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Sample records for carcinoma localmente avanzado

  1. Cursos Avanzados Eduardo Torroja 2015 Objetivo del curso

    E-print Network

    Cursos Avanzados Eduardo Torroja 2015 Objetivo del curso El objetivo de los presentes Cursos la innovación. A quien va dirigido El curso está dirigido a estudiantes universitarios y instituciones implicadas hacen de este curso un referente técnico internacional. Título del curso Resumen del

  2. Quimioterapia intraperitoneal en cncer avanzado de ovario mejora la supervivencia, pero es poco usada

    Cancer.gov

    Uso de quimioterapia intraperitoneal, junto con quimioterapia intravenosa, mejora supervivencia en algunas mujeres con cncer avanzado de ovario, pero su uso en la prctica clnica ha sido limitado, segn un estudio.

  3. FDA aprueba frmaco en combinacin para pacientes con cncer colorrectal avanzado

    Cancer.gov

    aprob una tableta que combina los frmacos trifluridina y clorhidrato de tipiracilo (Lonsurf) para tratar a pacientes con cncer colorrectal metasttico cuya enfermedad haya avanzado despus de tratamientos convencionales.

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments Q - T Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma : This man's skin has been ... treatment, SCC is highly curable. Learn more about squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Squamous cell ...

  5. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    In the U.S., an estimated 300 people are diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma each year.1 If detected at an early stage, this type of cancer can often be successfully treated. However, almost 70 percent of people are diagnosed with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.2 For patients at the latest stage of this cancer, less than 20 percent survive five years after diagnosis.

  6. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... genital warts Melanoma Merkel cell carcinoma Sebaceous carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Why see a dermatologist? Diseases: A-Z index ... et al . Lack of evidence for basal or squamous cell carcinoma infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus in immunocompetent patients ...

  7. Ameloblastic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratne, Dakshika Abeydeera; Coleman, Hedley G.; Lim, Lydia; Morgan, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 66 Final Diagnosis: Ameloblastic carcinoma Symptoms: Jaw pain Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Surgical resection Specialty: Head and neck surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Ameloblastic carcinoma secondary type is an extremely rare and aggressive odontogenic neoplasm that exhibits histological features of malignancy in primary and metastatic sites. It arises through carcinomatous de-differentiation of a pre-existing ameloblastoma or odontogenic cyst, typically following repeated treatments and recurrences of the benign precursor neoplasm. Identification of an ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type presenting with histologic features of malignant transformation from an earlier untreated benign lesion remains a rarity. Herein, we report 1 such case. Case Report: A 66-year-old man was referred for management of a newly diagnosed ameloblastic carcinoma. He underwent radical surgical intervention comprising hemimandibulectomy, supraomohyoid neck dissection, and free-flap reconstruction. Final histologic analysis demonstrated features suggestive of carcinomatous de-differentiation for a consensus diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type (de-differentiated) intraosseous. Conclusions: Ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type represents a rare and challenging histologic diagnosis. Radical surgical resection with adequate hard and soft tissue margins is essential for curative management of localized disease. PMID:26126621

  8. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    MedlinePLUS

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  10. Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Last Updated: May 14, 2013 What is liver cancer?Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer in the United States, making up more than

  11. Bronchiolar Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, J. J.; Schaffner, V. D.; Hiltz, J. E.

    1966-01-01

    Bronchiolar carcinoma is a malignant tumour which apparently arises in a terminal bronchiole from which it spreads either by bronchial embolization or by lymphogenous and/or hematogenous dissemination. It is not a common neoplasm. Histologically, the tumour bears a striking resemblance to the disease of sheep, jagziekte, which is of virus etiology. A very common finding in reported cases is preexisting pulmonary fibrosis. At the Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, 80 cases of primary lung cancer have been encountered within the past 25 years. Six of these were bronchiolar carcinomas. Five patients had co-existing chronic pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis in one and tuberculosis in four. One patient died of a rapidly progressive bilateral lesion and five were explored. Lobectomy was done in all five, but in one for palliation only. Three patients are alive and well three, six and 14 years, respectively, after their operations. PMID:4285258

  12. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  13. Carcinoma penis.

    PubMed

    Sandeman, T F

    1990-02-01

    Between 1954 and 1984, 102 cases of carcinoma of the penis were seen at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute. Their mean age was 62.5 years. Nearly twice as many patients were referred in the last decade as in the first, and this observation may be linked to the reduction in numbers of neonatal circumcisions in the last forty years. The material reported is selected by referral patterns of recurrence following surgery elsewhere or the patient's preference for conservative management. As a result the overall survival figures have little meaning. However it is apparent that where possible and where acceptable, partial surgical amputation is more likely to achieve local cure and to be less disturbing for patients with invasive disease. Radiotherapy can be effective in controlling superficial primaries and may be curative in early, or rarely in late, stage nodal disease. Prevention by circumcision in infancy is still the best policy. PMID:2357185

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

  15. Liver cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually seen in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  17. Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Last Updated: September 10, 2015 What is urothelial bladder cancer? Urothelial bladder cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer. The bladder is a hollow

  18. Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Last Updated: May 08, 2013 What is lung cancer? Lung cancer accounts for more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women, about 28 percent of all cancer

  19. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JGH et al . Bowens disease, In: Dermatology DDxDeck. China; 2006. Riddel C, Rashid R, Thomas V. Ungual ... et al . Squamous cell carcinoma, In: Dermatology DDxDeck. China; 2006. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Selva D et ...

  20. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare type of kidney cancer. This type of cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney. These small tubules help filter waste from the blood, making urine.

  1. Stages of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... adrenocortical carcinoma include having the following hereditary diseases: Li-Fraumeni syndrome . Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome . Carney complex . Symptoms ... are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into ...

  2. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  3. Heterogeneity of renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mrtensson, S; Brunmark, C; Ohlsson, L; Bak-Jensen, E; Butkowski, R; Boketoft, A; Wieslander, J

    1995-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were used to study the expression of three recently characterized basement membrane components and two carbohydrate antigens in 11 renal-cell carcinomas, using immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The expression of several site-specific kidney antigens in renal-cell carcinoma were studied to determine the origin of the carcinoma and if it is possible further classify this type of carcinoma. Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TIN) and two alpha-chains of type IV collagen, alpha 1 (IV) and alpha 3 (IV) were studied. In addition the expression of carbohydrate antigens Lex and SLex, which also exhibit site-specific distribution were characterized. Lex and SLex antibodies stained the majority of the tumours. TIN was expressed in 9 of 11 tumours, the alpha 1 (IV) chain was present in all 11, and the alpha 3 (IV) chain in two of the 11 tumours. Interestingly, the two alpha 3 (IV)-positive tumours were the same two that were negative for TIN. In normal tissue alpha 3 (IV) is found in distal tubules while TIN is found in proximal tubules. Our results are consistent with earlier observations that the proximal tubule is the origin of most renal-cell carcinomas, but the results also indicate that renal-cell carcinoma may originate from the distal tubule. PMID:8559482

  4. [Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the larynx].

    PubMed

    Fernndez Prez, A; Fernndez-Nogueras Jimnez, F; Perales Jodar, E; Rub Ura, J; Fernndez Snchez, A

    1993-01-01

    A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the larynx es presented and the literature reviewed. The inherent difficulties in histologic mucoepidermoid carcinoma is discussed. At the present time, mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the larynx should be regarded as a separate entity, its treatment based in histological grade as well as clinical behavior. PMID:8357636

  5. Canine prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Axiak, Sandra M; Bigio, Astrid

    2012-10-01

    Canine prostatic carcinoma is locally aggressive with a high rate of metastasis. Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lungs, liver, spleen, and bone. Staging relies on chest radiography, abdominal radiography, and abdominal ultrasonography, in addition to radiography of any painful regions. An enlarged, mineralized prostate is a frequent finding; in a castrated male dog, it is predictive of prostatic carcinoma. NSAIDs are an important component of treatment, although additional local and systemic therapies should be considered to improve the quality of life of these patients. PMID:23532757

  6. [Radioembolisation for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Raoul, J-L; Edeline, J; Pracht, M; Boucher, E; Rolland, Y; Garin, E

    2011-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is now a major public health concern. In intermediate stages (one third of hepatocellular carcinoma patients), chemoembolization is the standard of care despite a poor tolerance and a moderate efficacy. Moreover, despite recent improvements, this technique seems in a dead end. Radioembolization could be an excellent tool for such patients. Currently (131)I-Lipiodol, (188)Re-Lipiodol, (90)Y-glass or resin microspheres are available. More recent and promising data come from microspheres, but phase II and III studies are needed before drawing any conclusion. In the future, the combination of radioembolization with systemic chemotherapy or targeted agents (particularly antiangiogenic drugs) seems very promising. PMID:21236718

  7. Pathobiology of ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Genestie, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct tumor pathology and oncogenic potentiel. These tumors are subdivided into three main categories: epithelial, germ cell, and sex-cord stromal tumors. We report herein the newly described molecular abnormalities in epithelial ovarian cancers (carcinomas). Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease. Our better understanding of the molecular basis of ovarian carcinomas represents the first step in the development of targeted therapies in the near future. PMID:25556618

  8. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Asmaa I; Khan, Shahid A; Leen, Edward LS; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers worldwide, particularly in parts of the developing world, and is increasing in incidence. This article reviews the current modalities employed for the diagnosis of HCC, including serum markers, radiological techniques and histological evaluation, and summarises international guidelines for the diagnostic approach to HCC. PMID:19294759

  9. [Risk factors of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Novkov, Dana; K?enek, Martin; Vomikov, Kv?tue; Vl?ek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the worlds fastest growing tumor incidences. The number of new cases has particularly increased in differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the Czech Republic it is documented that the incidence of thyroid cancer continues to grow, since 1980 has increased four times. The Czech Republic has a higher incidence than most other European countries and at the same time is a country with average and declining mortality from this disease. This review summarizes the known risk factors that may contribute to the formation and rise of thyroid carcinomas.Key words: differentiated thyroid carcinoma - incidence - low risk carcinoma - microcarcinoma - risk factors. PMID:26375692

  10. Epigenetics of urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Wolfgang A; Koutsogiannouli, Evangelia A; Niegisch, Gnter; Hoffmann, Michle J

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma is the most frequent type of bladder cancer. Improvements in diagnostics and therapy of this common tumor are urgently required and need to be based on a better understanding of its biology. Epigenetic aberrations are crucial to urothelial carcinoma development and progression. They affect DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, long noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Compared to other cancers, DNA hypomethylation, especially at LINE-1 retrotransposons, and mutations in enzymes establishing or removing histone acetylation or methylation are particularly prominent. Accumulating evidence suggests that disturbances in DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs may contribute especially to altered differentiation and metastatic potential. With proper selection, histone-modifying enzymes may constitute good targets for therapy. For diagnostics, DNA methylation and miRNA biomarkers are well suited because of their relatively high stability. There are indeed excellent biomarker candidates for DNA-methylation-based diagnostics of urothelial carcinoma, whereas miRNAs are well investigated, but there are still many discrepancies between studies published to date. PMID:25421661

  11. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  12. Solid carcinoma revisited: a possible variant of microcystic adnexal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jonathan H; Limacher, James J; Richards, Robert N

    2014-11-01

    Primary malignant apocrine and eccrine skin neoplasms are rare and their nosology is still evolving. First described in 1997, solid carcinoma is now considered a discrete entity by some, although this remains controversial. Apocrine differentiation was postulated. A single case since then was the first to include immunohistochemistry findings. The authors report an additional case of solid carcinoma, together with its immunohistochemical profile. A 63-year-old man presented with a firm nodule 3 cm in diameter on the posterior scalp. On punch biopsy, the lesion was interpreted as an adnexal neoplasm of indeterminate malignant potential. The subsequently excised tumor was initially interpreted as microcystic adnexal carcinoma with perineural invasion involving the surgical margins. Re-excision yielded clear surgical margins. After review of all the histologic material, a final diagnosis of solid carcinoma was rendered. Histologically, innumerable solid aggregations of neoplastic epithelial cells filled the dermis and extended into the subcutis. The aggregations varied in size and ranged from round or ovoid nests to elongated columns or cords embedded within a fibrotic stroma. The neoplastic cells were round and uniform in size with small nuclei and pale or clear cytoplasm. Tubular structures and mitoses were absent. Solid carcinoma is a rare skin neoplasm. Histologically, it closely resembles and may be indistinguishable from the solid areas of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Biologically, solid carcinoma, like microcystic adnexal carcinoma, is an indolent but relentless locally destructive neoplasm that must be removed completely. The clinical, histologic, and biologic similarities suggest that solid carcinoma may be a variant of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. PMID:25343214

  13. Esophageal metastasis from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vergote, G; Ponette, E; Verschakelen, J; Baert, A L; Rutgeerts, P; Moerman, P

    1994-12-01

    A case of esophageal metastasis from a breast carcinoma is presented. Location was, as usual, midesophageal. The interval of time between breast carcinoma and the onset of esophageal symptoms was rather long. Barium swallow examination enabled correct diagnosis, whereas several series of superficial endoscopical biopsies were negative. Diagnosis was confirmed by deep endoscopical biopsy. PMID:7829460

  14. Ameloblastic Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panat, Sunil R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant lesion with characteristic histologic features and behavior that dictates more aggressive surgical approach than that of a simple ameloblastoma. Here we present a case of ameloblastic carcinoma of the mandible in a 30-year-old male patient with a clinical course of typical aggressiveness and extensive local destruction. PMID:26393226

