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Sample records for carcinoma localmente avanzado

  1. [Analoghi sintetici dell'ormone di rilascio dell'ormone luteinizzante per il trattamento del carcinoma prostatico localmente avanzato o metastatico: analisi dei costi diretti e indiretti nello scenario italiano].

    PubMed

    Fadda, Valeria; Maratea, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Riassunto. Introduzione. Gli analoghi sintetici dell'ormone di rilascio dell'ormone luteinizzante (Lh-Rh) sono utilizzati per diverse indicazioni cliniche. I dati di outcome non riportano differenze significative in termini di efficacia tra i diverse analoghi di sintesi Lh-Rh. Materiali e metodi. La ricerca di letteratura è stata eseguita inserendo le seguenti parole chiave nelle biblioteche biomediche online (PubMed) e nei database online delle Agenzie regolatorie (EMA e FDA): "LHRH agonist AND prostatic cancer", "androgen deprivation therapy", "androgen suppression", "buserelin", "leuprorelin", "goserelin", "triptorelin", "degarelix". Nei costi diretti sono stati inclusi i costi relativi alle visite specialistiche di controllo, il costo dell'esame del PSA e il costo del farmaco. Tra i costi indiretti sono stati inclusi le giornate lavorative perse dal paziente. Risultati. Considerando lo schema terapeutico intermittente per tutti i farmaci considerati, il costo di trattamento più basso è attribuibile alla formulazione di Eligard 22,5 mg mentre la spesa più alta si registra con la somministrazione di Firmagon. Quando però vengono considerati anche i costi di accesso ospedaliero dovuti alla necessaria presenza di un operatore, la terapia meno costosa è rappresentata da Suprefact depot. Conclusioni. La presente analisi dimostra che il prezzo di acquisto del farmaco non può, da solo, rappresentare la spesa come unico determinante della stessa. A carico del Servizio Sanitario è infatti necessario imputare anche i costi associati alle visite specialistiche, agli accessi ambulatoriali e al tempo impiegato dall'operatore, necessari nel caso in cui per la somministrazione del farmaco sia obbligatoria la presenza di un operatore. PMID:26780073

  2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin has ... has a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common ...

  3. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... genital warts Melanoma Merkel cell carcinoma Sebaceous carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Skin cancer in people of color Why see ... et al . “Lack of evidence for basal or squamous cell carcinoma infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus in immunocompetent patients ...

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  5. Ameloblastic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratne, Dakshika Abeydeera; Coleman, Hedley G.; Lim, Lydia; Morgan, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 66 Final Diagnosis: Ameloblastic carcinoma Symptoms: Jaw pain Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Surgical resection Specialty: Head and neck surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Ameloblastic carcinoma secondary type is an extremely rare and aggressive odontogenic neoplasm that exhibits histological features of malignancy in primary and metastatic sites. It arises through carcinomatous de-differentiation of a pre-existing ameloblastoma or odontogenic cyst, typically following repeated treatments and recurrences of the benign precursor neoplasm. Identification of an ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type presenting with histologic features of malignant transformation from an earlier untreated benign lesion remains a rarity. Herein, we report 1 such case. Case Report: A 66-year-old man was referred for management of a newly diagnosed ameloblastic carcinoma. He underwent radical surgical intervention comprising hemimandibulectomy, supraomohyoid neck dissection, and free-flap reconstruction. Final histologic analysis demonstrated features suggestive of carcinomatous de-differentiation for a consensus diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type (de-differentiated) intraosseous. Conclusions: Ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type represents a rare and challenging histologic diagnosis. Radical surgical resection with adequate hard and soft tissue margins is essential for curative management of localized disease. PMID:26126621

  6. Parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Butt, Waqas Tariq; Azim, Asad; Abbas, Ansab; Gauhar, Tooba Mahmud; Afzal, Ameer; Azim, Khawaja Muhammad

    2012-09-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy accounting for less than 1% of all cases of hyperparathyroidism. We present a case of a middle-aged woman who was undiagnosed for 3 years before presenting with renal stones and advanced musculoskeletal disease. Investigations revealed primary hyperparathyroidism. Focused cervical exploration and left inferior parathyroidectomy was carried out based on the pre-operative localization studies. Parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed on histopathology postoperatively. Subsequent en bloc resection was not performed and the patient is being monitored with serial parathyroid hormone levels which have not shown any increase in 6 months of follow-up. Only two previous cases of parathyroid carcinoma have been reported from Pakistan. PMID:22980615

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  8. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  9. Bronchiolar Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, J. J.; Schaffner, V. D.; Hiltz, J. E.

    1966-01-01

    Bronchiolar carcinoma is a malignant tumour which apparently arises in a terminal bronchiole from which it spreads either by bronchial embolization or by lymphogenous and/or hematogenous dissemination. It is not a common neoplasm. Histologically, the tumour bears a striking resemblance to the disease of sheep, jagziekte, which is of virus etiology. A very common finding in reported cases is preexisting pulmonary fibrosis. At the Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, 80 cases of primary lung cancer have been encountered within the past 25 years. Six of these were bronchiolar carcinomas. Five patients had co-existing chronic pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis in one and tuberculosis in four. One patient died of a rapidly progressive bilateral lesion and five were explored. Lobectomy was done in all five, but in one for palliation only. Three patients are alive and well three, six and 14 years, respectively, after their operations. PMID:4285258

  10. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, J.H.C.

    1985-07-01

    In this editorial comment, the author presents a review of recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx. The value of the use of CT scans for differentiating between cranial nerve involvement by recurring tumors and irradiation neuropathy, and between temporal lobe irradiation encephalopathy and other nonneoplastic neurologic disorders and meningeal metastasis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging is said to be superior to CT for finding soft tissue involvement or abnormalities in the brain. 13 references.

  11. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

  13. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  14. Basosquamous Carcinoma: Histopathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Nádia Lages; Verli, Flaviana Dornela; de Miranda, João Luiz; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare aggressive epithelial neoplasm with features of both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, with a tendency toward local recurrence and a propensity for lymph node and distant metastases. The aim of the present study was to report the case of a 63-year-old Caucasian male with BSC in the auricular region. PMID:23112359

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llovet, Josep M; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pikarsky, Eli; Sangro, Bruno; Schwartz, Myron; Sherman, Morris; Gores, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally and has an incidence of approximately 850,000 new cases per year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer. The main risk factors for developing HCC are well known and include hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol intake and ingestion of the fungal metabolite aflatoxin B1. Additional risk factors such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are also emerging. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC have led to identification of critical driver mutations; however, the most prevalent of these are not yet druggable targets. The molecular classification of HCC is not established, and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification is the main clinical algorithm for the stratification of patients according to prognosis and treatment allocation. Surveillance programmes enable the detection of early-stage tumours that are amenable to curative therapies - resection, liver transplantation or local ablation. At more developed stages, only chemoembolization (for intermediate HCC) and sorafenib (for advanced HCC) have shown survival benefits. There are major unmet needs in HCC management that might be addressed through the discovery of new therapies and their combinations for use in the adjuvant setting and for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Moreover, biomarkers for therapy stratification, patient-tailored strategies targeting driver mutations and/or activating signalling cascades, and validated measurements of quality of life are needed. Recent failures in the testing of systemic drugs for intermediate and advanced stages have indicated a need to refine trial designs and to define novel approaches. PMID:27158749

  16. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Klink, B.K.; Karulf, R.E.; Maimon, W.N.; Peoples, J.B. )

    1991-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare clinical entity accounting for only 4 per cent of all cases of parathyroid neoplasia. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma is even rarer. Previously, virtually all patients with these lesions were treated for a nonspecific neck mass. However, in the present case, a preoperative diagnosis of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma was made based on the technetium pertechnetate/thallium 201 subtraction scan. The authors report on the 14th case of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, a review of the literature, and guidelines for the preoperative and operative evaluation of neck masses suspected to be parathyroid carcinoma.22 references.

  17. Simultaneous Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and squamous renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fúnez, Rafael; Pereda, Teresa; Rodrigo, Isabel; Robles, Luis; González, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CHRC) is a neoplasm of the kidney with clinicopathologic peculiarities that seems to be of better prognosis than conventional renal cell carcinoma. Classical and eosinophilic types are the two histological variants recorded. Also, it has been described in association with carcinoma of collecting ducts, conventional renal cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Squamous renal carcinoma is a very rare neoplasm with a malignant course. We describe a case of simultaneous chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma, finding which, to the best of our knowledge, has not previously been reported. PMID:17711572

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Pediatric Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas are rare in children, and they show significant differences in their histology and pathogenesis when compared to those common in adults. The most common subtypes seen preferentially in children are the translocation-associated tumors, papillary renal cell carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and oncocytic renal cell carcinoma following neuroblastoma. The histological diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma is made difficult by the considerable heterogeneity within and overlap between each of the above subtypes and by similarities to other pediatric renal neoplasms. While no effective therapies have yet been identified, there is considerable promise that the new Children’s Oncology Group protocol will provide knowledge that will guide the future therapy of these lesions. PMID:21057600

  20. Aromatase in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ryuichiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Katayose, Yu; Miura, Koh; Shiiba, Kenichi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Kamogawa, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Kuniharu; Takayuki; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2012-08-01

    Aromatase is one of the key estrogen-producing enzymes and is regarded as one of the therapeutic targets in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients. Human colon carcinoma has also been recently proposed as being an estrogen-responsive malignancy, but the detailed status of aromatase has not yet been reported. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the aromatase expression in colon carcinoma using immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Aromatase mRNA was significantly higher (p=0.03) in colon carcinoma than in the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa (n=31). Aromatase immunoreactivity tended to be positively associated with the intratumoral concentration of estrogens (n=53), and in particular, the concentration of estradiol was significantly higher (p=0.02) in aromatase-positive cases in men. Aromatase immunoreactivity was detected in the cytoplasm of the carcinoma cells in 217/328 (65%) examined colon carcinoma cases. Aromatase immunoreactivity was significantly positively correlated with tubular differentiation, and inversely correlated with Ki-67 labeling index, although not necessarily correlated with the clinical outcome of the patients. All these results demonstrate that colon carcinoma expresses functional aromatase, and that estrogens are locally synthesized in the tumor tissues. The findings reported here could contribute to a better understanding of the actions of estrogen in colon carcinoma. PMID:22843875

  1. Renal cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney

  2. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The radiographs of 136 patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma were reviewed. The varied radiographic manifestations were a result of the characteristic peripheral location of the tumor, its tendency to infiltrate the local airways with mucus production and desmoplasia, and its variable aggressiveness resulting in a wide variation in rate of intrathoracic and extrathoracic spread. In the absence of surgical intervention, a localized lesion progressed to diffuse disease in every patient. The findings supported the concept of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma as a distinct clinical entity.

  3. Neuroendocrine carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    This is a group consisting of tumors, in which neuroendocrine differentiation has been confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of such proteins as synaptophysin, CGRP and chromogranin. These tumors have only recently been described in mice. Their morphology varies from acinar pattern formation (LW004) to more palisading structures (LW011) to poorly differentiated neoplasms consisting of small hyperchromatic cells with minimal cytoplasm (LW009). Their relevance to human small cell carcinomas and other neuroendocrine carcinomas remains to be determined.

  4. Screening for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the second most common cause of death in Canada. Because there is a precursor lesion (that is, the polyp), screening is critically important to prevent the disease through polyp removal—and failing that, to detect colorectal carcinoma at an early stage, when it can be cured. Several screening modalities are available, but colonoscopy is considered the best. People should avail themselves of such examinations, and physicians should encourage them to do so. PMID:20404976

  5. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Ccile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. PMID:26778815

  6. Carcinoma of the endometrium.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, D; Marsden, D E; Ruffolo, E H

    1984-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the cause of considerable morbidity among women, but the disease has been underrated and its management more casual than its virulence warrants. Endometrial carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed invasive neoplasm of the female genital tract in the US, and is third in incidence after breast and colonic cancer. The white population of the US has the highest age standardized incidence of endometrial cancer in the world, India and Japan have the lowest, and the European countries occupy intermediate positions. Between 75% and 80% of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer are postmenopausal, and the mean age at diagnosis is about 60 years. In many cases endometrial hyperplasia is misdiagnosed as frank malignancy. The predisposing factors for endometrial cancer seem to be obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or an abnormal glucose tolerance curve, and prolonged or unopposed estrogen stimulation. Raised estrogen levels may occur in the following situations: 1) women with functioning ovarian tumors that produce estrogen; 2) women with polycystic ovarian disease; 3) women with ovarian dysgensis (Turner's syndrome) managed with estrogen replacement therapy; 4) women taking high estrogen sequential oral contraceptives (OCs); and 5) women undergoing estrogen replacement therapy. There is an increased risk of endometrial carcinoma associated with nulliparity. Carcinoma of the endometrium occurs in a variety of subtypes, the most frequent being adenocarcinoma, followed by adenocanthoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma. Overall 5-year survival rates are 72% for adenocarcinoma, 68% for adenocanthoma, and 26% for adenosquamous carcinoma. The true extent of endometrial cancer can be ascertained only after exploratory laparotomy and then various therapies may be used according to the stage of the disease. PMID:6371616

  7. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C?A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients. PMID:21892948

  8. Bronchial carcinoma and hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, J. G.; Whittaker, R. S.

    1969-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia due to malignant disease, in the absence of bone metastases, is generally regarded as a rare event. It occurred in 16% of a series of cases of bronchial carcinoma coming to necropsy. Hypercalcaemia is a relatively common complication of bronchial carcinoma. The hypercalcaemia is usually accompanied by hypophosphataemia and, in this respect, must be distinguished from the hypercalcaemia that may be found with breast carcinoma. It is frequently accompanied by hypokalaemic alkalosis; this must not be confused with the metabolic disorder that results from the production of ectopic `ACTH'. The bones sometimes show changes of osteitis fibrosa akin to those seen in hyperparathyroidism. Cystic disease of bone recognizable radiologically is rare, probably because of the relatively short duration of the metabolic disturbance. The parathyroids are usually mildly atrophic. There is no evidence that the main pathogenetic mechanism is stimulation of the parathyroids by the tumour. Acceptable instances of parathyroid hyperplasia are very rare: the significance of these exceptional cases awaits further study. Squamous carcinoma of the bronchus is the type mainly incriminated. Oat-cell carcinoma and bronchial adenocarcinoma are involved less frequently than expected by chance. The significance of the tumour types implicated is discussed in relation to the possible pathogenesis. Images PMID:5365347

  9. Verrucous carcinoma of skin.

    PubMed

    Klima, M; Kurtis, B; Jordan, P H

    1980-04-01

    Five different cases of verrucous proliferative lesions of skin are described and discussed. One of each developed in a chronic ulcer on a heel, in a scar on a lower leg, and on the penis, and two appeared in the region of the buttock in relation to chronic inflammatory sinuses. All these lesions showed morphological and clinical features of verrucous carcinoma which are described. It has been concluded that the variously named verrucous lesions in the literature (epithelioma cuniculatum, florid papillomatosis, giant cutaneous papilloma and papillomatosis cutis carcinoides), as well as our five cases represent a verrucous carcinoma which is a particular type of squamous cell carcinoma. This tumor develops typically in moist areas which are frequently sites of chronic inflammation. Despite the favorable prognosis, it is a potentially invasive tumor. PMID:7372883

  10. Screening for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jonathan C.

    1988-01-01

    In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, early diagnosis offers the only hope for resection and cure. Data from Asia, where it is closely associated with viral hepatitis, indicate that serum α-fetoprotein assay and abdominal ultrasonography are the most effective and feasible screening tests. These data may not be applicable in America, where most patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma have underlying alcoholic cirrhosis. Also, it is unclear whether resecting “curable” lesions prolongs survival, particularly in patients with cirrhosis. Screening trials are indicated to answer these questions. Preventing risk factors, however, especially hepatitis B viral disease, is of paramount importance throughout the world. PMID:2470205

  11. Carcinoma Tongue--Clinicopathological Presentation.

    PubMed

    Majumder, K R; Karmakar, R; Alam, M M; Rahman, T

    2015-10-01

    This prospective study was done to observe the diversity of clinical presentation of carcinoma of tongue and to study the pathological variety of carcinoma of tongue and was conducted in the Department of General Surgery and Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka Medical College Hospital on 50 patients from January 2011 to July 2013. In this series highest number of patients were middle aged (36%). Male female ratio was 2:1. Average socioeconomic conditions of the patient were poor (68%). Betel nut and leaves chewing (88%) and smoking (56%) habits were commonly practiced for more than 10 years among the patients. Depending on site of involvement, variation in presenting symptoms has been observed. Oral tongue carcinoma mostly was presented with tongue lesion, pain and dysphagia where as the carcinoma of base of tongue commonly was presented with dysphagia, lump in neck. Lateral border of tongue (60%) was seen commonly involved. Ulcerative lesion (56%) predominantly was found in tongue lesion. Eighty percent (80%) of cases had no palpable Lymph node. Only few patients were found with Lymph node metastasis and most of them had carcinoma in base of the tongue (75%). Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma of tongue in our study commonly found in middle aged male patients. Variation of symptoms has depended on anatomical site involved. Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma other than squamous cell was not found. PMID:26620021

  12. Three cases of verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dogan, G; Oram, Y; Hazneci, E; Ozen, S; Karincao?lu, Y; Ciralik, H

    1998-11-01

    Verrucous carcinoma of the skin and mucosa is an uncommon clinicopathological variant of low grade squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present three different clinical types of verrucous carcinoma. The first patient presented with an anogenital verrucous carcinoma, also known as Buschke-Loewenstein tumour. The second patient had verrucous carcinoma of the heel with endophytic growth (i.e. epithelioma cuniculatum) and the third patient had gluteal verrucous carcinoma with a cauliflower-like appearance. Clinically, the lesion of the first patient best resembled giant condyloma accuminatum without any prominent verrucous component, whereas the second patient showed a big deep ulcer on the heel. None of the patients had metastasis. The diagnosis was confirmed with biopsy and total excision was performed in all cases. Although the cases have different clinical presentations in different locations, we think that they should be considered as a single entity; that is, verrucous carcinoma. PMID:9838724

  13. Carcinoma on old frostbites.

    PubMed

    Katsas, A; Agnantis, J; Smyrnis, S; Kakavoulis, T

    1977-03-01

    Two cases of carcinoma developing on old frostbite scars of the heel are presented. A short review of the subject follows, stressing the rarity of these "secondary" tumors and their general context within the skin cancers and the tragic experience of Greece with frostbite in the campaign of 1940-1941. PMID:848669

  14. Carcinoma, other —

    Cancer.gov

    Usually, this category includes carcinomas without definitive diagnoses due to a small amount of material, or its low quality. Novel tumors, which are not completely characterized, can be temporarily allocated to this category. Caution needs to be taken to differentiate primary lung tumors from pulmonary metastases from other tumor sites.

  15. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bump on sun-exposed skin or a non-healing sore on any part of your body, you should see your primary care provider or a dermatologist as soon as possible. There are no effective self-care treatment options for squamous cell carcinoma. Once ...

  16. Pilomatrix carcinoma of the vulva

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mihae; Chekmareva, Marina; Bachmann, Gloria; Gibbon, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Background Pilomatrix carcinomas are rare, frequently occurring in older male patients. We report a case of vulvar pilomatrix carcinoma in a 30-year-old woman, the second known reported case occurring on the external genitalia. Case A 30-year-old female originally presented at an outside institution for the management of an asymptomatic vulvar mass that was biopsied and read as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Pathology review at our institution reclassified the vulvar mass as a low-grade pilomatrix carcinoma. The patient underwent radical hemivulvectomy without an inguinal–femoral groin node dissection. She has remained without evidence of disease recurrence for more than 5 years since her diagnosis. Conclusion Pilomatrix carcinoma can be confused for an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Due to its low risk of metastases, a less radical surgical approach can be taken. Consideration of this unusual malignancy is important in the determination of appropriate management. PMID:26937479

  17. Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M. Sitki

    2012-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  18. Biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M Sitki

    2012-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  19. Ameloblastic carcinoma: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, P. Satish; Anuradha, V.; Gokkulakrishnan, S.; Thambiah, Lalita; Jagadish, Ajay Kumar; Satheesh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting not only features of ameloblastoma, but also features of carcinoma. Clinical dissemination of this lesion is more aggressive and rapid than that of ameloblastoma and it can metastasize to the lung or regional lymph node. Histologically, there are features of both ameloblastoma and carcinoma. <50 cases have been reported until 2011. We report a series of six cases with our treatment modalities. PMID:25210376

  20. Neuroendocrine differentiation in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Savargaonkar, P R; Hale, R J; Mutton, A; Manning, V; Buckley, C H

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To examine neuroendocrine differentiation, as shown by chromogranin A (CGA) expression, in cervical carcinomas. METHODS: Sixty seven cervical carcinomas were studied and were classified as adenocarcinomas, adenosquamous carcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas based on the assessment of haematoxylin and eosin staining and stains for mucin. Where features of glandular differentiation were identified, sections were also stained for evidence of intestinal type mucin. CGA immunostaining was done and the results were graded on a three point scale: 0, + (1-5% of cells positive) and ++ (> 5% of cells positive). These findings were then analysed with respect to lymph node status, tumour differentiation and clinical outcome. RESULTS: There were 32 adenocarcinomas, 18 adenosquamous carcinomas and 17 squamous cell carcinomas. Positive staining was seen in 14 (20.9%) cases, of which four were strongly positive. All but one case were either adenocarcinomas or adenosquamous carcinomas. There was a trend for CGA positivity to be related to intestinal differentiation but this failed to reach statistical significance. No correlation could be demonstrated between CGA staining and lymph node status, tumour differentiation and clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroendocrine differentiation is common in cervical carcinomas where there is evidence of glandular differentiation. Whilst the numbers in this study are relatively small, the presence of neuroendocrine cells in otherwise typical carcinomas does not seem to have any association with clinical behaviour. Images PMID:8655680

  1. Parathyroid carcinoma in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Baretić, Maja; Tomić Brzac, Hrvojka; Dobrenić, Margareta; Jakovčević, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old female patient with parathyroid carcinoma, the rarest endocrine malignancy, had two pregnancies. In the first pregnancy, she had severe nausea and fatigue. Hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism were diagnosed in the postpartum period. Hyperemesis gravidarum masked a diagnosis of hypercalcemia. Neck ultrasound and Tc-99m sestamibi found an enlarged lower right parathyroid gland. The gland was surgically removed, and an initial pathology report described atypical adenoma. Shortly afterward, she became pregnant again. During the second pregnancy, her calcium level was frequently controlled but was always in the normal range. Normocalcemia is explained by the specific physiology of pregnancy accompanied by hemodilution, hypoalbuminemia and maternal hypercalciuria (mediated by increased glomerular filtration). During lactation, calcium levels rose, and a new neck ultrasound showed a solitary mass in the area of prior surgery and an enlarged pretracheal lymph node. Fine needle aspiration of the solitary mass and node showed parathyroid carcinoma cells. The tumor mass was resected en bloc with the contiguous tissues and surrounding lymph nodes (pathology report; parathyroid carcinoma with metastases). Over the next five years, four consecutive surgeries were performed to remove malignant parathyroid tissue, lymph nodes and local metastases. Following the surgical procedures, no hypocalcemia was observed. More serious hypercalcemia recurred; the calcium level was difficult to control with a combination of pamidronate, cinacalcet and loop diuretic. No elements of multiple endocrine neoplasia were present. PMID:24868516

  2. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  3. [Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Varma, M; Seitz, G

    2016-02-01

    For many tumor entities, especially in breast cancer, an intraductal carcinoma is generally perceived as a precursor lesion, which precedes the emergence of invasive carcinoma. Therefore, in addition to parameters of the invasive carcinoma, histological parameters of the intraductal component have always played an important role in therapy planning of breast cancer. This is different in prostate cancer and although the term "intraductal carcinoma" has long been propagated by some authors, its routine use remains rare and inconsistent. This is certainly not only due to the far simpler therapy options of prostate cancer, in which focal and organ-preserving therapies still play a subordinate role, but also due to substantial interobserver variation and our inconsistent perception of intraductal carcinomas. This article gives a brief overview of currently available literature on this topic and explains why intraductal carcinoma of the prostate deserves our attention. In contrast to breast cancer, intraductal carcinoma of the prostate usually represents a post-invasive lesion, in which an aggressive tumor exhibits spread into pre-existing ducts; however, in rare cases, intraductal carcinoma may represent a true precursor lesion. PMID:26782033

  4. Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Carol F.; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC) of the kidney is a unique, rare, and recently recognized neoplasm. Although originally considered a low-grade collecting duct carcinoma, TCC is now considered to be a distinct entity. TCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic renal neoplasms. We report a case of TCC arising in the left kidney. PMID:26130898

  5. Ameloblastic Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panat, Sunil R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant lesion with characteristic histologic features and behavior that dictates more aggressive surgical approach than that of a simple ameloblastoma. Here we present a case of ameloblastic carcinoma of the mandible in a 30-year-old male patient with a clinical course of typical aggressiveness and extensive local destruction. PMID:26393226

  6. Ameloblastic Carcinoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur

    2015-07-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant lesion with characteristic histologic features and behavior that dictates more aggressive surgical approach than that of a simple ameloblastoma. Here we present a case of ameloblastic carcinoma of the mandible in a 30-year-old male patient with a clinical course of typical aggressiveness and extensive local destruction. PMID:26393226

  7. Carcinoma of skin of penis.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, W I

    1985-08-01

    Like the Jews, the Ibos or Igbos of Nigeria ritually circumcise males on the eighth day of birth. A retrospective review of approximately 15,000 surgical specimens collected from this ethnic group over a period of 13 years revealed 32 cases of carcinoma of the prostate but only 4 cases of penile carcinoma. One tumour arose on the glans penis. This localisation pattern suggests that, in circumcised males, smegma-induced squamous carcinoma of the glans can be abolished but not the ordinary squamous carcinoma that can develop by chance on the rest of the penis as well as on the glans. International urology would benefit from careful documentation of squamous carcinoma affecting various parts of the neonatally circumcised penile skin. PMID:4027519

  8. Hepatitis B And Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus has been linked epidemiologically to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma for more than 30 years. Although the mechanisms by which chronic hepatitis B viral infection results in hepatocellular carcinoma is unclear, there is good evidence that the virus itself exerts a direct hepatocarcinogenic effect thus having implications for prevention. Firstly, programs of universal infant vaccination have been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of hepatocellular carcinoma among children. This benefit should be translated into adulthood among vaccine recipients. Secondly, it has been suggested that antiviral therapy against hepatitis B may reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Antiviral therapy against hepatitis B is effective in causing prolonged lowering of serum levels of HBV DNA. There are emerging data that prolonged antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among certain patients with chronic hepatitis B. PMID:19399807

  9. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  10. Composite encapsulated papillary carcinoma and solid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Wei, Shi

    2015-03-01

    Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) and solid papillary carcinoma (SPC) are distinctive variants of intraductal papillary carcinomas, each accounting for <1% of breast carcinomas. Here we report a composite carcinoma consisting of EPC and SPC. A 73-year-old woman was found to have a high density mass in the left breast on mammogram. A biopsy showed intermediate to high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Gross examination of the lumpectomy specimen revealed a solid, multinodular mass. Microscopic examination demonstrated two morphologically distinct intraductal carcinomas intermingled with each other. One had delicate papillae in multi-cystic spaces surrounded by thick fibrous capsule, consistent with EPC. The other had solid tumor nests with delicate fibrovascular cores. The cells were monotonous with round nuclei and salt and pepper-like chromatin, characteristic of SPC. The lack of myoepithelial cells within the papillae and at the periphery of the lesion was confirmed by immunostaining for p63 and CK5/6. Neuroendocrine differentiation of SPC was demonstrated by neuron specific enolase staining. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of composite EPC and SPC. It raises an interesting question as to a possible common pathway of carcinogenesis of these two rare variants. PMID:25545718

  11. [Treatment options of T1 glottic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Fan, Guokang

    2016-01-01

    T1 glottic carcinoma is part of early laryngeal carcinoma which involves the vocal cords, including anterior commissure or posterior commissure. We analyzed the treatment options of T1 glottic carcinoma by reviewing the related literatures about T1 glottic carcinoma treated by conservative surgery (open surgery and laser microsurgery), radiotherapy, robot surgery, photodynamic treatment. PMID:27192922

  12. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  13. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Elizabeth; Xiao, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is a rare but aggressive type of breast cancer that has been recognized as a unique pathologic entity by the World Health Organization. Morphologically, it is characterized by the differentiation of neoplastic epithelium into squamous cells and/or mesenchymal-looking elements (squamous cells, spindle cells, cartilage or bone, etc). It shares many similarities with invasive ductal carcinoma and benign lesions on mammography, which further complicates the diagnosis. Treatment for metaplastic breast carcinoma is relatively unknown because of the rarity of the disease, but studies suggest that removal of the tumor and adjuvant radiation therapy has the greatest benefit. PMID:26030252

  14. Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Juliette; Dufour, Jean-Franois

    2008-01-01

    A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18350603

  15. Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Minokadeh, Ardalan; Wulkan, Adam J; Beer, Kenneth; Waibel, Jill S

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old man presented for evaluation with a 1-month history of a rapidly growing asymptomatic pink nodule on his forearm. Biopsy results of the lesion demonstrated pathology consistent with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Immunohistochemical studies displayed positive cytoplasmic staining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, positive dot-like perinuclear staining for cytokeratin-20, diffuse cytoplasmic staining for neuron specific enolase, and no significant staining for S-100. Subsequent positron emission tomography did not reveal evidence of metastatic disease. Wide excision of the lesion was performed along with a sentinel node biopsy of his left axilla. The sentinel nodes were negative for MCC. Adjuvant radiation treatment of the tumor site was provided because the pathologist noted MCC within 2 mm of the deep margin. PMID:24933855

  16. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  17. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  18. Estrogens and endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gray, L A; Christopherson, W M; Hoover, R N

    1977-04-01

    A group of 205 women with endometrial carcinoma was matched for age, parity, and year of operation with a group of 205 women who had had hysterectomies for benign disease. In the former group, 32 patients had used conjugated estrogens, while in the latter group 12 had used this hormone, yielding a relative risk of 3.1 (P = 0.0008). Users of other forms of systemic estrogens showed similar elevations in relative risk. Relative risk was related to duration of use, progressing from no evidence of risk among those using the hormone for less than 5 years to an 11.5-fold greater risk for those using it for 10 years or more. Risk was also related to the strength of the medication. The relative risk for users of the 1.25-mg tablets was 12.7 as compared to a two- to fourfold greater risk among users of lesser strength tablets. PMID:193072

  19. Genetics of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Andreas; Staib, Frank; Kanzler, Stephan; Weinmann, Arndt; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Galle, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    The completely assembled human genome has made it possible for modern medicine to step into an era rich in genetic information and high-throughput genomic analysis. These novel and readily available genetic resources and analytical tools may be the key to unravel the molecular basis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, since an efficient treatment for this disease is lacking, further understanding of the genetic background of HCC will be crucial in order to develop new therapies aimed at selected targets. We report on the current status and recent developments in HCC genetics. Special emphasis is given to the genetics and regulation of major signalling pathways involved in HCC such as p53, Wnt-signalling, TGF?, Ras, and Rb pathways. Furthermore, we describe the influence of chromosomal aberrations as well as of DNA methylation. Finally, we report on the rapidly developing field of genomic expression profiling in HCC, mainly by microarray analysis. PMID:17511024

  20. Imaging in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Silvana C; Sagebiel, Tara; Balachandran, Aparna; Devine, Catherine; Lal, Chandana; Bhosale, Priya R

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Prognosis depends on patient age, histological grade, depth of myometrial invasion and/or cervical invasion, and the presence of lymph node metastases. Although EC is staged surgically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system, preoperative imaging can assist in optimal treatment planning. Several imaging techniques such as transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used as diagnostic tools for preoperative staging of EC. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, and PET/MRI have also been used in staging these patients. In this article, we review the value of imaging in diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and detection of recurrent disease in patients with EC. PMID:25969637

  1. Imaging in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Faria, Silvana C; Sagebiel, Tara; Balachandran, Aparna; Devine, Catherine; Lal, Chandana; Bhosale, Priya R

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Prognosis depends on patient age, histological grade, depth of myometrial invasion and/or cervical invasion, and the presence of lymph node metastases. Although EC is staged surgically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system, preoperative imaging can assist in optimal treatment planning. Several imaging techniques such as transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used as diagnostic tools for preoperative staging of EC. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, and PET/MRI have also been used in staging these patients. In this article, we review the value of imaging in diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and detection of recurrent disease in patients with EC. PMID:25969637

  2. [Chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Abahssain, Halima; Afchain, Pauline; Melas, Nawfal; Ismaili, Nabil; Rahali, Rabia; Rabti, Hind M; Errihani, Hassan

    2010-12-01

    Gallbladder cancer is an aggressive tumor. Its incidence varies according to geography. Surgery is the standard treatment for localized stage but there is no standard treatment in metastatic or locally advanced disease. Because of the rarity of bile tract cancer (BTC) and gallblader carcinoma (GBC), most studies have grouped all BTC and GBC together, and there are very few GBC-specific studies. In addition, there is a paucity of randomized controlled studies in this disease with small numbers of patients and inclusion bias. One randomized trial ABC-02 was well conducted and showed a survival benefit in favor of gemcitabine (GEM)+cisplatin (CDDP), which can be regarded as the standard in locally advanced BTC. Adjuvant therapy after surgical resection is not validated. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis of GBC has opened the way for the use of targeted therapies. This new treatment would improve survival and quality of life of our patients. PMID:21074352

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  4. Onychocytic carcinoma: a new entity.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe; Langbein, Lutz; Ambrossetti, Damien; Erfan, Nouran; Schweizer, Jürgen; Michiels, Jean-François

    2013-08-01

    We have recently described a new nail tumor known as onychocytic matricoma. Herein, we describe its malignant counterpart. Clinically, the tumor simulates onychomatricoma (OM). Histologically, this in situ malignant epithelial tumor exhibits a distinct picture of onychocytic differentiation with signs of both nail matrical differentiation and nail plate differentiation. We have proposed the name onychocytic carcinoma for this singular adnexal neoplasm. Given the peculiar thickening of the nail plate observed in OM, onychocytic matricoma, and onychocytic carcinoma, the clinical individualization of a new type of nail band pattern could be proposed. It presents as an acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal pachyonychia. Such longitudinal pachyonychia allow the recognition of the matrical nail tumor, which has a limited etiological spectrum. Xantholeucopachyonychia suggests mainly OM and rarely onychocytic carcinoma. Pachymelanonychia suggests onychocytic matricoma and rarely pigmented OM or onychocytic carcinoma. PMID:23518638

  5. Tracheal carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hill, J E; Mahaffey, E A; Farrell, R L

    1987-11-01

    Tracheal carcinoma was diagnosed in a 10-year-old male Spitz dog suffering from dyspnoea. The tumour was poorly differentiated, but desmosomes were seen by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:3443693

  6. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Esmati, Ebrahim; Babaei, Mohammad; Matini, Amirhassan; Ashtiani, Monir Sadat Mirai; Hamed, Ehsan Akbari; Nosrati, Hassan; Razi, Farideh; Ganjalikhani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma usually originates from lung. Few data exist in the literature regarding neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue. Patient data including history, surgical procedure, histology, and radiology investigations were collected and summarized. A 40-year-old woman was referred after partial glossectomy. Squamous mucosa with neoplasm and cells with round nuclei and light cytoplasm was reported in the tongue biopsy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was positive for cytokeratin, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin and negative for leukocyte common antigen. This case showed a high proliferative activity (Ki-67 labeling index were 60%). These IHC findings were in favor of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. After surgery, she received chemotherapy and chemoradiation. The diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors in the present case is based on immunohistochemical markers and cellular shapes. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is a critical element of therapy for head and neck high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas, our patient received this treatment after surgery. PMID:26458666

  7. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  8. Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

  9. Birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K J; Carozza, S E; Chow, E J; Fox, E E; Horel, S; McLaughlin, C C; Mueller, B A; Puumala, S E; Reynolds, P; Von Behren, J; Spector, L G

    2011-01-01

    Background: Carcinomas in children are rare and have not been well studied. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study and examined associations between birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas diagnosed from 28 days to 14 years during 1980–2004 using pooled data from five states (NY, WA, MN, TX, and CA) that linked their birth and cancer registries. The pooled data set contained 57 966 controls and 475 carcinoma cases, including 159 thyroid and 126 malignant melanoma cases. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: White compared with ‘other' race was positively associated with melanoma (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.33–8.33). Older maternal age increased the risk for melanoma (ORper 5-year age increase=1.20, 95% CI 1.00–1.44), whereas paternal age increased the risk for any carcinoma (OR=1.10per 5-year age increase, 95% CI 1.01–1.20) and thyroid carcinoma (ORper 5-year age increase=1.16, 95% CI 1.01–1.33). Gestational age <37 vs 37–42 weeks increased the risk for thyroid carcinoma (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.07–3.27). Plurality, birth weight, and birth order were not significantly associated with childhood carcinomas. Conclusion: This exploratory study indicates that some birth characteristics including older parental age and low gestational age may be related to childhood carcinoma aetiology. PMID:21915125

  10. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  11. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    nal, Emre; ?dilman, ?lkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; zmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karaalt?ncaba, Mu?turay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  12. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  13. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe; Feily, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  14. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  15. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  16. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  17. Stages of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  19. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Chawla, Yogesh K; Arora, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancy of the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhotic liver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplastic disease-related deaths. A diverse array of infiltrating immunocytes regulates the development and progression of HCC, as is the case in many other cancers. An understanding of the various immune components during HCC becomes necessary so that novel therapeutic strategies can be designed to combat the disease. A dysregulated immune system (including changes in the number and/or function of immune cells, cytokine levels, and the expression of inhibitory receptors or their ligands) plays a key role in the development of HCC. Alterations in either the innate or adaptive arm of the immune system and cross-talk between them make the immune system tolerant to tumors, leading to disease progression. In this review, we have discussed the status and roles of various immune effector cells (e.g., dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cells), their cytokine profile, and the chemokine-receptor axis in promoting or impeding HCC. PMID:26301050

  20. Thymoma and thymic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Scorsetti, Marta; Leo, Francesco; Trama, Annalisa; D'Angelillo, Rolando; Serpico, Danila; Macerelli, Marianna; Zucali, Paolo; Gatta, Gemma; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-03-01

    Thymomas (Ts) and thymic carcinomas (TCs) are rare tumours of the mediastinum with an incidence rate of 1.7/million per year in Europe. Histological classification is based on rate of non-malignant-appearing thymic epithelial cells and proportions of lymphocytes (A, AB, B1, B2, B3, and C), while staging system concerns localisation of the involved areas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a 10-year survival of 80%, 78%, 75%, and 42% for stages I, II, III and IV, respectively, with an R0 resection. Radiotherapy has a role in selected cases (stage III patients or R1-2 residual) and platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for patients with advanced disease. A multimodality approach would be advisable when surgery is not recommended. Since molecular aberrations are poorly understood and few responses are reported, targeted therapies are yet being studied. In this review, we describe key aspects of clinical management for Ts and TCs. PMID:26818050

  1. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC. PMID:25134314

  2. Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lencioni, Riccardo; Petruzzi, Pasquale; Crocetti, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the current standard of care for patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and relatively preserved liver function. In a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing conventional TACE regimens—including the administration of an anticancer-in-oil emulsion followed by embolic agents—versus best supportive care, TACE was shown to improve median survival from 16 to 20 months. Various strategies to improve outcomes for this patient group have become the subject of much ongoing clinical research. The introduction of an embolic drug-eluting bead (DEB) has been shown to substantially improve the pharmacokinetic profile of TACE, providing levels of consistency and repeatability not available with conventional regimens while concomitantly significantly diminishing systemic drug exposure. In randomized trials, DEB-TACE significantly reduced liver toxicity and drug-related adverse events compared with conventional TACE. In this article, technique, indications and contraindications, and clinical outcomes of conventional and DEB-TACE in the management of HCC are reviewed. In addition, scientific background and early clinical experience with the use of combination regimens including TACE and systemically active molecular-targeted agents with antiangiogenic properties are discussed. The combination of DEB-TACE and antiangiogenic therapy represents a potentially powerful approach that is currently undergoing clinical investigation in a phase 3 setting. PMID:24436512

  3. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line “gain of function” mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective. PMID:27014708

  4. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-10

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  5. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-04

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  6. Metastatic cervical carcinoma in the caecum.

