully treated. However, almost 70 percent of people are diagnosed with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.2 For patients at the latest stage of this cancer, less than 20 percent survive five years after diagnosis.

11

Ovarian Serous Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

What is ovarian serous carcinoma? Serous carcinoma is a type of epithelial ovarian cancer, which is the most common kind of ... 95 percent. Who is most likely to have ovarian serous carcinoma? Women with a personal or family ...

12

Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Last Updated: May 14, 2013 What is liver cancer?Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer in the United States, making up more than

13

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a tumor arising from the epithelial cells that cover the surface and line the nasopharynx. The annual incidence of NPC in the UK is 0.3 per million at age 014 years, and 1 to 2 per million at age 1519 years. Incidence is higher in the Chinese and Tunisian populations. Although rare, NPC accounts for about

Bernadette Brennan

2006-01-01

14

Medullary carcinoma of thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2013:chap 71. National Cancer Institute: PDQ Thyroid Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute. Date ...

15

Hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death. Patients with cirrhosis are at highest risk of developing this malignant disease, and ultrasonography every 6 months is recommended. Surveillance with ultrasonography allows diagnosis at early stages when the tumour might be curable by resection, liver transplantation, or ablation, and 5-year survival higher than 50% can be achieved. Patients with small solitary tumours and very well preserved liver function are the best candidates for surgical resection. Liver transplantation is most beneficial for individuals who are not good candidates for resection, especially those within Milano criteria (solitary tumour ?5 cm and up to three nodules ?3 cm). Donor shortage greatly limits its applicability. Percutaneous ablation is the most frequently used treatment but its effectiveness is limited by tumour size and localisation. In asymptomatic patients with multifocal disease without vascular invasion or extrahepatic spread not amenable to curative treatments, chemoembolisation can provide survival benefit. Findings of randomised trials of sorafenib have shown survival benefits for individuals with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that molecular-targeted therapies could be effective in this chemoresistant cancer. Research is active in the area of pathogenesis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22353262

Forner, Alejandro; Llovet, Josep M; Bruix, Jordi

2012-03-31

16

Hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous tumor with many factors implicated in its development, with chronic infection and cirrhosis by hepatitis B virus (HBV) being the most prevalent. Cirrhosis due to metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption, viral infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is also involved in its development. Treatment of HCC remains unsatisfactory. Therapeutic management for HCC includes liver transplantation, liver resection, ablation, chemoembolization, which depend on the tumor stage, liver function, and patient performance status. The involvement of different signaling pathways in the initiation and modulation of HCC development based on clinical and research data provided a strong rationale for the development of anti-cancer agents targeting key components of the pathways. The complexity of the tumor prevents the major goal of this therapeutic approach, since sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, is the only successful drug so far that belongs to the target directed therapy in advanced stage HCC. PMID:25182146

Daoudaki, Maria; Fouzas, Ioannis

2014-11-01

17

Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Last Updated: April 01, 2013 What is urothelial bladder cancer? Urothelial bladder cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer. The bladder is a hollow

18

[Parathyroid carcinoma].  

PubMed

Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare condition, comprising less than 1% of the cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). Nonetheless, due to its aggressiveness, and having prognosis dependent on the precocity of diagnosis and radical therapeutic approach, it is paramount that the clinical suspicion be made before surgery. Clinical presentation is typical of severe PHP, with a parathyroid tumor >1.5 cm, usually palpable. The pathologic features sometimes are difficult to characterize. Our experience with this condition (from 1983 to 2004) includes 7 cases, all symptomatic, hypercalcemic syndrome and bone disease present in most of them. In 6/7 the tumor was palpable, and in all the biochemical profile was compatible with severe PHP. Three patients died of complications of hypercalcemia. Recent findings point to a mutation on the gene HRPT2 as the molecular base for the development of this kind of tumor. The therapeutic approach is surgical and should include ipsilateral thyroidectomy and cervical exploration in order to find possible local metastasis. Post-surgical complications (mainly hypocalcemia) are proportional to the pre-existing metabolic alterations. The long-term prognosis depends upon the precocity of diagnosis, surgical success and control of hypercalcemia. New therapeutic approaches, based on bisphosphonates and calcimimetic drugs, as well as the possibility of genetic diagnosis, tend to ameliorate the prognosis of this severe affection. PMID:16444365

Vieira, Jos Gilberto H; Ohe, Monique N; Hauache, Omar M; Oliveira, Ulisses Maia de; Delana, Janaina Martins; Gonalves, Andr; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

2005-10-01

19

Penile merkel cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel cell carcinoma of the genitalia is very rare and to date has been found only in vulvar mucosa. We describe an aggressive Merkel cell tumor in the frenulum of the penis with lymph node metastases, local recurrence, and eventually widespread dissemination. The primary tumor was associated with discontiguous squamous cell carcinoma in situ. This is the first report of

Sonja Tomic; Thomas F. Warner; Edward Messing; George Wilding

1995-01-01

20

Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Last Updated: May 08, 2013 What is lung cancer? Lung cancer accounts for more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women, about 28 percent of all cancer

21

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) is an aggressive tumor variant thought to arise predominantly from differentiation of clear cell carcinoma. A few reports of SRCC associated with non-clear cell tumors led to the presumption that SRCC may arise from any renal cell carcinoma, although direct evidence of this is lacking. We report a case of a 70-year-old male patient, who presented with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was diagnosed to have SRCC after pathological examination. The patient is on high dose interleukin (IL-2)-based immunotherapy and is apparently free of disease six months after surgery. PMID:21196626

Akhtar, Kafil; Shamshad, Ahmad; Sufian, Zaheer; Tariq, Mansoor

2011-01-01

22

Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare type of kidney cancer. This type of cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney. These small tubules help filter waste from the blood, making urine.

23

Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... increased vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. (continued on next page) Cervical Cancer Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Copyright 2011. College of American Pathologists. For use and reproduction by patients and CAP members only. Normal cervical ...

24

Metronomics for thymic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Although thymomas are the most frequent primary tumours of the anterior mediastinum, thymic carcinoma is very infrequent and more aggressive. Combination chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for the advanced stages, but because of the lack of evidence from randomised trials, the management of the successive lines is a challenging field. We report a partial radiological response in the seventh line of a thymic carcinoma stage IV with an oral regimen.

del Toro, Jacobo Muoz; Castedo, Patricia Cortez; Salgado, Alfonso Corts; Garca, M Eugenia Olmedo; Lpez, Pilar Garrido

2014-01-01

25

[Imaging renal cell carcinoma].  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma is the eighth most common malignancy in adults and the most common malignancy in the kidney. It is thus a very common disease for radiologists. This review aims to provide a general overview of the imaging techniques used to diagnose, characterize, and help plan the treatment of renal cell carcinoma as well as to review basic aspects related to staging, imaging-guided percutaneous treatment, and follow-up in the most common clinical scenarios. PMID:24268598

Bazan, F; Busto, M

2014-01-01

26

Mucoepidermoid mammary carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The histological features of mucoepidermoid mammary carcinomas (MMCs) are presented, and criteria for distinguishing these tumours from squamous epithelial metaplasia in other mammary carcinomas are considered. Immunohistochemical and gel-electrophoretic analyses of the intermediate-filament proteins in one MMC case revealed a complex pattern of cytokeratin polypeptide expression. The simple-epitheliumtype cytokeratins 7, 8, 18, and 19 were detected mainly in nonsquamous

H. Liichtrath; R. Moll

1989-01-01

27

Incidental carcinoma of the thyroid.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients submitted to thyroidectomy for a benign disease is quite frequent. A retrospective analysis was performed on 455 patients submitted to surgical intervention in order to establish the incidence of this kind of carcinoma. Two hundred fifty-six patients (56%) were affected by benign disease (176 multinodular goiter, 12 uninodular goiter, 1 Plummer disease and 67 Basedow disease) and 202 (44%) by carcinoma. In 28 of 256 patients (11%), affected by benign disease, occurred a histological diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma, (10 papillary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, 29 papillary carcinoma follicular variant). In this study it's considered incidental thyroid carcinoma the one occurred in patients who never underwent Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) and there were no suspicious features in all exams that may suggest the presence of carcinoma. Twenty-three of the 40 incidental carcinoma (57.5%) were microcarcinomas. Ten patients had a sincronous carcinoma. Actually, these patients are still in a follow up program and no recurrency of disease is occasionally observed. This study shows that the only way to put doubts on the real benignity of the disease is the fine needle aspiration; there are no other instruments that could identify the occurrence of the carcinoma. Moreover in the majority of cases the incidental carcinoma is a microcarcinoma, it doesn't reach significant volume, may be not centered by a FNA, but in most cases it's not really biologically aggressive. PMID:24866072

Pezzolla, Angela; Marzaioli, Rinaldo; Lattarulo, Serafina; Docimo, Giovanni; Conzo, Giovanni; Ciampolillo, Anna; Barile, Graziana; Anelli, Ferdinando Massimiliano; Madaro, Andrea

2014-01-01

28

What Is Merkel Cell Carcinoma?  

MedlinePLUS

... it is most treatable. Signs and Symptoms of Merkel Cell Carcinoma Until recently, common signs and symptoms of MCC ... 2007. These common characteristics emerged: The AEIOUs of Merkel Cell Carcinoma The Lesion A symptomatic . Growth does not feel ...

29

Insular carcinoma of the thyroid.  

PubMed

Thyroid surgeons are becoming increasingly more aware of a histologically distinct subset of thyroid carcinoma whose classification falls between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas with respect to both cell differentiation and clinical behavior. This subtype of tumors has been categorized as poorly differentiated or insular carcinoma, based on its characteristic cell groupings. Although the differentiation of insular carcinoma from other thyroid carcinomas has important prognostic and therapeutic significance, relatively little about insular carcinoma has been published in the otolaryngology literature. In this article, we describe a new case of insular carcinoma and we discuss the findings of our review of the literature. We conclude that insular thyroid carcinoma warrants aggressive management with total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation of any remaining thyroid tissue. PMID:12789767

Cornetta, Anthony J; Burchard, Andrew E; Pribitkin, Edmund A; O'Reilly, Robert C; Palazzo, Juan P; Keane, William M

2003-05-01

30

Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare entity accounting for 0.5% to 5% of parathyroid neoplasia. Most of these malignancies present as functional hormone-producing masses with elevated serum levels of parathormone and calcium. These tumors may also be nonfunctional. Clinical detection of nonfunctioning parathyroid malignancies preoperatively is primarily based on symptoms of an expanding neck mass. This ominous complaint is typically accompanied with an advanced stage of the disease at initial diagnosis. Because there is a paucity of data in the literature regarding nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, prognosis can not be readily assessed. In both functional and nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma, early surgery has proven to be the only curative treatment approach whereas both chemotherapy and radiation therapy fail to produce systemic or regional benefit when used alone. Hence, parathyroid cancer should be considered in every patient evaluated for a neck mass regardless of the blood calcium and blood parathormone level. PMID:11491274

Giessler, G. A.; Beech, D. J.

2001-01-01

31

Pathobiology of ovarian carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct tumor pathology and oncogenic potentiel. These tumors are subdivided into three main categories: epithelial, germ cell, and sex-cord stromal tumors. We report herein the newly described molecular abnormalities in epithelial ovarian cancers (carcinomas). Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease. Our better understanding of the molecular basis of ovarian carcinomas represents the first step in the development of targeted therapies in the near future. PMID:25556618

Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Genestie, Catherine

2015-01-01

32

Urothelial (Transitional) Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... cell carcinoma occurs more often in men. About 60,000 Americans are diagnosed with this disease each year. It is the fourth most common cancer among men and eighth most common among women. It is also more common among ... States, Canada, and France. This situation is due to lifestyle and environmental ...

33

[Radiochemotherapy of urothelial carcinoma].  

PubMed

Radical cystectomy is the current standard therapy for muscle invasive or locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Organ-preserving monotherapeutic alternatives (e.g. transurethral resection, radiotherapy) do not lead to similar cure rates. In selected cases, a trimodal approach using transurethral resection and combined radio- and chemotherapy can be as efficient as cystectomy. PMID:11594212

Bttner, H; Feyerabend, T; Bhle, A

2001-09-01

34

Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly

Marci E. Schaner; Douglas T. Ross; Giuseppe Ciaravino; Therese Srlie; Olga Troyanskaya; Maximilian Diehn; Yan C. Wang; George E. Duran; Thomas L. Sikic; Sandra Caldeira; Hanne Skomedal; I-Ping Tu; Tina Hernandez-Boussard; Steven W. Johnson; Peter J. O'Dwyer; Michael J. Fero; Gunnar B. Kristensen; Anne-Lise Brresen-Dale; Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani; Matt van de Rijn; Nelson N. Teng; Teri A. Longacre; David Botstein; Patrick O. Brown; Branimir I. Sikic

2003-01-01

35

A Hybrid Carcinoma of Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma and Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma in Maxillary Sinus  

PubMed Central

Hybrid carcinoma of the salivary gland is a very rare entity that has been described only in the parotid and palate. The occurrence of a hybrid carcinoma of maxillary sinus has not been reported. The diagnosis of hybrid carcinoma is important particularly when the components of tumor have different biologic behaviors. Diagnosis and treatment require a high index of suspicion, especially when the tumor is an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, pathological effort to look for a more aggressive accompanying tumor, and proper oncologic treatment. We describe a case of 26-yr-old woman with a hybrid carcinoma composed of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with an adenoid cystic carcinoma component (cribriform pattern) in the right maxillary sinus with a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:15201517

Woo, Jeong-Su; Kwon, Soon-Young; Kim, Insun

2004-01-01

36

Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

2013-06-03

37

What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?  

MedlinePLUS

... blood much like a real kidney would. Renal cell carcinoma Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also known as ... be due to an inherited genetic syndrome. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma This is the most common ...

38

Sebaceous Carcinoma: What It Looks Like  

MedlinePLUS

... What is Sebaceous Carcinoma? References: Blake PW, Bradford PT, Devesa SS et al. Cutaneous appendageal carcinoma incidence and ... Dermatol ogy. June 2010, 146: 625-32. Martinelli PT, Cohen PR, Schulze KE et al . Sebaceous Carcinoma. ...

39

Hyperthermochemoradiotherapy and esophageal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Cancer of the esophagus still poses considerable treatment problems, with a poor 5-year survival rate after surgery, an even worse outlook after radiation and surgery, and a not very satisfactory response to chemotherapy. After several years of continued research, in 1983 we developed a Radio Frequency System with endotract electrode and thermosensors for administering hyperthermochemoradiotherapy to patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. Results in 129 patients are discussed. Immediate improvement of subjective complaints and decrease or elimination of the cancer lesion are so distinct that this treatment, by means of an endotract antenna, shows promise as a modality for esophageal lesions and may find application in diseases such as colorectal cancer or carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

Sugimachi, K.; Inokuchi, K.

1986-01-01

40

[Epidermoid anal carcinoma].  

PubMed

Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus is a rare cancer, and conventionally affects elderly women. Its incidence is on the increase, at a younger age of onset, particularly within the male homosexual population. Main predisposing factors are sexually transmitted diseases and particularly human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, variety of sexual partners, smoking, homosexuality, history of uterine cervix cancer, and immunodepression. Warning signs of anal cancer are often non-specific. Therefore any atypical lesion should be systematically biopsied for histology. The evaluation assessment should include lung X-ray, abdominal CT scan, and often pelvis MNR or anal endosonography. Key prognostic factors are infiltration of the initial tumour and presence of lymph node metastasis. First-line treament of anal epidermoid carcinoma is radiotherapy, combined with chemotherapy for extensive forms. PMID:19143150

Gorez, Etienne; Staumont, Ghislain

2008-10-31

41

Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas are not common. Since Beyreuther's description in 1924, 16 well-documented cases of independent primary bronchial carcinomas of different histology have been described. From 1965 to 1970, eight cases were seen at the London Chest Hospital. In order to make the diagnosis of a second primary bronchial carcinoma, each tumour should be malignant and neither should be a metastasis from the other. To meet this last criterion, the histopathological features of the two tumours must be different. Many cases have been described in the literature as double primary bronchial carcinomas where the second primary had the same histological features as the first. Images PMID:4327711

Chaudhuri, M. Ray

1971-01-01

42

Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) affects more than half a million individuals per year worldwide. It is a largely preventable\\u000a disease. Most cases are related to hepatitis B virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Asia (except Japan). Hepatitis\\u000a C virus has emerged as an important cause of HCC particularly in North America and some parts of Europe, where a recent sharp

Donna L. White; Amir Firozi; Hashem B. El-Serag

43

PET in Colorectal Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy in the United States, excluding skin carcinoma, and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The American Cancer Society estimated that approximately 145,000 new cases of colorectal cancer would be diagnosed in 2005 and approximately 56,000 people would die of the disease [1]. Colorectal cancer death rates have been steadily declining

Martin J. OConnell; Ronald B. Workman; R. Edward Coleman

44

Parathyroid carcinoma in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old female patient with parathyroid carcinoma, the rarest endocrine malignancy, had two pregnancies. In the first pregnancy, she had severe nausea and fatigue. Hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism were diagnosed in the postpartum period. Hyperemesis gravidarum masked a diagnosis of hypercalcemia. Neck ultrasound and Tc-99m sestamibi found an enlarged lower right parathyroid gland. The gland was surgically removed, and an initial pathology report described atypical adenoma. Shortly afterward, she became pregnant again. During the second pregnancy, her calcium level was frequently controlled but was always in the normal range. Normocalcemia is explained by the specific physiology of pregnancy accompanied by hemodilution, hypoalbuminemia and maternal hypercalciuria (mediated by increased glomerular filtration). During lactation, calcium levels rose, and a new neck ultrasound showed a solitary mass in the area of prior surgery and an enlarged pretracheal lymph node. Fine needle aspiration of the solitary mass and node showed parathyroid carcinoma cells. The tumor mass was resected en bloc with the contiguous tissues and surrounding lymph nodes (pathology report; parathyroid carcinoma with metastases). Over the next five years, four consecutive surgeries were performed to remove malignant parathyroid tissue, lymph nodes and local metastases. Following the surgical procedures, no hypocalcemia was observed. More serious hypercalcemia recurred; the calcium level was difficult to control with a combination of pamidronate, cinacalcet and loop diuretic. No elements of multiple endocrine neoplasia were present. PMID:24868516

Bareti?, Maja; Tomi? Brzac, Hrvojka; Dobreni?, Margareta; Jakov?evi?, Antonia

2014-01-01

45

Epigenetics of urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Urothelial carcinoma is the most frequent type of bladder cancer. Improvements in diagnostics and therapy of this common tumor are urgently required and need to be based on a better understanding of its biology. Epigenetic aberrations are crucial to urothelial carcinoma development and progression. They affect DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, long noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Compared to other cancers, DNA hypomethylation, especially at LINE-1 retrotransposons, and mutations in enzymes establishing or removing histone acetylation or methylation are particularly prominent. Accumulating evidence suggests that disturbances in DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs may contribute especially to altered differentiation and metastatic potential. With proper selection, histone-modifying enzymes may constitute good targets for therapy. For diagnostics, DNA methylation and miRNA biomarkers are well suited because of their relatively high stability. There are indeed excellent biomarker candidates for DNA-methylation-based diagnostics of urothelial carcinoma, whereas miRNAs are well investigated, but there are still many discrepancies between studies published to date. PMID:25421661

Schulz, Wolfgang A; Koutsogiannouli, Evangelia A; Niegisch, Gnter; Hoffmann, Michle J

2015-01-01

46

Cytogenetic Findings in Thirty Lung Carcinoma Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary tissue cultures of human lung tumors were prepared from 30 cases of which 16 were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, six adenocarcinoma, four adenosquamous cell carcinoma, three large cell carcinoma, and one small cell lung carcinoma. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 26 cases by cytogenetic studies with a GTG banding technique. Specific chromosome bands frequently involved in structural abnormalities

Sibel Berker-Karazm; Gven Lleci; Glay zbilim; Abdullah Erdo?an; Ak?n Kuzucu; Abid Demircan

1998-01-01

47

Management of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rapidly evolving field. Advances in liver surgery and transplantation mean that curative treatment can be offered to patients with HCC in compensated livers who are diagnosed early or to those who are within transplant criteria. Explanted livers have provided a growing understanding of the underlying mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis and diagnostic modalities. Several locoregional therapies are also available. For advanced tumors, molecular targeted therapies are yielding promising results. Because of the heterogeneity of the patients and the disease, many questions are waiting for answers through well-designed, adequately powered, and bias-free multicenter, controlled, randomized trials. PMID:24206860

Asham, Emad H; Kaseb, Ahmed; Ghobrial, R Mark

2013-12-01

48

Papillary Kidney Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

49

Clear Cell Kidney Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

50

Chemokines and hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Chemokines play a paramount role in tumor progression. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, chemokines and their receptors play an intricate role. Currently, chemokines and their receptors such as the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis, CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis and the CCL20-CCR6 axis have received much research attention. Although a large number of studies show that these axes are strongly associated with HCC, the exact mechanism by which these axes promote the growth and progression of HCC remains unknown. In this paper, several chemokines and their receptor interactions in HCC progression, growth and metastasis and immune response to HCC are reviewed. PMID:20397259

Huang, Fan; Geng, Xiao-Ping

2010-01-01

51

Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common histologic type of primary liver cancer, accounting for between 85% and 90% of these malignancies. The overall prognosis of patients with liver cancer is poor, and an understanding of this disease and its risk factors is crucial for screening at-risk individuals, early recognition, and timely diagnosis. Most HCCs arise in the background of chronic liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and chronic excessive alcohol intake. These underlying causes are characterized by marked variations in geography, gender, and other well-documented risk factors, some of which are potentially preventable. PMID:25444466

Lafaro, Kelly J; Demirjian, Aram N; Pawlik, Timothy M

2015-01-01

52

Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

2014-11-21

53

Diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. It is very rare (incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 person-years) in most parts of the world and only a handful of populations are known to deviate from this low-risk profile, which include people of southern China, Eskimos and other natives of the Arctic region, natives of southeast Asia, and the mainly Arab populations of north Africa and Kuwait. There is now convincing evidence implicating dietary factors as the primary cause of NPC among Chinese. A series of case-control studies conducted in various Chinese populations with distinct risks of NPC, ranging from the very high-risk Cantonese to the relatively low-risk Northern Chinese, have suggested that ingestion of salted fish and other kinds of preserved foods by the Chinese constitutes the most important cause of NPC development among these people. Preliminary data on Malays in southeast Asia, Eskimos in Alaska, and Arabs of north Africa also suggest that ingestion of preserved foods by these population groups may be responsible for their raised incidence of NPC. Regardless of race and geography, the commonest form of nasopharyngeal cancers are those that arise from the epithelial cells lining the nasopharynx. These carcinomas (commonly referred to as NPCs) constitute 75-95% of nasopharyngeal cancers in low-risk populations and virtually all nasopharyngeal cancers in high-risk populations (Ho, 1971; Sugano et al, 1978; Levine and Connelly, 1985). PMID:2197634

Yu, M C

1990-01-01

54

Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18350603

Martin, Juliette; Dufour, Jean-Franois

2008-01-01

55

Correlative imaging in gallbladder carcinoma.  

PubMed

Gallbladder carcinoma is a relatively rare malignant epithelial neoplasm, arising from gallbladder mucosa. It is the fifth most common gastrointestinal malignancy and the most common biliary tract cancer. Early diagnosis remains difficult, because clinical symptoms are sparse and non-specific, often resulting in advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The most common feature of gallbladder carcinoma on different imaging modalities is focal wall thickening, associated with a large eccentric tumor mass. In this case we report the imaging characteristics of gallbladder carcinoma on ultrasound, MDCT and 18F-FDG PET/CT. PMID:25597210

Willekens, I; Goethals, L R; Brussaard, C; Verdries, D; de Mey, J

2014-01-01

56

Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

57

General Information about Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... adrenocortical carcinoma include having the following hereditary diseases: Li-Fraumeni syndrome . Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome . Carney complex . Symptoms ... clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography. MRI (magnetic resonance ...

58

Merkel Cell Carcinoma Workshop, 2009  

Cancer.gov

January 09, 2009 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM National Institutes of Health Neurosciences Center Rockville MD + Add to Outlook Calendar Workshop on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Basic, Epidemiologic, Translational and Clinical Research January 9th, 2009 National Institutes

59

Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

2005-01-01

60

Metastasizing basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy worldwide and is characterized by invasive growth and local tissue destruction. Cure rates for BCC exceed 90% with most treatment modalities. Metastasizing BCC (MBCC) is a rare complication of BCC with high morbidity and mortality rates. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with a large ulcerative lesion on the left side of the flank that was histopathologically diagnosed as a BCC. Clinical and imaging evaluations revealed substantial local invasion with regional lymph node, lung, liver, bone marrow, and bone metastasis. The patient died 7 months after the diagnosis was made. Potentially metastasizing BCCs cannot be definitely identified; thus early intervention with adequate treatment of all BCCs is advised. PMID:24343210

Di Lernia, Vito; Ricci, Cinzia; Zalaudek, Iris; Argenziano, Giuseppe

2013-11-01

61

[Merkel cell carcinoma].  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive malignant neuroendocrine skin tumor, which can metastasize to lymph nodes early and often shows local recurrence. The prognosis depends on tumor size and disease stage. The majority of recurrences appear during the first 2 years after the primary diagnosis. The 5-year survival rate for primary tumor < 2 cm is 66-75 % and for primary tumors > 2 cm is 50-60 %. With lymph node metastases the 5-year survival rate is 42-52 %, while with distant metastases it drops to 17-12?%. Extensive staging inclusive sentinel lymph node biopsy is essential to assess the risk for distant metastasis and to allow the best recommendations for therapy. After surgical treatment with adequate safety margin, subsequent adjuvant radiation therapy of the tumor region and lymphatic draining basin is recommended to reduce the risk of local recurrence and lymphatic spread. PMID:25234632

Kleffner, F; Schrholz, J; Burckhardt, S; Mauch, C; Schlaak, M

2014-09-01

62

[Radiochemotherapy of penis carcinoma].  

PubMed

Some authors report successful use of radiochemotherapy in patients with penile cancer. The most promising chemotherapeutic agents in penile cancer are cisplatin, methotrexate, bleomycin, vinblastine, and vincristine. There are different protocols for the use of chemotherapeutic agents such as mono- or polychemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy. Operative treatment is still the primary approach in patients with penile cancer. However, in some patients with relevant co-morbidity who wish to receive organ-sparing therapy, radiochemotherapy may be applied when low-stage tumors (carcinoma in situ or T1) are present. There is no chemotherapeutic agent of choice to be recommended. The results of radiochemotherapy in patients with T2 tumors or higher are not satisfactory because local tumor control often cannot be achieved. PMID:11490866

Doehn, C; Feyerabend, T

2001-07-01

63

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

Helmberger, Thomas K.

64

[Merkel cell carcinoma].  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma) is a rare form of tumor of unclear histogenesis which predominantly occurs in elderly patients on areas exposed to the sun. A higher incidence and occurrence in younger people is predominantly found in immunosuppressed persons which is why a pathogenetic role is also attributed to immunosuppression in addition to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Additionally, in 80% of cases clonally integrated polyomavirus (Merkel cell polyomavirus, MCPyV) could be detected. Clinically MCC represents an uncharacteristic tumor. Histopathologically, monomorphic dermal and/or subcutaneous nodes are found consisting of round or oval medium sized cells with a vesicular nucleus and sparse cytoplasm. The neoplastic cells of MCC express cytokeratin (CK) 20 with a dot-like perinuclear accentuation. In addition, pan-CK, neuroendocrine markers (e.g. chromogranin A and synaptophysin), neurofilament proteins, CD56, CD57, Bcl-2, TdT and PAX-5 are immunohistochemically positive. In most cases CM2B4, an antibody against MCPyV is also positive. Expression of p63 has been observed in some of the cases and in some studies was associated with a favorable prognosis. The markers thyroid transcription factor 1, mammalian achaete scute complex like 1, vimentin, S-100 and CK7 are not normally expressed by MCC. The prognosis is primarily dependent on tumor size and the lymph node status. The presence of intralymphatic tumor complexes is associated with a higher rate of local recurrence and lymph node metastasis. A larger number of intratumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocytes is accompanied by a favorable prognosis and the presence of > 50% of K-67+ neoplastic cells with an unfavorable prognosis. Further morphological, phenotypical and genetic factors have not yet been validated in larger cohorts with respect to the prognostic relevance. PMID:25074367

Fried, I; Cerroni, L

2014-09-01

65

Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

1984-01-01

66

Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of palate  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to present a rare neoplasm, Primary myoepithelial carcinoma arising from the palate, and to review its diagnostic criteria, pathologic and clinical characteristics, treatment options and prognosis. Clinical Presentation and Intervention Myoepitheliomas are tumors arising from myoepithelial cells mainly or exclusively. Myoepitheliomas mostly occur in salivary glands, as well as in breast, skin, and lung. Case of myoepitheliomas in palate has rarely been reported. Myoepithelial carcinoma is malignant counterpart of myoepitheliomas. Adenomyoepithelioma is also a different disease from myoepitheliaomas. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells of myoepithelial carcinoma express not only epithelial markers such as cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), but also markers of smooth muscle origin such as calponin. The immunohistochemical criteria of myoepithelial differentiation are double positive for both cytokeratins and one or more myoepithelial immunomarkers (i.e., S-100 protein, calponin, p63, GFAP, maspin, and actins). Myoepithelial carcinomas of salivary and breast demonstrate copy number gains and gene deletion. The overall prognosis of myoepithelial carcinoma is poor. There is rarely recurrence or metastasis in benign myoepithelial tumors. Complete excision with tumor-free margin is always the preferred treatment, while local radiation therapy and chemotherapy are suggestive treatment options. Here, a rare case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising from the palate has been described and discussed for the treatment and outcome. Pathological and clinical characters of myoepitheliomas are also compared and discussed. Conclusion The case report serves to increase awareness and improve the index of diagnosis and treatment of myoepitheliomas. PMID:21917131

2011-01-01

67

Genomic profile of ovarian carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background It is known that all tumors studied in sufficient number to draw conclusions show characteristic/specific chromosomal rearrangements, and the identification of these chromosomes and the genes rearranged behind the aberrations may ultimately lead to a tailor-made therapy for each cancer patient. Knowledge about the acquired genomic aberrations of ovarian carcinomas is still unsatisfactory. Methods We cytogenetically analyzed 110 new cases of ovarian carcinoma of different histological subtypes using karyotyping of G-banded chromosomes and high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization. We first compared the aberration patterns identified by the two genomic screening techniques using the so-called classical pathological classification in which the carcinomas are grouped as tumors of types I and II. We also broke down our findings according to the more modern classification which groups the carcinomas in five different categories. Results The chromosomal breakpoints identified by karyotyping tended to cluster to 19p/q and to 11q, but no unquestionably recurrent rearrangement could be seen. Common imbalances were scored as gains from 1q, 3q, 7q, and 8q and losses from 17p, 19q, and 22q. Gain of material from 8q23 and losses from 19q and 22q have previously been described at high frequencies in bilateral and borderline ovarian carcinomas. The fact that they were present both in precursor lesions, i.e., borderline tumors, as well as in tumors of more advanced stages, i.e., carcinomas, highlights the possibility of an adenoma-carcinoma sequence in ovarian carcinogenesis. Conclusion Based on the relatively simple genomic changes we identified in the low-grade serous carcinomas examined (n?=?7) and which largely corresponded to the aberration pattern formerly identified in borderline tumors, one can interpret the cytogenetic data as supporting the view that the low-grade carcinomas represent a phenotypically more advanced stage of borderline tumors. Whether transition from low-grade to high-grade carcinoma also occurs, is a question about which the genomic data is still inconclusive. PMID:24886194

2014-01-01

68

Thyroid metastasis from breast carcinoma resembling medullary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

We are reporting a case of a 42-yr-old female with a history of right breast carcinoma. She was surgically treated (breast quadrantectomy with axillary dissection) and receiving a third cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy when a feeling of a constant pressure in the front of the neck and lack of air occurred. Subsequent work-up revealed a node in the right thyroid lobe with enlarged paratracheal bilateral and right mid and lower jugular lymph nodes. Fine-needle aspiration cytology, repeated within a 20 days window and analyzed by two different cytologists, showed a medullary thyroid carcinoma with a cervical lymph nodes metastasis so the patient underwent total thyroidectomy with selective and paratracheal neck dissection. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed the specimen to be metastasis of breast carcinoma. During regular follow-up of our patient, eighteen months after initial diagnosis, no new metastases were found. To our best knowledge, this is the first described case of a thyroid metastasis of breast carcinoma that was cytologically misdiagnosed as a medullary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:23397757

Slipac, Juraj; Janjanin, Sasa; Ljepava, Dejan; Hutinec, Zdenka; Bence-Zigman, Zdenka

2012-11-01

69

Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

2014-12-19

70

Renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to be a frustrating tumor for clinicians to manage and treat. Progress has been made in the identification of risk factors, particularly dietary risk factors. An increased risk has been seen with frequent consumption of fried meat and poultry. Citrus fruits, vitamin C, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol have demonstrated a protective effect against RCC. Other factors that have been associated with the risk of RCC are smoking (which doubles the risk), obesity, hypertension, and exposure to asbestos and petroleum products. Response rates for systemic treatment of RCC continue to hover at about 20%; however, some nonchemotherapy treatments may provide palliation with few side effects. In addition, lower dose combinations of interleukin-2 and interferon alfa may be as beneficial as higher dose regimens, but with less toxicity. Molecular prognostic factors, including proliferation markers, karyometric analyses, oncogenes, and cell adhesion molecules and proteases are areas of intense investigation and may provide mechanisms for identifying patients who require more (or less) aggressive treatment. PMID:9619363

Godley, P A; Escobar, M A

1998-05-01

71

Diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. It is very rare (incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 person-years) in most parts of the world and only a handful of populations are known to deviate from this low-risk profile, which include people of southern China. Eskimos and other natives of the Arctic region, natives of southeast Asia, and mainly Arab populations of north Africa and Kuwait. There is now convincing evidence implicating dietary factors as the primary cause of NPC among Chinese. A series of case-control studies conducted in various Chinese populations with distinct risks of NPC, ranging from the very high-risk Cantonese to the relatively low-risk Northern Chinese, have suggested that ingestion of salted fish and other kinds of preserved foods by the Chinese constitutes the most important cause of NPC development among these people. Preliminary data on Malays in southeast Asia, Eskimos in Alaska, and Arabs of north Africa also suggest that ingestion of preserved foods by these population groups may be responsible for their raised incidence of NPC. PMID:2285519

Yu, M C

1990-11-01

72

Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Orthotopic Ileal Neobladder  

PubMed Central

Urothelial carcinoma developing in orthotopic ileal neobladder is an extremely rare entity. Fewer than 10 cases have been reported in the literature describing urothelial carcinoma recurrence in orthotopic ileal neobladder. We report a case of transitional cell carcinoma recurrence in orthotopic ileal neobladder after 11 years of surgery. PMID:25506034

Cakmak, Ozgur; Tarhan, Huseyin; Celik, Orcun; Kucuk, Ulku; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

2014-01-01

73

Eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma that accounts for 5% of all renal tumors. This subtype is further subdivided into two variants, classic and eosinophilic, with the latter variant being less frequent. We report two cases of the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma diagnosed at our institution between January 2008 and December 2012. PMID:25552800

Yourshaw, Charles J.; Zhang, Haiying

2015-01-01

74

Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and sorafenib  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message Pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas are not often thought to sensitive to targeted agents, like their cousin the adenocarcinoma of the lung. With appropriate testing of molecular markers, squamous cell carcinomas, like adenocarcinomas of the lung, melanomas, and renal cell carcinomas, may be found to be sensitive to newer, targeted agents. PMID:25614813

Gollard, Russell; Garcia, Diana; Natale, Ron

2014-01-01

75

Sarcoidosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous inflammation of unknown etiology, and seems to involve the liver parenchyma in most cases. However, sarcoidosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma is rare. We report here a case in which a hepatocellular carcinoma occurred within the liver, which was probably involved as a result of systemic sarcoidosis. A 57-year-old Japanese man had been followed up for 2 years because of diabetic nephropathy and sarcoidosis. On admission for pneumonia, imaging studies revealed an unexpected hepatic tumor. Histology revealed a hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by T-lymphocytic infiltration and marked granulomatous inflammation, which was surrounding some tumor nodules. The background liver parenchyma exhibited a moderate degree of fibrosis with granulomatous inflammation. The patient had no other apparent liver disease such as viral hepatitis, steatohepatitis, or primary biliary cirrhosis. Therefore, in the present case, sarcoidosis may be considered the probable background etiology for hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:21173811

Ogata, Sho; Horio, Takuya; Sugiura, Yoshiaki; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Saito, Hiroki; Aiko, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Kuniaki; Kawai, Toshiaki

2010-12-01

76

Intrameningioma Metastasis of Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Tumor-to-tumor metastasis of breast carcinoma to meningioma is a rare phenomenon. It is likely underdiagnosed given the relatively high prevalence and comorbidity of these two primary tumor types, the lack of standardized methodologies for its diagnosis, and the tendency to obfuscate this lesion with simple meningioma or cerebral metastasis of breast carcinoma. Careful histopathologic study of the resected meningioma is the cornerstone of diagnosis of these lesions, although certain conventional radiological features along with specialized modalities may clue the diagnosis. Vigilance for this lesion is appropriate in selected patients with known breast cancer or meningioma, as the two are often coexistent in the same patient, permitting tumor-to-tumor metastasis. Detection of this rare disease process may alter the treatment plan and prognosis. Here, we report a case of breast carcinoma-to-meningioma metastasis in a patient who developed subacute neurological decline while undergoing long-term treatment of her primary, late-stage breast cancer. PMID:25002947

Sayegh, Eli T.; Henderson, Grant A.; Burch, Ezra A.; Reis, Gerald F.; Cha, Soonmee; Oh, Taemin; Bloch, Orin; Parsa, Andrew T.

2014-01-01

77

The dedifferentiation of prostate carcinoma.  

PubMed

Fifty-four patients with prostate carcinoma, each having 2 TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate) procedures separated by 3 to 11 years, were studied to determine whether the histologic appearance of prostate carcinoma remains the same for the life of the host or whether the histological appearance changes with time. Using the M. D. Anderson (MDAH) method of grading prostate carcinoma, 19 of 26 (73%) Grade 1 lesions, 9 of 12 (75%) Grade 2 lesions, and 7 of 8 (88%) Grade 3 lesions dedifferentiated into another grade at the time of the 2nd TURP. Eight cases that were Grade 4 at the time of the 1st TURP, remained Grade 4 lesions at the time of the 2nd TURP. Although 10 Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3 lesions did not change grades, 8 of these 10 cases were less differentiated at the time of the second TURP than they were at the time of the first TURP. Furthermore, no Grade 1 lesions demonstrated evidence of metastases, but 19% of Grade 2 lesions, 55% of Grade 3 lesions, and 80% of Grade 4 lesions demonstrated evidence of metastases. This study suggests that the usual course of prostate carcinoma is dedifferentiation and that with dedifferentiation, the likelihood of metastases increases. PMID:6861069

Brawn, P N

1983-07-15

78

Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background No effective systemic therapy exists for patients with advanced hepatocellular carci- noma. A preliminary study suggested that sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, the platelet-derivedgrowth factor receptor, and Raf may be effective in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods

Josep M. Llovet; Sergio Ricci; Vincenzo Mazzaferro; Philip Hilgard; Edward Gane; Jean-Frdric Blanc; Andre Cosme de Oliveira; Armando Santoro; Jean-Luc Raoul; Alejandro Forner; Myron Schwartz; Camillo Porta; Stefan Zeuzem; Luigi Bolondi; Tim F. Greten; Peter R. Galle; Jean-Franois Seitz; Ivan Borbath; Dieter Hussinger; Tom Giannaris; Minghua Shan; Marius Moscovici; Dimitris Voliotis; Jordi Bruix

2008-01-01

79

Advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx  

SciTech Connect

A total of 274 patients with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was treated in eight Veterans Administration Hospitals over a period of 22 years. Of the 274 patients, 256 (93%) had squamous-cell carcinoma, while 18 (7%) had other tumors. Most of the squamous-cell carcinoma patients (82%) had Stage IV disease; cervical lymph node metastases were found in 193 (75%) and distant metastases were present in 22 (9%). The actuarial 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates for the 256 squamous-cell carcinoma patients were 15%, 10%, and 7%, while they were 49%, 42%, and 35% for the 18 patients with other tumors (p=0.006). There was a progressive decrease in 5-year survival with the increase in the stage of tumor. The survival of the 63 patients without metastases was better than the survival of the 193 patients with cervical metastases (24% vs. 12% at 5 years, p=0.03). The presence of T4 disease or Initial Performance Status of less than 80 on the Karnofsky Scale indicated a poor prognosis (p=0.0001). Treatment failure occurred in 83% of the patients by 2 years after therapy and was due to the lack of tumor control at the primary site. Advanced (N3) cervical lymph node metastases indicated that systemic tumor dissemination of the nasopharynx is an uncommon malignancy.

Petrovich, Z.; Cox, J.D.; Roswit, B.; MacKintosh, R.; Middleton, R.; Ohanian, M.; Rao, Y.; Byhardt, R.W.; Paig, C.; del Regato, J.A.