  15. Ameloblastic Carcinoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur

    2015-07-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant lesion with characteristic histologic features and behavior that dictates more aggressive surgical approach than that of a simple ameloblastoma. Here we present a case of ameloblastic carcinoma of the mandible in a 30-year-old male patient with a clinical course of typical aggressiveness and extensive local destruction. PMID:26393226

  16. Papillary Kidney Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

  17. Clear Cell Kidney Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

  18. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  19. Cutaneous metastasis of breast carcinoma mimicking malignant melanoma in scalp

    E-print Network

    Mart, Nuria; Molina, Inmaculada; Monteagudo, Carlos; Lpez, Vernica; Garca, Laura; Jord, Esperanza

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous metastatic carcinoma of the breast mimicking malignant melanoma,Cutaneous pigmented metastasis from breast carcinoma simulating malignant melanoma.Cutaneous metastasis of breast carcinoma mimicking malignant melanoma

  20. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; DAngelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  1. Diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, M C

    1990-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. It is very rare (incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 person-years) in most parts of the world and only a handful of populations are known to deviate from this low-risk profile, which include people of southern China, Eskimos and other natives of the Arctic region, natives of southeast Asia, and the mainly Arab populations of north Africa and Kuwait. There is now convincing evidence implicating dietary factors as the primary cause of NPC among Chinese. A series of case-control studies conducted in various Chinese populations with distinct risks of NPC, ranging from the very high-risk Cantonese to the relatively low-risk Northern Chinese, have suggested that ingestion of salted fish and other kinds of preserved foods by the Chinese constitutes the most important cause of NPC development among these people. Preliminary data on Malays in southeast Asia, Eskimos in Alaska, and Arabs of north Africa also suggest that ingestion of preserved foods by these population groups may be responsible for their raised incidence of NPC. Regardless of race and geography, the commonest form of nasopharyngeal cancers are those that arise from the epithelial cells lining the nasopharynx. These carcinomas (commonly referred to as NPCs) constitute 75-95% of nasopharyngeal cancers in low-risk populations and virtually all nasopharyngeal cancers in high-risk populations (Ho, 1971; Sugano et al, 1978; Levine and Connelly, 1985). PMID:2197634

  2. Is Invasive Micropapillary Serous Carcinoma a Low-grade Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Imamura, Hiroko; Aman, Murasaki; Shida, Kaai; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-01-01

    "Invasive micropapillary serous carcinoma" has been proposed as a synonym for low-grade serous carcinoma by some expert pathologists. In contrast, Singer and colleagues reported that some serous carcinomas with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern (SC-IMPs) can show high-grade nuclear atypia. However, the molecular features of such tumors have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to demonstrate and emphasize the fact that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern. We selected 24 "SC-IMPs" and investigated: (1) their morphologic features; (2) the immunostaining pattern of p53 protein; and (3) KRAS/BRAF/TP53 gene mutations. The 24 SC-IMPs were subdivided into low-grade and high-grade tumors based primarily on the nuclear atypia, with the mitotic rate used as a secondary feature: low grade (n=5) and high grade (n=19). Low-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by low-mitotic activity, absence of abnormal mitosis, presence of serous borderline tumor, occasional BRAF mutation, and infrequent TP53 mutation. High-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by high-mitotic activity, presence of abnormal mitosis, conventional high-grade serous carcinoma, frequent TP53 mutation, and lack of KRAS/BRAF mutation. We demonstrated that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by aberrant p53 immunostaining and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern, validating Singer and colleague's report. Serous carcinoma with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern should not be readily regarded as low-grade serous carcinoma. Nuclear grade is the most important diagnostic feature in the SC-IMPs. PMID:26166721

  3. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  4. Resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Hariharan

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) continues to present major challenges in management, which is further complicated by the presence of associated chronic liver disease. Key issues in surgical resection of HCC include the site, size, and number of lesions, the severity of the chronic liver disease, and the size of the functional liver remnant. De novo HCC in the absence of chronic liver disease can be treated by major liver resection with little risk of postoperative liver failure. Liver resection can also be used a bridge to liver transplantation as it affords the possibility of determining the pathologic grade of the tumortumor and its invasiveness, and thereby the prognosis. This review summarizes the current treatment approaches to surgical resection for HCC. PMID:25755617

  5. General Information about Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carcinoma is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the outer layer of the adrenal ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the adrenal gland or to ...

  6. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Workshop, 2009

    Cancer.gov

    January 09, 2009 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM National Institutes of Health Neurosciences Center Rockville MD + Add to Outlook Calendar Workshop on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Basic, Epidemiologic, Translational and Clinical Research January 9th, 2009 National Institutes

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... adrenocortical carcinoma include having the following hereditary diseases: Li-Fraumeni syndrome . Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome . Carney complex . Symptoms ... are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into ...

  9. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  10. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  11. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  12. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  14. Stages of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  15. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  16. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Chawla, Yogesh K; Arora, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancy of the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhotic liver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplastic disease-related deaths. A diverse array of infiltrating immunocytes regulates the development and progression of HCC, as is the case in many other cancers. An understanding of the various immune components during HCC becomes necessary so that novel therapeutic strategies can be designed to combat the disease. A dysregulated immune system (including changes in the number and/or function of immune cells, cytokine levels, and the expression of inhibitory receptors or their ligands) plays a key role in the development of HCC. Alterations in either the innate or adaptive arm of the immune system and cross-talk between them make the immune system tolerant to tumors, leading to disease progression. In this review, we have discussed the status and roles of various immune effector cells (e.g., dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cells), their cytokine profile, and the chemokine-receptor axis in promoting or impeding HCC. PMID:26301050

  17. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Chawla, Yogesh K; Arora, Sunil K

    2015-08-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancy of the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhotic liver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplastic disease-related deaths. A diverse array of infiltrating immunocytes regulates the development and progression of HCC, as is the case in many other cancers. An understanding of the various immune components during HCC becomes necessary so that novel therapeutic strategies can be designed to combat the disease. A dysregulated immune system (including changes in the number and/or function of immune cells, cytokine levels, and the expression of inhibitory receptors or their ligands) plays a key role in the development of HCC. Alterations in either the innate or adaptive arm of the immune system and cross-talk between them make the immune system tolerant to tumors, leading to disease progression. In this review, we have discussed the status and roles of various immune effector cells (e.g., dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cells), their cytokine profile, and the chemokine-receptor axis in promoting or impeding HCC. PMID:26301050

  18. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liccioni, Alexandre; Reig, Maria; Bruix, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly prevalent and lethal neoplasia. Several studies have shown that HCC is the main cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. A better knowledge of the natural history of the tumor and the development of staging systems has allowed to refine the prognosis of the patients. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer system (BCLC) has become the preferred staging system since it takes into account the tumor characteristics, the degree of liver impairment and the physical performance. It has been endorsed by several scientific associations and research consortia as it does not just define prognosis, but, more interestingly, it links staging with prognosis assessment and treatment recommendation. Curative therapies such as resection, transplantation and ablation can improve survival in patients diagnosed at an early HCC stage and may offer a long-term cure with overall survival that may exceed 70% at 5 years. Patients with intermediate stage HCC benefit from chemoembolization and proper selection of candidates permits a 50% survival at 3-4 years. Finally, patients diagnosed at an advanced stage benefit from sorafenib, an oral available, multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. Current research efforts are aimed at further refining prognosis prediction through molecular profiling and enhanced clinical characterization. At the same time, better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of cancer should result in a further improvement of the current life expectancy of patients. PMID:25034288

  19. Diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, M C

    1990-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. It is very rare (incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 person-years) in most parts of the world and only a handful of populations are known to deviate from this low-risk profile, which include people of southern China. Eskimos and other natives of the Arctic region, natives of southeast Asia, and mainly Arab populations of north Africa and Kuwait. There is now convincing evidence implicating dietary factors as the primary cause of NPC among Chinese. A series of case-control studies conducted in various Chinese populations with distinct risks of NPC, ranging from the very high-risk Cantonese to the relatively low-risk Northern Chinese, have suggested that ingestion of salted fish and other kinds of preserved foods by the Chinese constitutes the most important cause of NPC development among these people. Preliminary data on Malays in southeast Asia, Eskimos in Alaska, and Arabs of north Africa also suggest that ingestion of preserved foods by these population groups may be responsible for their raised incidence of NPC. PMID:2285519

  20. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-04

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  1. CORRESPONDENCE Unusual Features of Thyroid Carcinomas in

    E-print Network

    Monnat, Ray

    CORRESPONDENCE Unusual Features of Thyroid Carcinomas in Japanese Patients with Werner Syndrome genetic instability, and an elevated risk of se- lected neoplasms including thyroid carcinoma.1) in Japanese WS patients may confer a higher risk of thyroid carcinoma, and that N and C-terminal WRN

  2. Investigacin sobre el cncer avanzado

    Cancer.gov

    Las conversaciones sobre cuidados paliativos y atencin al final de la vida a menudo se retrasan hasta tarde en la vida de un paciente, si es que se llega a hablar de estos temas. Las conversaciones tempranas a este respecto ayudan a asegurar un cuidado en la etapa final de la vida ms acorde con las preferencias de los pacientes.

  3. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  4. Isolated Uterine Metastasis of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Deniz; Tural, Deniz; Tatl?, Ali Murat; Akar, Emre; Uysal, Mkremin; Erdo?an, Glgn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Most common metastasis sites of breast cancer are the lungs, bones, liver, and brain, whereas uterine involvement by metastatic breast disease is rare. Metastatic carcinoma of the uterus usually originates from other genital sites, most commonly being from the ovaries. Invasive lobular carcinoma spreads to gynecologic organs more frequently than invasive ductal carcinoma. Case Report. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman was diagnosed with breast carcinoma 2 years ago and modified radical mastectomy was performed. Pathological examination of tumor revealed invasive ductal carcinoma, stage IIIc. She presented with abdominal pain and distension. Diagnostic workup and gynecologic examination revealed lesions that caused diffuse thickening of the uterus wall. Endometrial sampling was performed for confirmation of the diagnosis. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Breast carcinoma metastases in endometrium and myometrium were confirmed histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Conclusion. We herein report the first case of isolated uterine patient who had invasive ductal carcinoma of breast. PMID:23573438

  5. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed January 2015 What is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that arises ...

  7. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26550910

  8. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  9. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan J.; Guidry, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV) testing, as well as possible future screening strategies. PMID:26239455

  10. Duodenogastric reflux and gastric stump carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Gastric stump carcinoma after gastric surgery for benign disease is now widely recognized as a distinct clinical entity. The stump carcinoma was often found to be localized to the anastomosis, known to be the site with severe duodenogastric reflux. For this reason, duodenogastric reflux, including the reflux of bile and pancreatic juice, after a Billroth II procedure for benign disease is frequently discussed as an important factor related to the development of stump carcinoma. Many experiments have implicated bile acids, the main component of the duodenal juice, in gastric carcinogenesis. In particular, rat models without the use of the carcinogen, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), showed adenocarcinoma in the remnant stomach that was related to the severity of duodenogastric reflux. However, human data are, inevitably, much less consistent. Whether the incidence of stump carcinoma is higher than that of gastric carcinoma in general is still controversial. Concerning the histogenesis of stump carcinoma after benign disease, a relationship between gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) and gastric type adenocarcinoma has been suggested. Recently, the population at risk of gastric stump carcinoma for benign disease has been diminishing significantly, and the incidence of gastric stump carcinoma after surgery for malignant disease has been increasing. The influence of duodenogastric reflux in the gastric remnant after malignant disease may differ from its influence in the gastric remnant after benign disease. Further clinical study is needed to elucidate the pathogenetic factors involved in gastric stump carcinoma. PMID:12021855

  11. Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

  12. Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G D; Abt, A B; Mahataphongse, V P; Conner, G H

    1979-01-01

    A patient with a small cell, undifferentiated carcinoma of the larynx is described. The tumor appeared to arise in close association with subglottic minor salivary glands. Ultrastructural study of the tumor cells showed neurosecretory granules similar to those seen in normal Kulchitsky cells and pulmonary oat cell carcinomas. Bronchogenic oat cell carcinoma and small cell undifferentiated carcinoma of minor salivary gland tissue probably originate from the same cell type. The aggressive behavior of this tumor suggests the need for early systemic treatment including combination chemotherpay. PMID:229754

  13. Primary transitional cell carcinoma of spleen.

    PubMed

    Naik, Saleem; Kapoor, Sorabh; Sharma, Sandesh; Sewkani, Ajit; Juneja, Munish; Varshney, Subodh

    2006-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma arises from the lining of the urogenital tract and ovary. We report a 39-year-old lady with transitional cell carcinoma of the spleen that presented as a complex cystic lesion. Exhaustive search for another primary was negative. She is doing well 18 months after splenectomy was performed. PMID:16974046

  14. Papillary carcinoma of the breast: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sumanta Kumar; Lau, Sean K; Kruper, Laura; Nwoye, Uzoamaka; Garberoglio, Carlos; Gupta, Ravi K; Paz, Benjamin; Vora, Lalit; Guzman, Eduardo; Artinyan, Avo; Somlo, George