    PubMed

    Marjmin, O; Badrulhisham, B; Teoh, C M; Sukumar, N; Ahmad Zakuan, K

    2005-03-01

    A patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction had a right hemicolectomy for a caecal tumour. The histopathology report confirmed metastatic carcinoma in the caecum from the cervical carcinoma. Caecum is a very rare site of metastasis from cervical carcinoma. From our literature review, there have been no such cases reported. PMID:16250290

  7. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Aflibercept in epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, John W; Sood, Anil K; Coleman, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant transformation. With improved understanding of angiogenic signaling in both the normal and malignant state, there have been a number of agents developed that target VEGF signaling. These targeted agents can affect downstream VEGF signal transduction via unique mechanisms at different cellular and extracellular locations. The aflibercept, or VEGF-Trap, molecule is the subject of this article. Its molecular structure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, and preclinical and early clinical data in epithelial ovarian carcinoma is reviewed. For comparison, other anti-angiogenic agents that have been or are currently being studied in epithelial ovarian carcinoma are also summarized. Finally, the anticipated role of aflibercept in the treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma is also discussed. PMID:19519199

  9. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B. )

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  11. Giant polypoid basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McElroy, J; Knight, T E; Chang-Stroman, L

    1996-10-01

    Basal cell carcinomas may attain giant proportions due primarily to recurrence and neglect. Giant basal cell carcinomas (5 cm or more in diameter) are of four clinical subtypes: noduloulcerative, morpheaform, superficial, and polypoid. We report a patient with a typical polypoid lesion of fifteen years' duration on his shoulder. The polypoid variant differs from other giant basal cell carcinomas in several important ways: the polypoid lesions appear on the torso or extremity, rather than the head or neck, as beefy-red, friable, exophytic masses for which the patient typically has had no previous treatment; the histologic type tends to be nonaggressive; and finally, the lesions are amenable to surgical cure with low metastatic potential. PMID:8894428

  12. Pulmonary Actinomycosis Simulating Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pritzker, H. G.; MacKay, J. S.

    1963-01-01

    During a 2½-year period, in a 360-bed general hospital, three cases of pulmonary actinomycosis were encountered in men aged 38, 47 and 49 years. In each instance the symptoms, signs and radiological and laboratory findings were such as to warrant a presumptive clinical diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma. Thoracotomy was performed in each case. This experience suggests that a definitive clinical diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma should not be made without histological evidence. Furthermore, such individuals should have the benefit of exploratory thoracotomy on the off-chance that the pulmonary lesion may be benign and amenable to treatment. Above all it should be remembered that pulmonary actinomycosis can simulate bronchogenic carcinoma to a marked degree. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:13986257

  13. Interferon prophylaxis of hepatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Voiosu, R; Dimitriu, L; Dragomir, P; Eremia, L

    1999-01-01

    The present article reveals the importance of hepatic carcinoma among the other diseases in digestive oncology, and also the importance of a correct designation of these cases. Epidemiology and actual hypothesis on the mechanisms of oncogenesis are discussed. There are reviewed some studies in the literature concerning infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, coinfection (B and C viruses, B and D viruses), the role of interferon prophylaxis in such cases. Also there is present a statistics on chronic viral hepatits, cirrhosis of viral etiology and hepatic carcinoma, diagnosed in patients in "N.Gh.Lupu" Hospital, over two decades. PMID:15523946

  14. Isolated Uterine Metastasis of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Deniz; Tural, Deniz; Tatlı, Ali Murat; Akar, Emre; Uysal, Mükremin; Erdoğan, Gülgün

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Most common metastasis sites of breast cancer are the lungs, bones, liver, and brain, whereas uterine involvement by metastatic breast disease is rare. Metastatic carcinoma of the uterus usually originates from other genital sites, most commonly being from the ovaries. Invasive lobular carcinoma spreads to gynecologic organs more frequently than invasive ductal carcinoma. Case Report. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman was diagnosed with breast carcinoma 2 years ago and modified radical mastectomy was performed. Pathological examination of tumor revealed invasive ductal carcinoma, stage IIIc. She presented with abdominal pain and distension. Diagnostic workup and gynecologic examination revealed lesions that caused diffuse thickening of the uterus wall. Endometrial sampling was performed for confirmation of the diagnosis. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Breast carcinoma metastases in endometrium and myometrium were confirmed histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Conclusion. We herein report the first case of isolated uterine patient who had invasive ductal carcinoma of breast. PMID:23573438

  15. Cytodiagnosis of secretory carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, Vissa; Rama Krishna, Baddukonda Appala; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Sujatha, Ciddarla

    2012-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma is a rare form of breast carcinoma which has a predilection for juveniles and young adults (usually less than 30 years of age), becoming progressively less common with advancing age. It is a low grade breast carcinoma which shows distinct features at histology. Diagnosis of this carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is difficult. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman diagnosed to have secretory carcinoma of breast on FNAC. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The recognition of secretory carcinoma is important because the cytological findings can be confused with those of lactating breast. Preoperative diagnosis is essential for appropriate surgical therapy. Secretory carcinoma is reported to have good prognosis, but surgical therapy with an axillary node dissection is recommended, since axillary metastases have been found in approximately 30% of the recorded cases. PMID:22438622

  16. Mitochondriome and Cholangiocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bahitham, Wesam; Liao, Xiaoping; Peng, Fred; Bamforth, Fiona; Chan, Alicia; Mason, Andrew; Stone, Bradley; Stothard, Paul; Sergi, Consolato

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA) of the liver was the target of more interest, recently, due mainly to its increased incidence and possible association to new environmental factors. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in several cancers. Some of these malignancies contain changes of mtDNA, which are not or, very rarely, found in the mtDNA databases. In terms of evolutionary genetics and oncology, these data are extremely interesting and may be considered a sign of poor fitness, which may conduct in some way to different cellular processes, including carcinogenesis. MitoChip analysis is a strong tool for investigations in experimental oncology and was carried out on three CCA cell lines (HuCCT1, Huh-28 and OZ) with different outcome in human and a Papova-immortalized normal hepatocyte cell line (THLE-3). Real time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and metabolic assays including L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were meticulously used to identify mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) content, ultrastructural morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and differential composition of metabolites, respectively. Among 102 mtDNA changes observed in the CCA cell lines, 28 were non-synonymous coding region alterations resulting in an amino acid change. Thirty-eight were synonymous and 30 involved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) regions. We found three new heteroplasmic mutations in two CCA cell lines (HuCCT1 and Huh-28). Interestingly, mtDNA copy number was decreased in all three CCA cell lines, while complexes I and III were decreased with depolarization of mitochondria. L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were increased in all three CCA cell lines. MtDNA alterations seem to be a common event in CCA. This is the first study using MitoChip analysis with comprehensive metabolic studies in CCA cell lines potentially creating a platform for future studies on the interactions between normal and neoplastic cells. PMID:25137133

  17. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  18. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Livraghi, Tito

    2011-04-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), usually performed under percutaneous ultrasound guidance, is considered the gold standard among minimally invasive therapies. On the strength of some recent randomized trials, its indications include operable patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma and inoperable patients with more advanced disease also in combination with other therapies. RFA has lower complication rates and costs less than surgery. PMID:21377584

  19. Hereditary Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... risks associated with HPRC? The specific risk for type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma in families with HPRC is unknown. If kidney cancer is ... Cancer History Sharing Genetic Test Results with Your Family Additional resources National Cancer Institute ... H Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer ...

  20. Papillary carcinoma of breast: Minireview

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Sachin B; Murdeshwar, Hemant G; Siddiqui, Saleha

    2016-01-01

    The term “intracystic papillary ductal carcinoma in situ” constitutes only 0.5% to 1% of all breast cancers. It is usually seen in postmenopausal age group. Herein, we are presenting a minireview about this unusual breast malignancy usually difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds and highlighting modalities of diagnosis and management. PMID:26798627

  1. Interventional therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Isaac R.; Novelli, Paula M.; Vellody, Ranjith; Pandya, Amit; Krishnamurthy, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer-related death. In the past few years, staging systems have been developed that enable patients to be stratified into treatment algorithms in a multidisciplinary setting. Several of these treatments involve minimally invasive image-guided therapy that can be performed by radiologists. PMID:22487698

  2. Apocrine carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masaharu; Nagata, Yoshika; Monji, Shoko; Shigematsu, Yoshiki; Baba, Tetsuro; Shimokawa, Hidehiko; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Yamada, Sohsuke; Hanagiri, Takeshi; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2011-12-01

    Apocrine carcinoma is a rare variant of breast carcinoma, and accounts for 0.3 to 1.0% of all breast cancers. A 55-year-old Japanese female patient presented with a right breast tumor, which had been detected by mass-screening, and she was admitted to our hospital. The physical examination revealed an elastic hard lump in the upper lateral quadrant of the right breast. The tumor size was approximately 1.0 cm in diameter, and the border was clear. There were no palpable axillary lymph nodes nor supraclavicular nodes. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient underwent a partial resection of the right breast (breast conserving therapy) and a right axillary lymphadenectomy. Macroscopically, the resected specimen revealed a white tumor measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.0 cm. The TNM classification was diagnosed as T1cN0M0 stage I. Histopathologically, the tumor revealed a proliferation of atypical epithelial cells with apocrine differentiation, arranged in a papillotubular or cribriform growth pattern with stromal invasion. The tumor cells showed irregular round-shaped nuclei often containing prominent nucleoli, and had particularly abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. In the immunohistochemical analysis, these carcinoma cells were positive for Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein 15 and the androgen receptor, whereas they were negative for the estrogen and progesterone receptors. Immunohistochemical staining for Her2 using the HercepTest was found to be negative (score 0). Thus, the pathological diagnosis was apocrine carcinoma. There were no metastases in the axillary lymph nodes. The patient has had no recurrence in 8 years after surgery. PMID:22259834

  3. Tonsil neuroendocrine carcinoma concurrent with hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, YAN; ZOU, QING-FENG; HU, XIAO-YE; LIU, MEI-YUAN

    2014-01-01

    The majority of neuroendocrine tumors appear to be sporadic. Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) typically arises in pancreatic, parathyroid and adrenal glands, but rarely arises in salivary glands. NEC of the tonsil is a rare type of tumor and the concurrent presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be more uncommon. There are few case reports of NEC of the tonsil in the literature and to date no studies have been conducted to establish its optimal management. The current study presents a case of a 72-year-old male who presented with left neck and tonsil tumors. A biopsy from the tonsil revealed a NEC, and computed tomography showed liver cirrhosis, multiple liver cancers and portal vein thrombosis, as well as metastasis to the hilar, abdomen and retroperitoneum. Histological examination of the hepatic revealed primary HCC. To the best of our knowledge, this is a condition that has not previously been reported. PMID:25120653

  4. Comparative study of conventional urothelial carcinoma, squamous differentiation carcinoma and pure squamous carcinoma in patients with invasive bladder tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gluck, G; Hortopan, M; Stănculeanu, D; Chiriță, M; Stoica, R; Sinescu, I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Treatment results evaluation (radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemo/radiotherapy) in patients with urothelial carcinoma, squamous differentiation carcinoma and pure squamous bladder carcinoma. Material and methods: The study included 361 patients with invasive bladder carcinoma treated between 1990-2013. Histology showed 296 cases of urothelial carcinoma (82% - group A), 52 cases of urothelial divergent differentiation (squamous and urothelial carcinoma 14.4% - group B) and 13 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (3.6% - group C). All patients benefited from radical cystectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was undergone in 68 patients. Results: Group A - urothelial carcinoma - had a 44% rate of patients alive with a mean survival period of 73 months. About 56% of the patients died, the mean survival period being 4 years. Group B – urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation – had a mean survival period of 36 months (between 1-156 months). 17 patients (33%) are alive at 50 months postoperatively. Group C – squamous carcinoma – had a mean survival period of 9.4 months. Discussions: Locally advanced disease was diagnosed in 50% of the patients in group A, while in group B the rate was 84.6% and 70% in group C, respectively. Conclusions: Squamous pattern detected in the histopathological specimen represents a negative prognostic factor. It seems that the squamous component influences the outcome of the disease due to its biological characteristics in the evolution of squamous carcinoma, with advanced local stage disease at diagnosis – late onset of symptoms and lack of response to adjuvant treatment. Abbreviations: SCC = squamous cell carcinoma; MSK = Memorial Sloan Ketering PMID:25408727

  5. CLDN3 expression and significance - breast carcinoma versus ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ionescu Popescu, Carmen; Liliac, Ludmila; Ceauşu, Raluca Amalia; Balan, Raluca; Grigoraş, Adriana; Căruntu, Irina Draga; Amălinei, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Claudins (CLDNs) are transmembrane proteins, as normal constituents of the architecture of tight junctions. Recent studies support their involvement in carcinogenesis, as changes in CLDNs structure result in alterations in tight junctions' structure and function, facilitating malignant transformation. We aimed CLDN3 investigation in both breast and ovarian carcinoma, targeting the identification of its expression differences. The immunohistochemical assessment was performed on 20 cases of breast carcinomas (Group 1) and 19 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinomas (Group 2). Firstly, the specific panel for the molecular classification was applied for specimens of the first group. Then, all the specimens were immunostained for CLDN3 and a semi-quantitative evaluation was made, based on the percentage of positive cells and the intensity of staining. In Group 1, in the ER positive category, CLDN3 was overexpressed in five cases (four cases of luminal A and one case of luminal B subtype, respectively), negative in three cases (luminal A subtype) and weakly expressed in a single case (luminal A subtype); in ER negative category, CLDN3 expression was strong in four cases (one case of Her2/neu subtype and three cases of basal-like subtype), negative in two cases (normal breast-like subtype) and weak in five cases (one case of Her2/neu subtype, one triple-negative subtype, and three basal-like subtype). In Group 2, CLDN3 was overexpressed in 15 cases, histopathologically diagnosed as serous (10 cases), mucinous (two cases), endometrioid (two cases), and mixed carcinomas (one case); a weak expression was noticed in a single case, of the serous subtype; CLDN3 was undetectable in three cases (one serous, one clear cell, and one endometrioid type). Our comparative analysis of CLDN3 profile in breast and ovarian cancer clearly indicates organ specificity. PMID:23529315

  6. Intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with ductal carcinoma in situ in a male breast: a case report

    PubMed Central

    El M’rabet, Fatema Zahra; Akesbi, Yusra; Benbrahim, Zineb; El Hind, fatemi; Znati, Kawtar; Benlemlih, Amal; Tbaili, Naima; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham; Amarti, Afaf; El Mesbahi, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Intracystic papillary carcinoma represents a small distinctive subgroup of noninvasive breast cancer, accounts for <0.5% of breast malignancies and is extremely rare in men, it was originally reported as a localized non-invasive carcinoma, but is usually associated with ductal carcinoma in situ around the main tumor or invasive carcinoma. Case presentation We report a case of 50-year-old man with intracystic papillary carcinoma in man with ductal carcinoma in situ who underwent a tumorectomy following by a radical Patey intervention (Halsted). Conclusion Nowadays, there is still no clear consensus regarding optimal treatment of intracystic papillary carcinoma. Most papers reinforce the importance of an adequate surgical margin in conservative treatment. Surgeons must pay much attention to the potential for ductal carcinoma in situ around the tumor when selecting the operative procedure. PMID:19829939

  7. ["Fossa" carcinoma - a relapse or "rest" carcinoma of the kidney?].

    PubMed

    Panchev, P; Ianev, K; Georgiev, M; Kirilov, S; Kumanov, Kh

    2000-01-01

    The local relapse represents a unique variant of the advanced stage of a disease (A Esrig et 1992). Presumably, "fossa" carcinoma may result from incomplete resection or persisting tumor in the regional contiguous lymph nodes (JB D Kernion 1978). The average time interval for a relapse to occur is 31 months after nephrectomy, and in most patients it becomes manifest with symptoms, such as losing weight, fatigability and lumbar discomfort (D Esrig et al 1992). In cases with local recurrence a long-term survivorship may be attained by resorting to aggressive surgical intervention (S Tanguag et al 1996). This is a report on twenty-three patients with "fossa" carcinoma covering the period 1994 through 1999, with a total of 425 patients with renal carcinoma operated during the same period of time. All patients undergo operation--lumbar access is used in 22 cases, and transperitoneal--in one. In one patients resection of colon is necessitated, whereas in five the neoplastic mass hardly lends itself to complete excision, with enucleation alone being done. At follow-up study the survival terms are as follows: up to 1 year--18 patients, up to 3 year--16 patients, up to 5 year--12 patients. PMID:11692915

  8. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions head and neck squamous cell carcinoma head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Enable Javascript to view the ... body cavities such as the airways and intestines. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) develops in the mucous ...

  9. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes.

    PubMed

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-12-16

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  10. Epithelioid mammary myofibroblastoma mimicking invasive lobular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arafah, Maria A; Ginter, Paula S; D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Hoda, Syed A

    2015-06-01

    A case of a 53-year-old woman with the epithelioid variant of mammary myofibroblastoma, which was initially misinterpreted as invasive lobular carcinoma, is presented. A needle core biopsy of the 1.6 cm mass showed interlacing bundles of epithelioid myofibroblasts amid dense fibrous tissue associated with lobular carcinoma in situ of the classical type. Most epithelioid cells showed nuclear atypia, and a few exhibited signet-ring cytology. Immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors further compounded the deception, and the neoplasm was misinterpreted as invasive lobular carcinoma. Excisional biopsy showed a circumscribed stromal tumor with foci suspicious for invasive lobular carcinoma. The latter was excluded by cytokeratin negativity throughout the tumor. The overall histopathological appearance and immunostaining pattern was confirmatory of myofibroblastoma. This case report emphasizes the potential for mistaking epithelioid myofibroblastoma for invasive lobular carcinoma--particularly in the setting of limited sampling, hormone-receptor immunoreactivity of the lesional cells, and synchronous lobular carcinoma in situ. PMID:25804215

  11. Carcinoma of the nasal vestibule

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, N.P.; Parsons, J.T.; Cassisi, N.J.; Million, R.R.

    1984-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal vestibule are essentially skin cancers that require special therapeutic considerations because of the regional anatomy. They have sometimes been considered poorly suited for treatment by irradiation because of potential or actual cartilage and/or bone invasion and therefore have been treated by surgical resection, sometimes producing defects that are difficult to reconstruct satisfactorily. From 1966 to April 1980, 13 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Florida. Eight lesions were de novo; 5 were recurrent after 1 or more surgical procedures. Treatment consisted of radium needle implantation and/or external beam therapy. Neck management was individualized. All de novo and 4 of 5 recurrent lesions were controlled locally. Cosmetic resultes were good in patients with de novo lesions. There were no instances of significant cartilage or soft tissue necrosis despite cartilage involvement by tumor in 6 cases.

  12. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  13. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is not a single and separate entity. Images PMID:4031101

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B e antigen.

    PubMed

    Kane, Loren S

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B e antigen serum persistence in an individual chronically infected with the Hepatitis B virus may be associated with a greatly increased risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This article presents an overview of the Hepatitis B e antigen and discusses the findings of a recent study evaluating its associated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A gross photographic image of hepatocellular carcinoma is provided. PMID:14694826

  15. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26550910

  16. Extracutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas harbor polyomavirus DNA.

    PubMed

    de Biase, Dario; Ragazzi, Moira; Asioli, Sofia; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor, with characteristic morphological and immunohistochemical features. Originally reported as primary carcinoma of skin, it has been described in numerous other sites such as lymph nodes, oral cavity, breast, vaginal walls, and salivary glands. Recent studies have revealed in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas a clonally integrated polyomavirus, named Merkel cell polyomavirus. The aim of the present study was to verify the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in 5 cases of primary Merkel cell carcinomas of lymph nodes and 1 case of parotid gland to investigate similarities or differences among Merkel cell carcinomas from various sites. Cases studied were 5 primary Merkel cell carcinomas in lymph nodes, 1 in the parotid gland, and 12 in the skin. Twelve cases of primary and metastatic small cell carcinoma of the lung were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry for keratin 20, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and thyroid transcription factor 1 was performed in all cases. Viral DNA was studied using polymerase chain reaction assay and the products evaluated in agarose gel and sequenced. Cytokeratin 20 and Merkel cell polyomavirus were detected in all cases of primary Merkel cell carcinoma irrespective of their site of origin. On the contrary, all cases of pulmonary small cell carcinoma were negative for both Merkel cell polyomavirus and cytokeratin 20. It appears that cutaneous and extracutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas share similar histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. This is further evidence that Merkel cell carcinomas are a multiorgan carcinoma and that Merkel cell polyomavirus might play a role in the pathogenesis of this neoplasm. PMID:22204708

  17. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Gaopande, Vandana L.; Joshi, Avinash R.; Khandeparkar, Siddhi G. S.; Deshmukh, Sanjay D.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is a very rare skin tumor. It commonly presents in the old age and the common sites are head, neck and extremities. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination with immunohistochemical correlation. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma stage IIIB with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy that on FNAB showed metastatic deposits of the tumor. PMID:26225333

  18. [Urachus' carcinoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Alfredo; Tirone, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Vuolo, Giuseppe; Verre, Luigi; Savelli, Vinno; Piccolomini, Alessandro; Di Cosmo, Leonardo; Cesaretti, Manuela; Carli, Anton Ferdinando

    2007-01-01

    Urachus' carcinoma represents a rare oncologic disease with an unfavourable prognosis due to the usual delay of correct diagnosis for its anatomical localization. Its surgical treatment varies from radical cystectomy to segmentary resection of the bladder with pelvic lymphadenectomy. We report a case occurred in a ninety years old female, in which the diagnosis was achieved only at laparotomy. The patient was submitted to surgery with the only generic diagnosis of "lower abdominal mass", and treated with segmentary resection. PMID:18338557

  19. [Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, I; Féray, C

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major complication of chronic liver diseases and particularly of cirrhosis whatever its etiology. Once encountered mainly in the endemic countries of hepatitis B and C, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (6/100,000) is parallel to the global development of diabetes, overweight and alcohol consumption. Little progress has been made for this cancer, whose mortality is 100 % at 10 years. Liver transplantation is the only truly curative treatment (survival more than 50 % at 10 years) since it allows the eradication of hepatocellular carcinoma and its essential cause, cirrhotic liver. This is the only possible therapy when liver function is impaired. It has little impact since in the richest countries, less than 10 % of cases can be transplanted. Surgical resection and percutaneous destruction methods (uni- and multipolar radiofrequency, microwave, cryotherapy, electroporation) are the preferred treatments (survival less than 50 % at 5 years) but are only applicable for moderate tumour masses and in the absence of adjuvant therapy, are effective only in the medium term. Most patients received chemoembolization through hepatic artery, whose action is modest. Radiotherapy is widely used in Asia but almost non-existent in Western countries in this indication. Sorafenib is the only effective drug but its impact is modest. Therapies combining two modalities (embolization and radiotherapy; embolization and radiofrequency) seem promising and deserve wider testing. Screening and monitoring of cirrhosis is probably the major measure for potentially curative therapies. PMID:26337474

  20. Advances in managing hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reataza, Marielle; Imagawa, David K

    2014-06-01

    Multiple modalities for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma are available, depending on tumor size and number. Surgical resection remains the gold standard, so long as the residual liver function reserve is sufficient. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, liver transplantation is the preferred option, as these patients may not have adequate hepatic reserve after resection. Salvage liver transplantation has also become an option for a select few patients who recur after surgical resection. Ablative techniques have been used for palliation as well as to either completely destroy the tumor, act as an adjunct to resection, or downstage the tumor to meet Milan criteria such that a patient may be a candidate for liver transplantation. Radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization, and irreversible electroporation have all been used in this capacity. Currently, sorafenib is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved chemotherapeutic for hepatocellular carcinoma. The efficacy of sorafenib, in combination with other agents, transarterial chemoembolization, and surgical resection is currently being investigated. Sunitinib and brivanib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have failed as potential first- or second-line options for chemotherapy. Bevacizumab in combination with erlotinib is also currently being studied. Final analysis for ramucirumab and axitinib are pending. Tivantinib, a selective mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) inhibitor, is also undergoing clinical trials for efficacy in MET-high tumors. This review serves to emphasize the current and new technologies emerging in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24810646

  1. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: A rare carcinoma with chondroid metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ta?demir, Arzu; O?uz, Arzu; nal, Dilek; Tuna, mer

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of breast malignancies. Huvos et al. first introduced the term metaplastic carcinoma in 1974. It is usually seen together with poorly differentiated ductal carcinoma of the breast. Within its mesenchymal components, undifferentiated connective tissue cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts and chondroblasts can be found. Metaplastic breast carcinoma is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. In this report, a case of a 45-year-old female patient who underwent segmental mastectomy with a diagnosis of metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is presented. PMID:25931882

  2. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. PMID:26589365

  3. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Monitoring the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma is a precancerous lesion of the breast and the immediate precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, which can improve early detection of precursor lesions and halt progression to invasive neoplastic disease. It was found that MPM has the capability to reveal the qualitative changes in features of cells, structure of basement membranes, and architecture of collagens during the development from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, as well as the quantitative alterations in nuclear area, circle length of basement membrane, and collagen density. Combined with intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle, MPM has the potential to provide immediate histological diagnosis of tumor progression in the field of breast carcinoma.

  5. Focus of tricholemmal differentiation (tricholemmal carcinoma) within Bowen's disease/carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Misago, Noriyuki; Toda, Shuji; Nakao, Tomokazu

    2016-04-01

    Bowen's disease (BD)/carcinoma is a type of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, however, the possibility of adnexal differentiation (the development of sebaceous carcinoma or porocarcinoma) occurring in BD/carcinoma has been suggested. We herein describe a case of BD with superficial invasive carcinoma, which showed a clear cell focus, demonstrating tricholemmal differentiation. This clear cell focus showed the following findings: primarily composed of clear cells, somewhat columnar clear cells aligned in a palisade along a discernible basement membrane, tricholemmal keratinization and glycogen contained within the cells. In addition, the immunohistochemical profile in this clear cell focus, namely, negative staining for cytokeratin (CK)1 and positive staining for CK17 and calretinin in the inner cells of the neoplastic lobule, corresponded to that of the outer root sheath cells. This case suggested that adnexal differentiation can rarely occur within true BD/carcinoma, although adnexal carcinomas are commonly associated with a simple bowenoid change. PMID:26365015

  6. Invasive lobular carcinoma with extracellular mucin as a distinct variant of lobular carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The differences between invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas affect the diagnostic and therapeutic management for patients with breast cancer. In most cases, this can be accomplished because of distinct histomorphologic features. However, occasionally, this task may become quite difficult, in particular when dealing with the variants of infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma has been considered a variant of mucin-secreting carcinoma with only intracytoplasmic mucin. The presence of extracellular mucin is a feature of ductal carcinoma. Herein is presented a case of lobular carcinoma with extracellular and intracellular mucin in a 43-year-old female patient, and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Up to the present, infiltrating lobular carcinoma displaying extracellular mucin has not been described in the literature except two case. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1839906067716744 PMID:22867429

  7. Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Mechanistic Distinction From Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Riggle, Kevin M; Turnham, Rigney; Scott, John D; Yeung, Raymond S; Riehle, Kimberly J

    2016-07-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) has historically been classified as a rare subtype of HCC. However, unlike "classic" HCC, it occurs in children and young adults without underlying liver disease. The recent discovery of a deletion mutation in all FL-HCCs represented a major advancement in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. This deletion results in the fusion of the genes encoding a heat shock protein (DNAJB1) and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA, PRKACA), and overexpression of PRKACA and enhanced cAMP-dependent PKA activity. This review summarizes recent advancements in FL-HCC pathogenesis and characteristics of the HSP40-PKA C protein. PMID:26990031

  8. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, J C; Mosnier, J F; Lapras, J; Convers, P; Absi, L; Laurent, B; Michel, D

    1996-01-01

    The association of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and carcinoma has rarely been reported and its relevance is debated. Thirty three consecutive patients with probable or definite CIDP (idiopathic or associated with M protein) were investigated. Three patients with definite CIDP had a concomitant carcinoma. One had an IgM paraprotein. Steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins were effective. PMID:8708651

  9. Laminin 332 Expression in Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Young; Chae, Seoung W.; Wilczynski, Sharon P.; Arain, Ahmad; Carpenter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Laminin 332 (LN332) is a basally expressed extracellular matrix protein that enhances the migration and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. The goal of this study was to examine LN332 expression breast carcinoma. Triple negative breast carcinomas lack estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) expression and HER2 positivity. Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, HER2, and dual silver in situ hybridization for the HER2 gene were used to define the phenotype of 243 breast cancers in biopsies or arrays. Immunohistochemistry for LN332 revealed that 70 % of triple negative carcinomas stained for LN332. Cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p63 alone stained fewer triple negative breast carcinomas each, but the combination of LN332 and CK 5/6 or EGFR identified 92% of triple negative breast carcinoma.. Of the 163 non- triple negative cases, LN332 was expressed in only 15%. The identification of LN332 in triple negative breast carcinomas is consistent with gene profiling studies showing its expression among breast carcinomas with a basal phenotype. The observation that a pro-invasive protein such as LN332 is expressed in breast cancer suggests another mechanism by which the triple negative phenotype could be aggressive. PMID:22427740

  10. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinoma on Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sudip; Kunal, Pranaya; Kishore, Barunesh; Ghosh, Kisalay

    2016-01-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a very rare entity. Usually, they occur due to the negligence of the patient. Local or distant metastasis is present in most cases. Here, we present a case of giant BCC that clinically resembled squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated no metastasis at presentation.

  11. Transarterial embolization of metastatic mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Chang; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lien, Han-Chung; Wu, Chun-Ying; Hung, Siu-Wan

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative treatment for extra-hepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. A 71-year-old patient had a stable liver condition following treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, but later developed symptomatic mediastinal metastasis. This rapidly growing mediastinal mass induced symptoms including cough and hoarseness. Serial sessions of transarterial embolization (TAE) successfully controlled this mediastinal mass with limited side effects. The patient’s survival time since the initial diagnosis of the mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma was 32 mo, significantly longer than the 12 mo mean survival period of patients with similar diagnoses: metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and a liver condition with a Child-Pugh class A score. Currently, oral sorafenib is the treatment of choice for metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent studies indicate that locoregional treatment of extra-hepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinomas might also significantly improve the prognosis in patients with their primary hepatic lesions under control. Many effective locoregional therapies for extrahepatic metastasis, including radiation and surgical resection, may provide palliative effects for hepatocellular carcinoma-associated mediastinal metastasis. This case report demonstrates that TAE of metastatic mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma provided this patient with tumor control and increased survival time. This finding is important as it can potentially provide an alternative treatment option for patients with similar symptoms and diagnoses. PMID:23801848

  12. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

  13. [Heterotopic cloacogenic carcinoma of the lower lip].

    PubMed

    Vulcan, P; Dumitriu, E; Grigore, M

    1994-01-01

    Cloacogenic carcinoma is a tumour which develops from cylindric epithelial cells at the anorectal junction. Besides this usual localization, other sites have been described including the vagina, urethra, sigmoid colon, vulva and perianal skin. We observed a labial localization in a 50-year-old woman. A 15 mm tumorous formation developed rapidly after initial excision without skin or mucosal changes. The clinical diagnosis was epidermoid carcinoma but histological examination revealed an aspect comparable to cloacogenic carcinoma with nodules of basaloid tumour cells showing atypical mitosis within the nodules and the uniformly eosinophilic masses. We considered that this particular histological aspect eliminated the diagnosis of basocellular or epidermoid carcinoma and suggest that the carcinoma developed from embryon reliquats of cloacoanal transition cells in a heterotopic localization. PMID:7979028

  14. [Clinical studies in prostatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kumanov, Kh; Tsvetkov, M

    1993-01-01

    Carcinoma of the prostate is a widespread disease posing serious problems, especially when patient in stage T3-T4 are concerned. Proceeding from clinical observations on 269 patients presenting the aforementioned condition, and on the basis of thorough clinical, laboratory and histologic studies, a combined therapeutic approach using cyproterone acetate is adopted, supplemented by orchiectomy in some patients, and transurethral resection in others. After 3-month treatment course, changes in the level of microelements, copper, zinc and iron in particular, are recorded. In some cases the level of prostate specific antigen is lowered. Control of the underlying disease is successfully attained in 72 per cent of the patients. PMID:7983831

  15. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the next challenges.

    PubMed

    Razak, Albiruni R A; Siu, Lillian L; Liu, Fei-Fei; Ito, Emma; O'Sullivan, Brian; Chan, Kelvin

    2010-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) differs from other head and neck cancers in its aetiology, epidemiology and potential therapeutic options. Despite cure for the majority of the patients, challenges still exist in the prevention of disease relapse, treatment of patients with refractory or metastatic NPC and the management of long-term toxicities. This article discusses the specific challenges in pushing the boundaries of NPC treatments further, with an emphasis on prognostic/predictive markers, molecularly targeted therapies, immunotherapies and the areas of interest with regard to long-term toxicities arising from therapeutic interventions. PMID:20451372

  16. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sallie, R; Di Bisceglie, A M

    1994-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the more common internal malignancies worldwide and is responsible for over 1 million deaths annually. The causative relationship between chronic hepatitis B and HCC is now beyond doubt, and it is likely that the attributable risk of HCC due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is similar to or greater than that for hepatitis B in some countries. The prospects for preventing HCC with the use of a vaccine against HBV appear excellent. Until a vaccine against HCV becomes available, prevention of HCV-related HCC is predominantly dependent on a reduction in transfusion-associated disease. PMID:7989095

  17. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  18. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-08-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  19. How grim is hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Weledji, Elroy P.; Enow Orock, George; Ngowe, Marcelin N.; Nsagha, Dickson Shey

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex disease and a major cause of death in high endemic areas of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCC has gone from being a universal death sentence to a cancer that can be prevented, detected at an early stage and effectively treated. Liver resection or tumour ablation techniques may be effective bridge to liver transplantation if they fulfill the Milan criteria. The areas of progress in HCC are in the control of HBV or HCV and the development of adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapies. PMID:25568791

  20. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  1. Primary Carcinoma of the Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, Ashley R.; Johnson, Alan G.

    1991-01-01

    Carcinoma of the gallbladder is a relatively rare malignancy which is difficult to diagnose. The advent of improved imaging methods and the expansion of interventional radiology however, combined with advances in surgical technique, has produced a change in attitude towards this tumour. The available world literature since 1960 has been reviewed and is presented in this article. However, whilst the outlook for diagnosis and treatment is improving, clearly the association with cholelithiasis (between 45% and 100%), is a cause for concern particularly with the advent of treatments (lithotripsy, percutaneous gallstone extraction) which leave gall bladder mucosa and residual fragments of stone in situ . PMID:1810370

  2. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation. PMID:26527523

  3. Comprehensive Cytomorphologic Analysis of Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Comparison to Small Cell Carcinoma and Non-pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokhwi; Chu, Jinah; Kim, Hojoong; Han, Joungho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is frequently challenging and differential diagnosis with small cell carcinoma is often difficult. Methods: Eleven cytologically diagnosed cases of pulmonary AdCC were collected and reviewed according to fifteen cytomorphologic characteristics: small cell size, cellular uniformity, coarse chromatin, hyperchromasia, distinct nucleolus, frequent nuclear molding, granular cytoplasm, organoid cluster, sheet formation, irregular border of cluster, hyaline globule, hyaline basement membrane material, individual cell necrosis or apoptotic body, and necrotic background. Twenty cases of small cell carcinoma and fifteen cases of non-pulmonary AdCC were also reviewed for the comparison. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified between pulmonary AdCC and small cell carcinoma in fourteen of the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria (differences in sheet formation were not statistically significant). Cellular uniformity, distinct nucleolus, granular cytoplasm, distinct cell border, organoid cluster, hyaline globule, and hyaline basement membrane material were characteristic features of AdCC. Frequent nuclear molding, individual cell necrosis, and necrotic background were almost exclusively identified in small cell carcinoma. Although coarse chromatin and irregular cluster border were observed in both, they favored the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Hyaline globules were more frequently seen in non-pulmonary AdCC cases. Conclusions: Using the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria described by this study, pulmonary AdCC could be successfully distinguished from small cell carcinoma. Such a comprehensive approach to an individual case is recommended for the cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary AdCC. PMID:26477588

  4. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Travis, William D

    2015-09-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemical analyses for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clones SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), napsin A, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma, as they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25871623

  5. Carcinoma arising in pilonidal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipshen, S J; Gray, G; Goldsmith, E; Dineen, P

    1981-01-01

    Pilonidal carcinoma is an infrequent complication of pilonidal disease. The surgeon's suspicion should be raised in cases of longstanding pilonidal inflammation. The disease occurs most frequently in men. The lesion is often a well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Wide excisions at the initial procedure following a brief period of local wound care, is the optimum treatment and increases the chances for a five-year survival. Definitive closure of the defect is delayed and accomplished by rotational flaps or skin grafts. It palpable nodes are present in the inguinal region they should be biopsied even though this does not necessarily connote metastasis. When inguinal node metastasis is present, this is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence of occult node metastasis is not known because no prophylactic groin dissections were performed. Staged groin dissections were not associated with any long-term survivals. The series was too small to determine its palliative potential. Radiation therapy may palliate local bone or soft tissue recurrences. Re-excisions of local soft tissue recurrences can provide, in some instances, long disease-free intervals. Both topical and systemic chemotherapy were administered in more recent cases with poor results, but this series is not large enough to form conclusions for this modality of treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7212813

  6. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  7. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Nicole M; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  8. Planes para atender un cáncer avanzado

    Cancer.gov

    Una planificación cuidadosa reducirá el peso que su familia enfrentará más adelante. La planificación puede incluir asuntos económicos y legales, pero puede ser también búsqueda de significado y de celebración de su vida.

  9. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-08

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  10. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  11. Basosquamous carcinoma: is it an aggressive tumor?