1982-09-01

80

Medullary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 5-8% of all thyroid cancers. MTC is mainly sporadic in nature, but an hereditary pattern [multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2)] is present in 20-30% of cases, transmitted as an autosomal-dominant trait due to germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. About 98% of patients with MEN 2 have germline mutations in exons 5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15 or 16 of the RET gene. The primary treatment of both hereditary and sporadic forms of MTC is total thyroidectomy and removal of all neoplastic tissue present in the neck. The therapeutic option for lymph node surgery should be dictated by the results of presurgical evaluation. After total thyroidectomy, measurements of serum calcitonin (CT) and carcinoembryonic antigen are of paramount importance in the postsurgical follow-up of patients with MTC as they reflect the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. Complete remission is demonstrated by undetectable and stimulated serum CT measurement. On the contrary, if serum CT is detectable under basal conditions or becomes detectable after stimulation, the patient is probably not cured, but imaging techniques will not demonstrate any disease until serum CT approaches levels >150 pg/ml. The tumour metastasises early to both paratracheal and lateral cervical lymph nodes. Metastases outside the neck may occur in the liver, lungs, bones and, less frequently, brain and skin. Surgery is the main treatment for local and distant metastases whenever feasible. Systemic chemotherapy with dacarbazine, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin (alone or in combination) has shown very limited efficacy, achieving only partial responses in the range of 10-20% and of short duration. Several kinase inhibitors are currently under evaluation and preliminary results are promising. Familial cases must be identified by searching for RET proto-oncogene mutations in the proband and in family members. Carriers of the RET gene are candidates for prophylactic thyroidectomy at different ages depending on the risk associated with the specific RET mutations. PMID:20627492

Pacini, F; Castagna, M G; Cipri, C; Schlumberger, M

2010-08-01

81

Mitochondriome and Cholangiocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA) of the liver was the target of more interest, recently, due mainly to its increased incidence and possible association to new environmental factors. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in several cancers. Some of these malignancies contain changes of mtDNA, which are not or, very rarely, found in the mtDNA databases. In terms of evolutionary genetics and oncology, these data are extremely interesting and may be considered a sign of poor fitness, which may conduct in some way to different cellular processes, including carcinogenesis. MitoChip analysis is a strong tool for investigations in experimental oncology and was carried out on three CCA cell lines (HuCCT1, Huh-28 and OZ) with different outcome in human and a Papova-immortalized normal hepatocyte cell line (THLE-3). Real time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and metabolic assays including L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were meticulously used to identify mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) content, ultrastructural morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), and differential composition of metabolites, respectively. Among 102 mtDNA changes observed in the CCA cell lines, 28 were non-synonymous coding region alterations resulting in an amino acid change. Thirty-eight were synonymous and 30 involved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) regions. We found three new heteroplasmic mutations in two CCA cell lines (HuCCT1 and Huh-28). Interestingly, mtDNA copy number was decreased in all three CCA cell lines, while complexes I and III were decreased with depolarization of mitochondria. L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were increased in all three CCA cell lines. MtDNA alterations seem to be a common event in CCA. This is the first study using MitoChip analysis with comprehensive metabolic studies in CCA cell lines potentially creating a platform for future studies on the interactions between normal and neoplastic cells. PMID:25137133

Bahitham, Wesam; Liao, Xiaoping; Peng, Fred; Bamforth, Fiona; Chan, Alicia; Mason, Andrew; Stone, Bradley; Stothard, Paul; Sergi, Consolato

2014-01-01

82

Macroscopic lesions in dysplasia and carcinoma complicating ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible changes associated with dysplasia or carcinoma have been assessed in 62 colectomy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis. In 34 colectomy specimens with one or more carcinomas, there were 51 visible carcinomas and 65 macroscopic dysplastic lesions; only one carcinoma was found in flat mucosa. Among 28 specimens with microscopic dysplasia but no carcinoma, eight contained no visible dysplastic

J. H. Butt; F. Konishi; B. C. Morson; J. E. Lennard-Jones; Jean K. Ritchie

1983-01-01

83

Comparative study of conventional urothelial carcinoma, squamous differentiation carcinoma and pure squamous carcinoma in patients with invasive bladder tumors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose: Treatment results evaluation (radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemo/radiotherapy) in patients with urothelial carcinoma, squamous differentiation carcinoma and pure squamous bladder carcinoma. Material and methods: The study included 361 patients with invasive bladder carcinoma treated between 1990-2013. Histology showed 296 cases of urothelial carcinoma (82% - group A), 52 cases of urothelial divergent differentiation (squamous and urothelial carcinoma 14.4% - group B) and 13 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (3.6% - group C). All patients benefited from radical cystectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was undergone in 68 patients. Results: Group A - urothelial carcinoma - had a 44% rate of patients alive with a mean survival period of 73 months. About 56% of the patients died, the mean survival period being 4 years. Group B urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation had a mean survival period of 36 months (between 1-156 months). 17 patients (33%) are alive at 50 months postoperatively. Group C squamous carcinoma had a mean survival period of 9.4 months. Discussions: Locally advanced disease was diagnosed in 50% of the patients in group A, while in group B the rate was 84.6% and 70% in group C, respectively. Conclusions: Squamous pattern detected in the histopathological specimen represents a negative prognostic factor. It seems that the squamous component influences the outcome of the disease due to its biological characteristics in the evolution of squamous carcinoma, with advanced local stage disease at diagnosis late onset of symptoms and lack of response to adjuvant treatment. Abbreviations: SCC = squamous cell carcinoma; MSK = Memorial Sloan Ketering PMID:25408727

Gluck, G; Hortopan, M; St?nculeanu, D; Chiri??, M; Stoica, R; Sinescu, I

2014-01-01

84

Tonsil neuroendocrine carcinoma concurrent with hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

The majority of neuroendocrine tumors appear to be sporadic. Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) typically arises in pancreatic, parathyroid and adrenal glands, but rarely arises in salivary glands. NEC of the tonsil is a rare type of tumor and the concurrent presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be more uncommon. There are few case reports of NEC of the tonsil in the literature and to date no studies have been conducted to establish its optimal management. The current study presents a case of a 72-year-old male who presented with left neck and tonsil tumors. A biopsy from the tonsil revealed a NEC, and computed tomography showed liver cirrhosis, multiple liver cancers and portal vein thrombosis, as well as metastasis to the hilar, abdomen and retroperitoneum. Histological examination of the hepatic revealed primary HCC. To the best of our knowledge, this is a condition that has not previously been reported. PMID:25120653

YUAN, YAN; ZOU, QING-FENG; HU, XIAO-YE; LIU, MEI-YUAN

2014-01-01

85

Genetics Home Reference: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... January 2015 What is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that ...

86

Merkel cell carcinoma: is this a true carcinoma?  

PubMed

Recent years have brought an enhanced understanding of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) biology, especially with regard to the Merkel cell polyoma virus as a causative agent. Differences between Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative MCC in morphology,(,) gene expression, miRNA profiles and prognosis have been reported. Origin of MCC is controversial. Presence of neurosecretory granules has suggested that these carcinomas originate from one of the neurocrest derivatives, most probably Merkel cells; the name Merkel cell carcinoma is now widely accepted. Expression of PGP 9.5, chromogranin A and several neuropeptides, initially regarded as specific markers for neural and neuroendocrine cells, has recently been shown in a subset of lymphomas. MCC commonly expresses terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and PAX5. Their co-expression under physiologic circumstances is restricted to pro/pre-B cells and pre-B cells. These findings lead to the hypothesis by zur Hausen etal. that MCC originates from early B cells. This review was intended to critically appraise zur Hausen's hypothesis and discuss the possibility that MCC is a heterogenous entity with distinct subtypes. PMID:25040178

Jankowski, Marek; Kopinski, Piotr; Schwartz, Robert; Czajkowski, Rafal

2014-11-01

87

Current staging of hepatocellular carcinoma: imaging implications  

PubMed Central

The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has been rising in the USA in the past two decades. Hepatocellular carcinoma primarily affects older people and reaches its highest prevalence among those aged between 50 and 70 years. Chronic infection by the hepatitis B virus is the most common cause of this disease. Since hepatocellular carcinoma is an indolent tumor, it has a low life expectancy. In patients with suspected hepatocellular carcinoma, CT, MRI, and ultrasound techniques are useful for formulating the diagnosis based on vascularity and specific enhancement features. In this paper we will discuss the multimodal approach for diagnosis and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma. We will also furnish the latest staging and treatment, epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathology and laboratory findings in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:16829469

Bhosale, P; Szklaruk, J; Silverman, P M

2006-01-01

88

Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes.  

PubMed

Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

2013-12-16

89

Mixed Merkel cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four mixed Merkel cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin are described. The patients ranged in age from 74 to 90 years and demonstrated or had a history of previous ultraviolet or infrared damage to the skin, manifested by basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses, solar elastosis, and erythema ab igne. Light microscopic examination of all 4

Mary V. Iacocca; John L. Abernethy; Catherine M. Stefanato; Anne E. Allan; Jag Bhawan

1998-01-01

90

Precursors of endometrial and ovarian carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses precursor lesions of endometrial and ovarian carcinoma with an emphasis on the unique molecular alterations\\u000a that have led to the development of binary classification schemes for tumors of both the endometrium and ovary. While such\\u000a a system is well established for endometrial carcinoma, only recently has a binary classification scheme been proposed for\\u000a ovarian carcinoma. For both,

Robert J. Kurman; Thomas G. McConnell

2010-01-01

91

Caustic burns and carcinoma of the esophagus.  

PubMed Central

A history of caustic injury was obtained in 12 of 846 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The average age was 52.8 years; the interval from injury to development of carcinoma was 45.8 years. Nine of the 12 carcinomas were in the midthoracic segment. Resection was possible in nine patients, with two surviving over ten years. A survey of reported series with this association confirms the increased resection rate and probability of long survival compared with the usual carcinoma of the esophagus. PMID:7259340

Hopkins, R A; Postlethwait, R W

1981-01-01

92

Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

2014-01-01

93

Sebaceous carcinoma of the ocular adnexa.  

PubMed

Sebaceous carcinoma accounts for 1-5.5% of all eyelid malignancies. This lesion, traditionally considered among the most lethal of all tumors of the ocular adnexa, occurs more commonly in women and in the elderly and has a predilection for the upper lid. Both clinically and histologically, sebaceous carcinoma may masquerade as benign or less invasive conditions such as chalazion, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, meibomitis, superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, basal cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ, resulting in delayed diagnosis and treatment. In this review the incidence, clinical presentation, and prognostic factors (both clinical and histopathologic), and treatment modalities are discussed. PMID:2658172

Kass, L G; Hornblass, A

1989-01-01

94

Laminin and fibronectin in adenoid cystic carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of fibronectin and laminin was examined by immunohistochemistry in 11 adenoid cystic breast carcinomas, six adenoid cystic carcinomas of mouth and salivary gland, and six cribriform ductal breast carcinomas. Both proteins were present lining cystic lumina and around tumour islands in all the adenoid cystic breast carcinomas and in five of six salivary gland tumours. Abundant laminin and fibronectin were dispersed among adenoid cystic tumour cells arranged in sheets. One adenoid cystic carcinoma from buccal mucosa showed a transition from a cribriform tumour positive for both fibronectin and laminin to a cribriform tumour negative for fibronectin and laminin to undifferentiated carcinoma. Fibronectin and laminin seemed to disappear simultaneously from tumour cell surfaces. Another adenoid cystic carcinoma from buccal mucosa was negative for fibronectin and laminin from the time of initial biopsy. This was the only tumour that gave rise to disseminated metastases, resulting in the death of the patient within two years of surgery. In cribriform invasive ductal breast carcinomas the linings of cystic lumina were always negative for fibronectin and laminin. Varying quantities were present at the tumour boundaries. We suggest that staining for fibronectin and laminin may be a valuable aid to the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinomas and that the absence of these proteins may have important prognostic implications. Images PMID:3005373

d'Ardenne, A J; Kirkpatrick, P; Wells, C A; Davies, J D

1986-01-01

95

Emerging therapy for adrenocortical carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare and aggressive tumor with dismal outcomes. Best current treatments include complete surgical resection for localized resectable disease and systemic therapy with mitotane alone or in combination for advanced ACC. Advances in molecular genetic profiling of ACC have created multiple new targets for potential treatment options in ACC. This article reviews the current treatment options available for ACC and discusses the potential new targets identified through molecular profiling.

Aufforth, Rachel D; Nilubol, Naris

2015-01-01

96

Microcystic Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i) Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii) The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii) The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2?mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv) Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour. PMID:24363668

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2013-01-01

97

Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i) Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii) The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii) The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2?mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv) Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour. PMID:24363668

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2013-01-01

98

Nested Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background. Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma was added to the WHO's classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. Results. About 200 cases of the tumour have been reported so far and it has the ensuing morphological features: large numbers of small confluent irregular nests of bland-appearing, closely packed, haphazardly arranged, and poorly defined urothelial cells infiltrating the lamina propria and the muscularis propria. The tumour has a bland histomorphologic appearance, has an aggressive biological behaviour, and has at times been misdiagnosed as a benign lesion which had led to a significant delay in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and contributing to the advanced stage of the disease. Immunohistochemically, the tumour shares some characteristic features with high-risk conventional urothelial carcinomas such as high proliferation index and loss of p27 expression. However, p53, bcl-2, or EGF-r immunoreactivity is not frequently seen. The tumour must be differentiated from a number of proliferative lesions of the urothelium. Conclusions. Correct and early diagnosis of this tumour is essential to provide early curative treatment to avoid diagnosis at an advanced stage. A multicentre trial is required to identify treatment options that would improve the outcome of this tumour. PMID:24587796

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2014-01-01

99

An immunohistochemical panel for reliable differentiation of salivary duct carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Salivary duct carcinoma is a highly aggressive salivary gland malignancy that may be misdiagnosed as high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. We utilized tissue microarrays with 78 examples of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 47 salivary duct carcinomas to evaluate the utility of an immunohistochemical panel consisting of androgen receptor, Her2/neu, p63, and cytokeratin 5/6 in distinguishing these entities. Among all cases in the cohorts, androgen receptor was highly specific for salivary duct carcinoma, while cytokeratin 5/6 and p63 were specific for mucoepidermoid carcinoma. While the rate of unequivocal Her2/neu overexpression among the salivary duct carcinomas was low (8.9%), discrimination of salivary duct carcinoma was enhanced when this marker was used in combination with androgen receptor due to profound sensitivity. The immunohistochemical panel was particularly efficacious at distinguishing the problematic subset of high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas from salivary duct carcinoma. Utilization of this set of immunohistochemical markers allows reliable differentiation of salivary duct and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, a distinction with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24065449

Butler, Randall T; Spector, Matthew E; Thomas, Dafydd; McDaniel, Andrew S; McHugh, Jonathan B

2014-06-01

100

HER2-Positive Metaplastic Spindle Cell Carcinoma Associated with Synchronous Bilateral Apocrine Carcinoma of the Breast  

PubMed Central

Apocrine carcinoma, which is strictly defined as over 90% of tumor cells showing apocrine differentiation, is a rare variant of breast cancer. Here we report an uncommon case in which apocrine carcinomas developed concurrently in both breasts; in addition, a sarcomatoid spindle cell lesion was coincident in the right breast. Both apocrine carcinomas were immunohistochemically negative for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR), but diffusely positive for androgen receptor (AR), GCDFP-15, and HER2. The presence of intraductal components in bilateral carcinomas and the absence of lymph node metastasis suggested that they were more likely to be individual primary lesions rather than metastatic disease. The spindle cell lesion showed a relatively well-circumscribed nodule contiguous with the apocrine carcinoma. HER2 oncoprotein overexpression was observed not only in the apocrine carcinoma, but also in the spindle cell lesion. Since the spindle cell component was intimately admixed with apocrine carcinoma and had focal cytokeratin expression, we diagnosed it as metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma, which was originated from the apocrine carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with synchronous bilateral apocrine carcinomas coinciding with metaplastic carcinoma. PMID:25309767

Kito, Katsumi; Maeda, Toshiharu; Ninomiya, Keiko; Sugita, Atsuro; Sagawa, Teiri; Matsuoka, Kinya; Kinoshita, Kousei; Hyodo, Naoki; Morita, Nagisa; Furuya, Keizo

2014-01-01

101

Perilipin and adipophilin expression in sebaceous carcinoma and mimics.  

PubMed

Although adipophilin has been reported to be a sensitive marker for sebaceous carcinoma, others have noted its expression in squamous cell carcinoma and a variety of noncutaneous tumors, suggesting that lipid droplet accumulation is a frequent feature of neoplastic cells. We investigated the expression of adipophilin and perilipin in 101 cutaneous carcinomas. They included 30 cases of sebaceous carcinoma, 28 squamous cell carcinoma with clear cell change (18 invasive and 10 in situ tumors), 8 hidradenocarcinomas, 1 spiradenocarcinoma, 10 porocarcinomas, 4 malignant chondroid syringomas, 1 malignant cylindroma, 7 apocrine carcinomas, 6 eccrine carcinomas, 5 aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinomas, and 1 pilomatrical carcinoma. Adipophilin stained the rim of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in various tumor types, including sebaceous carcinomas (30/30, 100%), squamous cell carcinoma with clear cell change (21/28, 75%), and eccrine-apocrine carcinomas (25/43, 58%). On the other hand, perilipin expression was seen in 13 (43%) of 30 sebaceous carcinoma and only 1 hidradenocarcinoma. The remaining 28 squamous cell carcinomas with clear cell change and 42 eccrine-apocrine carcinomas were negative. Although specific for invasive sebaceous carcinoma, perilipin expression was not helpful in distinguishing sebaceous carcinoma in situ from squamous cell carcinoma in situ with clear cell change. The expression of adipophilin seen in variety of cutaneous tumors suggests that the biosynthesis of lipid is altered in these neoplasms. PMID:23642680

Boussahmain, Chakib; Mochel, Mark C; Hoang, Mai P

2013-09-01

102

Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin or Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive primary neoplasm. It is commonly seen in the elderly, on the head, neck and extremities, where it can mimic a benign or less malignant skin tumour. Pathological examination shows a generally dense growth of small dark cells, with immunohistochemical evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation. The microscopic appearance is

Peter Saxby; D SARORA; R SIMPSON

1996-01-01

103

Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

Markopoulos, Anastasios K

2012-01-01

104

[Metatypical carcinoma. Apropos of 4 cases].  

PubMed

The authors describe the anatomopathological, clinical and evolutive characteristics of the metatypical carcinoma, based on four cases and on the existing literature. Evolution of these tumors, with a maxillo-facial preferential location, is usually longer than for other cutaneous carcinomas. Cases presented in this article illustrate the severity of such lesions, whose treatment requires extensive amputations and rather unusual reconstruction procedures. PMID:7872634

Labb, D; Lample, G D; Rigot-Jolivet, M; Compre, J F; Joly, F; Mandard, J C

1994-04-01

105

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and carcinoma has rarely been reported and its relevance is debated. Thirty three consecutive patients with probable or definite CIDP (idiopathic or associated with M protein) were investigated. Three patients with definite CIDP had a concomitant carcinoma. One had an IgM paraprotein. Steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins were effective.

J C Antoine; J F Mosnier; J Lapras; P Convers; L Absi; B Laurent; D Michel

1996-01-01

106

Squamous carcinoma in situ of the ovary.  

PubMed

We report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the ovary in a patient previously submitted to radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for an epidermoid carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The histogenesis of epidermoid tumors of the ovary and their association with squamous malignancies of the uterine cervix are discussed. PMID:9415529

Pellegrino, A; Cormio, G; Cappellini, A; Perego, P; Rossi, R

1997-01-01

107

Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Thyroid carcinoma in childhood and adolescence is uncommon and because of the slow progression of disease the standard treatment is controversial. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of treatment results for differentiated thyroid carcinoma in this age group treated in our clinic. Material and Methods: From August 1988 to February 2001, 15 patients between

Cumhur Arici; Okan Erdogan; Hasan Altunbas; Adil Boz; Mustafa Melikoglu; Binnur Karayalcin; Tuncer Karpuzoglu

2002-01-01

108

Gene expression profiling of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: comparison with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is a distinct variant of renal cell carcinoma that shares some overlapping histological and immunohistochemical features of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. Although the clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma immunohistochemical profile is well described, clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma mRNA expression has not been well characterized. We investigated the clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma gene expression profile using previously identified candidate genes. We selected 17 clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, 15 clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and 13 papillary renal cell carcinoma cases for molecular analysis following histological review. cDNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was prepared. Quantitative real-time PCR targeting alpha-methylacyl coenzyme-A racemase (AMACR), BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor homolog (BAMBI), carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), ceruloplasmin (CP), nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), schwannomin-interacting protein 1 (SCHIP1), solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate) member 2 (SLC34A2), and vimentin (VIM) was performed. Gene expression data were normalized relative to 28S ribosomal RNA. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma expressed all eight genes at variable levels. Compared with papillary renal cell carcinoma, clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma expressed more CA9, CP, NNMT, and VIM, less AMACR, BAMBI, and SLC34A2, and similar levels of SCHIP1. Compared with clear cell renal cell carcinoma, clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma expressed slightly less NNMT, but similar levels of the other seven genes. Although clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma exhibits a unique molecular signature, it expresses several genes at comparable levels to clear cell renal cell carcinoma relative to papillary renal cell carcinoma. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma will have a key role in future sub-classifications of this unique tumor. PMID:23887297

Fisher, Kevin E; Yin-Goen, Qiqin; Alexis, Dianne; Sirintrapun, Joseph S; Harrison, William; Benjamin Isett, R; Rossi, Michael R; Moreno, Carlos S; Young, Andrew N; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

2014-02-01

109

How grim is hepatocellular carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex disease and a major cause of death in high endemic areas of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCC has gone from being a universal death sentence to a cancer that can be prevented, detected at an early stage and effectively treated. Liver resection or tumour ablation techniques may be effective bridge to liver transplantation if they fulfill the Milan criteria. The areas of progress in HCC are in the control of HBV or HCV and the development of adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapies.

Weledji, Elroy P.; Enow Orock, George; Ngowe, Marcelin N.; Nsagha, Dickson Shey

2014-01-01

110

Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

2012-12-15

111

Primary Esophageal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is common in the salivary glands but rare in the esophagus. Routine esophagogastroscopy performed in a 54-year-old woman as part of a medical check-up revealed a submucosal tumor (1.51.0 cm) at the mid-esophagus. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a lesion with mixed echogenicity in the submucosal layer. The submucosal mass was removed by incisional endoscopic enucleation, and pathological analysis revealed epithelial cells with small hyperchromatic angular nuclei in tubular and cribriform patterns. The lesion was pathologically confirmed as an ACC of the esophagus. PMID:20485637

Na, Youn Ju; Kang, Min-Jung; Jung, Ji Min; Ha, Chang Yun; Jung, Hae Sun; Baik, Su Jung; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Sung-Ae; Yoo, Kwon; Moon, Il Hwan; Cho, Min Sun

2007-01-01

112

Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

2014-12-22

113

Carcinoma arising in pilonidal sinuses.  

PubMed Central

Pilonidal carcinoma is an infrequent complication of pilonidal disease. The surgeon's suspicion should be raised in cases of longstanding pilonidal inflammation. The disease occurs most frequently in men. The lesion is often a well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Wide excisions at the initial procedure following a brief period of local wound care, is the optimum treatment and increases the chances for a five-year survival. Definitive closure of the defect is delayed and accomplished by rotational flaps or skin grafts. It palpable nodes are present in the inguinal region they should be biopsied even though this does not necessarily connote metastasis. When inguinal node metastasis is present, this is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence of occult node metastasis is not known because no prophylactic groin dissections were performed. Staged groin dissections were not associated with any long-term survivals. The series was too small to determine its palliative potential. Radiation therapy may palliate local bone or soft tissue recurrences. Re-excisions of local soft tissue recurrences can provide, in some instances, long disease-free intervals. Both topical and systemic chemotherapy were administered in more recent cases with poor results, but this series is not large enough to form conclusions for this modality of treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7212813

Pilipshen, S J; Gray, G; Goldsmith, E; Dineen, P

1981-01-01

114

[Adjuvant therapy of colon carcinoma].  

PubMed

In patients with stage III carcinoma of the colon, adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated after R0 resection. No age limitations exist. Combination chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 or (if oxaliplatin is contraindicated) monotherapy with a fluoropyrimidine, preferably capecitabine, can be regarded as the standard treatment. Because of its unfavorable toxicity profile, the 5-FU/folic acid bolus scheme (the Mayo scheme) should no longer be used, and combinations including irinotecan also do not play a part in colon carcinoma. The combination XELOX (oxaliplatin + capecitabine) is currently being studied in phase III trials. Data on the efficacy of the targeted drugs bevacizumab and cetuximab cannot be expected until at least 2010/2011. It is important that adjuvant treatment be started in a timely manner, within 8 weeks of surgery. As far as stage II disease is concerned, adjuvant chemotherapy analogous to that for stage III should be considered in high-risk patients (T4, emergency surgery, tumor perforation/tear, < 12 lymph nodes examined). The evidence for this recommendation is, however, based mainly on unplanned subgroup analyses of randomized trials. That low-risk stage II patients can also profit from adjuvant treatment was shown in the QUASAR trial(significant survival benefit of 3.6%), so this group of patients can be offered chemotherapy containing 5-FU. For treatments involving oxaliplatin in low-risk patients there is currently insufficient evidence. PMID:19033700

Trarbach, Tanja; Kubicka, Stefan; Hacker, Ulrich; Ridwelski, Karsten; Reinacher-Schick, Anke

2008-01-01

115

Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma to Parotid Glands  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 66 Final Diagnosis: Hepatocellular carcinoma Symptoms: Abdominal distension painful right facial swelling weight loss Medication: Clinical Procedure: Specialty: Objective: Rare disease Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common cancer, but it rarely metastasizes to the salivary glands. A review of the literature revealed only 5 reported cases of hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to parotid glands. We here report an additional case of this rare association. Case Report: A 66-year-old male with a background of type 2 diabetes mellitus and post-alcoholic decompensated liver cirrhosis presented with a progressively enlarging painful right facial swelling for 2 months that was eventually found to be due to hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the right parotid gland. Fine needle aspiration from the right parotid showed sheets and single malignant cells that were interpreted as carcinoma not otherwise specific. However, biopsy showed metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma into the right parotid gland. Conclusions: We report an additional case of the rare metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the parotid glands. It should therefore be considered in a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis presenting with a parotid swelling. Furthermore, the present case demonstrates the importance of the tissue biopsy for obtaining an accurate final diagnosis. PMID:25129420

Elzouki, Abdel-Naser; Elkhider, Hisham; Yacout, Khalid; Muzrakchi, Ahmed Al; Al-Thani, Shaikah; Ismail, Omer

2014-01-01

116

[Does carcinoma originating in the ovary exist?].  

PubMed

According to the latest morphological and molecular knowledge it seems that the origin of epithelial ovarian cancers, i.e. carcinomas resides elsewhere than in the ovary, or that at least the early development of the disease takes place outside the ovary. According to the new scientific thought, tumors observed in the ovaries would be secondary processes by nature. Change of the viewpoint plays a crucial role in the development of prevention and early diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. The new knowledge of the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma also opens possibilities for more effective post-operative treatments. PMID:24547622

Btzow, Ralf

2014-01-01

117

Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma which is presented as subcutaneous swelling with sinus formation. PMID:23133761

Patil, Vijayraj S.; Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Natikar, Neelamma

2012-01-01

118

Resection of esophageal carcinoma during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. A 26-year-old pregnant patient was referred toour hospital with dysphagia. A thorough examination showed a tumor in the esophagus. Laparotomy, thoracotomy, and cervical exploration were performed. There are only 2 cases reported in the literature about esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy and treated surgically. However, ethical dilemmas arise in managing such situations. Here we report a case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation in which surgical resection was performed successfully. PMID:25555961

?ahin, Murat; Kocaman, Gkhan; zkan, Murat; Yksel, Cabir; Enn, Serkan; Kutlay, Hakan

2015-01-01

119

Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

2012-09-07

120

Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection. PMID:22445563

Gutirrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martn, F J; Lpez-Estebaranz, J L

2012-01-01

121

[Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma].  

PubMed

Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection. PMID:22078768

Gutirrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martn, F J; Lpez-Estebaranz, J L

2012-01-01

122

General Information about Carcinoma of Unknown Primary  

MedlinePLUS

... chemotherapy is the use of two or more anticancer drugs. Hormone therapy Hormone therapy is a cancer ... Internal radiation therapy . Chemotherapy with one or more anticancer drugs . A clinical trial . Recurrent Carcinoma of Unknown ...

123

Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma  

E-print Network

We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and ~25% of high-grade endometrioid ...

Lander, Eric S.

124

Experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and deadly cancer whose pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Comparative genomic studies from human HCC samples have classified HCCs into different molecular subgroups; yet, the unifying feature of this tumor is its propensity to arise upon a background of inflammation and fibrosis. This review seeks to analyze the available experimental models in HCC research and to correlate data from human populations with them in order to consolidate our efforts to date, as it is increasingly clear that different models will be required to mimic different subclasses of the neoplasm. These models will be instrumental in the evaluation of compounds targeting specific molecular pathways in future preclinical studies. PMID:18314222

Newell, Philippa; Villanueva, Augusto; Friedman, Scott L.; Koike, Kazuhiko; Llovet, Josep M.

2010-01-01

125

Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

Stickel, Felix

2015-01-01

126

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of the liver and is considered an aggressive tumor with mean survival estimated between 6 and 20 months. Hepatitis B and C are the most common etiologies. Pathological, laboratory and radiologic imaging all aid in diagnosis but much controversy exists in the utilization of any given modality. Many treatment options exist for management of HCC, each has its own limitation. Liver transplantation offers the most reasonable expectation for curative treatment while simultaneously removing the burden of the diseased liver. Still, advancements in the field have thus far not yet matched its potential, although new immunosuppressive and chemotherapy regimen may allow transplantation to push the envelope once again. PMID:24570911

Byam, Jerome; Renz, John

2013-01-01

127

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the Milan criteria were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

2009-01-01

128

Papillary thyroid carcinoma after total body irradiation.  

PubMed Central

Two children developed papillary thyroid carcinoma after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) probably due to radiotherapy during remission and pretransplantation conditioning. Establishing a relationship between the cellular thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) effect and development of carcinoma in cases with high serum TSH concentrations is difficult. After BMT, patients should be regularly followed up with thyroid ultrasound and, when nodularity is found, fine needle aspiration and/or open biopsy are recommended. PMID:7979503

Uderzo, C; van Lint, M T; Rovelli, A; Weber, G; Castellani, M R; Bacigalupo, A; Masera, N; Cohen, A

1994-01-01

129

Renal cell carcinoma with proliferative lupus nephritis.  

PubMed

We report a case of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed after a patient was treated successfully with intravenous cyclophosphamide for her active proliferative lupus nephritis (classes III and V). After the intravenous cyclophosphamide regimen, the patient was asymptomatic with persistent microscopic haematuria, and no proteinuria. The renal cell carcinoma was located on the left kidney; incidentally, this was where the initial renal biopsy was done to diagnose lupus nephritis. PMID:25596289

Wong, Koh-Wei

2015-01-01

130

Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

2014-01-01

131

Controversies in the Management of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common type of female genital tract malignancy. Although endometrial carcinoma is a low grade curable malignancy, the condition of the disease can range from excellent prognosis with high curability to aggressive disease with poor outcome. During the last 10 years many researches have provided some new valuable data of optimal treatments for endometrial carcinoma. Progression in diagnostic imaging, radiation delivery systems, and systemic therapies potentially can improve outcomes while minimizing morbidity. Firstly, total hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy is the primary operative procedure. Pelvic lymhadenectomy is performed in most centers on therapeutic and prognostic grounds and to individualize adjuvant treatment. Women with endometrial carcinoma can be readily segregated intraoperatively into low-risk and high-risk groups to better identify those women who will most likely benefit from thorough lymphadenectomy. Secondly, adjuvant therapies have been proposed for women with endometrial carcinoma postoperatively. Postoperative irradiation is used to reduce pelvic and vaginal recurrences in high risk cases. Chemotherapy is emerging as an important treatment modality in advanced endometrial carcinoma. Meanwhile the availability of new hormonal and biological agents presents new opportunities for therapy. PMID:20613958

Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian

2010-01-01

132

Pulmonary scar carcinoma. A clinicopathologic analysis  

SciTech Connect

To delineate differences between scar and non-scar pulmonary carcinoma, the charts, autopsy protocols and chest roentgenograms of 80 male patients (autopsied) between 1975 and 1980, were reviewed. Nineteen patients (24%) had documented scar carcinomas. The comparison revealed scar carcinomas to possess certain distinctive features: A higher histologic distribution of adenocarcinoma (58% versus 15% in non-scars) and the frequent presentation (53%) with only nonpulmonary symptoms and signs related to metastasis. In scar carcinomas both bronchoscopy and sputum cytology were ineffective as initial diagnostic tools since chest findings were absent or minimal. Chest x-ray was negative in 9 of the 19 patients with scar cancer and remained negative until death in seven. In 10 of 19 instances, pulmonary scar carcinomas presented with only nonpulmonary symptoms and showed a tendency to metastasize while clinically undetectable. The differences noted between scar and non-scar carcinomas of the lung appear to depend on the peripheral location of these tumors and not on the adenocarcinoma histology.

Bakris, G.L.; Mulopulos, G.P.; Korchik, R.; Ezdinli, E.Z.; Ro, J.; Yoon, B.H.

1983-08-01

133

Histological variants of prostatic carcinoma and their significance.  

PubMed

The vast majority of prostatic cancers are acinar adenocarcinomas. Histological variants of prostatic carcinoma have been variably defined. One approach is to consider two groups of variants. The first group comprises histological variants of acinar adenocarcinoma and the second group non-acinar carcinoma variants or types. Variants of usual acinar adenocarcinoma defined in 2004 by the World Health Organization (WHO) include atrophic, pseudohyperplastic, foamy, colloid, signet ring, oncocytic and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. The second group of non-acinar carcinoma histological variants or types of prostatic carcinoma accounts for about 5-10% of carcinomas that originate in the prostate. These include sarcomatoid carcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, squamous and adenosquamous carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumours, specifically small-cell carcinoma. Recently characterized variants not present in the 2004 WHO classification, including microcystic adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like adenocarcinoma, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma, are also described. The aims of this review are to present the essential histomorphological diagnostic attributes of these variants, and to emphasize the clinical signficance of the variants, when different from usual acinar adenocarcinoma, including clinical presentation and outcome. PMID:22212078

Humphrey, Peter A

2012-01-01

134

Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Permissions Print to PDF Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma This section has been reviewed and approved ... 09/2014 What is familial non-VHL clear cell renal cell carcinoma? Familial non-VHL clear cell ...

135

Lectin histochemistry of normal lung and pulmonary carcinoma.  

PubMed

Normal bronchopulmonary tissues and pulmonary carcinomas including three major types (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma) were studied using three biotinylated lectins (Bauhinia purpurea [BPA], Phaseolus vulgaris [PHA], and Maclura pomifera [MPA]) by avidin biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) method. The study demonstrated that BPA binds with macrophages and pneumocytes of normal tissue, and with adenocarcinoma and small-cell carcinoma, but nonreactive with squamous cell carcinoma. PHA and MPA bound to all the normal components of bronchopulmonary tree and carcinomas of all types. Adenocarcinoma showed the highest density of reacting sites for BPA and MPA, and squamous cell carcinoma showed the highest binding sites for PHA, while small-cell carcinoma were the lowest reacting variant for all lectins. Lectins used in this study have limited usefulness for the diagnosis of pulmonary neoplasms. PMID:8088898

Sarker, A B; Koirala, T R; Aftabuddin; Jeon, H J; Murakami, I

1994-01-01

136

Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma with expression of KIT and PDGFRA and showing diverse differentiations into plasmacytoid, clear cell, acantholytic, nested, and spindle variants, and into adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and pleomorphic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Various tumors can arise in the urinary bladder (UB); most common is urothelial carcinoma (UC). UC of the UB have many variants. Other types of carcinomas such as adenocarcinoma (AC) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) can occur in UB carcinomas. Expression of KIT and PDGFRA has not been reported. A 66-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed papillary invasive tumor and a transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. The TUR-BT showed UC, AC, SmCC, large cell carcinoma (LCC), and pleomorphic carcinoma (PC). The UC component showed plasmacytoid, spindle, nested, clear cell, acantholytic variants. The AC element showed tubular adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma (Sig). Immunohistochemically, all of these subtypes were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, CEA, p63, CA19-9, p53 (positive 45%), MUC1, NSE, NCAM, KIT, PDGFRA, and Ki-67 (87%). They were negative for vimentin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, S100 protein, CD34, CD14, ?-smooth muscle actin, CD31, caldesmon, CD138, CD45, ?-chain, ?-chain, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. Mucin histochemistry revealed mucins in AC element including Sig. A molecular genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. The carcinoma was highly aggressive and invaded into muscular layer. The nuclear grade was very high, and there were numerous lymphovascular permeations were seen. The surface showed carcinoma in situ involving von-Brunn's nests. This case shows that carcinoma of UB can show diverse differentiations into numerous histological types and variants, and can express KIT and PDGFRA. The both genes showed no mutations in the present case. PMID:23696935

Terada, Tadashi

2013-01-01

137

Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Foot: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma of the foot is rare. A case report of occurrence of metastatic squamous carcinoma of the foot with resemblance to verrucous type in an elderly female is presented. This metastatic lesion developed four years after excision of primary squamous cell carcinoma from the left thigh. The patient presented with a painful, exophytic, ulcerated mass on the foot of four months duration. Fine-needle aspiration and edge biopsy documented this lesion as squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22303511

Wani, Imtiaz

2009-01-01

138

Dedifferentiated Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic Study of 6 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dedifferentiated adenoid cystic carcinomas are a recently defined, rare variant of adenoid cystic carcinomas characterized histologically by two components: conventional low-grade adenoid cystic carcinoma and high-grade dedifferentiated carcinoma. We examined six cases and analyzed their clinicopathologic profiles, including immunohistochemical features and p53 gene alterations. The 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) had a mean age of 46.8 years (range,

Toshitaka Nagao; Thomas A Gaffey; Hiromi Serizawa; Isamu Sugano; Yasuo Ishida; Kazuto Yamazaki; Ryoji Tokashiki; Tomoyuki Yoshida; Hiroshi Minato; Paul A Kay; Jean E Lewis

2003-01-01

139

Rapid growth of Merkel cell carcinoma after treatment with rituximab.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. We report a case of rapid growth of Merkel cell carcinoma after treatment with rituximab, a new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, for acquired factor VIII inhibitor. We propose that rituximab may place patients at higher risk for aggressive Merkel cell carcinoma thus necessitating the need for increased long-term surveillance of these patients. PMID:16485888

Wirges, Marla L; Saporito, Frank; Smith, Jennifer

2006-02-01

140

Immunohistochemical distinction of cutaneous spindle cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Cutaneous spindle cell squamous carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma in which keratinocytes infiltrate the dermis as single cells with elongated nuclei rather than as cohesive nests or islands, and signs of keratinization of conventional squamous cell carcinoma are insubstantial or nonexistent. Spindle cell carcinoma must be distinguished from spindle cell/desmoplastic melanoma, cutaneous leiomyosarcoma, atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), and scar. In instances when there is no definitive evidence of squamous differentiation, immunohistochemical studies may confer diagnostic discrimination. Twenty-four cases consisting of 12 spindle cell squamous cell carcinomas, 3 AFXs, 3 leiomyosarcomas, 3 desmoplastic melanomas, and 3 scars were evaluated with a battery of immunohistochemical stains, with the specificity and sensitivity of each marker calculated. The immunohistochemical battery consisted of S-100, desmin, CD68, and smooth muscle actin and cytokeratins P KER (keratins predominantly of molecular weight 56 and 69 kd) and low-molecular weight keratin (CAM 5.2), AE1/AE3, p63, and 34 beta E12 (CK903). Spindle cell squamous carcinomas were negative for S-100, CD68, smooth muscle actin, and desmin with the exception of 2 cases with weak staining for smooth muscle actin. 34 beta E12 provided positive results for each spindle cell squamous carcinoma. The other cytokeratin stains were less sensitive for spindle cell squamous carcinoma than 34 beta E12. The final immunohistochemical results were as follows: 34 beta E12 (12/12, 100%), p63 (10/12, 80%), AE1/AE3 (8/12, 67%), low-molecular weight keratin (7/12, 58%), and P KER (4/12, 33%). The 3 AFXs were positive for CD68 and negative for all other stains, whereas the 3 leiomyosarcomas stained positively for desmin and smooth muscle actin and negatively for all other stains. The 3 melanomas stained positively for S-100 and negatively for all other immunohistochemistry. The scars were negative for all stains. In conclusion, our study of 34 beta E12 proved most promising in distinguishing spindle cell squamous carcinoma from the histologic mimickers, AFX, spindle cell melanoma, scar, and leiomyosarcoma. PMID:18496422

Morgan, Michael B; Purohit, Chetna; Anglin, Tiffany R

2008-06-01

141

Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

Mendenhall, William M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)], E-mail: mendewil@shands.ufl.edu; Mancuso, Anthony A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Werning, John W. [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Amdur, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Villaret, Douglas B. [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)

2007-10-01

142

Chemopreventive strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of death from cancer. The incidence and mortality of HCC are increasing in most Western countries as a result of an ageing cohort infected with chronic hepatitis C, and are expected to continue to rise as a consequence of the obesity epidemic. Chemopreventive strategies aimed at decreasing the risk or delaying the onset of HCC are needed. Universal immunization against HBV and antiviral therapy against HBV and HCV in patients with established disease has consistently been associated with reduced HCC risk, especially in patients who achieve sustained virologic response. However, the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for primary HCC prevention is not known. Several commonly prescribed medications seem promising as chemopreventive agents against HCC, including statins, antidiabetic medications and aspirin. Dietary agents such as coffee, vitamin E and fish oil as well as phytochemicals might also be associated with reduced risk of HCC. Though randomized controlled trials are ideally needed to firmly establish efficacy, such chemoprevention trials are logistically and ethically challenging. Well-designed, prospective, population-based cohort studies might provide the best evidence for chemopreventive efficacy of these agents. PMID:23938452

Singh, Siddharth; Singh, Preet Paul; Roberts, Lewis R.; Sanchez, William

2015-01-01

143

Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases. PMID:24882877

Herr, D.; Juhasz-Boess, I.; Solomayer, E. F.