    2010-08-01

    Papillary carcinoma of the breast represents approximately 0.5% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer. The prevalence of both invasive and in situ papillary carcinoma seems to be greater in older postmenopausal women and, in relative terms, in males. Histologic features of the tumor include cellular proliferations surrounding fibrovascular cores, with or without invasion. In this review, characteristics of both in situ and invasive disease are outlined. Immunohistochemical analyses of papillary carcinoma suggest the utility of markers such as smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, calponin, p63, and high molecular weight keratins, which can characterize the myoepithelial cell layer. With respect to radiographic evaluation of papillary carcinoma, ultrasonography is the most extensively studied imaging modality, though magnetic resonance mammography has potential utility. Available data suggest improved outcome for papillary carcinoma as compared to invasive ductal carcinoma. Treatment-related information for patients with papillary carcinoma is limited, and patterns noted in available series suggest a variable approach to this disease. The scarcity of information underscores the need for further treatment- and outcome-related studies in papillary carcinoma of the breast. PMID:20524058

  15. Carcinoma of the prostate of ductal origin.

    PubMed

    Lemberger, R J; Bishop, M C; Bates, C P; Blundell, W; Ansell, I D

    1984-12-01

    Thirty-nine patients with ductal prostatic carcinoma have been reviewed. Their mode of presentation, initial stage, plasma phosphatase levels and response to hormone therapy were found to be similar to those in a group of 124 patients with the common acinar prostatic cancer. Histochemical examination demonstrated prostate-specific antigen in all ductal carcinomas. PMID:6085481

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Bal, Amanjit; Punia, Raj Pal Singh; Bawa, Amarpreet Singh

    2003-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate is rare, accounting for 0.5-1% of all prostatic cancers. It is highly aggressive and responds poorly to any mode of therapy. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate that developed in a patient with prostatic adenocarcinoma following radiation therapy. PMID:12588611

  17. Pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Paner, Gladell P; Cox, Roni Michelle; Richards, Kyle; Akki, Ashwin; Gokden, Neriman; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Krausz, Thomas; McKenney, Jesse K; Steinberg, Gary D

    2014-09-01

    The pseudoangiosarcomatous pattern has been described mostly in cutaneous and some visceral squamous cell carcinomas and is unique for its striking morphologic resemblance to angiosarcoma. Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic features of 7 pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas that occurred in the urinary bladder. The patients included 6 men and 1 woman ranging in age from 47 to 87 years (median 70 y). The pseudoangiosarcomatous morphology was observed in 7 urothelial carcinomas including 3 with squamous differentiation and comprised 35% to 85% of the invasive tumor. Histologically, the pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinomas were characterized by tumor cell discohesion and lysis that created pseudolumina formations surrounded by attached residual tumor cells. Detached degenerating tumor cells variably admixed with inflammatory cells were common in the false lumina. Partly intact urothelial carcinoma nests contained irregular or cleft-like spaces and disintegrating tumor cells with stretched intercellular bridges. The tumor was commonly associated with a dense collagenous matrix, often surrounding the lytic nests. Similar tumor cell discohesion and breakdown were observed in 3 tumors with foci of squamous cell differentiation, distinguished by the presence of dyskeratosis and keratin formation. All 7 tumors contained other nonpseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma components such as conventional urothelial carcinoma (5), squamous differentiation (4), sarcomatoid spindle cell carcinoma (2), small cell carcinoma (1), micropapillary carcinoma (1), and glandular differentiation (1). The pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas were all (7/7) diffusely CK7 positive, most (6/7) were GATA3 positive, and none (0/7) expressed vascular-associated markers. There was no evidence to suggest that apoptosis (by TUNEL assay and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining) or loss of the adhesion molecules CD138 and e-cadherin were possible causes for the tumor cell discohesion and breakdown. All 7 tumors were high stage at cystectomy and included 1 pT3a, 2 pT3b, and 4 pT4a tumors, and 3 had pelvic lymph node involvement. Follow-up data available in 6 cases revealed a poor outcome with an overall median survival of 8.5 months. In conclusion, we present an unusual morphology of bladder carcinoma that has a striking resemblance to a malignant vasoformative tumor. Our series showed that bladder pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma morphology is associated with a higher tumor stage at cystectomy, commonly admixed with other aggressive carcinoma variant morphologies, and portend a poorer outcome. Knowledge of this pattern is also important to avoid misdiagnosis, particularly in limited tissue samples. PMID:25133708

  18. Scalp Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Basim A.; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A.; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Context: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Case Report: Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. Conclusion: In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving. PMID:24695441

  19. Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Clinician's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Elfiky, Aymen

    2015-12-01

    Within the category of orphan diseases and rare malignancies, adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) represents an aggressive entity with high mortality and morbidity. While localized tumors which are diagnosed early can be cured with surgical intervention, there are prognostic factors which predict for micrometastases and consequent recurrent and advanced disease. In such cases, mitotane and cytotoxic chemotherapy have been utilized with a modest degree of benefit. The poor prognosis of recurrent and advanced ACC has underscored the interest in nuanced characterization of ACC cases to guide the personalized use of immunotherapeutic and novel targeted therapies. PMID:26612225

  20. Myeloid cells in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shanshan; Kuo, Ning; Kryczek, Ilona; Zou, Weiping; Welling, Theodore H

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly associated with inflammation. Myeloid cells, including tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, are abundant in the HCC microenvironment and are often associated with poor prognosis. Myeloid cells in HCC play a vital role in supporting tumor initiation, progression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about myeloid cells in HCC and focus on their immune-suppressive activities and tumor-promoting functions, as well as the relevance to potential new therapies in HCC. (Hepatology 2015;62:1304-1312). PMID:25914264

  1. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation. PMID:26527523

  2. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Travis, William D

    2015-09-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemical analyses for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clones SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), napsin A, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma, as they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25871623

  3. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-11

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  4. Surgical Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Madkhali, Ahmad A.; Fadel, Zahir T.; Aljiffry, Murad M.; Hassanain, Mazen M.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an epithelial tumor derived from hepatocytes; it accounts for 80% of all primary liver cancers and ranks globally as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. HCC treatment is a multidisciplinary and a multimodal task, with surgery in the form of liver resection and liver transplantation (LT) representing the only potentially curative modality. However, there are variable opinions and discussions about applying these surgical options and using other supporting treatments. This article is a narrative review that includes articles published from 1984 to 2013 located by searching scientific databases such as PubMed, SCOPUS, and Elsevier, with the main keyword of hepatocellular carcinoma in addition to other keywords such as liver transplantation, liver resection, transarterial chemoembolization, portal vein embolization, bridging therapy, and downstaging. In this review, we focus mainly on the surgical treatment options offered for HCC, in order to illustrate the current relevant data available in the literature to help in applying these surgical options and to use other supporting treatment modalities when appropriate. PMID:25672233

  5. Intracellular Signaling and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Iakova, Polina; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai A.

    2011-01-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. The recent development of new techniques for the investigations of global change in the gene expression, signaling pathways and wide genome binding has provided novel information for the mechanisms underlying liver cancer progression. Although these studies identified gene expression signatures in hepatocelluar carcinoma, the early steps of the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are not well understood. The development of HCC is a multistep process which includes the progressive alterations of gene expression leading to the increased proliferation and to liver cancer. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification of the key steps of the development of HCC with the focus on early events of carcinogenesis and on the role of translational and epigenetic alterations in the development of HCC. Quiescent stage of the liver is supported by several tumor suppressor proteins including p53, Rb and C/EBP?. Studies with chemical models of liver carcinogenesis and with human HCC have shown that the elevation of gankyrin is responsible for the elimination of these three proteins at early steps of carcinogenesis. Later stages of progression of the liver cancer are associated with alterations in many signaling pathways including translation which leads to epigenetic silencing/activation of many genes. Particularly, recent reports suggest a critical role of histone deacetylase 1, HDAC1, in the development of HCC through the interactions with transcription factors such as C/EBP family proteins. PMID:20850540

  6. Familial factors in bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lynch, H T; Walzak, M P; Fried, R; Domina, A H; Lynch, J F

    1979-10-01

    Surprisingly, little is known about host factors in cases of bladder carcinoma. We investigated 2 families prone to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A high degree of pathology verification of cancer of all anatomic sites and a meticulous recording of genealogy, associated diseases and environmental exposures, when known, have allowed a more cogent appraisal of cancer etiology. It is reasonable to assume that members of the subject families may be more susceptible to variable carcinogenic exposures, a concept that is in accord with a genetic-environmental interaction hypothesis for cancer etiology. In addition to increased surveillance of high risk patients for earlier detection of bladder cancer, cancer control measures also should take into consideration preventive programs directed toward the avoidance of known carcinogenic exposures, such as cigarette smoking in high risk relatives of cancer-affected probands. We propose that the etiology of familial bladder cancer may be complex, involving possible other associated malignant neoplasms and/or certain non-neoplastic disorders, in addition to specific carcinogenic exposures. There is a serious need for the detailed reporting of families prone to bladder cancer wherein all of these potentially important associated factors are considered, so that a fuller appraisal of etiology might be achieved. PMID:480484

  7. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  8. Metallothionein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Geng-Wen; Yang, Lian-Yue

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), which were recently thought to have close relationship with tumors, in human hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Histological specimens of 35 cases of primary human hepatocellular carcinoma with para-neoplastic liver tissue and 5 cases of normal liver were stained for MTs with monoclonal mouse anti-MTs serum (E9) by the immunohistochemical ABC technique. RESULTS: MTs were stained in the 35 cases of HCC, including 6 cases negative (17.1%), 23 weakly positive (65.7%), and 6 strongly positive (17.1%). But MTs were stained strongly positive in all the five cases of normal liver and 35 cases of para-neoplastic liver tissue. The differences of MTs expression between HCC and normal liver tissue or para-neoplastic liver tissue were highly significant (P < 0.01). The rate of MTs expression in HCC grade I was 100 percent, higher than that in grade II (81%) and grade III and IV (78%). But the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). No obvious correlations between MTs expression in HCC and tumor size, clinical stage or serum alpha fetoprotein concentration were found (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Decrease of MTs expression in HCC may play a role in carcinogenesis of HCC. MTs are stained heterogenously in HCC. We can choose the anticancer agents according to the MTs concentration in HCC, which may improve the results of chemotherapy for HCC. PMID:12174372

  9. Erythrocyte autoantibodies, autoimmune haemolysis, and carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, R J; Booker, D J; Stamps, R

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To examine a large series of patients in whom both red cell autoantibodies and carcinoma are present; and to determine whether this rare occurrence is a true association or a chance event. METHODS--The laboratory records of 160 patients (76 men, 84 women; mean age 68 years) with erythrocyte autoantibodies and confirmed carcinoma were examined for site of tumour origin and clinical and immunohematological findings. To test whether the concomitant occurrence of autoantibodies and carcinoma was fortuitous, data on total population and carcinoma incidence were included in a chi 2 analysis. RESULTS--The association was significant (chi 2 = 97.5, p < 0.0005); erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma were found together 12-13 times more often than expected from their relative frequencies. Autoantibodies occurred with a variety of carcinomas, particularly those of breast, lung, colon, rectum, and prostate; this largely reflected tumour incidence. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, anaplastic, and transitional cell types were all represented. Warm, cold, and mixed autoantibodies were not associated with particular tumour sites or histology. Eighty six patients had haemolysis of varying severity, 37 had metastatic disease, and 28 died within a few months of presentation. CONCLUSIONS--The presence of erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma in the same patient is a true association and probably reflects a fundamental disturbance in immune homeostasis. It tends to occur with a large tumour mass and metastatic disease, and generally indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:8027372

  10. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Nasir

    2007-02-01

    Among the many sites for primary small cell cancer is the genitourinary system. The majority of cases have been observed in the bladder and prostate. Small cell carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Definitive predisposing factors are unknown; however, small cell carcinoma of the bladder has been associated with cigarette smoking, long-standing cystitis, bladder calculus, and augmented cystoplasty. Contrary to the early theory of derivation from Kulchitsky cells, it is now believed that small cell carcinoma of the bladder originates from the totipotent stem cells present in the submucosa of the bladder wall. A number of chromosomal aberrations have been reported in small cell cancer of the bladder. There are no specific clinical features that differentiate these patients from transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; however, some patients may have associated paraneoplastic conditions. Diagnosis is established by cystoscopic-assisted biopsy. Like small cell carcinoma of the lung, small cell carcinoma of the bladder has a propensity for early metastases. There is no standard therapy for small cell carcinoma of the bladder and the prognosis is poor; however, patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens seem to have a better prognosis. PMID:17270661

  11. Metastatic Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma to the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nicolas A; Pannala, Rahul; Faigel, Douglas O; Haakinson, Danielle J; Katariya, Nitin; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Jaroszewski, Dawn; Lidner, Thomas K; Byrne, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, usually presenting in the younger population (<40 years) without underlying liver disease. Although it has a better prognosis than hepatocellular carcinoma, it has a high rate of recurrence months to years after primary resection. While sites of recurrence usually involve the liver, regional lymph nodes, peritoneum, and lung, metastasis to the pancreas is extremely rare, with only 2 other cases reported in the literature. We present the case of a 46-year-old patient with metastatic FL-HCC to the pancreas 30 years after diagnosis and 26 years since his last resected liver recurrence. PMID:26351415