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Argon, Asuman; Kebat, Tulug; Sir, Emin; Gungor, Melike; Vardar, Enver

    2015-04-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumour that is considered an aggressive type of basal cell carcinoma with an increased risk of recurrence and metastases. This impression has been perpetuated in the literature, despite limited scientific data and conflicting results of some authors. This present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical-pathological features of this tumour and follow-up of a series of basosquamous carcinoma. Basosquamous carcinoma patients who underwent surgical excision between January 2000 and February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Their medical files were reviewed and the corresponding routinely stained sections (with hematoxylin-eosin) were re-evaluated by two pathologists. Thirty-five patients with basosquamous carcinoma were operated on in this period. Most tumurs were located in the head and neck area (94%), and the mean age of the patients was 69.8 years. Margin involvements were seen in 11 patients (31.4%) and all of them underwent re-excision. There was only one local recurrence. There was neither regional lymph node nor distant metastasis in this series. The recurrence rate of basosquamous carcinoma is found as 4%, lower than that of most other similar studies. Further pathologic studies are needed to better classify basosquamous carcinoma and to increase consistency between the results of studies. Surgical excision and regular follow-up are considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:25139415

  12. Erythrocyte autoantibodies, autoimmune haemolysis, and carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, R J; Booker, D J; Stamps, R

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To examine a large series of patients in whom both red cell autoantibodies and carcinoma are present; and to determine whether this rare occurrence is a true association or a chance event. METHODS--The laboratory records of 160 patients (76 men, 84 women; mean age 68 years) with erythrocyte autoantibodies and confirmed carcinoma were examined for site of tumour origin and clinical and immunohematological findings. To test whether the concomitant occurrence of autoantibodies and carcinoma was fortuitous, data on total population and carcinoma incidence were included in a chi 2 analysis. RESULTS--The association was significant (chi 2 = 97.5, p < 0.0005); erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma were found together 12-13 times more often than expected from their relative frequencies. Autoantibodies occurred with a variety of carcinomas, particularly those of breast, lung, colon, rectum, and prostate; this largely reflected tumour incidence. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, anaplastic, and transitional cell types were all represented. Warm, cold, and mixed autoantibodies were not associated with particular tumour sites or histology. Eighty six patients had haemolysis of varying severity, 37 had metastatic disease, and 28 died within a few months of presentation. CONCLUSIONS--The presence of erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma in the same patient is a true association and probably reflects a fundamental disturbance in immune homeostasis. It tends to occur with a large tumour mass and metastatic disease, and generally indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:8027372

  13. Opposed expression of IKKα: loss in keratinizing carcinomas and gain in non-keratinizing carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Desheng; Jia, Jiantao; Shi, Ying; Fu, Chunyan; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Yiqun; Zhou, Li; Liu, Shuang; Tao, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    The functional role of IKKα in vivo is pretty complicated, largely due to its diverse functions through cell autonomous and non-autonomous manners. In addition, most of the studies on IKKα were derived from animal models, whether these findings hold true in human tumors remain unclear. Here we examined the expression of IKKα in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which includes non-keratinizing carcinoma and keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, and lung squamous cell carcinoma with keratinization and non-keratinization. We demonstrated that IKKα expression was almost negative in keratinizing cancer and higher expression of IKKα was found in non-keratinizing cancer, and that IKKα expression correlateed with cellular differentiation of tumors in non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. These findings demonstrate that IKKα is diversely expressed in keratinizing and non-keratinizing carcinomas in the same type of cancer. PMID:26317791

  14. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  15. [Development of invasive urinary bladder carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Wei, Min; Morimura, Keiichirou

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we report on invasive urinary bladder carcinomas as follows, (1) p53 mutations have an important role in promotion and progression stages of carcinogenesis, (2) invasive bladder carcinomas occur multi-centrically in the bladder, (3) an organic arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid exerts carcinogenicity in the bladder of rats, (4) p53 mutations in carcinomas are caused by different carcinogens, and (5) bladder urothelium of people living in 137Cs-contaminated areas of Ukraine showed chronic proliferative atypical cystitis (so-called Chernobyl cystitis). PMID:16848359

  16. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Harald J.; Wirth, Thomas; Beug, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death and is characterized by early invasion and metastasis. The developmental program of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is of potential importance for this rapid tumor progression. During EMT, tumor cells lose their epithelial characteristics and gain properties of mesenchymal cells, such as enhanced motility and invasive features. This review will discuss recent findings pertinent to EMT in pancreatic carcinoma. Evidence for and molecular characteristics of EMT in pancreatic carcinoma will be outlined, as well as the connection of EMT to related topics, e.g., cancer stem cells and drug resistance. PMID:24281218

  17. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Abdul

    2013-04-01

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB) is an extremely rare variant of breast cancer having aggressive clinicopathological behaviour and poor prognosis. A 62 years old woman presented with a painless lump in the left breast. Microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluation of the core-tissue biopsy and of the mastectomy specimen revealed moderately-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast. She was labeled as a case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast after an infallible exclusion of any concomitant lesion elsewhere in the body. Modified radical mastectomy with level II axillary clearance, chemoradiotherapy and Famoxifen have led to an uneventful 5-year survival till the last follow-up. PMID:23552540

  18. Amphicrine carcinoma of the ampullary region.

    PubMed

    Ginori, Alessandro; Lo Bello, Giuseppe; Vassallo, Loretta; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Amphicrine carcinoma is a peculiar tumor in which the cells have both exocrine and neuroendocrine differentiation, with mucus and neuroendocrine granules within the cytoplasm. In the 2010 WHO classification of tumors of the digestive tract, they have been included in the intermediate-grade malignant category of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs). These tumors are extremely rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Four cases have been reported in the stomach, three in the pancreas, and one in the liver. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first case of amphicrine carcinoma in the ampullary region. PMID:25702653

  19. Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis as presentation of thymic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dell'Amore, Andrea; Asadi, Nizar; Caroli, Guido; Dolci, Giampiero; Bini, Alessandro; Stella, Franco

    2013-07-01

    Thymic carcinomas are very rare and heterogeneous groups of anterior mediastinum neoformations with an extremely aggressive behavior. Often, the diagnosis is made in the advanced stages. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with thymic carcinoma are extremely rare. We report a case of a 64-year-old man presenting with early stage thymic carcinoma which was discovered because of associated paraneoplastic dermatomyositis. The dermatomyositis disappeared completely after radical resection of the tumor. After 20-month follow-up, the patient is in good clinical condition without recidivism of disease. PMID:22907201

  20. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis. PMID:25746660

  1. Triad of columnar cell alteration, lobular carcinoma in situ, and tubular carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sunati; Recant, Wendy M

    2005-01-01

    Columnar cell alteration in the breast encompasses a spectrum of pathologic changes ranging from simple columnar cell change to more complex columnar cell hyperplasia with and without atypia to in situ carcinoma, often with a micropapillary architecture. For reasons that remain unclear, the columnar cell lesions are associated with tubular carcinomas and lobular carcinoma in situ. Therefore it is important to be familiar with the spectrum of changes and the associated lesions, especially in breast core biopsies for further management. PMID:15730461

  2. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Byam, Jerome; Renz, John

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of the liver and is considered an aggressive tumor with mean survival estimated between 6 and 20 months. Hepatitis B and C are the most common etiologies. Pathological, laboratory and radiologic imaging all aid in diagnosis but much controversy exists in the utilization of any given modality. Many treatment options exist for management of HCC, each has its own limitation. Liver transplantation offers the most reasonable expectation for curative treatment while simultaneously removing the burden of the diseased liver. Still, advancements in the field have thus far not yet matched its potential, although new immunosuppressive and chemotherapy regimen may allow transplantation to push the envelope once again. PMID:24570911

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma and industrial epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain; Dubois, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the burden of the non viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually underestimated. Clearly industrial goods, tobacco, alcohol and processed foods are the agents of new epidemics in modern times which far outscore the burden of infectious agents on morbidity and mortality. Smoking, a dose-related contributing factor for HCC, receives too little attention in clinical practice. In France, tobacco, hepatitis B and C virus and alcohol are the main risk factors for HCC mortality (33%, 31% and 26%, respectively). In developing countries, where tobacco consumption is dramatically increasing, this epidemic may soon surpass hepatitis B. Obesity and diabetes are the contributing factors too. The role of industrial processed foods in the increase of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be ignored. PMID:21734811

  4. Medical Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Alessandro; Bolondi, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cirrhosis, most often due to viral hepatitis, is the predominant risk factors for HCC and geographical differences in both risk factors and incidence are largely due to epidemiological variations in hepatitis B and C infection. Hepatic function is a relevant parameter in selecting therapy in HCC. The current clinical classification of HCC split patients into 5 stages, with a specific treatment schedule for any stage. As patients with early stages can receive curative treatments, such as surgical resection, liver transplantation or local ablation, surveillance program in high-risk populations has become mandatory. Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has recently shown survival benefits in patients at advanced stage of disease. Hopefully, new molecular targeted therapies and their combination with sorafenib or interventional and surgical procedures, should expand the therapeutic armamentarium against HCC. PMID:21415957

  5. [A case of thymic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Y; Kumamoto, T; Umemoto, M; Nonoyama, A

    1990-07-01

    A 41-year-old male visited with chief complaints of chest pain and cough. The patient was operated on under a diagnosis of invasive thymoma. The tumor was located in the left lobe of the thymus and measured 6 X 9 cm. Since the tumor invaded the left innominate vein, pericardium, and the upper lobe of the left lung, we resected it with adjacent structures. Postoperative pathological examination indicated squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus. Because the tumor metastasized also to the mediastinal lymph nodes, the patient was treated postoperatively by radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy mainly with CDDP. The patient is well presently 2 years after operation without signs of recurrence. PMID:2212787

  6. Hypopharyngeal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-I; Ameratunga, Malaka; du Plessis, Justin; Gan, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the head and neck is rare. We report a case of a 56-year-old man with a 6-week history of dysphagia, a neck mass and weight loss. He was diagnosed with a hypopharyngeal large cell NEC (LCNEC) with metastases to multiple sites. He received two cycles of cisplatin and etoposide. Subsequent restaging scan revealed progressive disease. The patient declined further chemotherapy and died shortly after. This is the third case of LCNEC of hypopharynx reported in the English literature and the first to progress on platinum-based chemotherapy. Although LCNEC of the head and neck is still classified as an atypical carcinoid, there is increasing evidence it is a distinct clinicohistopathological entity that carries an especially poor prognosis. Currently, there is a paucity of data to guide treatment of this rare malignancy. PMID:26715138

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Lisa P; Deshpande, Vrushak; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival. PMID:26609342

  8. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    PubMed

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  9. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the “Milan criteria” were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

  10. Microsatellite instability in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moy, Andrea P; Shahid, Mohammad; Ferrone, Cristina R; Borger, Darrell R; Zhu, Andrew X; Ting, David; Deshpande, Vikram

    2015-04-01

    The genetic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) remain unclear. Microsatellite instability (MSI) has been described in many carcinomas, but little is known about the significance of mismatch repair in gallbladder carcinogenesis. Additionally, methylation status of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1), a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation, has defined distinct subsets of other cancer types but has not been explored in GBC. Immunohistochemical expression of MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2 and LINE-1 mRNA in situ hybridization was evaluated in 67 primary and 15 metastatic GBCs from 77 patients. Amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genotyping for 24 genes involved in carcinogenesis was performed using a multiplex PCR-based platform. MSI was present in 6 of 77 GBCs (7.8 %). Loss of MSH2/MSH6 was detected in five cases and loss of MLH1/PMS2 in one case. MSI status was not associated with Lynch syndrome, tumor grade, extracellular mucin, or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. There was no significant difference in mean overall survival of patients with and without MSI. Strong LINE-1 staining was identified in none of the GBC with MSI and in 36 of 69 (52 %) of those without MSI (p = 0.005), suggesting that LINE-1 in the former cohort was hypermethylated. All MSI tumors were negative for HER2 amplification, and TP53 and NRAS mutations were only found in GBC without MSI. MSI was identified in a minority of GBC cases. The strong correlation between global DNA methylation as measured by LINE-1 and loss of mismatch repair proteins suggests that methylation may account for the loss of these proteins. These hypermethylated tumors appear to represent a genetically unique cohort of gallbladder neoplasms, and the data suggests that demethylating agents may have a therapeutic value in this class of tumors. PMID:25680569

  11. [Prostatic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kim, Hakushi; Usui, Yukio; Soeda, Shuichi; Kawakami, Masayoshi; Kato, Seiichi; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Hanai, Kazuya; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Hoshi, Akio; Nomoto, Takeshi; Terachi, Toshiro

    2011-12-01

    A 71-year-old man underwent a radical nephrectomy for right renal cell carcinoma in April, 2005. Pathological findings revealed clear cell carcinoma, G3>G2, pT3a. Three years later, he underwent a craniotomy for tumor resection of solitary brain metastasis. In October, 2008, he came to our hospital because of urinary retention. Benign prostate hypertrophy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and digital rectal examination. Serum prostate specific antigen level was 2.55 ng/dl. While he was treated with oral α 1-blocker initially, a urethral catheter was inserted in December, 2009. Because of frequent obstruction of the catheter by hematuria, transureathral prostectomy was performed. Pathological findings revealed prostatic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the prostate is rare, and only 7 cases including the present case have been reported. PMID:22240306

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma in trophic ulcer cases.

    PubMed

    Arora, S K; Mukhija, R D

    1987-01-01

    Two cases having trophic ulcer over the heel, for long time, later developed squamous cell carcinoma are reported, because of its paucity in literature. Various factors blamed for carcinomatous change are enumerated. PMID:3611854

  13. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  14. Bladder carcinoma: MDCT cystography and virtual cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Valeria; Sciarra, Alessandro; Di Martino, Michele; Bernardo, Silvia; Vergari, Valeria; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most common tumor among the low urinary tract, accounting for 90% of cancer cases. Conventional cystoscopy represents the gold standard for diagnosis and local management of bladder carcinoma. As the prevalence of transitional cell carcinoma is four-fold greater in men than in women, the endoscopic procedure presents objective difficulties related to the length and bending of male urethra. The most important problems are represented by intense discomfort for the patient and bleeding; furthermore, the high cost, invasivity, and local complications such as infections and mechanical lesions are well-known drawbacks. Additionally, conventional cystoscopy does not provide information about extravescical extensions of the tumor. CT cystography, combined with virtual cystoscopy, is mandatory for TNM staging of the tumor and also is useful when conventional cystoscopy is inconclusive or cannot be performed. We presents the CT cystography findings with virtual endoscopy correlation and bladder carcinoma appearance. PMID:19471998

  15. Unstable cellular differentiation in adenosquamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, V.E.; Netteshelm, P.

    1981-07-01

    For the determination of whether two or more stem lines with fixed or stable differentiation are present in a growing mixed adenosquamous cell carcinoma, two different mixed tumors, derived from transformed F344 rat tracheal epithelium, were dissociated and ten single cells were isolated from each tumor. All clones were then inoculated into animals for the assessment of in vivo differentiation. Of the ten single cell clones isolated from the first tumor, seven clones produced mixed adenosquamous carcinomas and three produced adenocarcinomas in which no squamous cell component was found. From the second tumor, eight clones produced mixed tumors and two produced squamous cell carcinomas in which no adenocarcinoma component was found. These studies strongly suggest that the mixture of differentiated cell types in adenosquamous cell carcinomas is not the result of a mixture of stem cells with one fixed phenotype within the tumor, but rather is the result of an instability of differentiation; the neoplastic cells can express both types of differentiation.

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Carcinoma of Unknown Primary)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a single lymph node area is usually: Surgery to remove the lymph nodes. See PDQ summary on Melanoma Treatment for more information. Multiple Involvement There is no standard treatment for carcinoma ...

  17. Mucoid breast carcinomas: histology and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, I. S.; Millis, R. R.; Smith, P.; Ellul, J. P.; Lampejo, O.

    1997-01-01

    In a series of 73 patients with mucoid breast carcinomas treated at Guy's Hospital between 1973 and 1989, 24 (33%) patients had pure mucoid lesions and 49 (67%) had mixed mucoid carcinomas. The patients with pure mucoid cancers had significantly smaller tumours and, among those in whom an axillary dissection was performed, mixed mucoid cancers were more likely to be associated with axillary nodal metastases (46% vs 14%). After long-term follow-up of 64 patients, both relapse-free and overall survival were significantly better for those with pure mucoid carcinomas, for whom the 10-year actuarial overall survival was 100%. The overall proportion of the tumour that was mucoid was also positively associated with a more favourable prognosis in patients with mixed tumours. With such a good prognosis, patients with pure mucoid carcinomas may not require systemic adjuvant therapy after adequate primary treatment. PMID:9083343

  18. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  20. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  2. Carcinoma of the vulva: epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Crum, C P

    1992-03-01

    Vulvar squamous carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm that afflicts a spectrum of women and has been associated with granulomatous vulvar diseases, human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and chronic inflammatory disorders of the vulva. This review summarizes the epidemiologic, histopathologic, and viral data supporting the division of invasive vulvar carcinomas into distinct subsets. Although HPVs have received attention as etiologic agents, histopathologic and viral data indicate that a substantial proportion of vulvar carcinomas in this country may not be related to a veneareally transmitted agent. One of the principal challenges is to produce studies integrating the various disciplines in order to place HPV in proper perspective and develop strategies to identify women at risk for vulvar carcinomas that are not associated with this virus. PMID:1310806

  3. Radiation therapy of primary vaginal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.S.; Stanimir, G.; Lewis, J.L. Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Primary carcinoma of the vagina is rare, constituting only 1 to 2% of all neoplasms arising in the female genital tract. From 1950-1974, 36 patients with carcinoma of the vagina were treated with radiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC); 35 (96%) had epidermoid carcinoma and one patient (4%) had adenocarcinoma. These patients were staged according to FIGO. Fourteen patients (39%) were Stage I; six patients (17%) were Stage II; three patients (8%) were Stage III; and 13 patients (36%) were Stage IV. Nine patients (25%) were treated with external radiation and interstitial implant; seven patients (20%) were treated with interstitial implant alone; nine patients (25%) were treated with external radiation alone and 11 patients (30%) with external radiation and intracavitary radiation. The five year NED survival was 71% in Stage I, 66% in Stage II, 33% in Stage III and 0% in Stage IV. This paper discusses radiotherapy management of primary carcinoma of the vagina.

  4. An Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Farrokh, Donya; Abedi, Mahboobeh; Fallah Rastegar, Yalda

    2013-01-01

    Intracystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Among allmalignant breast tumors, this lesion has an incidence of 0.2-0.5%. These neoplasms have certain characteristic imaging findings which help to differentiate these lesions from other focal breast abnormalities.This report is on the case of a 48-year-old woman with a palpable, painless lump in her right breast. Mammography demonstrated an oval well-circumscribed mass without calcification. Breast ultrasonography showed a cystic lesion with an intracystic solid component projecting from its posterior wall. Cyst aspiration revealed a hemorrhagic fluid and a suspicious cytology. Excisional biopsy revealed papillary carcinoma suggesting of intracystic papillary carcinoma. PMID:25250121

  5. Ameloblastic carcinoma in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Sozzi, Davide; Morganti, Valeria; Valente, Gabriella Maria; Moltrasio, Francesca; Bozzetti, Alberto; Angiero, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Owing to the rarity of publications describing ameloblastic carcinoma, little is known about this entity in pediatric patients. To our knowledge, malignant transformation from an odontogenic cyst into an ameloblastic carcinoma in a pediatric patient has not been documented to date. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy in whom a large osteolytic lesion associated with an impacted right maxillary third molar germ was fortuitously detected by orthopanoramic radiography. With a preoperative clinical-radiographic diagnosis of odontogenic cyst, the patient underwent surgical enucleation of the lesion. Histologic evaluation rendered a diagnosis of follicular cyst with a focal area of ameloblastic carcinoma. The literature addressing ameloblastic carcinoma is reviewed. PMID:24184061

  6. Cardiac metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Tam, James

    2006-12-01

    A 59-year-old man developed an episode of syncope while he was driving. This resulted in a motor vehicle accident, and the patient sustained an open fracture of the left femur. Biopsy of the left femur fracture showed a metastastic renal cell carcinoma, and echocardiography revealed a right ventricular mass without contiguous vena caval or right atrial involvement. This is one of the few reported cases of renal cell carcinoma associated with syncope as an initial symptom. PMID:17151773

  7. Primary Intraosseous Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Maxilla.

    PubMed

    Nallamilli, S M; Tatapudi, R; Reddy, R S; Ravikanth, M; Rajesh, N

    2015-06-01

    Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PIOC) is an infrequent malignancy of the head and neck that exhibits diverse biological behavior. The rareness of the location for a salivary gland tumor and the clinical and radiographic manifestations, suggestive of an odontogenic lesion often pose a diagnostic challenge. We hereby report such a unique case of central mucoepidermoid carcinoma that presented in an ambiguous manner, developing in the maxilla and intruding into the adjacent vital structures, adding a literature review. PMID:26339097

  8. Ureterocele urothelial carcinoma: managing a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Abad-Licham, Milagros; Silva, Eloy; Alvarez, Víctor; Piccone, Francis; Cruz, Enrique; Redorta, Joan Palou

    2016-01-01

    It is very uncommon for urothelial carcinoma to develop in an ureterocele. It is generally discovered in an imaging study or in connection with haematuria. We found very few reports in the literature. Here, we report on the case of a 71-year-old male who initially presented with haematuria and low back pain and who then underwent transurethral resection for an intraureterocele tumour. Pathology confirmed urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26913072

  9. Posterior mediastinal hyperfunctioning insular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bellantone, Rocco; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Bossola, Maurizio; Fadda, Guido; Salvatori, Massimo; Princi, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    A case is presented of a posterior mediastinal mass arising in a 57-year-old woman with severe compressive cervical symptoms and hyperthyroidism. Computed tomography showed intrathoracic thyroid tissue that displaced the trachea towards the front and the right and invaded the posterior mediastinum. Pathological examination showed features of a poorly differentiated (insular) thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a posterior mediastinal insular thyroid carcinoma with thyroid hyperfunction. PMID:16277105

  10. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  11. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  12. The diagnostic utility of the minimal carcinoma triple stain in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Dara S; Liu, Yi-Fang; Pipa, Jennifer; Shin, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists are expected to accurately diagnose increasingly smaller breast carcinomas. Correct classification (ie, lobular vs ductal or in situ vs invasive) directly affects subsequent management, especially when the focus is near a surgical margin or present in a needle core biopsy and is further challenging if the lesion is morphologically ambiguous. We assessed the diagnostic utility of a multiplex, trichromogen immunostain of 3 commonly employed antibodies (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) developed in our laboratory to evaluate these small lesions. Of the 147 specimens containing minimal (defined as ≤3 mm in size) invasive carcinoma, 81 also contained in situ carcinoma. In each case, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was prepared with a parallel H&E-stained slide. Observations of staining characteristics in the focus of interest were recorded. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was diagnostically useful in all but 1 case. In a case of invasive lobular carcinoma in an excisional biopsy, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain stained only the surrounding breast tissue (appropriately) and not the focus of interest. Also, a subset of 29 of 81 excisional biopsies had minimal invasive carcinoma located 2 mm or less from the inked surgical margin, in which in all cases the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was fully interpretable despite morphologic distortion due to concomitant cautery artifact and tissue disruption in some cases. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain offers an accurate and tissue-conserving method to diagnose small, morphologically problematic foci of breast carcinoma while ideally leaving more tissue for additional adjunctive studies. PMID:23270900

  13. Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjrn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Trevio, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A.; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L.; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K.; Hoivik, Erling A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabio, Nayeli Belem; Gmez-Macas, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D.; Garza-Rodrguez, Mara Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L.; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P.; Neuberg, Donna S.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Barrera-Saldaa, Hugo A.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 1015% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS47 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole genome sequencing of 14 tumor-normal pairs. Novel somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%) TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observed somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas had higher frequencies of somatic mutations in the Tp*C dinucleotide context than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were significantly higher in tumors with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumors without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest novel strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

  14. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J J; Clouston, A

    2001-12-01

    A 6-year-old Malay boy presented with fever and abdominal pain for 2 months. Computerised tomography showed a nodular mass in the left lobe of the liver. There was also portal vein thrombosis on the left side. Serum alpha-fetoprotein was not elevated and Hepatitis B antigen was negative. Biopsy of the liver mass led to a histological diagnosis of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. In view of extensive tumour involvement, he could not be operated on but was treated with chemotherapy. However, the tumour did not respond. While this is expected for fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, the possibility of the tumour having a component of ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma could not be excluded as the tumour was not resected. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare histological subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma, associated with a better prognosis. It affects the younger age group and has no association with cirrhosis, hepatitis B virus infection or exposure to oral contraceptives, all of which are implicated in ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum alpha-fetoprotein level is usually within normal limits and other laboratory values are not contributory to the diagnosis. The diagnosis is usually suggested by radiographic studies viz. CT scan of the abdomen, which would show an irregular non-homogenous mass in the liver, and confirmed by histological examination. The most characteristic microscopical feature is fibrosis arranged in a lamellar fashion around polygonal and deeply eosinophilic neoplastic hepatocytes. PMID:12166592

  15. Human ovarian carcinomas detected by specific odor.

    PubMed

    Horvath, György; Järverud, Gunvor Af Klinteberg; Järverud, Sven; Horváth, István

    2008-06-01

    The high mortality rate associated with ovarian carcinoma is mainly owing to late diagnosis. It is thus essential to develop inexpensive and simple methods for early diagnosis. Papers on canine scent detection of malignancies such as melanoma and bladder, lung, and breast cancer have recently been published in peer-reviewed journals, indicating a new diagnostic tool for malignancies. However, in these studies the dogs may have responded to odors associated with cancer, such as inflammation or metabolic products, rather than specifically to cancer itself. Therefore, it is important to ascertain whether or not human cancers are characterized by specific odors. We hypothesized that if ovarian carcinoma emits a specific odor, dogs may be trained to detect it. Using our training method, we taught a dog to distinguish different histopathological types and grades of ovarian carcinomas, including borderline tumors, from healthy control samples. Double-blind tests showed 100% sensitivity and 97.5% specificity. Moreover, the odor of ovarian carcinomas seems to differ from those of other gynecological malignances such cervical, endometrial, and vulvar carcinomas. Our study strongly suggests that the most common ovarian carcinomas are characterized by a single specific odor. PMID:18505901

  16. Landscape of genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J; Cherniack, Andrew D; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A; Rosenberg, Mara W; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M; Lawrence, Michael S; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K; Hoivik, Erling A; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P; Neuberg, Donna S; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A; Carey, Thomas E; Vintermyr, Olav K; Gabriel, Stacey B; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-02-20

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10-15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The aetiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in cervical carcinomas is well established. Previous studies have also implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS as well as several copy-number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas. Here we report whole-exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole-genome sequencing of 14 tumour-normal pairs. Previously unknown somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%), TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observe somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas have higher frequencies of somatic nucleotide substitutions occurring at cytosines preceded by thymines (Tp*C sites) than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were statistically significantly higher in tumours with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumours without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest new strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

  17. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  18. Carcinoma of the lung in Lancashire coalminers.

    PubMed Central

    Rooke, G B; Ward, F G; Dempsey, A N; Dowler, J B; Whitaker, C J

    1979-01-01

    The prevalence at death of carcinoma of the lung in miners and ex-miners has been compared in those with and without pneumoconiosis at necropsy. The prevalence of 11.4% in the group as a whole is no greater than that in the male population in North-west England. Carcinoma of the lung was present in 62 (13.1%) of those without pneumoconiosis and in 52 (9.8%) of those with pneumoconiosis. The mean age at death of those with pneumoconiosis was 71.3 years so that they cannot be said to have died before the age at which they would have developed carcinoma. Those with progressive massive fibrosis whose mean age at death was 72 years had the lowest prevalence of carcinoma of the lung at all ages--8.4%. For reasons stated in the text this is inevitably a biased sample. The number of those without pneumoconiosis is probably lower than the true figure because the deaths of miners and ex-miners in whom there is no suspicion of lung disease may not have been reported to the coroner or to the pneumoconiosis medical panel. There appears to be no positive link between carcinoma of the lung and pneumoconiosis. There is a surprisingly high number of smokers and ex-smokers among these miners, and this appears to have more relevance to the prevalence of carcinoma of the lung than does pneumoconiosis. PMID:483190

  19. [Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)--nature and usage in patients with cervical carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bocheva, Y; Bochev, P; Chaushev, B; Ivanov, S

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) is isolated as a heterologic antiserum against cells of cervical carcinoma in 1977 by Kato u Torigoe. It is not specific for cervical carcinoma and rises up in cases of carcinoma vulvae, esophageal carcinoma, carcinoma pulmonum, ext. High levels are detected also in psoriasis, sarcoidosis, liver and kidney diseases. SCC is not a reliable marker in diagnosis and screening. Some trials show a correlation between the preterapeutic levels of SCC and the prognosis, but none of them is randomized. So the predictive value of SCC, except the nodal metastasis, stays on a low level of evidence and recommendation. On the contrary is the data for SCC as a monitoring marker for a local recurrence in patients after primary treatment. The sensitivity and specificity of the marker for a cervical carcinoma recurrence varies between 56 and 86% sensitivity and 83 and 100% specificity. A new possibility for an early recurrence finding in patients with rising SCC gives FDG PET/CT. The method is highly potent in detection of local recurrence and distant metastasis in patients with cervical carcinoma and is suitable for staging, restaging and monitoring of these patients. PMID:25909138

  20. Thyroid papillary carcinoma recurring as squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Shinzo; Ito, Toshihide; Hamatani, Shigeharu; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Shiba, Tadaaki

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of local squamous cell carcinoma recurrence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, 4 years after subtotal thyroidectomy, in an 82-year-old woman. The papillary cancer of the right thyroid was histopathologically classified as T2a, N0, M0, Ex1; pT2a, pN1b, pEx1; Stage III. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the recurrent tumor revealed atypical squamous epithelium-like cells with keratinization. The tumor was judged cytologically to be class III, defined as a suspicious malignancy and, after reoperation, it was diagnosed histopathologically as papillary carcinoma recurrence with extensive squamous metaplasia. The recurrent papillary carcinoma was thought to have changed to a squamous cell carcinoma because most of the tumor was occupied by atypical squamous cells, with a small amount of glandular tissue. The primary tumor was histologically diagnosed as a well-differentiated papillary carcinoma at the initial operation. It contained numerous tall neoplastic cells with eosinophilic granules and pseudostratified nuclei, indicating that it could potentially transform into squamous cell carcinoma. We report this case as an example of how squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid can develop. PMID:16440166

  1. Pathology and behavior of small breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J S; Fahrner, M; Daniel, F C

    1999-08-01

    Mammographic screening and increased public awareness have changed the clinical spectrum of breast carcinoma with important implications for therapy. Small invasive breast carcinomas T1a,b, defined as 1.0 cm or less in maximum diameter, now comprise 22% of invasive carcinomas in our institution, enabling comparison of 273 T1a,b with 563 T1c (1.1 to 2.0 cm), 447 T2 (2.1 to 5.0 cm), and 40 T3 (>5 cm) carcinomas. Nuclear measurements were made with calibrated ocular grids. Hormone receptors were measured in cytosol or immunohistochemically. S-phase fraction (SPF) was measured prospectively on all carcinomas by counting cells in histologic preparations after vitro labeling with tritiated thymidine or 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine. T1a (0.2 to 0.5 cm) carcinomas were similar to T1b (0.6 to 1.0 cm) in histologic and biologic features, but T1b carcinomas had higher detection rates of axillary metastasis (0% v 10%). The latter may reflect longer duration of metastases, permitting growth to detectable size. Low-grade carcinoma types (mucinous, tubular, cribriform) became less frequent as T stage increased, with the major decrease occurring at T1b (0.6 to 1.0 cm)/T1c (1.1 to 2.0 cm) boundary. T1a,b carcinomas preponderantly had low-grade histologic and biochemical characteristics and low SPF. SPF increased significantly with increasing tumor size from T1b through T2 but not beyond T2. Increases in proportion of patients with axillary metastases occurred over each T transition. Estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PgR) positivity decreased with increasing stage. Larger tumors were significantly associated with younger patient age. While this may reflect ease of diagnosing small carcinomas after the menopause, young age was also associated with predictors of aggressive tumor behavior (high SPF, negative assays for ER, PgR). T1a,b patients with mid or high SPF or axillary metastases were more likely than others to have received cytotoxic adjuvant therapy. Conclusions are: (1) Development of cell lines that have metastatic capability appears to occur near the T1b/T1c interface, but they exist very early in some carcinomas. (2) T1a carcinomas may be managed without axillary dissection. When T1b patients are candidates for adjuvant therapy, we advocate sentinel node biopsy with intensive study for micrometastases. (3) Accurate determination of size is very important in prognosis of small breast carcinomas. (4) Prognostic efficacy of proliferation and other prognostic markers in retrospective studies, but not in our patients who often received adjuvant therapy, suggest that micrometastases from small breast carcinomas are highly responsive to adjuvant chemo/hormonal therapy. PMID:10490202

  2. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

    2013-07-01

    Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23821212

  3. Cisplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-05

    Colorectal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gallbladder Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Pancreatic Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Small Intestinal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

  4. Targeting Src in Mucinous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Nishimura, Masato; Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.; Huang1, Jie; Komurov, Kakajan; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Shahzad, Mian M. K.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Roh, Ju Won; Sanguino, Angela M.; Lu, Chunhua; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshien, Neil B.; Sakakibara, Atsuko; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Yamasaki, Masato; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Tadashi; Ram, Prahlad T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Gallick, Gary E.; Wong, Kwong K.; Frumovitz, Michael; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Mucinous ovarian carcinomas have a distinct clinical pattern compared to other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Here, we evaluated (i) stage-specific clinical significance of mucinous ovarian carcinomas in a large cohort and (ii) the functional role of src kinase in pre-clinical models of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1302 ovarian cancer patients including 122 (9.4%) cases of mucinous carcinoma were evaluated for survival analyses. Biological effects of src kinase inhibition were tested in a novel orthotopic mucinous ovarian cancer model (RMUG-S-ip2) using dasatinib-based therapy. RESULTS Patients with advanced-stage mucinous ovarian cancer had significantly worse survival compared to those with serous histology: median overall survival, 1.67 versus 3.41 years, p=0.002; and median survival time after recurrence of 0.53 versus 1.66 years, p<0.0001. Among multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUG-S-ip2 mucinous ovarian cancer cells showed the highest src kinase activity. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment induced phosphorylation of src kinase. This induced activity by oxaliplatin therapy was inhibited by concurrent administration of dasatinib. Targeting src with dasatinib in vivo showed significant anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model, but not in the serous ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3-TR) model. Combination therapy of oxaliplatin with dasatinib further demonstrated significant effects on reducing cell viability, increasing apoptosis, and in vivo anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that poor survival of women with mucinous ovarian carcinoma is associated with resistance to cytotoxic therapy. Targeting src kinase with combination of dasatinib and oxaliplatin may be an attractive approach in this disease. PMID:21737505

  5. Intranuclear tonofilament-like filaments in skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thiele, B; Mahrle, G

    1983-06-01

    Electron microscopical investigations of untreated solar keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma, and Bowen carcinoma showed intranuclear bundles of intermediate filaments in suprabasal keratinocytes. We found evidence that the filaments are incorporated into the nucleus during atypical mitosis. PMID:6683284

  6. [Advances in molecular targeted therapy of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Feng, Huihao; Cheng, Xiaoming; Zeng, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine maligancy, and the worldwide incidence has been rising in recent years. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, which include thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma, accounting for about 90 percent of thyroid carcinoma incidence. Currently, surgical treatment, iodine radiotherapy and TSH suppressive therapy are the commonly accepted effective treatments for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and most patients can be cured. But there are still some patients not sensitive to the general treatments, who have lost the treatment of opportunity. Molecular targeted therapy is an agonistic or suppressive treatment for molecular biology targets of malignant tumor, and currently is a frontier research in the field of malignancy treatment. By retrieving and analyzing the related literature of molecular targeted therapy of thyroid carcinoma through PUBMED in the past 5 years, the article introduced the current status of molecular targeted therapy of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27093829

  7. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas. PMID:27232353

  8. Chemopreventive strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Siddharth; Singh, Preet Paul; Roberts, Lewis R; Sanchez, William

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of death from cancer. The incidence and mortality of HCC are increasing in most Western countries as a result of an ageing cohort infected with chronic hepatitis C, and are expected to continue to rise as a consequence of the obesity epidemic. Chemopreventive strategies aimed at decreasing the risk or delaying the onset of HCC are needed. Universal immunization against HBV and antiviral therapy against HBV and HCV in patients with established disease has consistently been associated with reduced HCC risk, especially in patients who achieve sustained virologic response. However, the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for primary HCC prevention is not known. Several commonly prescribed medications seem promising as chemopreventive agents against HCC, including statins, antidiabetic medications and aspirin. Dietary agents such as coffee, vitamin E and fish oil as well as phytochemicals might also be associated with reduced risk of HCC. Though randomized controlled trials are ideally needed to firmly establish efficacy, such chemoprevention trials are logistically and ethically challenging. Well-designed, prospective, population-based cohort studies might provide the best evidence for chemopreventive efficacy of these agents. PMID:23938452

  9. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  10. BCG for carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Jakse, G

    1992-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective intravesical therapy of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Six, weekly instillations of BCG result in a complete remission in about 70-80% of patients. The optimal dose however has still to be defined, and the value of maintenance therapy is also a matter of debate. Recurrent tumours after complete remission occur mainly in the distal ureter and prostatic urethra. In these patients, cystectomy may be required. In about 60-80% of patients, local (e.g. cystitis) and/or systemic (e.g. fever, malaise) side effects are observed. The occurrence of cystitis is associated with the number of instillations, BCG dose and a positive skin test. Systemic side effects are connected with pre-existing dysuria or bacterial cystitis and with traumatic catheterization. Severe toxicity occurs in about 5% of the patients. Prognostic parameters indicating complete remission have yet to be determined, but there is evidence that cytokines detected in the urine and immune-cell infiltration into the bladder wall revealed by immunohistochemistry, can be of value in this respect. PMID:1396945

  11. Interventional radiology for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Loffroy, R

    2011-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent primary malignant tumors in the world. Hepatic resection and liver transplantation are considered optimal for potential treatment of HCC. However, only 20% of HCCs can be surgically treated. And most of surgically-noneligible patients have to receive locoregional image-guided interventional managements including intra-arterial and percutaneous ablative therapies. In this paper, we review these interventional approaches. Catheter-based therapies include embolotherapy/chemotherapy-based treatments (such as transarterial chemoembolization, bland embolization, transcatheter arterial chemoinfusion, and chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads), and radiotherapy-based treatments (such as radioembolization with yttrium-90 and injection of iodine-131-labeled lipiodol). Ablative therapeutic approaches include chemical therapies (such as ethanol or acetic acid injection), and thermal therapies (such as radiofrequency ablation, laser induced thermotherapy, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation). Each method has its advantages and drawbacks. As a result of the technical development of locoregional approaches for HCC during the recent decades, the range of combined interventional therapies has been continuously extended. In this article, an evidence-based approach is used to review the current role of interventional radiology in the management of unresectable HCC. PMID:21769079

  12. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Penile Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuasne, Hellen; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; de Syllos Cólus, Ilce Mara

    2013-01-01

    Penile carcinoma (PeCa) represents an important public health problem in poor and developing countries. Despite its unpredictable behavior and aggressive treatment, there have only been a few reports regarding its molecular data, especially epigenetic mechanisms. The functional diversity in different cell types is acquired by chromatin modifications, which are established by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and miRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that the dysregulation in these processes can result in the development of several diseases, including cancer. Epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation of CpGs islands, may reveal candidates for the development of specific markers for cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. There are a few reports on the epigenetic alterations in PeCa, and most of these studies have only focused on alterations in specific genes in a limited number of cases. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the epigenetic alterations in PeCa and the promising results in this field. The identification of epigenetically altered genes in PeCa is an important step in understanding the mechanisms involved in this unexplored disease. PMID:23702847

  13. [Epidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Relmi, F; Russo, A; Magnacca, F; Leombruni, E; Buccoliero, G; Picardi, N

    1998-01-01

    About thyroid neoplasms the epidermoidal carcinoma represents an ingrown minority (0.3-0.74%). Several etiopathological hypotheses are considered and this testifies the notable uncertainty that still winds the origin of the neoplasm. In the actual case, the more accredited hypothesis foresees the origin of the neoplasm from a histopathological of Hashimotos' tyhroiditis. The objectivity of the case in examination constitutes the clinical picture of reference of the malignant neoplasms of the thyroid: oligosintomatic low cervical mass of increased consistence, adherent to the imminent pianos strictly following laryngeal movements, dysfagia and dysfonia. Additionally they were present pulmonary and right cervical lymphonodal metastases. After an adjuvant treatment with Paraplatin and 5-FU, to some months from the intervention of total thyroidectomy, local relapse in form of a festered mass is highlighted in sovrajugular region with result in cutaneous-esophagustracheal fistula. The diagnosis of certainty of the neoplasm, despite the rarity, it doesn't constitute a problem, albeit the percents of survival, anyway substantially more favorable respect to anaplastic neoplasms, concerning to as numerical as chronological aspects, result to be hardly discouraging. PMID:9835109

  14. [Carcinoma cuniculatum of the hand].