2014-01-01

144

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Penile Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Penile carcinoma (PeCa) represents an important public health problem in poor and developing countries. Despite its unpredictable behavior and aggressive treatment, there have only been a few reports regarding its molecular data, especially epigenetic mechanisms. The functional diversity in different cell types is acquired by chromatin modifications, which are established by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and miRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that the dysregulation in these processes can result in the development of several diseases, including cancer. Epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation of CpGs islands, may reveal candidates for the development of specific markers for cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. There are a few reports on the epigenetic alterations in PeCa, and most of these studies have only focused on alterations in specific genes in a limited number of cases. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the epigenetic alterations in PeCa and the promising results in this field. The identification of epigenetically altered genes in PeCa is an important step in understanding the mechanisms involved in this unexplored disease. PMID:23702847

Kuasne, Hellen; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; de Syllos Clus, Ilce Mara

2013-01-01

145

Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma.  

PubMed

The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases. PMID:24882877

Herr, D; Juhasz-Boess, I; Solomayer, E F

2014-03-01

146

Prevalence of aspergillosis in bronchogenic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Bronchoalveolar lavage of 42 patients of bronchogenic carcinoma was studied to find out the prevalence of aspergillosis. Sera of the patients were also analysed for presence of anti-Aspergillus antibodies by Immunodiffusion (ID), Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot blot assay (DBA). Aspergillus was isolated in culture from 6 (14.2%) patients of bronchogenic carcinoma. Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominant species isolated. All the strains of Aspergillus were sensitive to itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B while resistance (33.3%) was found with fluconazole. Anti-aspergillus antibodies were detected equally by ID, ELISA and DBA in 9 (21.4%) cases. The present study revealed prevalence and seroprevalance of Aspergillus in bronchogenic carcinoma to be 14.2% and 21.4% respectively. Consistent reactivity against 18 kDa Aspergillus fumigatus antigen was noted in serologically positive cases. Antibodies against 18 kDa protein antigen in western blotting may be used as a reference marker for diagnosis of aspergillosis in bronchogenic carcinoma. It is also suggested that the simplest serological technique like ID may be performed along with culture for diagnosing Aspergillosis in patients of bronchogenic carcinoma since ID, ELISA and DBA showed similar sensitivity. PMID:15025326

Malik, Abida; Shahid, M; Bhargava, R

2003-07-01

147

Intrathyroidal thymic carcinoma: a case report.  

PubMed

Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare malignancy that occurs in the soft tissues of the neck or in the thyroid gland. When it occurs in the thyroid, it is difficult to differentiate from thyroid tumor. Here, we report such a case. A 34-year-old man presented with a mass in the left lower neck in August 1999. Thyroid ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic mass, which replaced most of the left thyroid gland. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed poorly differentiated carcinoma. He received left lobectomy in February 2001. Grossly, the mass measuring 3.7 x 3.5 x 3.5 cm was located in the lower part of the left lobe of the thyroid gland. The cut surface was yellowish gray. Microscopically, the tumor was separated into lobules by fibrous tissues infiltrated with small lymphocytes. It was composed of poorly differentiated squamoid cells and focal keratin pearls. Thymus-like tissue with Hassall's corpuscles was seen adjacent to the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin and CD5, but negative for thyroglobulin. Keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma arising from intrathyroid thymic tissue was diagnosed. Because of a dubious section margin, adjuvant radiotherapy with a total dose of 5000 cGy was given. There was no evidence of recurrence twenty months after surgery. Although intrathyroidal thymic carcinoma is rare, it should be differentiated from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma because these conditions have different prognosis. PMID:12709740

Tai, Chi-Ming; Liang, Cher-Wei; Chang, Tien-Chun

2003-02-01

148

Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation. PMID:25386788

Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

2014-01-01

149

Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD) is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation, but it was rarely described also in some visceral carcinomas. We report a case of ovarian basaloid carcinoma with SCD. The tumor presented as a 14?cm ovarian mass in a 45-year-old woman, and therefore the adnexectomy and hysterectomy were performed. The tumor was of high stage. Multiple metastases were found in the liver, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes, and the lung. Histologically, the tumor showed a pattern of high-grade basaloid carcinoma with numerous shadow cells. Extensive histologic examination did not reveal any glandular or preexisting teratoma component. Immunohistochemically, the tumor expressed markers of squamous cell differentiation, such as p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and high-molecular-weight keratin. Cytokeratin 7 and CA125 were positive in scattered cells of the lesion. Estrogen and progesterone receptor, vimentin, and p53 were negative. Beta-catenin showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity, indicating possible tumor proliferation/differentiation via Wnt signaling pathway. To our knowledge, SCD in basaloid carcinoma of the ovary was not described before. In addition to the description of the case, we review the literature on SCD in visceral carcinomas. PMID:24639909

Jando, Daniel; Kascak, Peter

2014-01-01

150

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity.  

PubMed Central

There is presently no uniformly accepted grading system for mucoepidermoid carcinoma, largely due to a lack of consensus as to what criteria should be used to formulate histological grades. The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between histological grade, clinical stage and survival in these neoplasms. Clinical and histological data from 34 patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma were reviewed. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was most common in the parotid gland (44.1%), while 25% of patients had tumors in the minor salivary glands. Low, intermediate, and high-grade neoplasms accounted for 61.7%, 26.5%, and 11.8% of tumors, respectively. There was a general trend towards increasing clinical aggressiveness with increasing histological grade. Similarly, postoperative tumor recurrences were marginally more common in high-grade than in low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas. However, both of these findings were statistically insignificant, mainly due to small sample size, late clinical presentation, poor clinical follow-up, incomplete management and incomplete records. These factors explain the relatively low survival figures in the present study, as compared to higher survival figures in white patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:11405595

Kolude, B.; Lawoyin, J. O.; Akang, E. E.

2001-01-01

151

Results of tracheobronchoplasty for bronchogenic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Tracheobronchial reconstruction is a safe and effective procedure for patients with the neoplasms of low grade malignancy and bronchogenic carcinoma. We present herein a series of 18 cases that had tracheobronchial reconstruction, and discuss a postoperative complication and prognosis. From 1981 to 1997, 18 patients (2.8%) of 647 cases had tracheobronchial reconstruction with mediastinal lymph node dissection. The average age of the 13 males and 5 females, was 61 (range 51-72) years. We analyzed clinical features, postoperative complication and prognosis. Seventeen patients underwent sleeve lobectomy and one lobectomy with carinal reconstruction (Barkley's montage type). There were 13 squamous cell carcinomas, and one each of adenocarcinoma, typical carcinoid, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Stage was IA in 3, stage IB in 6, stage IIB in 3, stage IIIA in 5, and stage IIIB in 1 patient. Curative resection was achieved in 11 patients and non-curative resection in 7 patient who had radiotherapy. Six patients (33.3%) had postoperative complications. Five-year survival and mean survival time were 92.3% and 126 months, respectively. Tracheoplasty group had significantly better prognosis than pneumonectomy group or lobectomy group (p<0.01). This study suggests that tracheobronchoplasty is a more useful procedure than pneumonectomy for lung cancer. PMID:10023024

Kamiyoshihara, M; Kawashima, O; Sakata, S; Hirai, T; Ishikawa, S; Morishita, Y

1999-01-01

152

Low-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary associated with undifferentiated carcinoma: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The association of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma with undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) was first reported in endometrium carcinoma, termed with dedifferentiated carcinoma (DC). However, the coexistence of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma (LGEC) or serous carcinoma (LGSC) with UC has received minimal attention in ovary, and the behavior of this kind of neoplasm remains at further discussion. In this study, we reported a case of low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinoma associated with UC and reviewed another four cases previously reported. We found a histological continuity between the LGEC and UC components in H&E section, which suggested a dedifferentiation from LGEC to UC components. In summary, this kind of pathological type has aggressive behavior and these patients have very poor prognosis regardless of the amount of undifferentiated carcinoma. PMID:25120828

Chen, Ling; Pang, Shujie; Shen, Yan; Liu, Zaiping; Luan, Jing; Shi, Yiquan; Liu, Yixin

2014-01-01

153

Detection and location of Helicobacter pylori in human gastric carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To define the infection status of Helicobacter pylori in 109 patients with gastric cancers and H pylori localization in gastric carcinoma tissues in South China. METHODS: The incidence of H pylori infection in gastric carcinomas was estimated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), simultaneously; both morphological features and the localization of H pylori in gastric carcinomas

Yun-Lian Tang; Run-Liang Gan; Bi-Hua Dong; Ri-Chen Jiang; Rong-Jun Tang

2005-01-01

154

Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma: an extremely rare eyelid tumor.  

PubMed

Cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma is an extremely rare clinical entity. Among the few cases reported in the literature, most had contiguous involvement from the lacrimal gland. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma is one of the rarest eyelid tumors. The authors report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma arising from the lower eyelid. PMID:21629138

Ali, Mohammad Javed; Honavar, Santosh G; Naik, Milind N; Vemuganti, Geeta K

2012-01-01

155

Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity. PMID:25409850

Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

2014-12-01

156

PRK1 Distribution in Normal Tissues and Carcinomas: Overexpression and Activation in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Protein kinase C-related kinases (PRKs) are regulated by PI-3 kinase and Rho family GTPases. The isoform PRK1 has been characterized in detail in prostate cancer, but not in other carcinomas. We analyzed our prior microarray data for PRK1 gene expression in 175 carcinomas, and evaluated tissue microarrays for protein expression in 251 carcinomas and a comprehensive group of normal tissues. We also used immunoblotting to determine the levels and phospho-activation status of PRK1, PRK2, and PDK1 in 12 ovarian serous carcinomas, SKOV3 cells, and three samples of normal ovarian surface epithelium. The highest average level of PRK1 mRNAwas observed in ovarian serous carcinomas compared to all other carcinomas, including those of the prostate, bladder/ureter, breast, colon, stomach/esophagus, kidney, liver, pancreas, and lung (p=0.05). By immunohistochemistry, PRK1 was observed in selected normal cells including epithelium from the gynecological tract and hematolymphoid elements. All serous ovarian and endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas, and mesotheliomas were immunoreactive for PRK1. Nonserous ovarian and a majority of carcinomas from the prostate, breast, and pancreas were also positive but less consistently so. In comparison to ovarian surface epithelium, the serous carcinomas typically had greater pPRK1/total PRK1 (p=0.02) as well as greater pPDK/total PDK (p=0.01). The relative phosphorylation status of these two kinases correlated within each sample. In summary, PRK1 is present in various malignancies, but especially in serous carcinomas, where the increased activation status of PRK1 and its upstream regulator, PDK, as compared to normal ovarian surface epithelium suggests a role in ovarian cancer development or progression. PMID:19427017

Galgano, Mary T.; Conaway, Mark; Spencer, Adam M.; Paschal, Bryce M.; Frierson, Henry F.

2009-01-01

157

PRK1 distribution in normal tissues and carcinomas: overexpression and activation in ovarian serous carcinoma.  

PubMed

Protein kinase C-related kinases are regulated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Rho family GTPases. The isoform PRK1 has been characterized in detail in prostate cancer, but not in other carcinomas. We analyzed our prior microarray data for PRK1 gene expression in 175 carcinomas and evaluated tissue microarrays for protein expression in 251 carcinomas and a comprehensive group of normal tissues. We also used immunoblotting to determine the levels and phosphoactivation status of PRK1, PRK2, and PDK1 in 12 ovarian serous carcinomas, SKOV3 cells, and 3 samples of normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). The highest average level of PRK1 messenger RNA was observed in ovarian serous carcinomas compared with all other carcinomas, including those of the prostate, bladder/ureter, breast, colon, stomach/esophagus, kidney, liver, pancreas, and lung (P = .05). By immunohistochemistry, PRK1 was observed in selected normal cells, including epithelium from the gynecologic tract and hematolymphoid elements. All serous ovarian and endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas and mesotheliomas were immunoreactive for PRK1. The findings in nonserous ovarian and most carcinomas from the prostate, breast, and pancreas were also positive but less consistently so. In comparison with OSE, the serous carcinomas typically had greater pPRK1/total PRK1 (P = .02) as well as greater pPDK/total PDK (P = .01). The relative phosphorylation status of these 2 kinases correlated within each sample. In summary, PRK1 is present in various malignancies, but especially in serous carcinomas, where the increased activation status of PRK1 and its upstream regulator, PDK, as compared with normal OSE suggests a role in ovarian cancer development or progression. PMID:19427017

Galgano, Mary T; Conaway, Mark; Spencer, Adam M; Paschal, Bryce M; Frierson, Henry F

2009-10-01

158

Cetuximab and Recombinant Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck That is Recurrent, Metastatic, or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

2015-01-30

159

Expression of survivin in squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A comparative immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the expression of survivin and its association with clinicopathological criteria in major types of urinary bladder carcinoma, specifically, transitional cell carcinoma with and without squamous differentiation and squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods Immunohistochemical staining for survivin and Ki67 was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of 104 carcinomas: 52 transitional cell carcinoma, 20 transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation, and 32 squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of survivin in >10% of tumor cells was described as altered survivin status. Ki67 staining in >20% of tumor cells was described as a high proliferation index. Results Altered survivin expression was detected in 60/104 specimens (58%) and was significantly more frequent in transitional cell carcinoma (78%) than in squamous cell carcinoma (38%) or transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation (40%) (p<0.0001). In transitional cell carcinoma but not in squamous cell carcinoma, altered survivin status was associated with higher tumor grade, higher proliferation index, and recurrence. In the whole specimens, altered survivin expression was significantly associated with advanced stage (p<0.001), recurrence (p=0.005), distant metastasis (p<0.001), and death (p=0.001). In the multivariate analysis, altered survivin was an independent poor prognostic factor for recurrence. Conclusions Unlike in transitional cell carcinoma, alteration of survivin expression in squamous cell carcinoma occurs less frequently and is not associated with features of tumor aggression or patient outcome. These findings raise a question: are urinary bladder carcinoma patients with squamous cell carcinoma type suitable candidates for survivin vaccine? This is an important question to be answered before approving the vaccine in management.

Refaiy, Abeer EL-Refaiy M.; Badary, Fatma Ahmed Mahmoud; Abdelkawi, Islam F.; Merseburger, Axel S.; Mohammed, Rabab Ahmed Ahmed

2015-01-01

160

Sebaceous carcinoma arising on actinic keratosis.  

PubMed

We report two cases of sebaceous carcinoma arising on actinic keratosis. The first patient, a 75-year-old female, had a granuloma pyogenicum-like tumor on her left temple, and the second patient, an 81-year-old female, developed a tumor with erythema on her left cheek. In both cases, histopathological examination revealed findings typical of sebaceous carcinoma in the center of the tumors, and in the periphery, actinic elastosis and intraepidermal proliferation of squamoid atypical cells without vacuolation was observed. Immunohistochemical examinations using six antibodies also revealed that neoplastic cells of both cases demonstrated sebaceous differentiation. These cases suggest that extraocular sebaceous carcinoma may arise from actinic keratosis. PMID:10882948

Ansai, S; Mihara, I

2000-01-01

161

Ameloblastic carcinoma: Report of a rare case  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting histological evidence of malignancy in the primary or recurrent tumor. It is characterized by rapid, painful expansion of the jaw, unlike conventional ameloblastomas. The tumor most frequently involves the mandible. The expanding lesion causes perforation of the buccal and lingual plates of the jaw and invades the surrounding soft tissue. Rapidly growing large tumor mass may cause tooth mobility. A mandibular tumor involving the mental nerve leads to paresthesia of the nerve. A maxillary tumor can produce a fistula in the palate and paresthesia of the infraorbital nerve. Most ameloblastic carcinomas are presumed to have arisen de novo with a few cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastomas. Although rare, these lesions have been known to metastasize, mostly to the regional lymph nodes or lungs. A case of ameloblastic carcinoma in a 60-year-old man is reported here and its clinical, radiological and histological features are discussed. PMID:24579073

Srikanth, Mandadi Dakshinamurthy; Radhika, Besta; Metta, Kiran; Renuka, Nukala Valli

2014-01-01

162

Hepatocellular carcinoma from an immunologic perspective.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common cancer worldwide. It is an inflammation-associated cancer. Multiple investigators have demonstrated that analysis of the tumor microenvironment may be used to predict patient outcome, indicating the importance of local immune responses in this disease. In contrast with other types of cancer, in which surgery, radiation, and systemic cytotoxic chemotherapies dominate the treatment options, in hepatocellular carcinoma locoregional treatments are widely applied. Such treatments induce rapid tumor cell death and antitumor immune responses, which may favor or impair the patients' outcome. Recent immunotherapeutic studies demonstrating promising results include trials evaluating intratumoral injection of an oncolytic virus expressing granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, glypican-3 targeting treatments, and anti-CTLA4 treatment. Although some of these novel approaches may provide benefit as single agents, there is a clear opportunity in hepatocellular carcinoma to evaluate these in combination with the standard modalities to more effectively harness the immune response. PMID:24030702

Greten, Tim F; Duffy, Austin G; Korangy, Firouzeh

2013-12-15

163

[Lewis antigens in human colon carcinoma].  

PubMed

Aberrant glycosylation is a common phenomenon accompanying colon carcinoma progression. The changes observed include increased expression of Lewis blood group family antigens, particularly Lex, sialyl Lex and sialyl Lexa. Recently it was shown that these antigenic epitopes may play an important role in cell-cell homotypic as well as heterotypic adhesive interactions. This work presents a phenotypic characteristic of 11 human colon carcinoma cell lines of different degree of differentiation. Expression of potential ligands for endogenous cellular lectins: Lewis antigens, CEA and CD44v6 antigens was evaluated by cytofluorimetry. The aim of the work is to select adhesive and invasive colon carcinoma cells with specified cell surface antigen pattern, for studies on adhesive interactions with endothelial cells, occurring during early steps of metastasis. PMID:9072776

Du?, D; Paprocka, M; Matejuk, A

1996-01-01

164

Paraneoplastic polymyositis associated with a renal carcinoma.  

PubMed

A 56-year-old patient was admitted to hospital because of difficulties in swallowing and in opening his mouth. The serological transaminases were increased. Over the next 6 weeks a bioptically proven polymyositis (more proximally located) caused a respiratory insufficiency which had to be treated by artificial respiration. A tetraplegia connected with a large increase of creatine-kinase was also seen. The general investigations were focused on malign processes with a particular search for bronchial carcinoma. At first a kidney cyst detected by ultrasound but was classified as harmless by several investigators. Finally, a computer tomogram of the abdomen demonstrated a cystic degenerated renal carcinoma, which had been cytologically tested also. The clinical course showed a typical aspect of a paraneoplastic syndrome: after extended nephrectomy a distinct regression of the musculary symptoms developed, but with the development of metastases the symptoms increased again. The interdependence of polymyositis and primary renal carcinoma would appear to be proven. PMID:8228798

Wurzer, H; Brandsttter, G; Harnoncourt, K; Kullnig, P; Kleinert, R

1993-11-01

165

Sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous gland carcinoma, commonly arises in the periocular area, is an uncommon condition. It represents 15.5% of eyelid malignancies and is considered to be the third most common eyelid malignancy after basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, although few reports placed this tumor as second most common after basal cell carcinoma. It usually affects elderly women and characterized by high rate of local recurrence, regional, and distant metastases. A delay in diagnosis, which can be attributed primarily to ability of this tumor to masquerade as more benign conditions, often leads to inappropriate management with increased morbidity and mortality rates. In this study, the authors discuss key elements of the primary disease and therapeutic options available to treat such devastating problem. PMID:21120046

Wali, Upender K.; Al-Mujaini, Abdullah

2010-01-01

166

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.  

PubMed

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment. PMID:23924557

Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

2013-01-01

167

Post-Chernobyl Thyroid Carcinoma in Belarus Children and Adolescents: Comparison with Naturally Occurring Thyroid Carcinoma in Italy and France  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Chernobyl nuclear accident (April 26, 1986), childhood thyroid carcinoma had a great increase in Belarus and Ukraine, as a consequence of the exposure to iodine radioactive fallout. The epidemiological and clinical features of the disease were stud- ied in 472 patients less than 21 yr old at diagnosis, with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, representing 97.7% of all thyroid carcinomas

FURIO PACINI; TATIANA VORONTSOVA; EUGENI P. DEMIDCHIK; ELEONORA MOLINARO; LAURA AGATE; CRISTINA ROMEI; ELENA SHAVROVA; EUGENY D. CHERSTVOY; YURIY IVASHKEVITCH; ELVIRA KUCHINSKAYA; MARTIN SCHLUMBERGER; GIUSEPPE RONGA; MAURO FILESI; ALDO PINCHERA

2010-01-01

168

Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.  

PubMed

In this report, we present the clinicopathologic features of 11 cases of the plasmacytoid variant of urothelial carcinoma. This is a rare variant of bladder cancer recognized by the current World Health Organization classification of urologic tumors. The plasmacytoid component varied from 30% to 100% of the tumor specimen; in 8 cases, the plasmacytoid component comprised greater than 50% of the tumor with 2 cases showing pure plasmacytoid carcinoma. The architectural pattern of the tumor varied from solid expansile nests with noncohesive cells to mixed solid and alveolar growth; a streaking discohesive architecture was additionally present in 2 cases (18%). At histology, the individual tumor cells had an eccentrically placed nucleus and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm reminiscent of plasma cells. Most neoplastic cells had nuclei of low to intermediate nuclear grade with occasional nuclear pleomorphism. Seven of 9 mixed cases had concurrent conventional high-grade urothelial carcinoma, and the remaining 2 cases presented features of nested or micropapillary urothelial carcinoma. Small intracytoplasmic vacuoles were variably present in all cases. All patients had advanced stage cancer (>pT3), and 8 (73%) had lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that both plasmacytoid and associated conventional urothelial carcinoma were positive for cytokeratins 7, 20, and AE1/AE3 and epithelial membrane antigen; CD138 was positive in 3 cases. Follow-up information was available in all cases (range, 2-16 months; mean, 7 months). Nine of the patients died of disease from 2 to 11 months, and 2 patients were alive with disease at 8 and 16 months. In summary, plasmacytoid variant of urothelial carcinoma is an aggressive variant associated with poor prognosis that presents at an advanced clinical stage. In limited samples, it may be misdiagnosed as chronic cystitis or plasmacytoma, a pitfall further compounded by CD138 expression in some cases. Morphological distinction from other malignant neoplasms with plasmacytoid phenotype is critical for its clinical management. PMID:19297008

Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Requena, Maria J; Montironi, Rodolfo; Blanca, Ana; Cheng, Liang

2009-07-01

169

Radionuclide therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumour of the hepatocyte. It is a common malignancy worldwide and causes almost half a million deaths annually. Asia is a high risk area. Although surgery (hepatectomy or liver transplantation) is the main form of curative treatment, the majority of patients are not eligible for surgery due to extent of tumour and dysfunction of liver. Radiopharmaceuticals used for transarterial treatment of HCC were Yttrium-90 microspheres, Iodine-131 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 lipiodol, and Holmium-166 Chitosan complex. Yittrium-90 microspheres are glass or resin microspheres of mean sphere diameter of 20 to 30 micrometre. The activity administered was about 4 GBq. Reported response rate was about 20%, and median survival was 54 weeks. On inoperable tumours, reported objective response of I-131 lipiodol was 40 to 70%, and median survival was six to nine months. It showed efficacy similar to TACE. In adjuvant treatment following curative resection of HCC, reported three year survival was 86% compared with 46% for the control group. The administered activity in both adjuvant and inoperable HCC was about 2 GBq (55 mCi). Rhenium-188 lipiodol is a new radioconjugate, and using it we treated 70 patients with inoperable HCC. This treatment was a part of a multi-centre trial sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Partial response was obtained in 17% of cases, while 49% had stable disease at three months, and 34% showed disease progression. In terms of survival, 19% survived one year, 60% for six months, and 90% for three months. The mean activity was about 4.6 GBq (124 mCi). This method was safe and free from adverse effects. PMID:21614248

Sundram, FX

2006-01-01

170

Radionuclide therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumour of the hepatocyte. It is a common malignancy worldwide and causes almost half a million deaths annually. Asia is a high risk area. Although surgery (hepatectomy or liver transplantation) is the main form of curative treatment, the majority of patients are not eligible for surgery due to extent of tumour and dysfunction of liver. Radiopharmaceuticals used for transarterial treatment of HCC were Yttrium-90 microspheres, Iodine-131 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 lipiodol, and Holmium-166 Chitosan complex. Yittrium-90 microspheres are glass or resin microspheres of mean sphere diameter of 20 to 30 micrometre. The activity administered was about 4 GBq. Reported response rate was about 20%, and median survival was 54 weeks. On inoperable tumours, reported objective response of I-131 lipiodol was 40 to 70%, and median survival was six to nine months. It showed efficacy similar to TACE. In adjuvant treatment following curative resection of HCC, reported three year survival was 86% compared with 46% for the control group. The administered activity in both adjuvant and inoperable HCC was about 2 GBq (55 mCi). Rhenium-188 lipiodol is a new radioconjugate, and using it we treated 70 patients with inoperable HCC. This treatment was a part of a multi-centre trial sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Partial response was obtained in 17% of cases, while 49% had stable disease at three months, and 34% showed disease progression. In terms of survival, 19% survived one year, 60% for six months, and 90% for three months. The mean activity was about 4.6 GBq (124 mCi). This method was safe and free from adverse effects. PMID:21614248

Sundram, Fx

2006-07-01

171

Modeling anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in the mouse.  

PubMed

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the least common form of thyroid cancer; however, it accounts for the majority of deaths associated with this family of malignancies. A number of genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse models recapitulating the genetic and histological features of anaplastic thyroid cancer have been very recently generated and represent an invaluable tool to dissect the mechanisms involved in the progression from indolent, well-differentiated tumors to aggressive, undifferentiated carcinomas and to identify novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the relevant characteristics associated with these models and on what we have learned in terms of anaplastic thyroid cancer biology, genetics, and response to targeted therapy. PMID:25420535

Champa, Devora; Di Cristofano, Antonio

2015-02-01

172

[Merkel cell carcinoma: (r)evolution].  

PubMed

Merkel Cell Carcinoma (CCM) is an aggressive cutaneous tumor of the elderly, which has become the second cause of mortality linked to skin cancer. This has led clinicians and scientists to devote more time to the study of this rare tumor, announcing to a revolution in our understanding, diagnosis and therapy of this cancer. We present here these recent advances, which illustrate the exponential growth of knowledge in the medical field, drawing comparisons with more frequent cancers such as melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23621042

Feldmeyer, Laurence; Gaide, Olivier

2013-04-01

173

Remote cutaneous breast carcinoma metastasis mimicking dermatitis.  

PubMed

Cutaneous metastases from primary internal malignancies are an uncommon presentation. Cutaneous metastases are more frequently seen in breast cancer than in any other visceral malignancy in women. Medical practitioners should be vigilant of the possibility of unusual presentations of metastatic disease in breast cancer patients with lobular carcinoma presenting as cutaneous lesions mimicking benign dermatological conditions. Herein, we present a case of a 75-year-old woman presenting with cutaneous lobular breast carcinoma metastases on her anterior right leg, which had previously been misdiagnosed as dermatitis for 9 years. PMID:25657439

Navaratnam, Annakan V; Chandrasekharan, Sankaran

2015-01-01

174

Remote Cutaneous Breast Carcinoma Metastasis Mimicking Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous metastases from primary internal malignancies are an uncommon presentation. Cutaneous metastases are more frequently seen in breast cancer than in any other visceral malignancy in women. Medical practitioners should be vigilant of the possibility of unusual presentations of metastatic disease in breast cancer patients with lobular carcinoma presenting as cutaneous lesions mimicking benign dermatological conditions. Herein, we present a case of a 75-year-old woman presenting with cutaneous lobular breast carcinoma metastases on her anterior right leg, which had previously been misdiagnosed as dermatitis for 9 years. PMID:25657439

Navaratnam, Annakan V; Chandrasekharan, Sankaran

2015-01-01

175

Value of cytoprognostic classification in breast carcinomas.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and four cases of breast carcinoma were classified according to cytological features, and these were related to prognosis. A disease free interval of seven years was 95% for patients with grade I, 70% for those with grade II, and 45% for those with grade III tumours. The risk of recurrence was also related to tumour size and the presence or absence of steroid receptors in the tumour. Cytological classification of breast carcinoma based on fine needle aspiration provides valuable information concerning the prognosis of patients, which is relevant to their clinical management. Images PMID:3722403

Mouriquand, J; Gozlan-Fior, M; Villemain, D; Bouchet, Y; Sage, J C; Mermet, M A; Bolla, M

1986-01-01

176

Systemic Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Understanding core signaling pathways in hepatic carcinogenesis has brought about a new era in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Sorafenib was the first molecular targeted therapy to be approved for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and is the benchmark for all other therapies. Cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay treatment of advanced cholangiocarcinoma and there are no US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecular targeted therapies. If clinicians are able to minimize the toxicity of therapy by targeting the driving mechanism of cell proliferation, they will be able to significantly improve the survival and quality of life of patients. PMID:25444475

Chung, Vincent

2015-01-01

177

Bartholin gland carcinoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Bartholin gland carcinomas (BGCs) are extremely rare tumors accounting for <1% of all female genital malignancies. The current study presents a 49-year-old female with an eight-year history of BGC. A mass was identified in the vulva and the patient underwent an excisional biopsy, which revealed a left Bartholin adenoid cystic carcinoma. The patient subsequently received surgery, chemotherapy and biological therapy, and has survived. Therefore, the present case indicates that surgery is important for the treatment of BGC, however; multimodal therapy may be a more effective treatment strategy. PMID:25013508

ZHAN, PING; LI, GANG; LIU, BIN; MAO, XI-GUANG

2014-01-01

178

Bartholin gland carcinoma: A case report.  

PubMed

Bartholin gland carcinomas (BGCs) are extremely rare tumors accounting for <1% of all female genital malignancies. The current study presents a 49-year-old female with an eight-year history of BGC. A mass was identified in the vulva and the patient underwent an excisional biopsy, which revealed a left Bartholin adenoid cystic carcinoma. The patient subsequently received surgery, chemotherapy and biological therapy, and has survived. Therefore, the present case indicates that surgery is important for the treatment of BGC, however; multimodal therapy may be a more effective treatment strategy. PMID:25013508

Zhan, Ping; Li, Gang; Liu, Bin; Mao, Xi-Guang

2014-08-01

179

[Mucinous breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation].  

PubMed

Mucinous breast carcinomas, denominated also gelatinous, mucoid and colloid (collomas), represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. More than half of them exhibit signs of neuroendocrine differentiation. Eighteen mucus producing carcinomas of the breast are subjected to morphological study. On the ground of demonstrating argyrophilia by the methods of Grimelius and Churukian--Shenk, and presence of secreting granules during electron microscopic study, they are assigned under the heading apudomas, i.e. tumors of the diffuse endocrine system, or the so-called APUD-system. The important practical implications of demonstrating neuroendocrine cells with a special reference to the biological patterns of this particular type of tumors are discussed. PMID:11194626

Georgiev, Ch; Damianov, D; Iliev, I; Todorov, T; Boshnakova, Ts

1999-01-01

180

Endometrial carcinoma arising in a bicornuate uterus  

PubMed Central

Endometrial carcinomas arising in a bicornuate uterus are rare, only five case of which have been previously reported. We present a case of endometrial cancer arising in a bicornuate uterus, occurring in a 65-year-old woman. Unlike previously reported cases, our case showed mixed endometrial adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in one horn and focal adenocarcinoma in the other. Adequate tissue sampling of both horns is necessary for accurate diagnosis of malignancy in patients with a bicornuate uterus. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this abnormality in cases when endometrial cancer is suspected but histology fails to confirm. PMID:25264532

Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cha, Dong Soo

2014-01-01

181

Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 9 9?cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:25349753

Simes, Jorge; Gonalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

2014-01-01

182

Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

1983-11-01

183

Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5th and 6th decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed. PMID:25328314

Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

2014-01-01

184

Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 4?cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10?mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family. PMID:21188232

Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Gcin, Zuhal; Keklik, Bar??; zyalval?, Glzade; Ba?aran, Karaca

2011-01-01

185

Temporally separated bilateral anal sac gland carcinomas in four dogs.  

PubMed

Anal sac gland carcinoma arising from the apocrine secretory epithelium in the anal sac wall, is locally invasive and highly metastatic. The majority of anal sac gland carcinomas are unilateral on presentation, but bilateral tumours have been identified. This case series presents the outcome of four unique cases of unilateral anal sac gland carcinoma which subsequently developed contralateral anal sac gland carcinoma 50 to 390 days after removal of the initial tumour. Median survival was 1035 days after initial diagnosis and 807 days after diagnosis of the second anal sac gland carcinoma. PMID:23659267

Bowlt, K L; Friend, E J; Delisser, P; Murphy, S; Polton, G

2013-08-01

186

Thymomas and thymic carcinomas: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.  

PubMed

Masses in the anterior mediastinum can be neoplasms (eg, thymomas, thymic carcinomas, or lung metastases) or non-neoplastic conditions (eg, intrathoracic goiter). Thymomas are the most common primary tumor in the anterior mediastinum, although they are rare. Thymic carcinomas are very rare. Thymomas and thymic carcinomas originate in the thymus. Although thymomas can spread locally, they are much less invasive than thymic carcinomas. Patients with thymomas have 5-year survival rates of approximately 78%. However, 5-year survival rates for thymic carcinomas are only approximately 40%. These guidelines outline the evaluation, treatment, and management of these mediastinal tumors. PMID:23667206

Ettinger, David S; Riely, Gregory J; Akerley, Wallace; Borghaei, Hossein; Chang, Andrew C; Cheney, Richard T; Chirieac, Lucian R; D'Amico, Thomas A; Demmy, Todd L; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Grannis, Frederic W; Grant, Stefan C; Horn, Leora; Jahan, Thierry M; Komaki, Ritsuko; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring; Kris, Mark G; Krug, Lee M; Lackner, Rudy P; Lennes, Inga T; Loo, Billy W; Martins, Renato; Otterson, Gregory A; Patel, Jyoti D; Pinder-Schenck, Mary C; Pisters, Katherine M; Reckamp, Karen; Rohren, Eric; Shapiro, Theresa A; Swanson, Scott J; Tauer, Kurt; Wood, Douglas E; Yang, Stephen C; Gregory, Kristina; Hughes, Miranda

2013-05-01

187

Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

2015-01-08

188

Renal pelvic urothelial carcinoma with vena caval thrombus mimicking renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old man presented with a right renal mass with a vena caval thrombus on computed tomography that was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. The results of routine laboratory examinations and urinalysis were within normal limits. Preoperative planning was critical owing to the presence of the vena caval thrombus. A radical nephrectomy, vena caval thrombectomy, and regional lymphadenectomy were done. The pathologic report was consistent with a high-grade, invasive urothelial carcinoma, with sarcomatoid differentiation involving the renal vein and inferior vena cava (Stage IV, T4N0M0). Thus, this was a rare case of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy with the methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, cisplatinum regimen is scheduled. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Korea of upper tract urothelial carcinoma of the sarcomatoid type with a vena caval thrombus. PMID:25237466

Diaz, Richilda Red; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Lee, Joo Yong; Nahm, Ji Hae; Cho, Kang Su; Ham, Won Sik; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk

2014-09-01

189

[Adenoid basal carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the uterine cervix].  

PubMed

Adenoid basal carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are rare primary cervical neoplasms occurring in postmenopausal women. They are generally regarded as distinct entities on the basis of their distinctive morphology and a different biological behaviour. Although the separation of these two entities is still mandatory, some rare complex cases may show overlapping pathological features and are difficult to classify. We report a case of composite cervical tumor with both types of carcinoma, an in situ epidermoid carcinoma and a hitherto undescribed clear cell component, each with a different morphology and immunophenotype. The adenoid basal component is mainly immunoreactive for cytokeratin KL1. The adenoid cystic component is strongly stained for smooth muscle actin and is associated with a hyaline stroma immunostained for collagen IV. PMID:9296580

Lefrancq, T; de Muret, A; Michalak, S; Lhuintre, Y; Fetissof, F

1997-07-01

190

Mixed adenocarcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate: A case report  

PubMed Central

Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) of the prostate are rare, but highly aggressive tumors. The occurrence of mixed carcinomas in the prostate is even more rarely reported. The present study reports the case of a 62-year-old male who was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma accompanied by multiple bone metastases, as shown by a needle biopsy and skeletal computed tomography scan. The patient was treated with hormonal therapy, but thereafter, specimens from a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) were found to be composed of three histologically distinct elements: ASC, SC and adenocarcinoma. The level of p53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in detail, and it was found that this was significantly increased in the TURP samples compared with the needle biopsy samples. The abnormal level of p53 was likely associated with the prognosis of the patient; the patient succumbed to prostate carcinoma two months after the confirmation of the diagnosis. PMID:25295118

ZHANG, ZHONGFU; WANG, YADONG; ZHAO, QING; LI, GANHONG; ZHAO, XINGQI; LI, JUN; LI, XIANXIN

2014-01-01

191

Sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris).  

PubMed

A sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. The second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. The purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. Although there is little information about diseases affecting this species, it is known that neoplastic disorders are fairly common in African hedgehogs. The mammary carcinoma is considered to be the most common neoplasm in these animals; however, the presentation of sebaceous carcinoma is rare. In hedgehogs, the simultaneous presence of two neoplasms is common, which is why special attention should be paid to the presentation of other tumors during the early detection of a neoplastic process as this will greatly facilitate the optimal treatment and improve the long-term prognosis of affected animals. PMID:25314843

Matute, Alonso Reyes; Bernal, Adriana Mendez; Lezama, Jos Ramrez; Guadalupe, Manzano Pech Linaloe; Antonio, Galicia Avalos Marco

2014-09-01

192

Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini and renal medullary carcinoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 52 cases of rare aggressive subtypes of renal cell carcinoma with a focus on their interrelationship.  

PubMed

Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini and renal medullary carcinoma are rare aggressive neoplasms of putative distal nephron origin. First described in 1949, case reports and review articles constitute a major source of information on collecting duct carcinoma, whereas Davis and colleagues and the pediatric tumor registry have contributed the seminal works on renal medullary carcinoma. Here we present a detailed study of collecting duct carcinoma (n=39) and renal medullary carcinoma (n=13), characterizing these rare neoplasms and analyzing their interrelationship. Both collecting duct carcinoma and renal medullary carcinoma exhibited significant similarities, such as predilection for the right kidney, tumor mass with an epicenter in the renal medulla, and a mean size of 7 cm. Overall, both tumors exhibited a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma histology with desmoplastic stromal response (100%), inflammatory infiltrate (100%), frequent perinephric extension (collecting duct carcinoma: 97%; renal medullary carcinoma: 83%), lymphovascular invasion (100%), intraluminal mucin (collecting duct carcinoma: 42%; renal medullary carcinoma: 73%), high nuclear grade (97%), overlapping immunoreactivity for Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (collecting duct carcinoma: 75%; renal medullary carcinoma:55%), CK7 (collecting duct carcinoma: 44%; renal medullary carcinoma: 71%), and high-molecular weight cytokeratin (collecting duct carcinoma: 26%; renal medullary carcinoma: 29%), and nonimmunoreactivity for Ksp-cadherin. Histologically, collecting duct carcinoma frequently had tubular, tubulopapillary, or irregular glandular architecture, whereas renal medullary carcinoma commonly demonstrated islands of anastomosing tubules and cords forming irregular microcystic spaces. Multiple metastases to the lymph nodes, lung, bone, and liver were observed in both categories at presentation (collecting duct carcinoma: 17%; renal medullary carcinoma: 36%). Only patients with organ-confined small tumors were disease free beyond the median survival time. Differential clinical features between collecting duct carcinoma and renal medullary carcinoma included proclivity for younger male individuals of African ancestry with hemoglobin abnormalities and a shorter median survival of 17 weeks (vs. 44 wk for collecting duct carcinoma) for renal medullary carcinoma. The markedly overlapping clinical features, histology, immunophenotype, metastasis patterns, and uniformly aggressive outcome in collecting duct and renal medullary carcinomas suggest that renal medullary carcinoma is a distinctive clinicopathologic subtype within the entity of collecting duct carcinoma. The extremely poor prognosis and ongoing clinical trials with specific therapeutic protocols argue for their accurate distinction from other renal cell carcinoma subtypes. PMID:22895263

Gupta, Ruta; Billis, Athanase; Shah, Rajal B; Moch, Holger; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Jochum, Wolfram; Hes, Ondrej; Bacchi, Carlos E; de Castro, Marilia G; Hansel, Donna E; Zhou, Ming; Vankalakunti, Mahesha; Salles, Paulo G; Cabrera, Rafael A; Gown, Allen M; Amin, Mahul B

2012-09-01

193

Mutations of the TERT promoter are common in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Telomerase is frequently expressed in cancer and contributes to carcinogenesis. Two recent publications report the identification of a set of recurrent mutations in melanoma in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) that appears to be the result of mutagenesis from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Both groups reported that the mutations increase the transcription of TERT. This prompted our search for similar mutations in two other UV-related skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. We found that the activating TERT promoter mutations reported in melanoma are also frequent in squamous cell carcinoma (50%) and basal cell carcinoma, the latter including both sporadic tumors (78%) and tumors from patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (68%). These mutations were found in only 1 of 11 Bowen's disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ) specimens, and in none of 15 non-malignant skin specimens and 57 blood specimens. The mutations were frequently homozygous or hemizygous, with little or no normal signal at the mutated positions. These data suggest that TERT promoter mutations are the most frequent putative oncogenic mutations in cutaneous cancer. PMID:24030752

Scott, Glynis A; Laughlin, Todd S; Rothberg, Paul G

2014-04-01

194

Sarcomatoid carcinoma with a predominant basaloid squamous carcinoma component: the first report of an unusual biphasic tumor of the ureter.  