  12. Emerging therapeutic approaches in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Hiral; Rini, Brian I

    2015-11-01

    In the past decade, targeted therapy with VEGF and mTOR inhibition has significantly improved the outcome of renal cell carcinoma. However, the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma still remains challenging as most patients eventually progress on targeted therapy, and long-term survivors are still relatively uncommon. There has recently been a resurgence of interest in cancer immunotherapy with the development of checkpoint inhibitors. Here we discuss the best methods to optimize the current standard of care with targeted therapy, and describe select emerging targeted therapies and immunotherapies with anti programmed death-1 pathway inhibitors in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26376584

  13. Experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Philippa; Villanueva, Augusto; Friedman, Scott L.; Koike, Kazuhiko; Llovet, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and deadly cancer whose pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Comparative genomic studies from human HCC samples have classified HCCs into different molecular subgroups; yet, the unifying feature of this tumor is its propensity to arise upon a background of inflammation and fibrosis. This review seeks to analyze the available experimental models in HCC research and to correlate data from human populations with them in order to consolidate our efforts to date, as it is increasingly clear that different models will be required to mimic different subclasses of the neoplasm. These models will be instrumental in the evaluation of compounds targeting specific molecular pathways in future preclinical studies. PMID:18314222

  14. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the Milan criteria were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

  15. Hypopharyngeal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-I; Ameratunga, Malaka; du Plessis, Justin; Gan, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the head and neck is rare. We report a case of a 56-year-old man with a 6-week history of dysphagia, a neck mass and weight loss. He was diagnosed with a hypopharyngeal large cell NEC (LCNEC) with metastases to multiple sites. He received two cycles of cisplatin and etoposide. Subsequent restaging scan revealed progressive disease. The patient declined further chemotherapy and died shortly after. This is the third case of LCNEC of hypopharynx reported in the English literature and the first to progress on platinum-based chemotherapy. Although LCNEC of the head and neck is still classified as an atypical carcinoid, there is increasing evidence it is a distinct clinicohistopathological entity that carries an especially poor prognosis. Currently, there is a paucity of data to guide treatment of this rare malignancy. PMID:26715138

  16. Candida laryngitis appearing as carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kiakojuri, Keivan; Dehghan, Mehdi; Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Pourdahash, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Focal laryngeal candidiasis is not reported widely and is very infrequently recognized clinically. This disease is rare and may occur after pulmonary, pharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis or as part of disseminated disease. It is also secondary to inhaled steroid therapy which is usually mild and has been reported in 10-15 percent of patients taking these medications. Case Presentation: In this study, we introduced a rare case of laryngeal candidiasis in a 79-year-old immunocompromised male presented with 17 months of progressive hoarseness. In video laryngoscopy a white, vegetative mass on anterior one-third of right vocal cord mimicking laryngeal carcinoma. The histopathological examination showed laryngeal mucosal with keratosis, degenerating necrotic epithelial cell aggregates containing hyphea and candida albicans. Conclusion: In immunocompromised patients, the diagnosis of laryngeal candidiasis should be considered in any patients with laryngeal symptoms

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Lisa P; Deshpande, Vrushak; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival. PMID:26609342

  18. Signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of vater

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Ardeshir; Mohammadizadeh, Fareshteh; Hani, Mohsen; Bagheri, Marzie; Bagheri, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Signet ring carcinoma is a common type of adenocarcinoma of stomach but its occurrence in ampulla of Vater is extremely rare. There are only a few previous reported cases of signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of Vater. Here we reported a 61-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT scan) examination showed intra- and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Endoscopic examination with biopsies revealed a small-size mass in ampulla of Vater with diagnosis of signet ring carcinoma. On consequent pancreatoduodenectomy the tumor was diagnosed as T2N0M0, stage IB. Because of the specific site of signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of Vater, the tumor seems to present itself at an early stage of disease. We review in the literature to suggest our idea. PMID:24592377

  19. Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma

    E-print Network

    Lander, Eric S.

    We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and ~25% of high-grade endometrioid ...

  20. Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlumberger, Martin; Massicotte, Marie-Hlne; Nascimento, Camila L.; Chougnet, Ccile; Baudin, Eric; Leboulleux, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered. PMID:22584717

  1. Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, Martin; Massicotte, Marie-Hlne; Nascimento, Camila L; Chougnet, Ccile; Baudin, Eric; Leboulleux, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered. PMID:22584717

  2. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... adrenocortical carcinoma include having the following hereditary diseases: Li-Fraumeni syndrome . Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome . Carney complex . Symptoms ... are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into ...

  4. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  5. Precursors and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, D; Oliva, E

    2013-04-01

    The ultimate goal of defining cancer specific precursors is to facilitate early detection and intervention before the development of invasive malignancy. Unlike other malignancies involving the female genital tract such as cervical or endometrial carcinomas, precursor lesions of ovarian carcinomas have not been well characterised, resulting in a failure to develop effective screening programs. Recent clinicopathological and molecular studies have provided new insight into the origin and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas. It has been shown that ovarian cancer is comprised of different tumour types differing not only in morphology, but also in pathogenesis, molecular alterations and clinical progression. A dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis has been proposed. Type I tumours which include low grade serous, low grade endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous carcinomas and Brenner tumours, are generally indolent and tend to be genetically stable, although clear cell carcinoma would probably belong to an intermediate category. They demonstrate a step-wise progression from a benign precursor such as a benign to borderline tumour or endometriosis and are characterised by genetic aberrations targeting specific cell signalling pathways. Type II tumours comprise high grade serous, high grade endometrioid, and undifferentiated carcinomas as well as malignant mixed mesodermal tumours. They are clinically aggressive and exhibit high genetic instability with frequent p53 mutations. Mounting evidence suggests that many high grade serous carcinomas originate from the epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, and that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) represents the putative precursor of these neoplasms. Low grade serous carcinomas arise via transformation of benign and borderline serous tumours, thought to be derived from inclusion cysts originating from the ovarian surface or tubal epithelium. Recently it has been suggested that papillary tubal hyperplasia may be a putative precursor lesion for serous borderline tumours. Both endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas develop from endometriosis, via alterations affecting different genetic pathways. The origin of mucinous and transitional cell neoplasms is not well characterised, although new data suggest a possible origin from transitional cell nests present at the tubal-mesothelial junction. Likewise, the pathogenesis of carcinosarcomas is also not well established because of their rarity but there is accumulating evidence that the carcinomatous component determines the course of the disease and gives rise to the malignant mesenchymal component. This review discusses recent developments in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma, with particular emphasis on the putative precursor lesions that give rise to the major histological subtypes. Recognition of these lesions is not only important in improving the understanding of ovarian carcinogenesis, but it will also influence our approach to prevent, detect and treat these tumours. PMID:23478230

  6. Impaired FHIT expression characterizes serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, K; Enomoto, T; Yoshino, K; Fujita, M; Buzard, G S; Kawano, K; Yamasaki, M; Murata, Y

    2001-01-01

    The FHIT (fragile histidine triad) gene on chromosome 3p14.2 is a candidate tumour suppressor gene. To define the role of the FHIT gene in the development of ovarian cancer, we have examined 33 ovarian carcinomas, 2 borderline tumours and 10 benign adenomas for the presence of FHIT gene alterations. FHIT transcripts were analysed by RT-PCR and sequencing. Aberrant FHIT transcripts were observed in 5/33 carcinomas (15%) and in 1 of 2 borderline tumours. Loss of normal FHIT transcript was observed in 5/33 carcinomas (15%) but not in 2 borderline tumours or 10 benign adenomas. Allelic losses at D3S1300 and D3S4103, both located within intron 5 of FHIT were detected in 5/24 (21%) and 5/25 (20%) informative ovarian carcinomas, respectively. Expression of Fhit protein was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 44 carcinomas, 19 borderline tumours and 16 benign adenomas. Loss or significantly reduced expression of Fhit protein was observed in 6/44 (14%) ovarian carcinomas but not in any of 19 borderline tumours or 16 benign adenomas. The impaired Fhit protein expression was significantly correlated with the loss of normal FHIT transcription. Most notably, loss of normal FHIT transcript and impaired expression of Fhit protein occurred only in serous adenocarcinomas of grade 2 and 3 (5/15; 33% and 6/19; 32%, respectively). The present data suggest that inactivation of the FHIT gene by loss of expression is one of the important molecular events associated with the genesis of ovarian carcinoma, especially of high-grade serous carcinoma. 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11461085

  7. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate gland

    PubMed Central

    Hoof, Pamela; Tsai-Nguyen, Ginger; Paulson, Scott; Syed, Almas

    2016-01-01

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) has a clinical course and prognosis that is markedly different from that of common adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient in this case presented with fever of unknown origin, dyspnea, and near spinal cord compression. He was subsequently found to have widely metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostatic origin. This case emphasizes that despite the commonality of prostate cancer, there are rare presentations of this common disease. PMID:26722176

  8. Small cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Bawa, R; Wax, M K

    1995-09-01

    Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas are rare tumors of the APUD system. They are most commonly seen in the esophagus with rare cases reported in the head and neck. We present the sixth reported case of primary small cell carcinoma of the tonsil. These tumors are usually widely disseminated initially. Aggressive locoregional treatment with radiation is the treatment of choice. Systemic treatment is needed for presumed metastatic disease. Surgery may be an adjunct treatment used for locoregional control. PMID:7675503

  9. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Robert I; Lydiatt, William M; Ball, Douglas W; Busaidy, Naifa Lamki; Byrd, David; Callender, Glenda; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M; McCaffrey, Judith C; Moley, Jeffrey F; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D; Ridge, John A; Ringel, Matthew D; Scheri, Randall P; Shah, Jatin P; Smallridge, Robert C; Sturgeon, Cord; Wang, Thomas N; Wirth, Lori J; Hoffmann, Karin G; Hughes, Miranda

    2015-09-01

    This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Thyroid Carcinoma focuses on anaplastic carcinoma because substantial changes were made to the systemic therapy recommendations for the 2015 update. Dosages and frequency of administration are now provided, docetaxel/doxorubicin regimens were added, and single-agent cisplatin was deleted because it is not recommended for patients with advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:26358798

  10. [Primary transitional carcinoma of the prostatic ductus].

    PubMed

    Queipo Zaragoz, J A; Buda Alba, A; Prez Ebr, M; Vera Donoso, C D; Vera Sempere, F; Jimnez Cruz, J F

    2000-05-01

    Primary prostate transitional cell carcinoma is a very rare tumour originating in the transitional epithelial cells of the intraprostate periurethral ductus. Only 17 of 829 patients diagnosed with prostate carcinoma were found to have the transitional cell variety. Eight (8) of those had pure transitional cell carcinoma and 9 a mixed presentation of acinar adenocarcinoma and transitional cell ductal carcinoma. Bladder origin of the tumour was ruled out in all cases. We report a retrospective study on the clinical behaviour of prostate transitional cell carcinoma. Compared to acinar carcinomas, few differences were found when age, symptoms, physical findings and imaging diagnosis were evaluated. Clinical presentation, DRE, PSA, metastatic spread and presence of supravesical obstructive uropathy where also studied to establish a diagnosis. Radiotherapy was the most frequently used therapeutical approach. Mean survival is 26.6 months (4-60 months) and there has been 11 death up to now. Compared to acinar forms, this tumour shows a hormone-resistant, aggressive biological behaviour with poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and radical surgery are the only options available to increase life expectancy for these patients. PMID:10965577

  11. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  12. Controversies in the Management of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common type of female genital tract malignancy. Although endometrial carcinoma is a low grade curable malignancy, the condition of the disease can range from excellent prognosis with high curability to aggressive disease with poor outcome. During the last 10 years many researches have provided some new valuable data of optimal treatments for endometrial carcinoma. Progression in diagnostic imaging, radiation delivery systems, and systemic therapies potentially can improve outcomes while minimizing morbidity. Firstly, total hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy is the primary operative procedure. Pelvic lymhadenectomy is performed in most centers on therapeutic and prognostic grounds and to individualize adjuvant treatment. Women with endometrial carcinoma can be readily segregated intraoperatively into low-risk and high-risk groups to better identify those women who will most likely benefit from thorough lymphadenectomy. Secondly, adjuvant therapies have been proposed for women with endometrial carcinoma postoperatively. Postoperative irradiation is used to reduce pelvic and vaginal recurrences in high risk cases. Chemotherapy is emerging as an important treatment modality in advanced endometrial carcinoma. Meanwhile the availability of new hormonal and biological agents presents new opportunities for therapy. PMID:20613958

  13. Immunohistochemical study of 158 lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L; Andersson, C; Albin, M

    1992-10-01

    Lung carcinomas were studied immunohistochemically and the results were related to type of tissue sample (bronchoscopic biopsies, surgical specimens, autopsies). All cytokeratins (CAM 5.2, PKK-1, AE1/AE3) reacted with virtually all adenocarcinomas, most squamous, and 65% of the large cell carcinomas, while CAM 5.2 was most efficient with the small cell carcinomas. CEA stained 33% and 60% of the small and large cell carcinomas, respectively, most adenocarcinomas, and 84% of the squamous cell carcinomas, among which staining decreased with dedifferentiation and was often focal. EMA reacted with 90%, and NSE with 20% of all histological types. There was no staining for NF. All antibodies, except EMA, were more efficient with surgical specimens. Our study implies that the cytokeratins we used work better with surgical material, but are generally comparable to monospecific cytokeratin antibodies. Also, EMA is a reliable marker for epithelial differentiation with all types of tissue samples. Moreover, CEA negativity in several poorly differentiated lung carcinomas might have implications in the differential diagnosis against pleural mesothelioma. PMID:1280149

  14. Cisplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-02

    Colorectal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gallbladder Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Pancreatic Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Small Intestinal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

  15. Small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma colliding with squamous cell carcinoma at esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Luoluo; Sun, Xun; Zou, Yabin; Meng, Xiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Collision tumor is an extremely rare tumor which defined as the concrescence of two distinct primaries neoplasms. We report here a case of collision tumor at lower third esophagus composed of small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which is an very rare, highly aggressive and poorly prognostic carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). In our case, pathologically, the small cell carcinoma display the characteristic of small, round, ovoid or spindle-shaped tumor cells with scant cytoplasm, which colliding with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated positive activities for CD56, synaptophysin, 34?E12, CK 5/6, ki-67 (70%-80%), but negative for CD99, chromogranin A, and TTF-1. Accurate diagnosis was made base on these findings. PMID:24817981

  16. TCGA study identifies genomic features of invasive lobular breast carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified molecular characteristics of a type of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), that distinguishes it from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), the most common invasive breast cancer subtype.