    PubMed

    Marques, M S; Mor, M C; Bivar, J M; Costa, A

    1986-01-01

    We've made a brief account of Carcinoma Cuniculatum and after reviewing the references, we found four cases which didn't appear on the foot as usual. We've reported a 68-year-old man, with a lesion on the back of his left hand; it had been present six years and had recurred after a surgical excision. On the clinical point of view, the lesion is a roughly oval 7 X 5 cm., plaque formed by the junction of small violaceous nodules. The surface is keratotic and it presents multiple sinuses from where a white, greasy material oozed out. Concerning the pathological findings we can observe that the papillomatous surface squamous epithelium penetrated into the underlying tissue. The epithelium contained sinuses which were filled with keratin. Occasionally the epithelium showed individual cell keratinization. The squamous epithelium was well differentiated and a feature seen was intra-cellular oedema, with sheets of uniform, pale, staining epithelium. Mitotic activity was low and confined to the basal layers. The tumour was accompanied by a fibrous stroma which was somewhere heavily infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells. The treatment consisted of a wide excision and graft. As to the aetiology of the tumour the different authors suggest several possibilities, since the enduring trauma, chronic inflammation, burn scars, radiation, arsenic ingestion until the viral aetiology. McKee and Wilkinson suggest that it's a multifactorial process, playing the wart virus the main part in the breaking out of the tumour. PMID:3526037

  15. Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam; Abbas, Sarim; Shazi, Lubna

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective circular shape single stranded HDV RNA virus with two types of viral proteins, small and large hepatitis D antigens, surrounded by hepatitis B surface antigen. Superinfection with HDV in chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more threatening form of liver disease leading to rapid progression to cirrhosis. In spite of some controversy in the epidemiological studies, HDV infection does increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Hepatic decompensation, rather than development of HCC, is the first usual clinical endpoint during the course of HDV infection. Oxidative stress as a result of severe necroinflammation may progress to HCC. The large hepatitis D antigen is a regulator of various cellular functions and an activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Another proposed epigenetic mechanism by which HCC may form is the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes by DNA Methyltransferases. HDV antigens have also been associated with increased histone H3 acetylation of the clusterin promoter. This enhances the expression of clusterin in infected cells, increasing cell survival potential. Any contribution of HBV DNA integration with chromosomes of infected hepatocytes is not clear at this stage. The targeted inhibition of STAT3 and cyclophilin, and augmentation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ have a potential therapeutic role in HCC. PMID:25914778

  16. Imaging of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Brown, Anna; Cieciera, Matthaeus; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2016-03-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer in adults. Early and accurate imaging plays an important role in the detection, staging, and follow-up of RCC. Patient care and case management revolves heavily around diagnostic imaging so it is imperative that appropriate and adequate imaging is acquired. There are well-established standard imaging protocols available to patients and their providers, although at the same time, there is also extensive ongoing research on improving the various modalities. Ultrasound has been the most commonly used imaging technique for renal imaging in general. However, computed tomography (CT) is the first choice for imaging of renal masses, and has been the mainstay for several decades. High resolution, reproducibility, reasonable preparation and acquisition time, and acceptable cost allow CT to remain as the primary choice for radiologic imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered as an important alternative in patients requiring further imaging or in cases of allergies, pregnancy, or surveillance. With increasing concern over radiation exposure, there has been a trend toward the higher use of MRI. It is important to understand the various imaging options available, as well as the current status of and results from recent RCC imaging studies. In this review we discuss these modalities, including the current state of ultrasound, CT, and MRI in RCC. PMID:26094171

  17. Clinical guideline SEOM: hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sastre, J; Díaz-Beveridge, R; García-Foncillas, J; Guardeño, R; López, C; Pazo, R; Rodriguez-Salas, N; Salgado, M; Salud, A; Feliu, J

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Surveillance with abdominal ultrasound every 6 months should be offered to patients with a high risk of developing HCC: Child-Pugh A-B cirrhotic patients, all cirrhotic patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation, high-risk HBV chronic hepatitis patients (higher viral load, viral genotype or Asian or African ancestry) and patients with chronic hepatitis C and bridging fibrosis. Accurate diagnosis, staging and functional hepatic reserve are crucial for the optimal therapeutic approach. Characteristic findings on dynamic CT/MR of arterial hyperenhancement with "washout" in the portal venous or delayed phase are highly specific and sensitive for a diagnosis of HCC in patients with previous cirrhosis, but a confirmed histopathologic diagnosis should be done in patients without previous evidence of chronic hepatic disease. BCLC classification is the most common staging system used in Western countries. Surgical procedures, local therapies and systemic treatments should be discussed and planned for each patient by a multidisciplinary team according to the stage, performance status, liver function and comorbidities. Surgical interventions remain as the only curative procedures but both local and systemic approaches may increase survival and should be offered to patients without contraindications. PMID:26607931

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a global view

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju Dong; Roberts, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health problem, although developing countries are disproportionally affected: over 80% of HCCs occur in such regions. About three-quarters of HCCs are attributed to chronic HBV and HCV infections. In areas endemic for HCV and HBV, viral transmission occurs at an early age, and infected individuals develop HCC in mid-adulthood. As these are their most productive years of life, HCC accounts for a substantial burden on the health-care system and drain of productive capacity in the low-income and middle-income countries most affected by HCV and HBV infections. Environments with disparate resource levels require different strategies for the optimal management of HCC. In high-resource environments, guidelines from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases or European Association for the Study of the Liver should be applied. In intermediate-resource or low-resource environments, the fundamental focus should be on primary prevention of HCC, through universal HBV vaccination, taking appropriate precautions and antiviral treatments. In intermediate-resource and low-resource environments, the infrastructure and capacity for abdominal ultrasonography, percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation and surgical resection should be established. Programs to provide targeted therapy at low cost, similar to the approach used for HIV therapy in the developing world, should be pursued. PMID:20628345

  19. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X D; Tang, Z Y; Yu, Y Q; Hou, Z

    1991-12-01

    After a long, hopeless period in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the diagnosis and treatment of HCC have progressed remarkably in the past decade. In particular the discovery of asymptomatic HCC in the early 1970s opened up a new era in clinical research of HCC. With the progress in the diagnostic imaging of liver tumors, a 1 cm hepatic mass can now be detected. It is especially worth noting that a 5-year survival rate of 72.9% has been achieved after the resection of the tumor in asymptomatic HCC patients. The role of surgery in the treatment of HCC has become more important. Various modalities of medical treatment and combination therapy have been recommended and used. Despite the progress in the early diagnosis and treatment of HCC, a complete cure is very rare. Problems to be studied include new tumor markers for the early detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative HCC, the development of more specific treatments for unresectable HCC with uncompensated cirrhosis, and an effective approach to preventing recurrence and metastasis after radical resection. PMID:1668377

  20. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-28

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  1. [Carcinoma of the tongue in xeroderma pigmentosum].

    PubMed

    Huet-Lamy, P; Dereure, O; Degavre, B; Atlan, P Y; Guillot, B; Guilhou, J J

    1992-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a defect in the repair of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet rays. The cutaneous tumours are frequent and occur at an early age, but neoplasias of the mucosae are seldom observed. Among the mucosae, the lipids and the conjunctiva clearly predominate. Tumours of the buccal cavity are much less frequent, and this is why we report a case of epidermoid carcinoma of the tip of the tongue in a Moroccan boy. Only 25 cases of intrabuccal tumour have been reported in patients with XP, and 22 were epidermoid carcinomas of the tip of the tongue. These carcinomas may be preceded by precancerous lesions such as leucoplasia. The early occurrence and elective location at the tip of the tongue clearly differentiate lingual carcinomas associated with XP from their homologues in adults. The aggressiveness of these lesions is difficult to determine due to a usually short follow-up and to the lack of details in reports. Treatment is surgical and non-specific. Concerning epidemiology, the predominance of African and Near-Eastern patients among those suffering from lingual carcinoma is striking. Moreover, when the complementation group is known it is always group C; our patients presented with characteristics of this group. Some authors believe that the lingual tumours are due to ultraviolet light (overexposure in case of natural pigmentation, with exposure of the tip of the tongue) and to certain toxic substances in food.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1304692

  2. Epigenetic dysregulation in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Thian-Sze; Gao, Wei; Li, Zeng-Hong; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Ho, Wai-Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer with poor prognosis. Patients with laryngeal carcinoma usually present late leading to the reduced treatment efficacy and high rate of recurrence. Despite the advance in the use of molecular markers for monitoring human cancers in the past decades, there are still no reliable markers for use to screen laryngeal carcinoma and follow the patients after treatment. Epigenetics emerged as an important field in understanding the biology of the human malignancies. Epigenetic alterations refer to the dysregulation of gene, which do not involve the alterations of the DNA sequence. Major epigenetic changes including methylation imbalance, histone modification, and small RNA dysregulation could play a role in the development of human malignancies. Global epigenetic change is now regarded as a molecular signature of cancer. The characteristics and behavior of a cancer could be predicted based on the specific epigenetic pattern. We here provide a review on the understanding of epigenetic dysregulation in laryngeal carcinoma. Further knowledge on the initiation and progression of laryngeal carcinoma at epigenetic level could promote the translation of the knowledge to clinical use. PMID:22645613

  3. Treatment of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.A.

    1981-12-01

    Improved selection of thyroid nodules for surgery and greater individualization of surgery for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma are emphasized. Thyroid nodules are common but infrequently are manifestations of carcinoma. Needle biopsy permits better selection of patients with thyroid nodules for surgery by identifying those which are malignant or are likely to become malignant. Experience in performing diagnostic needle biopsies and in cytologic and histologic interpretation is essential. The majority of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are well-localized papillary carcinomas controlled by surgery, usually a lobectomy or partial thyroidectomy. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas include papillary and follicular types and their subsets. The extent of surgery should be individualized based on gross extent of disease, histologic variety, and age of the patient. The prognosis is reduced for patients more than 40 years of age. With appropriate early surgical treatment, the outlook is excellent. Metastatic disease can frequently also be controlled by large doses of thyroid hormone and the use of radioactive iodine.

  4. Synchronous Renal Cell Carcinoma and Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dafashy, Tamer J.; Ghaffary, Cameron K.; Keyes, Kyle T.; Sonstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    While renal cell carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of the kidney, its simultaneous diagnosis with a gastrointestinal malignancy is a rare, but well reported phenomenon. This discussion focuses on three independent cases in which each patient was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and a unique synchronous gastrointestinal malignancy. Case 1 explores the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 66-year-old male patient synchronously diagnosed with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a carcinoid tumor of the small bowel. Case 2 describes the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 61-year-old male found to have clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm. Lastly, Case 3 focuses on the interventions and management of a 36-year-old female diagnosed with synchronous clear cell renal carcinoma and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. This case series examines each distinct patient's presentation, discusses the diagnosis, and compares and contrasts the findings while discussing the literature on this topic. PMID:26904353

  5. Computed tomographic findings of Bellini duct carcinoma of the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki

    1996-05-01

    To analyze CT findings of Bellini duct carcinoma, a rare variant of renal cell carcinoma. The CT findings of five cases of Bellini duct carcinoma were reviewed and the findings were recorded. In all cases the affected kidneys maintained the normal outer contours. In four cases the renal masses protruded into the central sinuses. Contrast enhancement was minimal in four cases. Bellini duct carcinoma should be suspected in cases with these CT findings. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Metastasis of diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma to an extremely unusual site

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Narayana; Hiremath, Bharati; Pujar, Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common and aggressive malignancy the world over. Metastasis commonly occurs in lungs, bone, lymph node and adrenals. Skeletal muscle metastases from any primary is a rare occurrence, those occurring from hepatocellular carcinoma even more so. We present a case of a 61-year-old man presenting with hepatocellular carcinoma with synchronous symptomatic metastasis to the skeletal muscle. This article discusses approach to hepatocellular carcinoma with skeletal muscle metastases aetiopathogenesis, differential diagnosis and approach to treatment. PMID:24057331

  7. TERT Promoter Mutations Are Frequent in Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Griewank, Klaus G.; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Mller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. PMID:24260374

  8. Low-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary associated with undifferentiated carcinoma: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Pang, Shujie; Shen, Yan; Liu, Zaiping; Luan, Jing; Shi, Yiquan; Liu, Yixin

    2014-01-01

    The association of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma with undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) was first reported in endometrium carcinoma, termed with dedifferentiated carcinoma (DC). However, the coexistence of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma (LGEC) or serous carcinoma (LGSC) with UC has received minimal attention in ovary, and the behavior of this kind of neoplasm remains at further discussion. In this study, we reported a case of low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinoma associated with UC and reviewed another four cases previously reported. We found a histological continuity between the LGEC and UC components in H&E section, which suggested a dedifferentiation from LGEC to UC components. In summary, this kind of pathological type has aggressive behavior and these patients have very poor prognosis regardless of the amount of undifferentiated carcinoma. PMID:25120828

  9. AZD1775, Docetaxel, and Cisplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Borderline Resectable Stage III-IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-04

    Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Cervix: Treatment Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Paramjeet; Khurana, Anil; Chauhan, Ashok K.; Singh, Gajender; Kataria, Sant Parkash; Singh, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) of cervix behaves aggressively and it has a propensity for local infiltration, invasion in lymphatic vessels as well as perineural spaces, with subsequent haematogenous spread. In advanced disease (Stage III and IV), outcome is invariably poor. Moreover, these cases have a high tendency to recur locally and also to metastasize to distant sites. There are no standard treatment protocols because of rarity of disease. The guidelines for its management are established similarly as for staged squamous cell carcinoma of cervix. Therefore, recommended treatment in advanced disease is aggressive multimodality treatment, which includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We are presenting a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of cervix in 55 years old patient, staged as III B. The patient was treated with concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient responded well to treatment and is disease free, three years after treatment. PMID:24392415

  11. Yttrium-90 Microsphere Radioembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Edeline, Julien; Gilabert, Marine; Garin, Etienne; Boucher, Eveline; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Yttrium-90 (Y90) radioembolization is an emerging strategy to treat liver malignancies, and clinical data supporting its use have accumulated in recent years. Y90-radioembolization has shown clinical effectiveness in intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, with a favorable safety profile. Retrospective data show similar levels of effectiveness to transarterial chemoembolization in intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma, with some evidence of better tolerance. While phase 3 studies comparing Y90-radioembolization to chemoembolization in intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma would be difficult to conduct, studies comparing or combining Y90-radioembolization with sorafenib are under way. Questions also remain about the most suitable modalities for defining the dose to administer. Phase 3 studies are under way to clarify the place of Y90-radioembolization in the algorithm of HCC treatment. PMID:26020026

  12. Breast carcinoma in a prepubertal girl

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Singh, Sudipto Kumar; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is a very rare disease in children. We present a rare case of breast cancer in an 11-year-old prepubertal girl. Clinically, it was a case of locally advanced breast cancer (T4bN1M0). The core biopsy report showed adenocarcinoma of the not otherwise specified (NOS) variety (oestrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative). Diagnosis was late in this case due to lack of suspicion. A modified radical mastectomy was considered to be adequate treatment. Histologically, it was adenocarcinoma NOS, which is rare in young girls (the secretory type being more common). Incidence, differential diagnoses, investigation and management of breast carcinoma in young girls are discussed. The purpose of reporting this case is to highlight that prevention and early detection of breast carcinoma in children is very important. PMID:24810441

  13. Ameloblastic carcinoma: Report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Mandadi Dakshinamurthy; Radhika, Besta; Metta, Kiran; Renuka, Nukala Valli

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting histological evidence of malignancy in the primary or recurrent tumor. It is characterized by rapid, painful expansion of the jaw, unlike conventional ameloblastomas. The tumor most frequently involves the mandible. The expanding lesion causes perforation of the buccal and lingual plates of the jaw and invades the surrounding soft tissue. Rapidly growing large tumor mass may cause tooth mobility. A mandibular tumor involving the mental nerve leads to paresthesia of the nerve. A maxillary tumor can produce a fistula in the palate and paresthesia of the infraorbital nerve. Most ameloblastic carcinomas are presumed to have arisen de novo with a few cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastomas. Although rare, these lesions have been known to metastasize, mostly to the regional lymph nodes or lungs. A case of ameloblastic carcinoma in a 60-year-old man is reported here and its clinical, radiological and histological features are discussed. PMID:24579073

  14. Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Medhioub, Mouna; Chelbi, Emna

    2015-11-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach is very rare. Its pathogenesis is unclear and the treatment strategy is controversial. We report an agressive primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with liver and lung metastases in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple liver metastases. Endoscopic examination showed two tumour masses on the fundus of the stomach. Biopsy of the lesions revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Chest x-ray showed multiple large pulmonary nodules highly suggestive of pulmonary metastases. The patient died ten days after he was admitted because of progression of the tumour and before any therapeutic decision. PMID:26673808

  15. Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma in child†

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Asil; Sankar, Velayutham; Makura, Zvoru

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma occurring in a thyroglossal cyst is a rare condition especially in children, and there is no consensus regarding management. There are only 10 other documented cases in the English literature for children under the age of 12. We discuss one such case. A 10-year-old female child with an 8-month history of a midline neck cyst underwent Sistrunk's procedure as surgical treatment after clinical and ultrasound scan confirmation. An incidental 9-mm papillary carcinoma was seen on histology within the thyroglossal cyst. Following multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion, the child underwent total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. There is no consensus regarding the ideal management for thyroglossal duct carcinoma in the paediatric literature. We discuss the treatment options and the importance of MDT involvement. PMID:25877826

  16. A Rare Case of a Synchronous Anaplastic Carcinoma Thyroid with Ductal Carcinoma Breast

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Rao, P. B. Ananda; Sarkar, Shreyasee; Kotne, Sivasankar; Turlapati, S. P. V.; Mishra, Anindita

    2014-01-01

    Dual malignancy was first reported by Billroth in 1889. Incidence of second malignancy in cancer patients is as high as 10%, but synchronous anaplastic thyroid cancer along with breast tumor is a rare entity. We present a case of a 61-year-old female with a synchronous anaplastic carcinoma thyroid with ductal carcinoma breast. The plausible association of breast cancers with thyroid carcinomas should thus be evaluated in larger cohort studies. More importantly, this report is to highlight the unusual synchronous occurrence of anaplastic thyroid cancer with ductal breast cancer and the therapeutic challenges involved in such cases. PMID:24822141

  17. STK11 Mutation Identified in Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Brose, Marcia S; Montone, Kathleen T; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Baloch, Zubair W

    2016-03-01

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder, in which germline mutation of serine threonine-protein kinase 11 (STK11) is identified in up to 90 % of the patients who meet clinical criteria for PJS. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of the tumor were reviewed to confirm areas with at least 25 % of tumor cellularity. Then, the designated area was extracted for genomic DNA. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis was performed using a 47-gene panel. Case 1 is a 71-year-old man with high grade follicular thyroid carcinoma with clear cell and oncocytic features. The carcinoma showed a missense mutation in TP53 (p.R342G, c.1024C > G) and a 16-nucleotide intronic deletion started next to the 3' of exon 6 (involving the canonical +1 and +2 bases of the splice donor site) in STK11 (p.?, c.862 + 1_862 + 16delGTGGGAGCCTCATCCC). Case 2 is a 76-year-old woman with tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. The carcinoma demonstrated a missense mutation in BRAF (p.V600E, c.1799T > A) and a missense mutation in STK11 (p.F354L, c.1062C > G). In summary, we present two elderly patients with thyroid carcinoma harboring STK11 mutation without clinical manifestation of PJS. The findings suggest that STK11 may play a role in thyroid carcinoma development. PMID:26662608

  18. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where are we?

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Roberto; Arena, Umberto; Tassi, Renato

    2016-02-20

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. The geographic distribution of this disease accompanies its principal risk factors: Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and some genetic attributes. Recently, type II diabetes has been shown to be a risk factor for HCC together with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although the risk factors are quite well known and it is possible to diagnose HCC when the tumor is less than 1 cm diameter, it remains elusive at the beginning and treatment is often unsuccessful. Liver transplantation is thus far considered the best treatment for HCC as it cures HCC and the underlying liver disease. Using the Milan criteria, overall survival after liver transplantation for HCC is about 70% after 5 years. Many attempts have been made to go beyond the Milan Criteria and according to recent works reasonably good results have been achieved by using a histochemical marker such as cytokeratine 19 and the so-called "up to seven criteria" to divide patients into categories according to their risk of relapse. In addition to liver transplantation other therapies have been proposed such as resection, tumor ablation by different means, embolization and chemotherapy. An important step in the treatment of advanced HCC has been the introduction of sorafenib, the first oral, systemic drug that has provided significant improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC patients must be multidisciplinary and by using the different approaches discussed in this review it is possible to offer prolonged survival and quite good and sometimes even excellent quality of life to many patients. PMID:26929917

  20. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  1. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-03-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  2. Hepatic Angiomyolipoma Mimicking Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Li, Hong-Yan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chang-Chun; Liu, Shu-Hong; Gao, Xu-Dong; Qu, Jian-Hui; Liu, Ze; Chang, Xiu-Juan; Lu, Yin-Ying; Zeng, Zhen; Lou, Min; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the liver with marked histological diversity. The present study was to review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical pathological features of HAML resembling hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nine patients who underwent surgical resection and had pathological diagnosis of HAML were retrospectively analyzed. All of 9 patients (5 males and 4 females) had a solitary hepatic mass with a median size of 4 cm (from 1.4 cm to 15.3 cm). Seven cases were identified as incidental liver tumors during health screening and 2 patients were diagnosed for hepatic mass when visited hospitals with unspecific abdominal discomfort. Before resection, 6 cases were diagnosed as HCC on MRI. MRI on chemical shift imagings showed a large amount of lipids in 5 cases. The enhancement pattern of MRI was classified into 2 types: in 2 cases, lesions with small or no vessels that demonstrated prolonged enhancement (1 mixed subtype and 1 myomatous subtype) and in 7 cases, lesions with abundant central vessels that show rapid washout (3 mixed subtypes and 4 myomatous subtypes) in the portal venous/delayed phase. All patients underwent resection of hepatic tumor and no recurrence was observed during follow-up (range: 2–24 months) of median 10 months. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells demonstrated positive immunostaining for human melanoma black-45, smooth muscle actin, and CD34. In conclusion, all of 9 patients with HAML presented with none or nonspecific clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of HAML relies on disease and immunohistochemistry, but not MRI due to its resemblance to HCC. PMID:25526436

  3. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where are we?

    PubMed Central

    Mazzanti, Roberto; Arena, Umberto; Tassi, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. The geographic distribution of this disease accompanies its principal risk factors: Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and some genetic attributes. Recently, type II diabetes has been shown to be a risk factor for HCC together with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although the risk factors are quite well known and it is possible to diagnose HCC when the tumor is less than 1 cm diameter, it remains elusive at the beginning and treatment is often unsuccessful. Liver transplantation is thus far considered the best treatment for HCC as it cures HCC and the underlying liver disease. Using the Milan criteria, overall survival after liver transplantation for HCC is about 70% after 5 years. Many attempts have been made to go beyond the Milan Criteria and according to recent works reasonably good results have been achieved by using a histochemical marker such as cytokeratine 19 and the so-called “up to seven criteria” to divide patients into categories according to their risk of relapse. In addition to liver transplantation other therapies have been proposed such as resection, tumor ablation by different means, embolization and chemotherapy. An important step in the treatment of advanced HCC has been the introduction of sorafenib, the first oral, systemic drug that has provided significant improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC patients must be multidisciplinary and by using the different approaches discussed in this review it is possible to offer prolonged survival and quite good and sometimes even excellent quality of life to many patients. PMID:26929917

  5. Primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    JIN, SHIHUA; WANG, GANG; YU, CHENGFAN; LI, NINGCHEN

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare; 7 patients with the disease have been reported previously. All these patients were males with transitional cell carcinoma. The current study reports the case of a 61-year-old woman, who presented with gross hematuria following a radical nephrectomy for local clear cell renal carcinoma. A computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a mass on the ureteral stump. The patient underwent a left ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision. The histological diagnosis was high-grade transitional cell carcinoma of the ureteral stump, with focal interstitial cancer cell infiltrates. There was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 35 months. In addition, the present study reviewed the literature for previous patients with ureteral stump carcinoma following a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma; 7 previous patients with the disease were identified. The present study suggests that, if patients who have previously undergone a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma present with hematuria, the possibility of ureteral stump carcinoma should be considered, particularly in East Asian countries. The existence or a history of bladder carcinoma should be considered as a high-risk factor for developing ureteral stump carcinoma. A ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision should be performed once ureteral stump carcinoma is diagnosed. PMID:27123110

  6. DNAJB1-PRKACA is specific for fibrolamellar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rondell P; Jin, Long; Knutson, Darlene L; Kloft-Nelson, Sara M; Greipp, Patricia T; Waldburger, Nina; Roessler, Stephanie; Longerich, Thomas; Roberts, Lewis R; Oliveira, Andre M; Halling, Kevin C; Schirmacher, Peter; Torbenson, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Fibrolamellar carcinoma is a distinct subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma that predominantly affects young patients without underlying cirrhosis. A recurrent DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion has recently been reported in fibrolamellar carcinomas. To determine the specificity of this fusion and to develop routinely available clinical methods of detection, we developed an RT-PCR assay for paraffin-embedded tissues and a FISH probe for detection of the rearrangements of the PRKACA locus. We also developed an RNA in situ hybridization assay to assess expression levels of the total chimeric transcript and wild-type transcripts. A total of 106 primary liver tumors were studied by RT-PCR, including 26 fibrolamellar carcinomas (4 of which were metastases to the abdominal wall or lymph nodes), 25 conventional hepatocellular carcinomas, 25 cholangiocarcinomas, 25 hepatic adenomas, and 5 hepatoblastomas. RT-PCR was successful in 92% of tested fibrolamellar carcinoma cases (24/26) and the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion transcript was found in all fibrolamellar carcinomas but not in other tumor types. FISH was tested in 19 fibrolamellar carcinomas and in 6 scirrhous hepatocellular carcinomas, which can closely mimic fibrolamellar carcinoma. Rearrangements of the PRKACA locus was seen in all 19 fibrolamellar carcinoma specimens, but in none of the scirrhous hepatocellular carcinomas. Finally, a RNA in situ hybridization strategy was positive in 7/7 successfully hybridized cases, and showed mRNA over-expression in all of the fibrolamellar carcinomas. In addition, the stromal cells embedded in the characteristic intratumoral fibrosis of fibrolamellar carcinomas and the background liver tissues were negative for the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion by all tested methods. In conclusion, detection of DNAJB1-PRKACA is a very sensitive and specific finding in support of the diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma. PMID:25698061

  7. Modeling anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Champa, Devora; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the least common form of thyroid cancer; however, it accounts for the majority of deaths associated with this family of malignancies. A number of genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse models recapitulating the genetic and histological features of anaplastic thyroid cancer have been very recently generated and represent an invaluable tool to dissect the mechanisms involved in the progression from indolent, well differentiated tumors to aggressive, undifferentiated carcinomas, and to identify novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the relevant characteristics associated with these models and on what we have learned in terms of anaplastic thyroid cancer biology, genetics, and response to targeted therapy. PMID:25420535

  8. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Penticuff, Justin C; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of “targeted therapies”. Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC. PMID:26309897

  9. Stromal signatures in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iñigo; Catasus, Lluis; D' Angelo, Emanuela; Mozos, Ana; Pedrola, Nuria; Bértolo, Cristina; Ferrer, Irene; Zannoni, Gian Franco; West, Robert B; van de Rijn, Matt; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Prat, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    The pattern of myometrial invasion in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas varies considerably; ie, from widely scattered glands and cell nests, often associated with a fibromyxoid stromal reaction (desmoplasia) and/or a lymphocytic infiltrate, to invasive glands with little or no stromal response. Recently, two distinct stromal signatures derived from a macrophage response (colony-stimulating factor 1, CSF1) and a fibroblastic response (desmoid-type fibromatosis, DTF) were identified in breast carcinomas and correlated with clinicopathologic features including outcome. In this study, we explored whether these stromal signatures also apply to endometrioid carcinomas and how their expression patterns correlated with morphologic changes. We studied the stromal signatures both by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in 98 primary endometrioid carcinomas with (87 cases) and without (11 cases) myometrial invasion as well as in the corresponding regional lymph nodes metatases of 9 myoinvasive tumors. Desmoplasia correlated positively with the DTF expression signature. Likewise, mononuclear infiltrates were found in the stroma of tumors expressing CSF1. Twenty-four out of eighty-seven (27%) myoinvasive endometrioid carcinomas were positive for the macrophage signature and thirteen out of eighty-seven (15%) expressed the fibroblast signature. Eleven additional cases were positive for both DTF and CSF1 signatures (11/87; 13%). However, over half of the cases (39/87; 45%) and the majority of the non-myoinvasive tumors (8/11; 73%) failed to express any of the two stromal signatures. The macrophage response (CSF1) was associated with higher tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and PIK3CA mutations (P<0.05). There was a concordance in the expression of the CSF1 signature in the primary tumors and their corresponding lymph node metastases. This study is the first characterization of stromal signatures in endometrioid carcinomas. Our findings shed new light on the relationship between genetically different endometrioid carcinomas and various stromal responses. Preservation of the CSF1 macrophage stromal response in the metastases leds support to targeting the CSF1 pathway in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas. PMID:24263966

  10. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma.

    PubMed

    González-Cantú, Yessica M; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy. PMID:26509093

  11. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    González-Cantú, Yessica M.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy. PMID:26509093

  12. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Ryan M; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2016-03-01

    (90)Y radioembolization refers to the selective, transcatheter, and intra-arterial injection of micrometer-sized particles loaded with the radioisotope yttrium-90 for the treatment of primary and metastatic hepatic malignancies. In the treatment of intermediate- and advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, (90)Y radioembolization provides favorable outcomes with minimal side effects, offering an alternative treatment option to other transarterial therapies, such as bland embolization and chemoembolization. This review provides an overview of the use of (90)Y radioembolization in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, including patient selection criteria, dosimetry, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26897714

  13. Vertigo caused by a nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Krause, Eike; Hempel, John Martin; Grkov, Robert

    2007-11-01

    A case of a 63 year-old woman with acute vertigo, hearing loss and tinnitus caused by a nasopharyngeal carcinoma is reported. Despite a long-standing unilateral Eustachian tube dysfunction, only the occurrence of vertigo attacks lead to the diagnosis in this patient. Inner ear-related symptoms are rare in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the disease is uncommon in Europe. Skull base tumors are an important differential diagnosis of labyrinth dysfunction that can be detected by MRI. A complete diagnostic work-up is necessary in patients with unilateral tube dysfunction, to allow early detection of this disorder. PMID:17588167

  14. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  15. The recognition of human bronchogenic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Stark, M; Stiller-Winkler, R; Idel, H; Schlipköter, H W

    1983-01-01

    Xenotransplants of human carcinomas were tested for consistency of the analytical data of tumor markers over several passages in nude mice and nude rats. The binding properties of antibodies against tumor-associated antigens present in sera from tumor-bearing patients were tested with aid of the anticomplement immunofluorescence. The best binding capacity was found when sera from patients with bronchogenic carcinomas reacted on xenotransplants of the digestive tract (70%). Because of the low values for controls as well as for inflammatory diseases, this test may be applicable in the early recognition of lung cancer. PMID:6883377

  16. Dynamic computed tomography of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoki, T.; Chatani, M.; Mori, S.

    1982-12-01

    Nineteen patients with clinically proven hepatocellular carcinoma were studied by dynamic computed tomographic (CT) scanning. Ten consecutive 3 sec scans were performed within 30 sec, providing uninterrupted data collection. Dynamic CT scanning was useful in recognizing tumor vascularity, multiple small tumors, isodense tumors on conventional CT scans, the capsule of an encapsulated heptocellular carcinoma, arteriovenous shunts, and vascular pools. Time-density curves were useful in evaluating the hemodynamics of the tumors; these could be classified into three types according to differences in their enhancement patterns.

  17. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  18. Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Mark Anthony S; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A 63-year-old man consulted for a non-toxic thyroid nodule of 2 years’ duration. Fine needle aspiration revealed cell findings consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. He eventually underwent total thyroidectomy. Microscopic examination revealed histologic features of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. He received radioactive iodine therapy and suppressive levothyroxine treatment. Post-therapy whole body iodine-131 scan revealed thyroid tissue remnants limited to the anterior neck. Four months after radioactive iodine therapy, thyroglobulin level is low and the patient remains to have no evidence of disease. PMID:22715205

  19. [Chondrosarcomatous metaplastic carcinoma of the breast, a rare tumor].

    PubMed

    Guillén-Paredes, P; Carrasco-González, L; Chaves-Benito, A; Martínez-Gálvez, M; Aguayo-Albasini, J L

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinomas of the breast are uncommon, accounting for less than 0.2% of all breast cancers. Clinically and radiologically, metaplastic carcinomas are indistinguishable from typical ductal carcinomas, and the diagnosis is made histologically by the finding of a mesenchymal component. We present a case of chondrosarcomatous metaplastic breast carcinoma whose definitive diagnosis required immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the malignant epithelial component of the tumor. Accurate diagnosis is important because this tumor behaves differently: it usually spreads through the blood (whereas typical epithelial carcinomas spread through the lymph vessels), metastases present during follow-up rather than before diagnosis, and the five-year survival rate is 35%. PMID:22595382

  20. Sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Matute, Alonso Reyes; Bernal, Adriana Mendez; Lezama, Jos Ramrez; Guadalupe, Manzano Pech Linaloe; Antonio, Galicia Avalos Marco

    2014-09-01

    A sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. The second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. The purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. Although there is little information about diseases affecting this species, it is known that neoplastic disorders are fairly common in African hedgehogs. The mammary carcinoma is considered to be the most common neoplasm in these animals; however, the presentation of sebaceous carcinoma is rare. In hedgehogs, the simultaneous presence of two neoplasms is common, which is why special attention should be paid to the presentation of other tumors during the early detection of a neoplastic process as this will greatly facilitate the optimal treatment and improve the long-term prognosis of affected animals. PMID:25314843

  1. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric characteristics of the tumour nests and their associated peritumoral stroma were quantified, and the presence of a marked immune reaction or elastosis was noted. Results The tumour to stroma ratio was different among each tumour subtype. Elastosis was identified in a greater proportion of the infiltrative tumours. Conclusions Quantitative differences exist between the peritumoral stroma of basal cell carcinoma subtypes. Future work exploring the relation between these morphometric differences and biochemical variations in peritumoral stroma may further our understanding of the biology of carcinoma development. Trial Registration Not applicable. PMID:22405101

  2. Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with giant cell carcinoma of the lungs: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lungs (combined LCNEC) with giant cell carcinoma is extremely rare. A 65-year-old man was found to have an abnormal shadow in his left lung field. Computed tomography revealed a solid, round mass measuring 2.8 × 2.2 cm that was located in the left S9. The patient underwent left lower lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed an LCNEC, combined with giant cell carcinoma. The patient received by S-1 (TS-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine) chemotherapy, and he has been disease-free for over 8 months. Combined LCNEC with giant cell carcinoma is an extremely rare tumor with high malignant potential, and thus, multidisciplinary therapy and close follow-up are advised. PMID:23957954

  3. [Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of larynx as an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tiken, Elif Eda; Çolpan Öksüz, Didem; Batur, Şebnem; Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Öz, Büge; Öz, Ferhan; Uzel, Ömer; Turkan, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and lip. It is rarely observed in the respiratory and digestive tract and may present more aggressively. The incidence of distant metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancers is low and the lungs are the most common metastatic sites. Metastasis to the soft tissue, skin, and adrenal glands from the laryngeal region is very uncommon. In this article, we report a 58-year-old female case who underwent postoperative radiation therapy with the diagnosis of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and developed metastasis to the soft tissue and adrenal gland at the early period. PMID:27107606

  4. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology. PMID:26813941

  5. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  6. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, and Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma: Differentiation in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shirley Y.; Bell, Diana; Hanna, Ehab Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant sinonasal tumors comprise less than 1% of all neoplasms. A wide variety of tumors occurring primarily in this site can present with an undifferentiated or poorly differentiated morphology. Among them are esthesioneuroblastomas, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas, and neuroendocrine carcinomas. Objectives We will discuss diagnostic strategies, recent advances in immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnosis, and treatment strategies. Data Synthesis These lesions are diagnostically challenging, and up to 30% of sinonasal malignancies referred to the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center are given a different diagnosis on review of pathology. Correct classification is vital, as these tumors are significantly different in biological behavior and response to treatment. The past decade has witnessed advances in diagnosis and therapeutic modalities leading to improvements in survival. However, the optimal treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma remain debated. We discuss advances in immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnosis, diagnostic strategies, and treatment selection. Conclusions There are significant differences in prognosis and treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Recent advances have the potential to improve oncologic outcomes but further investigation in needed. PMID:25992139

  7. Sino nasal undifferentiated carcinoma: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Richa; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Ramani, Pratibha; Chandrasekar, Thiruvengadam

    2012-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity are rare, comprising only 3% of all head and neck malignancies. This includes both primary sinonasal neoplasms and metastatic disease. We present the case of a patient with a maxillary soft tissue swelling, which proved to be a rare malignant tumor of maxillary sinus origin, a sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma PMID:22690063

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from trophic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Boopalraj, J M; Muthusami, T C

    1979-01-01

    This study presents two cases of Squamous Cell Carcinomas arising from trophic ulcers of leprosy attending Leprosy Department, Government General Hospital, Madras. The aim of this presentation is to analyse these cases in the light of the earlier reports and to draw attention to certain significant features of them. PMID:449288

  9. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from pilonidal sinus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Mithilesh K; Gupta, Puneet; Khanna, Ajay K

    2014-08-01

    Pilonidal sinus is usually present in the sacrococcygeal region. The common presentations are cellulitis, abscess or sinus. Rarely malignant change may be seen in chronic pilonidal sinus. We report a case of chronic pilonidal sinus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23050944

  11. Non-hepatocellular carcinoma spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Boone, Christine; Ruiz-Valls, Alejandro; Sankey, Eric W; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Elder, Benjamin D; Kosztowski, Thomas; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Metastases to the spine from non-hepatocellular carcinomas, such as cholangiocarcinoma and angiosarcoma, occur rarely. With improvements in oncologic care, the number of patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer is expected to increase. We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the clinical presentation, treatment, outcome and survival of patients diagnosed with non-hepatocellular carcinoma spinal metastasis using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. We identified 19 cases of spinal metastases from non-hepatocellular carcinomas that fit our pre-specified criteria. The mean age at presentation was 62.3years and cholangiocarcinoma was the most common subtype. Patients frequently presented with pain, weakness or paraparesis and at the time of diagnosis, most of them had multi-level involvement of the spine. A majority of patients with spinal metastasis were treated either with radiation or chemotherapy or received no treatment. A minority of the reports included information on survival, which revealed a median survival of 1.5months following diagnosis of the spinal metastasis. Although there is a paucity of published literature on non-hepatocellular carcinoma spinal metastasis, this systematic review provides descriptive clinical characteristics of these patients. PMID:26778049

  12. Extrahepatic biliary carcinoma in sloth bears.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, S J; Kramer, L W

    1984-12-01

    Extrahepatic biliary carcinoma was found in each of 5 adult sloth bears that died between 1970 and 1984 while on exhibit in Ohio zoos. The tumor was characterized by numerous mucin-producing neoplastic glands scattered throughout abundant fibrous stroma. The cause of the tumor was not determined. PMID:6096326

  13. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Turajlic, Samra; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2015-12-01

    This SnapShot summarizes current knowledge about the key features in mutational landscape, major pathways, and tumor evolution and heterogeneity in renal cell carcinoma, as well as the most recent advances in therapeutic development. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26638079

  14. Intra-mandibular adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bouaichi, A; Aimad-Eddine, S; Mommers, X-A; Ella, B; Zwetyenga, N

    2014-04-01

    Intra-mandibular localization of adenoid cystic carcinoma is rare. This tumor is characterized by progressive local, regional, and distant aggressiveness. We reviewed the latest data on this rare type of cancer with a small number of reported cases, alack of consensus for its treatment, and its bad prognosis. PMID:24674932

  15. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chehab, Mahmoud; Caza, Tiffany; Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Mollapour, Mehdi; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-04-20

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  16. [Report on 114 primary vaginal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Zhang, W H; Li, A L; Wu, A R

    1987-11-01

    114 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated in our hospital from 1958 to 1978. It accounted for 0.83% of all gynecological malignant tumors in the same period. The youngest was 26 years of age, the oldest 75. Patients 40-59 years comprised 61.4%. 33% of patients had wedding age under 17. 63.4% had more than 4 pregnancies and 58.4% gave more than 4 births. 89.69% was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 7.2% as adenocarcinoma, 2.06% as undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 as embryonic carcinoma. The tumor occurred frequently in the upper third and posterior wall of the vagina (60% and 68%). In this series, there were 21 stage I, 29 stage II, 61 stage III and 3 stage IV lesions. 110 patients were treated by radiotherapy in different schemes. Intracavitary radium or caesium plus 60Co external irradiation by four fields gave better result with a 5 year survival rate of 66.1%. Only 2 out of 12 patients were cured by 60Co rotation alone but if supplemented by intracavitary radium or caesium, the cure rate was increased. The 5 year survival rate was 71.4% for stage I, 62.1% for stage II, 42.6% for stage III and O for stage IV. After the radiotherapy, rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient, vesicovaginal fistula in 1. 14% was complicated with rectal bleeding and 8.18% with hematuria. PMID:3452544

  17. CARCINOMA OF THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight cases of acinar cell carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were diagnosed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from a pool of approximately 10,000 specimens used in a variety of carcinogenesis bioassays. hree cases occurred in specimens from control groups and one case in a sp...