PubMed

Malignant tumors of the ureter that display biphasic patterns are very rare; they include carcinosarcomas, sarcomatoid carcinomas and carcinomas with pseudosarcomatous stroma. Although the distinction between carcinosarcomas and sarcomatoid carcinomas has been extensively discussed in the past, the recent World Health Organization classification of urinary tract tumors (2004) does not distinguish the two lesions and use the term sarcomatoid carcinoma to represent these biphasic tumors. The epithelial components of previously reported ureteral biphasic tumors comprise transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In this paper, we report the first case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the ureter with a predominant basaloid squamous carcinoma component. A 63-year-old man who had developed asymptomatic gross hematuria was diagnosed with a right ureteral tumor and underwent a right nephroureterectomy. Macroscopic examination of the excised tumor revealed a polypoid mass. Histopathologic examination exposed a tumor with malignant epithelial and sarcomatous components. The malignant epithelial component was predominantly composed of basaloid squamous carcinoma, and the sarcomatous component was mostly composed of undifferentiated spindle cells. A small focus of a chondrosarcomatous component was present. There were also transitional zones between the two components. In addition, the spindle cells of the sarcomatous component were partially positive for cytokeratin 7. We believe that the findings of this case study will increase the morphological diversity used for diagnosing malignant tumors of the ureter. PMID:18057014

Maeda, Daichi; Fujii, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Kazumi; Tominaga, Takashi; Fukayama, Masashi; Mori, Masaya

2007-11-01

195

Serum calcitonin negative Medullary thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) constitute about 5 to 7 % of thyroid neoplasms. They originate from parafollicular C cells which produce Calcitonin, a hormone which has an impact on calcium metabolism and represents the biochemical activity of MTC. In rare cases pre-operative serum calcitonin can be negative. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 73-year-old female patient with a rare

Michael Sand; Marcos Gelos; Daniel Sand; Falk G Bechara; Gerd Bonhag; Ellen Welsing; Benno Mann

2006-01-01

196

Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma.

Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

1990-05-01

197

Radiotherapy Alone for Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and po- tentially aggressive cancer of the skin. Cumulative data from small retrospective series have supported treat- ment by wide excision and adjuvant radiotherapy. How- ever, wide excision may be difficult to perform in pa- tients with tumors of the head and neck or in older populations with comorbidities that may be incompat-

Laurent Mortier; Xavier Mirabel; Charles Fournier; Frederic Piette; Eric Lartigau

2003-01-01

198

Molecularly targeted therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an annual incidence of over 660,000 deaths, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death globally. This disease is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, when potentially curative therapies are not feasible. HCC is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Given the clear need, clinical development of novel

Hung Huynh

2010-01-01

199

Simple atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric carcinoma was detected nine, 10, 18, and 21 years after the biopsy diagnosis of atrophic gastritis in four patients of a group of 40. The gastritis was presumed to be of the simple type. Tests of vitamin B12 absorption in three patients gave normal results, no gastric autoantibodies were detected in the two patients tested, in all patients histological

I. R. Walker; R. G. Strickland; B. Ungar; I. R. Mackay

1971-01-01

200

The ? 6-integrin receptor in pancreatic carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The ?6-containing integrin was suggested to be involved in the process of tumor invasion and metastasis. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the expression and function of this adhesion receptor in pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: Integrin expression was investigated in pancreatic tissue and tumor cell lines using immunohistochemistry. Radioimmunoprecipitation was used to determine the complex composition of

Rolf J. Weinel; Annette Rosendahl; Elisabeth Pinschmidt; Oliver Kisker; Babette Simon; Sentot Santoso

1995-01-01

201

Strategies for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) generally develops as a consequence of underlying liver disease, most commonly viral hepatitis. The development of HCC follows an orderly progression from cirrhosis to dysplastic nodules to early cancer development, which can be reliably cured if discovered before the development of vascular invasion (typically occurring at a tumor diameter of approximately 2 cm). The identifiable population at

Sasan Roayaie; Manousos Konstadoulakis; Myron Schwartz

2007-01-01

202

Targeted Antibody Therapy for Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, 20 patients with recurrent, metastatic, or otherwise unresectable adrenocortical carcinoma who have not been previously treated with systemic therapies will receive IMC-A12 and mitotane to determine the safety of the combined therapy. If the combination is safe, an additional 102 patients will be randomly assigned to receive the combined treatment or mitotane alone.

203

Pituitary Carcinoma: Difficult Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Context: Although pituitary tumors are common, pituitary carcinoma is very rare and is only diagnosed when pituitary tumor noncontiguous with the sellar region is demonstrated. Diagnosis is difficult, resulting in delays that may adversely effect outcome that is traditionally poor. Barriers to earlier diagnosis and management strategies for pituitary carcinoma are discussed. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was employed to identify relevant studies, a review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated from the author's perspective. Evidence Synthesis: The available data highlight the difficulties in diagnosis and management and practical challenges in conducting clinical trials in this rare condition. They suggest that earlier diagnosis with aggressive multimodal therapy may be advantageous in some cases. Conclusions: Although pituitary carcinoma remains difficult to diagnose and treat, recent developments have led to improved outcomes in selected cases. With broader use of molecular markers, efforts to modify current histopathological criteria for pituitary carcinoma diagnosis may now be possible. This would assist earlier diagnosis and, in combination with targeted therapies, potentially improve long-term survival. PMID:21956419

2011-01-01

204

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

205

Surgical Treatment of Thoracic Esophagus Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with a western series of 521 squamous cell carcinomas of the thoracic esophagus treated over a recent 9-year period. Six points of the preoperative work-up are discussed: (1) total endoscopy; (2) respiratory function; (3) hepatic function as most of the patients were heavy smokers and alcoholic; (4) nutritional status; (5) CT scan, and (6) ultrasonography in

F. Fekete; B. Gayet; A. Favas; F. Langonnet

1990-01-01

206

Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence  

PubMed Central

The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, represents an important clinical problem, since it may occur after both surgical and medical treatment. The recurrence rate involves 2 phases: an early phase and a late phase. The early phase usually occurs within 2 years after resection; it is mainly related to local invasion and intrahepatic metastases and, therefore, to the intrinsic biology of the tumor. On the other hand, the late phase occurs more than 2 years after surgery and is mainly related to de novo tumor formation as a consequence of the carcinogenic cirrhotic environment. Since recent studies have reported that early and late recurrences may have different risk factors, it is clinically important to recognize these factors in the individual patient as soon as possible. The aim of this review was, therefore, to identify predicting factors for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, by means of invasive and non-invasive methods, according to the different therapeutic strategies available. In particular the role of emerging techniques (e.g., transient elastography) and biological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in predicting recurrence have been discussed. In particular, invasive methods were differentiated from non-invasive ones for research purposes, taking into consideration the emerging role of the genetic signature of hepatocellular carcinoma in order to better allocate treatment strategies and surveillance follow-up in patients with this type of tumor. PMID:24876717

Colecchia, Antonio; Schiumerini, Ramona; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Taddia, Martina; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

2014-01-01

207

Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Summary We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumors and ~25% of high-grade endometrioid tumors have extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low ER/PR levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumors have few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A, KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumors we identified had a dramatically increased transversion mutation frequency, and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy number low, and copy number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may impact post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumors. PMID:23636398

2013-01-01

208

Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinations Materials and methods This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinoma. All patients had undergone diagnostic sonomammography. The imaging findings were identified by experienced breast imagers. Final surgical pathology results were used as the reference standard. Results Thirty-two women ranging in age from 42 to 63 years old (mean age, 53 years), All had biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinomas. Common features on mammogram included dense mass followed by architectural distortion; three cases showed breast asymmetry and one case was reported as normal. On ultrasound, common features included solid mass with spiculated margins, posterior shadowing, and perpendicular to the skin. Conclusion Although no specific features could be linked to invasive lobular carcinoma, care should be directed to subtle signs such as architectural distortion and breast asymmetry in order not to miss any lesions. The combination of mammographic and sonographic helps to decrease the relatively high false negative diagnosis of this type of breast cancer. PMID:24367199

Kombar, Osama R; Fahmy, Dalia M; Brown, Mary V; Farouk, Omar; El-Damshety, Osama

2012-01-01

209

CARCINOMA OF THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN MEDAKA  

EPA Science Inventory

Eight cases of acinar cell carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were diagnosed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from a pool of approximately 10,000 specimens used in a variety of carcinogenesis bioassays. hree cases occurred in specimens from control groups and one case in a sp...

210

Proton Beam Therapy for Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT) in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with HCC larger than 10 cm were treated with proton beam therapy at our institution between 1985 and 2006. Twenty-one of the 22 patients were not surgical candidates because of advanced HCC, intercurrent disease, or old

Shinji Sugahara; Yoshiko Oshiro; Hidetsugu Nakayama; Kuniaki Fukuda; Masashi Mizumoto; Masato Abei; Junichi Shoda; Yasushi Matsuzaki; Eriko Thono; Mari B. A. Tokita; Koji Tsuboi; Koichi Tokuuye

2010-01-01

211

Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were

Takayuki. Hashimoto; Koichi Tokuuye; Nobuyoshi Fukumitsu; Hiroshi Igaki; Masaharu Hata; Kenji Kagei; Shinji Sugahara; Kiyoshi Ohara; Yasushi Matsuzaki; Yasuyuki Akine

2006-01-01

212

[Thyroglossal cyst and papillary carcinoma. Management proposals].  

PubMed

The thyroid descends through the foramen cecum leaving the thyroglossal duct, which disappears between the fifth and the tenth week of pregnancy. The lack of involution of any part of this duct results in thyroglossal cyst formation. Its diagnostic approach is made by cervical ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Approximately 1 % of the thyroglossal cyst formation contains malignant elements, and the most reported primary tumor has been papillary carcinoma. The recommended treatment for these carcinomas is controversial and it has evolved as time goes by. From Sistrunk procedure to neck dissection with total thyroidectomy and complementary therapies, such as iodine ablation and thyroid supplements, yet there is still no consensus as to the type of surgery and postoperative management it should be used to treat this carcinoma. Therapy should be applied according to each specific case, and it should be based on histological diagnosis, the invasive character of the tumor, and the lymph node affectation. In this paper we review the literature published so far with regards to the treatment of this carcinoma. PMID:25301137

Palomino-Martnez, Brisa Denise; Beristain-Hernndez, Jos Luis; Piscil-Salazar, Marco Antonio; Villalpando-Mendoza, Csar Javier; Velzquez-Garca, Jos Arturo

2014-01-01

213

Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the nasal cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five patients with primary epithelial carcinoma of the nasal cavity without nodal or distant metastases were treated by irradiation between 1967 and 1978. Small field beam-directed techniques delivered 6000 to 7000 rads with conventional fractionation. Control of the primary tumor was achieved in 21 (84%) patients after irradiation. All five treatment failures (one infield only, three infield recurrence with lymph

C. T. Chung; D. D. Rabuzzi; R. H. Sagerman; G. A. King; R. R. Gacek

1980-01-01

214

Squamous cell carcinoma complicating perianal hidradenitis suppurativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hidradenitis suppurativa or Verneuil's disease is usually a chronic, recurrent, suppurative and cicatricial disorder. It most often affects the skin of the axillae, groins and perineum, and less commonly the buttocks and upper thighs. A squamous cell carcinoma located in the hidradenitis-affected area is a rare complication. We present a review of the twenty-six published cases adding one of our

D. Prez-Diaz; M. Calvo-Serrano; E. Mrtinez-Hijosa; L. Fuenmayor-Valera; F. Muoz-Jimnez; F. Turgano-Fuentes; E. Valle

1995-01-01

215

Pharmacotherapy for Hormone Excess in Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The morbidity caused by adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) derives both from the spread of malignant cells into other organs and\\u000a from the consequences of hormone excess. Consequently, the goals of treatment in ACC include both control of tumor growth\\u000a and mitigation of the effects derived from hormone excess.

Richard J. Auchus

216

Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiofrequency (RF) ablation resulted in a higher complete necrosis than percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), above all in infiltrating lesions, and requires fewer treatment sessions in the treatment of small size tumors. We achieved 90% of complete necrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

Tito Livraghi; Sergio Lazzaroni; Franca Meloni

2001-01-01

217

Bilateral ovarian carcinoma with bilateral uveal melanoma.  

PubMed Central

A case of bilateral uveal melanoma in a 60-year-old woman in association with primary bilateral ovarian carcinoma is described. This is the first case in which ultrastructural studies have been performed on the ocular tumours. Seven previously described cases are summarised, and the extreme rarity of such reports would suggest that this may indeed be a new syndrome. Images PMID:6704361

Mullaney, J; Mooney, D; O'Connor, M; McDonald, G S

1984-01-01

218

Cathepsin B trafficking in thyroid carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background The cysteine peptidase cathepsin B is important in thyroid physiology by being involved in prohormone processing initiated in the follicle lumen and completed in endo-lysosomal compartments. However, cathepsin B has also been localized to the extrafollicular space in thyroid cancer tissue, and is therefore suggested to promote invasiveness and metastasis in thyroid carcinomas through e.g. extracellular matrix degradation. Methods Transport of cathepsin B in normal thyroid epithelial and carcinoma cells was investigated through immunolocalization of endogenous cathepsin B in combination with probing protease activity. Transport analyses of cathepsin B-eGFP and its active-site mutant counterpart cathepsin B-C29A-eGFP were used to test whether intrinsic sequences of a protease influence its trafficking. Results Our approach employing activity based probes, which distinguish between active and inactive cysteine proteases, demonstrated that both eGFP-tagged normal and active-site mutated cathepsin B chimeras reached the endo-lysosomal compartments of thyroid epithelial cells, thereby ruling out alterations of sorting signals by mutagenesis of the active-site cysteine. Analysis of chimeric protein trafficking further showed that GFP-tagged cathepsin B was transported to the expected compartments, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and endo-lysosomes of normal and thyroid carcinoma cell lines. However, the active-site mutated cathepsin B chimera was mostly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi of KTC-1 and HTh7 cells. Hence the latter, as the least polarized of the three carcinoma cell lines analyzed, exhibited severe transport defects in that it retained chimeras in pre-endolysosomal compartments. Furthermore, secretion of endogenous cathepsin B and of other cysteine peptidases, which occurs at the apical pole of normal thyroid epithelial cells, was most prominent and occurred in a non-directed fashion in thyroid carcinoma cells. Conclusions Transport of endogenous and eGFP-tagged active and inactive cathepsin B in the cultured thyroid carcinoma cells reflected the distribution patterns of this protease in thyroid carcinoma tissue. Hence, our studies showed that sub-cellular localization of proteolysis is a crucial step in regulation of tissue homeostasis. We conclude that any interference with protease trafficking resulting in altered regulation of proteolytic events leads to, or is a consequence of the onset and progression of thyroid cancer. PMID:21835049

2011-01-01

219

Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2015-01-13

220

Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by variable clinical manifestations. When located in the gingiva, this neoplasm may mimic common inflammatory lesions. The aim of this study was to report a case of atypical squamous cell carcinoma, in which the patient had no risk factors for the development of this neoplasm. Methods A 61 year old Caucasian female was seen with a 3 month history of a rapidly growing, painful nodule in the gingiva adjacent to tooth #11. Clinical examination revealed a proliferative lesion in the vestibular marginal gingiva of teeth #11 and #12, presenting with purulent exudation. Thus, in view of the clinical symptoms and differential diagnosis of an infectious granulomatous process and malignant neoplasm, an incisional biopsy was obtained from the lesion. Results The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made and fourteen days after incisional biopsy, healing was found to be unsatisfactory. The patient was referred for treatment consisting of surgical excision of the tumour. A removable partial denture was fabricated for rehabilitation, one month after surgery of the maxilla; the patient was submitted to dissection of the regional lymph nodes and radiotherapy for an additional 3 months. Three years after the end of treatment, the patient continues to be followed-up and does not show any sign of recurrence. Conclusions Gingival squamous cell carcinoma is a condition which chance of cure is higher when carcinomatous lesions are diagnosed and treated early. In this instance dentists play an important role in early detection of gingival squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24421976

Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimares; de Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva; Salgado, Jos Antnio Pereira; Brando, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

2010-01-01

221

Advances in the pathology of penile carcinomas.  

PubMed

The incidence of penile cancer varies from country to country, with the highest figures reported for countries in Africa, South America, and Asia and lowest in the United States and Europe. Causes of this variation are not clear, but they are thought to be related to human papillomavirus infection, smoking, lack of circumcision, chronic inflammation, and poor genital hygiene. Most penile tumors are squamous cell carcinomas, and a variegated spectrum of distinct morphologies is currently recognized. Each one of these subtypes has distinctive pathologic and clinical features. About half of penile carcinomas are usual squamous cell carcinomas, and the rest corresponds to verrucous, warty, basaloid, warty-basaloid, papillary, pseudohyperplastic, pseudoglandular, adenosquamous, sarcomatoid, and cuniculatum carcinomas. Previous studies have found a consistent association of tumor cell morphology and human papillomavirus presence in penile carcinomas. Those tumors composed of small- to intermediate-sized, basaloid ("blue") cells are often human papillomavirus positive, whereas human papillomavirus prevalence is lower in tumors showing large, keratinizing, maturing eosinophilic ("pink") cells. Human papillomavirus-related tumors affect younger patients, whereas human papillomavirus-unrelated tumors are seen in older patients with phimosis, lichen sclerosus, or squamous hyperplasia. This morphologic distinctiveness is also observed in penile intraepithelial neoplasia. The specific aim of this review is to provide a detailed discussion on the macroscopic and microscopic features of all major subtypes of penile cancer. We also discuss the role of pathologic features in the prognosis of penile cancer, the characteristics of penile precursor lesions, and the use of immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of invasive and precursor lesions. PMID:22595011

Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

2012-06-01

222

Familial Follicular Cell-Derived Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancer, papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas comprise 95% of all thyroid malignancies. Familial follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancers contribute 5% of cases. Such familial follicular cell-derived carcinomas or non-medullary thyroid carcinomas (NMTC) are divided into two clinicalpathological groups. The syndromic-associated group is composed of predominately non-thyroidal tumors and includes Pendred syndrome, Warner syndrome, Carney complex (CNC) type 1, PTEN-hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS; Cowden disease), and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)/Gardner syndrome. Other conditions with less established links to the development of follicular cell-derived tumors include ataxiatelangiectasia syndrome, McCune Albright syndrome, and PeutzJeghers syndrome. The final group encompasses syndromes typified by NMTC, as well as pure familial (f) PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with multinodular goiter, and fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma. This heterogeneous group of diseases does not have the established genotypephenotype correlations known as in the familial C-cell-derived tumors or medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). Clinicians should have the knowledge to identify the likelihood of a patient presenting with thyroid cancer having an additional underlying familial syndrome stemming from characteristics by examining morphological findings that would alert pathologists to recommend that patients undergo molecular genetic evaluation. This review discusses the clinical and pathological findings of patients with familial PTC, such as FAP, CNC, Werner syndrome, and Pendred syndrome, and the heterogeneous group of familial PTC. PMID:22654876

Son, Eun Ju; Nos, Vnia

2012-01-01

223

Osteopontin expression and distribution in human carcinomas.  

PubMed Central

Osteopontin (OPN), a secreted adhesive glycoprotein, is significantly overexpressed in a variety of experimental models of malignancy. Moreover, increased levels of OPN have been detected in the blood of patients with metastatic carcinoma. To investigate OPN expression and distribution in human carcinomas directly, we studied a wide variety of common tumors by Northern analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. All 14 tumors studied by Northern analysis showed very substantial increases in OPN messenger (m)RNA when compared to corresponding normal tissues. Moreover, intense labeling for OPN mRNA was detected in 71 of 76 carcinomas studied by in situ hybridization. In most of the carcinomas studied (colon, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, breast, lung, bladder, prostate, ovary, thyroid, and melanoma), tumor cells did not label detectably for OPN mRNA; however, macrophages intimately associated with tumor cells labeled strongly for the OPN transcript. In carcinomas of the kidney and endometrium, both tumor cells and host macrophages labeled strongly for OPN mRNA. The presence of OPN mRNA in macrophages was particularly pronounced at the edge of tumors (ie, the tumor/stroma interface) and in areas of tumor necrosis. Although in most cases tumor cells did not label detectably for OPN mRNA, both tumor cells and macrophages stained for OPN protein, suggesting that OPN secreted by macrophages may bind to tumor cells, possibly through the glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartate-serine cell binding domain in OPN. Collectively, these data suggest that OPN functions in adhesive interactions at the tumor/host interface and thereby may influence processes such as invasion and metastasis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8080043

Brown, L. F.; Papadopoulos-Sergiou, A.; Berse, B.; Manseau, E. J.; Tognazzi, K.; Perruzzi, C. A.; Dvorak, H. F.; Senger, D. R.

1994-01-01

224

Unusual mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by intraoperative histological examination  

PubMed Central

As rare condition, mucoepidermoid carcinoma may occur in liver although its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. We report here a case of intrahepatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma misdiagnosed as cholangiocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma by preoperative radiologic and intraoperative histological examinations, respectively. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of progressive jaundice, epigastric discomfort, and weight loss with slightly increased carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Computed tomography (CT) showed a large tumor, 8.0cm in diameter, in the left lobe of the liver. A preliminary diagnosis of a cholangiocarcinoma of the liver was made. In the intraoperative histological examination, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made based on predominantly invasive epidermoid cells with abundant keratinization and absence of mucin-producing cell component. However, postoperative histological diagnosis of the lesion was mucoepidermiod carcinoma of liver by thoroughly microscopical inspection and the presence of mucin-producing cells confirmed by Alcian blue staining. Despite surgical excision and chemotherapy, the tumor showed very aggressive malignancy with tumor recurrence. The patient died shortly afterward, surviving 6months after surgery. Due to its rarity and distinct morphological features, mucoepidermoid carcinoma might be erroneously interpreted as squamous cell carcinoma by those who were not familiar with this condition in unusual locations. Therefore, removal of sufficient tissue from different portions of the lesion is essential for the surgeons and pathologists to make a precise diagnosis in the intraoperative histological examination. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4956311271136060 PMID:24475740

2014-01-01

225

Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

2015-01-30

226

Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

2014-11-18

227

Developments in the pathology of penile squamous cell carcinomas.  

PubMed

Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the epithelium covering glans, coronal sulcus, and foreskin. Several histologic subtypes have been described, each with distinctive clinicopathologic and outcome features. The most common subtype is the usual SCC, representing one half to two thirds of penile carcinomas. Penile verruciform tumors encompass verrucous, warty (condylomatous), and papillary, not otherwise specified, carcinomas. As a group, verruciform tumors are low grade, with low metastatic and mortality rates. In contrast, basaloid and sarcomatoid carcinomas are among the most aggressive penile tumors. Other SCC variants, such as carcinoma cuniculatum and pseudohyperplastic, adenosquamous and acantholytic carcinomas, are rare. The most relevant clinicopathologic and outcome features are outlined for each of these SCC subtypes, and an algorithm that might aid the pathologist in the histologic classification is presented. In addition, recommendations for handling penile cancer specimens, frozen section specimens, and pathology reports are provided. PMID:20691888

Chaux, Alcides; Velazquez, Elsa F; Algaba, Ferran; Ayala, Gustavo; Cubilla, Antonio L

2010-08-01

228

Differentiation between chalazion and sebaceous carcinoma by noninvasive meibography  

PubMed Central

Background Sebaceous carcinoma is notorious for masquerading clinically as other benign lesions such as chalazion. A tool to better differentiate between these two conditions would thus be desirable. Purpose To examine the potential application of noninvasive meibography in the differential diagnosis of chalazion and sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid as a retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods Five individuals with chalazion and three patients with sebaceous carcinoma were observed. Noninvasive meibography was performed to visualize the reflectivity and shape of the lesion in each subject. Results Noninvasive meibographic imaging revealed chalazion as a lesion of overall low reflectivity with small regions of higher reflectivity corresponding to lipid granules. On the other hand, the noninvasive meibography revealed sebaceous carcinoma as a poorly marginated lesion of high reflectivity in the eyelid. Conclusion Noninvasive meibographic imaging may prove useful for the differential diagnosis of chalazion and sebaceous carcinoma. It may also be informative in definition of the resection area in carcinoma patients. PMID:25258508

Nemoto, Yuji; Arita, Reiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Sasajima, Yuko

2014-01-01

229

Diagnosis of Thymic Clear Cell Carcinoma by Cytology  

PubMed Central

Clear cell carcinoma of the thymus is a rare tumor. Few cases of clear-cell carcinoma of thymus have been documented (Truong et al., 1990 and Wolfe III et al., 1983). All these cases were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the tissue. Diagnosis of thymic clear cell carcinoma on cytology is extremely challenging. Here we report the first case of thymic clear cell carcinoma diagnosed by cytological examination of the pericardial fluid with the help of immunocytochemistry. Differential diagnosis included adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and thymic clear cell carcinoma. Thymic carcinoma with clear cell features has an aggressive clinical behavior including our case, where it was already metastasized at the time of presentation. PMID:24175107

Lale, Seema A.; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G.; Aziz, Mohamed

2013-01-01

230

Clinical Features and Differential Diagnoses in Laryngeal Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of salivary glands. However, it is a rare entity in larynx. Laryngeal cases are frequently misdiagnosed with other malignancies and they are under-reported. So, recognizing the clinical and histological features of this tumor is essential. Laryngeal mucoepidermoid carcinoma can arise in supraglottis, glottis and subglottis. Generally, it presents as a submucosal mass; therefore, progressive symptoms without any identifiable lesion in laryngoscopy must be well considered. The prognosis is somehow dependent on the histological features. In high-grade tumors, recurrence is more common and radical surgery with radiotherapy is recommended. In this paper, we provide a thorough literature review on mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the larynx. The most important distinguishing features of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and its two major differential diagnoses (squamous cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma) are clearly stated and pitfalls in true diagnosis of this tumor are discussed. PMID:22262946

Mokhtari, Sepideh; Mokhtari, Saeedeh

2012-01-01

231

Hyalinizing Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity and of the Parotid Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare, recently described tumor of salivary gland origin. Differential diagnosis includes benign lesions as clear cell change in a pleomorphic adenoma or in oncocytoma and malignant tumors i.e. epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, clear cell acinic carcinoma, clear cell squamous carcinoma, clear cell malignant melanoma, clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, clear

Alessandra Rinaldo; Kathryn M. McLaren; Paolo Boccato; Arnold G. D. Maran

1999-01-01

232

Overview of the Current Definition of Ductal Carcinoma in Situp  

Cancer.gov

The definition of DCIS has evolved over time. The term carcinoma in situ was coined in the 1930s when pathologists established that intraductal carcinoma existed, but it was a subtype of typical, invasive carcinoma. From the 1950s to the 1970s, this thinking evolved significantly, as pathologists became better able to distinguish pure DCIS. In the 1970s, electron microscopy demonstrated that DCIS has cytoplasmic extensions through gaps in the basement membrane.

233

Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and a very aggressive tumour. Once being considered to be a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, evidence has proven that most of the tumours express one or more markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. The behaviour of this rare malignancy is different from that of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high propensity for nodal and distant metastases. Hence, there is a need to highlight this histopathological entity. PMID:24701511

V, Pavithra; Shalini, C.N. Sai; Priya, Shanmuga; Rani, Usha; Rajendiran, S; Joseph, Leena Dennis

2014-01-01

234

Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: a rare entity.  

PubMed

Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and a very aggressive tumour. Once being considered to be a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, evidence has proven that most of the tumours express one or more markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. The behaviour of this rare malignancy is different from that of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high propensity for nodal and distant metastases. Hence, there is a need to highlight this histopathological entity. PMID:24701511

V, Pavithra; Shalini, C N Sai; Priya, Shanmuga; Rani, Usha; Rajendiran, S; Joseph, Leena Dennis

2014-02-01

235

Management of High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is an increasing public health concern, representing the second most common cancer in the United States. High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents a subgroup of this disease, where patients are at higher risk of metastasis and death. To date, there are no accepted criteria for defining or managing these patients. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and outlines reasonable management strategies based on available data. PMID:20725546

Jennings, Lorraine

2010-01-01

236

Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

2014-11-17

237

A rare association: basal cell carcinoma  

E-print Network

Background Today, no proven significant association was detected between sun-exposed vitiliginous patches and nonmelanotic skin cancers. In fact, the occurrence of a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in vitiliginous patches seems to be extremely rare. Case report We present a case of a 33-year-old female patient suffering from BCC in a vitiliginous patch on the cheek. This is the first report of the occurrence of a sclerodermiform type of BCC in a vitiliginous macula. Conclusion Our case report challenges the long-standing belief that the occurrence of BCC in vitiligo is nearly impossible. However, even if this association is apparently fortuitous, our report contributes to the awareness of the risk of BCC in young patients with vitiligo. Keywords Vitiligo. Basal cell carcinoma. Non-melanotic skin cancer. Split-thickness skin graft

Jan Rustemeyer; Lutz Gnther; Linda Deichert; J. Rustemeyer; L. Gnther

2010-01-01

238

Sarcomatoid carcinomas: pathological and histopathogenetic considerations.  

PubMed

Malignant tumors with a mixed phenotype are a controversial field of pathology. In this article the morphological aspects and the immunohistological characterization of sarcomatoid carcinomas are presented. These uncommon neoplasms show both carcinomatous and sarcomatous features, and have been described in the past under a variety of different names causing great uncertainty about their classification and histogenesis. They can occur in various anatomical sites and exhibit a wide range of microscopic appearances, but some features are quite characteristic and are found in many cases. Morphological "transition" between carcinomatous and sarcomatous tissue, and detection of epithelial characteristics by electron microscopy or immunohistochemistry in the sarcomatous component, are very peculiar features of these neoplasms, providing both helpful clues for pathological diagnosis and important insights into histogenesis. Here a unifying histopathogenetic mechanism based on the phenotypic conversion of carcinoma into sarcomatoid tissue is proposed and supporting literature data from both experimental systems and clinicopathological observations are reviewed and discussed. PMID:9007945

Guarino, M; Tricomi, P; Giordano, F; Cristofori, E

1996-11-01

239

Peripartum disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis simulating ovarian carcinoma.  

PubMed

Disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis is an uncommon complication of pregnancy. We present a 26-year-old multiparous immigrant from Haiti who was admitted following an extramural preterm delivery. Marked ascites was confirmed by computerized tomography, which also revealed a thickened greater omentum. These findings were considered suggestive of advanced ovarian carcinoma, although extrapulmonary tuberculosis was also considered despite negative tuberculin skin test screening. Image-guided omental biopsy demonstrated caseating granulomas substantiating the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, which was later confirmed by cultures. The patient responded well to antituberculosis medications. This case describes the unusual peripartum presentation of abdominal tuberculosis simulating advanced ovarian carcinoma, and demonstrates the importance of considering extrapulmonary tuberculosis when encountering ascites and omental thickening during pregnancy despite negative tuberculin skin test screening. PMID:16215926

Sherer, David M; Osho, Joseph A; Zinn, Harry; Demetus, Spiro; Huang, Jennifer; Temkin, Sarah; Abulafia, Ovadia

2005-10-01

240

Extraocular sebaceous carcinoma mimicking benign sebaceous cyst  

PubMed Central

Extraocular sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is an exceptionally rare neoplasm and has been confused in the past with basal cell carcinoma showing sebaceous differentiation. However, in contrast to the latter tumour, SC can be an aggressive cancer. We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with a 3-year history of a 52?cm lesion on the posterior thoracic wall. It had increased in size during this period but was otherwise asymptomatic. There was no significant past medical history or lymphadenopathy. Nor was there a family history of malignancy. The lesion was totally excised. The histopathological report revealed SC. As this neoplasm may be associated with Muir-Torre syndrome, the patient was screened for underlying internal neoplasia. All haematological, biochemical and tumour markers, imaging and endoscopic examinations were normal. Since SC may appear before the development of internal malignancy, our patient was scheduled for follow-up visits every 3?months. PMID:23365173

Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Barbanis, Sotirios; Theodorou, Vasiliki; Christoforidou, Barbara

2013-01-01

241

Mucinous Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis  

PubMed Central

Urothelial carcinoma with abundant myxoid stroma is a newly-described and extremely rare entity. Since only very few cases have been reported, there is no consensus on its nomenclature. Microscopic examination revealed invasive urothelial carcinoma with widespread low-grade noninvasive areas. There were focal invasive areas in the neighborhood of the renal parenchyma. Malignant urothelial tumor/cell groups localized in the stroma had abundant myxoid/mucinous background in the invasive areas. The cytoplasm of the tumoral cells was more eosinophilic in these areas and the cells formed small groups and cords. Histochemically, PAS and Alcian Blue were positive in the cytoplasm of the tumoral cells and in the stroma while negative in the non-mucinous areas. Immunohistochemically, the tumoral cells of the mucinous invasive areas diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC2. We discuss the origin of the mucinous/myxoid stroma, the tumors nature and its nomenclature with histochemical and immunohistochemical features.

Behzat?lu, Kemal; Boyaci, Ceren; Oku, O?uzhan; Hacihasano?lu, Ezgi; akir, Yasemin; Daraki, Seher

2014-01-01

242

[Risk factors in carcinoma of the prostate].  

PubMed

The authors review risk factors of prostate carcinoma. Generally accepted factors include advanced age; some work confirms a familial incidence of the condition. When the incidence is evaluated by race, the highest prevalence is described in American negroes and the lowest prevalence in the Japanese. The higher prevalence in northern areas and lower prevalence in southern areas is explained by the effect of ultraviolet radiation. It is generally accepted that prostate carcinoma depends on androgens; the dependence on sexual activity is evaluated in relation to the higher androgen concentration and the higher risk of infection. As to dietary factors the condition is promoted by fats; the higher prevalence in smokers can be explained by the cadmium and nickel content of cigarettes. With regard to occupation, brain workers are affected more frequently; as to occupational carcinogens cadmium and nickel are quoted most frequently. PMID:8556758

Kohout, J; Ouda, Z; Hora, M

1995-11-01

243

A Case of Primary Submandibular Gland Oncocytic Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma is a rare pathology, with only 10 cases being reported to date. We encountered a case of primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma and report it herein. The patient was a 69-year-old man who came to our hospital with right submandibular cancer as the main complaint. Based on the results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, submandibular gland tumor was diagnosed. Preoperative cytodiagnosis suggested class III oncocytic carcinoma. Resection of the right submandibular tumor was performed along with right neck dissection. Postoperative histopathological diagnosis was oncocytic carcinoma. As of 3 years following surgery, no recurrence has been identified. PMID:24159396

Tokashiki, Kunihiko; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki; Motohashi, Ray; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Mamoru

2013-01-01

244

Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the orbital apex.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is an uncommon malignant tumor of epithelial origin typically arising from salivary glands. Orbital involvement may occur via direct or perineural spread from a lacrimal gland or sinonasal source. Primary orbital adenoid cystic carcinoma without involvement of the lacrimal gland is rare. The authors report a 53-year-old woman who was examined for insidious monocular vision loss and was found to have a primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the orbital apex and cavernous sinus. Systemic workup for a primary source, including ipsilateral lacrimal gland biopsy, was negative. One must maintain a high index of suspicion for adenoid cystic carcinoma when evaluating orbital tumors. PMID:23034685

Walsh, Ryan D; Vagefi, M Reza; McClelland, Collin M; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Newman, Jason G; Farkas, Tunde; Tamhankar, Madhura A

2013-01-01

245

Human Papillomavirus-Related Carcinomas of the Sinonasal Tract  

PubMed Central

High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. P16 immunohistochemistry and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcomes data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 non- or partially-keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV negative tumors were p16 positive (p < .0001). The HPV-related carcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean 54). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. While non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma. The distinctiveness of these HPV-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract with respect to risk factors, clinical behavior, and response to therapy remains to be clarified. PMID:23095507

Bishop, Justin A.; Guo, Theresa W.; Smith, David F.; Wang, Hao; Ogawa, Takenori; Pai, Sara I.; Westra, William H.

2012-01-01

246

Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the presacral region  

PubMed Central

A 7 cm diameter presacral tumour, not related to the intrapelvic organs, was found in a 51 year old woman. The needle biopsy showed a poorly differentiated large cell carcinoma. The patient died of urosepsis after chemotherapy. Postmortem examination revealed no other primary or metastatic tumour. Histological examination of the presacral tumour showed a large cell carcinoma with a trabecular pattern and strong immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers. The tumour was finally classified as a primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the presacral region. Key Words: neuroendocrine carcinoma presacral region PMID:11684726

Theunissen, P; Fickers, M; Goei, R

2001-01-01

247

Small cell carcinoma of the anus in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ  

PubMed Central

Small cell carcinoma of the anus is a rare tumor that has been infrequently described in the literature. In contrast to squamous cell carcinoma, which is known to be associated with high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiology of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal is not established. We present a case of a patient with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. In conjunction with recently published data demonstrating the presence of HPV in tumor specimens from patients with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal, our patients clinical course suggests a possible link between HPV and this rare malignancy. PMID:23730521

Edgar, Mark A.; Hawk, Natalyn N.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Stapleford, Liza J.

2013-01-01

248

Granular cell breast tumour mimicking infiltrating carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Granular cell tumour (GCT) is a rare, usually benign neoplasm that can mimic carcinoma on breast imaging. GCT can originate anywhere in the body but is most frequently found in the head and neck region, particularly in the tongue. Of the reported cases, 6% have occurred in the breast, most commonly in the upper inner quadrant. We report a case of GCT of the breast presenting as a spiculated mass infiltrating the greater thoracic muscle on breast screening mammogram. PMID:23420726

Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Michalopoulou, Ilektra; Baliaka, Aggeliki; Nikolaidou, Anastasia

2013-01-01

249

The mutational landscape of adenoid cystic carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most enigmatic of human malignancies. These aggressive salivary gland cancers frequently recur and metastasize despite definitive treatment, with no known effective chemotherapy regimen. Here we determined the ACC mutational landscape and report the exome or whole-genome sequences of 60 ACC tumor-normal pairs. These analyses identified a low exonic somatic mutation rate (0.31 non-silent

A. S. Ho; K. Kannan; D. M. Roy; L. G. Morris; I. Ganly; N. Katabi; D. Ramaswami; L. A. Walsh; S. Eng; J. T. Huse; J. Zhang; I. Dolgalev; K. Huberman; A. Heguy; A. Viale; M. Drobnjak; M. A. Leversha; C. E. Rice; B. Singh; N. G. Iyer; C. R. Leemans; E. Bloemena; R. L. Ferris; R. R. Seethala; B. E. Gross; Y. Liang; R. Sinha; L. Peng; B. J. Raphael; S. Turcan; Y. Gong; N. Schultz; S. Kim; S. Chiosea; J. P. Shah; C. Sander; W. Lee; T. A. Chan

2013-01-01

250

Renal cell carcinoma with intramyocardial metastases  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma without vena caval involvement are extremely rare with a limited number of cases reported in the worldwide literature until now. Nevertheless, this rare location of metastasis may significantly influence patient treatment and prognosis. Cooperation between oncology, cardiology, and urology teams are indispensable in cases of patients suffering from intramyocardial tumors. For these individuals, treatment guidelines based on large-scale studies are unavailable and only case/case series analysis may provide clinicians with decision assistance. Case presentation In this paper, we report a case of a 50-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with a 10.2 10.3 10.0cm lower pole left renal mass in January 2002. He was subsequently treated with immunochemotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and mTOR inhibitors (mTORIs) - that is sunitinib, everolimus, and sorafenib. In March 2012, contrast-enhancing tumors in the left myocardium (?22mm) and in the interventricular septum (?26mm) were seen on CT. Cardiology testing was conducted and the patient was treated with pazopanib with a profound response. Overall survival since the clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) diagnosis was 11years 2months and since diagnosis of multiple heart metastases was 1year. Conclusions Cardiac metastases present a unique disease course in renal cell carcinoma. Cardiac metastases may remain asymptomatic, as in the case of this patient at the time of diagnosis. The most common cardiac presentation of renal cell carcinoma is hypertension, but other cardiac presentations include shortness of breath, cough, and arrhythmias. Targeted systemic therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be useful for this group of patients, but necrosis in the myocardium can result in tamponade and death. Regular cardiac magnetic resonance imaging scans are required for treatment monitoring. PMID:25193011

2014-01-01

251

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), T1 shortening occurs due to internal protein, fat, copper, iron, hypercellularity, or a combination thereof. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is obtained with a non-fat-suppressed phase shift [in- (4 ms) and opposed- (2 ms) phase] gradient-echo sequence. Internal fat deposition is often (36%) seen in well-differentiated HCCs between 1.1 and 1.5 cm in size. T2-weighted MRI

Masayuki Kanematsu; Hiroshi Kondo; Satoshi Goshima; Yusuke Tsuge; Haruo Watanabe

2008-01-01

252

Ductal carcinoma in situ: a challenging disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represents a heterogenous group of lesions with variable malignant potential. Although it\\u000a is clearly pre-invasive, not all lesions progress to an invasive malignant disease. The significant increase in the frequency\\u000a of diagnosis is the result of both widespread use of screening mammography and better recognition among pathologists. Treatment\\u000a is controversial, but for several decades total

Sevilay Altintas; Manon T. Huizing; Eric Van Marck; Jan B. Vermorken; Wiebren A. Tjalma

2010-01-01

253

Management of Nonfunctioning Islet Cell Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Tumors arising from the pancreatic islet cells are rare and represent a heterogeneous group of benign or malignant lesions.\\u000a Most tumors present with well characterized syndromes, whereas others appear to be nonfunctioning. The clinical features of\\u000a 11 men and 7 women with nonfunctioning islet cell carcinomas operated on between 1983 and 1998 were reviewed. The median patient\\u000a age was

Detlef K. Bartsch; Thomas Schilling; Annette Ramaswamy; Berthold Gerdes; Ilhan Celik; Hans-Joachim Wagner; Babette Simon; Matthias Rothmund

2000-01-01

254

Pigmented Viral-Associated Conjunctival Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A 54-year-old African-American woman developed a pigmented papillary squamous cell carcinoma in the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva of the right eye in areas that received no sun exposure. In situ hybridization performed on the tumor showed human papilloma virus 16. The left eye showed a pedunculated nonpigmented conjunctival dysplasia. The tumors were extirpated by cryosurgery and topical interferon alfa 2b in the right eye and simple surgical excision in the left eye. PMID:23762697

Charles, Norman C.; Marr, Brian P.; Stenson, Susan M.; Mittal, Khushbakhat R.