  17. Localized peribronchial thickening: a CT sign of occult bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, W.L. Jr.; Roberts, L. Jr.; McLendon, R.E.; Hill, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a case with repeated positive sputum cytologies in which CT proved complementary to nonlocalizing endoscopies by identifying bronchogenic carcinoma as focal specimen provided precise pathologic correlation of the CT findings with a small squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Analysis - Thomas Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Analysis - Thomas Giordano Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Analysis - Thomas Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later and JavaScript

  19. Gut Microbiota and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xuemei; Wang, Ning; Qin, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common complication of liver diseases such as those related to viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The gut-liver axis is gaining increasing attention as a key pathophysiological mechanism responsible for the progression of HCC. Here, we will review the data from the published literature to address the association between HCC and gut microbiota. Summary The presence of high levels of endotoxemia in the blood results in portal hypertension and ensuing hepatocyte damage, thus leading to the development of HCC. Probiotics can be used to treat or prevent the progression of HCC, because they may decrease the counts of gut microbiota and thus improve the endotoxemia. Key Message Increased bacterial translocation can result in endotoxemia, which may play a critical role in the progression of HCC. Modulation of the gut microbiota by probiotics may represent a new avenue for therapeutic intervention in HCC. Practical Implications Breakdown in intestinal barrier function and bacterial overgrowth are main events in the development of HCC. When the intestinal barrier function is disrupted, large amounts of bacterial products can enter the liver and induce inflammation through their receptors, leading to liver diseases. Altering the gut microflora has been proposed as an adjunctive therapy to reduce bacterial translocation and prevent progression of HCC. The purpose of this review is to discuss the relationship between gut microbiota and HCC in both pathogenesis and treatment by probiotics. PMID:26673641

  20. Molecular classification of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2010-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent tumour derived from the malignant transformation of hepatocytes. It is well established that cancer is a disease of the genome and, as in other types of solid tumours, a large number of genetic and epigenetic alterations are accumulated during the hepatocarcinogenesis process. Recent developments using comprehensive genomic tools have enabled the identification of the molecular diversity in human HCC. Consequently, several molecular classifications have been described using different approaches and important progress has been made particularly with the transcriptomic, genetic, chromosomal, miRNA and methylation profiling. On the whole, all these molecular classifications are related and one of the major determinants of the identified subgroups of tumours are gene mutations found in oncogenes and tumour suppressors. However, the full understanding of the HCC molecular classification requires additional comprehensive studies using both genomic and pathway analyses. Finally, a refinement of the molecular classification of HCC, taking into account the geographical and genetic diversity of the patients, will be essential for an efficient design of the forthcoming personalized clinical treatments. PMID:20547309

  1. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  2. Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam; Abbas, Sarim; Shazi, Lubna

    2015-04-18

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective circular shape single stranded HDV RNA virus with two types of viral proteins, small and large hepatitis D antigens, surrounded by hepatitis B surface antigen. Superinfection with HDV in chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more threatening form of liver disease leading to rapid progression to cirrhosis. In spite of some controversy in the epidemiological studies, HDV infection does increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Hepatic decompensation, rather than development of HCC, is the first usual clinical endpoint during the course of HDV infection. Oxidative stress as a result of severe necroinflammation may progress to HCC. The large hepatitis D antigen is a regulator of various cellular functions and an activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Another proposed epigenetic mechanism by which HCC may form is the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes by DNA Methyltransferases. HDV antigens have also been associated with increased histone H3 acetylation of the clusterin promoter. This enhances the expression of clusterin in infected cells, increasing cell survival potential. Any contribution of HBV DNA integration with chromosomes of infected hepatocytes is not clear at this stage. The targeted inhibition of STAT3 and cyclophilin, and augmentation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? have a potential therapeutic role in HCC. PMID:25914778

  3. Surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Tony CY; Lam, Vincent WT

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Standard potentially curative treatments are either resection or transplantation. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical management of HCC, as well as highlight current issues in hepatic resection and transplantation. In summary, due to the relationship between HCC and chronic liver disease, the management of HCC depends both on tumour-related and hepatic function-related considerations. As such, HCC is currently managed largely through non-surgical means as the criteria, in relation to the above considerations, for surgical management is still largely restrictive. For early stage tumours, both resection and transplantation offer fairly good survival outcomes (5 years overall survival of around 50%). Selection therefore would depend on the level of hepatic function derangement, organ availability and local expertise. Patients with intermediate stage cancers have limited options, with resection being the only potential for cure. Otherwise, locoregional therapy with transarterial chemoembolization or radiofrequency ablation are viable options. Current issues in resection and transplantation are also briefly discussed such as laparoscopic resection, ablation vs resection, anatomical vs non-anatomical resection, transplantation vs resection, living donor liver transplantation and salvage liver transplantation. PMID:25729479

  4. Reconstruction of the Auricular Defect After Excision of Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Ho Seok; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a highly differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma with a high local recurrence rate. Few studies of primary verrucous carcinoma of the auricle have reported on the surgical outcome. The authors present herein a case in which a verrucous carcinoma of the auricle was successfully removed and reconstructed using a retroauricular pull-through island flap, and the authors briefly review the relevant literature. PMID:26674896

  5. Localization of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.T.; Anderson, J.H.; Jelinek, J.; Anderson, D.W. )

    1991-02-01

    Data are limited on the localization of Ga-67 in primary or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma. We report the localization of Ga-67 to pathologically confirmed adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the lung. A review of the literature revealed four patients have previously been reported to have metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma detected on Ga-67 scan. Gallium imaging may be useful in the evaluation of patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma. SPECT imaging should further improve lesion resolution and localization.

  6. AZD1775, Docetaxel, and Cisplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Borderline Resectable Stage III-IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-06

    Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct remnant

    PubMed Central

    Warner, E.; Ofo, E.; Connor, S.; Odell, E.; Jeannon, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC) are common midline neck swellings resulting from embryological remnants of the thyroglossal duct. They often contain ectopic thyroid tissue and malignant transformation has been reported, most commonly to papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) usually occurs in the salivary glands and only rarely in the thyroid. This is the first case of a MEC occurring within a thyroglossal duct remnant. Presentation of a case A 73 year old lady presented with a thyroglossal duct cyst. She declined surgical excision, as she was adamant she wanted to avoid surgery. The neck mass rapidly enlarged at two years following initial diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology was suspicious for carcinoma. She underwent total thyroidectomy and selective central compartment neck dissection with adjuvant radiotherapy. She remains alive and well two years post treatment. Discussion Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of salivary glands, although it has rarely been reported in diverse locations including the thyroid, lung and pancreas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from a thyroglossal duct remnant. Conclusion This case adds weight to the literature favouring surgical excision of thyroglossal duct remnants due to the risk of malignant transformation. PMID:26101054

  8. Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jando, Daniel; Kascak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD) is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation, but it was rarely described also in some visceral carcinomas. We report a case of ovarian basaloid carcinoma with SCD. The tumor presented as a 14?cm ovarian mass in a 45-year-old woman, and therefore the adnexectomy and hysterectomy were performed. The tumor was of high stage. Multiple metastases were found in the liver, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes, and the lung. Histologically, the tumor showed a pattern of high-grade basaloid carcinoma with numerous shadow cells. Extensive histologic examination did not reveal any glandular or preexisting teratoma component. Immunohistochemically, the tumor expressed markers of squamous cell differentiation, such as p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and high-molecular-weight keratin. Cytokeratin 7 and CA125 were positive in scattered cells of the lesion. Estrogen and progesterone receptor, vimentin, and p53 were negative. Beta-catenin showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity, indicating possible tumor proliferation/differentiation via Wnt signaling pathway. To our knowledge, SCD in basaloid carcinoma of the ovary was not described before. In addition to the description of the case, we review the literature on SCD in visceral carcinomas. PMID:24639909

  9. [Squamous epithelial and basal cell carcinomas in naevus sebaceus (Jadassohn)].

    PubMed

    Smolin, T; Hundeiker, M

    1986-03-01

    Investigation of 181 nevi sebacei (Jadassohn) revealed the development of basal cell carcinoma in 21 cases, prickle-cell carcinoma in 1 patient. 2 basal cell carcinomas had been taken from different parts of the same systematized nevus. All these secondary tumors had developed in postpubertal patients. PMID:3962409

  10. Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Benisch, B M; Tawfik, B; Breitenbach, E E

    1975-07-01

    An extrapulmonary oat cell carcinoma arising in the larynx is described. Ultrastructurally the tumor is identical to the oat cell carcinoma of pulmonary origin. The pressure of neurosecretory granules in our case strongly suggests that the tumor is derived from Kulchitsky-like cells, a histogenesis previously proposed for oat cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:173456

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma and the underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oyagbemi, A A; Azeez, O I; Saba, A B

    2010-03-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing worldwide as well as the associated risk factors, some of which include exposure to aflatoxin B1, Hepatitis B (HBV) virus and hepatitis C (HCV) virus. Mutation of tumour suppressor gene p53 at codon 249(ser) at exon 7 has been found to contribute significantly to replication of damaged DNA and subsequent tumour progression. The x gene of HBV (HBx) is the most common open reading frame integrated into the host genome in hepatocellular carcinoma and the integrated HBx is frequently mutated in hepatocellular carcinoma. Mutant HBx proteins still retain their ability to bind to p53 thereby attenuating DNA repair and p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20811532

  12. Unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Boovalli, Mythri M; Kumar, R Praveen; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    We present two unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil in elderly patients. Both the cases were initially diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, second case, in addition, showed lung metastasis. On subsequent follow-up, the first case developed cutaneous metastasis in the right frontoparietal region while second case showed granulocytosis as paraneoplastic manifestation. The association of cutaneous metastasis and paraneoplastic granulocytosis with carcinoma of tonsil is rare. Cutaneous metastasis has been described only once in the literature while paraneoplastic granulocytosis is being reported for the first time. Both the conditions need long-term follow-up as they manifest at the extreme edges of the neoplastic process. PMID:26604503

  13. Radionuclide therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sundram, FX

    2006-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumour of the hepatocyte. It is a common malignancy worldwide and causes almost half a million deaths annually. Asia is a high risk area. Although surgery (hepatectomy or liver transplantation) is the main form of curative treatment, the majority of patients are not eligible for surgery due to extent of tumour and dysfunction of liver. Radiopharmaceuticals used for transarterial treatment of HCC were Yttrium-90 microspheres, Iodine-131 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 lipiodol, and Holmium-166 Chitosan complex. Yittrium-90 microspheres are glass or resin microspheres of mean sphere diameter of 20 to 30 micrometre. The activity administered was about 4 GBq. Reported response rate was about 20%, and median survival was 54 weeks. On inoperable tumours, reported objective response of I-131 lipiodol was 40 to 70%, and median survival was six to nine months. It showed efficacy similar to TACE. In adjuvant treatment following curative resection of HCC, reported three year survival was 86% compared with 46% for the control group. The administered activity in both adjuvant and inoperable HCC was about 2 GBq (55 mCi). Rhenium-188 lipiodol is a new radioconjugate, and using it we treated 70 patients with inoperable HCC. This treatment was a part of a multi-centre trial sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Partial response was obtained in 17% of cases, while 49% had stable disease at three months, and 34% showed disease progression. In terms of survival, 19% survived one year, 60% for six months, and 90% for three months. The mean activity was about 4.6 GBq (124 mCi). This method was safe and free from adverse effects. PMID:21614248

  14. Resectable pancreatic small cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jordan M; Narang, Amol K; Mansfield, Aaron S; Herman, Joseph M; Cameron, John L; Laheru, Dan; Eckhauser, Fred E; Olson, Mathew T; Hruban, Ralph H; Miller, Robert C; Andersen, Dana K