  18. Bilateral ovarian carcinoma with bilateral uveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, J; Mooney, D; O'Connor, M; McDonald, G S

    1984-01-01

    A case of bilateral uveal melanoma in a 60-year-old woman in association with primary bilateral ovarian carcinoma is described. This is the first case in which ultrastructural studies have been performed on the ocular tumours. Seven previously described cases are summarised, and the extreme rarity of such reports would suggest that this may indeed be a new syndrome. Images PMID:6704361

  19. Mohs surgery for squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Daniel; Carucci, John A

    2011-04-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common human cancer and can behave aggressively. Mohs micrographic surgery offers the highest cure rates for high-risk SCCs and is particularly useful for SCCs on challenging anatomic sites. PMID:21421142

  20. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2 carcinomas. The reason for a radical cholecystectomy after simple CE in a formally R0 situation is either occult invasion or hepatic spread with unknown lymphogenic dissemination. Unfortunately, there are diverse interpretations and practices regarding stage-adjusted therapy for gallbladder carcinoma. The current data suggest that more radical therapy is warranted. PMID:26604631

  1. Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-11

    Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  2. DNM3 Attenuates Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth by Activating P53

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengdong; Chen, Chun; Guo, Weike; Zheng, Shengbao; Sun, Zhenghua; Geng, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in China and its mortality rate shows no sign at present of ceasing to rise. In our previous study, we found that the mRNA level of Dynamin3 (DNM3), a member of the Dynamin family, is significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than in non-tumor tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern and potential function of DNM3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Material/Methods First, we determined the expression ofDNM3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cell lines. We then studied the biological function of DNM3 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells by proliferation assay and colony formation assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the effect of DNM3 on cell cycle and apoptosis. Results Expression of DNM3 was significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and was associated with vein invasion and tumor metastasis. In addition, upregulation of DNM3 reduced hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and colony formation, induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell G0/G1 phase arrest, and stimulated hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis. We also found that DNM3 may exert its anti-proliferative effect through upregulating p53. Conclusions Our findings suggest that DNM3 attenuates the proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Modulation of DNM3 may prove to be an efficient method of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID:26784388

  3. A Case of Gastric Cancer with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Components, and Intramural Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Akagi, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 67 Final Diagnosis: Gastric cancer with neuroendocrine carcinoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Total gastrectomy • splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Many neuroendocrine carcinomas exhibit medullary infiltration and expanded proliferation. Differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma is frequently seen in the superficial region in many neuroendocrine carcinoma cases. However, the present case showed non-medullary infiltration and signet ring cell carcinoma in the superficial region, with intramural metastases distributed throughout the whole of the stomach. Case Report: A 67-year-old man was referred to our institution for treatment of gastric cancer. Type IIc-like advanced gastric cancer was detected in the greater curvature of the middle body of the stomach. The patient underwent total gastrectomy, splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction with curative resection. The tumor was diagnosed as a large-cell endocrine carcinoma of the stomach. A solid growth of signet ring cells was seen in the mucosa and submucosa. Intramural metastases were observed in many other depressed lesions. Large-cell carcinoma invaded the submucosa, mainly in the intramural metastatic site. Metastasis to one lesser curvature lymph node was also seen on histological examination. The final diagnosis was a gastric cancer of type 0–IIc (T4a) [M] (with intramural metastases) at T4aN1H0P0M0 Stage IIIA. This patient has remained alive without recurrence for 72 months after surgery. Conclusions: We recommend close preoperative examination of neuroendocrine carcinoma, taking intramural metastases into consideration. PMID:27102318

  4. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26089205

  5. Multiple hamartoma syndrome (Cowden's disease) associated with renal cell carcinoma and primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma).

    PubMed

    Haibach, H; Burns, T W; Carlson, H E; Burman, K D; Deftos, L J

    1992-05-01

    A case of multiple hamartoma syndrome (Cowden's disease) associated with renal cell adenocarcinoma and primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is described. Neither of these neoplasms has been documented previously in association with this genodermatosis. A search for epidermal growth factor receptor (c-erb-B protooncogene) gene abnormalities in the kidney, liver, and thyroid, as well as in tissue of the primary neuroendocrine carcinoma, was negative. Serum obtained from the patient before his death contained elevated levels of both chromogranin A (2641 ng/mL; normal level, less than 20 ng/mL) and calcitonin (517 pg/mL; normal level, less than 200 pg/mL), suggesting that the patient's principal tumor was neuroendocrine in origin. PMID:1575215

  6. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-27

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  8. Serum protein biomarkers relevant to hepatocellular carcinoma and their detection.

    PubMed

    Waidely, Eric; Al-Yuobi, Abdul-Rahman Obaid; Bashammakh, A S; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S; Leblanc, Roger M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most recurrent and lethal cancers worldwide. The low survival rate of this particular strain of carcinoma is largely due to the late stages at which it is diagnosed. Tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma is most frequently detected through ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scans, however, these methods are poor for detection of early tumor development. This review presents alternative hepatocellular carcinoma detection techniques through the use of protein and enzyme/isozyme biomarkers. The detection methods used to determine the serum levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP), glypican-3 (GPC3), Golgi protein 73 (GP73), α-L-fucosidase (AFU), des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are presented and each marker's respective validity in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is evaluated. PMID:26606739

  9. Molecular Phenotypes of Unifocal, Multifocal, and Diffuse Invasive Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Tot, Tibor; Pekár, Gyula; Hofmeyer, Syster; Gere, Maria; Tarján, Miklós; Hellberg, Dan; Lindquist, David

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the subgross distribution of the invasive component in 875 consecutive cases of breast carcinomas using large-format histology sections and compared the immunophenotype (estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, HER2 overexpression and expression of basal-like markers, CK5/6, CK14, and epidermal growth factor receptor) in unifocal, multifocal, and diffuse tumors. Histology grade and lymph node status were also analyzed. Unifocal invasive carcinomas comprised 58.6% (513/875), multifocal invasive carcinomas 36.5% (319/875), and diffuse invasive carcinomas 4.9% (43/875) of the cases. The proportion of lymph node-positive cases was significantly higher in multifocal and diffuse carcinomas compared to unifocal cancers, but no other statistically significant differences could be verified between these tumor categories. Histological multifocality and diffuse distribution of the invasive tumor component seem to be negative morphologic prognostic parameters in breast carcinomas, independent of the molecular phenotype. PMID:21151538

  10. Molecular phenotypes of unifocal, multifocal, and diffuse invasive breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tot, Tibor; Pekár, Gyula; Hofmeyer, Syster; Gere, Maria; Tarján, Miklós; Hellberg, Dan; Lindquist, David

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the subgross distribution of the invasive component in 875 consecutive cases of breast carcinomas using large-format histology sections and compared the immunophenotype (estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, HER2 overexpression and expression of basal-like markers, CK5/6, CK14, and epidermal growth factor receptor) in unifocal, multifocal, and diffuse tumors. Histology grade and lymph node status were also analyzed. Unifocal invasive carcinomas comprised 58.6% (513/875), multifocal invasive carcinomas 36.5% (319/875), and diffuse invasive carcinomas 4.9% (43/875) of the cases. The proportion of lymph node-positive cases was significantly higher in multifocal and diffuse carcinomas compared to unifocal cancers, but no other statistically significant differences could be verified between these tumor categories. Histological multifocality and diffuse distribution of the invasive tumor component seem to be negative morphologic prognostic parameters in breast carcinomas, independent of the molecular phenotype. PMID:21151538

  11. Differentiation between chalazion and sebaceous carcinoma by noninvasive meibography

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Yuji; Arita, Reiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Sasajima, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Background Sebaceous carcinoma is notorious for masquerading clinically as other benign lesions such as chalazion. A tool to better differentiate between these two conditions would thus be desirable. Purpose To examine the potential application of noninvasive meibography in the differential diagnosis of chalazion and sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid as a retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods Five individuals with chalazion and three patients with sebaceous carcinoma were observed. Noninvasive meibography was performed to visualize the reflectivity and shape of the lesion in each subject. Results Noninvasive meibographic imaging revealed chalazion as a lesion of overall low reflectivity with small regions of higher reflectivity corresponding to lipid granules. On the other hand, the noninvasive meibography revealed sebaceous carcinoma as a poorly marginated lesion of high reflectivity in the eyelid. Conclusion Noninvasive meibographic imaging may prove useful for the differential diagnosis of chalazion and sebaceous carcinoma. It may also be informative in definition of the resection area in carcinoma patients. PMID:25258508

  12. Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to skeletal muscle: single center experience.

    PubMed

    Cincibuch, Jan; Mysliveček, Miroslav; Melichar, Bohuslav; Neoral, Cestmír; Metelková, Iva; Zezulová, Michaela; Procházková-Študentová, Hana; Flodr, Patrik; Zlevorová, Miloslava; Aujeský, René; Cwiertka, Karel

    2012-09-21

    Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to the skeletal muscle are rare, but the incidence may be increasing because of better diagnosis resulting from widespread use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A cohort of 205 patients with esophageal carcinoma treated at our center who had PET/CT between 2006 and 2010 was retrospectively evaluated for the presence of skeletal muscle metastases. Four patients had skeletal muscle metastases of esophageal carcinoma, including two patients with squamous cell carcinoma. In another patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and synchronous skeletal muscle metastases, muscle metastases were subsequently shown to be related to second primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In all cases, skeletal muscle metastases were the first manifestation of systemic disease. In three patients palliation was obtained with the combination of external beam radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy or surgical resection. Skeletal muscle metastases are a rare complication of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:23002370

  13. Mandibular Destruction Secondary to Invasion by Carcinoma Cuniculatum.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael C; Wong, Brian; O'Brien, Michael J; Salama, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is a rare form of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that is often misdiagnosed. It has a propensity for local invasion and rarely metastasizes. Oral carcinoma cuniculatum is exceedingly rare, with very few reported cases in the English-language literature. Classically, its presentation mimics osteomyelitis or a dental abscess, resulting in misdiagnosis, multiple biopsy examinations, and procedures before a final diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. This case report describes the case of a 71-year-old woman who was referred to the authors' clinic for evaluation of persistent pain and swelling of the mandible. Multiple biopsy examinations were negative for malignancy, and the patient was misdiagnosed with osteomyelitis and dental abscess before obtaining an accurate diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. The aim of this report is to provide a thorough clinical and histopathologic report of carcinoma cuniculatum of the mandible, provide a brief review of the literature, and highlight the difficulties in arriving at this uncommon diagnosis. PMID:26072180

  14. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-18

    Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma,; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  15. Secondary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Siuw, Chin Pei; Tan, Siow W; Abdul Wahid, Adrena B; Vasudevan, Suresh

    2016-03-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with right eye axial proptosis and ophthalmoplegia for 3 months. Imaging study showed a right intraconal mass with the erosion of the orbital floor. Incisional biopsy revealed mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Nasal endoscopy was normal and systemic tumor screening was negative for a primary source. The patient underwent right orbital exenteration, uncinectomy, nasal and maxillary mucosal biopsy. Malignant cells were found present in the mucosa of maxillary sinus roof and uncinate bone. The postoperative positron emission tomography scan showed residual active lesion in right orbital apex and maxilla but no primary lesion elsewhere. The patient subsequently underwent 35 cycles of postoperative radiotherapy. Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the orbit is rare and typically arises from the lacrimal gland or sac. Those tumors not arising from lacrimal apparatus should be presumed metastatic in origin, and the thorough systemic survey should be undertaken in the search for the primary tumor. PMID:27146939

  16. Laryngeal acinic cell carcinoma following thyroid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, J.F.; McLean, W.C.; Cantrell, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Only three examples of acinic cell carcinoma of the larynx or trachea are found in the recent literature. A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the subglottic larynx and trachea was diagnosed and treated at the University of Virginia Medical Center. To our knowledge this is the first such case with a prior history of radiation to the neck. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who was irradiated for hyperthyroidism 46 years ago. When seen she also had parathyroid hyperplasia and multiple thyroid adenomas, conditions that frequently follow irradiation of the thyroid in children. These findings in this case support the concept that radiation may be responsible for inducing this tumor, which otherwise rarely occurs in this location. The use of electron microscopy was extremely useful in the diagnosis of this tumor. She was treated with total laryngectomy and right neck dissection and is now free of disease one year after surgery.

  17. Markers of metastatic carcinoma of breast origin.

    PubMed

    Gown, Allen M; Fulton, Regan S; Kandalaft, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the three major breast-associated markers that can be of assistance in evaluating metastatic carcinomas for which a breast primary diagnosis is entertained. These markers include gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), mammaglobin, and GATA3. The first two are cytoplasmic markers that show comparable sensitivities for breast cancer, although relatively few of the published studies have employed the same antibodies against the target molecule, making direct comparisons challenging. GATA3 is a nuclear transcription factor that shows superior sensitivity to GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. However, the specificity of GATA3 can pose challenges, inasmuch as carcinomas of the bladder and other sites can show significant levels of positivity. Determination of the optimal panel of antibodies employed in a given clinical setting will thus depend on the non-breast tumours included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26768031

  18. [Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of maxillofacial and oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Byung, M

    1990-11-01

    Authors experienced a case of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 48-year-old female and a case of low grade central mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 51-year-old female, respectively. The former occurred in right mandibular angle and showed multilocular radiolucent area surrounded by sclerotic rim but perforation of cortical bone connected with tumor mass in oral cavity radiographically. The latter occurred in left mandibular angle and ramus. Radiographic feature showed large radiolucent area in left mandibular angle and ramus, and destruction of coronoid process but intact condylar process. The origin of the latter might be mucus secreting cells of lined epithelium in dentigerous epithelium. In two cases metastases were not found. PMID:2130125

  19. Peripartum disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis simulating ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sherer, David M; Osho, Joseph A; Zinn, Harry; Demetus, Spiro; Huang, Jennifer; Temkin, Sarah; Abulafia, Ovadia

    2005-10-01

    Disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis is an uncommon complication of pregnancy. We present a 26-year-old multiparous immigrant from Haiti who was admitted following an extramural preterm delivery. Marked ascites was confirmed by computerized tomography, which also revealed a thickened greater omentum. These findings were considered suggestive of advanced ovarian carcinoma, although extrapulmonary tuberculosis was also considered despite negative tuberculin skin test screening. Image-guided omental biopsy demonstrated caseating granulomas substantiating the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, which was later confirmed by cultures. The patient responded well to antituberculosis medications. This case describes the unusual peripartum presentation of abdominal tuberculosis simulating advanced ovarian carcinoma, and demonstrates the importance of considering extrapulmonary tuberculosis when encountering ascites and omental thickening during pregnancy despite negative tuberculin skin test screening. PMID:16215926

  20. Mucinous Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Behzatğlu, Kemal; Boyaci, Ceren; Okçu, Oğuzhan; Hacihasanoğlu, Ezgi; Çakir, Yasemin; Darakçi, Seher

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma with abundant myxoid stroma is a newly-described and extremely rare entity. Since only very few cases have been reported, there is no consensus on its nomenclature. Microscopic examination revealed invasive urothelial carcinoma with widespread low-grade noninvasive areas. There were focal invasive areas in the neighborhood of the renal parenchyma. Malignant urothelial tumor/cell groups localized in the stroma had abundant myxoid/mucinous background in the invasive areas. The cytoplasm of the tumoral cells was more eosinophilic in these areas and the cells formed small groups and cords. Histochemically, PAS and Alcian Blue were positive in the cytoplasm of the tumoral cells and in the stroma while negative in the non-mucinous areas. Immunohistochemically, the tumoral cells of the mucinous invasive areas diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC2. We discuss the origin of the mucinous/myxoid stroma, the tumor’s nature and its nomenclature with histochemical and immunohistochemical features. PMID:25568745

  1. Etiological factors in invasive corpus uteri carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zemła, B; Gumiński, S; Franek, K; Kołosza, Z; Banasik, R

    1991-01-01

    The case-control method was applied in order to test how various types of diet as well as past diseases, tobacco smoking and occupational exposure may affect the risk of incidence of corpus uteri cancer in the population of natives and among immigrant women. The highest risk of incidence was noted in the group of natives persistently using a diet rich in meat, animal fat, amylum meals and sugar but lacking raw vegetables. Such a high risk was not observed in the group of immigrant women what might be caused by more frequent change of the type of diet. Some past diseases (arterial hypertension, diabetes, diseases of organs of reproduction and urinary system) do affect a relatively high risk of corpus uteri carcinoma in both populations. However, no noteworthy results have been obtained in the risk of corpus uteri carcinoma as far as tobacco smoking and occupational exposure are concerned. PMID:2041575

  2. Radiographic findings in recurrent parathyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Krudy, A.G.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.; Brennan, M.F.; Spiegel, A.; Aurback, G.D.

    1982-03-01

    Seven cases of recurrent parathyroid carcinoma were reviewed. Subperiosteal resorption was seen in 6, pulmonary nodules in 4, renal calculi in 5, brown tumors in 5, and pancreatic calcifications in 1. Angiography was performed in 5 patients, showing 1 definite and 2 probable cervical recurrences, 1 mediastinal lesion, and 1 case of possible bone metastases. Venous sampling for parathyroid hormone was carried out in 4 patients and suggested residual disease in 2; in addition, there were 1 false and 1 true negative. CT was performed in 4 patients and was useful in delineating metastatic pulmonary nodules, cervical recurrence, and hepatic metastases. The radiographic approach to recurrent parathryoid carcinoma and the use of CT and angiography are discussed.

  3. Temporal bone carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Noorizan, Y; Asma, A

    2010-06-01

    Temporal bone carcinoma may masquerade as an infective process causing late diagnosis. A delay in treatment as a result of missed diagnosis would carry a poor prognosis as the disease progresses to an advanced stage. We present a lady with history of chronic otorrhea, who developed left sided otalgia associated with hearing loss in her sixth decade. She underwent surgery which revealed left mastoiditis and cholesteatoma. After a year, she had a mass in her left ear and pus discharge which was initially treated as an infection. The biopsy of the mass was proven to be squamous cell carcinoma. High index of suspicion is necessary when encountering patients presenting with a mass in the ear canal with prior history of chronic otorrhea or cholesteatoma. Proper tissue biopsy is crucial. Early referral to tertiary centre is required for further management of the patient. PMID:23756808

  4. Secondary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Siuw, Chin Pei; Tan, Siow W; Abdul Wahid, Adrena B; Vasudevan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with right eye axial proptosis and ophthalmoplegia for 3 months. Imaging study showed a right intraconal mass with the erosion of the orbital floor. Incisional biopsy revealed mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Nasal endoscopy was normal and systemic tumor screening was negative for a primary source. The patient underwent right orbital exenteration, uncinectomy, nasal and maxillary mucosal biopsy. Malignant cells were found present in the mucosa of maxillary sinus roof and uncinate bone. The postoperative positron emission tomography scan showed residual active lesion in right orbital apex and maxilla but no primary lesion elsewhere. The patient subsequently underwent 35 cycles of postoperative radiotherapy. Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the orbit is rare and typically arises from the lacrimal gland or sac. Those tumors not arising from lacrimal apparatus should be presumed metastatic in origin, and the thorough systemic survey should be undertaken in the search for the primary tumor. PMID:27146939

  5. Sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid: anatomoclinical data.

    PubMed

    Costea, Claudia Florida; Petraru, D; Dumitrescu, Gabriela; Sava, Anca

    2013-01-01

    Sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid is a rare slow-growing tumor and is one of the most aggressive malignancies of the eyelid. Diagnosis is often delayed because it can be confused with other periocular lesions. We report the case of a 78-year-old female who presented for the anesthetic aspect of a nodular tumor on the right upper eyelid occurring one year earlier. The patient was treated for three months for recurrent chalazion. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a nodular ulcerated tumor of 1 cm in size adherent to adjacent tissues. Surgical excision was performed with a safety margin of 4 mm. The diagnosis of moderately differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was made by routine morphological methods and immunohistochemical reactions (EMA and Ki-67). Being a rare tumor with considerable morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and proper treatment are essential for a favorable prognosis and preservation of visual function. PMID:24068422

  6. Carcinoma of unknown primary and paraneoplastic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenblick, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is known to be associated with neoplastic disorders, however the presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary as dermatomyositis is rare. We describe a case index of 50-year-old female who presented with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes accompanied with symmetric proximal muscle weakness and erythematous plaques. Conventional basic work-up did not reveal the diagnosis, however, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and re-staining of the pathology specimen suggested the ovaries as the primary site. Chemotherapy including carboplatin paclitaxel and bevacizumab led to complete response of disease and improvement in the dermatomyositis. The present case emphasizes the importance of a thorough directed evaluation for the underlying cancer in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary presenting as dermatomyositis. We further provide an up-to-date detailed review of published data describing these clinical entities. PMID:26677443

  7. Transcriptomic characterization of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Simon, Elana P; Freije, Catherine A; Farber, Benjamin A; Lalazar, Gadi; Darcy, David G; Honeyman, Joshua N; Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel; Dill, Brian D; Molina, Henrik; Bhanot, Umesh K; La Quaglia, Michael P; Rosenberg, Brad R; Simon, Sanford M

    2015-11-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) tumors all carry a deletion of ∼ 400 kb in chromosome 19, resulting in a fusion of the genes for the heat shock protein, DNAJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1, DNAJB1, and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, PRKACA. The resulting chimeric transcript produces a fusion protein that retains kinase activity. No other recurrent genomic alterations have been identified. Here we characterize the molecular pathogenesis of FLHCC with transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing). Differential expression (tumor vs. adjacent normal tissue) was detected for more than 3,500 genes (log2 fold change ≥ 1, false discovery rate ≤ 0.01), many of which were distinct from those found in hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of several known oncogenes, such as ErbB2 and Aurora Kinase A, was increased in tumor samples. These and other dysregulated genes may serve as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26489647

  8. Thyroid metastasis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S M M; Hashemipour, S; Salehi, S; Kazemifar, A M; Madani, P S

    2016-04-01

    The thyroid gland is a rare site for cancer metastasis. We report a 75-year-old man who was referred with a history of hematuria and generalized bone pain for the past few months. He had a past history of partial left lobe thyroidectomy for follicular adenoma. Subsequently he was referred for a thyroid mass and a subtotal thyroidectomy showed a poorly-differentiated carcinoma. On the latest admission, the patient underwent resection of a bladder tumour with malignant histology and an immunohistochemical profile of CK7+/CK20+/34 Beta E12+/CEA-/PSA-. Re-examination of thyroid sections with immunohistochemical stains revealed the malignant cells to be CK7+/CK20+/34 Beta E12+/CEA-/TTF1-. The findings were compatible with metastasis of the bladder transitional cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.Scans revealed multiple liver and bone metastases. The patient died 2 months after the diagnosis. PMID:27126668

  9. Carcinoma in a mediastinal fifth parathyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Kastan, D.J.; Kottamasu, S.R.; Frame, B.; Greenwald, K.A.

    1987-03-06

    Commonly four parathyroid glands are located in the neck. The incidence of a fifth supernumery parathyroid gland has been reported to be between 2% and 6%. Most reports of a hyperfunctioning supernumery parathyroid gland have been adenomas. There have been only a few reports of parathyroid gland carcinoma occurring outside of the cervical region, none of which were in a supernumery parathyroid gland. The authors believe this is the first report of a carcinoma occurring in a supernumery parathyroid gland. Following surgery, four views of the chest during a barium swallow examination showed an anterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the mediastinum confirmed a contrast-enhancing soft-tissue mass anterior to and separate from the aorta.

  10. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shrimati; Sharma, Nitika; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of increasing mortality in elderly hemophilia population. Majority of the patients treated with virus non-inactivated factor concentrates prepared from large plasma pools prior to 1985 have been found to be infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major risk factor for HCC. A PubMed search of articles published until February 2015 was performed utilizing the keywords hemophilia, malignancy, neoplasm, cancer, mortality, ageing hemophilia, epidemiology, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cancer and the relevant articles were included. Contradictory reports are available in literature on the incidence of cancers in general in hemophilia population. Almost all the studies where the incidence of HCC or mortality due to HCC have been analyzed in hemophilia population show that a vast majority of these patients are HCV infected. The incidence of HCC though higher in hemophilic population is related to the higher incidence of HCV infection and not due to the hemophilia phenotype. PMID:26754251

  11. Changing epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia.

    PubMed

    Goh, George Boon-Bee; Chang, Pik-Eu; Tan, Chee-Kiat

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major problem in Asia because of the presence of multiple risk factors in the region such as endemicity of hepatitis B and significant contamination of foodstuff by aflatoxin in some areas. Another risk factor for HCC, chronic hepatitis C infection, in Asia is most significant in Japan, the only Asian country with more HCV than HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. As these risk factors can and are being modified by measures such as universal hepatitis B immunisation, successful treatment of HCV infections, reduction and improved surveillance of aflatoxin contamination of foodstuff, it is not surprising that the epidemiology of HCC in Asia is changing. All these are offset by the rising importance of NAFLD and NASH as chronic liver diseases and risk factors for HCC which contributes to the changing epidemiology of HCC in Asia. PMID:26651253

  12. Transcriptomic characterization of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Elana P.; Freije, Catherine A.; Farber, Benjamin A.; Lalazar, Gadi; Darcy, David G.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel; Dill, Brian D.; Molina, Henrik; Bhanot, Umesh K.; La Quaglia, Michael P.; Rosenberg, Brad R.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) tumors all carry a deletion of ∼400 kb in chromosome 19, resulting in a fusion of the genes for the heat shock protein, DNAJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1, DNAJB1, and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, PRKACA. The resulting chimeric transcript produces a fusion protein that retains kinase activity. No other recurrent genomic alterations have been identified. Here we characterize the molecular pathogenesis of FLHCC with transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing). Differential expression (tumor vs. adjacent normal tissue) was detected for more than 3,500 genes (log2 fold change ≥1, false discovery rate ≤0.01), many of which were distinct from those found in hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of several known oncogenes, such as ErbB2 and Aurora Kinase A, was increased in tumor samples. These and other dysregulated genes may serve as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26489647

  13. Expression of immune checkpoint molecules in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIA; LIU, YULING; WANG, WULIANG; WANG, CHENYANG; CHE, YANHONG

    2015-01-01

    The main obstacle in the development of an effective tumor vaccine is the inherent ability of tumors to evade immune responses. Tumors often use common immune mechanisms and regulators to evade the immune system. The present study aimed to analyze the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), programmed death-ligand (PD-L) 1, PD-L2, B7-H4, galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tissue samples from patients with endometrial carcinoma, in order to detect the immunosuppressive environment of endometrial carcinomas. The levels of IDO, PD-L1, PD-L2 and B7-H4 were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tumor lysates were determined using ELISA. PD-L2 was expressed at low levels in the majority of tumor samples. IDO expression was detected in 38, 63 and 43% of primary endometrial carcinoma, recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens, respectively. Positive expression rates for PD-L1 were 83% in primary endometrial carcinoma, 68% in recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and 100% in metastatic endometrial carcinoma, whereas B7-H4 expression was detected in 100% of both primary endometrial carcinoma and recurrent endometrial carcinoma samples, and in 96% of metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens. The expression levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 were not significantly different between the normal and tumor specimens. The results of the present study suggest that the interaction between PD-1/PD-L1 and B7-H4 may be a potential target for immune intervention in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. Furthermore, the results may provide the basis for immunosuppressant therapy in the treatment of patients with uterine cancer. PMID:26640578

  14. Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    V, Pavithra; Shalini, C.N. Sai; Priya, Shanmuga; Rani, Usha; Rajendiran, S; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and a very aggressive tumour. Once being considered to be a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, evidence has proven that most of the tumours express one or more markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. The behaviour of this rare malignancy is different from that of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high propensity for nodal and distant metastases. Hence, there is a need to highlight this histopathological entity. PMID:24701511

  15. Management of High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is an increasing public health concern, representing the second most common cancer in the United States. High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents a subgroup of this disease, where patients are at higher risk of metastasis and death. To date, there are no accepted criteria for defining or managing these patients. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and outlines reasonable management strategies based on available data. PMID:20725546

  16. Pulmonar collision tumor: metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; García-Fontán, E; Ríos, J; Rivo, J E; Fernández-Martín, R; Cañizares, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen. PMID:21802893

  17. Association of esophageal candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Delsing, C.E.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; van de Veerdonk, F.L.; Tol, J.; van der Meer, J.W.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic esophageal candidiasis is an infection that is mostly seen in immunocompromised conditions, among which is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Recently an association between CMC and esophageal carcinoma has been reported. Here we present two patients with chronic esophageal candidiasis who developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and we discuss the etiologic role of Candida-induced nitrosamine production, the loss of STAT1 function and impaired tumor surveillance and T-lymphocyte function in the development of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:24371724

  18. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jim A; Lee, Maris S; Nicholson, Matthew E; Justin, Robert B

    2014-09-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25183891

  19. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Christopher J; Crooks, Daniel R; Sourbier, Carole; Schmidt, Laura S; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Linehan, W Marston

    2016-04-11

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease made up of a number of different cancer types, with distinct histologies, clinical courses, therapeutic responses, and genetic drivers. Germline mutations in 14 genes have been associated with increased risk of RCC and can result in HIF pathway activation, chromatin dysregulation, and altered metabolism. Knowledge of these pathway alterations can inform the development of targeted therapeutic approaches. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27070709

  20. Postirradiation optic neuropathy in antral carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.; Vashist, S.

    1984-06-01

    A case is described of a patient who developed radiation-induced optic neuropathy 18 months following cobalt-60 irradiation for carcinoma of the left maxillary antrum and ethmoid sinus. This case is unusual because of the early onset of the optic nerve damage following radiation therapy and the ultimate emergence of the eye involved by tumor compression as the better eye in terms of visual acuity.

  1. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

  2. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-06-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

  3. Results of surgical therapy for lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Paris, F; Padilla, J; Tarazona, V; Blasco, E; Canto, A; Pastor, J; Zarza, A G

    1979-01-01

    A series of 300 pulmonary resections in patients with lung carcinoma is presented. Total survival rate of the series since the operation, including surgical mortality, was 33% at 3 years and 24% at 5 years. The survival rate and surgical criteria were correlated, having better results when standard surgery was performed. The authors emphasize that the surgical figures of the series are of great value as the surgical indications were large and nonselective, with 85% of resectability in the thoracotomies. PMID:229985

  4. [Cardiac metastasis of bronchial squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Herrak, L; Bouchikh, M; Maidi, M; Fennane, H; Ouchen, F; Benosmane, A

    2012-08-01

    Secondary location of lung cancer are frequent but the location heart is rare and often diagnosed postmortem. We report a case of a patient of 67 years without disease history, individuals smoking outside a chronic carrier of bronchial squamous cell carcinoma and the staging of which finds a secondary location within the left atrial. Through this observation, the authors propose an update on this rare and exceptional location. PMID:22503297

  5. Chemoembolization and Radioembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to represent a major worldwide problem. While treatments such as resection, transplantation and ablation may provide a chance for cure, these options are often precluded because of advanced disease presentation. Palliative treatments include transarterial embolization and systemic therapies. This review will summarize the state of the science for embolic therapies in HCC (conventional and drug-eluting chemoembolization, radioembolization), as well as discuss related topics including HCC staging, assessment of response and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:23357493

  6. Transitional cell carcinoma: a case for collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, R J; Mackenzie, E F; Hill, J; Fearn, L M

    1992-01-01

    Urine samples from the greatest proportion of the numerical workload of most clinical microbiology laboratories. During the screening by microscopy, atypical cells were detected which did not conform to the normal cellular morphology found in urinary deposits. These specimens were referred to the Department of Cytopathology for a second opinion. From these referrals a small but significant number of previously undiagnosed transitional cell carcinomas were detected. PMID:1740524

  7. Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma in a Juvenile Rhadomyosarcoma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo Hwan; Jeon, Hyun Woo; Oh, Woo Jin

    2014-01-01

    Primary tumors of the lung are uncommon in pediatric patients, particularly bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC). An 11-year-old female suffering from back pain for 1 month was referred to Seoul St. Mary's Hospital for treatment of a pathologic fracture of the lumbar spine. Comprehensive evaluation disclosed numerous pulmonary metastases of rhabdomyosarcoma (stage IV). During chemotherapy, most of the lung lesions regressed, with the exception of two nodules. Wedge resections, intended for diagnosis and cure, yielded a histologic diagnosis of BAC. PMID:24570868

  8. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jim A.; Lee, Maris S.; Nicholson, Matthew E.; Justin, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25183891

  9. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Ching-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare condition comprising at least 30%percnt; of each component of exocrine and endocrine tumors. The denominations were defined in the 2000 WHO classification of endocrine tumors. We report an 83-year-old male with a polypoid gastric tumor in the gastric high body who received total gastrectomy and died 8 months after the diagnosis from local recurrence and distal metastases. A review of the literature for this infrequent condition is presented. PMID:26351411

  10. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  11. The role of GATA3 in breast carcinomas: a review.

    PubMed

    Asch-Kendrick, Rebecca; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    GATA3 is a zinc-binding transcription factor that regulates the differentiation of many human tissue types, including the mammary gland. In surgical pathology, immunohistochemistry for GATA3 is largely used to support urothelial or breast origin in a carcinoma of unknown origin. GATA3 is sensitive but not entirely specific in this setting. Although GATA3 labeling is highest in estrogen receptor-positive carcinomas, it also labels estrogen receptor-negative carcinomas and thus has particular diagnostic utility in the setting of triple-negative breast carcinomas, which are typically negative for other mammary-specific markers. PMID:26772397

  12. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  13. Pulmonary Metastasectomy 31 Years After Surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yui; Harada, Aya; Aoki, Masaya; Kamimura, Go; Wakida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Yokomakura, Naoya; Kariatsumari, Kota; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami

    2015-06-01

    An 82-year-old man underwent a left upper lobectomy for a solitary tumor on suspicion of lung cancer. Histopathologic findings of the resected specimen showed clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which was diagnosed as a metastasis from kidney cancer concealed for 31 years after nephrectomy. The Ki-67 labeling index of the metastatic tumor was high (36.1%). A few cases of recurrent renal cell carcinoma after a long interval from initial diagnosis have been seen. However, pulmonary metastasectomy more than 30 years after radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma has not been reported. This remarkable case provides new and valuable clinical insights into metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26046874

  14. Molecular profiling of lung adenosquamous carcinoma: hybrid or genuine type?

    PubMed Central

    Vassella, Erik; Langsch, Stephanie; Dettmer, Matthias S.; Schlup, Cornelia; Neuenschwander, Maja; Frattini, Milo; Gugger, Mathias; Schäfer, Stephan C.

    2015-01-01

    Lung adenosquamous carcinoma is a particular subtype of non-small cell lung carcinoma that is defined by the coexistence of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components. The aim of this study was to assess the mutational profile in each component of 16 adenosquamous carcinoma samples from a Caucasian population by a combination of next generation sequencing using the cancer hotspot panel as well as the colon and lung cancer panel and FISH. Identified mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing of DNA from cancer cells of each component collected by Laser Capture microdissection. Mutations typical for adenocarcinoma as well as squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Driver mutations were predominantly in the trunk suggesting a monoclonal origin of adenosquamous carcinoma. Most remarkably, EGFR mutations and mutations in the PI3K signaling pathway, which accounted for 30% and 25% of tumors respectively, were more prevalent while KRAS mutations were less prevalent than expected for a Caucasian population. Surprisingly, expression of classifier miR-205 was intermediate between that of classical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggesting that adenosquamous carcinoma is a transitional stage between these tumor types. The high prevalence of therapy-relevant targets opens new options of therapeutic intervention for adenosquamous carcinoma patients. PMID:26068980

  15. Human papillomavirus-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Guo, Theresa W; Smith, David F; Wang, Hao; Ogawa, Takenori; Pai, Sara I; Westra, William H

    2013-02-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. p16 immunohistochemical analysis and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcome data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high-risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV-positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (P<0.0001). The HPV-related carcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean, 54 y). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high-risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. Although nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma. The distinctiveness of these HPV-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract with respect to risk factors, clinical behavior, and response to therapy remains to be clarified. PMID:23095507

  16. Wolf in sheep's clothing: a case of carcinoma erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Ambarish; Gangopadhyay, Mitali; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ray, Pranamita

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases of the breast carcinomas can present clinically as nodules, plaques and tumors (most commonly as nodules) as well as ‘erysipelas-like’ lesions are known as ‘carcinoma erysipeloides’. We want to share our experience in diagnosing a middle-aged lady with carcinoma erysipeloides secondary to breast carcinoma and her management as this is commonly misdiagnosed as cellulitis or scleroderma in general practice. Unfortunately, the patient had presented to us at a late stage with wide-spread metastasis, and as such, chemotherapy was the only available option. She expired after her third cycle of chemotherapy. PMID:27127640

  17. Cystic echinococcosis accompanied by hepatocellular carcinoma in a female herdsman

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haitao; Song, Tao; Shao, Yingmei; Wen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common types of cancer in the whole world including China. A few reports about cystic echinococcosis concurrent with hepatocellular carcinoma were noted until now. In addition, the association between these two diseases is still not well defined as the case with cystic echinococcosis with hepatocellular carcinoma is rare. In this case report, we presented a female herdsman living in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, China, which may raise the possibility that echinococcosis may play a role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25932268

  18. Small cell carcinoma of the anus in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Mark A.; Hawk, Natalyn N.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Stapleford, Liza J.

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the anus is a rare tumor that has been infrequently described in the literature. In contrast to squamous cell carcinoma, which is known to be associated with high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiology of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal is not established. We present a case of a patient with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. In conjunction with recently published data demonstrating the presence of HPV in tumor specimens from patients with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal, our patient’s clinical course suggests a possible link between HPV and this rare malignancy. PMID:23730521

  19. Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.A. III; Robbins, K.T.; Stephens, J.; Dimery, I.W.; Batsakis, J.G.

    1987-02-01

    The aggressiveness of small (oat) cell carcinoma of the larynx presents a therapeutic challenge to the oncologist. Since the first description of this type of carcinoma in 1972, 52 patients have been reported in the literature and a variety of treatment regimens have been used. The purpose of this study was to report two new cases and review all previous reports to determine the disease's biological behavior, clinical manifestations, and optimum treatment. Thirty-five percent of the tumors were transglottic, and 27% were supraglottic. Fifty-four percent of patients had regional metastases at initial presentation and 17.6% had distant metastases. The median survival was 10 months for all patients. Patients who were treated with chemotherapy with or without other modalities had the best 2-year survival rates (52.2%). Forty-one percent of patients had regional recurrence only, 12.5% had regional recurrence and distant metastases, and 2% developed distant metastases only. We conclude that patients with oat cell carcinoma of the larynx should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is best reserved for persistent and recurrent disease at the primary site and neck.