2013-01-01

255

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the lacrimal gland is a rare tumor from the epithelial structure. It is rare in children. The authors report a case of ACC in a girl child. Extensive excision of the tumor is advised to prevent later recurrences. Local control can be better achieved by a combination of radiochemotherapy as ACC has been shown to recur event after 10 years. PMID:14620193

Thavaraj, Vasantha; Sridhar, M R; Sethi, A; Arya, L S

2003-09-01

256

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Pathology and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1985 and 1992 a total of 403 patients with resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated histopathologically, and various pathologic findings related to survival were examined. Concerning depth of tumor invasion, 8 (2%) cases were pTis, 110 (27%) were pT1, 48 (12%) were pT2, 202 (50%) were pT3, and 35 (9%) were pT4. Lymphatic invasion was detected in

Hiroko Ide; Tsutomu Nakamura; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takeshi Endo; Ataru Kobayashi; Reiki Eguchi; Fujio Hanyu

1994-01-01

257

Current management strategy of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still remains a considerable challenge for surgeons. Surgery, including liver transplantation, is the most important therapeutic approach for patients with this disease. HCC is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages and has a poor prognosis with a high mortality rate even when surgical resection has been considered potentially curative. This brief report summarizes the current status of the management of this malignancy and includes a short description of new pharmacological approaches in HCC treatment. PMID:19598295

Rampone, Bernardino; Schiavone, Beniamino; Martino, Antonio; Viviano, Carmine; Confuorto, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

258

Spindle cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an extremely rare case of spindle cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavity. A 75-year-old man was admitted to our\\u000a hospital because of right nasal obstruction. Nasal endoscopy showed a polypoid tumor measuring 3נ3cm at the nasal septum\\u000a in the right nasal cavity, and an excisional biopsy was performed. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated the nasal tumor extended\\u000a to the

Tadashi Terada; Taiji Kawasaki

2011-01-01

259

Exfoliative cytology of tracheobronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma.  

PubMed

The cytologic findings in the bronchial brushing and washing specimens of three cases of tracheobronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma are reported and compared with those reported in the literature. The cytodiagnostic features including cribriform epithelial clusters, epithelial balls, branching epithelial cylinders, cellular hyaline mucous globules, and a heretofore unemphasized diagnostic clue in exfoliative cytology--naked hyaline globules in washing smears, are illustrated and discussed. PMID:8872436

Chen, K T

1996-08-01

260

Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.  

PubMed

Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:22502759

Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

2012-01-01

261

Papillocystic Variant of Acinar Cell Pancreatic Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Acinar cell pancreatic carcinoma is a rare solid malignant neoplasm. Recent review of the literature showed occasional cases with papillary or papillocystic growth patterns, ranging from 2 to 5?cm in diameter. We report a large 10?cm pancreatic tumor with papillocystic pathology features involving the pancreatic head. The growth pattern of these tumors could be mistaken for intraductal papillary mucinous tumors or other pancreatic cystic neoplasms. PMID:20204128

Radhi, Jasim; Tse, France; Marcaccio, Michael

2010-01-01

262

Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The median survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has increased from 10 months to more than 40 months since the advent of targeted therapy. Sunitinib and bevacizumab represent the first-line standards of care for patients with clear cell mRCC. Temsirolimus is the standard of care for those with poor-risk features. Additionally, exploratory analyses of the temsirolimus data

Maxine Sun; Giovanni Lughezzani; Paul Perrotte; Pierre I. Karakiewicz

2010-01-01

263

77 FR 24959 - Scientific Information Request on Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...minimally invasive, medical devices for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma (e...radiotherapy, or embolization devices). Scientific information is...Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma,...

2012-04-26

264

Targeted molecular therapies in thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer incidence has significantly increased in the last three decades and many patients seek medical attention for its treatment every year. Among follicular cell-derived tumors, the majority are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC), whose prognosis is very good with only 15% of the cases presenting disease persistence or recurrence after initial treatment. Medullary thyroid carcinoma has a worse prognosis, especially in patients with diffused cancers at the time of initial surgery. Traditional treatment options for persistent or recurrent disease include additional surgery, radioiodine treatment and TSH-suppression in DTC patients; external beam radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy, often have low efficacy and many patients with advanced disease ultimately die. In the last two decades many of the molecular events involved in cancer formation have been uncovered. This knowledge has prompted the development of novel therapeutic strategies mainly based on the inhibition of key molecular mediators of the tumorigenic process. In particular the class of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors was enriched by many compounds that have reached clinical trials and in some cases have had approval for clinical use in specific cancers. Many of these compounds entered clinical trials also for locally advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas showing very promising results. PMID:20126863

Romagnoli, Serena; Moretti, Sonia; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio

2009-12-01

265

Epstein-Barr virus and nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery 50 years ago, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to the development of cancers originating from both lymphoid and epithelial cells. Approximately 95% of the world's population sustains an asymptomatic, life-long infection with EBV. The virus persists in the memory B-cell pool of normal healthy individuals, and any disruption of this interaction results in virus-associated B-cell tumors. The association of EBV with epithelial cell tumors, specifically nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and EBV-positive gastric carcinoma (EBV-GC), is less clear and is currently thought to be caused by the aberrant establishment of virus latency in epithelial cells that display premalignant genetic changes. Although the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic process is currently poorly understood, the presence of the virus in all tumor cells provides opportunities for developing novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. The study of EBV and its role in carcinomas continues to provide insight into the carcinogenic process that is relevant to a broader understanding of tumor pathogenesis and to the development of targeted cancer therapies. PMID:25418193

Young, Lawrence S.; Dawson, Christopher W.

2014-01-01

266

ACR Appropriateness Criteria stage I breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Stage I breast carcinoma is classified when an invasive breast carcinoma is ?2 cm in diameter (T1), with no regional (axillary) lymph node metastases (N0) and no distant metastases (M0). The most common sites for metastases from breast cancer are the skeleton, lung, liver, and brain. In general, women and health care professionals prefer intensive screening and surveillance after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Screening protocols include conventional imaging such as chest radiography, bone scan, ultrasound of the liver, and MRI of brain. It is uncertain whether PET/CT will serve as a replacement for current imaging technologies. However, there are no survival or quality-of-life differences for women who undergo intensive screening and surveillance after a diagnosis of stage I breast carcinoma compared with those who do not. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria() are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:22748785

Huynh, Phan Tuong; Lemeshko, Sergy V; Mahoney, Mary C; Newell, Mary S; Bailey, Lisa; Barke, Lora D; D'Orsi, Carl; Harvey, Jennifer A; Hayes, Mary K; Jokich, Peter M; Lee, Su-Ju; Lehman, Constance D; Mainiero, Martha B; Mankoff, David A; Patel, Samir B; Reynolds, Handel E; Sutherland, M Linda; Haffty, Bruce G

2012-07-01

267

RNA editome imbalance in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Adenosine-to-inosine conversion (A-to-I editing), a posttranscriptional modification on RNA, contributes to extensive transcriptome diversity. A-to-I editing is a hydrolytic deamination process, catalyzed by adenosine deAminase acting on double-stranded RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. ADARs are essential for normal mammalian development, and disturbance in RNA editing has been implicated in various pathologic disorders, including cancer. Thanks to next-generation sequencing, rich databases of transcriptome evolution for cancer development at the resolution of single nucleotide have been generated. Extensive bioinformatic analysis revealed a complex picture of RNA editing change during transformation. Cancer displayed global hypoediting of Alu-repetitive elements with gene-specific editing pattern. In particular, hepatocellular carcinoma editome is severely disrupted and characterized by hyper- and hypoediting of different genes, such as hyperedited AZIN1 (antizyme inhibitor 1) and FLNB (filamin B, ?) and hypoedited COPA (coatomer protein complex, subunit ?). In hepatocellular carcinoma, not only the recoding editing in exons, but also the editing in noncoding regions (e.g., Alu-repetitive elements and microRNA) displays such complex editing pattern with site-specific editing trend. In this review, we will discuss current research progress on the involvement of abnormal A-to-I editing in cancer development, more specifically on hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24556721

Qi, Lihua; Chan, Tim Hon Man; Tenen, Daniel G; Chen, Leilei

2014-03-01

268

Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.  

PubMed

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

2014-03-20

269

Tattoo granuloma of the eyelid mimicking carcinoma.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old woman was referred to the Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery service for evaluation of a left upper eyelid lesion that was worrisome for carcinoma. The mass measured 8 8 mm; it was well-circumscribed, pink, and firm with distortion of the eyelid margin, central ulceration, and loss of the lashes. The patient denied previous surgery or trauma in this area, but she had a history of blepharopigmentation (tattoo eyeliner) of all 4 eyelids approximately 7 years prior. Incisional biopsy revealed inflammatory changes consistent with a localized reaction to the tattoo pigment granules. Local kenalog injection was attempted with improvement of the overall appearance but with persistent deformity including irregularity of the margin and loss of lashes. The persistent abnormal appearance was worrisome for an underlying carcinoma missed on the initial incisional biopsy and prompted a full-thickness wedge resection and reconstruction of the abnormal area. The results of biopsy of the excised tissue confirmed absence of malignant neoplasm and showed changes consistent with tattoo granuloma. Tattoo granuloma of the eyelid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of eyelid lesions worrisome for carcinoma in patients with a history of blepharopigmentation. PMID:23511999

Bee, Carson R; Steele, Eric A; White, Kevin P; Wilson, David J

2014-01-01

270

Partial laryngeal surgery in recurrent carcinoma.  

PubMed

Abstract With the growing acceptance of nonsurgical therapies for laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCCs), it has become important to delineate surgical salvage strategies for disease recurrences. Total laryngectomy is often recommended, but appropriately selected laryngeal recurrences may be treated successfully with partial laryngeal surgery: laryngeal function can be preserved with oncological efficacy. The main available studies dealing with partial laryngeal surgery in recurrent carcinoma were critically reviewed. The most appealing feature of salvage transoral laser surgery (TLS) is the opportunity to make tumor-tailored excisions without any reconstructive limitations and retaining the option to switch to open partial laryngectomy. A recent detailed review of 11 series found a pooled local control rate of 57% after a first TLS procedure. Supracricoid laryngectomy (SCL) seems to achieve good local control rates in selected cases of recurrent supraglottic-glottic carcinoma: one review considering seven series calculated that 85% of the patients treated with salvage SCL after radiotherapy experienced no local recurrence; and total laryngectomy after failure of salvage SCL afforded an overall local control rate of 65%. Neck dissection is mandatory in all cases of local LSCC recurrence with evidence of neck metastases, and routine elective neck dissection is recommended for recurrent supraglottic and transglottic cancers. PMID:25539063

Marioni, Gino; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario; Kleinsasser, Norbert H; Lionello, Marco; Lawson, Georges; Hagen, Rudolf; Staffieri, Alberto

2015-02-01

271

Current management of carcinoma of the breast.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: An in-depth retrospective review of the multidisciplinary approach to the management of carcinoma of the breast was done. The author reviewed previous trials and treatment from the past to the present. The indications and contraindications of surgical procedures, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy are discussed. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Carcinoma of the breast is one of the most common malignancies treated by the practicing general or oncologic surgeon. The disease is best treated using a multidisciplinary approach, combining the efforts of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic treatments. Understanding the indications and contraindications for each of these modalities will provide the practicing surgeon the most up-to-date algorithms for the management of his/her patient. CONCLUSIONS: The author provides a comprehensive analysis of the multidisciplinary approach to the management of carcinoma of the breast. It emphasizes the results of previous trials and discusses future controversies and areas for study. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8053734

Eberlein, T J

1994-01-01

272

Ocular Metastatic Renal Carcinoma Presenting With Proptosis.  

PubMed

Metastatic renal carcinoma is the third most common source of ocular and second most common source of orbital metastases. This is the first published case of von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease that developed renal cell carcinoma metastatic to an eye with a retinal hemangioblastoma. A 73-year-old woman had a history of vHL disease that included prior retinal hemangioblastomas, 2 cerebellar hemangioblastomas, and bilateral renal cell carcinomas with sacral metastasis. After presenting with progressive, painful proptosis secondary to a large mass observable by ocular CT, an enucleation-orbitotomy was performed, and the surgical specimen was sent for histopathological analysis. The ophthalmic renal metastatic tumor, like the primary tumor, was a clear cell variant that involved both the eyeball and orbit in continuity. The intraocular component was larger than the extraocular portion, which was interpreted as an outward extension of an initial retinal metastasis that probably first settled within a hemangioblastoma. Clusters of ectatic ghost vessels with thickened walls produced by periodic acid Schiff-positive, redundant basement membrane material were partially infiltrated by tumor cells at their periphery, thereby lending some support for this hypothesis. Immunohistochemical positivity for the biomarkers cytokeratin 18, vimentin, carbonic anhydrase IX, PAX2, and PAX 8 confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has refused further treatment. Her anophthalmic socket has comfortably retained a porous polyethylene implant without clinical evidence of local recurrence during 5 months of follow up. PMID:24828963

Rai, Ruju; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Fay, Aaron

2014-05-13

273

Invasive carcinoma derived from intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of eight cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinomas (IPMCs) of the pancreas are resectable and curable, but some develop into frankly invasive carcinomas. We studied the clinicopathologic features of eight cases of invasive carcinoma derived from IPMC (IC-IPMC) of the pancreas. The patients were aged 54-75 years (mean, 66.6 years); six were male and two were female. The mean tumor size was 7.7 cm

Noriyoshi Fukushima; Kiyoshi Mukai; Michiie Sakamoto; Takahiro Hasebe; Kazuaki Shimada; Tomoo Kosuge; Taira Kinoshita; Setsuo Hirohashi

2001-01-01

274

Thyroglossal duct papillary carcinoma in a 15-year old female and review of pediatric cases of thyroglossal duct carcinoma.  

PubMed

Thyroglossal duct carcinoma is rare, occurring in approximately 1% of thyroglossal duct cysts. Excluding this case report there have been 25 cases of adolescent thyroglossal duct carcinoma reported in the English literature thus far. Most of the pathology reported has been papillary or follicular carcinoma, leading to the question of whether or not to perform concurrent thyroidectomy. Based on our review of the pediatric cases of thyroglossal duct carcinoma we elected not to perform a concurrent thyroidectomy and recommend close follow-up to monitor for signs of future thyroid involvement. PMID:24238995

Pfeiffer, Michael S; Kim, Grace H; Krishnan, Miguel

2014-01-01

275

Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

2014-05-12

276

Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

2014-10-24

277

Prognostic value of nuclear DNA content in papillary thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognostic value of nuclear DNA content in papillary thyroid carcinoma was studied retrospectively in 90 patients. Eighty survived for at least 10 years, and 10 died, of papillary thyroid carcinoma, between 6 months and 12 years after diagnosis. Clinical data as well as morphological tumor characteristics were examined. DNA measurements in morphologically identified single tumor cells were performed either

Kenneth Cohn; Martin Bfickdahl; Gun Forsslund; Gert Auer; Gran Lundell; Torsten Lwhagen; Eva Tallroth; Jan-Silvester Willems; Anders Zetterberg; Per-Ola Granberg

1984-01-01

278

Testicular hydrocele: an initial sign of colon carcinoma. Case report.  

PubMed

Metastasis of carcinoma to the testes is rare. A case of caecal carcinoma presenting as testicular hydrocele is reported. The possibility of secondary tumour should be considered when a testicular mass or hydrocele arises in a patient above the age for primary testes tumour and the clinical picture suggests involvement of other organs. PMID:3354286

Hjgaard Rasmussen, H; Schrder, P

1988-01-01

279

Radiation sensitivity of merkel cell carcinoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a

J. Helen Leonard; Jonathan R. Ramsay; John H. Kearsley; Geoff W. Birrell

1995-01-01

280

Prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been shown that Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare and often lethal cutaneous malignancy, frequently harbors a novel clonally integrated polyomavirus aptly named Merkel cell polyomavirus. We aimed to study the prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, using specimens from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. In our archives we identified 41 cases of Merkel

Eric J Duncavage; Barbara A Zehnbauer; John D Pfeifer

2009-01-01

281

Merkel Cell Carcinoma: CT Findings in 12 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this report is to determine CT imaging findings in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Fifty-three CT scans in 12 patients with biopsy- proven Merkel cell carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed with regard to size, location, and attenuation of primary skin lesions and visceral and lymph node metastases. Findings that were present in 12 patients

Marc J. Gollub; David R. Gruen; David Dershaw

282

Merkel cell carcinoma in the setting of HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel cell carcinoma has been found to have an increased incidence among immunosuppressed patients, specifically organ transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. HIV similarly depresses the immune response of infected persons. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in an HIV-infected patient who died from liver metastases 2 years after his tumor was diagnosed. The purpose of this report

Kathy P. An; Dsire Ratner

2001-01-01

283

Gastritis cystica and carcinoma arising in old gastrojejunostomy stoma.  

PubMed Central

Gastritis cystica and carcinoma developed 35 years after partial gastectomy and gastrojejunostomy for benign peptic ulcer. Although chronic atrophic gastritis and carcinoma are well recognized complications of gastrojejunostomy, gastritis cystica appears to be rare. The resemblance of the lesion to that of colitis cystica profunda is striking. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1139487

Qizilbash, A. H.

1975-01-01

284

Laryngeal salivary duct carcinoma: a light and electron microscopic study.  

PubMed

The light microscopic and ultrastructural features of a laryngeal salivary duct carcinoma are presented. By light microscopy, the neoplasm bore a marked resemblance to the infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast. Ultrastructurally, the tumour was characterized by the presence of two principal types of cells, i.e. epithelial and myoepithelial cells, arranged in duct-formation. PMID:7252354

Ferlito, A; Gale, N; Hvala, H

1981-07-01

285

Discovery and identification of potential biomarkers of papillary thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy and a common cancer among the malignancies of head and neck. Noninvasive and convenient biomarkers for diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) as early as possible remain an urgent need. The aim of this study was to discover and identify potential protein biomarkers for PTC specifically. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty

Yuxia Fan; Linan Shi; Qiuliang Liu; Rui Dong; Qian Zhang; Shaobo Yang; Yingzhong Fan; Heying Yang; Peng Wu; Jiekai Yu; Shu Zheng; Fuquan Yang; Jiaxiang Wang

2009-01-01

286

Severe orthostatic hypotension associated with carcinoma of the bronchus.  

PubMed Central

A patient is described who had severe orthostatic hypotension. An account is given of his treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and tyramine. At post-mortem, 8 months after the illness began, a small oat cell carcinoma of the bronchus was found. It is suggested that the orthostatic hypotension was a nonmetastatic manifestation of the underlying carcinoma. PMID:225737

Green, C. J.; Breckenridge, A. M.; Wright, F. K.

1979-01-01

287

Metastatic breast carcinoma to bone disguised by osteopoikilosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast in conjunction with osteopoikilosis is described. Widespread diffuse sclerotic bone lesions were identified on radiographs in a patient with breast carcinoma. In addition computed tomography demonstrated discrete spherical areas of increased density throughout the skeleton manifest typically by osteopoikilosis. No systemic symptoms were evident, blood parameters were normal and the lesions

J. G. Kennedy; J. R. Donahue; H. Aydin; B. H. Hoang; A. Huvos; C. Morris

2003-01-01

288

Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

This case report describes a dog with thyroid carcinoma and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. Following thyroidectomy the dog became hypocalcemic and required supplementation with calcitriol and calcium carbonate. During the following 2 years, attempts to reduce the supplementation resulted in hypocalcemia. The dog died from renal failure with no evidence of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:23543930

Lane, Amy E; Wyatt, Kenneth M

2012-10-01

289

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma with biliary tumor thrombus: an unreported association.  

PubMed

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FHCC) is a rare malignant tumor of hepatocyte origin occurring earlier in life than typical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We describe a distinctive case of FHCC with biliary tumor thrombus (BTT) in a 25-year-old Caucasian patient, pointing out the imaging features supported by histopathology. PMID:23852711

De Gaetano, Anna Maria; Nure, Erida; Grossi, Ugo; Frongillo, Francesco; Russo, Rosellina; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Lirosi, Maria Carmen; Sganga, Gabriele; Felice, Carla; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Agnes, Salvatore

2013-10-01

290

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Arising in Non-Cirrhotic Haemochromatosis  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in a patient with genetic haemachromatosis, without cirrhosis, has only been described once previously. We present a patient with a 15 year history of genetic haemachromatosis who underwent resection of a hepatocellular carcinoma in a liver with normal architecture. PMID:7547618

Thompson, N. P.; Stansby, G.; Jarmulowicz, M.; Hobbs, K. E.; McIntyre, N.

1995-01-01

291

Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a typical hypervascular tumor. Generally, hepatocellular carcinoma is developed through liver cirrhosis induced by chronic liver injury. This chronic injury leads to changes in the cellular property of the liver and subsequently causes fibrogenesis to demolish normal liver blood system. The catastrophe of the normal liver blood system leads to the shortage of blood circulation in the

Kwang-Rok Kim; Hyo-Eun Moon; Kyu-Won Kim

2002-01-01

292

Association between human papillomavirus infection and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the pre- valence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma using two methods: PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR\\/ DEIA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detec- tion of HPV in specimens of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate the presence of HPV with the epidemiological and clinicopatho- logical features of recurrence

Kamal Morshed

2010-01-01

293

SMARCB1 (INI-1)-deficient carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.  

PubMed

SMARCB1 (INI-1) is a tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q11.2. Its gene product is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of all normal tissues. SMARCB1 gene inactivation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a diverse group of malignant neoplasms that tend to share "rhabdoid" cytomorphology. This group of SMARCB1-deficient tumors is now further expanded by a subset of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. SMARCB1 immunostaining was performed on 142 sinonasal carcinomas. Tumors that showed loss of expression were further characterized for SMARCB1 deletions by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Nine of 142 (6%) primary sinonasal carcinomas showed loss of SMARCB1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Five patients were women, and patients ranged in age from 33 to 78 years (mean 59 y). The SMARCB1-deficient tumors were characterized by nests, sheets, and cords of cells without any histologic evidence of specific (eg, squamous or glandular) differentiation. The tumors comprised varying proportions of basaloid and rhabdoid cells. The SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas had been diagnosed as nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (n=3), sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (n=2), myoepithelial carcinoma (n=2), nonintestinal adenocarcinoma (n=1), and carcinoma, not otherwise specified (n=1). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed SMARCB1 deletions in 6 of 8 (75%) carcinomas. The SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas did not harbor human papillomavirus or NUT-1 alterations. Six patients presented with T4 disease, 5 patients developed local recurrences and/or distant metastases, and 4 died of their disease. Inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumor-suppressor gene appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of a subset of sinonasal carcinomas, further expanding the family of SMARCB1-deficient neoplasms and further delineating a bewildering group of poorly/undifferentiated, aggressive carcinomas arising at this site. The ability to detect SMARCB1 loss by immunohistochemistry, particularly when dealing with poorly differentiated carcinomas with basaloid or rhabdoid features, should facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of these sinonasal carcinomas including clinical behavior and response to targeted therapies. PMID:25007146

Bishop, Justin A; Antonescu, Cristina R; Westra, William H

2014-09-01

294

Genomic analysis identifies association of Fusobacterium with colorectal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The tumor microenvironment of colorectal carcinoma is a complex community of genomically altered cancer cells, nonneoplastic cells, and a diverse collection of microorganisms. Each of these components may contribute to carcinogenesis; however, the role of the microbiota is the least well understood. We have characterized the composition of the microbiota in colorectal carcinoma using whole genome sequences from nine tumor/normal pairs. Fusobacterium sequences were enriched in carcinomas, confirmed by quantitative PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of 95 carcinoma/normal DNA pairs, while the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla were depleted in tumors. Fusobacteria were also visualized within colorectal tumors using FISH. These findings reveal alterations in the colorectal cancer microbiota; however, the precise role of Fusobacteria in colorectal carcinoma pathogenesis requires further investigation. PMID:22009990

Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Gevers, Dirk; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Michaud, Monia; Duke, Fujiko; Earl, Ashlee M.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Jung, Joonil; Bass, Adam J.; Tabernero, Josep; Baselga, Jos; Liu, Chen; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Ogino, Shuji; Birren, Bruce W.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Garrett, Wendy S.; Meyerson, Matthew

2012-01-01

295

Lung cancer masquerading as breast cancer with carcinoma en cuirasse.  

PubMed

Metastases to the breast from lung cancer are rare. Carcinoma en cuirasse is an unusual form of metastatic cutaneous carcinoma, almost exclusively described as deposits secondary to breast carcinoma. A 63-year-old woman presented with dyspnoea. A CT scan demonstrated a pleural effusion, large pericardial effusion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and right basal consolidation. Pleural fluid cytology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with a diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with pemetrexed and carboplatin, resulting in stable disease. A year later, she developed bilateral breast masses and multiple painful erythematous subcutaneous nodules over her torso, clinically indistinguishable from carcinoma en cuirasse. A biopsy demonstrated these were deposits from metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung. The patient received docetaxel and carboplatin with initial good response. The painful lesions were subsequently treated with radiotherapy, which provided symptomatic relief. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only case of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma mimicking carcinoma en cuirasse. PMID:25395467

Harrett, Emma; Davies, Rhian Sian; Attanoos, Richard; Lester, Jason Francis

2014-01-01

296

Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Expression in Merkel Cell Carcinomas and Its Absence in Combined Tumors and Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is the eponym for primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. Recently, a new polyoma virus has been identified that is clonally integrated in the genome of the majority of MCCs, with truncating mutations in the viral large T antigen gene. We examined the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) in a set of 17 frozen tumor samples by

Klaus J. Busam; Achim A. Jungbluth; Natasha Rekthman; Daniel Coit; Melissa Pulitzer; Jason Bini; Reety Arora; Nicole C. Hanson; Jodie A. Tassello; Denise Frosina; Patrick Moore; Yuan Chang

2009-01-01

297

CAHECA: computer aided hepatocellular carcinoma therapy planning.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular Carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer having a strong relation with cirrhosis. Undoubtedly, cirrhosis may be caused by the virus infection of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HBC) or through alchoholism. However, even when cirrhosis has not been developed, patients with hepatitis viral infections are still at the risk of liver cancer. Apparently, among the numerous medical imaging techniques, Computed Tomography (CT) is the best in defining liver tumor borders. Unfortunately, these imaging techniques, including the CT procedures, usually rely on an appended application to reconstruct the generated 2-D slices to 3-D model. This may involve high performance computation, may be time-consuming or costly. Moreover, even with the outstanding performances of CT in defining the liver tumor boundaries, contrast between tumor tissues and the surrounding liver parenchyma is too low in CT slices. With such a close proxity in the tumor and the surrounding liver tissues, accurate characterization of liver tumor is a challenge. Previously, algorithms were developed to reveal abnormalities in brain's MRI datasets and CT abdominal pelvic, however, introducing a framework that could accurately characterize liver tumor and its surrounding tissues in CT datasets would go a long way in contributing to medical diagnosis and therapy planning of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. This paper proposes an Hepatocellular Carcinoma framework by extending the functionalities of SurLens Visualization System with an automatic liver tumor localization technique using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The study was evaluated with liver CT datasets from the Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center, the Georgetown University Medical Center. Significantly, visualization of liver CT datasets and the localization of the entangled tumor was achieved without prior datasets segmentation. Interestingly, the framework achieved remarkably good processing speed at a reasonably cheaper cost with an immediate reconstruction of the datasets and mapping of the tumor tissues within the surrounding liver parenchyma. PMID:25205500

Adeshina, A M; Hashim, R; Khalid, N E A

2014-09-01

298

Synchronous bilateral neuroendocrine ductal carcinoma in situ.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (NE-DCIS) is a breast malignancy that has characteristic clinicopathological features and can, therefore, be regarded as a distinct variant of DCIS. The patient was a 54-year-old premenopausal woman with hemorrhagic nipple discharge in her left breast. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (US) images of the left breast showed mass-like lesions, while concurrent images of the right breast showed non-mass-like lesions. These findings suggested the presence of both benign and malignant tumors. Pathological findings from US-guided core-needle biopsy of the left mass were highly suspicious of a malignant tumor. Excisional biopsy of both breasts was performed. We could define the diagnosis of breast cancer by the second opinion on pathological diagnosis. The tumor cells showed histological characteristics of NE-DCIS. Bilateral breast lesions had histopathological similarities and were composed of predominantly solid growth of carcinoma cells, frequently with well-developed vascular structures, in mammary ducts and ductules. Carcinoma cells were polygonal or occasionally spindle shaped and had fine-granular, relatively eosinophilic cytoplasm. The nuclei of these cells showed round to ovoid in shape and fine-granular chromatin pattern. There was not any invasive component, as confirmed by careful histological examination. Thus, additional immunohistochemical stainings for NE markers (chromogranin A and synaptophysin) were performed. Staining statuses of these markers were positive in almost all tumor cells from both breasts. Both tumors were therefore diagnosed as NE-DCIS. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of NE-DCIS diagnosed synchronously in both breasts. PMID:21735237

Honami, Hisae; Sotome, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Goi; Iri, Hisami; Tanaka, Yoichi; Fukamachi, Shigeru; Morozumi, Kyoei

2014-07-01

299

E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion prevents invasiveness of human carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of carcinomas to invade and to metastasize largely depends on the degree of epithelial differentiation within the tumors, i.e., poorly differen- tiated being more invasive than well-differentiated carcinomas. Here we confirmed this correlation by ex- amining various human cell lines derived from blad- der, breast, lung, and pancreas carcinomas. We found that carcinoma cell lines with an epithelioid

Uwe H. Frixen; Jfirgen Behrens; Martin Sachs; Gertrud Eberle; Beate Voss; Angelika Warda; Dorothea Ltehner; Walter Bircluneier

1991-01-01

300

[Guideline compliant diagnostics of hepatocellular carcinoma].  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. The incidence continues to rise and only a detailed surveillance of patients with chronic liver disease can allow an early assessment. Diagnosis is made by imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and also histopathological examination of biopsy material. The determination of the tumor marker alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is no longer established for early detection but can be used as a supplement in addition in HCC history progressio. PMID:24981446

Plentz, R R; Boozari, B; Malek, N P

2014-07-01

301

Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

2014-01-01

302

Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

2012-01-01

303

Role of Chemokines in Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

With new frontiers of pharmaceutical therapies focusing on tumor growth and angiogenesis, understanding the interaction between immune system and tumor microenvironment has become ever more important. Chemokines and chemokine receptors appear to play an integral role in tumor characteristics. Evidence suggests CXCR4, CXCL5, CXCR7, and stromal derived factor-1 appear to be crucial in survival, growth, and metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. As the role of chemokines in renal cancer is becoming more evident, further research will lead to a better understanding of tumor biology and the development of new therapeutic targets to help improve survival. PMID:25337041

Parihar, Jaspreet S; Tunuguntla, Hari S.G.R

2014-01-01

304

Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presenting as Cellulitis  

PubMed Central

In general, skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) presents as papules or plaques with erythematous or pigmented appearance that may ulcerate the skin. Cellulitis caused by metastatic deposit from a known primary skin SCC has been reported once.1 We describe a patient who presented with cellulitis on the face that did not respond well to full course of antibiotics treatment, and turned out to be a newly diagnosed SCC after biopsy. Other differential diagnoses, such as malignancy, should be suspected in all unusual presentations and biopsy should be taken if patients do not show an optimal and desired improvement after receiving a full-course of antibiotic therapy for cellulitis.

Zhao, Min; Sasikumar, Katamreddy; Kinoshita, Masanosuke; Abdullah, Mahdi; Alhusaini, Hiyard; Alaie, Dariush; Petrillo, Richard L

2015-01-01

305

Hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic collateral arterial supply.  

PubMed

Haepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy, representing the fifth most common cancer in the world. Without treatment, the median survival of HCC patients has been reported to be 8 weeks from symptomatic presentation. Transarterial chemoembolisation is widely used to manage unresectable HCCs. However, when a tumour is large or locates near the liver capsule, it may receive supplies from vessels other than hepatic arteries. In this paper, we discuss the anatomy of possible extrahepatic collateral arterial supplies of HCCs. PMID:20377712

Cheng, L F; Ma, K F; Fan, W C; Yung, A W T; Li, T M; Wong, C S

2010-02-01

306

Role of chemokines in renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

With new frontiers of pharmaceutical therapies focusing on tumor growth and angiogenesis, understanding the interaction between immune system and tumor microenvironment has become ever more important. Chemokines and chemokine receptors appear to play an integral role in tumor characteristics. Evidence suggests CXCR4, CXCL5, CXCR7, and stromal derived factor-1 appear to be crucial in survival, growth, and metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. As the role of chemokines in renal cancer is becoming more evident, further research will lead to a better understanding of tumor biology and the development of new therapeutic targets to help improve survival. PMID:25337041

Parihar, Jaspreet S; Tunuguntla, Hari S G R

2014-01-01

307

Pulmonary Pleomorphic Carcinoma Metastasis to the Midfoot.  

PubMed

Metastases to the bones in the foot are extremely uncommon, occurring in approximately 0.01% of all metastatic bone disease. We describe a case of an 82-year-old female with a metastatic pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma lesion to the midfoot. This rare and aggressive pulmonary malignancy has a poor prognosis. The purpose of the present case report was to highlight the key roles that medical history and biopsy, combined with a multispecialty approach, play in accurately diagnosing and appropriately treating a patient with metastatic bone disease. PMID:24840733

Rice, Brittany; Ross, Justin; Todd, Nicholas; Caputo, Louis; Rush, Shannon; Shrestha, Bijayee

2014-05-16

308

[Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the upper eyelid].  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare epithelial malignancy, which tends to grow slowly. ACC is an intractable neoplasm due to its ability to invade perineural spaces. Local recurrence after excision is not unusual. ACC most commonly arises in the lacrimal gland. Very rarely, ACC originates from accessory lacrimal gland tissue. Here, we present a patient with a large ACC of the central upper eyelid, which had been misdiagnosed and treated as a chalazion without histological examination. Its origin most likely is an accessory lacrimal gland. PMID:17447072

Paarlberg, J C; den Hollander, J C; Hafezi, F; Paridaens, D

2007-12-01

309

Subungual Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Subungual tumors are rare in general. Of all tumors, subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) is the most frequent one. Protean clinical presentations and the lack of awareness of the disease are responsible for an incorrect or delayed diagnosis and subsequent delayed treatment. We have reported here four patients with SSCC who were previously wrongly diagnosed with a benign process and treated unsuccessfully for years. We would like to highlight the need of a biopsy in chronic or recurrent nail lesions that fail to respond to a previous conservative treatment in order to rule out SSCC. PMID:25071252

Batalla, Ana; Feal, Carlos; Rosn, Elena; Posada, Celia

2014-01-01

310

[Hepatocellular carcinoma - from immunobiology to immunotherapy].  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide with an increasing incidence. The clinical outcome is influenced by the underlying liver cirrhosis, the size of the tumour at the time of diagnosis and the few therapeutic options currently available. In recent years there has been a lot of progress in the understanding of HCC immunobiology. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HCC biology, the role of chronic inflammation in carcinogenesis and the role of tumour-specific immune responses. Furthermore, we will present potentially new, immune-based therapies that might open up new avenues for the treatment of HCC. PMID:22222798

Flecken, T; Schmidt, N; Spangenberg, H C; Thimme, R

2012-01-01

311

Complex Karyotype in a Childhood Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultured cells from an 11-cm adrenocortical carcinoma in a 3.5-year-old girl revealed the karyotype 46,XX,inv(9)(p11q12)c[2]\\/5657,XX,+2,+4,+5,+7,+8,inv(9)c,+10,+add(13)(p11),+14,+15,+19,+20,+20,+mar[cp19]. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an abnormal karyotype in a pediatric adrenocortical tumor. Inasmuch as the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors is often difficult to make from clinical and histopathologic data alone, the present findings

Fredrik Mertens; Carl-Magnus Kullendorff; Christian Moll; Jan Alumets; Nils Mandahl

1998-01-01

312

Primary Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma A Rare Entity with Deviant Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare neoplasms. WHO classifies them under five categories of which, the moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma is synonymous with atypical or malignant carcinoid tumour. We report a rare case of primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma with an unusual and misleading clinical presentation. The initial cytological diagnosis of secondary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the cervical lymph node led to the suspicion of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the larynx. PMID:25386445

K, Anoosha; K, Amita; Shankar S, Vijay; Geeta K, Avadhani

2014-01-01

313

Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

2014-10-01

314

Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease.

Samuel, A.M.; Sharma, S.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Parel, Bombay (India))

1991-04-15

315

Carcinoma in situ of the penis.  

PubMed

Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat and bowenoid papulosis are uncommon disorders of the anogenital skin that may be confused with a variety of other lesions. While all appear histologically as carcinoma in situ and are strongly associated with human papillomavirus infection, only Bowen's disease and erythroplasia of Queyrat have been demonstrated to lead to the development of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In contrast, bowenoid papulosis has a completely benign course with no present evidence suggesting the potential for malignant degeneration. The standard treatment for all 3 lesions in surgical excision, although use of the carbon dioxide or neodymium:YAG laser appears to be effective at obtaining local control of disease while achieving an excellent cosmetic result. Alternative treatments with micrographic surgery, topical 5-fluorouracil or radiotherapy have a more limited role. It is important to remember that adequate biopsies are always necessary to ensure a complete and accurate diagnosis, and allow for proper treatment and followup, as well as appropriate counseling of sexual partners. PMID:8126803

Gerber, G S

1994-04-01

316

Breast carcinomas: variations in sonoelastographic appearance  

PubMed Central

Background This study assessed factors influencing the sonoelastographic presentation of breast carcinoma. Methods A prospective collaborative study was conducted by the Santa Casa de So Paulo and CTC-Center, on 540 breast lesions in women referred for percutaneous breast biopsy. Eighty-four carcinomas showing lesions on ultrasonography were included. These lesions were classified into four sonoelastographic scores, where scores of 1, 2, and 3 were considered false-negative, and a score of 4 was considered true-positive. Scores were compared against histopathologic results, which were divided into two groups, ie, soft lesions (group 1) and hard lesions (group 2). False-negative and true-positive results were also assessed for variation according to patient age and mean lesion diameter. Results Of the 84 lesions studied, nine yielded false-negative results on sonoelastography and 75 yielded true-positive results. In terms of histopathologic classification, eight were assigned to group 1 and 76 to group 2. The chi-squared test showed a correlation between sonoelastographic scores and histopathologic lesion type. No statistically significant differences were observed according to patient age or largest lesion diameter. Conclusion Our results revealed an association between sonoelastographic presentation of breast lesions and histology. False-negative results on sonoelastography were influenced by histologic type of lesion and not by lesion size or patient age. PMID:25177152

Fleury, Eduardo de Faria Castro; Assuno-Queiros, Maria do Carmo Guedes Alcoforado; Roveda, Decio

2014-01-01

317

Telomere fusions in early human breast carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence suggest that defects in telomere maintenance play a significant role in the initiation of genomic instability during carcinogenesis. Although the general concept of defective telomere maintenance initiating genomic instability has been acknowledged, there remains a critical gap in the direct evidence of telomere dysfunction in human solid tumors. To address this topic, we devised a multiplex PCR-based assay, termed TAR (telomere-associated repeat) fusion PCR, to detect and analyze chromosome end-to-end associations (telomere fusions) within human breast tumor tissue. Using TAR fusion PCR, we found that human breast lesions, but not normal breast tissues from healthy volunteers, contained telomere fusions. Telomere fusions were detected at similar frequencies during early ductal carcinoma in situ and in the later invasive ductal carcinoma stage. Our results provide direct evidence that telomere fusions are present in human breast tumor tissue and suggest that telomere dysfunction may be an important component of the genomic instability observed in this cancer. Development of this robust method that allows identification of these genetic aberrations (telomere fusions) is anticipated to be a valuable tool for dissecting mechanisms of telomere dysfunction. PMID:22891313

Tanaka, Hiromi; Abe, Satoshi; Huda, Nazmul; Tu, LiRen; Beam, Matthew J.; Grimes, Brenda; Gilley, David

2012-01-01

318

Integrated genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D, and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups ofBRAF-mutant tumors, and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

2014-10-23

319

Whole exome sequencing of adenoid cystic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that can occur in multiple organ sites and is primarily found in the salivary gland. While the identification of recurrent fusions of the MYB-NFIB genes have begun to shed light on the molecular underpinnings, little else is known about the molecular genetics of this frequently fatal cancer. We have undertaken exome sequencing in a series of 24 ACC to further delineate the genetics of the disease. We identified multiple mutated genes that, combined, implicate chromatin deregulation in half of cases. Further, mutations were identified in known cancer genes, including PIK3CA, ATM, CDKN2A, SF3B1, SUFU, TSC1, and CYLD. Mutations in NOTCH1/2 were identified in 3 cases, and we identify the negative NOTCH signaling regulator, SPEN, as a new cancer gene in ACC with mutations in 5 cases. Finally, the identification of 3 likely activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR2, analogous to those reported in ovarian and endometrial carcinoma, point to potential therapeutic avenues for a subset of cases. PMID:23778141

Stephens, Philip J.; Davies, Helen R.; Mitani, Yoshitsugu; Van Loo, Peter; Shlien, Adam; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Cheverton, Angela; Bignell, Graham R.; Butler, Adam P.; Gamble, John; Gamble, Stephen; Hardy, Claire; Hinton, Jonathan; Jia, Mingming; Jayakumar, Alagu; Jones, David; Latimer, Calli; McLaren, Stuart; McBride, David J.; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Maddison, Mark; Raine, Keiran; Nik-Zainal, Serena; OMeara, Sarah; Teague, Jon W.; Varela, Ignacio; Wedge, David C.; Whitmore, Ian; Lippman, Scott M.; McDermott, Ultan; Stratton, Michael R.; Campbell, Peter J.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Futreal, P. Andrew

2013-01-01

320

Myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland.  