    2011-01-01

    Primary pancreatic small cell carcinoma (SCC) is rare, with just over 30 cases reported in the literature. Only 7 of these patients underwent surgical resection with a median survival of 6 months. Prognosis of SCC is therefore considered to be poor, and the role of adjuvant therapy is uncertain. Here we report two institutions' experience with resectable pancreatic SCC. Six patients with pancreatic SCC treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (4 patients) and the Mayo Clinic (2 patients) were identified from prospectively collected pancreatic cancer databases and re-reviewed by pathology. All six patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Clinicopathologic data were analyzed, and the literature on pancreatic SCC was reviewed. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years (range 27-60). All six tumors arose in the head of the pancreas. Median tumor size was 3 cm, and all cases had positive lymph nodes except for one patient who only had five nodes sampled. There were no perioperative deaths and three patients had at least one postoperative complication. All six patients received adjuvant therapy, five of whom were given combined modality treatment with radiation, cisplatin, and etoposide. Median survival was 20 months with a range of 9-173 months. The patient who lived for 9 months received chemotherapy only, while the patient who lived for 173 months was given chemoradiation with cisplatin and etoposide and represents the longest reported survival time from pancreatic SCC to date. Pancreatic SCC is an extremely rare form of cancer with a poor prognosis. Patients in this surgical series showed favorable survival rates when compared to prior reports of both resected and unresectable SCC. Cisplatin and etoposide appears to be the preferred chemotherapy regimen, although its efficacy remains uncertain, as does the role of combined modality treatment with radiation. PMID:21464878

  15. Hepatic Angiomyolipoma Mimicking Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Li, Hong-Yan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chang-Chun; Liu, Shu-Hong; Gao, Xu-Dong; Qu, Jian-Hui; Liu, Ze; Chang, Xiu-Juan; Lu, Yin-Ying; Zeng, Zhen; Lou, Min; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the liver with marked histological diversity. The present study was to review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical pathological features of HAML resembling hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nine patients who underwent surgical resection and had pathological diagnosis of HAML were retrospectively analyzed. All of 9 patients (5 males and 4 females) had a solitary hepatic mass with a median size of 4?cm (from 1.4?cm to 15.3?cm). Seven cases were identified as incidental liver tumors during health screening and 2 patients were diagnosed for hepatic mass when visited hospitals with unspecific abdominal discomfort. Before resection, 6 cases were diagnosed as HCC on MRI. MRI on chemical shift imagings showed a large amount of lipids in 5 cases. The enhancement pattern of MRI was classified into 2 types: in 2 cases, lesions with small or no vessels that demonstrated prolonged enhancement (1 mixed subtype and 1 myomatous subtype) and in 7 cases, lesions with abundant central vessels that show rapid washout (3 mixed subtypes and 4 myomatous subtypes) in the portal venous/delayed phase. All patients underwent resection of hepatic tumor and no recurrence was observed during follow-up (range: 224 months) of median 10 months. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells demonstrated positive immunostaining for human melanoma black-45, smooth muscle actin, and CD34. In conclusion, all of 9 patients with HAML presented with none or nonspecific clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of HAML relies on disease and immunohistochemistry, but not MRI due to its resemblance to HCC. PMID:25526436

  16. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  17. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  18. [Small cell carcinoma of the ovary].

    PubMed

    Bahri, M; Lahmar, R; Ben Salah, H; Kallel, N; Ben Amar, M; Daoud, J

    2014-06-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type is a rare tumor. We report a case in a 34-year-old patient, revealed by a pelvic pain. The imaging found a large mass of the right ovary. The patient had right oophorectomy and total hysterectomy, a left oophorectomy, pelvic and a para-aortic lymphadenectomy. She subsequently received 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by pelvic radiation therapy. The hypercalcemic small cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare disease of poor prognosis. Treatment approaches include surgery, chemotherapy with the addition of radiotherapy. PMID:24637019

  19. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2 carcinomas. The reason for a radical cholecystectomy after simple CE in a formally R0 situation is either occult invasion or hepatic spread with unknown lymphogenic dissemination. Unfortunately, there are diverse interpretations and practices regarding stage-adjusted therapy for gallbladder carcinoma. The current data suggest that more radical therapy is warranted. PMID:26604631

  20. Ossifying Parotid Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Suresh; Puram, Sidharth V.; Yarlagadda, Bharat; Nos, Vania; Deschler, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a unique case of an extensively ossified carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) in a 76-year-old man with a five-year history of a slowly growing parotid mass. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass was nondiagnostic. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the lesion revealed a well-circumscribed mass with peripheral calcification. Initial pathological analysis suggested a benign parotid mass, but rigorous decalcification revealed noninvasive CXPA. The patient underwent complete resection of the mass and remained disease-free nine months later. Extensive ossification of a seemingly benign parotid mass may mask areas of carcinoma that may progress if left untreated. PMID:26075129

  1. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

    2014-05-01

    The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5(th) and 6(th) decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed. PMID:25328314

  3. Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma of maxilla.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ajit Sing; Ahuja, Puneet; Chhina, Shivjot; Ahuja, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PIOC) of the jaw bones is an extremely rare malignant salivary gland tumor, comprising 2-3% of all mucoepidermoid carcinomas reported. It is commonly seen in the posterior part of the mandible; its occurrence in the maxilla is rare. They have been reported in patients of all ages, ranging from 1 to 78 years, with the overwhelming majority occurring in the 4th and 5th decades of life. They are histologically low-grade cancers and radiographically seen as uniocular or multiocular lesions. We report a rare case of PIOC in posterior palatal region in 18-year-old male. PMID:25949001

  4. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  5. Stromal signatures in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iigo; Catasus, Lluis; D' Angelo, Emanuela; Mozos, Ana; Pedrola, Nuria; Brtolo, Cristina; Ferrer, Irene; Zannoni, Gian Franco; West, Robert B; van de Rijn, Matt; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Prat, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    The pattern of myometrial invasion in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas varies considerably; ie, from widely scattered glands and cell nests, often associated with a fibromyxoid stromal reaction (desmoplasia) and/or a lymphocytic infiltrate, to invasive glands with little or no stromal response. Recently, two distinct stromal signatures derived from a macrophage response (colony-stimulating factor 1, CSF1) and a fibroblastic response (desmoid-type fibromatosis, DTF) were identified in breast carcinomas and correlated with clinicopathologic features including outcome. In this study, we explored whether these stromal signatures also apply to endometrioid carcinomas and how their expression patterns correlated with morphologic changes. We studied the stromal signatures both by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in 98 primary endometrioid carcinomas with (87 cases) and without (11 cases) myometrial invasion as well as in the corresponding regional lymph nodes metatases of 9 myoinvasive tumors. Desmoplasia correlated positively with the DTF expression signature. Likewise, mononuclear infiltrates were found in the stroma of tumors expressing CSF1. Twenty-four out of eighty-seven (27%) myoinvasive endometrioid carcinomas were positive for the macrophage signature and thirteen out of eighty-seven (15%) expressed the fibroblast signature. Eleven additional cases were positive for both DTF and CSF1 signatures (11/87; 13%). However, over half of the cases (39/87; 45%) and the majority of the non-myoinvasive tumors (8/11; 73%) failed to express any of the two stromal signatures. The macrophage response (CSF1) was associated with higher tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and PIK3CA mutations (P<0.05). There was a concordance in the expression of the CSF1 signature in the primary tumors and their corresponding lymph node metastases. This study is the first characterization of stromal signatures in endometrioid carcinomas. Our findings shed new light on the relationship between genetically different endometrioid carcinomas and various stromal responses. Preservation of the CSF1 macrophage stromal response in the metastases leds support to targeting the CSF1 pathway in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas. PMID:24263966

  6. [Mucinous breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation].

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Ch; Damianov, D; Iliev, I; Todorov, T; Boshnakova, Ts

    1999-01-01

    Mucinous breast carcinomas, denominated also gelatinous, mucoid and colloid (collomas), represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. More than half of them exhibit signs of neuroendocrine differentiation. Eighteen mucus producing carcinomas of the breast are subjected to morphological study. On the ground of demonstrating argyrophilia by the methods of Grimelius and Churukian--Shenk, and presence of secreting granules during electron microscopic study, they are assigned under the heading apudomas, i.e. tumors of the diffuse endocrine system, or the so-called APUD-system. The important practical implications of demonstrating neuroendocrine cells with a special reference to the biological patterns of this particular type of tumors are discussed. PMID:11194626

  7. Renal cell carcinoma and amyopathic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Adili, Anthony F.; Liaconis, Haralambos; Gusenbauer, Kaela; Kapoor, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Amyopathic dermatomyositis (dermatomyositis sin myositis) is a rare disorder with cutaneous lesions identical to those of classic dermatomyositis, but with no clinical evidence of myopathy. Association with malignancy has been suggested in a number of reports. We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a recent diagnosis of amyopathic dermatomyositis, who presented to the urology service with hematuria. Investigations revealed a 5.8-cm renal cell carcinoma and the patient underwent left radical nephrectomy without complication. To our knowledge, an association with renal cell carcinoma and amyopathic dermatomyositis has not been previously described. PMID:26029312

  8. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Penticuff, Justin C; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of targeted therapies. Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC. PMID:26309897

  9. Amoeboma of colon mimicking colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kaushik; Sengupta, Moumita; Mitra, Sumit; Ray, Suchandra

    2014-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of diarrhea in the developing countries and it can present with a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms depending on the phase of the infection. We describe a case of 65-year-old male patient presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. On the clinical and radiological examination provisional diagnosis of colonic carcinoma was suspected. After resection of perforated caecal growth, histopathological sections showed numerous trophozoites of E. histolytica in a background of abundant necrosis. This case revealed differentiation between amoeboma and carcinoma is critical. PMID:25250235

  10. Amoeboma of colon mimicking colonic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kaushik; Sengupta, Moumita; Mitra, Sumit; Ray, Suchandra

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of diarrhea in the developing countries and it can present with a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms depending on the phase of the infection. We describe a case of 65-year-old male patient presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. On the clinical and radiological examination provisional diagnosis of colonic carcinoma was suspected. After resection of perforated caecal growth, histopathological sections showed numerous trophozoites of E. histolytica in a background of abundant necrosis. This case revealed differentiation between amoeboma and carcinoma is critical. PMID:25250235

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Flikweert, Elvira R; Hofstee, Mans; Liem, Mike SL

    2008-01-01

    Background Squamous cells are normally not found inside the breast, so a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceptional phenomenon. There is a possible explanation for these findings. Case presentation A 72-year-old woman presented with a breast abnormality suspected for breast carcinoma. After the operation the pathological examination revealed a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. Conclusion The presentation of squamous cell carcinoma could be similar to that of an adenocarcinoma. However, a squamous cell carcinoma of the breast could also develop from a complicated breast cyst or abscess. Therefore, pathological examination of these apparent benign abnormalities is mandatory. PMID:19099605

  12. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  13. Sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Matute, Alonso Reyes; Bernal, Adriana Mendez; Lezama, Jos Ramrez; Guadalupe, Manzano Pech Linaloe; Antonio, Galicia Avalos Marco

    2014-09-01

    A sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. The second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. The purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. Although there is little information about diseases affecting this species, it is known that neoplastic disorders are fairly common in African hedgehogs. The mammary carcinoma is considered to be the most common neoplasm in these animals; however, the presentation of sebaceous carcinoma is rare. In hedgehogs, the simultaneous presence of two neoplasms is common, which is why special attention should be paid to the presentation of other tumors during the early detection of a neoplastic process as this will greatly facilitate the optimal treatment and improve the long-term prognosis of affected animals. PMID:25314843

  14. Primary combined small cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Ferlito, A; Recher, G; Caruso, G

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and pathologic findings of six cases of combined small cell carcinoma of the larynx are described. This tumor is a subtype of small cell carcinoma in which there is a definite component of oat cell carcinoma (or intermediate cell type carcinoma) together with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma or both. The neoplasm seems to derive from a common cell with subsequent divergent differentiation into the Kulchitsky cells, squamous cells, and/or glandular cells. After histologic diagnosis, adequate evaluation for tumor staging is mandatory. Like pulmonary combined small cell carcinoma, this neoplasm may be best treated with systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The prognosis is similar to that of other subtypes of small cell carcinoma of the larynx. PMID:2994505

  15. Pathologic Finding of Thymic Carcinoma Accompanied by Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Hoon; Koh, Im Suk

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified thymic carcinoma and other thymomas (types A, AB, and B) as different neoplasms. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an early sign of thymoma and theoretically does not accompany thymic carcinoma; however, cases of thymic carcinoma with MG have been reported. Whether thymic carcinoma can accompany MG has yet to be established. Methods The medical records of patients who underwent thymectomy for MG between 1990 and 2011 in a single hospital were reviewed. All cases with the diagnostic code of "thymic carcinoma" or "thymoma type C" (old terminology) were selected. A pathologist re-reviewed the pathologic specimens using the new WHO criteria. The rate of thymic carcinoma among these MG patients was then calculated. Results A total of 81 patients with MG had thymic tumors, 10 of whom had thymic carcinomas or thymoma type C. Seven cases of well-differentiated thymic carcinomas (type B3) were excluded, leaving three (3.7%) cases of thymic carcinoma with MG. All three of these cases were type B3 thymoma with a focal squamous cell carcinoma component that was very small and well demarcated. In addition, two out of the three tumors were found to be at an early clinical stage. All of the cases survived without recurrence over follow-up periods of at least 5 years. Conclusions Thymic carcinoma transformation from thymoma can occur during the early stages of thymoma. The association of this condition with MG is not as rare as was previously thought. Thymic carcinomas accompanying MG had a predominant B3 thymoma component with a focal thymic carcinoma area (squamous cell carcinoma). PMID:26320843

  16. [Report on 114 primary vaginal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Zhang, W H; Li, A L; Wu, A R