  20. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  1. Urothelial carcinoma: Stem cells on the edge

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, William D.; Matsui, William; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; He, Xiaobing; Ling, Shizhang; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    Tumors are heterogeneous collections of cells with highly variable abilities to survive, grow, and metastasize. This variability likely stems from epigenetic and genetic influences, either stochastic or hardwired by cell type-specific lineage programs. That differentiation underlies tumor cell heterogeneity was elegantly demonstrated in hematopoietic tumors, in which rare primitive cells (cancer stem cells (CSCs)) resembling normal hematopoietic stem cells are ultimately responsible for tumor growth and viability. Because of the compelling clinical implications CSCs pose—across the entire spectrum of cancers—investigators applied the CSC model to cancers arising in tissues with crudely understood differentiation programs. Instead of relying on differentiation, these studies used empirically selected markers and statistical arguments to identify CSCs. The empirical approach has stimulated important questions about “stemness” in cancer cells as well as the validity and stoichiometry of CSC assays. The recent identification of urothelial differentiation programs in urothelial carcinomas (UroCas) supports the idea that solid epithelial cancers (carcinomas) develop and differentiate analogously to normal epithelia and provides new insights about the spatial localization and molecular makeup of carcinoma CSCs. Importantly, CSCs from invasive UroCas (UroCSCs) appear well situated to exchange important signals with adjacent stroma, to escape immune surveillance, and to survive cytotoxic therapy. These signals have potential roles in treatment resistance and many participate in druggable cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss the implications of these findings in understanding CSCs and in better understanding how UroCas form, progress, and should be treated. PMID:20012172

  2. Targeted molecular therapies in thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Serena; Moretti, Sonia; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio

    2009-12-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has significantly increased in the last three decades and many patients seek medical attention for its treatment every year. Among follicular cell-derived tumors, the majority are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC), whose prognosis is very good with only 15% of the cases presenting disease persistence or recurrence after initial treatment. Medullary thyroid carcinoma has a worse prognosis, especially in patients with diffused cancers at the time of initial surgery. Traditional treatment options for persistent or recurrent disease include additional surgery, radioiodine treatment and TSH-suppression in DTC patients; external beam radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy, often have low efficacy and many patients with advanced disease ultimately die. In the last two decades many of the molecular events involved in cancer formation have been uncovered. This knowledge has prompted the development of novel therapeutic strategies mainly based on the inhibition of key molecular mediators of the tumorigenic process. In particular the class of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors was enriched by many compounds that have reached clinical trials and in some cases have had approval for clinical use in specific cancers. Many of these compounds entered clinical trials also for locally advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas showing very promising results. PMID:20126863

  3. Tattoo granuloma of the eyelid mimicking carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bee, Carson R; Steele, Eric A; White, Kevin P; Wilson, David J

    2014-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman was referred to the Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery service for evaluation of a left upper eyelid lesion that was worrisome for carcinoma. The mass measured 8 × 8 mm; it was well-circumscribed, pink, and firm with distortion of the eyelid margin, central ulceration, and loss of the lashes. The patient denied previous surgery or trauma in this area, but she had a history of blepharopigmentation (tattoo eyeliner) of all 4 eyelids approximately 7 years prior. Incisional biopsy revealed inflammatory changes consistent with a localized reaction to the tattoo pigment granules. Local kenalog injection was attempted with improvement of the overall appearance but with persistent deformity including irregularity of the margin and loss of lashes. The persistent abnormal appearance was worrisome for an underlying carcinoma missed on the initial incisional biopsy and prompted a full-thickness wedge resection and reconstruction of the abnormal area. The results of biopsy of the excised tissue confirmed absence of malignant neoplasm and showed changes consistent with tattoo granuloma. Tattoo granuloma of the eyelid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of eyelid lesions worrisome for carcinoma in patients with a history of blepharopigmentation. PMID:23511999

  4. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  5. A study of desmosomes in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. E.; Taylor, I.; Garrod, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Desmosomes are adhesive junctions of epithelial cells. Their expression may be altered or lost in carcinomas resulting in reduced cellular adhesiveness. The desmosomes of colorectal carcinomas have been studied by fluorescent antibody staining, immunoblotting and electromicroscopy. A series of 58 malignant specimens, comprised of primary tumours and metastases, were desmosome positive. There was no indication of a comparative reduction in desmosome expression that might give rise to reduced adhesiveness of tumour cells, although loss of polarised junctional distribution in poorly differentiated tumours might have such a consequence. Western blotting analysis of colorectal cancers and cultured carcinoma cells identified desmosomal polypeptides dp1 + 2, dg1 and dg2 + 3 with similar relative molecular weights to normal homologues. In addition, a polypeptide of 140,000 was recognised only in malignant epithelium by anti-dg2 + 3 antiserum. The significance of this polypeptide is not understood. Tumours and uninvolved epithelium were exposed to low extracellular [Ca2+] to test whether tumour desmosomes were of reduced stability. This caused much cellular degradation in tumours but some viable cell clumps possessed desmosomes resistant to disruption by low [Ca2+]. Desmosomes may thus have a positive role in metastasis by maintaining intercellular adhesion between metastasising cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2123114

  6. Pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sahni, Sonu; Iftikhar, Asma; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for majority of all primary renal neoplasms. Classic manifestations of RCC include the triad of flank pain, hematuria and a palpable renal mass. Patients with RCC can develop various extra renal manifestations including involvements of the lungs, inferior vena cava, liver and the bones. The pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma include metastatic disease including endobronchial, pleural, parenchymal or lymph node metastasis, pleural effusion or hemothorax. Pulmonary embolism and tumor embolism is another common manifestation of renal cell carcinoma. RCC is a highly vascular tumor and can cause pulmonary arterio-venous fistulas leading to high output failure. Rarely, RCC can also present with paraneoplastic presentations including cough or bilateral diaphragm paralysis. Drugs used to treat RCC have been associated with drug related pneumonitis and form an important differential diagnosis in patients with RCC on therapy presenting with shortness of breath. In this review we discuss the various pulmonary manifestations of RCC. A high index of suspicion with these presentations can lead to an early diagnosis and assist in instituting an appropriate intervention. PMID:26525375

  7. Oesophageal carcinoma: laser palliation in 231 cases.

    PubMed

    Rau, B K; Harikrishnan, K M; Krishna, S

    1994-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-one patients of advanced oesophageal carcinoma were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation of tumour tissue to relieve distressing dysphagia. There were 155 males (67.1%) and 76 females (32.9%). The mean age was 59.6 years. Eighty-five percent (196 cases) were above 50 years of age. Distribution of tumour by site was as follows: upper one-third--24 cases (10.4%), mid one-third--98 cases (42.4%) and lower one-third--109 cases (47.1%). Squamous cell carcinomas accounted for 83.5% (193) of cases. Nearly two-thirds (144 cases, 62.3%) were more than 4 cm in length. Tumour deposits were found at more than one site in 11 cases (4.7%). Oesophageal lumen was restored in all cases but was poorly sustained in 19 cases (8.2%). Further sessions of laser therapy were required in all these cases. A mean of 2.7 sessions of laser treatment was required to achieve adequate lumen. One hundred and eighty-nine patients (82%) had good relief of dysphagia to liquids and semi solids. Complications were seen in 20 cases (8.6%). There were no deaths related to the procedure. Mean survival was 5.5 months (1-14 months). Nd:YAG laser therapy offers effective palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma of the oesophagus with acceptable morbidity and no mortality. PMID:7514382

  8. An unexpected case of primary peritoneal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nur-Syahrina, R; Siti-Aishah, M A; Swaminathan, M; Ng, P H O; Ismail, S; Syazarina, S O; Aini, A A; Das, S

    2010-01-01

    Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is a rare tumor that is histologically and immunohistochemically indistinguishable from epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The diagnosis is usually made after excluding gross ovarian involvement or the ovarian involvement is only confined to the surface. A 68-year-old lady presented with right iliac fossa pain and increasing CA125. The CT scan showed bilateral pelvic adnexal masses with peritoneal deposits within the right side of abdomen. She was initially diagnosed as carcinomatosis peritonei from the omental cake removed after exploratory surgery. She was managed as advanced ovarian tumor with peritoneal metastasis and was then administered six cycles of chemotherapy. Surgical intervention included debulking surgery consisting of total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingooophorectomy and omentectomy and also with right hemicolectomy. The histopathological findings were of primary peritoneal serous carcinoma with only minimal involvement of the serosal surface of the right ovarian capsule. No microscopic invasion into underlying ovarian cortex and stroma was observed. Multiple tumor deposits were also seen over the right paratubal and paraovarian tissue, both parametrium as well as serosal surface of the terminal ileum and periappendicular tissue. Immunohistochemically, the malignant cells were positive to CA125, focally positive to CK7 and negative to CD20 and Calretinin. PPC is one of important differential diagnosis which needs to be considered in cases of advanced ovarian tumor, although the former can only be ascertained after excluding the ovarian involvement microscopically. PMID:20589359

  9. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  10. Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-03-20

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  11. Early hepatocellular carcinoma macroscopically resembling adenomatous hyperplasia: pathological resemblance to carcinoma-in-situ.

    PubMed

    Wakasa, K; Haba, T; Hamada, T; Sasaki, M; Sakurai, M

    1997-01-01

    The pathological features of 11 nodules of early hepatocellular carcinoma (EHCC) were studied. Their macroscopic features resembled those of adenomatous hyperplasia and differed from those of advanced hepatocellular carcinomas (AHCC). The EHCC extended along the hepatic lobular structure and lacked expansive growth. The endothelial cells in the sinusoids of EHCC did not react to Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA1) like adenomatous hyperplasia or other liver parenchyma, whereas the endothelial cells in the AHCC did react to UEA1. Immunohistochemically, CD68-positive Kupffer cells were noted in the sinusoids of EHCC, whereas in the AHCC Kupffer cells were not seen. Tumor emboli in the portal vein and intrahepatic metastases were not identified in EHCC, which seemed to be carcinoma-in-situ or a microinvasive stage of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:9051692

  12. Insular carcinoma: A distinct thyroid carcinoma with associated iodine-131 localization

    SciTech Connect

    Justin, E.P.; Seabold, J.E.; Robinson, R.A.; Walker, W.P.; Gurll, N.J.; Hawes, D.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Insular carcinoma, once considered a poorly-differentiated thyroid cancer, has been reclassified as a distinct thyroid neoplasm. Since this neoplasm is composed of follicular epithelial cells, it may concentrate radioiodide (131I) making postoperative 131I imaging for detection of metastases and radiotherapy possible. A 20-yr review of 35 cases diagnosed as anaplastic or undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma at this medical center revealed five patients with insular carcinoma. Four patients showed postoperative 131I localization and received therapeutic doses of 131I. Three of the four showed extrathyroidal 131I localization in neoplastic lesions. In one patient, the resolution of metastatic lesions by magnetic resonance and 131I imaging suggests that 131I may have an important therapeutic role in this aggressive neoplasm.

  13. Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Unusual Variant Masquerading as Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Akhavein, Arash; Han, Julia; Carter, Christopher; Al-Quran, Samer Z.; Su, Li-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located at the Xp11.2 locus. Initial cases were more common in children, but cases in older adults have begun to accrue and suggest a relatively more aggressive course. We report a case of Xp11 TRCC in a 63-year-old female patient with initial presentation mimicking upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma, with biopsy proving TRCC. She underwent a radical nephrectomy and paracaval lymph node dissection and is followed up with the intent to initiate vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy in case of recurrence. PMID:26955551

  14. Gynecomastia With Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Associated With Invasive Breast Carcinoma in a Male Patient on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Coyne, John D

    2016-04-01

    Breast carcinoma in males is rare although a 4-fold increased incidence is reported in HIV-infected men. Herein we report a case of invasive breast carcinoma in a HIV-positive man on antiretroviral therapy. The carcinoma was associated with features of florid gynecomastia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, and columnar cell change. This combination of morphological changes has not previously been reported in the context of male breast carcinoma and their etiopathological associations are discussed. PMID:26612847

  15. Cox-2 gene overexpression in ureteral stump urothelial carcinoma following nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A primary ureteral stump tumor after a nephrectomy is rare; urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is even rarer. A thorough review of the literature indicated that only seven cases have previously been reported. In this study, we report the first Taiwanese case of urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy. It is also the first female case in the literature. The relationship between inflammatory genes, medication history and ureteral stump carcinoma after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma has not been reported. Case presentation A 72-year-old Asian Taiwanese women with chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease underwent a hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in 2001 due to renal cell carcinoma. Nine years later, she was diagnosed with ureteral stump urothelial carcinoma. Genetic and medication surveys were performed. Importantly, our patient had taken Chinese herbal drugs for more than 10 years and the inflammatory gene, Cox-2, was highly expressed in this patient. This is the first report to study the relationship between the Cox-2 gene and ureteral stump carcinoma after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion Long-term multiple use of Chinese herbal drugs could be one of the important risk factors for developing urothelial cancer. Close functional coupling between Chinese herbal drugs, Cox-2 gene activation and urothelial cancer should be further investigated. PMID:22289336

  16. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Trachea Arising 4 Years After Radioiodine Treatment of Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Tan, Teik Hin; Lee, Boon Nang

    2016-05-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the trachea is rare. Here, we presented a rare case of primary SCC of the trachea arising 4 years after radioiodine (RAI) treatment of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. In this case, concomitant uptake of I-RAI and F-FDG was demonstrated in the thyroidal mass with tracheal invasion, which mimicked mixed well-differentiated and dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis of SCC of the trachea was made only after tracheal biopsy. This case illustrates that FDG-avid thyroid bed lesion, in the presence of thyroid carcinoma, may not necessarily be related to the thyroid pathology. PMID:26828143

  17. Individual karyotypes at the origins of cervical carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1952 Papanicolaou et al. first diagnosed and graded cervical carcinomas based on individual “abnormal DNA contents” and cellular phenotypes. Surprisingly current papilloma virus and mutation theories of carcinomas do not mention these individualities. The viral theory holds that randomly integrated, defective genomes of papilloma viruses, which are often untranscribed, cause cervical carcinomas with unknown cofactors 20–50 years after infection. Virus-free carcinomas are attributed to mutations of a few tumor-suppressor genes, especially the p53 gene. But the paradox of how a few mutations or latent defective viral DNAs would generate carcinomas with endless individual DNA contents, degrees of malignancies and cellular phenotypes is unsolved. Since speciation predicts individuality, we test here the theory that cancers are autonomous species with individual clonal karyotypes and phenotypes. This theory postulates that carcinogens induce aneuploidy. By unbalancing mitosis genes aneuploidy catalyzes chain reactions of karyotypic evolutions. Most such evolutions end with non-viable karyotypes but a few become new cancer karyotypes. Despite congenitally unbalanced mitosis genes cancer karyotypes are stabilized by clonal selections for cancer-specific autonomy. Results To test the prediction of the speciation theory that individual carcinomas have individual clonal karyotypes and phenotypes, we have analyzed here the phenotypes and karyotypes of nine cervical carcinomas. Seven of these contained papilloma virus sequences and two did not. We determined phenotypic individuality and clonality based on the morphology and sociology of carcinoma cells in vitro. Karyotypic individuality and clonality were determined by comparing all chromosomes of 20 karyotypes of carcinomas in three-dimensional arrays. Such arrays list chromosome numbers on the x-axis, chromosome copy numbers on the y-axis and the number of karyotypes arrayed on the z-axis. We found (1) individual clonal karyotypes and phenotypes in all nine carcinomas, but no virus-specific markers, (2) 1-to-1 variations between carcinoma-specific karyotypes and phenotypes, e.g. drug-resistance and cell morphology, (3) proportionality between the copy numbers of chromosomes and the copy numbers of hundreds of over- and under-expressed mRNAs, (4) evidence that tobacco-carcinogens induce cervical carcinomas via aneuploidy, consistent with the speciation theory. Conclusions Since the individual clonal karyotypes of nine carcinomas correlated and co-varied 1-to-1 with complex individual transcriptomes and phenotypes, we have classical genetic and functional transcriptomic evidence to conclude that these karyotypes encode carcinomas - much like the clonal karyotypes that encode conventional species. These individual karyotypes explain the individual “DNA contents”, the endless grades of malignancies and the complex individual transcriptomes and phenotypes of carcinomas. PMID:24134916

  18. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-13

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  19. Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  20. Metastatic metaplastic breast carcinoma mimicking pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doreen N; Kawamoto, Satomi; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Illei, Peter B; Rosenthal, Dorothy L; VandenBussche, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is a rare type of breast cancer. Metastases to the lung, which can be a major site of second primary tumor development among breast cancer patients, are difficult to distinguish from primary SCC of the lung and present a unique challenge for pathologists. There are few available discriminating immunohistochemical markers as squamous differentiation typically leads to loss of expression of characteristic primary epithelial cell markers of both breast and lung origin. GATA protein binding 3 (GATA-3) is a useful marker of breast origin in metastatic ductal and lobular carcinomas including poorly differentiated triple-negative carcinomas and some metaplastic carcinomas. Here, we present a case of metastatic SCC presenting as a solitary lung mass with regional lymph node metastases and a single satellite lesion in a patient with a history of metaplastic SCC of the breast. In addition to the routine markers of squamous differentiation, the metastases were also positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and GATA-3 on cytologic material obtained by transbronchial FNA. This suggests that immunoreactivity for ER and GATA-3 may support a diagnosis of metastatic SCC in the context of a prior metaplastic SCC of the breast. PMID:26238413

  1. Infiltrating lobular carcinoma--a comparison of diagnosis, management and outcome with infiltrating duct carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Molland, J G; Donnellan, M; Janu, N C; Carmalt, H L; Kennedy, C W; Gillett, D J

    2004-10-01

    The treatment and outcomes for 182 patients with lobular carcinoma were compared with 1612 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma managed concurrently at The Strathfield Breast Centre. The lobular carcinomas were larger (P < 0.0001) but of lower grade (P < 0.0001). Diagnosis with mammography and FNA was less sensitive in ILC (mammography P = 0.0002, FNA P < 0.0001). Although similar numbers of patients underwent initial attempted conservation, patients with ILC were more likely to have positive margins at attempted breast conservation surgery and the final mastectomy rate was higher (58.2% ILC versus 47% IDC, P = 0.0041). Of the patients who had successful conservation, the local recurrence rates for ILC (3.9%) were equivalent to the patients with IDC (5.3%). There was no significant difference in overall survival (90% ILC, 87% IDC, median follow-up 3.6 years ILC, 4.3 years IDC) or disease free survival (87.9% ILC, 81.6% IDC). Although mastectomy is more likely to be necessary to obtain clear margins, breast conservation therapy is reasonable in patients with infiltrating lobular carcinoma where clear margins can be obtained. PMID:15454194

  2. [The translocation carcinoma : A pediatric renal tumor also in adults].

    PubMed

    Bruder, E; Moch, H

    2016-03-01

    The MiT family of translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas comprise approximately 40 % of renal cell carcinomas in young patients but only up to 4 % of renal cell carcinomas in adult patients. The Xp11.2 translocation-associated tumors are the most frequent and were included in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. They contain a fusion of the TFE3 gene with ASPSCR1, PRCC, NONO, SPFQ or CLTC resulting in an immunohistochemically detectable nuclear overexpression of TFE3. The Xp11.2 translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas are characterized by ample clear cytoplasm, papillary architecture and abundant psammoma bodies. The TFEB translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas are much rarer and show a biphasic architecture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization permits the detection of a translocation by means of a break apart probe for the TFE3 and TFEB genes and is recommended for the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas in patients under 30 years of age. The TFE3 and TFEB translocation-associated tumors are classified as MiT family translocation carcinomas in the new WHO classification.The rare renal cell carcinomas harboring an ALK rearrangement with fusion to VCL in young patients with sickle cell trait show a characteristic morphology and are listed in the new WHO classification as a provisional entity. PMID:26972595

  3. Eyelid and ocular surface carcinoma: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Yin, Vivian T; Merritt, Helen A; Sniegowski, Matt; Esmaeli, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Eyelid cancers account for 5% to 10% of all cutaneous malignancies. The incidence of eyelid cancer is approximately 15 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. Basal cell carcinoma is by far the most common cutaneous malignancy in the periocular area; other cutaneous malignancies that occur in this area include, in decreasing order of frequency, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. The most common treatment for eyelid carcinomas is surgical resection with frozen section examination for margin control, but exenteration may be needed when there is orbital invasion. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be needed in patients at high risk for local recurrence; sentinel lymph node biopsy may be considered in patients at high risk for lymph node metastasis. Primary or residual in situ disease of the conjunctiva can be treated with topical chemotherapy, such as mitomycin C, 5-fluorouracil, or interferon alpha-2 b. For patients with metastatic or locally advanced basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma not amenable to surgical excision or radiotherapy, targeted therapy against the hedgehog pathway (for basal cell carcinoma) or epidermal growth factor receptor (for squamous cell carcinoma) has been shown to be effective in preventing disease progression. Patients with eyelid and ocular surface malignancies need to be monitored with careful clinical examination for at least 5years after surgical treatment, and additional investigations may be warranted in some cases. PMID:25704936

  4. Androgen associated hepatocellular carcinoma with an aggressive course.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, D; Newbould, M J; Taylor, P; McMahon, R F; Leahy, B C; Warnes, T W

    1991-09-01

    The hepatocellular carcinomas that develop in patients treated with androgens have previously been associated with a benign clinical outcome. We describe a man who developed a hepatocellular carcinoma after 24 years of androgen treatment, whose tumour initially showed partial regression after withdrawal of androgens but subsequently pursued an aggressive and fatal course. PMID:1655591

  5. Diffuse radioiodine lung uptake in miliary thyroid carcinoma metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Manier, S.M.; Eggli, D.; Blue, P.W.; Van Nostrand, D.

    1985-12-01

    A diffuse pattern of homogeneous tracer uptake is seen by I-131 scintigraphy in a patient with widespread miliary lung metastases due to papillary thyroid carcinoma. This case report emphasizes the need to include metastatic thyroid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of miliary lung nodules.

  6. Hepatic primary neuroendocrine carcinoma: about a new case

    PubMed Central

    Derouich, Hasna; Haddad, Fouad; Moukhlissi, Mohamed; Hliwa, Wafaa; Bellabah, Ahmed; Badre, Wafaa

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of Primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma admitted in our hospital and revealed in 53 years man by epigastric pain and flush syndrome. A liver biopsy with immunohistochemical study confirmed the original location of a neuroendocrine carcinoma. After 12 cures of Chemotherapy and a follow up of 12 months, the patient is still in complete remission. PMID:26161177

  7. Mammary carcinoma developing after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Janjan, N.A.; Wilson, J.F.; Gillin, M.; Anderson, T.; Greenberg, M.; Schewe, K.; Cox, J.D.

    1988-01-15

    Two patients developed breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Both had received mediastinal irradiation 13 to 15 years, respectively, before the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. One patient had synchronous bilateral breast cancer when the diagnosis was made. Discussed is the risk of mammary carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease.

  8. Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Victoria D.; Souza, Carlos; Vanderhart, Daniel; Boston, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female dog diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma and hypertrophic osteopathy was negative for additional lesions on computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen. Resection of the affected liver lobe resulted in resolution of clinical signs. This is the first case of hypertrophic osteopathy secondary to hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26130837

  9. SMARCB1 (INI-1) Deficient Carcinomas of the Sinonasal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Justin A.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Westra, William H.

    2014-01-01

    SMARCB1 (INI-1) is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q11.2. Its gene product is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of all normal tissues. SMARCB1 gene inactivation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a diverse group of malignant neoplasms that tend to share rhabdoid cytomorphology. This group of SMARCB1-deficient tumors is now further expanded by a subset of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. SMARCB1 immunostaining was performed on 142 sinonasal carcinomas. Tumors that showed loss of expression were further characterized for SMARCB1 deletions by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Nine of 142 (6%) primary sinonasal carcinomas showed loss of SMARCB1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Five patients were women, and patients ranged in age from 3378 years (mean 59). The SMARCB1 deficient tumors were characterized by nests, sheets, and cords of cells without any histologic evidence of specific (e.g. squamous or glandular) differentiation. The tumors were comprised of varying proportions of basaloid and rhabdoid cells. The SMARCB1 deficient carcinomas had been diagnosed as non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (n=3), sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (n=2), myoepithelial carcinoma (n=2), non-intestinal adenocarcinoma (n=1) and carcinoma, not otherwise specified (n=1). FISH analysis revealed SMARCB1 deletions in 6 of 8 (75%) carcinomas. The SMARCB1 deficient carcinomas did not harbor human papillomavirus or NUT-1 alterations. Six patients presented with T4 disease, 5 patients developed local recurrences and/or distant metastases, and four died of their disease. Inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of a subset of sinonasal carcinomas, further expanding the family of SMARCB1 deficient neoplasms and further delineating a bewildering group of poorly/undifferentiated, aggressive carcinomas arising at this site. The ability to detect SMARCB1 loss by immunohistochemistry, particularly when dealing with poorly differentiated carcinomas with basaloid or rhabdoid features, should facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of these sinonasal carcinomas including clinical behavior and response to targeted therapies. PMID:25007146

  10. Cutaneous invasion from sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma: clinical and dermatopathologic features*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; de Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves; Pires, Andréa Rodriguez Cordovil; Lupi, Omar; Neves, Daniel Gama das; da Cruz, Margareth Fernandes; Kac, Bernard Kawa

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, without considering the non-melanoma skin tumors, bladder cancer in men is the eighth most common, and the urothelial carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma is the most common among these. Cutaneous metastases from urothelial neoplasms appear as single or multiple erythematous, infiltrated nodules or plaques, and like other cases of distant disease, it is indicative of poor prognosis. The invasive urothelial carcinoma is recognized for its ability to present divergent differentiation and morphological variants. The sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma is a rare cancer that consists of two different components: one composed of epithelial tissue and the other with sarcomatoid features of mesenchymal origin. The authors describe a case of cutaneous metastasis of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma in a 63-year-old male patient. PMID:26982782

  11. A Case of Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mehrtens, Sarah; Veitch, David; Kulakov, Elizabeth; Perrett, Conal M.

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old lady presented with multiple recurring painful lesions over her thighs, arms, and back. Past medical history included a left sided nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma and a hysterectomy for multiple uterine fibroids (leiomyomas). Histopathological examination revealed changes consistent with pilar leiomyomas. Gene mutation analysis confirmed a diagnosis of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon autosomal dominant condition characterised by the concurrent presentation of cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas. Renal cell carcinoma associated with this condition is more aggressive and a significant cause of mortality. Due to this association with potentially fatal renal cell carcinoma we felt that it was important to highlight this case with an update on pathophysiology and management. PMID:27144040

  12. Clinical trials of antiangiogenic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic target to inhibit tumor growth. This review summarizes data from clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents in hepatocellular carcinoma. A systematic search of PubMed was performed to identify clinical trials of specific antiangiogenic agents in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment, particularly phase III trials involving treatment guidelines for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Sorafenib is the only systemic drug approved for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Two large-scale, randomized phase III trials using sorafenib involving patients with unresectable HCC showed a significant survival benefit compared with placebo control groups. However, subsequent phase III trials of antiangiogenic agents in hepatocellular carcinoma have failed to improve survival compared with standard treatment protocols using sorafenib. The efficacy of antiangiogenic agents in combination with other drugs, transarterial chemoembolization, and surgical resection is currently being investigated. Future research is expected to optimize antiangiogenic therapies in combination with standard treatment with sorafenib. PMID:26899258

  13. [Management of T1a vocal fold carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Reiter, R; Brosch, S; Smith, E; Pickhard, A

    2013-12-01

    About 2/3 of the larynx carcinomas affect the vocal chords. The main risk factor is smoking. Carcinomas in this localisation often arise from leukoplakias with dysplasia. A typical symptom is dysphonia. Arrest of vibration in microlaryngostroboscopy is a hint that a carcinoma could be present. Transoral laser cordectomy or radiotherapy show equivalent oncological results and results in quality of voice in the treatment of vocal fold carcinoma (T1a). As lymph node and distant metastasis are very rare, follow-up can concentrate on microlaryngoscopy. In case of a suspicious area on the vocal fold, biopsy of the affected tissue is needed to plan correct treatment. The prognosis of the T1 vocal chord carcinoma is quite good with a 5-year survival rate of almost 100%. PMID:23929210

  14. Diagnosis and management of carcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.A.

    1987-06-01

    Thyroid nodules are a frequent finding but engender concern primarily because of a large size or, occasionally, as a manifestation of a carcinoma. Needle biopsy permits a definite diagnosis in the majority of cases. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma is treated by surgery, the extent of which would be based on the gross evidence of the extent of the disease, the histologic features of the lesion, the patient's age and overall medical status, and the need to avoid postoperative complications. The appropriate care after surgery is also based on the individual patient. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is best treated by total thyroidectomy with cervical lymph node dissection on the side of a palpable nodule. Serum calcitonin determinations provide diagnostic and some prognostic data. Anaplastic carcinoma is usually best treated by radiation therapy. The outlook is good for most thyroid carcinoma recognized reasonably early.

  15. Clinicopathologic analysis of solid papillary carcinoma of the breast and associated invasive carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Hind; Qureshi, Hina; Adsay, N Volkan; Volkanadsay, N; Visscher, Daniel

    2006-04-01

    Solid papillary carcinomas (SPCs) are uncommon tumors composed of circumscribed large cellular nodules separated by bands of dense fibrosis. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the characteristics of SPC, the types and significance of invasive carcinomas associated with these tumors, and the long-term clinical outcome. Fifty-eight SPCs were analyzed (mean follow-up, 9.4 years). Cases were divided into three groups: 1) SPC only (32.7%), 2) SPC with extravasated mucin (8.6%), and 3) SPC with invasive components (58.7%) consisting of neuroendocrine-like (29.5%), colloid (23.5%), ductal not otherwise specified (14.5%), lobular (3%), tubular (3%), or mixed (26.5%). The mean age was 72 years. All were estrogen receptor positive and 86% were histologic grade 1. The total size of the tumor measured 0.3 to 15 cm. In the group with invasive carcinoma, the size of invasion was 0.1 to 4 cm. Axillary nodes were involved in 13% of the cases (6 of 46); all of these had an invasive component in the primary tumor. Local recurrence was seen in 5 patients, all from the group with invasive carcinoma. Overall, 11.7% died of their tumor, 1 to 4 years after diagnosis (mean, 2.3 years); none of them belongs to the group of noninvasive SPC. Five of the 6 patients who died of tumor had invasive components. The sixth patient who died with "metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma" at 10 years was in the group of patients with SPC with extravasated mucin where the SPC lesion had prominent signet-ring cell features. In conclusion, SPCs are heterogeneous lesions that arise in older women and have an indolent behavior. Lymph node and distant metastases are uncommon and generally limited to cases with (conventional) invasive components. PMID:16625097

  16. Adrenal Metastasis from Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh Lubana, Sandeep; Singh, Navdeep; Tuli, Sandeep S; Seligman, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a highly malignant form of endometrial cancer with a high propensity for metastases and recurrences even when there is minimal or no myometrial invasion. It usually metastasizes to the pelvis, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, upper abdomen, and peritoneum. However, adrenal metastases from UPSC is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of UPSC with adrenal metastasis that occurred 6 years after the initial diagnosis. CASE REPORT A 60-year-old woman previously diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma at an outside facility presented in September of 2006 with postmenopausal bleeding. She underwent comprehensive surgical staging with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage 2. Post-operatively, the patient was treated with radiation and chemotherapy. The treatment was completed in April of 2007. The patient had no evidence of disease until July 2009 when she was found to have a mass highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequently, she underwent right upper lobectomy. The morphology of the carcinoma was consistent with UPSC. She refused chemotherapy due to a previous history of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The patient was followed up with regular computed tomography (CT) scans. In October 2012 a new right adrenal nodule was seen on CT, which showed intense metabolic uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Pathology of the surgical specimen was consistent with UPSC. CONCLUSIONS UPSC is an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer associated with high recurrence rate and poor prognoses. Long-term follow-up is needed because there is a possibility of late metastases, as in this case. PMID:27117594

  17. Management of advanced primary urethral carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dayyani, Farshid; Hoffman, Karen; Eifel, Patricia; Guo, Charles; Vikram, Raghu; Pagliaro, Lance C; Pettaway, Curtis

    2014-07-01

    Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare malignancy accounting for <1% of genitourinary cancers, with a predilection for men and African-Americans. The sites and histology of urethral carcinoma vary by gender and anatomical location. Squamous cell carcinoma is most common among both genders but adenocarcinomas are noted in 15-35% of cases among women. Obstructive or irritative symptoms and haematuria are common modes of presentation. Clinical evaluation includes cystourethroscopy with biopsy and examination under anaesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a highly effective method to image the primary tumour while defıning the potential involvement of surrounding structures. Most tumours are localised, with regional metastases to nodal sites seen in up to 30% of cases in both genders, while distant metastases at presentation are rare (0-6%), but occur in up to 40% of cases with recurrent disease. Among men, the two most important prognostic factors are disease location and stage. Low-stage tumours (T1-2) and tumours involving the fossa navicularis or the penile urethra have a better prognosis than higher stage tumours (>T2 or N+) and lesions involving the bulbomembranous urethra. In women, in addition to stage and location, the size of the tumour has also prognostic implications. While surgery and radiation therapy (RT) are of benefit in early stage disease, advanced stage PUC requires multimodal treatment strategies to optimise local control and survival. These include induction chemotherapy followed by surgery or RT and concurrent chemoradiation with or without surgery. The latter strategy has been used successfully to treat other human papillomavirus-related cancers of the vagina, cervix and anus and may be of value in achieving organ preservation. Given the rarity of PUC, prospective multi-institutional studies are needed to better define the optimal treatment approach for this disease entity. PMID:24447439

  18. Penile Carcinoma in Northern Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Ramdass, MJ; Naraynsingh, V; Young-Sing, Q; Mooteeram, J; Barrow, S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the current incidence as well as general and ethnic trends of penile carcinoma in northern Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases of penile carcinoma presenting in north and east Trinidad, as well as Tobago over an eight-year period. Results: There were 19 cases from October 2003 to February 2012 with an age range of 42–96 years, mean of 59 years; peak age of presentation was 41–50 years and the number of cases presenting per year varied from one to four, with an average of three new cases yearly. Of 19 cases, 63% (12) originated from Port-of-Spain General Hospital (POSGH), 26% (5) from Sangre Grande (SGH) and 11% (2) from Tobago (TRH). There were 14 (74%) patients of African descent, three mixed and two of East Indian descent. There were four associated inflammatory lesions, five with ulcers, five verrucous lesions and two (10.5%) with human papillomavirus (HPV). One case presented with metastatic disease to the groin with erosion into the common femoral artery resulting in a blow-out of the vessel. The patient had the vessel oversewn and an extra-anatomic bypass done. He later had an above-knee amputation due to graft infection and failure. Conclusion: The incidence of penile carcinoma in north Trinidad and in Tobago is low and has halved in the past two decades. It stands at 0.6 cases per 100 000 males with the peak age group being 41–50 years, and with 95% of cases occurring between 41 and 80 years. There is a statistically significant association with active infection and being Afro-Caribbean. The decreasing incidence may be attributed to better hygiene, a higher rate of circumcision and low HPV rates in our population. PMID:25803395

  19. Pituitary carcinoma with endolymphatic sac metastasis.

    PubMed

    Balili, Irida; Sullivan, Steven; Mckeever, Paul; Barkan, Ariel

    2014-06-01

    Pituitary carcinoma is characterized by the presence of a metastatic lesion(s) in a location non-contiguous with the original pituitary tumor. The mechanism(s) of malignant transformation are not known. A 15 year-old male was diagnosed in 1982 with a pituitary macroadenoma and acromegaly (random GH 67 ng/ml and no suppression by oral glucose). His prolactin was normal between 18 and 23 ng/ml. Transcranial resection in July 1983 was followed by radiation therapy. The tumor was immunopositive for GH and prolactin. The proliferation MIB-1 index was 0-1%. With aqueous Octreotide 100 mcg 4× daily both GH and IGF-1 became normal. The patient was lost to follow-up and was treated by his local physician. In 2001, his IGF-1 level was 1271 ng/ml, and his random GH was 1.8-2.4 ng/ml by ILMA despite progressive increase in the dose of Sandostatin LAR to 140 mg/month in divided doses. Prolactin remained normal or minimally increased between 15 and 25 ng/ml. In 2009 he was diagnosed with the tumor in the location of left endolymphatic sac. Histological examination showed low grade pituitary carcinoma strongly immunopositive for prolactin but negative for GH. MIB-1 antibody labeled 0-5% cells. In 2012 endoscopic resection of the pituitary tumor remnant was attempted. Immunohistochemical stains were strongly immunopositive for both prolactin and GH, similar to his original pituitary tumor. The MIB-1 proliferation index was low from 0 to 1%. To our knowledge this is the first case of pituitary carcinoma in the endolymphatic sac region. The dichotomy between the cell population of the pituitary lesion (GH/prolactin producing) and the metastasis (purely prolactin-producing) may suggest that the metastatic pituitary lesion derived from a clone distinct from the original one. PMID:23645293

  20. Innovative surgical approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Memeo, Riccardo; de'Angelis, Nicola; de Blasi, Vito; Cherkaoui, Zineb; Brunetti, Oronzo; Longo, Vito; Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with an increasing diffusion in Europe and the United States. The management of such a cancer is continuously progressing and the objective of this paper is to evaluate innovation in the surgical treatment of HCC. In this review, we will analyze the modern concept of preoperative management, the role of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, the intrao-perative use of three dimensional models and augme-nted reality, as well as the potential application of fluore-scence. PMID:27168871

  1. Fungating accessory breast carcinoma in Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1984-03-01

    Three cases of fungating accessory breast carcinoma out of a total of 22 malignant breast formations seen and treated in Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January 1977 and November 1981 are described. The clinical presentations, features and histologic findings are presented. The methods of management and the need for close observation as well as follow up for at least two years is emphasized. A frequency of 14% as seen in this series appears so high that one cannot describe the occurrence of malignant changes in the accessory breast as rare. PMID:6328710

  2. Pilonidal Cyst of the Penis Mimicking Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Luigi; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Massenio, Paolo; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus is a long-standing chronic inflammatory condition consisting of a sinus tract from the skin-lined orifice extending into subcutaneous tissue, with hairs attached to the wall of the tract and projecting outside of the opening. Penile location is rare, and differential diagnosis with severe balanoposthitis, epidermal cysts, and neoplasms can be difficult. We report a rare case of pilonidal cyst located between coronal sulcus and prepuce which, due to its ulcerated aspect and absence of a tract with projecting hairs, simulated a penile carcinoma. PMID:24159417

  3. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Livraghi, T; Lazzaroni, S; Meloni, F

    2001-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation resulted in a higher complete necrosis than percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), above all in infiltrating lesions, and requires fewer treatment sessions in the treatment of small size tumors. We achieved 90% of complete necrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)<3 cm, 71% in medium (3-5 cm) and 45% in large (5.1-9 cm) HCC. However, near complete necrosis was obtained in the majority of the remaining tumors. PEI is preferable in lesions at risk with RF, i.e. adjacent to main biliary ducts or to intestinal loops. Our current 3-yr survival in child A patient with single HCC<5 cm is 85%. PMID:11369527

  4. Prostate carcinoma metastasis to extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Carter, Keith D; Nerad, Jeffrey A; Lee, Andrew G

    2008-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma, when metastatic, typically involves bone and produces both osteoblastic and osteolytic changes. Orbital involvement is uncommon and extraocular muscle enlargement is a rare presentation of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The authors present 2 patients with prostatic tumor metastasis to extraocular muscles. One patient had single-muscle involvement; the other presented with bilateral progressive proptosis, upper eyelid retraction, and bilateral multiple extraocular muscle enlargement mimicking thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Clinicians should be aware that, although rare, prostate cancer can involve the extraocular muscles. PMID:18520846

  5. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of the metastasizing prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Steffens, J; Friedmann, W; Lobeck, H

    1985-01-01

    Metastases of 47 known prostatic carcinomas were subjected to the unlabeled immunoperoxidase procedure to localize prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). PAP was found in 64% and PSA in 78% of bone marrow, lymph node, lung and liver metastases investigated. There was no significant difference between the intensity of staining in primary and metastatic neoplasms. Staining of PAP and PSA was found to be less intense in poorly differentiated metastases of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The data suggest that the demonstration of PAP and PSA is a practical and sensitive test for determining the prostatic origin of a clinically and histologically unclassifiable metastasis. PMID:2408895

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma and African iron overload.

    PubMed Central

    Gangaidzo, I T; Gordeuk, V R

    1995-01-01

    Both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and iron overload are important health problems in Africa. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is recognised as a major risk factor for HCC, but iron overload in Africans has not been considered in pathogenesis. Up to half the patients with HCC in Africa do not have any recognised risk factors such as preceding chronic HBV infection, and other risk factors remain unidentified. HCC is an important complication of HLA-linked haemochromatosis, an iron loading disorder found in Europeans. It is proposed that African iron overload might also be a risk factor for HCC. PMID:8549953

  7. Innovative surgical approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Memeo, Riccardo; de’Angelis, Nicola; de Blasi, Vito; Cherkaoui, Zineb; Brunetti, Oronzo; Longo, Vito; Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with an increasing diffusion in Europe and the United States. The management of such a cancer is continuously progressing and the objective of this paper is to evaluate innovation in the surgical treatment of HCC. In this review, we will analyze the modern concept of preoperative management, the role of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, the intrao-perative use of three dimensional models and augme-nted reality, as well as the potential application of fluore-scence. PMID:27168871

  8. Cellular prognostic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Luigi; Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Damiano, Elvira; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Buonaguro, Franco M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the five big killers worldwide and is frequently associated with chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections. Tumor microenvironment consists of a complex network of cells and factors that plays a key role in the tumor progression and prognosis. This is true also for HCC. Several studies have shown strikingly strong correlation between HCC clinical prognosis and intratumoral infiltration of cells affecting tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. None of such cells is yet validated for routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment. The present review aims at providing a state-of-the-art of such studies. PMID:26043213

  9. Esophageal recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dworzynska, Agnieszka; Lorente-Poch, Leyre; Sancho, Juan Jose; Sitges-Serra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) metastasizes to the regional lymph nodes and to the lungs, liver and bones. Only one case of recurrence of MTC involving the upper gastrointestinal tract has been reported so far. We describe the case of a 38-year-old woman with MTC, who developed an upper esophageal submucosal recurrence after two previous local recurrences treated surgically and one ethanol injection. After resection of the right lateral esophageal wall, calcitonin dropped by 60% and showed a doubling time >1 year. We cannot rule out the role of deep ethanol injection in the involvement of the cervical esophagus wall. PMID:26645011

  10. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the palate in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Werther, Patti L; Alawi, Faizan; Lindemeyer, Rochelle G

    2015-01-01

    Although relatively rare, minor salivary gland tumors are more likely to be malignant in pediatric patients than in adults. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) represents the most common malignant tumor of the salivary glands. It is critical to differentiate such tumors from common benign salivary gland lesions. The purposes of this report are to present the case of a 15-year-old female with MEC of the palate, and to discuss the importance of a thorough intraoral examination on all patients regardless of age, as well as the need for timely referral for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25909845

  11. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Palatine Tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Teixeira, Luiz Carlos Santana; Passador-Santos, Fabrcio; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Arajo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary salivary gland malignancy in both adults and children. It has a slight female predilection and usually presents as a painless, rubber-like or soft mass, which may be fixed or mobile. Histologically, MEC is comprised of a mixture of cell types including mucous, epidermoid, and intermediate cells that can be arranged in solid nests or cystic structures. In the oral cavity, it most frequently occurs at the palate or buccal mucosa. The present paper aimed to describe an unusual case of MEC arising in the palatine tonsil. PMID:26550506

  12. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Rupture Following Transarterial Chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Singh Bhinder, Nimarta; Zangan, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    As the incidence of primary and metastatic liver cancer increases, minimally invasive treatment methods such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) have gained momentum as their efficacy and safety profile have been validated. Complications of TACE are rare and typically well tolerated. A unique complication is tumor rupture with hemorrhage. Reports of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rupture after TACE are limited. It is critical to recognize this complication and understand the treatment options, which range from conservative to surgical management. This report describes a case of HCC rupture following TACE successfully managed with coil embolization. PMID:25762848

  13. Basal cell carcinomas: attack of the hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ervin H.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were essentially a molecular ‘black box’ until some 12 years ago, when identification of a genetic flaw in a rare subset of patients who have a great propensity to develop BCCs pointed to aberrant Hedgehog signalling as the pivotal defect leading to formation of these tumours. This discovery has facilitated a remarkable increase in our understanding of BCC carcinogenesis and has highlighted the carcinogenic role of this developmental pathway when aberrantly activated in adulthood. Importantly, a phase 1 first-in-human trial of a Hedgehog inhibitor has shown real progress in halting and even reversing the growth of these tumours. PMID:18813320

  14. [Hepatocellular carcinoma and vitamin K2].