PubMed

Myoepithelial carcinomas exhibit a wide spectrum of cytomorphologic features and diverse clinical outcomes. As a result of their morphologic heterogeneity, they can be confused easily with many tumours. Herein we report the morphological features of myoepithelial carcinoma in a 74-year-old female clinically presenting with a parotid mass. FNAB revealed hypercellular, three-dimensional clusters with considerable overlapping and crowding of pleomorphic neoplastic cells which consisted predominantly of spindle cells, with oval to elongated to spindle shaped nuclei showing considerable variation in size. The excised tumour was solid, with cells arranged in trabeculae, nests and cords. Tumour cells were mixed epithelioid and spindle with eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm, with eccentric nuclei and prominent nuclei. Neoplastic cells were found in blood vessels, in the skin and facial nerve. Tumour cells were immunopositive for PAS, PAS-D, S-100 protein, GFAP, P63, CK5/ CK6, CK7, and CK14. This case illustrates that cytological features in FNAB generally reflect the histology. FNAB was able to confirm the diagnosis and guide patient management. PMID:24763235

Kalogeraki, A; Korkolopoulou, P; Tamiolakis, D; Papadakis, C E; Sepsa, C; Lagoudaki, E; Patsouris, E

2014-04-01

321

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cervical carcinoma.  

PubMed

During the progression of epithelial cancer, cells usually lose epithelial characteristic features and gain a mesenchymal phenotype. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy worldwide. Despite the generally good prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer patients, many patients still die as a result of metastasis and recurrence. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in the metastasis of primary tumors and provides molecular mechanisms for cervical cancer metastasis. Here we provide an up-to-date overview regarding the program of EMT in cervical cancer. In the stepwise progression of cervical cancer, human papilloma viral proteins contribute to the cell transformation and the conversion of typical epithelial cells to the epithelial carcinoma cells with hybrid epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. Molecules related to the EMT program of cervical cancer cells are summarized in this review paper. Several soluble factors acting on their cognate receptors stimulate the mesenchymal transition of cervical epithelial cells. Ion transport system as well as cytoskeletal modulators also stimulate the progression of EMT program in cervical carcinoma cells. Transcriptional factors such as Snail, Twist1, Twist2, and six1 homeoproteins are involved in the complicated regulation and cervical cancer metastasis. Among the various signalings associated with EMT program, Snail is a central transcription factor which governs EMT program. In contrast to tumor promoters, several tumor suppressors such as SFRP1/2 and LMX-1A have been reported to suppress tumorigenesis as well as metastatic spread through inhibiting the EMT program. PMID:22347518

Lee, Mei-Yi; Shen, Meng-Ru

2012-01-01

322

Helical scanning CT for hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

To evaluate the clinical usefulness of helical scanning CT for hepatocellular carcinoma, 39 patients were examined using a Toshiba CT system, the Xforce. Helical scanning CT data were acquired using up to 20 continuous 1.5-sec rotations, with contrast medium bolus injection of 100-150 ml at a rate of 1.5-3 ml/sec, and during a single breath-hold. Scanning was begun 35 to 50 sec after the start of injection. Helical scanning CT permits axial images to be reconstructed at any desired position within the scanned area, and provides images without interslice gaps caused by respiratory movement. Contrast enhanced helical scanning CT permits blood vessels to be clearly displayed following the bolus injection of contrast medium using an automatic injector. Furthermore, the shorter scanning time makes it possible to scan the target area in the desired vascular phase. In all 39 patients who were examined using contrast enhanced helical scanning CT, high-quality three-dimensional images were obtained. Such images were particularly useful for assessing the three-dimensional relationships among high density tumors and vascular structures. In conclusion, helical scanning CT was considered to be useful for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:7972902

Shimizu, T; Narabayashi, I; Aratake, K; Uesugi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tatsu, Y; Sagami, A; Ashina, K; Maeda, H; Matsui, R

1994-01-01

323

Gene expression profiling analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. However, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well-understood, and the prognosis for patients with HCC remains very poor. Methods To disclose detailed genetic mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a view toward development of novel therapeutic targets, we analyzed expression profiles HCCs and their corresponding noncancerous tissues by using bioinformatics method. Results In this paper, we report the identification of genes whose expression has been altered and the changed bio-pathways during hepatocarcinogenesis. Hepatoma cells infect intracellular and intercellular signal transduction through Focal adhesion and cause abnormal expression of important intracellular signaling pathway. In addition, it is worth mentioning that some small molecules still restored to the state similar to normal cells, such as bambuterol and lovastatin. This member gene set would serve as a pool of lead gene targets for the identification and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers to greatly improve the clinical management of HCC patients with different risks of recurrence after curative partial hepatectomy. Conclusions The study has great significance for gene therapy and pharmacotherapy and provides a new treatment entry point and a potential new clinical drug for HCC patients. PMID:24229431

2013-01-01

324

KRAS and BRAF mutations in anal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The EGF receptor (EGFR) is expressed in most cases of anal carcinomas. Anecdotal benefit from EGFR-targeted therapy has been reported in anal cancer and a negative correlation with Kirsten Ras (KRAS) mutation status has been proposed. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency and the prognostic value of KRAS and BRAF mutations in a large cohort of patients with anal cancer. One hundred and ninety-three patients with T1-4N0-3M0-1 anal carcinoma were included in the study. Patients were treated with curative (92%) or palliative intent (8%) between January 2000 and January 2010. KRAS mutations were detected using Therascreen() KRAS real-time PCR assay (Qiagen) and V600E or V600D/K BRAF mutations were uncovered using Pyrosequencing. The frequency of KRAS and BRAF mutations was low; KRAS mutations were detected in 1.6% and BRAF mutations in 4.7% of the biopsies. No impact of KRAS or BRAF status on survival was found. In conclusion, both KRAS and BRAF mutations are rare in anal cancer. The low frequency of KRAS mutations support protocols exploring EGFR-targeted therapy in patients with metastatic anal cancer, while treatment with BRAF inhibitors might be relevant for only a very few patients. PMID:25244542

Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Hgdall, Estrid; Geertsen, Poul Flemming; Havsteen, Hanne

2015-01-01

325

The pathology of preclinical medullary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) occurs sporadically, or in familial forms in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B. In the familial forms it is associated with well-characterized, germline mutations in the RET protooncogene. The mutation sites differ in MEN2A and MEN2B, and MTC develops at an earlier age and is more aggressive in MEN2B. Screening of relatives of affected individuals for such mutations can identify those at risk of developing MTC and total thyroidectomy can be carried out in the first decade of life before the development of clinical disease. Analysis of such removed thyroid glands shows abnormalities of the parafollicular C-cells in almost all cases. The abnormalities range from C-cell hyperplasia, either diffuse or nodular, to microcarcinoma and occasionally frank MTC. The abnormalities are bilateral and affect the upper two thirds of the thyroid lobes. Microcarcinomas may be visible with the naked eye, but often they are identified only on microscopy. Histopathological examination of the entire gland is essential. PMID:15640548

Ashworth, Michael

2004-01-01

326

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands.  

PubMed Central

Four cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands arose as painless masses in patients over 60 years old, three in the parotid and one in the submandibular gland. Histologically, all the tumours were composed of small ducts with a double cell lining surrounded by a basement membrane. The inner cells were epithelial and the outer cells myoepithelial, the latter usually possessing clear cytoplasm. There was a variable degree of intervening hyalinised stroma. All the tumours were partly encapsulated, but also displayed local invasiveness. One of the tumours also showed areas of dedifferentiation when it later recurred and metastasised. The other three were apparently cured by initial excision, with adjuvant radiotherapy in one instance. In the past this tumour has been described as clear cell adenoma, and it was only recently that its true malignant nature, albeit low grade, was recognised. Reports of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma are still relatively few, with only one case described from Britain. It is recommended that this histologically distinct neoplasm deserves wider recognition. Images PMID:2045502

Simpson, R H; Clarke, T J; Sarsfield, P T; Gluckman, P G

1991-01-01

327

Metabolic syndrome and renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, which has been regarded as a pivotal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies focusing on the relationship between MS and cancer have recognized the significant role of MS on carcinogenesis. Likewise, growing evidence suggests that MS has a strong association with increased renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. This review outlines the link between MS and RCC, and some underlying mechanisms responsible for MS-associated RCC. Materials and methods A National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed search (http://www.pubmed.gov) was conducted using medical subject headings metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and renal cell carcinoma. Results This revealed that a variety of molecular mechanisms secondary to MS are involved in RCC formation, progression, and metastasis. A deeper understanding of these molecular mechanisms may provide some strategies for the prevention and treatment of RCC. Conclusions In summary, there is a large body of evidence regarding the link between MS and RCC, within which each component of MS is considered to have a close causal association with RCC. PMID:25069390

2014-01-01

328

Absence of microsatellite instability in mucinous carcinomas of the breast  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a form of genetic instability that results from defects in DNA mismatch repair. MSI is reported to be rare in unselected breast cancers, however it is a common feature in subsets of colorectal, ovarian and endometrial cancers. In these anatomical sites, MSI-high carcinomas often display a mucinous histology. The aim of this study was to determine whether mucinous carcinomas of the breast would more frequently display MSI-high than invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). The expression of four MSI markers (i.e. MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2) was immunohistochemically assessed in 35 mucinous breast carcinomas and 35 histological grade- and oestrogen receptor (ER) status-matched IDC-NSTs, and in a series of 245 invasive breast cancers. Cases were considered as potentially MSI-high if tumour cells lacked expression of at least two MSI markers and internal controls displayed nuclear staining. Nine mucinous carcinomas were microdissected and subjected to MSI analysis by PCR using the MSI markers BAT26 and BAT40. No immunohistochemical evidence of MSI-high was found in the 35 mucinous carcinomas and 35 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and in the cohort of 245 invasive breast cancers. In addition, no evidence of MSI-high was observed by PCR analysis using the BAT26 and BAT40 markers in the nine mucinous carcinomas tested. Our results demonstrate that MSI-high phenotype is remarkably rare in invasive breast cancer, and that, in contrast to mucinous carcinomas of other anatomical sites, MSI is not a common event in mucinous carcinomas of the breast. PMID:21228925

Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Lambros, Maryou B; Geyer, Felipe C; Suarez, Paula H; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

2011-01-01

329

Characteristics of cell lines established from human gastric carcinoma.  

PubMed

We report the establishment and characterization of four continuous cell lines derived from human primary and metastatic gastric carcinomas, and we compare their properties with a panel of colorectal carcinoma cell lines previously established and reported by us. Our success rate in culturing gastric carcinomas was relatively low, especially from primary tumors, compared to colorectal carcinoma. These observations may reflect the relatively modest number of gastric carcinoma cell lines established (mainly from Japan), compared to the abundance of colorectal carcinoma lines established worldwide. All four gastric lines expressed the surface glycoproteins carcinoembryonic antigen and TAG-72 and three lines expressed CA 19-9. Two of the lines expressed aromatic amino acid decarboxylase but lacked other markers for neuroendocrine differentiation. All four lines were positive for vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors but lacked gastrin receptors. In addition, two lines expressed receptors for muscarinic/cholinergic receptors but not beta-adrenergic receptors. Cytogenetic evidence for gene amplification was present in the cell lines. All four lines contained varying numbers of double-minute chromosomes. One line, SNU-16, was amplified for the c-myc proto-oncogene and contained four homogeneously staining regions. While c-myc and c-erb-B-2 RNA were expressed by all lines, there was no evidence of amplification or overexpression of several other proto-oncogenes and growth factors. The multiple properties we have described in our gastric carcinoma cell lines are remarkably similar to those found in the panel of colorectal carcinoma cell lines. These properties include morphology, growth characteristics, expression of surface glycoproteins, partial expression of neuroendocrine cell markers, frequent chromosomal evidence of gene amplification, and occasional amplification of the c-myc proto-oncogene. Our four well characterized cell lines should provide useful additions to the modest number currently available for in vitro studies of gastric carcinoma. PMID:2158397

Park, J G; Frucht, H; LaRocca, R V; Bliss, D P; Kurita, Y; Chen, T R; Henslee, J G; Trepel, J B; Jensen, R T; Johnson, B E

1990-05-01

330

Premalignant and early carcinomas of the penis and scrotum.  

PubMed

Premalignant penile lesions are a spectrum of diseases ranging from those that are almost always benign to neoplasms that are carcinoma in situ. Balanitis xerotica obliterans is a localized variant of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. The Buschke-Lwenstein tumor is a low-grade malignancy, whereas erythroplasia of Queyrat is a carcinoma in situ. Obtaining the correct diagnosis may challenge even the skilled clinician. It is increasingly likely that papillomaviruses play a role in the development of some cases of penile carcinoma. Scrotal cancer has both historical and current significance as an indicator of occupational health. Occasionally, extramammary Paget's disease presents as a primary scrotal neoplasm. PMID:1574813

Grossman, H B

1992-05-01

331

The role of postoperative radiotherapy in carcinoma of the endometrium.  

PubMed

The role of adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial carcinoma after surgery remains controversial. There is a great variation between centres in deciding when to give postoperative external beam radiotherapy and/or vaginal vault brachytherapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. The role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy as well as the need for postoperative radiotherapy after this type of surgical staging continue to be debated. Furthermore, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy either alone or in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy also remains to be determined. This overview discusses the role of postoperative radiotherapy in the context of surgery and other adjuvant treatments in carcinoma of the endometrium. PMID:18455376

Kong, A; Powell, M; Blake, P

2008-08-01

332

Tibial Metastasis from Muscle Invasive Bladder Carcinoma: An Unusual Site  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 61-year-old gentleman who presented with frank hematuria with associated weight loss and on-going left knee pain. Subsequent investigation revealed a muscle invasive bladder carcinoma with a related unusual bone metastasis. Though bone metastases form bladder carcinoma are common, frequent deposition sites include the spinal column and pelvis. This case report is to the best of our knowledge the first reported case of a tibial metastasis for relevant bladder carcinoma. Furthermore, we reviewed the literature, relevant diagnostic and management surrounding such occurrences. PMID:24917780

Brennan, David; Kelly, Michael E.; Nason, Gregory J.; Collins-Smyth, Coilin; McGuire, Barry B.; Lennon, Gerald M.

2014-01-01

333

Isolated nasal tip metastasis from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Cutaneous metastatic tumors to the nasal tip are very rare. A 74-year-old woman presented with progressive dysphagia for 4 months and a painless red violaceous nodule in the nasal tip for the last 6 weeks. Gastroendoscopy showed midesophageal wall thickening, which corresponded to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. F-FDG PET/CT showed intense FDG uptake of the esophageal carcinoma (SUVmax, 19.0) and the nasal tip nodule (SUVmax, 29.1). The patient underwent biopsy of the nasal tip nodule. Nasal tip metastasis from the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed by pathologic examination. PMID:24566414

Dong, Aisheng; Zuo, Changjing; Wang, Yang; Zhai, Zhijun; Wen, Wu

2015-01-01

334

Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

2014-01-01

335

Detection, staging and surveillance in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

This article discusses the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scanning techniques used for the detection and staging of renal cell carcinoma and their pitfalls. Comparison between the Robson and recent modifications to the TNM classifications is also addressed. The accuracy of CT and MR in the staging of renal cell carcinoma and the role of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is outlined and finally the surveillance of patients who have had curative treatment of renal cell carcinoma is briefly addressed. PMID:17098649

Francis, Isaac R

2006-01-01

336

Hepatocellular carcinoma review: Current treatment, and evidence-based medicine  

PubMed Central

We read with great interest the recent article entitled Hepatocellular carcinoma review: Current treatment, and evidence-based medicine by Raza et al, published in World Journal of Gastroenterology. Authors evaluated treatments for early and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma based on an extensive review of the relevant literature. They reported that radiofrequency ablation is the most effective local ablative therapy. They concluded that RF ablation is equivalent to surgical resection in well selected patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, we want to mention microwave ablation besides RF ablation. PMID:25548509

Karaman, Bulent; Battal, Bilal; Sari, Sebahattin; Verim, Samet

2014-01-01

337

[FDG-PET/CT in staging of breast carcinoma: use in tumour stage III and locoregional recurrent breast carcinoma].  

PubMed

In stage III breast carcinoma, metastasized disease needs to be determined. In the past, conventional imaging by liver ultrasound, chest X-ray and bone scintigraphy was the work-up of choice. Recently, FDG-PET/CT was found to have additional value, but clinicians are hesitant to introduce this technique. We present three patients in whom FDG-PET/CT was applied. A 61-year-old woman with stage III breast carcinoma after conventional work-up was upstaged to stage IV breast carcinoma by FDG-PET/CT, upon which her treatment was changed. A 55-year-old woman suspected of stage IV breast carcinoma after conventional imaging was downstaged to stage III after FDG-PET/CT. Her treatment was changed as well. In a 78-year-old woman with recurrent breast carcinoma, the diagnostic certainty of stage III breast carcinoma was increased by FDG-PET/CT. We conclude that FDG-PET/CT is valuable for adequately diagnosing metastases in patients with stage III breast carcinoma and can replace conventional imaging. PMID:24642119

Bulten, Ben F; de Haas, Marie J; Rodenburg, Cees J; van Ooijen, Bart; Baas, Inge O; de Klerk, John M H

2014-01-01

338

p63 Immunohistochemistry Differentiates Salivary Gland Oncocytoma and Oncocytic Carcinoma from Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can pose diagnostic challenges in the head and neck often resembling benign and malignant\\u000a oncocytic lesions. Immunohistochemical panels have been reported to help with this differential but are not entirely specific\\u000a or sensitive. We have noticed that p63 routinely stains salivary gland oncocytomas but not metastatic RCC. Nineteen oncocytomas,\\u000a 9 cases of oncocytosis, 9 oncocytic

Jonathan B. McHugh; Aaron P. Hoschar; Mari Dvorakova; Anil V. Parwani; E. Leon Barnes; Raja R. Seethala

2007-01-01

339

p53 expression patterns in colorectal adenomas and early carcinomas: a special reference to depressed adenoma and non-polypoid carcinoma.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of p53 in tumor progression of colorectal adenomas and early carcinomas, while especially focusing on flat tumors (depressed adenomas and non-polypoid carcinomas). Paraffin sections of 61 pure adenomas (33 polypoid, 28 depressed), 26 carcinomas in polypoid adenoma (CIA) and 63 pure carcinomas (36 polypoid, 27 non-polypoid) were examined for immunostaining using p53 monoclonal antibody (PAb 1801). All of the carcinomas were restricted to the mucosa. The number and distribution of the p53 positive tumor cells was evaluated, and then compared with tumor growth patterns and histological features. The incidence of p53 expression in carcinomas (58% in CIA and 51% in pure carcinomas) was significantly higher than that in polypoid adenoma (27% in CIA and 21% in pure adenomas). However, the same incidence in depressed adenomas (51%) was significantly higher than in polypoid adenomas. No correlation in carcinomas was observed between p53 expression and clinicopathologic data except for age. The distribution of p53 positive cells was different between adenomas and carcinomas. There tended to be fewer p53 positive cells in adenomas, even in depressed ones, than in carcinomas and they also tended to be confined to the superficial areas in adenomas, while they were diffusely distributed in carcinomas. Interestingly, the p53 positive cells were more frequently present in the deep mucosal areas than in the superficial areas of some non-polypoid carcinomas. In conclusion, the following hypotheses are suggested: (i) the increase of p53 expression from adenoma to carcinoma supports the hypothesis of an adenoma-carcinoma sequence in a polypoid tumor; (ii) the unique p53 expression in non-polypoid carcinoma suggests the existence of another type of carcinogenesis; and (iii) depressed adenomas are thus considered to have a high potential risk of carcinoma. PMID:9110348

Yao, T; Utsunomiya, T; Nagai, E; Oya, M; Tsuneyoshi, M

1996-12-01

340

Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

Lin, Charles, E-mail: Charles_Lin@health.qld.gov.au [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Poulsen, Michael [Mater Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jarad [St. Andrews Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

2012-01-01

341

Uterine superficial serous carcinomas and extensive serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas: clinicopathological analysis of 6 patients  

PubMed Central

Uterine superficial serous carcinoma (SSC) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) are unique malignancies found primarily in postmenopausal women. SSC and SEIC lesions measuring 1 cm or less are categorized as minimal uterine serous carcinoma (MUSC). Less well understood, however, the clinical behavior of SSC and SEIC lesions measuring more than 1 cm. We investigated 6 postmenopausal patients, aged 69-83 years, with SSC or SEIC and without hyperestrogenism. All but 1 patient had tumors originating from the surface of polyps, including 3 patients who each had an enormous polyp occupying the entire uterine cavity. Two patients had extensive SEICs measuring more than 1 cm; the others had SSCs, including 1 MUSC. The mesenchymal cells of the cancer-bearing polyps lacked the morphologic characteristics of endometrial stroma, and the cancer glands often immunostained negatively for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Diffuse immunostaining for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was detected in 3 patients, and p53 was detected in all. Cyclin E, a downstream molecule of the F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7), was detected in all patients. Microdissected cancer glands showed p53 mutations in 2 patients and a FBXW7 mutation in 1 patient. These findings suggest that mutations of FBXW7 and p53 may contribute to the carcinogenesis of less invasive tumor subtypes. Pathologists and physicians should carefully evaluate SSC and SEIC lesions involving large polyps but lacking myometrial invasion. PMID:25550841

Ono, Kyoko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Reiko; Suzuki, Rie; Maruyama, Yasuyo; Miyagi, Yohei; Furuya, Mitsuko

2014-01-01

342

Uterine superficial serous carcinomas and extensive serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas: clinicopathological analysis of 6 patients.  

PubMed

Uterine superficial serous carcinoma (SSC) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) are unique malignancies found primarily in postmenopausal women. SSC and SEIC lesions measuring 1 cm or less are categorized as minimal uterine serous carcinoma (MUSC). Less well understood, however, the clinical behavior of SSC and SEIC lesions measuring more than 1 cm. We investigated 6 postmenopausal patients, aged 69-83 years, with SSC or SEIC and without hyperestrogenism. All but 1 patient had tumors originating from the surface of polyps, including 3 patients who each had an enormous polyp occupying the entire uterine cavity. Two patients had extensive SEICs measuring more than 1 cm; the others had SSCs, including 1 MUSC. The mesenchymal cells of the cancer-bearing polyps lacked the morphologic characteristics of endometrial stroma, and the cancer glands often immunostained negatively for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Diffuse immunostaining for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was detected in 3 patients, and p53 was detected in all. Cyclin E, a downstream molecule of the F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7), was detected in all patients. Microdissected cancer glands showed p53 mutations in 2 patients and a FBXW7 mutation in 1 patient. These findings suggest that mutations of FBXW7 and p53 may contribute to the carcinogenesis of less invasive tumor subtypes. Pathologists and physicians should carefully evaluate SSC and SEIC lesions involving large polyps but lacking myometrial invasion. PMID:25550841

Ono, Kyoko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Reiko; Suzuki, Rie; Maruyama, Yasuyo; Miyagi, Yohei; Furuya, Mitsuko

2014-01-01

343

Axillary metaplastic breast carcinoma with ipsilateral pectoral invasive ductal carcinoma: an unusual presentation.  

PubMed

We report a case of axillary metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) with triple negative (ER-/PR-/Her2-) phenotype, concurrent with multifocal invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of ipsilateral pectoral breast (ER+/PR+/Her2-) in a 60-year-old woman. The two tumors demonstrate different morphology, immunophenotype, and opposite response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of paclitaxol, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide. Methylation analysis of human androgen receptor (HUMARA) on X-chromosome identified monoclonal pattern of X-chromosome inactivation in MBC and mosaic pattern in the IDC. Stem cell origin of MBC is suggested in this case. Clinicopathological features, imaging findings, biological markers, chemoradiation management, and prognosis of MBC are reviewed in comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma. Our case and literature review suggest that traditional chemotherapy applicable to IDC is less effective towards MBC. However, new chemotherapy protocols targeting stem cell and multimodality management of MBC are promising. Recognition of unusual presentation of MBC will help tailor therapy towards tumor with worse prognosis. PMID:25364575

Zhang, Lei; Comertpay, Sabahattin; Shimizu, David; DeMay, Richard M; Carbone, Michele; Honda, Stacey A; Eaves, Jodi M Matsuura

2014-01-01

344

Axillary Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma with Ipsilateral Pectoral Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: An Unusual Presentation  

PubMed Central

We report a case of axillary metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) with triple negative (ER?/PR?/Her2?) phenotype, concurrent with multifocal invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of ipsilateral pectoral breast (ER+/PR+/Her2?) in a 60-year-old woman. The two tumors demonstrate different morphology, immunophenotype, and opposite response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of paclitaxol, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide. Methylation analysis of human androgen receptor (HUMARA) on X-chromosome identified monoclonal pattern of X-chromosome inactivation in MBC and mosaic pattern in the IDC. Stem cell origin of MBC is suggested in this case. Clinicopathological features, imaging findings, biological markers, chemoradiation management, and prognosis of MBC are reviewed in comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma. Our case and literature review suggest that traditional chemotherapy applicable to IDC is less effective towards MBC. However, new chemotherapy protocols targeting stem cell and multimodality management of MBC are promising. Recognition of unusual presentation of MBC will help tailor therapy towards tumor with worse prognosis. PMID:25364575

Zhang, Lei; Comertpay, Sabahattin; Shimizu, David; DeMay, Richard M.; Carbone, Michele; Honda, Stacey A.; Eaves, Jodi M. Matsuura

2014-01-01

345

A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-04-21

346

Vascularization of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue depends on its differentiation degree.  

PubMed

Quantitative characteristics of vessels in hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent liver tissue were studied by morphometric methods after immunohistochemical staining for CD34 and CD105. The number of immunopositive vessels decreased with reduction of tumor histological differentiation degree. PMID:22977853

Shchyogolev, A I; Dubova, E A; Tumanova, U N

2012-08-01

347

Transformation of Merkel cell carcinoma to ganglioneuroblastoma in intracranial metastasis.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor occasionally demonstrating aberrant differentiation to other epithelial and nonepithelial cell lines. We describe a case of Merkel cell carcinoma displaying unique patterns of differentiation in the primary focus and brain metastasis. The skin primary was almost uniformly small cell carcinoma positive for epithelial and neuroendocrine markers, with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein- and cytokeratin 20-positive cells. The neoplasm contained giant cells immunoreactive for neurofilament and negative for epithelial markers. The neck lymph node metastasis was a typical neuroendocrine Merkel cell carcinoma positive for cytokeratin 20. A solitary dural intracranial metastasis displayed features of aggressive ganglioneuroblastoma, expressing many neuronal antigens with no evidence of glial or epithelial differentiation. After total gross resection, the tumor recurred within 3 months, and the patient developed skeletal metastases and died 6 months after craniotomy. PMID:24996688

Lach, Boleslaw; Joshi, Sangeeta S; Murty, Naresh; Huq, Nasimul

2014-09-01

348

[Nasopharyngeal carcinoma and dermatomyositis (analysis of 12 cases)].  

PubMed

The onset relationship between dermatomyositis (DM) and malignant tumor, especially nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), was approached. Approximately 90 cases of DM were admitted in the hospital. Among them 15 cases were complicated with malignant tumor of which 12 cases were complicated with NPC (account for 80% of DM with complicated carcinoma). In addition to treat these patients with prednisone and antibiotics, radiation therapy has been applied for NPC and metastasis in the neck. During the hospitalizations, one patient died, eleven patients' NPC was controlled, and the DM was completely resolved or improved. There is an obvious relationship between DM and carcinoma. DM may improve or even subside with good short term prognosis, as long as the carcinoma is controlled successfully. PMID:11263146

Song, X; Peng, J; Qiu, Q

1998-09-01

349

Endometrial carcinoma metastatic to the clitoris: A case report.  

PubMed

Skin metastasis from an endometrial carcinoma is very rare and prognosis is poor.This report describes clitoral metastasis from an endometrial adenocarcinoma.Clitoral and distant metastases and the primary site were diagnosed concomitantly. PMID:24567885

Filho, Antnio Chamb; Garbeloto, Elediane; Santiago, Karoline Christina de Souza Dias; da Motta, Luciene Lage

2014-04-01

350

Overview of the current definition of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ  

Cancer.gov

Ductal Carinoma in Situ: Strategies for Integrating Tumor Biology and Population Sciences February 1-2, 2007, San Francisco, CA Overview of the current definition of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Donald L. Weaver, MD University of Vermont In the beginning

351

Medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a supraglottic mass.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of medullary thyroid carcinoma that presented as a metastasis to the supraglottic larynx. A 92-year-old man with a 3-month history of voice change and airway obstruction was diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the supraglottis. Excision of the mass, total thyroidectomy, and elective neck dissection were recommended, but the patient declined because of his advanced age. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare neuroendocrine tumor with a poor prognosis when associated with a distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid presenting as a supraglottic mass. Total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, and surgical excision of the entire tumor comprise the treatment of choice. PMID:25397389

White, Jeremy; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Schwartz, Arnold; Bielamowicz, Steven

2014-01-01

352

Autoantibodies to Tumor-Associated Antigens in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

This review will focus on recent knowledge related to circulating autoantibodies (AAbs) to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. So far, the following TAAs have been identified to elicit circulating AAbs in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: p53, homeobox proteins (HOXA7, HOXB7), heat shock proteins (HSP-27, HSP-90), cathepsin D, cancer-testis antigens (NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1), MUC1, GIPC-1, IL-8, Ep-CAM, and S100A7. Since AAbs to TAAs have been identified in the circulation of patients with early-stage cancer, it has been speculated that the assessment of a panel of AAbs specific for epithelial ovarian carcinoma TAAs might hold great potential as a novel tool for early diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:20145720

Piura, Benjamin; Piura, Ettie

2009-01-01

353

Cystic carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.  

PubMed

In a 48-year-old male patient, a well-circumscribed, round tumor in the lacrimal fossa was detected by CT. During total excision of the tumor, a wall of the tumor ruptured, resulting in leakage of the fluid contents. The wall of the tumor formed a cyst that contained residual yellowish fluid. Histologically, the cyst wall included an adenocarcinomatous component and a focus of pleomorphic adenoma. The tumor was diagnosed as a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. The carcinoma cells showed positive immunoreactivity for androgen receptor and BRST-2, indicating that the tumor was equivalent to a salivary duct carcinoma. Postoperatively, the patient underwent involved field irradiation. This case demonstrates that a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland may develop in a cyst. PMID:17881995

Takahira, Masayuki; Minato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Mami; Karino, Kousei; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

2007-01-01

354

Carcinoma in situ of the testis: aneuploid cells in semen  

PubMed Central

The content of cellular DNA in ejaculates from eight patients with carcinoma in situ of the testis and 26 controls without evidence of testicular neoplasia was studied by flow cytometry. An aneuploid cell population with a ploidy value similar to that found for carcinoma in situ cells was detected in seminal fluid from four of the eight men with carcinoma in situ but in none of the controls. One year after orchidectomy or local irradiation in these four men no aneuploid cells were found in the semen. These findings show that a detectable proportion of malignant germ cells may be released into the seminal fluid of patients with carcinoma in situ of the testis. Analysis of seminal fluid may therefore aid in screening for early neoplasia of the testis. PMID:3136829

Giwercman, Aleksander; Clausen, Ole Petter F; Skakkebk, Niels E

1988-01-01

355

Intraoral carcinoma in Nigeria: a review of 137 cases.  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of the oral cavity occurring in Africans is poorly documented. Although oral cancer is considered rare in Africa approximately 40 cases of intraoral carcinoma are seen yearly at the Maxillofacial Clinic, Kaduna. This paper reviews 137 cases of malignant disease in the oral cavity and compares the results with previously published literature. Tumours of the major salivary glands and carcinoma that could clearly be shown to originate from the antral mucosa are not included in this series. Lesions of the palate, alveolar ridge and the oral vestibule, all of which appeared to have arisen primarily from the oral mucosa, predominated. A relatively low incidence of carcinoma of the lip and tongue was recorded. The patients were considerably younger than those reported in comparable series from Europe and America. PMID:4004050

Adekeye, E. O.; Asamoa, E.; Cohen, B.

1985-01-01

356

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland: A case report.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the second most common type of malignancy in Southern China. Metastatic sites are usually multifocal and involve the bones, lungs and distant lymph nodes. To date, there have been no studies with regard to nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland. In the current study, the case of a 56-year-old female with nasal obstruction, epitaxis and a bilateral neck mass is presented. Following a series of examinations, the patient was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (cT3N3M0). Subsequently, the patient received radical radiation therapy. After three months, a mass was identified in the left breast, together with enlargement of multiple lymph nodes in the left axilla. The patient underwent a mastectomy and pathological examination revealed that the breast mass and axillary lymph node tissues were derived from the nasopharynx. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma that metastasized to the mammary gland. PMID:25435974

Li, Shuang; Yang, Jiyuan

2015-01-01

357

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland: A case report  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the second most common type of malignancy in Southern China. Metastatic sites are usually multifocal and involve the bones, lungs and distant lymph nodes. To date, there have been no studies with regard to nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland. In the current study, the case of a 56-year-old female with nasal obstruction, epitaxis and a bilateral neck mass is presented. Following a series of examinations, the patient was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (cT3N3M0). Subsequently, the patient received radical radiation therapy. After three months, a mass was identified in the left breast, together with enlargement of multiple lymph nodes in the left axilla. The patient underwent a mastectomy and pathological examination revealed that the breast mass and axillary lymph node tissues were derived from the nasopharynx. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma that metastasized to the mammary gland. PMID:25435974

LI, SHUANG; YANG, JIYUAN

2015-01-01

358

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the peripheral lung: a case report  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the peripheral lung is a rare entity. We recently encountered a patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma. A 75-year-old woman showed a nodular lesion with 10 mm in diameter in the right upper lung field on chest radiography. The diagnosis was unclear, but lung cancer could not be ruled out. Thoracoscopic biopsy was performed, and intraoperative pathological diagnosis revealed the carcinoma of the lung. We enforced upper lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection to the patient. Histopathological examination revealed adenoid cystic carcinoma with a characteristic cribriform structure. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the tumor cells were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), this tumor was diagnosed primary ACC of the lung. PMID:20796281

2010-01-01

359

Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Cancer complicates approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Primary tracheal carcinoma is one of very rarely seen tumors and the rate of its being seen makes up approximately % 0.2 of all tumors of respiratory tract. The patient, 28 years old, who has 28-weeks-pregnant, was diagnosed with primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma. Patient was made operation as thoracotomy and tracheal tumor was removed at the 28th week of pregnancy. Patient was delivered with sectio abdominale at the 39th week of pregnancy. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma is very rarely seen tumors and it is the first tracheal ACC with pregnancy case in literature to have been detected and surgically treated during pregnancy. We discussed primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy with literature. PMID:22066040

Abike, Faruk; Bingol, Banu; Temizkan, Osman; Dunder, Ilkkan; Kilic, Gokhan Sami; Cetin, Guven; Gundogdu, Cem

2011-01-01

360

Palliative Radiotherapy in a Patient with Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma in the lung is very rare, so its clinicopathologic characteristics have usually been extrapolated from the salivary disease. However, the clinical courses of pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinomas may be different from those of salivary disease, and individual differences may also exist. I report here on a case of a patient who was initially diagnosed as pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma with liver metastases and the tumor showed extreme radiosensitivity, but it also underwent an aggressive clinical course. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is usually known to be a slowly growing tumor, but it may rapidly disseminate, like in this patient. Therefore, the factors predicting aggressive behavior should be determined and the treatment might be individualized according to the primary sites and on the patient's basis. PMID:19746187

2007-01-01

361

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast  

PubMed Central

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast represents a complex, heterogeneous pathologic condition in which malignant epithelial cells are confined within the ducts of the breast without evidence of invasion. The increased use of screening mammography has led to a significant shift in the diagnosis of DCIS, accounting for approximately 27% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer in 2011, with an overall increase in incidence. As the incidence of DCIS increases, the treatment options continue to evolve. Consistent pathologic evaluation is crucial in optimizing treatment recommendations. Surgical treatment options include breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and mastectomy. Postoperative radiation therapy in combination with breast-conserving surgery is considered the standard of care with demonstrated decrease in local recurrence with the addition of radiation therapy. The role of endocrine therapy is currently being evaluated. The optimization of diagnostic imaging, treatment with regard to pathological risk assessment, and the role of partial breast irradiation continue to evolve. PMID:22852075

Lee, Richard J.; Vallow, Laura A.; McLaughlin, Sarah A.; Tzou, Katherine S.; Hines, Stephanie L.; Peterson, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

362

Newer treatments for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The only curative treatment modalities for HCC are surgery, percutaneous ablation, and liver transplantation. Unfortunately, the majority of patients have unresectable disease at diagnosis. Therefore, effective treatment options are needed for patients with advanced HCC. The current standard treatment for patients with advanced HCC, according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, is the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. Other alternative therapies are required, due to the limited treatment response to, and tolerance of, this molecular target agent. Clinical trials of hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy, radioembolization, and multimodal treatments have shown favorable results in advanced HCC patients. This article introduces new treatment modalities for advanced HCC and discusses future therapeutic possibilities. PMID:24648795

Song, Myeong Jun

2014-01-01

363

Clinical Trials in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Update  

PubMed Central

The success of sorafenib has spurred an explosive increase of clinical trials testing novel molecular targets and other agents in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The paradigm of the studies has been characterized by three noticeable changes. First, the molecular targets of interest have expanded from angiogenesis to cancer cell-directed oncogenic signaling pathways for advanced HCC treatment. Agents targeting EGFR, FGFR, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, TGF-?, c-Met, MEK, IGF signaling, and histone deacetylase have been actively explored. Second, the target indication has shifted from advanced stage to early or intermediate stages of disease. The feasibility of combining locoregional therapies and targeted agents, and the use of novel agents after curative treatments are currently under active investigation. Finally, the therapeutic strategy has shifted from monotherapy to combination targeted therapy. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of newly disclosed and ongoing clinical trials for the treatment of HCC. PMID:24400222

Shen, Ying-Chun; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Chiun; Shao, Yu-Yun; Cheng, Ann-Lii

2013-01-01

364

Genetic and epigenetic changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy with remarkable racial and geographic distribution. The development of this EBV-associated cancer likely involves cumulative genetic and epigenetic changes in a background of predisposed genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide studies have unravelled multiple chromosomal abnormalities with involvement of specific oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Alterations of genes such as Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), p16/INK4A, p14/ARF suggest that multiple cellular pathways were dysregulated in the NPC cells. Studies on the precancerous lesions revealed early genetic changes and a critical role of EBV latent infection in the development of this cancer. Based on the existing findings, a pathogenetic model for NPC is proposed. PMID:12450731

Lo, Kwok-Wai; Huang, Dolly P

2002-12-01

365

The dedifferentiation of metastatic prostate carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred consecutive staging lymphadenectomies with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma and 100 consecutive autopsies with widely disseminated metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma were identified. The metastases from 41% of the staging lymphadenectomies were entirely differentiated (gland forming) and an additional 43% were predominantly (50% or more) differentiated. In contrast, the metastases from 70% of the autopsies were entirely undifferentiated (non-gland forming) and an additional 18% were predominantly undifferentiated. Further, five patients with completely or predominantly differentiated metastases in staging lymphadenectomies were found to have widespread completely or predominantly undifferentiated metastases at autopsy 4-7 years later. These findings suggest that dedifferentiation occurs within metastases and that dedifferentiation within metastases may be important in understanding the widespread dissemination of metastatic prostate carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2757926

Brawn, P. N.; Speights, V. O.