    1987-11-01

    114 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated in our hospital from 1958 to 1978. It accounted for 0.83% of all gynecological malignant tumors in the same period. The youngest was 26 years of age, the oldest 75. Patients 40-59 years comprised 61.4%. 33% of patients had wedding age under 17. 63.4% had more than 4 pregnancies and 58.4% gave more than 4 births. 89.69% was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 7.2% as adenocarcinoma, 2.06% as undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 as embryonic carcinoma. The tumor occurred frequently in the upper third and posterior wall of the vagina (60% and 68%). In this series, there were 21 stage I, 29 stage II, 61 stage III and 3 stage IV lesions. 110 patients were treated by radiotherapy in different schemes. Intracavitary radium or caesium plus 60Co external irradiation by four fields gave better result with a 5 year survival rate of 66.1%. Only 2 out of 12 patients were cured by 60Co rotation alone but if supplemented by intracavitary radium or caesium, the cure rate was increased. The 5 year survival rate was 71.4% for stage I, 62.1% for stage II, 42.6% for stage III and O for stage IV. After the radiotherapy, rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient, vesicovaginal fistula in 1. 14% was complicated with rectal bleeding and 8.18% with hematuria. PMID:3452544

  17. JC virus existence in Chinese gastrointestinal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JIAN-PING; WANG, ZUO-ZHOU; ZHENG, YU-SHUANG; XIA, PU; YANG, XIANG-HONG; LIU, YUN-PENG; TAKANO, YASUO; ZHENG, HUA-CHUAN

    2012-01-01

    The John Cunningham virus (JCV) infects a large proportion of the population worldwide and may cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy upon immunodeficiency. Recent reports provided evidence of its oncogenetic role in malignancies. In this study, JCV was examined by targeting T antigen, viral protein and agnoprotein in paraffin-embedded or frozen gastrointestinal carcinomas and paired non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM) samples by nested-PCR followed by Southern blot analysis. In addition, the expression of JCV T antigen, ki-67, caspase-3, p53, Rb and ?-catenin was studied by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. The positive rate of JCV T antigen was higher in paraffin-embedded gastrointestinal carcinomas compared to adjacent NNM by nested-PCR followed by Southern blot analysis (36.9 vs. 16.9%, P<0.05), while there was no difference in other viral oncogenes regardless of whether they were paraffin-embedded or frozen samples. Immunohistochemically, T antigen was detectable in 9.6% (13/135) of carcinoma cases, which was higher than its positive rate in NNM (0.8%, 1/126, P<0.01). However, the genomic JCV DNA existence or its T antigen expression was not correlated with age, gender, tumor size, histological types, lymph node metastasis, expression of ki-67, caspase-3, p53, Rb and ?-catenin of gastric carcinomas (P>0.05). In conlusion, JCV T antigen may be involved in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis as an oncogene in China. PMID:22783394

  18. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Turajlic, Samra; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2015-12-01

    This SnapShot summarizes current knowledge about the key features in mutational landscape, major pathways, and tumor evolution and heterogeneity in renal cell carcinoma, as well as the most recent advances in therapeutic development. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26638079

  19. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  20. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

  1. The Role of Anxiety in Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Bilir, Pinar; Han, Misop; Meltzer, David

    2010-01-01

    Although the impact of anxiety on patients with some types of cancer is well recognized, to the authors knowledge its impact on patients with prostate carcinoma has not been studied as thoroughly. The authors conducted a systematic review of the medical literature for high-quality articles that quantified anxiety levels in men with prostate carcinoma and identified 29 articles. Using the clinical timeline of prostate carcinoma to organize the articles, cross-sectional studies that reflected anxiety prevalence in populations and longitudinal studies that reflected changes in anxiety over time were identified. Anxiety appeared to fluctuate over the clinical timeline in response to stressors and uncertainty (such as at the time of screening and/or biopsy), rising before these times and falling afterward. Although anxiety levels in men age > 55 years who were at risk for prostate carcinoma were modest (1015%), multiple studies found that these levels were substantially higher in men who presented for screening (> 50%), and seeking peace of mind was the motivation cited most frequently for pursuing screening. Most studies demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety levels after a normal screening or biopsy result, although the proportion of men who remained anxious afterward did not fall to baseline levels (2036%). Men who presented for prostate-specific antigen monitoring after treatment had elevated anxiety levels at the time of testing (2333%). Many years after therapy for localized disease, anxiety levels were lower after prostatectomy (23%) compared with the levels after watchful waiting (31%). PMID:15959911

  2. CARCINOMA OF THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight cases of acinar cell carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were diagnosed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from a pool of approximately 10,000 specimens used in a variety of carcinogenesis bioassays. hree cases occurred in specimens from control groups and one case in a sp...

  3. Nasopharyngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Ali Reza; Daneshi, Ahmad; Emami, Ali Reza

    2008-12-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma is a type of neuroendocrine system neoplasm that occurs in organisms in which amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells are uncommon. In the human body, the most common sites of neuroendocrine carcinoma are the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. From a histologic standpoint, these tumors are identified by their positive reaction to silver stains and specific markers for neuroendocrine tissues, such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. In addition to local symptoms, these tumors may cause flushing, wheezing, and episodic diarrhea secondary to the release of vasoactive substances. Our medline search encompassing the 20-year period prior to 2003 found few cases of this type of tumor in the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavities and only 1 case of an isolated neuroendocrine carcinoma in the nasopharynx. We describe another case of an isolated nasopharyngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma, which we observed in a 74-year-old woman. We review the clinical presentation and the surgical and systemic treatment. PMID:19105129

  4. Calculator for ovarian carcinoma subtype prediction.

    PubMed

    Kalloger, Steve E; Kbel, Martin; Leung, Samuel; Mehl, Erika; Gao, Dongxia; Marcon, Krista M; Chow, Christine; Clarke, Blaise A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake

    2011-04-01

    With the emerging evidence that the five major ovarian carcinoma subtypes (high-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, and low-grade serous) are distinct disease entities, management of ovarian carcinoma will become subtype specific in the future. In an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy, we set out to determine if an immunohistochemical panel of molecular markers could reproduce consensus subtype assignment. Immunohistochemical expression of 22 biomarkers were examined on tissue microarrays constructed from 322 archival ovarian carcinoma samples from the British Columbia Cancer Agency archives, for the period between 1984 and 2000, and an independent set of 242 cases of ovarian carcinoma from the Gynaecologic Tissue Bank at Vancouver General Hospital from 2001 to 2008. Nominal logistic regression was used to produce a subtype prediction model for each of these sets of cases. These models were then cross-validated against the other cohort, and then both models were further validated in an independent cohort of 81 ovarian carcinoma samples from five different centers. Starting with data for 22 markers, full model fit, backwards, nominal logistic regression identified the same nine markers (CDKN2A, DKK1, HNF1B, MDM2, PGR, TFF3, TP53, VIM, WT1) as being most predictive of ovarian carcinoma subtype in both the archival and tumor bank cohorts. These models were able to predict subtype in the respective cohort in which they were developed with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity (? statistics of 0.880.02 and 0.860.04, respectively). When the models were cross-validated (ie using the model developed in one case series to predict subtype in the other series), the prediction equation's performances were reduced (? statistics of 0.700.04 and 0.610.04, respectively) due to differences in frequency of expression of some biomarkers in the two case series. Both models were then validated on the independent series of 81 cases, with very good to excellent ability to predict subtype (?=0.850.06 and 0.780.07, respectively). A nine-marker immunohistochemical maker panel can be used to objectively support classification into one of the five major subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:21131918

  5. Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-02

    Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  6. Proyecto final Metodos avanzados en aprendizaje automatico

    E-print Network

    Bellogin, Alejandro

    ANT (17754) 2 Cuadro 1: Estadisticas del conjunto inicial Num. ejemplos Num. atributos 72702 42 resume algunas estadisticas sobre el conjunto de datos inicial. Dado el gran numero de parametros es

  7. Planes para atender un cncer avanzado

    Cancer.gov

    Una planificacin cuidadosa reducir el peso que enfrentar su familia ms adelante. La planificacin puede incluir aspectos econmicos y legales, pero como ver, tambin puede ser una forma de celebrar su vida y de darle significado.

  8. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-12

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  10. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-31

    Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma,; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  11. Serum protein biomarkers relevant to hepatocellular carcinoma and their detection.

    PubMed

    Waidely, Eric; Al-Yuobi, Abdul-Rahman Obaid; Bashammakh, A S; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S; Leblanc, Roger M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most recurrent and lethal cancers worldwide. The low survival rate of this particular strain of carcinoma is largely due to the late stages at which it is diagnosed. Tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma is most frequently detected through ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scans, however, these methods are poor for detection of early tumor development. This review presents alternative hepatocellular carcinoma detection techniques through the use of protein and enzyme/isozyme biomarkers. The detection methods used to determine the serum levels of ?-fetoprotein (AFP), glypican-3 (GPC3), Golgi protein 73 (GP73), ?-l-fucosidase (AFU), des-?-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are presented and each marker's respective validity in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is evaluated. PMID:26606739

  12. Mandibular Destruction Secondary to Invasion by Carcinoma Cuniculatum.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael C; Wong, Brian; O'Brien, Michael J; Salama, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is a rare form of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that is often misdiagnosed. It has a propensity for local invasion and rarely metastasizes. Oral carcinoma cuniculatum is exceedingly rare, with very few reported cases in the English-language literature. Classically, its presentation mimics osteomyelitis or a dental abscess, resulting in misdiagnosis, multiple biopsy examinations, and procedures before a final diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. This case report describes the case of a 71-year-old woman who was referred to the authors' clinic for evaluation of persistent pain and swelling of the mandible. Multiple biopsy examinations were negative for malignancy, and the patient was misdiagnosed with osteomyelitis and dental abscess before obtaining an accurate diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. The aim of this report is to provide a thorough clinical and histopathologic report of carcinoma cuniculatum of the mandible, provide a brief review of the literature, and highlight the difficulties in arriving at this uncommon diagnosis. PMID:26072180

  13. Expression of immune checkpoint molecules in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIA; LIU, YULING; WANG, WULIANG; WANG, CHENYANG; CHE, YANHONG

    2015-01-01

    The main obstacle in the development of an effective tumor vaccine is the inherent ability of tumors to evade immune responses. Tumors often use common immune mechanisms and regulators to evade the immune system. The present study aimed to analyze the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), programmed death-ligand (PD-L) 1, PD-L2, B7-H4, galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tissue samples from patients with endometrial carcinoma, in order to detect the immunosuppressive environment of endometrial carcinomas. The levels of IDO, PD-L1, PD-L2 and B7-H4 were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tumor lysates were determined using ELISA. PD-L2 was expressed at low levels in the majority of tumor samples. IDO expression was detected in 38, 63 and 43% of primary endometrial carcinoma, recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens, respectively. Positive expression rates for PD-L1 were 83% in primary endometrial carcinoma, 68% in recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and 100% in metastatic endometrial carcinoma, whereas B7-H4 expression was detected in 100% of both primary endometrial carcinoma and recurrent endometrial carcinoma samples, and in 96% of metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens. The expression levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 were not significantly different between the normal and tumor specimens. The results of the present study suggest that the interaction between PD-1/PD-L1 and B7-H4 may be a potential target for immune intervention in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. Furthermore, the results may provide the basis for immunosuppressant therapy in the treatment of patients with uterine cancer. PMID:26640578

  14. Case report: esophageal metastasis from breast carcinoma presenting as achalasia.

    PubMed

    Herrera, J L

    1992-05-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma to the esophagus most often presents with a mid-esophageal stricture. Involvement of the gastroesophageal junction by breast carcinoma is distinctly unusual. The authors report the case of a 78-year-old woman who presented with clinical and radiologic features of achalasia secondary to breast carcinoma, metastatic to the gastroesophageal junction. Metastatic breast cancer to the gastroesophageal junction should be added to the list of conditions mimicking achalasia. PMID:1580322

  15. Association of esophageal candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Delsing, C.E.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; van de Veerdonk, F.L.; Tol, J.; van der Meer, J.W.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic esophageal candidiasis is an infection that is mostly seen in immunocompromised conditions, among which is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Recently an association between CMC and esophageal carcinoma has been reported. Here we present two patients with chronic esophageal candidiasis who developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and we discuss the etiologic role of Candida-induced nitrosamine production, the loss of STAT1 function and impaired tumor surveillance and T-lymphocyte function in the development of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:24371724

  16. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-22

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  17. Carcinoma in a mediastinal fifth parathyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Kastan, D.J.; Kottamasu, S.R.; Frame, B.; Greenwald, K.A.

    1987-03-06

    Commonly four parathyroid glands are located in the neck. The incidence of a fifth supernumery parathyroid gland has been reported to be between 2% and 6%. Most reports of a hyperfunctioning supernumery parathyroid gland have been adenomas. There have been only a few reports of parathyroid gland carcinoma occurring outside of the cervical region, none of which were in a supernumery parathyroid gland. The authors believe this is the first report of a carcinoma occurring in a supernumery parathyroid gland. Following surgery, four views of the chest during a barium swallow examination showed an anterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the mediastinum confirmed a contrast-enhancing soft-tissue mass anterior to and separate from the aorta.