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Iwata

    2015-11-01

    Despite recent progress in diagnosis and therapy, hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)remains among the cancers with the poorest prognoses. Vitamin Ks(VKs)have been shown to suppress the growth of HCC cells. Long-term administration of VK2 has established its clinical safety, but it does not appear to exhibit marked anti-tumor effects when administered alone. For more effective use of VK2 against HCC, co-administration of VK2 with other proven anticancer agents or development of a new VK preparation with a modified side-chain should be investigated in the future. PMID:26503869

  15. Periocular sebaceous gland carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Kaustubh; Aggarwal, Ekta; White, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC) is a rare tumour occurring at periocular and extra-ocular sites. SGC can be a challenging diagnosis for both clinicians and pathologists. High recurrence rates and a tendency for intra-epithelial spread, locoregional and distant metastases make it important for SGC to be suspected and be included in the differential diagnosis of an eyelid lesion. Early diagnosis, that may sometimes need ancillary testing, and prompt management using a multimodal approach can help reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with SGC. PMID:24227981

  16. Percutaneous ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: current status.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Justin P; Yamamoto, Shota; Raman, Steven S; Loh, Christopher T; Lee, Edward W; Liu, David M; Kee, Stephen T

    2010-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasingly common disease with dismal long-term survival. Percutaneous ablation has gained popularity as a minimally invasive, potentially curative therapy for HCC in nonoperative candidates. The seminal technique of percutaneous ethanol injection has been largely supplanted by newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation. A review of these modalities, including technical success, survival rates, and complications, will be presented, as well as considerations for treatment planning and follow-up. PMID:20656230

  17. Hyperfunctional parathyroid carcinoma with mediastinal extension.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Emanuele; Armato, Enrico; García Purriños, Francisco José; Manconi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an extremely rare malignancy, 0.005% of all tumours and between 0.5% and 5% of all parathyroid neoplasms. Preoperative diagnosis is often difficult and is almost always obtained only after post-surgical histopathology. The prognosis is related to the local extent of disease and to complete surgical resection of the tumour. We report an uncommon case of hyperfunctional PC with mediastinal extension, emphasising the diagnostic difficulties, histopathological features and treatment strategies. The most recent data in the literature is analysed as well. PMID:21296306

  18. Occult carcinoma in an adult choledochal cyst.

    PubMed Central

    Dowsett, J. F.; Rode, J.; Chandiramani, V. A.; Russell, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The complications of choledochal cyst are avoidable if diagnosed early, and adequate resection undertaken. This case report describes the long history of right subcostal pain in a young man of 26 who had a squamous carcinoma in a choledochal cyst diagnosed after serial section of the excised cyst. Subsequent resection of the head of the pancreas showed histological residual tumour from which he died 4 months later. This case illustrates the need for complete early excision of a choledochal cyst to prevent this complication. Images Figure 1 p203-b p203-c Figure 2 PMID:2041856

  19. Spontaneous Regression of Primitive Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin tumor that mainly occurs in the elderly with a generally poor prognosis. Like all skin cancers, its incidence is rising. Despite the poor prognosis, a few reports of spontaneous regression have been published. We describe the case of a 89-year-old male patient who presented two MCC lesions of the scalp. Following biopsy the lesions underwent complete regression with no clinical evidence of residual tumor up to 24 months. The current knowledge of MCC and the other cases of spontaneous regression described in the literature are reviewed. PMID:26788270

  20. The Role of Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy is crucial for normal liver physiology and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. During the last decade, the function of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated extensively. Currently, autophagy is thought to play a dual role in HCC, i.e., autophagy is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. Recent investigations of autophagy have suggested that autophagy biomarkers can facilitate HCC prognosis and the establishment of therapeutic approaches. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of autophagy and discuss recent evidence for its role in HCC. PMID:26561802

  1. The Role of Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy is crucial for normal liver physiology and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. During the last decade, the function of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated extensively. Currently, autophagy is thought to play a dual role in HCC, i.e., autophagy is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. Recent investigations of autophagy have suggested that autophagy biomarkers can facilitate HCC prognosis and the establishment of therapeutic approaches. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of autophagy and discuss recent evidence for its role in HCC. PMID:26561802

  2. De-differentiation of papillary thyroid carcinoma into squamous cell carcinoma. A case of coexistence within an excised neck lesion

    PubMed Central

    Evans, William David George

    2012-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with papillary thyroid carcinoma of the neck underwent surgery and radioiodide therapy. He presented 11 years later with a lesion adjudged from fine needle aspiration to be a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Histological analysis of the excised mass revealed a lymph node overwhelmed with papillary thyroid carcinoma and moderately differentiated SCC thought to have transformed from papillary cells. A very small number of similar transformations specifically involving the ‘tall cell variant’  of papillary carcinoma transforming to spindle cell carcinoma have been reported previously. This case report demonstrates clear images of this rare occurrence and briefly considers factors leading to de-differentiation. The clinician should consider possible transformation from papillary thyroid cancer in cases of SCC of the head and neck as this variation may be more aggressive. PMID:23220838

  3. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Unclassified Renal Cell Carcinoma With Medullary Phenotype Versus Renal Medullary Carcinoma: Lessons From Diagnosis in an Italian Man Found to Harbor Sickle Cell Trait

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Smith, Steven C.; Massa, Simona; Renne, Salvatore L.; Brambilla, Simona; Peschechera, Roberto; Graziotti, Pierpaolo; Roncalli, Massimo; Amin, Mahul B.

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the kidney. It affects individuals of African descent and all cases reported show evidence of sickle cell trait. We reviewed an unusual carcinoma arising in a white man, the ninth in the literature. The tumor demonstrated features associated with renal medullary carcinoma, or unclassified renal cell carcinoma, medullary phenotype as recently described; the presence of sickle cell trait confirmed the diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. This case is helpful in the differential diagnosis with non-sickle cell associated “renal cell carcinoma, unclassified with medullary phenotype,” and study of this spectrum of tumors is ongoing. PMID:26793557

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in adenoma: similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features in adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of the tumor.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Sanjay; Grenert, James P; Paradis, Valerie; Pote, Nicolas; Jakate, Shriram; Ferrell, Linda D

    2014-11-01

    Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver can show morphological features similar to hepatocellular adenoma. In rare instances, hepatocellular carcinoma can arise in the setting of hepatocellular adenoma. This study compares the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features of the hepatocellular adenoma-like and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of these tumors. Immunohistochemistry for β-catenin, glutamine synthetase, serum amyloid A protein, glypican-3, and heat-shock protein 70 was done in 11 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma in non-cirrhotic liver. Tumors with nuclear β-catenin and/or diffuse glutamine synthetase were considered β-catenin activated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was done in nine cases for gains of chromosomes 1, 8 and MYC. There were seven men (33-75 years) and four women (29-65 years). Focal atypical morphological features were seen in hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in 7 (64%) cases. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas showed features of inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma in 7 (64%) cases; 4 of these were also serum amyloid A-positive in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion. β-Catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 positivity, and chromosomal gains on FISH were seen in the hepatocellular adenoma portion in 55%, 40%, and 56% of cases, and 73%, 60%, and 78% of cases in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion, respectively. In conclusion, the hepatocellular adenoma-like portion of most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma shows features typically seen in hepatocellular carcinoma such as focal morphological abnormalities, β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 expression, and chromosomal gains. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in these tumors, especially in men and older women, may represent an extremely well-differentiated variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas the morphologically recognizable hepatocellular carcinoma portion represents a relatively higher grade component of the tumor. PMID:24743216

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in adenoma: similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features in adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of the tumor

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Valerie; Pote, Nicolas; Jakate, Shriram; Ferrell, Linda D

    2016-01-01

    Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver can show morphological features similar to hepatocellular adenoma. In rare instances, hepatocellular carcinoma can arise in the setting of hepatocellular adenoma. This study compares the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features of the hepatocellular adenoma-like and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of these tumors. Immunohistochemistry for β-catenin, glutamine synthetase, serum amyloid A protein, glypican-3, and heat-shock protein 70 was done in 11 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma in non-cirrhotic liver. Tumors with nuclear β-catenin and/or diffuse glutamine synthetase were considered β-catenin activated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was done in nine cases for gains of chromosomes 1, 8 and MYC. There were seven men (33–75 years) and four women (29–65 years). Focal atypical morphological features were seen in hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in 7 (64%) cases. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas showed features of inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma in 7 (64%) cases; 4 of these were also serum amyloid A-positive in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion. β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 positivity, and chromosomal gains on FISH were seen in the hepatocellular adenoma portion in 55%, 40%, and 56% of cases, and 73%, 60%, and 78% of cases in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion, respectively. In conclusion, the hepatocellular adenoma-like portion of most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma shows features typically seen in hepatocellular carcinoma such as focal morphological abnormalities, β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 expression, and chromosomal gains. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in these tumors, especially in men and older women, may represent an extremely well-differentiated variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas the morphologically recognizable hepatocellular carcinoma portion represents a relatively higher grade component of the tumor. PMID:24743216

  7. Immunohistochemical study of gastrin in colorectal carcinoma tissues and adjacent mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chun-Ping; Chen, Yu-Quan; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Shen, Hong-Xun; Yu, Xiu

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study gastrin expression in colorectal carcinoma tissues and adjacent mucosa and discuss the function of gastrin in colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Gastrin expression in colorectal carcinoma tissues and adjacent mucosa was examined in 58 cases using immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopy. RESULTS: A total of 35.1% of colorectal carcinoma transitional mucosa (TM), 48.3% of nontypical dysplasia mucosa and 60.3% of carcinoma tissue were positive for gastrin expression (P < 0.05). Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that protein A gold (PAG) granules localized to different electron-dense secretory granules in carcinoma cells, the intercellular spaces, and the microvillar membrane surface. CONCLUSION: Gastrin expression in colorectal carcinoma tissue and adjacent mucosa, and the release of gastrin by carcinoma may be an initiating factor in carcinoma occurrence and development. Positive gastrin expression in colorectal carcinoma tissues can serve as a differentiation marker.

  8. Histopathological study of radionecrosis in laryngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, M.; Harwood, A.R.; Bryce, D.P.; van Nostrand, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    With modern radiotherapy techniques, clinical radionecrosis is uncommon following eradication of primary squamous cell carcinoma from the larynx. Histologic sections from 265 specimens, prepared by the technique of whole organ subserial step-sectioning were studied to determine the incidence and location of chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis in both irradiated and non-irradiated cases. Chondronecrosis occurred in only 1 of 41 early (pT1 - pT2) tumors but in 143 advanced tumors (pT - pT4) treated with radical radiotherapy and containing residual carcinoma, 27% had evidence of significant necrosis, compared with 24% of those not irradiated. Age, sex, tumor grade and previous laryngeal surgery did not appear to be significant factors in the development of necrosis in irradiated patients. The arytenoid cartilage was most frequently involved when chondronecrosis occurred in association with radiotherapy. Six total laryngectomy specimens (3%) were received from patients with symptoms of chondronecrosis and in whom no residual tumor was present. We conclude that although the incidence of clinical perichondritis is low, histologic chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis occurred in 26% of all the larynges studied. Radiotherapy appears to be a significant causative factor only in advanced supraglottic tumors.

  9. Ectopic cervical thymic carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Faisca, P; Henriques, J; Dias, T M; Resende, L; Mestrinho, L

    2011-05-01

    A 10-year-old male German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of a cranial cervical mass causing progressively worsening respiratory distress. A fine-needle aspirate of the mass was obtained and the cytology results were compatible with a carcinoma. The dog underwent chemotherapy without clinical improvement and was ultimately euthanased because of clinical deterioration. At post-mortem examination, an irregular multi-lobated mass in the cranial cervical region was observed causing ventro-lateral tracheal deviation. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a mixed population of CD3 lymphocytes and macrophages in an exuberant fibrous stroma, associated with dispersed cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells with marked eosinophilic cytoplasm. Some of the epithelial cells were arranged in concentric clusters that were interpreted as Hassall's corpuscles. Histopathological examination of the thyroid gland revealed several neoplastic emboli composed of epithelial cells similar to those observed in the cervical mass. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an ectopic cervical thymic carcinoma in a dog. PMID:21539572

  10. [Neutron therapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Pötter, R; Naszaly, A; Hemprich, A; Haverkamp, U; al-Dandashi, C; Höver, K H; Loncar, I

    1990-01-01

    In the treatment of adenoid cystic carcinomas, certain situations such as inoperable tumors, macroscopic tumor residues following surgery and recurrences occurring with the previous therapeutic strategies (surgery and/or photon radiotherapy) are afflicted with frequent local recurrences. In these situations the use of radiotherapy with fast neutrons (densely ionizing radiation with high energy transfer) results in absence of recurrences in approx. 70% of the cases, according to data in the literature. The advantage of using neutrons lies in their greater biological effect on slowly growing tumors. In the Hospital for Radiotherapy of the Münster University neutron therapy has been applied since 1986 for these indications using a DT neutron generator (14 MeV). Based on the results obtained in the treatment of 8 patients and a review of the literature, indications for, treatment planning and implementing of neutron therapy is illustrated. Particular consideration is given to CT and MRT. Neutron therapy offers an alternative to previously existing treatment methods for locally advanced adenoid cystic carcinomas or highly differentiated malignomas of the salivary glands. Its effectiveness should be verified by studies involving larger numbers of patients and longer observation periods. PMID:1966334

  11. The pathology of preclinical medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) occurs sporadically, or in familial forms in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B. In the familial forms it is associated with well-characterized, germline mutations in the RET protooncogene. The mutation sites differ in MEN2A and MEN2B, and MTC develops at an earlier age and is more aggressive in MEN2B. Screening of relatives of affected individuals for such mutations can identify those at risk of developing MTC and total thyroidectomy can be carried out in the first decade of life before the development of clinical disease. Analysis of such removed thyroid glands shows abnormalities of the parafollicular C-cells in almost all cases. The abnormalities range from C-cell hyperplasia, either diffuse or nodular, to microcarcinoma and occasionally frank MTC. The abnormalities are bilateral and affect the upper two thirds of the thyroid lobes. Microcarcinomas may be visible with the naked eye, but often they are identified only on microscopy. Histopathological examination of the entire gland is essential. PMID:15640548

  12. Therapeutic vaccination strategies to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham S; Steven, Neil M

    2016-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects most people worldwide. EBV has oncogenic potential and is strongly associated with several lymphomas and carcinomas, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), that together total 200,000 cases of cancer each year. All EBV-associated cancers express viral proteins that allow highly selective immunotherapeutic targeting of the malignant cells. A number of therapeutic EBV vaccines have been tested in clinical trials with evidence of immune boosting and clinical responses in NPC patients. Therapeutic vaccination could be used after adoptive T-cell transfer to increase and sustain the number of infused T-cells or combined with immunotherapies acting at different stages of the cancer immunity cycle to increase efficacy. The therapeutic EBV vaccines tested to date have been well tolerated with minimal off-target toxicity. A safe therapeutic vaccine that was also able to be mass produced could, in principle, be used to vaccinate large numbers of patients after first line therapy to reduce recurrence. PMID:27121883

  13. The Changing Landscape of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Erik S.; Gopal, Purva; Singal, Amit G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents one of the leading causes of cancer death and has proved to be highly refractory to treatment. Extensive analysis of the disease has demonstrated that it arises predominantly in response to high-risk etiological challenges, most notably hepatitis virus. However, with evolving vaccination and the obesity epidemic, progressively more cases are associated with underlying metabolic dysfunction. Pathologically diverse forms of HCC are observed, and recent sequencing analysis has defined common events that target well-known cancer pathways including β-catenin/Axin, TP53, and RB/CDKN2A, as well as frequent aberrations in chromatin remodeling factors. However, there are a myriad of low frequency genetic events that make each HCC case unique. Gene expression profiling approaches have successfully been deployed for prognostic assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma and to detect the earliest stages of disease. Despite more extensive research, systemic treatment for HCC is exceedingly limited, with only a handful of drugs providing benefit. Ongoing clinical trials are attempting to exploit specific biological dependencies of HCC to improve the dismal prognosis. Overall, the future of HCC treatment will rely on an understanding of the interplay between etiological factors, molecular features of disease, and rational therapeutic intervention. PMID:24388934

  14. Developments in cancer vaccines for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for about 6 % of all new cancers diagnosed worldwide and represents one of the leading causes of cancer-related death globally in men and women, respectively. The overall prognosis for HCC patients is poor, especially in the majority of patients with more advanced stage of disease. Indeed, in such cases immunotherapeutic strategies may represent a novel and effective tool. A few immunotherapy trials conducted for HCC have provided divergent results, urging the scientific community to explore additional paths to improve efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches. The "Cancer Vaccine development for Hepatocellular Carcinoma"-HEPAVAC Consortium has been funded by the EU within the FP7 with the goal of developing a novel therapeutic peptide-based cancer vaccine strategy for HCC including both "off-the-shelf" and personalized antigens. This will be one of the very few vaccine trials for HCC and the first multi-epitope, multi-target and multi-HLA allele therapeutic cancer vaccine for such a frequent and aggressive disease with a hitherto high unmet medical need. Feasibility, safety and biological efficacy will be evaluated in a randomized, controlled European multicenter phase I/II clinical trial. PMID:26093657

  15. EpithelialMesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ben; Trop, Claes G.; Reich, Reuven

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, with the majority of patients dying within 5?years of diagnosis. This poor survival of patients diagnosed with this malignancy is attributed to diagnosis at advanced stage, when the tumor has metastasized, and to chemotherapy resistance, either primary or developing along tumor progression. However, ovarian carcinomas, constituting the vast majority of ovarian cancers, additionally have unique biology, one aspect of which is the ability to co-express epithelial and mesenchymal determinants. epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT), a physiological process by which mesenchymal cells are formed and migrate to target organs during embryogenesis, is involved in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, these changes do not fully occur in ovarian carcinoma, and are even reversed in tumor cells present in malignant peritoneal and pleural effusions. This review summarizes current knowledge in this area, including the characteristics of EMT related to adhesion, transcriptional regulation and chemoresistance, and their clinical relevance, as well as the recently observed regulation of EMT by microRNA. PMID:22655269

  16. [Strategy for molecular testing in pulmonary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Tixier, Lucie; Perrot, Loïc; Cayre, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of theranostic molecular markers is central in the management of lung cancer. As those tumors are diagnosed in two third of the cases at an advanced stage, molecular screening is frequently performed on "small samples". The screening strategy starts by an accurate histopathological characterization, including on biopsies or cytological specimens. WHO 2015 provided a new classification for small biopsy and cytology, defining categories such as non-small cell carcinoma (NSCC), favor adenocarcinoma (TTF1 positive), or favor squamous cell carcinoma (p40 positive). Only the NSCC tumors, non-squamous, are eligible to molecular testing. A strategy aiming at tissue sparing for the small biopsies has to be organized. Tests corresponding to available drugs are prioritized. Blank slides will be prepared for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization based tests such as ALK. DNA will then be extracted for the other tests, EGFR mutation screening first associated or not to KRAS. Then, the emerging biomarkers (HER2, ROS1, RET, BRAF…) as well as potentially other markers in case of clinical trials, can been tested. The spread of next generation sequencing technologies, with a very sensitive all-in-one approach will allow the identification of minority clones. Eventually, the development of liquid biopsies will provide the opportunity to monitor the apparition of resistance clones during treatment. This non-invasive approach allows patients with a contraindication to perform biopsy or with non-relevant biopsies to access to molecular screening. PMID:26778816

  17. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Amir, H; Mbonde, M P; Kitinya, J N

    1992-11-01

    The Tanzania Cancer Registry at Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was reviewed for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in non-albino African subjects. The data was analysed for age, sex, site and predisposing factors. Our results were then compared with studies previously carried out in Tanzania, elsewhere in Africa and also on Blacks in America. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin was found to be a common malignancy, and the commonest skin cancer. Its peak was in the 40-49 years age group though it could occur in children under five years of age. The most affected site was the lower limb, followed by the head and the neck. The penis in the male and the vulva in the female were the third most affected sites. The scalp and the lip were more affected in females than males. Chronic trauma, chronic ulcers, and scars were the main predisposing risk factors to the lower limb and the scalp, while ultra violet radiation to the head and neck, and smegma of the uncircumcised penis were thought to be predisposing risk factors. PMID:1308840

  18. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, A.M.; Sharma, S.M. )

    1991-04-15

    An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease.

  19. Tumor Budding in Upper Gastrointestinal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Koelzer, Viktor H.; Langer, Rupert; Zlobec, Inti; Lugli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB) at the tumor–host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon, and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal, and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction, and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: (1) validation of prognostic scoring systems for TB in large, multi-center studies, (2) consensus on the optimal assessment method, and (3) inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study. PMID:25177546

  20. Small cell carcinoma of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Rosa; Schweizer, Michael; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Eisenberger, Mario A.

    2015-01-01

    Pure small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate is a rare entity and one of the most aggressive malignancies of the prostate. Histologically, prostatic SCCs of the prostate are part of a spectrum of anaplastic tumours of the prostate and are similar to SCCs of the lungs. In most cases, SCC of the prostate is associated with conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma. Both components of these mixed tumours frequently share molecular alterations such as ERG gene rearrangements or AURKA and MYCN amplifications, suggesting a common clonal origin. The clinical behaviour of small-cell prostate carcinomas is characterized by extensive local disease, visceral disease, and low PSA levels despite large metastatic burden. Commonly, the emergence of the SCC occurs in patients with high-grade adenocarcinoma who are often treated with androgen deprivation treatment (ADT). However, SCCs do not usually benefit from ADT. A biopsy of accessible lesions is strongly recommended to identify those with SCC pathological features, as management is undoubtedly affected by this finding. Chemotherapy is the standard approach for treating patients with either localized or advanced prostatic SCC. Despite the emergence of more-aggressive treatment modalities, the prognosis of men with prostatic SCC remains dismal. PMID:24535589

  1. Laser treatment for carcinoma of the bronchus.

    PubMed Central

    Hetzel, M R; Millard, F J; Ayesh, R; Bridges, C E; Nanson, E M; Swain, C P; Williams, I P

    1983-01-01

    Laser treatment in carcinoma of the bronchus is essentially palliative and is suitable for only a few patients. Patients selected for laser treatment must have predominantly endobronchial growth with normal bronchial anatomy still identifiable and symptoms due to the obstruction or to haemoptysis. A total of 34 patients with carcinoma of the bronchus were treated with argon gas or neodynium yttrium aluminium garnet crystal lasers. Good palliation was obtained in just over half the cases of partial obstruction of the trachea or main bronchus, but best results were obtained in lesions of the trachea or main carina. Re-expansion of the collapsed lung was achieved in some cases but with considerable risk of pneumonia. Haemoptysis was controlled at least partly in several cases. Laser treatment has the advantage of having no toxicity or dose limit and may be used in cases of poor respiratory function. The procedure was better tolerated than radiotherapy or chemotherapy and its relatively lower cost may justify setting up laser units in major cities. PMID:6401440

  2. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Ocular Adnexa

    PubMed Central

    Yamanouchi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Yosuke; Yotsukura, Jiro; Asanagi, Kaoru; Baba, Takayuki; Nizawa, Tomohiro; Kishimoto, Takashi; Yonemori, Yoko; Ota, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    We present our findings in a case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the lacrimal gland and a case of primary Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the eyelid. An 86-year-old man noticed a swelling of the left upper eyelid three months earlier. We performed excision biopsy and histopathological examination indicated that he had a primary NEC of the left lacrimal gland. He underwent chemotherapy followed by excision including the clinically visible margins and 50 Gy radiotherapy of the surgical margins. He had neither recurrence nor metastasis for 6 months since the last radiotherapy. An 80-year-old man noticed a nodule in the right upper eyelid and was referred to our hospital because the size was increasing rapidly. A complete surgical excision of the margins of the tumor was performed with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. The final diagnosis was a primary MCC of the right upper eyelid. After surgery, he underwent 50 Gy radiotherapy on the neck to prevent metastasis. No recurrence or metastasis was found for two years. Although primary NEC of the ocular adnexa is extremely rare, the tumor has high malignancy and readily metastasizes. Thus, combined therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy is needed for complete management of NEC. PMID:24294530

  3. Antineoplastic activity of monocrotaline against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kusuma, Sandeep Solmon; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Didla, Swroopa; Devendra, Bellary Nagaraju; Kiranmayi, Patnala

    2014-01-01

    Plants are fantastic sources for present day life saving drugs. Monocrotaline a natural ligand exhibits dose-dependent cytotoxicity with potent antineoplastic activity. This study was intended to disclose the therapeutic potential of monocrotaline against hepatocellular carcinoma. The in silico predictions have highlighted the antineoplastic potential, druglikeness and biodegradability of monocrotaline. The in silico docking study has provided an insight and evidence for the antineoplastic activity of monocrotaline against p53, HGF and TREM1 proteins which play a threatening role in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. The mode of action of monocrotaline was determined experimentally by in vitro techniques such as XTT assay, NRU assay and whole cell brine shrimp assay have further supported our in silico studies. The in vitro cytotoxicity of monocrotaline was proved at IC50 24.966 µg/mL and genotoxicity at 2 X IC50 against HepG2 cells. Further, the credible druglike properties with non-mutagenicity, non-toxic on mammalian fibroblast and the potential antineoplastic activity through in vitro experimental validations established monocrotaline as a novel scaffold for liver cancer with superior efficacy and lesser side effects. PMID:25028149

  4. Gene expression profiling analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. However, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well-understood, and the prognosis for patients with HCC remains very poor. Methods To disclose detailed genetic mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a view toward development of novel therapeutic targets, we analyzed expression profiles HCCs and their corresponding noncancerous tissues by using bioinformatics method. Results In this paper, we report the identification of genes whose expression has been altered and the changed bio-pathways during hepatocarcinogenesis. Hepatoma cells infect intracellular and intercellular signal transduction through Focal adhesion and cause abnormal expression of important intracellular signaling pathway. In addition, it is worth mentioning that some small molecules still restored to the state similar to normal cells, such as bambuterol and lovastatin. This member gene set would serve as a pool of lead gene targets for the identification and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers to greatly improve the clinical management of HCC patients with different risks of recurrence after curative partial hepatectomy. Conclusions The study has great significance for gene therapy and pharmacotherapy and provides a new treatment entry point and a potential new clinical drug for HCC patients. PMID:24229431

  5. [Risk factors and prevention of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Lupoli, G; Cascone, E; Vitale, G; Arlotta, F; Nuzzo, V; Lupoli, G; Cassese, B

    1996-09-01

    Thyroid carcinoma represents the most frequent endocrine tumor. Recent reports have documented an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer. Its incidence varies geographically around the world from 0.9/ 100,000 men and 2.4/100,000 women in Great Britain to 8.8/100,000 men and 18.2/ 100,000 women in Hawaii. Radiation exposure has been strongly implicated as an aetiological factor. The greatest risk occurs with acute exposure to X and/or gamma rays, with a linear dose response curve, while the risk is inversely related to age at exposure with a latent period of 5-20 years. Together with irradiation, other factors (iodine, alcohol and calcium diet intake, hyperthyroidism, Hashi-moto's thyroiditis, Gardner syndrome, Cowden syndrome, pharmaceutical agents, hormonal factors, occupational exposure, activation of cellular oncogenes) have been associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. In prevention a policy should include regulations and methods for avoiding radiation exposure of the thyroid and for preventing nutritional deficiency and excess of iodine. Besides, early and continuous suppressive therapy of all patients affected by non-toxic goiter or treated previously with thyroidectomy, and a screening of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) using pentagastrin stimulation test and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, in subjects with a familial history of MTC, are of paramount importance to prevent thyroid cancer. PMID:9072669

  6. Breast carcinomas: variations in sonoelastographic appearance

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Eduardo de Faria Castro; Assunção-Queiros, Maria do Carmo Guedes Alcoforado; Roveda, Decio

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed factors influencing the sonoelastographic presentation of breast carcinoma. Methods A prospective collaborative study was conducted by the Santa Casa de São Paulo and CTC-Center, on 540 breast lesions in women referred for percutaneous breast biopsy. Eighty-four carcinomas showing lesions on ultrasonography were included. These lesions were classified into four sonoelastographic scores, where scores of 1, 2, and 3 were considered false-negative, and a score of 4 was considered true-positive. Scores were compared against histopathologic results, which were divided into two groups, ie, soft lesions (group 1) and hard lesions (group 2). False-negative and true-positive results were also assessed for variation according to patient age and mean lesion diameter. Results Of the 84 lesions studied, nine yielded false-negative results on sonoelastography and 75 yielded true-positive results. In terms of histopathologic classification, eight were assigned to group 1 and 76 to group 2. The chi-squared test showed a correlation between sonoelastographic scores and histopathologic lesion type. No statistically significant differences were observed according to patient age or largest lesion diameter. Conclusion Our results revealed an association between sonoelastographic presentation of breast lesions and histology. False-negative results on sonoelastography were influenced by histologic type of lesion and not by lesion size or patient age. PMID:25177152

  7. Combined treatment in carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Souhami, L.; Rabinowits, M.

    1988-08-01

    From October 1982 to August 1984, 30 previously untreated patients with biopsy-proven carcinoma of the nasopharynx, stage III (26.5%) and stage IV (73.5%), received combined radiotherapy (6,000 to 7,000 cGy over a period of 7 to 7.5 weeks) and chemotherapy (mitomycin-C 10 mg/M2, IV; 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/M2, IV; and methotrexate 30 mg/M2, IV) concomitantly. There were 20 males and 10 females, with a median age of 40 years. Minimal follow-up duration was 24 months. Actuarial overall survival rate at 48 months was 49%. Complete local response was achieved in 75% of the patients, with 31% of the cases failing distantly. The complication rate was high and included severe mucositis, xerostomia, and septicemia (fatal in two cases). Despite high local disease control, survival rate did not increase. A randomized trial is urgently needed to establish whether or not combined treatment is of value in advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Lifeso, R.M.; Bull, C.A.

    1985-06-15

    Between January 1976 and January 1983, 37 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities have been treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre by the authors. Each case has arisen in an area of preexisting scar or sinus. Twenty-nine cases were treated by definitive amputation, with 2 local recurrences and 12 nodal metastases. Seven cases had local excision, with three local recurrences and two nodal metastases. Recurrence rate was highest in Grade II and Grade III lesions, and 11 of 15 cases with Grade II disease had metastases to the regional lymph nodes an average of 5 months after surgery. With Grade I disease patients, 4 of 15 had nodal metastases an average of 5 months after surgery. Prophylactic regional nodal irradiation or node dissection was performed in seven cases. None of these cases have shown nodal metastases at an average of 24 months following definitive surgery and radiation. Routine prophylactic regional node irradiation is recommended in all cases of peripheral squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Integrated genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-10-23

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D, and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors, and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  10. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nishant; Akbani, Rehan; Aksoy, B. Arman; Ally, Adrian; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auman, J. Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B.; Behera, Madhusmita; Bernard, Brady; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bishop, Justin A.; Black, Aaron D.; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A.; Brookens, Robin; Brooks, Denise; Bryant, Robert; Buda, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carling, Tobias; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Carty, Sally E.; Chan, Timothy A.; Chen, Amy Y.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cheung, Dorothy; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ciriello, Giovanni; Clarke, Amanda; Clayman, Gary L.; Cope, Leslie; Copland, John; Covington, Kyle; Danilova, Ludmila; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; DiCara, Daniel; Dhalla, Noreen; Dhir, Rajiv; Dookran, Sheliann S.; Dresdner, Gideon; Eldridge, Jonathan; Eley, Greg; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Eng, Stephanie; Fagin, James A.; Fennell, Timothy; Ferris, Robert L.; Fisher, Sheila; Frazer, Scott; Frick, Jessica; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ganly, Ian; Gao, Jianjiong; Garraway, Levi A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Getz, Gad; Gehlenborg, Nils; Ghossein, Ronald; Gibbs, Richard A.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Gomez-Hernandez, Karen; Grimsby, Jonna; Gross, Benjamin; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Harper, Hollie A.; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Herman, James G.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hofree, Matan; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Franklin W.; Huang, Mei; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ideker, Trey; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kim, Jaegil; Kramer, Roger; Kreisberg, Richard; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Ladanyi, Marc; Lai, Phillip H.; Laird, Peter W.; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lee, Darlene; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Semin; Lee, William; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; McFadden, David G.; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Miller, Michael; Mills, Gordon; Moore, Richard A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Noble, Michael S.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J.; Parker, Joel S.; Paull, Evan O.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Ren, Xiaojia; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ringel, Matthew D.; Rivera, Michael; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Rosenthall, Matthew; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Sander, Chris; Santoso, Netty; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Schumacher, Steven E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Seidman, Jonathan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Seth, Sahil; Sharpe, Samantha; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Shen, John P.; Shen, Ronglai; Sherman, Steven; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sica, Gabriel L.; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Song, Xingzhi; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Stojanov, Petar; Stuart, Joshua M.; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Taylor, Barry S.; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Tuttle, R. Michael; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vandin, Fabio; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Vinco, Michelle; Voet, Doug; Walter, Vonn; Wang, Zhining; Waring, Scot; Weinberger, Paul M.; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wheeler, David; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilson, Jocelyn; Williams, Michelle; Winer, Daniel A.; Wise, Lisa; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W.; Yang, Liming; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zeng, Dong; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Hailei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zmuda, Erik; Zou., Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology, biology, diagnosis, and therapies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcos António; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves; Tralhão, José Guilherme; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women, as is diagnosed in more than half a million individuals worldwide every year. In Portugal, its incidence and mortality rates are low compared to other types of cancers. In Brazil, in the city of São Paulo, according to data released by the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS), the incidence of primary liver cancer was 2.07/100,000 inhabitants. Although the vast majority of cases (85%) mainly affect developing countries, especially where infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic, the incidence in developed countries is increasing. This pathology is associated with several risk factors, not only environmental but also genetic, generating an increasing interest in attaining a better understanding of this disease, which is still associated with very late diagnosis and poor prognosis. Of the available treatments, few patients benefit from their scanty advantages, increasingly stimulating research of new forms of treatment against this disease. This review aimed to briefly but fully identify risk factors, molecular and biochemical pathways, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and possible clinical approaches of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24041910

  12. Undifferentiated Laryngeal Carcinoma with Pagetoid Spread.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Sulen; Dogan, Ersoy; Sahin, Yasemin; Uzun, Evren; Bekis, Recep; Ada, Emel; Sagol, Ozgul; Akman, Fadime

    2016-06-01

    Pagetoid spread, is used to define intraepithelial spread of cancer cells, when a massive carcinoma is identified beneath the basal membrane. There are only few reports of pagetoid spread at the head and neck region. Herein a 74 year old male patient with bilateral transglottic laryngeal high grade malignant epithelial tumor with pagetoid spread is presented. The tumor was located at the submucosa and there was spread of the CK7 and CK19 positive tumor cells into the non neoplastic mucosa, which was CK5/6 positive, sparing the basement membrane, creating a typical pagetoid pattern. Radiographic and positron emission tomography scan examination of the patient was unremarkable at presentation other than the laryngeal and neck lesions; but extensive systemic metastasis developed at 6 months following operation. To the best of our knowledge no epithelial malignancy with pagetoid spread was described at the larynx. Pagetoid spread may be a hallmark of very aggressive behavior in laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:26292650

  13. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S.; Hassan, Mohammad J.; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up. PMID:26629388

  14. PAX8-PPARγ fusion protein in thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Priyadarshini; Koenig, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy, and the incidence of thyroid carcinoma has been progressively increasing. Most thyroid carcinomas contain one of a small number of mutually exclusive driver mutations, such as BRAFV600E, RAS mutations, RET gene fusions, or PAX8/PPARG gene fusions. The PAX8/PPARG gene fusion results in production of a PAX8-PPARγ fusion protein, denoted PPFP, and is found in ~30 – 35% of follicular thyroid carcinomas as well as a subset of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas. In vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that PPFP can act as an oncoprotein. Although the specific mechanism of PPFP action is yet to be defined, PPFP is considered to act as a dominant negative inhibitor of wild type PPARγ and/or as a unique transcriptional activator of subsets of PPARγ and PAX8 responsive genes. Detection of the fusion transcript in thyroid nodule biopsy specimens can aid clinical decision-making when cytological analyses are indeterminate. The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone is highly therapeutic in a transgenic mouse model of PPFP thyroid carcinoma, suggesting that PPARγ agonists may be therapeutic in patients with PPFP thyroid carcinomas. PMID:25069464

  15. Carcinoma of the thyroid: review of 304 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    1987-06-01

    From 1950 through 1976, 304 patients were treated for carcinoma of the thyroid at Sinai Hospital of Baltimore. This series clearly indicates that papillary cancer of the thyroid can be fatal, even after a five-year survival, even as long as 25 years later. This study also shows that a patient with solid cell or undifferentiated carcinoma of the thyroid might live as long as 17 years after operation. Twenty-three patients in this series had had previous operations, 13 of which were for malignancy of the thyroid. Of these 13 patients, four died of carcinoma of the thyroid. Three had had lobectomy, two for papillary carcinoma and one for follicular carcinoma, and one had had subtotal thyroidectomy for undifferentiated carcinoma. Early and complete resection of thyroid carcinoma is indicated because this disease can be fatal, even after long survivals, multiple foci of malignancy may be present in 27% of cases, the disease can recur in the contralateral lobe after previous lobectomy, death can occur even after secondary operation, and careful surgical treatment can yield an uneventful total thyroidectomy. 83 references.

  16. Apocrine-eccrine carcinomas: molecular and immunohistochemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Le, Long P; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Pawlak, Amanda C; Cosper, Arjola K; Nguyen, Anh Thu; Selim, M Angelica; Deng, April; Horick, Nora K; Iafrate, A John; Mihm, Martin C; Hoang, Mai P

    2012-01-01

    Apocrine-eccrine carcinomas are rare and associated with poor prognosis. Currently there is no uniform treatment guideline. Chemotherapeutic drugs that selectively target cancer-promoting pathways may complement conventional therapeutic approaches. However, studies on genetic alterations and EGFR and Her2 status of apocrine-eccrine carcinomas are few in number. In addition, hormonal studies have not been comprehensive and performed only on certain subsets of apocrine-eccrine carcinomas. To investigate whether apocrine-eccrine carcinomas express hormonal receptors or possess activation of oncogenic pathways that can be targeted by available chemotherapeutic agent we performed immunohistochemistry for AR, PR, ER, EGFR, and HER2 expression; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for EGFR and ERBB2 gene amplification; and molecular analyses for recurrent mutations in 15 cancer genes including AKT-1, EGFR, PIK3CA, and TP53 on 54 cases of apocrine-eccrine carcinomas. They include 10 apocrine carcinomas, 7 eccrine carcinomas, 9 aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinomas, 10 hidradenocarcinomas, 11 porocarcinomas, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 4 malignant chondroid syringomas, 1 malignant spiradenoma, and 1 malignant cylindroma. AR, ER, PR, EGFR and HER2 expression was seen in 36% (19/53), 27% (14/51), 16% (8/51), 85% (44/52) and 12% (6/52), respectively. Polysomy or trisomy of EGFR was detected by FISH in 30% (14/46). Mutations of AKT-1, PIK3CA, and TP53 were detected in 1, 3, and 7 cases, respectively (11/47, 23%). Additional investigation regarding the potential treatment of rare cases of apocrine-eccrine carcinomas with PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors, currently in clinical testing, may be of clinical interest. PMID:23056620

  17. Hypercalcitoninemia is not Pathognomonic of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Sergio PA; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; de Menezes Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (> 2–4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (~90%–100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, < 5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and consequent incorrect recommendation for thyroid surgery. PMID:19606248

  18. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Floor of the Mouth - A Rarity.