1989-01-01

366

Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). A case-control study, carried out in two towns in Yugoslavia, comprised 200 BCC cases and 399 controls. For statistical analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used. The risk factors found for BCC were: freckling before the age 15, seven or more weeks per year spent at the seaside during holidays (lifetime average), outdoor work during summer-time, occupational exposure to organic and non-organic dissolvents and organophosphatic compounds, use of tar for cosmetic purposes, and previous BCC in personal history. Subjects who tended to burn and not to tan after sun exposure also showed a significantly higher risk for BCC. Brown eyes and history of acne had a protective effect. This study confirmed the role of both constitutional and environmental factors in the development of BCC. PMID:11093369

Vlajinac, H D; Adanja, B J; Lazar, Z F; Bogavac, A N; Bjeki?, M D; Marinkovic, J M; Kocev, N I

2000-01-01

367

Cushing's syndrome in medullary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Ectopic ACTH secretion is a rare cause of hypercortisolism. Induced metabolic disturbances are often serious, and the management of such patients may be difficult. We report here our experience with four medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients with distant metastases in whom an ectopic ACTH syndrome occurred. The clinical presentation was significant by the severity and the rapidity of the hypercortisolism. Diagnosis and follow-up were realized by measurements of plasma cortisol, urinary free cortisol, urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid, plasma ACTH, plasma LPH, serum calcitonin and carcino-embryonic antigen. Initial treatment with adrenalytic medical therapy failed to control the disease. Only bilateral adrenalectomy cured the excessive cortisol production, and for a long time despite tumor progression. In conclusion, bilateral adrenalectomy should be considered in MTC patients with Cushing's syndrome even at the stage of distant spread. In fact, with regard to the slow growth rate of most MTC's, they may survive for years. PMID:7615903

Mure, A; Gicquel, C; Abdelmoumene, N; Tenenbaum, F; Francese, C; Travagli, J P; Gardet, P; Schlumberger, M

1995-03-01

368

Basal Cell Carcinoma Masked in Rhinophyma  

PubMed Central

Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively. PMID:23841002

De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto

2013-01-01

369

Hepatocellular carcinoma from an immunological perspective  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the 3rd most common cancer worldwide. It is an inflammation-associated cancer. Multiple investigators have demonstrated that analysis of the tumor microenvironment may be used to predict patient outcome indicating the importance of local immune responses in this disease. In contrast to other types of cancer, in which surgery, radiation and systemic cytotoxic chemotherapies dominate the treatment options, in HCC loco-regional treatments are widely applied. Such treatments induce rapid tumor cell death and anti-tumor immune responses, which may favor or impair patients outcome. Recent immunotherapy studies demonstrating promising results include trials evaluating intra-tumoral injection of an oncolytic virus expressing GM-CSF, glypican-3 targeting treatments and anti-CTLA4 treatment. While some of these novel approaches may provide benefit as single agents, there is a clear opportunity in HCC to evaluate these in combination with the standard modalities to more effectively harness the immune response. PMID:24030702

Greten, Tim F.; Duffy, Austin G.; Korangy, Firouzeh

2013-01-01

370

Solitary Skin Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A solitary skin metastasis is a rare manifestation of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 55-year-old woman presented with a movable subcutaneous nodule in her anterior neck for several months. Three years ago, she underwent total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation for classical PTC (pT3N0M0) and was under thyroxine suppression therapy without any evidence of recurrent disease. The subcutaneous nodule was 0.4 cm in size, firm, and movable without any change in the overlying skin. Recurrent PTC was confirmed after excision biopsy. Eight months after, she got a new nodule along the previous excision site. After punch biopsy, metastatic PTC was confirmed in the deep dermis and was re-excised with a clear resection margin. This is the first report of a case of solitary skin metastasis of PTC in Korea. Although solitary skin metastasis of PTC is rare, it should be considered in patients with a skin nodule. PMID:25325268

Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Hyojung; Park, Sojung; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee

2014-01-01

371

Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity.  

PubMed

Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is an unusual locally aggressive neoplasm that is important to recognize since it may be confused with benign adnexal neoplasms, particularly desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, trichoadenoma, and syringoma. Six cases are described all of which displayed benign histological features on initial biopsy. Most often these neoplasms presented as solitary flesh-colored indurated plaques on the upper lip. All patients were white, five were women, and the average age was 44-years-old. Islands of basaloid keratinocytes, some of which contained horn cysts and abortive follicles, were embedded in a desmoplastic stroma. In other foci, ducts and gland-like structures lined by a two-cell layer predominated. In deep components individual and thin strands of cells dissected collagen bundles and skeletal muscle and invaded perineural spaces. Despite this, cytologic atypia and mitotic figures were rare. The cell of origin is considered to be a pluripotential adnexal keratinocyte which is capable of both follicular and sweat gland differentiation. PMID:7093897

Goldstein, D J; Barr, R J; Santa Cruz, D J

1982-08-01

372

Hepatocellular carcinoma: systemic therapies and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma is (HCC) the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults. It is also the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Treatment options for HCC include liver transplantation, surgical resection, locoregional therapies and chemotherapy. The median survival time of patients following the diagnosis of unresectable disease is approximately 6-20 months, whereas the 5-year survival is less than 5%. Given the projected increase in incidence of HCC due to hepatitis C virus infection and obesity related cirrhosis, there is an urgent need for more intensive research in this cancer. In this article, we review the systemic options available for patients with HCC, its molecular pathogenesis and future therapeutic directions with special emphasis on immune-based and molecularly-targeted therapy. PMID:25199765

Mikhail, Sameh; Cosgrove, David; Zeidan, Amer

2014-10-01

373

Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis  

PubMed Central

Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

Yurdakul, Cneyt; Ger, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

374

Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis.  

PubMed

Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

Bedir, Recep; Yurdakul, Cneyt; Ger, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

2014-07-01

375

A functioning pleomorphic carcinoma of the thyroid.  

PubMed Central

A metastasizing functioning pleomorphic carcinoma of the thyroid displayed a morphologic piture ranging from follicular to sarcomatous and carcinoid-like patterns. Spindle-cell elements were believed to be the result of metaplasia of the follicular epithelium. Development of carcinoid-like lesions in the secondary deposits of tumour supported the contention that so-called parafollicular or c-cells may be a phenomenon of metaplasia and not a histologic entity. The tumour was associated with a chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary and a benign schwannoma of the stomach. Clinically the patient did not show any other endocrinologic abnormalities and lived for 4 years from the time of diagnosis of the thyroid tumour. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1277059

Karnauchow, P. N.

1976-01-01

376

Mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Alcohol can also function synergistically with other risk factors to cause HCC. Hence, alcohol consumption is a major factor affecting hepatic carcinogenesis in millions and the cause of a substantial public health burden. Chronic alcohol consumption interferes with several host anti-tumor mechanisms, thereby facilitating hepatocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the major mechanisms of alcohol-induced HCC. These include pathways of ethanol metabolism, alcohol-induced oxidative stress and hypomethylation of DNA, and interplay of alcohol with iron elevation, retinoid metabolism, the immune system, inflammatory pathways, and neoangiogenesis. The relevance of each pathway in affecting HCC transformation is a topic of intense investigation. Ongoing research will enhance our insight into the alcohol-induced occurrence of HCC and offer hope in developing better therapeutics. PMID:25383134

Sidharthan, Sreetha; Kottilil, Shyam

2014-09-01

377

Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.  

PubMed

We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future. PMID:25377985

Shi, Shuang; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Changfu

2014-11-01

378

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic developments.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a prevalent tumour in southern China and southeast Asia, particularly in the Cantonese population, where its incidence has remained high for decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that the aetiology of NPC is complex, involving multiple factors including genetic susceptibility, infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and exposure to chemical carcinogens. During development of the disease, viral infection and multiple somatic genetic and epigenetic changes synergistically disrupt normal cell function, thus contributing to NPC pathogenesis. NPC is highly radiosensitive and chemosensitive, but treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced disease remains problematic. New biomarkers for NPC, including EBV DNA copy number or methylation of multiple tumour suppressor genes, which can be detected in serum and nasopharyngeal brushings, have been developed for the molecular diagnosis of this tumour. Meanwhile, new therapeutic strategies such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and immuno- and epigenetic therapies might lead to more specific and effective treatments. PMID:17477889

Tao, Qian; Chan, Anthony T C

2007-01-01

379

Charged Particle Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Historically, the use of external beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been limited by toxicity to the uninvolved liver and surrounding structures. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformality to the tumor and facilitated dose escalation, a key contributor to improved HCC radiation treatment outcomes. However, despite these advances in photon radiotherapy, significant volumes of liver still receive low doses of radiation that can preclude dose escalation, particularly in patients with limited functional liver reserves. By capitalizing on the lack of exit dose along the beam path beyond the tumor and higher biological effectiveness, charged particle therapy offers the promise of maximizing tumor control via dose escalation without excessive liver toxicity. In this review we discuss the distinctive biophysical attributes of both proton and carbon ion radiotherapy, particularly as they pertain to treatment of HCC. We also review the available literature regarding clinical outcomes and toxicity of using charged particles for the treatment of HCC. PMID:21939857

Skinner, Heath D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Krishnan, Sunil

2011-01-01

380

The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

2014-01-01

381

Carcinoma involving the gallbladder: a retrospective review of 23 cases - pitfalls in diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Carcinoma of the gallbladder (GBC) clinically mimics benign gallbladder diseases and often escapes detection until advanced stage. Despite the frequency of cholecystectomy, diagnosis of GBC remains problematic in many situations. We sought to identify pathologic features that contribute to the difficulty in recognition of GBC. Methods We identified 23 patients (ranged from 45 to 86 years, male to female ratio 1:4.5) with carcinoma involving the gallbladder referred to an academic medical center over a period of 10 years for study. This includes 10 cases of primary GBC, 6 cases of metastatic tumor to gallbladder, 6 cases of directly invasive adenocarcinoma arising elsewhere in the biliary tree, and one case of unidentified origin adenocarcinoma. Primary tumors include adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS) in 6 cases, papillary adenocarcinoma in 2 cases, and single cases of undifferentiated carcinoma and combined adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Metastatic tumors to gallbladder were from a wide range of primary sites, predominantly the gastrointestinal tract. Results These cases illustrate seven potential pitfalls which can be encountered. These include: 1) mistakenly making a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of gallbladder when only benign lesions such as deeply penetrating Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are present (overdiagnosis), 2) misdiagnosing well-differentiated invasive carcinoma with minimal disease as benign disease (underdiagnosis), 3) differentiating between primary NEC of gallbladder and metastasis, 4) confusing primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of gallbladder with pseudomyxoma peritonei from a low grade appendiceal neoplasm disseminated to gallbladder, 5) confusing gangrenous necrosis related to cholecystitis with geographic tumoral necrosis, 6) undersampling early, grossly occult disease, and 7) misinterpreting extracellular mucin pools. Conclusions Clinical history and a high index of suspicion are prerequisite to detecting GBC. Detection of GBC at an early stage is difficult because the symptoms mimic benign gallbladder diseases. Misinterpretation of subtle microscopic abnormalities contributes diagnostic failures in early cases. Careful attention to any evidence of mural thickening, thorough sampling, particularly in older patients, and close examination of any deeply situated glandular structures are critical. Correlations with radiographic and clinical findings are important helps to avoid misdiagnosis in this commonly resected organ. PMID:22284391

2012-01-01

382

Challenges and potential pitfalls in magnetic resonance imaging of more elusive breast carcinomas.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by differences in the biological, clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of the different types of invasive carcinoma in the breast. The majority of invasive breast carcinomas are the invasive ductal or no special-type (NST) carcinomas. The rest of the invasive carcinomas are either nonductal carcinoma subtypes or special-type carcinomas, making up 20%-30% of all invasive carcinomas. The latter group comprises very different and distinctive types of cancer with imaging characteristics and challenges that are unique to each subtype. The invasive lobular carcinoma is the most common type of the nonductal carcinomas and can be difficult to detect on imaging because of the distinct pattern of tumor growth in sheets of single file cells with minimal desmoplastic reaction. The mucinous carcinoma of the breast contains extracellular mucin, secreted by the tumor cells. The mucin within these tumors result in imaging features that overlap with benign breast lesions, and may lead to misdiagnosis. Other rare and aggressive breast cancers include metaplastic breast carcinoma and inflammatory breast carcinoma. Both diseases have a poorer prognosis than invasive ductal carcinoma. This article will focus on the rarer non-NST carcinoma of the breast that can be a challenge to assess with imaging, partially related to the unique biology of these cancers. PMID:21782124

Le-Petross, Huong; Lane, Deanna

2011-08-01

383

Intratumoral PV701 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

2013-01-23

384

[Anemia impact on treatments of cervical carcinomas].  

PubMed

During the treatments of carcinomas of the cervix, anemia is relatively frequent and its origin is complex combining often hemorrhage, iron deprivation, inflammatory reactions and infection. The frequency of the primary anemia (hemoglobin level<12 g/dl) is correlated with clinical stage and varies from one publication to another, mainly from 25% for stage I, to 33% for stage II and can approach 40% for stage III. Anemia is correlated with patient survival and it appears to be one of the most powerful prognostic factor after clinical stage and tumor size. Anemia is a bad prognostic factor related to stage and tumor size but it has not been proven to be an independent factor. Anemia increases hypoxia of cervix carcinomas, which is an independent prognostic factor for patients N0. Moreover, we know that the oxygenation of these tumors is correlated with hemoglobin levels. The normalization of Hb levels by transfusion could certainly modify the prognosis of patients anemic before treatment, or of those becoming anemic during radiotherapy treatment. For smokers, anemia is certainly more important that we can appreciate from the Hb levels only, by the presence of carboxyhemoglobin. Concomitant chemotherapies with cisplatin compounds are actually standards and they can largely increase the risk of inducing anemia, therefore more than 50% of patients will experiment it during their different treatments. Transfusion is recommended by the SOR (Standards Options and Recommendations of the Fdration nationale des centres de lutte contre le cancer) under 10 g/dl. The use of erythropoietin is a therapeutic option for Hb levels between 10 and 12 g/dl and strongly recommended after a Hb normalization by blood transfusion. For 70% of patients who respond to erythropoietin, a better control of the Hb level is obtained. The impact of this anemia on quality of life and treatments compliance justifies the use of erythropoietin, especially in cancers for which treatments induce a deep fatigue and a very bad tolerance, which could be a limiting factor. PMID:15820436

Marchal, C; Rangeard, L; Brunaud, C

2005-03-01

385

Proton Beam Therapy for Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT) in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with HCC larger than 10 cm were treated with proton beam therapy at our institution between 1985 and 2006. Twenty-one of the 22 patients were not surgical candidates because of advanced HCC, intercurrent disease, or old age. Median tumor size was 11 cm (range, 10-14cm), and median clinical target volume was 567 cm{sup 3} (range, 335-1,398 cm{sup 3}). Hepatocellular carcinoma was solitary in 18 patients and multifocal in 4 patients. Tumor types were nodular and diffuse in 18 and 4 patients, respectively. Portal vein tumor thrombosis was present in 11 patients. Median total dose delivered was 72.6 GyE in 22 fractions (range, 47.3-89.1 GyE in 10-35 fractions). Results: The median follow-up period was 13.4 months (range, 1.5-85 months). Tumor control rate at 2 years was 87%. One-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 64% and 62%, respectively. Two-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 36% and 24%, respectively. The predominant tumor progression pattern was new hepatic tumor development outside the irradiated field. No late treatment-related toxicity of Grade 3 or higher was observed. Conclusions: The Bragg peak properties of PBT allow for improved conformality of the treatment field. As such, large tumor volumes can be irradiated to high doses without significant dose exposure to surrounding normal tissue. Proton beam therapy therefore represents a promising modality for the treatment of large-volume HCC. Our study shows that PBT is an effective and safe method for the treatment of patients with large HCC.

Sugahara, Shinji, E-mail: ssuga@pmrc.tsukuba.ac.j [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Oshiro, Yoshiko; Nakayama, Hidetsugu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fukuda, Kuniaki [Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mizumoto, Masashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Abei, Masato; Shoda, Junichi [Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Matsuzaki, Yasushi [Department of Gastroenterology, Tokyo Medical University Kasumigaura Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan); Thono, Eriko [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokita, Mari B.A. [Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Tsuboi, Koji; Tokuuye, Koichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

2010-02-01

386

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: epidemiology, histopathology and aetiology.  

PubMed

The highest incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (around 20 per 100,000 per year) is found in Chinese populations in many countries. Elevated rates (5--15) are found in Eskimos, and in several racial groups in South-East Asia. The incidence rates in Malta and in some parts of Northern Africa are also moderately elevated. The incidence rates are low (less than 1) in virtually all other parts of the world. In Singapore, the incidence rates are high in Chinese (18.4), intermediate in Malays (4.7) and low in Indians (less than 1). Among the various Chinese communities, the incidence rates in Cantonese (29.1 and 11.0 for males and females respectively) are significantly higher than those in Hokkiens (14.1 and 4.7), Teochews (18.3 and 6.2), Hainanese (14.2 and 3.3) and Hakkas (12.6 and 4.8). The tumour has a male preponderance (2--3 times) and a peak incidence in the 5th and 6th decades. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the commonest form of nasopharyngeal cancer in man. All histological types of NPC have consistently shown ultrastructural evidence of squamous differentiation and may be regarded as variants of a homogeneous group of tumours. The development of the neoplasm is attributable to the action of environmental factors in genetically susceptible persons. There is growing evidence that nitrosamine compounds and the Epstein-Barr virus may be involved in the aetiology of this neoplasm. PMID:7212609

Shanmugaratnam, K

1980-07-01

387

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the palate composed of invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma components: an unusual case with immunohistochemical approach.  

PubMed

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an unusual epithelial malignancy that develops from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common tumor of salivary glands, and constitutes about 11.5% of all carcinomas that affect these glands. Intraoral minor salivary glands and seromucous glands of the oropharynx are uncommon locations of CXPA. On histopathological examination, the tumor comprises a wide morphological spectrum with a variable proportion between the benign and malignant components with the latter often predominating and overlapping the PA, which may cause misdiagnosis. Here, we report a case of palatal minor salivary gland CXPA composed of invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma components with multiple nodal metastases in a 74-year-old woman. Neoplastic cells showed heterogeneous immunohistochemical profile with both luminal and myoepithelial differentiation. The invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma component demonstrated overexpression of the oncoprotein human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. This feature should be considered and evaluated as a possible target for adjuvant therapy in case of metastatic disease. PMID:25501054

Sedassari, Bruno T; da Silva Lascane, Nelise A; Tobouti, Priscila L; Pigatti, Fernanda M; Franco, Maria I F; de Sousa, Suzana C O M

2014-12-01

388

Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the trachea in a child  

PubMed Central

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the trachea is a rare tumour, especially in the paediatric population. We report the case of a 9-year-old boy with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the trachea that was preoperatively diagnosed as an intraluminal polypoid mass arising from the trachea and extending into the right main bronchus. A complete resection of the tumour with reconstruction and end-to-end anastomosis of the trachea was performed. The patient is now, 24 months after surgery, free of disease. PMID:22611186

Papiashvilli, Michael; Ater, Dorit; Mandelberg, Avigdor; Sasson, Lior

2012-01-01

389

Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma with intratubular spread  

PubMed Central

Upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinomas (UUT-UCs) are uncommon and are defined as urothelial carcinoma involving the urinary tract from the renal calyces, renal pelvis to the distal ureter. One well-known an peculiar histopathological finding in UUT-UC is urothelial carcinoma with intratubular spread (retrograde spread within renal tubules). However, this special feature has not been systematically studied. We therefore collected a total of 53 consecutive cases of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UCs), and studied the clinical and pathological features of intratubular spread (IS). A cocktail stain comprised of antibodies PAX8 and p63 together with PAS was validated and employed to facilitate the study of intratubular spread. Seventeen cases (31.5%) showed intratubular spread demonstrated by either H&E stain and/or the cocktail stain. All of the 17 cases wit intratubular spread had tumor involvement of the renal calyx; the majority of these (14/17, 82.4%) were high grade urothelial carcinoma and the remainder (3/17, 17.6%) were low grade. 4 of 17cases (23.5%) were non-invasive. We classified intratubular spread into 4 different types, based on histopathological patterns: pagetoid, typical, florid, and secondary invasion from intratubular spread. In conclusion, study shows intratubular spread of urothelial carcinoma is fairly common phenomenon in UUT-UC and is associated with a variety of clinical-pathological features. High grade UUT-UC tends to have more extensive intratubular spread and secondary invasion into renal parenchyma. Distinct morphological characteristics as well as the staining pattern from a unique cocktail stain help to identify and evaluate intratubular spread of urothelial carcinoma. Recognizing these different types of intratubular spreading (IS) is crucial for accurate staging of some upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UCs). PMID:25374911

Sarungbam, Judy; Kurtis, Boaz; Phillips, John; Cai, Dongming; Zhang, David; Humayun, Islam; Yang, Ximing; Zhong, Minghao

2014-01-01

390

Targeted therapy: A new hope for thyroid carcinomas.  

PubMed

Thyroid carcinomas are rare and heterogeneous diseases representing less than 1% of all malignancies. The majority of thyroid carcinomas are differentiated entities (papillary and folliculary carcinomas) and are characterized by good prognosis and good response to surgery and radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, about 10% of differentiated carcinomas recur and become resistant to all therapies. Anaplastic and medullary cancers are rare subtypes of thyroid cancer not suitable for radioiodine therapy. A small percentage of differentiated and all the anaplastic and medullary thyroid carcinomas often recur after primary treatments and are no longer suitable for other therapies. In the last years, several advances have been made in the field of molecular biology and tumorigenesis mechanisms of thyroid carcinomas. Starting from these issues, the targeted therapy may be employed as a new option. The MAP-Kinase pathway has been found often dysregulated in thyroid carcinomas and several upstream signals have been recognized as responsible for this feature. RET/PTC mutations are often discovered both in papillary and in medullary carcinomas, while B-RAF mutation is typical of papillary and anaplastic histologies. Also mTOR disruptions and VEGFR pathway disruption are common features in all advanced thyroid cancers. Some angiogenesis inhibitors and a number of RET/PTC pathway blocking agents are yet present in the clinical armamentarium. Vandetanib, cabozatinib and sorafenib have reached clinical use. A number of other biological compounds have been tested in phase II and III trials. Understanding the biology of thyroid cancers may help us to design a well shaped targeted therapy. PMID:25465739

Perri, Francesco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Lastoria, Secondo; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Caponigro, Francesco

2014-11-01

391

Mononuclear phagocytes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma microenvironments contain many immune cells and their secretory products. Many of\\u000a these cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system. The aim of this review is to study the interactions between mononuclear\\u000a phagocytes and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The role of inflammation in tumours and the cytokine interleukin-6\\u000a will be highlighted.

Kenneth Wilfried Kross; John-Helge Heimdal; Hans Jrgen Aarstad

2010-01-01

392

Controversies in the Management of Endometrial Carcinoma: An Update  

PubMed Central

Endometrial carcinoma is the commonest type of female genital tract malignancy in the developed countries. Endometrial carcinoma is usually confined to the uterus at the time of diagnosis and as such usually carries an excellent prognosis with high curability. Our understanding and management of endometrial cancer have continuously developed. Current controversies focus on screening and early detection, the extent of nodal surgery, and the changing roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy and will be discussed in this paper. PMID:22518164

Mehasseb, Mohamed K.; Latimer, John A.

2012-01-01

393

The unusual nested carcinoma of the renal pelvis  

PubMed Central

Invasive urothelial carcinoma has a potential to show divergent differentiation. Several uncommon morphological variants have been described in the recent past. One such rare type is the nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. Most of the published reports depict occurrence of this variant in the urinary bladder. We report an unusual presentation of this uncommon entity in the renal pelvis of a 54-year-old lady who presented with widespread skeletal metastases without any urinary symptoms. PMID:24311913

Agarwal, Kiran; Madan, Neha Kawatra; Pujani, Meenu; Rao, Meenakshi

2013-01-01

394

Plummer-Vinson syndrome heralded by postcricoid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Plummer-Vinson syndrome is one of the names given to the constellation of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia, and esophageal webbing. Treatment consists of iron supplementation, possibly dilation, and surveillance. The syndrome is associated with an increased risk of postcricoid carcinoma, which usually presents at an advanced stage. We present a case of an early postcricoid carcinoma that led to the diagnosis of Plummer-Vinson syndrome and subsequent treatment of both conditions. PMID:17162126

Anderson, Scott R; Sinacori, John T

2007-01-01

395

Unusual Presentation of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Gluteal Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has widespread and unpredictable metastatic potential. The most common sites of metastatic RCC are the lungs, lymph nodes, bones, liver, and brain; however the soft tissue metastasis is rare (2,3). Here we report a 76-year-old male patient who had renal cell carcinoma presented with gluteal metastasis. To our knowledge this is the first renal cell cancer case with gluteal metastasis at the initial diagnosis. PMID:24392240

Goger, Yunus Emre; Piskin, Mehmet Mesut; Balasar, Mehmet; Kilinc, Mehmet

2013-01-01

396

Immunocytochemical localization of prolactin in carcinoma of the cervix.  

PubMed

Immunocytochemical methods were used to demonstrate prolactin in both normal and malignant human cervices. Four of five cervices with epidermoid carcinoma and three of four cervices with adenocarcinoma demonstrated prolactin. One of four normal cervices stained positive for prolactin in the endocervical glands. Four cervices from pregnant patients were positive for prolactin. The results of this study show prolactin in human cervical carcinomas. The role and source of cervical prolactin is unknown. PMID:3549475

Macfee, M S; McQueen, J; Strayer, D E

1987-03-01

397

Cytogenetics profiles of renal carcinoma Cytogntique des carcinomes rnaux  

E-print Network

-antoine.belaud-rotureau@univ-rennes1.fr hal-01025708,version1-18Jul2014 Manuscrit auteur, publié dans "Morphologie 98, 320 (2014) 1 a VHL gene copy in clear cell renal carcinomas, or trisomies 7 and 17 in papillary renal cell carcinomas, cytogenetics, karyotype, histological sub-type, prognosis. hal-01025708,version1-18Jul2014 #12;Résumé Les

Boyer, Edmond

398

Electronic Nose Ovarian Carcinoma Diagnosis Based on Machine Learning Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian carcinoma is one of the most deadly diseases, especially in the case of late diagnosis. This paper describes the result\\u000a of a pilot study on an early detection method that could be inexpensive and simple based on data processing and machine learning\\u000a algorithms in an electronic nose system. Experimental analysis using real ovarian carcinoma samples is presented in this

Jos Chilo; Gyrgy Horvath; Thomas Lindblad; Roland Olsson

2009-01-01

399

Outcome of histologically node-negative esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome of node-negative esophageal carcinoma and the prognostic significance of lymph node micrometastasis remain unknown.\\u000a The aim of this retrospective study was to clarify these two points. A series of 98 patients who underwent curative operation\\u000a for histologically node-negative (pNO in TNM classification) esophageal carcinoma were enrolled in the study. We reviewed\\u000a the cause of death of these patients.

Yoichi Tabira; Masahiro Yasunaga; Tomonori Sakaguchi; Yuji Yamaguchi; Toshiyuki Okuma; Michio Kawasuji

2002-01-01

400

Feminizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Distant Metastases: Can Surgery be Considered?  

PubMed Central

Functioning adrenocortical carcinomas are rare diseases with dismal prognosis. A 41-year-old man presenting with gynecomastia had a giant feminizing adrenocortical carcinoma at stage IV. Although surgical resection was controversial, we removed the primary tumor to reduce the mass effects. He lived for 12 months with an acceptable quality of life. Gynecomastia may be the first sign of feminizing adrenal malignancies. Surgery may ameliorate the quality of life in selected patients with metastatic disease. PMID:25332762

Fancellu, Alessandro; Pinna, Antonio; Porcu, Alberto

2014-01-01

401

Limonene-induced Regression of Mammary Carcinomas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary administration of the monocyclic monoterpenoid d-limonene causes complete regression of both dimethylbenz(a)anthracene- and V- nitroso-\\/V-methylurea-induced rat mammary carcinomas. Carcinomas regress when limonene is added to the diet either when the tumor is small and still capable of spontaneously regressing or when it is large and progressed beyond the stage when it is susceptible to spontaneous regression. The limonene dose-tumor

Jill D. Haag; Mary J. Lindstrom; Michael N. Gould

402

Sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid masquerading as superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old woman had been treated for 18 months for superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis of the right eye. Pathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the superior perilimbal conjunctiva disclosed intraepithelial carcinoma of sebaceous gland origin. Because of the extensive involvement of the conjunctival epithelium by tumor, a subtotal orbital exenteration was performed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sebaceous carcinoma masquerading as superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis. PMID:4051856

Condon, G P; Brownstein, S; Codre, F

1985-10-01

403

Estramustine phosphate in the treatment of endometrium carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the clinical effects and side effects of Estramustine phosphate (EMP) on the treatment of endometrial\\u000a carcinoma. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with endometrial carcinoma diagnosed in our hospital from Oct. 1996 to Feb. 1998\\u000a were randomly divided into 3 groups and clinically observed. EMP group (n=21): after oral EMP 280 mg, bid, for 21 days, surgical\\u000a operation followed in

Xiao-hong Deng; Wei Duan; Bao-zhu Li

2000-01-01

404

Acinic cell carcinoma of the breast arising in microglandular adenosis.  

PubMed

Acinic cell carcinoma is a rare breast tumour belonging to salivary gland-like tumours of the breast. They are "triple-negative" breast cancers even if their biological behaviour seems to be more favourable. Herein we present an acinic cell carcinoma arising on a background of typical and atypical microglandular adenosis in a 58-year-old woman, along with a review of the literature. PMID:24369519

Falleti, Jessica; Coletti, Gino; Rispoli, Ettore; Scarabeo, Francesca; Cervasio, Mariarosaria; Tornillo, Luigi; Pettinato, Guido; Insabato, Luigi

2013-01-01

405

Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Breast Arising in Microglandular Adenosis  

PubMed Central

Acinic cell carcinoma is a rare breast tumour belonging to salivary gland-like tumours of the breast. They are triple-negative breast cancers even if their biological behaviour seems to be more favourable. Herein we present an acinic cell carcinoma arising on a background of typical and atypical microglandular adenosis in a 58-year-old woman, along with a review of the literature. PMID:24369519

Coletti, Gino; Rispoli, Ettore; Scarabeo, Francesca; Cervasio, Mariarosaria; Tornillo, Luigi; Pettinato, Guido; Insabato, Luigi

2013-01-01

406

Pericardial metastasis in carcinoma of the uterine cervix.  

PubMed

Cardiac metastasis from gynecological malignancies is rare. Only six cases of carcinoma of the uterine cervix have been reported where the diagnosis of malignant pericardial effusion was made antemortem. The treatment of neoplastic pericardial effusion is controversial; both surgical and nonsurgical treatments are advocated. We present a patient with pericardial effusion secondary to carcinoma of the cervix and recommend subxiphoid pericardial fenestration for reliable long-term control of malignant effusion. PMID:8641633

Jamshed, A; Khafaga, Y; El-Husseiny, G; Gray, A J; Manji, M

1996-06-01

407

[Urinary tract carcinomas in gas industry employees (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Arising from a retrospective investigation of the causes of death in active and pensioned employees from the author's sphere of observation, the increased occurence of urinary tract carcinoma in furnace battery and pipe system workers in the gas industry is pointed out. Statistical studies suggest a causal connection between exposure to tar in these jobs and the urinary tract carcinomas. The necessity for industrial medical precautions is commented on. PMID:814428

Manz, A

1976-01-16

408

Correlation between human papillomavirus infection and bladder transitional cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine the association of human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). METHODS: Using polymerase chain reaction, fifty-nine bladder tissue specimens of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of bladder compared with 20 bladder samples of cases with non-neoplastic disorders. RESULTS: Male to female ratio was similar in the two groups (50\\/9 vs. 16\\/4, P = 0.62). Mean

Barghi; A Hajimohammadmehdiarbab; SMM Hosseini Moghaddam; B Kazemi

2005-01-01

409

The majority of triple-negative breast cancer may correspond to basal-like carcinoma, but triple-negative breast cancer is not identical to basal-like carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the concept of basal-like carcinoma has been proposed. However, there are only a few reports about the relationship\\u000a between triple-negative cancer and basal-like carcinoma. In this article, we report the study of the expression of basal cell\\u000a markers in 11 triple-negative cancers. Eight tumors (4 metaplastic carcinomas, 2 invasive ductal carcinomas, 1 invasive papillary\\u000a carcinoma, and 1 medullary carcinoma)

Naoto Kuroda; Masahiko Ohara; Kaori Inoue; Keiko Mizuno; Nokiaki Fujishima; Nobumasa Hamaguchi; Gang-Hong Lee

2009-01-01

410

FR901228 in Treating Patients With Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Cancer) of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

2013-06-11

411

Heavy water delays growth of human carcinoma in nude mice  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium-enriched water has an antiproliferative effect on transplantable mouse tumors without toxic side effects. Since the response to treatment of human carcinomas growing in nude mice is deemed to be a good indicator of the potential clinical behavior of these tumors, we studied the influence of this stable isotope of hydrogen on the growth of xenotransplanted human carcinomas of various histologic types, grades, and primary sites. Seven-week-old Balb/c-nu/nu mice were inoculated subcutaneously, either with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas or with carcinomas of the large intestine. After tumor inoculation, the mice were given drinking water containing 30 atom% D/sub 2/O. Heavy water effectively retarded the growth of the human carcinomas. At the end of the experiment, the weight of the tumors was reduced to values ranging from 22% to 65% of the control values. The reproducible antiproliferative effect was more conspicuous in poorly differentiated carcinomas than in moderately well-differentiated variants. Since animals in both groups, kept under identical conditions, drank the same amount of water and had similar body weights, the difference in tumor growth can be attributed to the moderate deuteration of the hosts.

Altermatt, H.J.; Gebbers, J.O.; Laissue, J.A.

1988-08-01

412

Primary liver carcinoma arising in people younger than 30 years.  

PubMed

Primary liver carcinomas in children and young adults are uncommon and poorly described. We examined primary liver carcinomas in people younger than 30 years and performed immunostains for markers of biliary (cytokeratin [CK] 7, CK19, CD56) and hepatocellular (HepPar) differentiation. We found 23 primary liver carcinomas were found: 13 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 9 fibrolamellar carcinomas (FLCs), and 1 cholangiocarcinoma. Most HCCs showed compact (n = 7) or trabecular (n = 4) growth patterns. The Edmondson grades were as follows: 1, 3 tumors; 2, 8 tumors; and 3, 2 tumors). All HCCs and FLCs were HepPar(+). All FLCs and 7 of 9 HCCs were CK7(+). In contrast, a control group of 65 adult HCCs showed less CK7 positivity (24 [37%]; P = .03). CK19 was positive in 2 HCCs and CD56 in 1 HCC. No chronic background liver disease was seen, although 3 cases showed foci of altered hepatocytes. HCCs are the most common primary liver carcinoma in children and young adults followed by FLCs. They are morphologically similar to adult HCC, but more likely to be CK7(+). PMID:16146811

Klein, Walter M; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Colombani, Paul M; Grover, Davinder S; Schwarz, Kathleen B; Boitnott, John; Torbenson, Michael S

2005-10-01

413

Parafibromin expression is an independent prognostic factor for colorectal carcinomas.  

PubMed

Parafibromin is a protein encoded by hyperparathyroidism 2, and its down-regulated expression is involved in the pathogenesis of parathyroid, breast, and gastric carcinomas. This study aimed to clarify the roles of parafibromin expression in tumorigenesis, progression, and prognosis of colorectal carcinomas. Parafibromin-expressing plasmid was transfected into DLD-1 cells with the phenotypes, and related molecules were examined. Parafibromin expression was examined in colorectal samples by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, Western blot, or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. It was found that parafibromin overexpression could cause G1 arrest and enhance differentiation of DLD-1 cells. There was a high expression of p21, p27, and cyclin E, but low expression of cyclin D1 messenger RNA, phospho-cdc2, and phospho-cdc25c proteins. Parafibromin could inhibit c-myc messenger RNA expression by binding to c-myc promoter. Expression levels of nuclear parafibromin and parafibromin messenger RNA were decreased from colorectal nonneoplastic mucosa and adenomas to carcinomas (P < .05). Immunohistochemically, parafibromin expression was inversely correlated with tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, clinicopathologic staging, and poor prognosis of carcinomas (P < .05). It was suggested that parafibromin overexpression might suppress cell cycle progression and promote differentiation of DLD-1 cells. Aberrant parafibromin expression possibly contributes to the pathogenesis, growth, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal carcinomas and could be regarded as an independent factor to indicate a favorable prognosis for patients with colorectal carcinomas. PMID:21315421

Zheng, Hua-chuan; Wei, Zheng-li; Xu, Xiao-yan; Nie, Xiao-cui; Yang, Xue; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yasuo

2011-08-01

414

[Previous cytology in patients with carcinoma of the cervix].  

PubMed

The cytologic history of 317 patients with uterine cancer, in a mass survey using mobile units, was reviewed. They included 152 cases of carcinoma in situ of the cervix, 151 cases of invasive epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix, 11 cases of adenocarcinoma of the cervix, one case of verrucous squamous cell carcinoma and 2 cases of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. There was no history of cytology in 17.1% of CIS or in 29.8% of invasive epidermoid carcinoma in the preceding 3 years (same order in the following); in the preceding 5 years the figures were 24.3% and 23.6% respectively. Suspicious or positive cytology noted more than once were 22.2% and 21.7% in the preceding 3 years, and 24.3% and 23.6% of the cases in the preceding 5 years. At least 2 negative Papanicolaou smears were 19.1% and 20.5% in the preceding 3 years, and 28.3% and 28.5% of the cases in the preceding 5 years. The yearly rate of suspicious and/or positive cytology in the preceding 5 years fluctuated between 13.5% and 30.4% in CIS, and between 9.1% and 23.0% in invasive epidermoid carcinoma. They showed no significant rise or trend. Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma as well as adenocarcinoma of the cervix and of the endometrium not infrequently showed successive negative cytology. PMID:3782952

Hando, T; Sugimori, H; Higashiiwai, H; Kuroshima, Y; Nishiya, I; Sugimoto, O

1986-10-01

415

Papillary carcinoma of thyroid with an unusual presentation.  

PubMed

Papillary thyroid carcinoma is well known for its low malignant potential and good prognosis. The outcome can be fatal in patients with low compliance and delayed treatment. Recent advances in ultrasonographic screening and US guided fine needle aspiration biopsy has facilitated early diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinomas. This epithelial thyroid tumour accounts for more than 80% of all thyroid tumours. An occult primary carcinoma of thyroid presenting as lymphangioma has been reported rarely. We present a case of a 40-year-old female patient with huge cystic midline swelling on the right side of the neck mimicking lymphangioma on USG. MRI neck showed a cystic mass causing displacement of the trachea and arising from Rt lobe of thyroid gland. Hemithyroidectomy was carried out and histopathology revealed papillary carcinoma. In patients with neck swellings presenting as huge cystic mass the differential diagnosis of Intra cystic variant of papillary carcinoma thyroid and metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma must always be considered prior to planning surgery. PMID:25621272

Baser, Brajendra; Munjal, Vishal R; Roy, Manya Thakur

2015-03-01

416

Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human gastric carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The present report investigated the correlation between the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in gastric carcinoma patients and the clinicopathological characteristics. Forty-five samples of gastric carcinoma and distal gastric mucosa tissue, and 10 samples of healthy gastric mucosa tissue were analyzed using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as immunohistochemical and hematoxylin and eosin staining. MMP-9 protein levels in serum samples from the same patients were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The present report identified that MMP-9 expression was markedly higher in the gastric carcinoma tissue (86.67%) than in the adjacent healthy tissue (10.00%). A positive association was identified between the level of MMP-9 protein expression and the depth of cancer invasion (P<0.05). Furthermore, the preoperative serum levels of the MMP-9 protein in the gastric carcinoma tissue were correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage and occurrence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Data from the present report indicates that MMP-9 may be key in gastric carcinoma malignancy, and implies that MMP-9 may serve as a novel biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.

CHEN, SU-ZUAN; YAO, HUAI-QI; ZHU, SEN-ZHI; LI, QIU-YUAN; GUO, GUANG-HUA; YU, JING

2015-01-01

417

Isolated gastric recurrence from ovarian carcinoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Although ovarian metastasis secondary to gastric cancer (Krukenberg tumor) has been extensively described in the literature, gastric metastasis from ovarian carcinoma is rare. The present case report describes a patient with gastric metastasis from ovarian carcinoma. A 51-year-old female with previously treated ovarian carcinoma of stage III according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics was admitted to the Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (Nanjing, China) with high serum carbohydrate antigen-125 levels. Endoscopic ultrasound and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanning revealed a lesion in the stomach with the typical appearance of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The histopathological examination revealed infiltration of the resected specimens by metastatic serous adenocarcinoma and a comparison with the previously resected ovarian specimen confirmed disease recurrence. Although isolated gastric recurrence from ovarian carcinoma is rare, when a patient has a history of ovarian carcinoma (particularly with a high CA-125 level) and when the imaging results show a mass in the stomach wall, metastasis from ovarian carcinoma should be considered.