    PubMed

    Maloth, Aruna Kumari; Nandan, S R K; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keerthi

    2015-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most commonly occurring malignant salivary gland neoplasm, and contributes 2.8%-15% of all salivary gland tumours. More than half of these cases involve the major salivary glands, primarily the parotid glands and minor salivary glands. Sublingual salivary glands neoplasms are very rare and constitute 0.5% and 1% of all epithelial salivary tumours and approximately 1.5% of the major salivary glands carcinomas. Here we describe a case report of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the floor of the mouth in a 70-year-old female patient that was mimicking like a ranula clinically. PMID:26813873

  19. Ameloblastic carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Manas; Singh, Jasbir; Arora, Rachna; Bansal, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is a rare epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaws, which exhibits cytological features of ameloblastoma and carcinoma. It has a distinct predilection for mandible. These lesions may initially show histologic features of ameloblastoma that dedifferentiate over time. Others may present with features of epithelial dedifferentiation in ameloblastoma. A case of ameloblastomic carcinoma in a 64-year-old male is reported, who presented with swelling in the left mandible 3 months after the extraction of the left upper molar. PMID:23776775

  20. Laryngeal carcinoma presenting as polymyositis: A paraneoplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ritesh; Rathaur, Bhanu Pratap; Chaudhari, Tejendra Sukdeo; Shukla, Rakesh; Malhotra, Kiran Preet

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma is rarely associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. Inflammatory myopathy presenting as paraneoplastic event is commonly associated with carcinomas of ovary, lung, pancreas, stomach, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of elderly male, who presented with proximal muscle weakness and found to be associated with laryngeal carcinoma. Diagnosis of polymyositis (PM) was confirmed based on clinical features, laboratory test, and muscle biopsy. Exclusion of other commonly associated malignancies was done. This patient improved gradually after 6 months of immunosuppressive therapy and management of underlying cancer. PMID:27011653

  1. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Floor of the Mouth – A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Nandan, S.R.K.; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keerthi

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most commonly occurring malignant salivary gland neoplasm, and contributes 2.8%–15% of all salivary gland tumours. More than half of these cases involve the major salivary glands, primarily the parotid glands and minor salivary glands. Sublingual salivary glands neoplasms are very rare and constitute 0.5% and 1% of all epithelial salivary tumours and approximately 1.5% of the major salivary glands carcinomas. Here we describe a case report of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the floor of the mouth in a 70-year-old female patient that was mimicking like a ranula clinically. PMID:26813873

  2. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat. PMID:27010306

  3. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the penis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Vilela, Maria Helena Tavares; da Silva Mendonça, Rodrigo Pastor; de Morais, Danilo Tavares Maranhão; Júnior, Paulo Cézar Ribeiro Gomes; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Barreira, Bernardo Monteiro Antunes

    2015-01-01

    We describe the fifth case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The patient had penile ulcer with bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and underwent total penectomy. After antibiotic therapy, the patient began outpatient chemotherapy, but the treatment was discontinued due to his intolerance. The patient died due to infectious complications of the inguinal lymphatic fistula 7 months after the histological diagnosis. Notably, the periurethral area was involved in the anatomopathological evaluation of the excised penis. The penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma was aggressive and the perimeatal region was involved. This case helps demystify the origins and prognosis of this rare case. More reports documenting patient characteristics and their evolution with penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma are needed. PMID:25624963

  4. Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast in a Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zishuo Ian; Liu, Chengbao; Fisher, Paul R.; Cohen, Jules A.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of intracystic papillary carcinoma of the right breast in a 59-year old man presenting with bloody nipple discharge for 1 week prior to presentation. Mammography, ultrasonography, and core needle aspiration were consistent with intracystic papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent right simple mastectomy. Pathology was also consistent with low grade intracystic papillary carcinoma. The 21-gene assay revealed a recurrence score of 0, corresponding to a 3% risk of distant recurrence at 10 years. A patient did not receive chemotherapy or post-mastectomy radiotherapy. The patient was placed on tamoxifen and has been free of disease to date. PMID:27134706

  5. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: surgical management.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Asamura, Hisao

    2014-08-01

    Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is an uncommon aggressive neoplasm with a poor prognosis compared with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Because of its rarity, the treatment recommendations are not based on clinical trials, but are extrapolated from the approach to patients with NSCLC and small-cell lung carcinoma and the established literature for LCNEC, which is primarily retrospective in nature. Further studies should clarify the histology-specific characteristic and optimal therapeutic approach to establish the entity of LCNEC. PMID:25065932

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Manrai, Manish; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Alfadda, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important component in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma pancreas. With the advent of advanced imaging techniques and tissue acquisition methods the role of EUS is becoming increasingly important. Small pancreatic tumors can be reliably diagnosed with EUS. EUS guided fine needle aspiration establishes diagnosis in some cases. EUS plays an important role in staging of carcinoma pancreas and in some important therapeutic methods that include celiac plexus neurolysis, EUS guided biliary drainage and drug delivery. In this review we attempt to review the role of EUS in diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas. PMID:26839647

  8. Multifocal extraovarian serous carcinoma. A histochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Resta, L; Maiorano, E; Zito, F A; Faggiano, F; Loizzi, P; Ferreri, R; Borraccino, V; Conte, R; Lucisano, F

    1988-01-01

    Three cases of multifocal extraovarian serous carcinoma are presented. This rare, interesting tumor is characterized by a peritoneal carcinosis with ascites and by a histological pattern similar to one of the ovarian serous carcinoma without primary involvement of the ovaries. The pathological criteria for a differential diagnosis between this condition and a localization of ovarian carcinoma are discussed. Histochemical studies show the presence of mucins and the absence of ialuronic acid in the neoplastic cells. The positivity to the low molecular weight cytokeratins is strong in the normal mesothelial cells, and weak in the hyperplastic and neoplastic cells. The meaning of these findings in the tumoral histogenesis is discussed. PMID:3234425

  9. A patient with Multiple myeloma and Renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Farhad; Ghalamkari, Marziye; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Khatuni, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of two malignancies is rarely seen. A little association between hematologic malignancies especially multiple myeloma and renal cell carcinoma has been reported in the recent past. Several case series revealed a bidirectional association between these two malignancies which may be due to the common risk factors, similar cytokine growth requirements and clinical presentation. Here, we aim to describe a patient who had multiple myeloma and in his work up renal cell carcinoma was found out incidentally. We would like to create awareness among clinicians for the coincidence of Renal cell carcinoma and Multiple myeloma. PMID:27047652

  10. A patient with Multiple myeloma and Renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Farhad; Ghalamkari, Marziye; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Khatuni, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of two malignancies is rarely seen. A little association between hematologic malignancies especially multiple myeloma and renal cell carcinoma has been reported in the recent past. Several case series revealed a bidirectional association between these two malignancies which may be due to the common risk factors, similar cytokine growth requirements and clinical presentation. Here, we aim to describe a patient who had multiple myeloma and in his work up renal cell carcinoma was found out incidentally. We would like to create awareness among clinicians for the coincidence of Renal cell carcinoma and Multiple myeloma. PMID:27047652

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takahisa; Terasawa, Fumio; Tachikawa, Yoshiharu; Murai, Atsuko; Mori, Takashi; El-Dakhly, Khaled; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-09-01

    A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  12. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

  13. Superior vena caval syndrome secondary to metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ng Keng; Aik, Ong Teng; Meng, Looi Lai; Htun, Thi Ha; Razack, Azad Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Superior vena caval syndrome (SVCS) is a debilitating condition attributed to malignancy in more than 70% of cases. However, solitary head and neck metastases arising from renal cell carcinomas without evidence of disease elsewhere are rare. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma presenting as a rapidly growing right cervical lymph node with compression on the subclavian vein causing superior vena caval syndrome (SVCS). There was pulmonary embolism as well. Biopsy of the neck mass confirmed metastatic clear cell carcinoma with primary found in the (L) kidney. The patient had partial response to focussed radiotherapy to neck mass and Sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) before succumbing to the disease. PMID:24718014

  14. Radioimaging of human ovarian carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Manetta, A.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.; Hamilton, T.; Ozols, R.; Mortel, R.

    1987-11-01

    Human ovarian carcinomas in nude mice were radioimaged using a well-characterized antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (CA 125) and three transplantable human ovarian carcinoma tumor lines: NIH:OVCAR 3, NIH:OVCAR 5, and NIH:OVCAR 9. Radioiodinated monoclonal antibody OC125 was used in these studies. In order to establish the optimal conditions for imaging, tumor/blood ratios were determined. Gamma scintigraphy of nude mice bearing subcutaneous transplants of human ovarian carcinomas 3-4 days after /sup 131/I-OC125 administration demonstrated selective localization of the radiolabeled monoclonal antibody by these tumors without need for any background subtraction techniques.

  15. Papillary carcinoma of the breast lacks evidence of RET rearrangements despite morphological similarities to papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Omar; Perry, Arie; Banerjee, Ruma; Zhu, Xiaopei; Pfeifer, John D

    2009-09-01

    Rare breast neoplasms resembling the tall-cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma have been reported. In addition, papillary carcinoma of the breast occasionally displays nuclear features reminiscent of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated 33 intraductal/intracystic papillary carcinomas of the breast for the presence and extent of nuclear overlap, grooves, clearing, and inclusions, as well as features of the tall-cell or columnar-cell variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma. RET rearrangements were assessed in a subset of these cases. Paired probes localizing to the centromeric and telomeric ends of the RET gene on chromosome 10 were used for FISH using a break-apart approach. Single round and nested PCR was performed to detect RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2, RET/PTC3 and ELKS-RET fusion transcripts. Nuclear overlap, grooves, stratification, and clearing were identified in 24 (73%), 14 (42%), 11 (33%), and 9 (27%) cases respectively, whereas nuclear inclusions and 'tall-cell' features were each seen in only one (3%) and two (6%) cases, respectively. Four of 19 tested cases displayed split FISH signals in a low percentage of cells and were considered borderline for RET rearrangement. All 19 tested cases with amplifiable RNA were negative for the four RET fusion transcripts evaluated by RT-PCR. Although papillary carcinomas of breast often display one or more cytoarchitectural features of papillary thyroid carcinoma, there is no evidence that RET rearrangements are involved. PMID:19543246

  16. [FDG-PET/CT in staging of breast carcinoma: use in tumour stage III and locoregional recurrent breast carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bulten, Ben F; de Haas, Marie J; Rodenburg, Cees J; van Ooijen, Bart; Baas, Inge O; de Klerk, John M H

    2014-01-01

    In stage III breast carcinoma, metastasized disease needs to be determined. In the past, conventional imaging by liver ultrasound, chest X-ray and bone scintigraphy was the work-up of choice. Recently, FDG-PET/CT was found to have additional value, but clinicians are hesitant to introduce this technique. We present three patients in whom FDG-PET/CT was applied. A 61-year-old woman with stage III breast carcinoma after conventional work-up was upstaged to stage IV breast carcinoma by FDG-PET/CT, upon which her treatment was changed. A 55-year-old woman suspected of stage IV breast carcinoma after conventional imaging was downstaged to stage III after FDG-PET/CT. Her treatment was changed as well. In a 78-year-old woman with recurrent breast carcinoma, the diagnostic certainty of stage III breast carcinoma was increased by FDG-PET/CT. We conclude that FDG-PET/CT is valuable for adequately diagnosing metastases in patients with stage III breast carcinoma and can replace conventional imaging. PMID:24642119

  17. USP7 overexpression predicts a poor prognosis in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang-Yin; Lin, Zong-Wu; Lu, Chun-Lai; Gu, Jie; Yuan, Yun-Feng; Xu, Feng-Kai; Liu, Rong-Hua; Ge, Di; Ding, Jian-Yong

    2015-03-01

    In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both USP7 expression and p53 gene status were reported to be an indicator of poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma patients; however, its roles and mechanisms in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma need to be clarified. The USP7 expression was examined in NSCLC tumors (excluding adenocarcinoma), their corresponding non-tumorous tissues, and NSCLC cells. Then, the prognostic role of USP7 was analyzed in 110 NSCLC samples (excluding the adenocarcinoma). Finally, the roles and mechanisms of USP7 in the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of a NSCLC cell were assessed using a specific vshRNA. The USP7 expression was higher in NSCLC tissues compared to non-tumorous samples, accordingly, the high level of USP7 was detected in NSCLC cell lines compared with HBE cell. After the USP7 downregulation, the H460 cells exhibited decreased metastasis/invasion in vitro and in vivo. The preliminary mechanism study indicated overexpression of USP7 might regulate the p53-MDM2 pathway by inducing the MDM2 de-ubiquitination and subsequent stabilization, which resulted in the upregulation of the Bad phosphorylation. Additionally, we also found that USP7 might induce cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition to enhance the cell invasive ability. Clinically, USP7 overexpression significantly correlated with malignant phenotype. Furthermore, the 5-year overall survival in patients with USP7(low) was higher than that of USP7(high). Multivariate analysis showed USP7 overexpression was an independent prognostic marker for these cancers. USP7 overexpression may regulate the survival and invasive properties of squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma cells, and may serve as a molecular target. PMID:25519684

  18. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  19. Clinicopathologic Features of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Xiao; Shang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Hong-Feng; Xie, Yong; Liu, Yue-Wu; Gao, Wei-Sheng; Wu, Qiong; Li, Xiao-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) is a variant of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma(NMTC) with particular clinicopathologic features. In recent years, a number of studies have shown that FNMTC is more invasive than sporadic NMTC(SNMTC). The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in clinicopathologic features of FNMTC between different types of families and to determine in which of these families more invasive FNMTC occurred. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with thyroid carcinoma admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to July 2013 in the database. Of all 2000 cases, 55 met the inclusive criteria for FNMTC and were studied. There are two different grouping methods. The first is that all samples were allocated to families with three or more first-degree relatives affected (FNMTC-3 group) and families with only two affected first-degree relatives (FNMTC-2 group). The second is that all patients were divided into families with three or more affected first-degree relatives over two generations (FNMTC-3-2 group) and the other families. We compared the clinicopathologic features such as sex, age, tumor size, multifocality, location, complications by thyroiditis, complications by benign thyroid nodules, surgical procedure, capsule invasion, histological type, lymph node metastases, tumor node metastasis stage, and BRAF mutation between FNMTC-2 group and FNMTC-3 group. We also made the same comparison between FNMTC-3-2 group and other families. Results: No pronounced differences in clinicopathological features were present between FNMTC-2 group and FNMTC-3 group. The proportion of FNMTC-3-2 group aged <45 years was significantly higher than that in the other families (58.8% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.021). A similar difference was found in the proportion of lymph node metastasis (64.7% vs. 34.2%, P = 0.035). Conclusions: FNMTC-3-2 is more invasive than the other families. Early screening and positive treatment for members of these families are recommended. PMID:25881596

  20. Differential senescence capacities in meibomian gland carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shengfang; Gilson, Eric; Jia, Renbing; Ye, Jing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-15

    Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells, and the expression levels of the telomere capping shelterin complex, P53, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Decreased protein levels of the shelterin subunits, shortened telomere length, over-expressed Ki-67, and Bcl2 as well as mutations in P53 were detected both in MGC and BCC. It suggests that the decreased protein levels of the shelterin complex and the shortened telomere length contribute to the tumorigenesis of MGC and BCC. However, several parameters distinguish MGC from BCC samples: (i) the mRNA level of the shelterin subunits decreased in MGC but it increased in BCC; (ii) P53 was more highly mutated in MGC; (iii) Siah1 mRNA was over-expressed in BCC; (iv) BCC samples contain a higher level of senescent cells; (v) Ki-67 and Bcl2 expression were lower in BCC. These results support a model where a preserved P53 checkpoint in BCC leads to cellular senescence and reduced tumor proliferation as compared to MGC. PMID:26437300

  1. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Charles; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Poulsen, Michael; Martin, Jarad; Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  2. Synchronously resected double primary hepatic cancers - hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiolocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Masanori; Hara, Michio; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of double primary cancers in the liver is very low. All reported cases are double cancers consisting of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). We herein report a surgical patient who had simultaneous double cancers consisting of HCC and cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC). This is the first case report of such a patient. A 70-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for further examination of two hepatic nodules. He had a history of schistosomiasis japonica, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and diabetes mellitus. Laboratory data revealed that hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody was positive and hepatic enzymes were slightly elevated. The level of prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II was elevated. Computed tomography depicted two tumors; one, measuring 4.0 cm in diameter, was in the medial segment and the other, 2.2 cm in diameter, was in the posterior superior segment of the liver. The larger tumor showed contrast enhancement and the smaller one showed enhancement at the tumor periphery in the hepatic arterial phase. In the portal phase, the larger tumor became less dense than the liver parenchyma, but the periphery of the smaller one showed continuous enhancement. He underwent an operation under a diagnosis of double hepatic cancers, consisting of HCC and CCC. However, microscopic examination of the resected tumors revealed that the larger tumor was moderately differentiated HCC and the smaller one was CoCC. PMID:17139434

  3. Synchronous unilateral triple breast cancers composed of invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Onoe, Shunsuke; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Hasebe, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Eriko; Hojo, Takashi; Kinoshita, Takayuki

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of synchronous unilateral triple breast cancers comprising invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), and Paget's disease. A 57-year-old woman with a left breast mass was referred to our hospital. Mammography revealed only an isodense area with foci of microcalcification in the lateral area of the left breast. Ultrasonography revealed 2 hypoechoic masses in the outer lower and inner upper areas, and these 2 lesions were diagnosed by core needle biopsy as ILC and IDC, respectively. Left total mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsies was performed. In addition to the ILC and IDC, histological examination also identified Paget's disease. Breast cancer often manifests as multiple unilateral lesions; however, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether these tumors have developed multicentrically or have multifocally invaded from an intraductal carcinoma. This case was clearly diagnosed to have occurred multicentrically because of the absence of continuity among the 3 tumors, the presence of a non-invasive component in all 3 tumors, and different histopathological findings. The synchronous unilateral development of ILCs is well known. Cases of synchronous unilateral triple or more breast cancers were reviewed, and their histopathological characteristics, including the incidence of Paget's disease, is discussed. PMID:21140247

  4. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Masquerading as a Primary Ovarian Mass in a Post-Operative Case of Meningioma and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bohara, Sangita; Dey, Biswajit; Agarwal, Swapnil; Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Khurana, Nita; Sachdeva, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    The clinical presentation of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to ovary is extremely rare as well as confusing due to its close resemblance to primary ovarian tumors, especially clear cell carcinoma. We present a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma diagnosed in a 48-year-old female, who had renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney and right sphenoid wing meningioma of transitional type. PMID:26500727

  5. Decoding multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma: an opportune pursuit

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy with major worldwide prevalence and a poor overall prognosis. About 75% of all HCC cases are initially diagnosed as multiple tumors, presenting a particular challenge for aggressive surgical therapy. Multiple HCC may result from multicentric occurrence (MO-HCC) or intrahepatic metastases (IM-HCC), corresponding to highly dissimilar clinical outcomes. Reliable distinction of these two mechanisms is therefore paramount in optimizing the management of multiple HCC. In a recent work, Miao et al. adopted a multi-omics approach to find key parameters of different clonality in MO-HCC vs. IM-HCC and link these data to tumor behavior and prognosis in a cohort of patients with HBV-related HCC. The mitotic checkpoint regulator TTK has emerged from this analysis as a novel biomarker that may predict aggressive behavior and early postoperative recurrence of HCC. PMID:26151061

  6. Thymic carcinoma presenting as atypical chest pain.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sadiq; Connelly, Tara; Keita, Luther; Blazkova, Sylvie; Veerasingam, Dave

    2015-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a 2-month history of atypical chest pain was referred to the chest pain clinic by the general practitioner. Exercise stress test was positive and subsequent coronary angiogram revealed significant triple vessel disease with left ventricular impairment requiring a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The patient had a chest X-ray as part of the preoperative work up. Chest X-ray revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass. Subsequent thorax CT revealed a 7.2 cm anterior mediastinal mass. CT-guided biopsy of the mass revealed the diagnosis of a poorly differentiated thymic basaloid carcinoma. The patient was successfully treated with concomitant surgery involving complete resection of the mass and a CABG procedure. PMID:26607199

  7. Radiation induced carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; Amendola, M.A.; McClatchey, K.D.

    1985-07-01

    A squamous cell carcinoma presented in a 20 year old female nonsmoker three years after receiving a high dosage of radiation therapy to the base of the skull, face and entire neuroaxis and intense combination chemotherapy for a parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses is reported. The larynx received a dose of about 3,500 rads over an eight week period. This dosage in conjunction with the associated intense chemotherapy regimen given to the patient may explain the appearance of a radiation induced tumor in an unusually short latent period. This certainly represents a risk in young patients in whom an aggressive combined approach is taken and the physician should be aware of.

  8. Prostatic carcinoma: rectal bleeding after radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, A.R.; Steckel, R.J.

    1981-06-01

    A 64-year-old man had a prostatic nodule on routine physical examination; per-rectal needle biopsies revealed a single focus of well differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient had no history of urinary obstruction or of bowel difficulties. Accordingly, this was clinical stage II carcinoma of the prostate. The patient chose to receive external radiation therapy and was given small-field rotational treatment to a dose of 7000 rad (70 Gy) at a rate of 800 rad (8 Gy) weekly. Late in treatment, he experienced transitory diarrhea with flatulence, but this cleared with completion of treatment. Twenty months later he began to note frequent soft bowel movements, occasionally with red blood. At sigmoidoscopy 24 months after completion of treatment, the rectal mucosa was noted to be friable with minimal bleeding, presumably the result of radiation proctitis.

  9. [Integrated treatments of rectal carcinoma (review)].

    PubMed

    Gennari, Leandro; Doci, Roberto; Rossetti, Carlo; Bagnoli, Pietro; Eboli, Marco; Brocchi, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    We have reviewed the international literature regarding the treatment of rectal carcinoma. Over the last decades the evolution of treatment methods has led to a drastic fall in the incidence of local recurrences which has gone from a wide range (15-40%) to a much lower figure (10%). This favourable result has been reached also due to improvement in surgical techniques (total mesorectal excision) and to the use of an association of preoperative radio and chemotherapy. However, the drugs and dosage of these as well as of the RT still have to be defined. In our experience the integrated treatment has brought a downstaging of the T in 60% of cases and of the N in 15%. PMID:12613323

  10. [Progress in surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, K Y; Liu, L X; Yin, D L

    2016-02-01

    The surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma have advanced greatly in recent years: associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy can bring hope and relief to patients with advanced liver cancer and less future liver remnant; the application range of laparoscopic hepatectomy and robotic hepatectomy were amplified; hepatectomy following anatomic or non-anatomic direction should be decided by particular situations; the precise preoperative assessment of liver reserve function ensured the success of extended hepatectomy; the further discussion of United Network for Organ Sharing criteria for liver transplantation made the appearance of University of California at San Francisco, Up-to-seven and Hangzhou criteria; bridge therapy can decrease tumor progression and the dropout rate from the liver transplantation waiting list; downstaging treatment is used in selected patients with more advanced liver cancer who are beyond the accepted transplant criteria to acquire the chance of liver transplantation and increase survival rates. PMID:26876084

  11. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks.

    PubMed

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  12. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

    PubMed Central

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  13. A flowgraph model for bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Superficial bladder cancer has been the subject of numerous studies for many years, but the evolution of the disease still remains not well understood. After the tumor has been surgically removed, it may reappear at a similar level of malignancy or progress to a higher level. The process may be reasonably modeled by means of a Markov process. However, in order to more completely model the evolution of the disease, this approach is insufficient. The semi-Markov framework allows a more realistic approach, but calculations become frequently intractable. In this context, flowgraph models provide an efficient approach to successfully manage the evolution of superficial bladder carcinoma. Our aim is to test this methodology in this particular case. Results We have built a successful model for a simple but representative case. Conclusion The flowgraph approach is suitable for modeling of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:25080066

  14. [Brachytherapy for cutaneous and lip carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Rio, E; Mirabel, X; Brun, T; Ducassou, A; David, I

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous basal or squamous cell carcinomas are frequent lesions, their prognosis being associated to local control. Surgery remains the standard of treatment, if a complete resection can be realized without impairment of cosmesis or function. Brachytherapy can be used in the other cases, and is especially well adapted to periorificial lesions of the face. It is mostly realized with low dose rate iridium wires, but can be done with high dose rate if outpatient treatment is preferred. It allows high local control rates with very few late complications. The indication has to be discussed as first line treatment, according to the patient's age and general condition, the characteristics of the lesion, and the risk of late cosmetic or functional side-effects of the different therapeutic options. PMID:23538040

  15. Hedgehog signaling in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Levesque, Mitchell P; Dummer, Reinhard; Kabashima, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer, is occasionally aggressive with deep invasion, destruction of adjacent structures, recurrence and, on very rare occasions, regional and distant metastases. Mutations that occur in BCC in hedgehog (Hh) pathway genes primarily involve the genes encoding patched homolog (PTCH) and smoothened homolog (SMO). Several animal models have demonstrated the functional relevance of genetic alterations in the Hh pathway during tumorigenesis. Recently, targeted therapy has become available both commercially and in the context of human clinical trials. Interestingly, Hh pathway inhibitors not only suppress BCC progression but also promote acquired immune responses. Since immune responses are crucial for long-term tumor control, new clinical trials, such as those involving a combination of Hh inhibitors with immune modifiers, are needed to supplement standard methods of tumor control. PMID:25766766

  16. Combinatorial immunotherapy strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malignancy. The prognosis for HCC patients greatly varies according to the stage at diagnosis. Overall it is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5-6%. Immunotherapeutic interventions represent a novel and effective therapeutic tool. However, only few immunotherapy trials for HCC have been conducted so far with contrasting results, suggesting that significant improvements are needed. Indeed, the liver is characterized by a strong intrinsic immune suppressive microenvironment which needs to be counterbalanced with immune stimulatory approaches. Therefore, the implementation of combinatorial protocols combining immune stimulatory strategies with specific immunotherapy approaches could result in a dramatic improvement of efficacy and clinical outcome in HCC patients. The present review aims at describing the state of the art in immunotherapy strategies for HCC and future perspectives. PMID:26851637

  17. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Molecular Biology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Alfa, Ghassan

    2007-01-01

    Advanced and metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are challenging to treat, and no cytotoxic agents have impacted survival. The underlying liver cirrhosis that commonly accompanies HCC provides an additional challenge; indeed, functional scoring of cirrhosis and HCC is a critical component of patient evaluation. Currently, the molecular biology and pathogenesis of HCC are being increasingly investigated, which may lead to better understanding of the evolution of the disease, especially differing etiologies and identification of survival genes that may affect outcome. Early studies of targeted therapies in HCC have shown disease stabilization, and an increased understanding of the mechanism(s) of these novel agents combined with correlative studies may lead to the identification of an active agent or combination of agents that impacts the natural history of HCC. PMID:17178294

  18. Treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma today.

    PubMed

    Livraghi, T; Mäkisalo, H; Line, P-D

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. As over 90% of HCCs arise in cirrhotic livers preventive methods and surveillance policies have been adopted in most countries with high prevalence of hepatitis B or C infected people. Poor prognosis of HCC has shown some improvement during the last years. Targeted therapy with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), hepatic resection (HR), liver transplantation (LT), and transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) seems to have an influence on this development. The heterogeneity of cirrhotic patients with HCC is still a big challenge. A patient with a small tumour in a cirrhotic liver may have a worse prognosis than a patient with a large tumor in a relatively preserved liver after "curative" HR. The choice of the treatment modality depends on the size and the number of tumours, the stage and the cause of cirrhosis and finally on the availability of various modalities in each centre. PMID:21482502

  19. Staging of renal cell carcinoma: Current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Lam, John S.; Klatte, Tobias; Breda, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The most important and widely utilized system for providing prognostic information following surgical management for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is currently the tumor, nodes, and metastasis (TNM) staging system. An accurate and clinically useful staging system is an essential tool used to provide patients with counseling regarding prognosis, select treatment modalities, and determining eligibility for clinical trials. Data published over the last few years has led to significant controversies as to whether further revisions are needed and whether improvements can be made with the introduction of new, more accurate predictive prognostic factors. Staging systems have also evolved with an increase in the understanding of RCC tumor biology. Molecular tumor biomarkers are expected to revolutionize the staging of RCC by providing more effective prognostic ability over traditional clinical variables alone. This review will examine the components of the TNM staging system, current staging modalities including comprehensive integrated staging systems, and predictive nomograms, and introduce the concept of molecular staging for RCC. PMID:19955666

  20. Ultrasonography for early detection of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Andolf, E; Svalenius, E; Astedt, B

    1986-12-01

    Ultrasound scan for detection of ovarian enlargements was performed in a target group of out-patients attending the clinic for various reasons in the 40-70 years range. Overall 805 women were examined, in 99% of whom the ovaries and/or their vessels could be identified. Pathological findings were suspected in 83 patients at the first scan, and were confirmed in 50 after a repeat scan, 39 of whom subsequently underwent surgery. Various ovarian lesions were found in 35 women, including five mucinous and serous cystadenomas, one carcinoma, two borderline tumours, and a cancer of the caecum. None of the borderline or malignant ovarian lesions were found by manual pelvic examination. Ultrasound screening appears to be a useful diagnostic aid, though its usefulness might be further improved if other risk factors such as heredity and period of ovulatory activity are taken into consideration. PMID:3542015

  1. Genetic and epigenetic landscape of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Zheng, Hong; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Lung, Maria Li

    2016-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a unique epithelial malignancy that shows a remarkable geographical and ethic distribution. Multiple factors including predisposing genetic factors, environmental carcinogens, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection contribute to the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to NPC development. Emerging technologies now allow us to detailedly characterize and understand cancer genomes. Genome-wide studies show that typically NPC tumors are characterized as having comparatively low mutation rates, widespread hypermethylation, and frequent copy number alterations and chromosome abnormalities. In this review, we provide an updated overview of the genetic and epigenetic aberrations that likely drive nasopharyngeal tumor development and progression. We integrate the previous knowledge and novel findings from whole-exome sequencing (WES) and methylome studies in NPC, and further discuss the potential use of these findings to identify biomarkers for NPC diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:27121876

  2. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Changes in the time trends of HCC and most variations in its age-, sex-, and race-specific rates among different regions are likely to be related to differences in hepatitis viruses that are most prevalent in a population, the timing of their spread, and the ages of the individuals the viruses infect. Environmental, host genetic, and viral factors can affect the risk of HCC in individuals with HBV or HCV infection. This review summarizes the risk factors for HCC among HBV- or HCV-infected individuals, based on findings from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses, as well as determinants of patient outcome and the HCC disease burden, globally and in the US. PMID:22537432

  3. [Stomach carcinoma as a surgical emergency].

    PubMed

    Maurer, C A; Lindemann, W; Schilling, M K

    2002-01-01

    Perforated or bleeding gastric cancer is a life threatening situation that occurs in less than 10% of all patients with gastric cancer in the Western world. Three quarters of these complicated gastric carcinomas show advanced stages (UICC stages III and IV). Diagnosis is made intraoperatively only in the majority of patients. Emergency gastrectomy is superior to any type of local excision and/or local repair regarding surgical mortality and long-term survival and should be the intervention of choice. Stage-related long term survival of patients with emergency gastrectomy is comparable to that of electively resected patients. Minimalism and nihilism are therefore not appropriate in the treatment of complicated gastric cancer and are often deleterious. Subtotal gastrectomy without D2 lymphadenectomy is regarded as the adeqauate procedure in most cases. PMID:12013691

  4. Embolotherapy in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mojtahedi, Alireza; Yang, Xiaoming; Goswami, Gaurav K

    2008-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks fifth in frequency of cancers worldwide. The incidence of HCC in the United States is rising, primarily due to the number of patients who were infected by hepatitis in the 1960s and 1970s coupled with the rising migrant population from Asia, where hepatitis is widely prevalent. Up to 80% of the patients present with multicentric HCC and advanced liver disease or comorbidities that restrict the option of resection or liver transplantation. The dual blood supply (arterial and portal) to the liver with predominantly arterial supply to the tumor has made embolotherapy a cornerstone in the management of inoperable HCC. The techniques have become refined not only due to the development of microcatheter angiographic capabilities, but also in the ability to deliver a wide variety of therapeutic agents to these tumors. This article reviews the fundamental principles of bland embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization in the management of HCC. PMID:21326513

  5. Lymphatic spreading and lymphadenectomy for esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Cai, Jie; Chen, Yao; Chen, Long-Qi

    2016-01-27

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a highly lethal malignancy with a poor prognosis. One of the most important prognostic factors in EC is lymph node status. Therefore, lymphadenectomy has been recognized as a key that influences the outcome of surgical treatment for EC. However, the lymphatic drainage system of the esophagus, including an abundant lymph-capillary network in the lamina propria and muscularis mucosa, is very complex with cervical, mediastinal and celiac node spreading. The extent of lymphadenectomy for EC has always been controversial because of the very complex pattern of lymph node spreading. In this article, published literature regarding lymphatic spreading was reviewed and the current lymphadenectomy trends for EC are discussed. PMID:26843917

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma detected by iodized oil

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, Y.; Jinno, K.; Tokuyama, K.; Araki, Y.; Ishimitsu, T.; Maeda, H.; Konno, T.; Iwamoto, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Okuda, K.

    1985-01-01

    This study assesses the diagnostic value of Lipiodol (iodized oil) and computed tomography (CT) in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty-four patients who were suspected of having HCC received injections of a small amount of Lipiodol, along with an antitumor agent, in the hepatic artery following routine celiac angiography. CT scans obtained 7-10 days after Lipiodol administration demonstrated HCC in distinct contrast to the surrounding noncancerous parenchyma. In particular, the CT-Lipiodol procedure disclosed many small HCC lesions that were not shown by celiac angiography, scintigraphy, CT with an without contrast medium enhancement, and ultrasonography. Although this procedure may miss very small or highly fibrotic lesions, it is recommended for patients suspected of having HCC and for patients for whom hepatic resection is being considered.

  7. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  8. Mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sidharthan, Sreetha

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Alcohol can also function synergistically with other risk factors to cause HCC. Hence, alcohol consumption is a major factor affecting hepatic carcinogenesis in millions and the cause of a substantial public health burden. Chronic alcohol consumption interferes with several host anti-tumor mechanisms, thereby facilitating hepatocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the major mechanisms of alcohol-induced HCC. These include pathways of ethanol metabolism, alcohol-induced oxidative stress and hypomethylation of DNA, and interplay of alcohol with iron elevation, retinoid metabolism, the immune system, inflammatory pathways, and neoangiogenesis. The relevance of each pathway in affecting HCC transformation is a topic of intense investigation. Ongoing research will enhance our insight into the alcohol-induced occurrence of HCC and offer hope in developing better therapeutics. PMID:25383134

  9. The mutational landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex process, and HCC arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to changes in the genomic landscape. Current advances in genomic technologies have revolutionized the search for genetic alterations in cancer genomes. Recent studies in which all coding exons in HCC were sequenced have shed new light on the genomic landscape of this malignant disease. Catalogues of these somatic mutations and systematic analysis of catalogued mutations will lead us to uncover candidate HCC driver genes, although further functional validation is needed to determine whether these genes play a causal role in the development of HCC. This review provides an overview of previously known oncogenes and new oncogene candidates in HCC that were uncovered from recent exome or whole-genome sequencing studies. This knowledge provides direction for future personalized treatment approaches for patients with HCC. PMID:26523267

  10. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  11. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:26169313

  12. [Thyroid's metastasis of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Scanelli, Giovanni; Aimoni, Claudia; Marchetti, Elisabetta; Geminiani, Matteo; Pastore, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 58 years old man, affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, who underwent left tonsillectomy with bilateral neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. After a 6 months period, the patient began to suffer from dysphonia, dysphagia and loss of weight: a painless neoformation was detected at the right lobe of the tyhroid, resulted a metastasis of the tonsillar neoplasm. The search for intranodular thyroglobulin was negative; the patient underwent thyroidectomy which showed a massive infiltration of the right cricothyroid space, cricoid and thyroid wing cartilage necrosis and intralaryngeal tumor infiltration. The authors describe the thyroid metastasis treatment, present an up-to-date review of the literature and suggest a thyroid careful clinical evaluation in every patient with a previous history of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:16229323

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where there is unmet need.

    PubMed

    Bupathi, Manojkumar; Kaseb, Ahmed; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Naing, Aung

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex and heterogeneous tumor most commonly associated with underlying chronic liver disease, especially hepatitis. It is a growing problem in the United States and worldwide. There are two potential ways to prevent HCC. Primary prevention which is based on vaccination or secondary prevention involving agents that slowdown carcinogenesis. Several pathways have been thought to play a role in the development of HCC; specifically, those involving vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis, WNT, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and c-MET. Currently, there are only a limited number of drugs which have been proven as effective treatment options for HCC and several clinical trials are testing drugs which target aberrations in the pathways mentioned above. In this review, we discuss currently approved therapies, monotherapies and combination therapy for the treatment of HCC. PMID:26160430

  14. A functioning pleomorphic carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Karnauchow, P. N.

    1976-01-01

    A metastasizing functioning pleomorphic carcinoma of the thyroid displayed a morphologic piture ranging from follicular to sarcomatous and carcinoid-like patterns. Spindle-cell elements were believed to be the result of metaplasia of the follicular epithelium. Development of carcinoid-like lesions in the secondary deposits of tumour supported the contention that so-called parafollicular or c-cells may be a phenomenon of metaplasia and not a histologic entity. The tumour was associated with a chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary and a benign schwannoma of the stomach. Clinically the patient did not show any other endocrinologic abnormalities and lived for 4 years from the time of diagnosis of the thyroid tumour. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1277059

  15. Combination therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Current therapy for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of the serial administration of single agents. Combinations of VEGF and mTOR inhibitors have been disappointing in previous randomized trials. However, the combination of lenvatinib, a multitargeted agent that inhibits VEGF as well as FGF receptors, and everolimus demonstrated promising results in a randomized phase II trial. Moreover, the emergence of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors has spawned the investigation of combinations of these agents with VEGF inhibitors and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. These ongoing phase III trials in conjunction with the development of predictive biomarkers and agents inhibiting novel therapeutic targets may provide much needed advances in this still largely incurable disease. PMID:27047959

  16. On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Ceusters, Werner; Rosse, Cornelius

    2005-01-01

    Tumours, abscesses, cysts, scars and fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have the potential to support new kinds of automated reasoning. We here extend this approach to the treatment of pathologies, focusing especially on those pathological continuant entities which arise when organs become affected by carcinomas. PMID:18629199

  17. A Review: Proteomics in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze-Tan; Liang, Zhong-Guo; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is generally effective in the treatment of major nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), this treatment still makes approximately 20% of patients radioresistant. Therefore, the identification of blood or biopsy biomarkers that can predict the treatment response to radioresistance and that can diagnosis early stages of NPC would be highly useful to improve this situation. Proteomics is widely used in NPC for searching biomarkers and comparing differentially expressed proteins. In this review, an overview of proteomics with different samples related to NPC and common proteomics methods was made. In conclusion, identical proteins are sorted as follows: Keratin is ranked the highest followed by such proteins as annexin, heat shock protein, 14-3-3σ, nm-23 protein, cathepsin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, enolase, triosephosphate isomerase, stathmin, prohibitin, and vimentin. This ranking indicates that these proteins may be NPC-related proteins and have potential value for further studies. PMID:26184160

  18. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-07-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  19. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Waghray, Abhijeet; Murali, Arvind R; Menon, KV Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most prevalent malignancy worldwide and is a rising cause of cancer related mortality. Risk factors for HCC are well documented and effective surveillance and early diagnosis allow for curative therapies. The majority of HCC appears to be caused by cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. Preventive strategies include vaccination programs and anti-viral treatments. Surveillance with ultrasonography detects early stage disease and improves survival rates. Many treatment options exist for individuals with HCC and are determined by stage of presentation. Liver transplantation is offered to patients who are within the Milan criteria and are not candidates for hepatic resection. In patients with advanced stage disease, sorafenib shows some survival benefit. PMID:26052391