LIU, QIAN; YU, QIAN-QIAN; WU, HAO; ZHANG, ZHI-HONG; GUO, REN-HUA

2015-01-01

418

Cardenolide glycosides from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea exhibit carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward renal adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Four cardenolide glycosides, glucodigifucoside (2), 3'-O-acetylglucoevatromonoside (9), digitoxigenin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-3-O-acetyl-?-D-digitoxopyranoside (11), and purpureaglycoside A (12), isolated from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human renal adenocarcinoma cell line ACHN. These compounds exhibited significantly lower IC50 values against ACHN than that against normal human renal proximal tubule-derived cell line HK-2. In particular, 2 exhibited the most potent and carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity, with a sixfold lower IC50 value against ACHN than that against HK-2. Measurement of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor levels revealed that upregulation of p21/Cip1 expression was involved in the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity of 2. Further, compound 2 also exhibited the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. PMID:25345317

Fujino, Tomofumi; Kuroda, Minpei; Matsuo, Yukiko; Kubo, Satoshi; Tamura, Chikako; Sakamoto, Nami; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Makio

2014-10-27

419

Occult thyroid carcinoma: a rare case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Occult thyroid carcinoma is very common in the clinic and is generally divided into four groups. Here, we proposed two types of occult thyroid carcinoma as the fifth group. The first type was locoregional lymph node metastases from thyroid carcinoma, and the second type was distant organ metastases from thyroid carcinoma. The unique aspect of the fifth group was that the primary carcinoma of the fifth group was not finally found by pathological examination. To better understand the fifth group, we reported a typical case. Furthermore, we discussed the diagnostic criteria and procedures and the management of the fifth group of occult thyroid carcinoma. PMID:25197399

Liu, Haiguang; Lv, Lin; Yang, Kai

2014-01-01

420

Therapeutic Modalities in Early-Stage Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinomas, Carcinosarcomas, Clear-Cell and Mixed Histology Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entities covered in this chapter are uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), carcinosarcoma, and clear-cell carcinoma\\u000a together with tumors of mixed histology. Overall, these represent 35% of all endometrial cancers but they are responsible\\u000a for a significant percentage of endometrial cancer mortality. Recent strides in chemotherapy of some of these cancers offer\\u000a hope that their addition, either alone or as

Nicholas P. Taylor; Matthew A. Powell

421

Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

2014-05-07

422

TIRO CON ARCO NIVEL II: AVANZADO (3 CONVOCATORIAS) DESCRIPCIN  

E-print Network

las armas de fuego quedó obsoleto y relegado al uso deportivo o de ocio. Como deporte, formó parte de a dianas situadas a 70 metros de distancia. También es deporte paralímpico desde los Juegos Paralímpicos de Tiro con Arco, puede tener un gran interés para la comunidad universitaria: · Porque es un deporte

Escolano, Francisco

423

Verrucous carcinomas of the head and neck, including those with associated squamous cell carcinoma, lack transcriptionally active high-risk human papillomavirus.  

PubMed

Most oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and histologic variants harbor transcriptionally active human papillomavirus (HPV). While HPV DNA can be found in many non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinomas, transcriptionally active HPV is rare. Verrucous carcinoma is a variant with bland cytology, warty appearance, locally destructive growth, and lack of metastasis when lacking a frankly invasive carcinoma component. Studies have shown variable rates of HPV DNA and p16 protein expression in such tumors but still have not clearly addressed if the virus has biological activity or clinical relevance in the positive cases. Department files were searched for verrucous neoplasms, including pure verrucous carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma with dysplasia or minimal invasion, and SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma (ie, having a major component of frankly invasive carcinoma). p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and E6/E7 mRNA reverse transcription PCR for high-risk HPV types were performed. Of the 49 cases, 6 (12.2%) showed strong (>50%) staining for p16. HPV DNA was detected in 7/49 (14.3%) cases, but only one case was positive for both p16, and HPV DNA. A total of 36 cases yielded sufficient RNA for RT-PCR (18 verrucous carcinomas, 13 atypical verrucous carcinomas, and 5 SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma). All 36 were negative, including the four p16-positive and three HPV DNA-positive tumors tested. Although a minority of verrucous carcinoma lesions are p16 and HPV DNA positive, transcriptionally active high-risk HPV is uniformly absent. These findings argue that verrucous carcinoma and its related squamous cell carcinomas are not HPV-driven tumors. PMID:24071016

Patel, Kalyani R; Chernock, Rebecca D; Zhang, Tian R; Wang, Xiaowei; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S

2013-11-01

424

Invasive behavior of ulcerative colitis-associated carcinoma is related to reduced expression of CD44 extracellular domain: comparison with sporadic colon carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate relations of invasion of ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated carcinoma with its prognosis, the characteristics of invasive fronts were analyzed in comparison with sporadic colonic carcinomas. Methods Prognoses of 15 cases of UC-associated colonic carcinoma were compared with those of sporadic colon carcinoma cases, after which 75 cases of sporadic invasive adenocarcinoma were collected. Tumor budding was examined histologically at invasive fronts using immunohistochemistry (IHC) of pancytokeratin. Expressions of beta-catenin with mutation analysis, CD44 extracellular domain, Zo-1, occludin, matrix matalloproteinase-7, laminin-5?2, and sialyl Lewis X (LeX) were immunohistochemically evaluated. Results UC-associated carcinoma showed worse prognosis than sporadic colon carcinoma in all the cases, and exhibited a tendency to become more poorly differentiated when carcinoma invaded the submucosa or deeper layers than sporadic carcinoma. When the lesions were compared with sporadic carcinomas considering differentiation grade, reduced expression of CD44 extracellular domain in UC-associated carcinoma was apparent. Laminin-5?2 and sialyl-LeX expression showed a lower tendency in UC-associated carcinomas than in their sporadic counterparts. There were no differences in the numbers of tumor budding foci between the two lesion types, with no apparent relation to nuclear beta-catenin levels in IHC. Conclusions UC-associated carcinoma showed poorer differentiation when the carcinoma invaded submucosa or deeper parts, which may influence the poorer prognosis. The invasive behavior of UC-associated carcinoma is more associated with CD44 cleavage than with basement membrane disruption or sialyl-Lewis-antigen alteration. PMID:21473743

2011-01-01

425

Histopathologic risk factors in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma variants: An update with special reference to HPV-related carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Accurate identification of the microscopic risk factors of oral and oropharyngeal (OP) squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and their morphologic variants is of at most importance, as these generally determine treatment modalities, prognosis and overall patient outcome. The great majority of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas are microscopically described as kerartinizing squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC). They bear certain resemblance to keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Tobacco habits and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages have been considered to be the main etiologic agents in these carcinomas. The tumors occurred in older patients more commonly affected the oral tongue and floor of the mouth with well established morphologic risk factors including tumor grade, pattern of invasion and perineural involvement. Within the last 30 years however, the advent and expanding prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) as an important etiologic agent for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in the OP, has resulted in a significant change in the established morphologic criteria for risk assessment. The majority of HPV relate carcinomas of the OP are nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (NKSCC). These tumors are found to be more responsive to treatment with a favorable patient outcome and good prognosis. Consequently, alterations in treatment protocols aimed at de-escalation are currently being evaluated. More recently, other morphologic variants that are HPV positive are reported with increasing frequency in the OP and other head and neck sites. As a result, several clinical and pathologic questions have emerged. Importantly, whether the virus is biologically active in these tumors and involved in their pathogenesis, and second, what are the clinical implications with regard to patient management and outcome in the HPV-related variants. Examples of HPV-related squamous cell carcinoma variants that will be addressed here are: basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC), undifferentiated carcinoma (UCa), papillary squamous carcinoma (PSCC) and small cell carcinoma. Some studies have suggested favorable prognosis in some variants, analogous to that of the (NKSCC), while others showed poorer outcome. So far the number of studies on this subject is limited and the number of cases evaluated in each investigation is few. Because of that, it is prudent at this stage, not to alter management protocols as a result of identification of HPV in these variants and to await additional information Key words:Histopathologic risk-factors, oral cavity, oropharynx, squamous cell carcinoma variants, keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, HPV, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, papillary squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma. PMID:24880454

2014-01-01

426

The Effect of Sortilin Silencing on Ovarian Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Our preliminary data on the protein expression of SORT1 in ovarian carcinoma tissues showed that sortilin was overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma patients and cell lines, while non-malignant ovaries expressed comparably lower amount of this protein. In spite of diverse ligands and also different putative functions of sortilin (NTR3), the function of overexpressed sortilin in ovarian carcinoma cells is an intriguing subject of inquiry. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the functional role of sortilin in survival of ovarian carcinoma cell line. Methods Expression of sortilin was knocked down using RNAi technology in the ovarian carcinoma cell line, Caov-4. Silencing of SORT1 expression was assessed using real-time qPCR and Western blot analyses. Apoptosis induction was evaluated using flow cytometry by considering annexin-V FITC binding. [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay was also used to evaluate cell proliferation capacity. Results Real-time qPCR and Western blot analyses showed that expression of sortilin was reduced by nearly 70-80% in the siRNA transfected cells. Knocking down of sortilin expression resulted in increased apoptosis (27.50.48%) in siRNA-treated ovarian carcinoma cell line. Sortilin silencing led to significant inhibition of proliferation (40.1%) in siRNA-transfected Caov-4 cells as compared to mock control-transfected counterpart (p < 0.05). Conclusion As it was suspected from overexpression of sortilin in ovarian tumor cells, a cell survival role for sortilin can be deduced from these results. In conclusion, the potency of apoptosis induction via silencing of sortilin expression in tumor cells may introduce sortilin as a potential candidate for developing a novel targeted therapy in patients with ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25215181

Ghaemimanesh, Fatemeh; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Talebi, Saeed; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Hemmati, Shayda; Hadavi, Reza; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Farzi, Maryam; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

2014-01-01

427

Validated Targets Associated With Curatively Treated Advanced Serous Ovarian Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Validated Targets Associated With Advanced Serous Ovarian Carcinoma - Douglas Levine Validated Targets Associated With Curatively Treated Advanced Serous Ovarian Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific

428

Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma - Thomas J. Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma - Thomas J. Giordano Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma - Thomas J. Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium

429

Sorafenib Combined With Transarterial Chemoembolization in Treating HBV-infected Patients With Intermediate Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

PHENYTOIN/SORAFENIB [VA Drug Interaction]; Liver Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Liver Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; DOXORUBICIN/TRASTUZUMAB [VA Drug Interaction]; HBV

2012-04-24

430

Obstructive Jaundice Caused by Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Bile Duct Tumor Thrombi: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy and cause of death in the developing world. In this report, a case of obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombi is presented.

Mesci, Ayhan; Gurer, Sezer; Guzel, Gokmen; Demirbakan, Kenan

2008-01-01

431

Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma - Douglas Levine Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need

432

Peripheral pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma with substantial submucosal extension to the proximal bronchus.  

PubMed Central

A rare case of a peripheral pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma is presented. Histological examination after lobectomy showed pronounced submucosal invasion of the carcinoma to proximal bronchi. Images PMID:1849668

Inoue, H; Iwashita, A; Kanegae, H; Higuchi, K; Fujinaga, Y; Matsumoto, I

1991-01-01

433

Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva appearing as a solitary branchial cyst carcinoma: diagnostic role of PET/CT  

PubMed Central

We herein present a case of a left cervical cystic mass, for which the initial pathological diagnosis was branchial cleft cyst carcinoma (following complete mass excision). Thorough postoperative examinations, including with FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), revealed a primary tumor in the retromolar region of the left mandible. A 52-year-old female presented with a 2-month history of a painless, progressively enlarged left-sided neck mass. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy suggested a branchial cleft cyst. Physical examination revealed a 3 3-cm smooth, tender mass in the upper-left neck and anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Examination using nasendoscopy and a strobolaryngoscope revealed no abnormalities of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. MRI of the neck revealed a solitary, round, cystic mass under the left parotid gland. The mass was excised completely. Pathologic results indicated a branchial cleft cyst carcinoma. According to the diagnostic criteria for a branchial cleft cystic carcinoma, PET/CT was performed to detect the occult primary site. PET/CT revealed high FDG uptake in the tooth root of the left mandible. Frozen sections of the mass were indicative of moderate, differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The carcinoma in the retromolar region of the left mandible was locally excised under general anesthesia. A partial left maxillectomy, partial mandibulectomy, and left radical neck dissection were performed. The patient received postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and was disease-free at the 8-month follow-up. True branchial cleft cyst carcinoma is rare: once diagnosed, it should be distinguished from metastatic cystic cervical lymph and occult primary carcinoma. FDG PET/CT is useful in the identification of occult primary tumor. PMID:25400796

Zhang, Xiong-Xin; Zhao, Kui; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Zhong-Jie

2014-01-01

434

Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is an extremely rare entity, accounting for less than 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas. Fortunately, wide local excision of such lesions is generally curative. Fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the literature describing penile basal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of penile basal cell carcinoma cured with wide local excision. PMID:25298901

Roewe, R. J.; Uhlman, Matthew A.; Bockholt, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

435

Prognostic relevance of cell proliferation in major salivary gland carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Summary Several proliferation markers, such as DNA ploidy, Ki67, MiB1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen have been shown to correlate with clinical course and prognosis in several epithelial tumours and lymphomas. In the present study, the prognostic relevance of these markers was evaluated in major salivary gland carcinomas. A sample of 36 cases out of 85 patients submitted to surgery for major salivary gland carcinomas at our institution between 1987 and 1997 were studied. The sample comprised 8 adenoid-cystic carcinomas, 6 ductal carcinomas, 11 mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 11 acinic cell carcinomas. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 12 years (mean 6.2). In some patients, DNA ploidy (euploid or aneuploid) was studied by flow cytometry. In others, proliferation activity was studied by means of monoclonal antibody MiB1, identifying cells in the proliferative cycle. In some patients, both techniques were used. Follow-up was related to these indices, TNM and stage. Even if ploidy suggested a favourable outcome in diploid cancer (13 favourable vs. 2 unfavourable) and poor outcome in aneuploid cancer (4 favourable vs. 5 unfavourable), the difference was not statistically significant with p = 0.06 in Fishers exact test. Instead, the proliferative tumour cell fraction, evaluated by MiB1, was statistically correlated with prognosis. Comparing survival curves by Log rank Test it yielded p = 0.007 using an MiB1 cut-off of 5. Applying a cut-off of 20 yielded p = 0.001. Of particular interest were MiB1 values in acinic cell carcinomas for which grading is challenging and lacks consensus. In our group of acinic cell carcinomas, survival correlated with values of MiB1 > or < 15 with p = 0.009 in Log rank test. In conclusion, despite a trend towards correlation between ploidy and prognosis, the present study yielded p = 0.06, whereas the proliferative fraction assessed by MiB1 was significantly correlated with outcomes. Indeed, growth fraction in acinic cell carcinomas may stratify different classes of risk. PMID:16450771

Vacchi Suzzi, M; Alessi, A; Bertarelli, C; Cancellieri, A; Procaccio, L; DallOlio, D; Laudadio, P

2005-01-01

436

Experimental mouse models for hepatocellular carcinoma research  

PubMed Central

Every year almost 500,000 new patients are diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary malignancy of the liver that is associated with a poor prognosis. Numerous experimental models have been developed to define the pathogenesis of HCC and to test novel drug candidates. This review analyses several mouse models useful for HCC research and points out their advantages and weaknesses. Chemically induced HCC mice models mimic the injury-fibrosis-malignancy cycle by administration of a genotoxic compound alone or, if necessary, followed by a promoting agent. Xenograft models develop HCC by implanting hepatoma cell lines in mice, either ectopically or orthotopically; these models are suitable for drug screening, although extrapolation should be considered with caution as multiple cell lines must always be used. The hollow fibre assay offers a solution for limiting the number of test animals in xenograft research because of the ability for implanting multiple cell lines in one mouse. There is also a broad range of genetically modified mice engineered to investigate the pathophysiology of HCC. Transgenic mice expressing viral genes, oncogenes and/or growth factors allow the identification of pathways involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:19659896

Heindryckx, Femke; Colle, Isabelle; Van Vlierberghe, Hans

2009-01-01

437

Treatment of intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-closely associated with liver cirrhosis and, in fact, the main cause of death in patients with such disease-is now recognized as one of the most-prevalent and lethal neoplasms worldwide. Prognosis and allocation of the multiple available treatment options for patients with HCC are influenced not only by tumour stage, but also by the degree of liver-function impairment. Therefore, accurate assessment and classification of disease is important for patient management. According to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) algorithm, intermediate-stage HCC is defined as extensive multifocal disease without vascular invasion in patients with preserved liver function and absence of cancer-related symptoms; in this context, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is considered the standard treatment. The use of drug-eluting beads has enabled standardization of this procedure, resulting in higher reproducibility and tolerability of the treatment. Nevertheless, not all patients with intermediate-stage HCC are good candidates for TACE and, for such patients in whom TACE is not appropriate or has failed, other treatments can be considered, including sorafenib. Radioembolization is a promising alternative that deserves further prospective studies. Herein, we review the current approaches used to accurately stratify patients with intermediate-stage HCC and subsequently allocate the most-appropriate treatments. The key developments in therapeutic strategies are also discussed. PMID:25091611

Forner, Alejandro; Gilabert, Marine; Bruix, Jordi; Raoul, Jean-Luc

2014-09-01

438

The mutational landscape of adenoid cystic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most enigmatic of human malignancies. These aggressive salivary gland cancers frequently recur and metastasize despite definitive treatment, with no known effective chemotherapy regimen. Here we determined the ACC mutational landscape and report the exome or whole-genome sequences of 60 ACC tumor-normal pairs. These analyses identified a low exonic somatic mutation rate (0.31 non-silent events per megabase) and wide mutational diversity. Notably, we found mutations in genes encoding chromatin-state regulators, such as SMARCA2, CREBBP and KDM6A, suggesting that there is aberrant epigenetic regulation in ACC oncogenesis. Mutations in genes central to the DNA damage response and protein kinase A signaling also implicate these processes. We observed MYB-NFIB translocations and somatic mutations in MYB-associated genes, solidifying the role of these aberrations as critical events in ACC. Lastly, we identified recurrent mutations in the FGF-IGF-PI3K pathway (30% of tumors) that might represent new avenues for therapy. Collectively, our observations establish a molecular foundation for understanding and exploring new treatments for ACC. PMID:23685749

Ho, Allen S; Kannan, Kasthuri; Roy, David M; Morris, Luc G T; Ganly, Ian; Katabi, Nora; Ramaswami, Deepa; Walsh, Logan A; Eng, Stephanie; Huse, Jason T; Zhang, Jianan; Dolgalev, Igor; Huberman, Kety; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; Drobnjak, Marija; Leversha, Margaret A; Rice, Christine E; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna; Leemans, C Rene; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Ferris, Robert L; Seethala, Raja R; Gross, Benjamin E; Liang, Yupu; Sinha, Rileen; Peng, Luke; Raphael, Benjamin J; Turcan, Sevin; Gong, Yongxing; Schultz, Nikolaus; Kim, Seungwon; Chiosea, Simion; Shah, Jatin P; Sander, Chris; Lee, William; Chan, Timothy A

2013-07-01

439

Oncogene mutational profile in nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in Southern China, but the oncogene mutational status of NPC patients has not been clarified. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 238 mutation hotspots in 19 oncogenes were examined in 123 NPC patients. The relationships between mutational status and clinical data were assessed with a ?2 or Fishers exact test. Survival analysis was performed using the KaplanMeier method with the log-rank test. In 123 patients, 21 (17.1%) NPC tumors were positive for mutations in eight oncogenes: six patients had PIK3CA mutations (4.9%), five NRAS mutations (4.1%), four KIT mutations (3.3%), two PDGFRA mutations (1.6%), two ABL mutations (1.6%), and one with simultaneous mutations in HRAS, EGFR, and BRAF (1%). Patients with mutations were more likely to relapse or develop metastasis than those with wild-type alleles (P=0.019). No differences or correlations were found in other clinical characteristics or in patient survival. No mutations were detected in oncogenes AKT1, AKT2, CDK, ERBB2, FGFR1, FGFR3, FLT3, JAK2, KRAS, MET, and RET. These results demonstrate an association between NPC and mutations in NRAS, KIT, PIK3CA, PDGFRA, and ABL, which are associated with patient relapse and metastasis. PMID:24672248

Zhang, Zi-Chen; Fu, Sha; Wang, Fang; Wang, Hai-Yun; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Shao, Jian-Yong

2014-01-01

440

DNA damage checkpoints in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive cancer with poor prognosis. One of the recurring themes of NPC biology and treatments is DNA damage. Epstein-Barr virus infection, which is generally accepted as a key etiological factor for NPC, triggers DNA damage responses. In normal cells, DNA damage checkpoints are able to prevent cell cycle progression following DNA damage and are critical for maintaining genome stability. Main features of the checkpoints include activation of ATM and ATR by sensors of DNA damage, which activates effector kinases CHK1 and CHK2; they in turn targets the CDC25/WEE1-cyclin B1-CDK1 axis to cause G(2) arrest, or the p53-p21(CIP1/WAF1) and pRb pathways to cause G(1) arrest. Significantly, these checkpoints are typically disrupted in NPC cells. While mutations are relatively rare, mechanisms including promoter modifications, miRNAs, and actions of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded proteins such as EBNA3C and LMP1 have been described. Paradoxically, radiation-mediated DNA damage remains the primary treatment of NPC. How dysregulation of the DNA damage checkpoints contribute to NPC tumorigenesis and responses to treatment remain poorly understood. In this review, the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the various DNA damage checkpoints and what is known about them in NPC are discussed. PMID:24503238

Poon, Randy Y C

2014-05-01

441

Clinicopathological analysis of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a rare malignant neoplasm. We aimed to investigate clinicopathological features, therapies, and prognoses of eight MEC cases. Methods Eight patients underwent surgical treatment for pulmonary MEC between 2005 and 2012 at the Thoracic Surgical Department of West China Hospital, Sichuan, China. The clinical data, radiological manifestation, treatment strategy, pathological findings, and prognoses of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results Among the eight cases (four males and four females), the age of patients ranged from 35 to 71years (mean age 50.67years). Two tumors were located in the upper lobes and three masses were located in the lower lobes. The other three lumps were located in the left main bronchus, middle segmental bronchus of the right lobe, and trachea, respectively. The characteristics of the tumors were consistent with low grade MEC (n?=?6) and high grade MEC (n?=?2). All of the patients were sent for oncological evaluations, and three patients with N1 or N2 disease received chemotherapy. One of the patients died from brain metastasis at 15months. Seven of the eight patients were alive at the time of evaluation. The median survival time was 40 (range 8 to 88) months. Conclusion Mucoepidermoid tumors have to be treated by radical surgery with lymph node sampling and dissection. Patients with low grade tumors can be expected to be cured following complete resection. Careful histological typing plays a key role in prediction of late results, and further studies are needed. PMID:24507476

2014-01-01

442

Multidisciplinary management in Merkel cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Herein, the authors describe the experience with the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and review the literature regarding MCC treatment regimens. Nine patients underwent treatment due to stage I, II, or III MCC. The median follow up was 39 months. In five cases, tumors were excised with skin margins of >2 cm, and skin margins were <2 cm in four patients. Local adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) was given to four patients, while three patients underwent local lymphadenectomy (LAD). Local recurrence occurred in four patients who did not undergo RT (among them three patients had excision margins <2 cm) after a mean time of 9 months. Despite retreatment, two of those patients developed metastases. Recurrence-free survival after primary therapy was achieved: (a) in three patients with stage I and II MCC treated surgically with excision margins <2 cm combined with RT or wide excision >2 cm alone and (b) in two patients with stage III MCC treated with wide excision and LAD combined with local and regional RT. A review of the literature supports the following recommendations: (a) excision with adequate margins combined with RT; (b) LAD with regional RT in cases of lymph node involvement; and (c) sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients without clinically suspicious lymph nodes. PMID:23216365

Matkowski, Rafal; Lata, Ewelina; Zietek, Marcin; Halon, Agnieszka; Forgacz, Jozef; Szynglarewicz, Bartlomiej

2014-10-01

443

Mutational analysis of merkel cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge. PMID:25329450

Erstad, Derek J; Jr, James C Cusack

2014-01-01

444

Natural history of recurrences in endometrial carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the natural history of endometrial cancer recurrences with regard to predictive and prognostic factors. Between 1990 and 1999, 100 patients were treated for recurrences of endometrial carcinoma (all FIGO stages). Overall, 90 tumors were of endometrioid type. A total of 82 patients were treated with surgery, 41 patients received adjuvant external irradiation and 91 patients received vaginal brachytherapy. The median time to recurrence (TTR) was 32 months. The recurrences were treated using a combination of high-dose-rate brachytherapy and external pelvic irradiation in 35 cases. In addition, 44 patients were treated with chemotherapy and 21 patients received other types of therapy. The complete remission rate was 29% and the overall response rate was 44%. Among patients treated with radiotherapy, the response rate was 88% and, for those treated with chemotherapy, the rate was 33%. The local control of vaginal recurrences treated with combined radiotherapy was 93%. In 45 patients (45%) a second recurrence was identified and a third recurrence occurred in 12 patients. The overall five-year survival rate was 44%. Age, FIGO grade, nuclear grade, TTR and response to treatment were found to be independent and significant prognostic factors for overall survival rate. Locoregional recurrences were associated with a generalized extra-pelvic disease in 63% of the cases. PMID:25202413

SORBE, BENGT; JURESTA, CHRISTIAN; AHLIN, CECILIA

2014-01-01

445

Gastric carcinoma: is radical gastrectomy worth while?  

PubMed Central

Total gastrectomy as the treatment of choice for gastric carcinoma was evaluated by a number of centres during the decade 1945-55. The operative mortality was found to be higher, the 5-year survival rate was lower, and the undesirable digestive side effects were greater than those following subtotal resection. The very radical subtotal resections with miniature gastric remnants were also found to result in postgastrectomy symptoms quite similar to those of total gastrectomy. Technical refinements of oesophagojejunal anastomoses and the use of nutritional supplements and antianaemic therapy have reduced but have not eliminated the sequelae of radical gastrectomy. A review of 15 reports of gastric cancer treatment from 8 countries suggests that in recent years total gastrectomy has been utilised in 25.4% of resections, with an average operative mortality of 21.7% and a 5-year survival of 12.3%. Radical resection or total gastrectomy is recommended for certain specific conditions, but for the usual antral gastric cancer subtotal resection distal to the vasa brevia with preservation of the gastric fundus and spleen is recommended PMID:7362184

Longmire, William P

1980-01-01

446

Bcl-2 expression in male breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

We have analysed the expression of bcl-2 protein retrospectively in 34 primary male breast carcinomas (MBC), using the monoclonal antibody bcl-2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Bcl-2 expression was compared with tumour clinicopathological features, sex steroid hormone receptors, DNA content, p53 immunoreactivity and cell proliferative activity assessed by counts of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), the monoclonal antibody PC10 against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the monoclonal antibody MIB-1. Most (28, or 82.3%) of the 34 cases of MBC were bcl-2 positive. No association was found with clinicopathological features of the tumours, although bcl-2 tended to be more frequently expressed in small tumours (P=0.09) and in cases without necrotic areas (P=0.1). Nor was any association found with hormone receptor status, p53 immunoreactivity, DNA content, cell proliferative activity or patient survival. In multivariate analysis, only proliferative activity (expressed by AgNOR counts) and p53 immunoreactivity had independent prognostic significance. Our results indicate that MBC differs from FBC in that in MBC bcl-2 protein is not related to an oestrogen-dependent transcription pathway and bcl-2 alone is not sufficient to induce increased proliferation. These characteristics, together with the high prognostic value of cell proliferation and the lack of prognostic significance for hormone receptor status, support the hypothesis that MBC is biologically different from FBC. PMID:9769126

Pich, A; Margaria, E; Chiusa, L

1998-09-01

447

Epidemiology and carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows marked variation worldwide but the magnitude of this tumor is reflected by the occurrence of at least 1 million new cases annually and the uniformly dismal outlook with median survivals of <25 months after resection and <6 months with symptomatic treatment. The strikingly uneven distribution of this tumor parallels the prevalence of hepatitis B infection with rising incidence in western countries attributed to hepatitis C infection. Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis constitute the major preneoplastic conditions in the majority of HCCs and may be related to other etiologic agents such as environmental chemical carcinogens including nitrites, hydrocarbons, solvents, organochlorine pesticides, and the chemicals in processed foods, cleaning agents, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well as plant toxins such as anatoxins produced by fungi that cause spoilage of grain and food in the tropics. Genetic diseases such as genetic hematochromatosis, Wilson's disease, ?-1-antitrypsin deficiency, and the inborn errors of metabolism including hereditary tyrosinemia and hepatic porphyria, are known to be associated with HCC. Numerous genetic alterations and the modulation of DNA methylation are recognized in HCC and it is likely that these genetic and epigenetic changes combine with factors involved in chronic hepatocyte destruction and regeneration to result in neoplastic growth and multiple molecular pathways may be involved in the production of subsets of hepatocellular tumors. PMID:18333156

Leong, Trishe Y.-M.

2005-01-01

448

Novel investigational drugs for basal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field In the United States, the annual incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is close to 1 million. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the main risk factor; however, the availability of ever more potent sunscreens and education have not prevented the rise in BCC incidence. Therefore, concerted effects to identify novel preventive and therapeutic strategies are necessary. Areas covered in this review This article summarizes our current understanding of the etiology and molecular mechanisms of BCC tumorigenesis and discusses the preclinical and clinical studies to identify agents with anti-BCC efficacy. What the reader will gain The discovery that hyperactive Hh pathway signaling causes several cancers, including BCC, has spawned the development of many pharmacologic inhibitors of Hh signaling. Early clinical testing of the most advanced, GDC-0449, demonstrated impressive efficacy in patients with advanced BCC. Other promising anti-BCC chemopreventive strategies include drugs that are already FDA-approved for treating other diseases. Take home message Preclinical and clinical trials with pre-existing FDA-approved drugs suggest novel uses for BCC chemoprevention and treatment. Also, new chemical entities that inhibit the Hh pathway show promise, and in combination with other drugs may provide a nonsurgical cure for this most common cancer. PMID:20662553

Tang, Jean Y; Epstein, Ervin H

2011-01-01

449

Treatment outcomes in locally advanced colorectal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Locally advanced colorectal cancers form a distinct subgroup where contiguous organs could be involved without distant metastases and so may be amenable to curative surgical resection. It was our objective to report our experience in treating six such patients with operable locally advanced colorectal carcinomas. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the case notes of 47 patients who were diagnosed with colorectal cancers at M S Ramaiah Medical Teaching Hospital between the years 1996 2001. Six patients were identified with T4 lesions, adjacent organ involvement and with no nodal involvement. The treatments and outcomes for these patients were then reviewed. Results Two of three patients with rectal malignancies who underwent pelvic exenteration succumbed to disease recurrence within the first 18 months. One of the three patients with colonic cancers died of non malignant causes. The other two are disease free till date. Conclusions Aggressive multivisceral resections for locally advanced colonic cancers might be appropriate. Rectal cancers when locally advanced may be considered for pelvic exenteration, but a more guarded prognosis may apply. PMID:15527504

Harish, K; Narayanaswamy, YV; Nirmala, S

2004-01-01

450

Isolated nasopharyngeal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, the incidence of which parallels that of areas with high prevalence of chronic hepatitis. HCC commonly metastasizes to the lungs, lymph nodes, adrenals and bones with the overall prognosis of metastatic HCC being dismal. PRESENTATION OF CASE We herein with present a case of a 70-year-old male who was referred to our institution with history of nasal obstruction and nasal bleeding which on further evaluation was diagnosed to have an isolated metastasis to nasopharynx from liver primary. DISCUSSION Extrahepatic metastasis in HCC occurs in about 3050% of patients, the commonest site being the lung. Rare sites of extrahepatic metastasis from HCC to the ovaries, kidneys, skeletal and cardiac musculature and brain have been reported. Unusual sites of metastasis in the head and neck area like the mandible have also been documented. With the changing trends in the treatment modalities, these patients are often treated using target therapy. CONCLUSION This article presents an unusual isolated metastasis to nasopharynx from HCC in the absence of disseminated disease. This case report illustrates the distinctive pathological features of metastatic HCC. PMID:24509427

Kattepur, Abhay K.; Patil, Darshan B.; Krishnamoorthy, Naveen; Srinivas, K.G.; Swamy, Shivananda; Amarendra, S.; Gopinath, K.S.

2014-01-01

451

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of breast: Recent advances  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare special subtype of breast cancer characterized by the presence of a dual cell population of luminal and basaloid cells arranged in specific growth patterns. Most breast cancers with triple-negative, basal-like breast features (i.e., tumors that are devoid of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, and express basal cell markers) are generally high-grade tumors with an aggressive clinical course. Conversely, while ACCs also display a triple-negative, basal-like phenotype, they are usually low-grade and exhibit an indolent clinical behavior. Many discoveries regarding the molecular and genetic features of the ACC, including a specific chromosomal translocation t(6;9) that results in a MYB-NFIB fusion gene, have been made in recent years. This comprehensive review provides our experience with the ACC of the breast, as well as an overview of clinical, histopathological, and molecular genetic features. PMID:25516849

Miyai, Kosuke; Schwartz, Mary R; Divatia, Mukul K; Anton, Rose C; Park, Yong Wook; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

2014-01-01

452

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of breast: Recent advances.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare special subtype of breast cancer characterized by the presence of a dual cell population of luminal and basaloid cells arranged in specific growth patterns. Most breast cancers with triple-negative, basal-like breast features (i.e., tumors that are devoid of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, and express basal cell markers) are generally high-grade tumors with an aggressive clinical course. Conversely, while ACCs also display a triple-negative, basal-like phenotype, they are usually low-grade and exhibit an indolent clinical behavior. Many discoveries regarding the molecular and genetic features of the ACC, including a specific chromosomal translocation t(6;9) that results in a MYB-NFIB fusion gene, have been made in recent years. This comprehensive review provides our experience with the ACC of the breast, as well as an overview of clinical, histopathological, and molecular genetic features. PMID:25516849

Miyai, Kosuke; Schwartz, Mary R; Divatia, Mukul K; Anton, Rose C; Park, Yong Wook; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

2014-12-16

453

Interventional treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Barcelona clinic liver cancer classification is the current standard classification system for the clinical management of patients with HCC and suggests that patients with intermediate-stage HCC benefit from transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Interventional treatments such as TACE, balloon-occluded TACE, drug-eluting bead embolization, radioembolization, and combined therapies including TACE and radiofrequency ablation, continue to evolve, resulting in improved patient prognosis. However, patients with advanced-stage HCC typically receive only chemotherapy with sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, or palliative and conservative therapy. Most patients receive palliative or conservative therapy only, and approximately 50% of patients with HCC are candidates for systemic therapy. However, these patients require therapy that is more effective than sorafenib or conservative treatment. Several researchers try to perform more effective therapies, such as combined therapies (TACE with radiotherapy and sorafenib with TACE), modified TACE for HCC with arterioportal or arteriohepatic vein shunts, TACE based on hepatic hemodynamics, and isolated hepatic perfusion. This review summarizes the published data and data on important ongoing studies concerning interventional treatments for unresectable HCC and discusses the technical improvements in these interventions, particularly for advanced-stage HCC. PMID:25309076

Murata, Satoru; Mine, Takahiko; Sugihara, Fumie; Yasui, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Ueda, Tatsuo; Onozawa, Shiro; Kumita, Shin-ichiro

2014-01-01

454

Telomerase Activity in Human Ovarian Carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telomeres fulfill the dual function of protecting eukaryotic chromosomes from illegitimate recombination and degradation and may aid in chromosome attachment to the nuclear membrane. We have previously shown that telomerase, the enzyme which synthesizes telomeric DNA, is not detected in normal somatic cells and that telomeres shorten with replicative age. In cells immortalized in vitro, activation of telomerase apparently stabilizes telomere length, preventing a critical destabilization of chromosomes, and cell proliferation continues even when telomeres are short. In vivo, telomeres of most tumors are shorter than telomeres of control tissues, suggesting an analogous role for the enzyme. To assess the relevance of telomerase and telomere stability in the development and progression of tumors, we have measured enzyme activity and telomere length in metastatic cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We report that extremely short telomeres are maintained in these cells and that tumor cells, but not isogenic nonmalignant cells, express telomerase. Our findings suggest that progression of malignancy is ultimately dependent upon activation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors may be effective antitumor drugs.

Counter, Christopher M.; Hirte, Hal W.; Bacchetti, Silvia; Harley, Calvin B.

1994-04-01

455

The Mutational Landscape of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most enigmatic of human malignancies. These aggressive salivary cancers frequently recur and metastasize despite definitive treatment, with no known effective chemotherapy regimen. Here, we determined the ACC mutational landscape and report the exome or whole genome sequences of 60 ACC tumor/normal pairs. These analyses revealed a low exonic somatic mutation rate (0.31 non-silent events/megabase) and wide mutational diversity. Interestingly, mutations selectively involved chromatin state regulators, such as SMARCA2, CREBBP, and KDM6A, suggesting aberrant epigenetic regulation in ACC oncogenesis. Mutations in genes central to DNA damage and protein kinase A signaling also implicate these processes. We observed MYB-NFIB translocations and somatic mutations in MYB-associated genes, solidifying these aberrations as critical events. Lastly, we identified recurrent mutations in the FGF/IGF/PI3K pathway that may potentially offer new avenues for therapy (30%). Collectively, our observations establish a molecular foundation for understanding and exploring new treatments for ACC. PMID:23685749

Ho, Allen S.; Kannan, Kasthuri; Roy, David M.; Morris, Luc G.T.; Ganly, Ian; Katabi, Nora; Ramaswami, Deepa; Walsh, Logan A.; Eng, Stephanie; Huse, Jason T.; Zhang, Jianan; Dolgalev, Igor; Huberman, Kety; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; Drobnjak, Marija; Leversha, Margaret A.; Rice, Christine E.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Leemans, C. Rene; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Ferris, Robert L.; Seethala, Raja R.; Gross, Benjamin E.; Liang, Yupu; Sinha, Rileen; Peng, Luke; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Turcan, Sevin; Gong, Yongxing; Schultz, Nikolaus; Kim, Seungwon; Chiosea, Simion; Shah, Jatin P.; Sander, Chris; Lee, William; Chan, Timothy A.

2013-01-01

456

[Diagnosis of and therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma].  

PubMed

The interdisciplinary guidelines at the S3 level on the diagnosis of and therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) constitute an evidence- and consensus-based instrument that is aimed at improving the diagnosis of and therapy for HCC since these are very challenging tasks. The purpose of the guidelines is to offer the patient (with suspected or confirmed HCC) adequate, scientifically based and up-to-date procedures in diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation. This holds not only for locally limited or focally advanced disease but also for the existence of recurrences or distant metastases. Besides making a contribution to an appropriate health-care service, the guidelines should also provide the foundation for an individually adapted, high-quality therapy. The explanatory background texts should also enable non-specialist but responsible colleagues to give sound advice to their patients concerning specialist procedures, side effects and results. In the medium and long-term this should reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with HCC and improve their quality of life. PMID:24243572

Greten, T F; Malek, N P; Schmidt, S; Arends, J; Bartenstein, P; Bechstein, W; Bernatik, T; Bitzer, M; Chavan, A; Dollinger, M; Domagk, D; Drognitz, O; Dx, M; Farkas, S; Folprecht, G; Galle, P; Geiler, M; Gerken, G; Habermehl, D; Helmberger, T; Herfarth, K; Hoffmann, R T; Holtmann, M; Huppert, P; Jakobs, T; Keller, M; Klempnauer, J; Kolligs, F; Krber, J; Lang, H; Lehner, F; Lordick, F; Lubienski, A; Manns, M P; Mahnken, A; Mhler, M; Mnch, C; Neuhaus, P; Niederau, C; Ocker, M; Otto, G; Pereira, P; Pott, G; Riemer, J; Ringe, K; Ritterbusch, U; Rummeny, E; Schirmacher, P; Schlitt, H J; Schlottmann, K; Schmitz, V; Schuler, A; Schulze-Bergkamen, H; von Schweinitz, D; Seehofer, D; Sitter, H; Straburg, C P; Stroszczynski, C; Strobel, D; Tannapfel, A; Trojan, J; van Thiel, I; Vogel, A; Wacker, F; Wedemeyer, H; Wege, H; Weinmann, A; Wittekind, C; Wrmann, B; Zech, C J

2013-11-01

457

Pseudohyperplastic prostatic carcinoma in simple prostatectomy.  

PubMed

Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma (PHPC) is a prostatic neoplasm that can be easily mistaken for nodular hyperplasia or atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. To determine the frequency and clinicopathologic characteristics of PHPC, we reviewed 200 simple prostatectomy specimens. We found 3 cases (1.5%) of PHPC. The tumors were small and ranged in size from 4 to 6 mm. Two of them were erroneously diagnosed as benign glandular proliferations in the original interpretation. Their histologic aspect at low magnification showed nodules of well-differentiated medium-sized glands with cystic dilation in a tight arrangement that imparted a benign appearance. Corpora amylacea were found in 2 cases. However, the lining cells showed nucleomegaly and prominent nuclei in most of the neoplastic glands, and the high-molecular-weight keratin (34BE12) immunostain revealed absence of basal cells. ?-Methylacyl-CoA-racemase was positive in 2 cases. In one case, a small focus of moderated acinar adenocarcinoma was found adjacent to the pseudohyperplastic glands facilitating the diagnosis. The 3 patients are disease-free 3 and 4 years after surgery probably because of the small size of the tumors; however, it must be emphasized that most PHPC are considered moderately differentiated and potentially aggressive neoplasms. PMID:21396868

Arista-Nasr, Julin; Martinez-Benitez, Braulio; Fernandez-Amador, Jose Antonio; Bornstein-Quevedo, Leticia; Arceo-Olaiz, Ricardo; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

2011-06-01

458

Mutational Analysis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge. PMID:25329450

Erstad, Derek J.; Cusack, James C.

2014-01-01

459

Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Parotid Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Salivary gland cancers are rare and represent approximately 5% of all head and neck cancers and only 0.3% of all malignancies. The majority (75%) of salivary gland tumors occur in the parotid gland, and while benign lesions are more common, mucoepider