  18. A Foreigner in Squamous Cell Carcinoma!

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, B S

    2013-01-01

    Giant cells are the soldiers of defensive system of our body. They differ based on the stimuli that provoked their formation. On the other hand, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common oral cancer, presents with varied histopathological features based on the degree of differentiation. Keratinizing islands of dysplastic squamous epithelial cells & a dense inflammatory response form the major component of well differentiated SCC. This keratin component may sometimes trigger foreign body giant cell (FBGC) reaction in the stroma, which may mislead the pathologist to aggressive forms of SCC containing pleomorphic giant cells. We encountered such an interesting case of foreign body giant cell reaction in oral SCC. Thus, the present article aims to provide a thorough knowledge on FBGC including their appearance, pathogenesis & significance in oral SCC. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Ganavi BS. A Foreigner in Squamous Cell Carcinoma!. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):147-50. PMID:24324320

  19. Transcriptomic characterization of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Simon, Elana P; Freije, Catherine A; Farber, Benjamin A; Lalazar, Gadi; Darcy, David G; Honeyman, Joshua N; Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel; Dill, Brian D; Molina, Henrik; Bhanot, Umesh K; La Quaglia, Michael P; Rosenberg, Brad R; Simon, Sanford M

    2015-11-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) tumors all carry a deletion of ?400 kb in chromosome 19, resulting in a fusion of the genes for the heat shock protein, DNAJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1, DNAJB1, and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, PRKACA. The resulting chimeric transcript produces a fusion protein that retains kinase activity. No other recurrent genomic alterations have been identified. Here we characterize the molecular pathogenesis of FLHCC with transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing). Differential expression (tumor vs. adjacent normal tissue) was detected for more than 3,500 genes (log2 fold change ?1, false discovery rate ?0.01), many of which were distinct from those found in hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of several known oncogenes, such as ErbB2 and Aurora Kinase A, was increased in tumor samples. These and other dysregulated genes may serve as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26489647

  20. Laryngeal acinic cell carcinoma following thyroid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, J.F.; McLean, W.C.; Cantrell, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Only three examples of acinic cell carcinoma of the larynx or trachea are found in the recent literature. A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the subglottic larynx and trachea was diagnosed and treated at the University of Virginia Medical Center. To our knowledge this is the first such case with a prior history of radiation to the neck. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who was irradiated for hyperthyroidism 46 years ago. When seen she also had parathyroid hyperplasia and multiple thyroid adenomas, conditions that frequently follow irradiation of the thyroid in children. These findings in this case support the concept that radiation may be responsible for inducing this tumor, which otherwise rarely occurs in this location. The use of electron microscopy was extremely useful in the diagnosis of this tumor. She was treated with total laryngectomy and right neck dissection and is now free of disease one year after surgery.

  1. Transcriptomic characterization of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Elana P.; Freije, Catherine A.; Farber, Benjamin A.; Lalazar, Gadi; Darcy, David G.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel; Dill, Brian D.; Molina, Henrik; Bhanot, Umesh K.; La Quaglia, Michael P.; Rosenberg, Brad R.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) tumors all carry a deletion of ?400 kb in chromosome 19, resulting in a fusion of the genes for the heat shock protein, DNAJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1, DNAJB1, and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, PRKACA. The resulting chimeric transcript produces a fusion protein that retains kinase activity. No other recurrent genomic alterations have been identified. Here we characterize the molecular pathogenesis of FLHCC with transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing). Differential expression (tumor vs. adjacent normal tissue) was detected for more than 3,500 genes (log2 fold change ?1, false discovery rate ?0.01), many of which were distinct from those found in hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of several known oncogenes, such as ErbB2 and Aurora Kinase A, was increased in tumor samples. These and other dysregulated genes may serve as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26489647

  2. Computed tomographic appearance of resectable pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Tasaka, A.; Maruyama, M.

    1982-06-01

    Thirteen patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma were examined by computed tomography (CT). Nine had a mass, 2 had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, 1 appeared to have ductal dilatation, and 1 had no sign of abnormality. Resectable carcinoma was diagnosed retrospectively in 8 cases, based on the following criteria: a mass with a distinct contour, frequently containing a tiny or irregular low-density area and accompanied by dilatation of the caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct without involvement of the large vessels, liver, or lymph nodes. Including unresectable cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and obstructive jaundice from causes other than cancer, the false-positive rate was less than 6%. However, a small cancer without change in pancreatic contour is difficult to detect with CT.

  3. Role of Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    This review evaluates the available evidence to establish the role of liver transplantation in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma in India. Most liver transplants in India are living donor transplants due to the paucity of brain dead organ donors. There is sufficient evidence to permit allocation of organs to patients with tumors within the Milan criteria. If the waiting list time is more than 6 months, a down-staging locoregional treatment modality such a trans-arterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, resection or percutaneous ethanol injection may be used to prevent disease progression. Allocating scarce livers to patients with more advanced tumors may not be justifiable. However, living donor liver transplantation may be offered to medically fit patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis, offering a guarded prognosis to patients beyond the Milan or UCSF criteria. Vascular invasion and extra-hepatic disease should be absolute contraindications to liver transplantation. PMID:25755618

  4. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D J; To, T; Gran, L; Wong, D; Lane, P R

    1989-11-01

    Completed questionnaires regarding suspected risk factors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were completed by 538 basal cell carcinoma patients and 738 age-, sex-, and location-matched controls in Saskatchewan. Significant risk factors were identified using chi2 analyses. Relative risks were subsequently computed. The following relative risks were identified: occupation of farming, 1.29; prominent freckles in childhood, 1.23; family history of skin cancer, 1.22; sunburn, 1.19; Irish, Scottish, Welsh mother, 1.19; light skin color, 1.18; red/blond hair color, 1.16; and working outdoors more than 3 hours/day in winter, 1.13: The average age of cases of BCC with a family history of skin cancer was significantly lower than cases of BCC with no family history of skin cancer (63.86 vs. 67.02 years, p = 0.018). No association was noted between BCC and psoriasis. PMID:2583903

  5. Carcinoma of unknown primary and paraneoplastic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenblick, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is known to be associated with neoplastic disorders, however the presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary as dermatomyositis is rare. We describe a case index of 50-year-old female who presented with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes accompanied with symmetric proximal muscle weakness and erythematous plaques. Conventional basic work-up did not reveal the diagnosis, however, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and re-staining of the pathology specimen suggested the ovaries as the primary site. Chemotherapy including carboplatin paclitaxel and bevacizumab led to complete response of disease and improvement in the dermatomyositis. The present case emphasizes the importance of a thorough directed evaluation for the underlying cancer in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary presenting as dermatomyositis. We further provide an up-to-date detailed review of published data describing these clinical entities. PMID:26677443

  6. Carcinoma of unknown primary and paraneoplastic dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Sonnenblick, Amir

    2015-12-10

    Dermatomyositis is known to be associated with neoplastic disorders, however the presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary as dermatomyositis is rare. We describe a case index of 50-year-old female who presented with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes accompanied with symmetric proximal muscle weakness and erythematous plaques. Conventional basic work-up did not reveal the diagnosis, however, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and re-staining of the pathology specimen suggested the ovaries as the primary site. Chemotherapy including carboplatin paclitaxel and bevacizumab led to complete response of disease and improvement in the dermatomyositis. The present case emphasizes the importance of a thorough directed evaluation for the underlying cancer in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary presenting as dermatomyositis. We further provide an up-to-date detailed review of published data describing these clinical entities. PMID:26677443

  7. Foot and Ankle Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Kalind; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Bone is the third most common site of metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the first two being the lung and lymph nodes, respectively. Metastatic HCC has been reported in the vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, and femur, which are more common sites of bone metastases. We present a case of HCC with metastasis to the distal tibia, fibula, and small bones of the feet as the only sites of bone metastasis, along with a brief literature review. PMID:26447372

  8. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Update and Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Timothy S.; Byrne, Patrick J.; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Taube, Janis M.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, and often fatal cutaneous malignancy that is not usually suspected at the time of biopsy. Because of its increasing incidence and the discovery of a possible viral association, interest in MCC has escalated. Recent effort has broadened our breadth of knowledge regarding MCC and developed instruments to improve data collection and future study. This article provides an update on current thinking about the Merkel cell and MCC. PMID:21540020

  9. [Cystic adenoidal carcinoma of the external ear].

    PubMed

    Fernndez Prez, A; Fernndez-Nogueras Jimnez, F; Moreno Len, J; Fernndez Snchez, A

    1994-01-01

    Tumors of the ceruminous glands can affect the auricula and periauricular skin and should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions of these regions. Correct management of these tumors depends on precise histopathologic classification and diagnosis of their extension. We report a case of cystic adenoid carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Signs and symptoms, histopathology, and treatment of these lesions as reported in the literature are reviewed. PMID:8086202

  10. Struma Ovarii with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Daniel M.; Lee, Victor; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Struma ovarii is an uncommon condition, in which thyroid tissue is the predominant or exclusive element in an ovarian teratoma. Thyroid tissue may demonstrate the same spectrum of pathological features as in the normal thyroid including benign and malignant changes. We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in a struma ovarii of the left ovary in a 21-year-old female. PMID:22315711

  11. Human hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis by multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy

    E-print Network

    So, Peter T. C.

    Conventionally, the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is performed by qualitative examination of histopathological specimens, which takes times for sample preparation in fixation, section and stain. Our objective ...

  12. Genomics and epigenomics of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maher, Eamonn R

    2013-02-01

    Kidney cancer accounts for about 2% of all cancers and worldwide >250,000 new cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed each year. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of adult kidney cancer and this review describes our current knowledge of the genetic and epigenetic basis of sporadic RCC. Though to date major advances in understanding the underlying the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have often been derived from studies of rare familial forms of renal cell carcinoma, large-scale genomic and epigenomic studies of sporadic tumours are beginning to provide clearer pictures of the genomic and epigenomic landscape of RCC and the key pathways implicated in the initiation and progression of the disease. Although current knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of RCC is incomplete, and mostly relates to clear cell (conventional) RCC, the next five years will see an unprecedented flood of genomic and epigenomic data and the key future challenges will relate to the utilisation of this data to develop novel genetic and epigenetic markers for diagnosis and prognosis and to develop novel targeted therapies in order to enable an age of personalised medicine. PMID:22750267

  13. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  14. Expression of MTLC gene in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Guang-Bin; Gong, Li-Guo; Hao, Dong-Mei; Zhen, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Kai-Lai

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of c-myc target from laryngeal cancer cells (MTLC) gene in gastric carcinoma (GC) tissues and the effect of MTLC over-expression on gastric carcinoma cell line BGC823. METHODS: RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression of MTLC mRNA in GC and matched control tissues. BGC823 cells were transfected with an expression vector pcDNA3.1-MTLC by liposome and screened by G418. Growth of cells expressing MTLC was observed daily by manual counting. Apoptotic cells were determined by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. RESULTS: The expression of MTLC mRNAs was down-regulated in 9 (60%) of 15 cases of GC tissues. The growth rates of the BGC823 cells expressing MTLC were indistinguishable from that of control cells. A marked acceleration of apoptosis was observed in MTLC-expressing cells. CONCLUSION: MTLC was down-regulated in the majority of GC tissues and could promote apoptosis of GC cell lines, which suggests that MTLC may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of gastric carcinoma. PMID:14562369

  15. Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.A. III; Robbins, K.T.; Stephens, J.; Dimery, I.W.; Batsakis, J.G.

    1987-02-01

    The aggressiveness of small (oat) cell carcinoma of the larynx presents a therapeutic challenge to the oncologist. Since the first description of this type of carcinoma in 1972, 52 patients have been reported in the literature and a variety of treatment regimens have been used. The purpose of this study was to report two new cases and review all previous reports to determine the disease's biological behavior, clinical manifestations, and optimum treatment. Thirty-five percent of the tumors were transglottic, and 27% were supraglottic. Fifty-four percent of patients had regional metastases at initial presentation and 17.6% had distant metastases. The median survival was 10 months for all patients. Patients who were treated with chemotherapy with or without other modalities had the best 2-year survival rates (52.2%). Forty-one percent of patients had regional recurrence only, 12.5% had regional recurrence and distant metastases, and 2% developed distant metastases only. We conclude that patients with oat cell carcinoma of the larynx should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is best reserved for persistent and recurrent disease at the primary site and neck.

  16. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  17. Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-03-20

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  18. Transoral Robotic Surgery in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Helman, Samuel N; Schwedhelm, Thomas; Kadakia, Sameep; Wang, Yanhua; Schiff, Bradley A; Smith, Richard V

    2015-11-01

    Context .- The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has increased during the past decade and is related primarily to the human papillomavirus. This change in etiology, from tobacco and alcohol to human papillomavirus, has resulted in improved survival for the disease. In the United States, open resection had largely been replaced by concurrent chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy by the early 2000s. The advent of transoral surgery has led to an increase in surgery as the primary treatment for both early- and advanced-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma because it has potential advantages over open surgery and nonsurgical modalities. Objective .- To provide an overview of transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and contrast it with other surgical and nonsurgical modalities. Data Sources .- Articles from 2000 to 2014 were accessioned on PubMed and reviewed for utility by the primary authors. Conclusions .- Transoral surgery has become more commonly used as a minimally invasive approach to treat oropharyngeal tumors. Other strategies, including radiation, chemotherapy with radiation, and open surgery, are still important treatment approaches. The treatment options for an individual patient rely on multiple factors, including the tumor location and size, features of the tumor, and patient comorbidities. The continued study of these techniques is important to match the patient with the most appropriate treatment. PMID:26288397

  19. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  20. Targeted molecular therapies in thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Serena; Moretti, Sonia; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio

    2009-12-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has significantly increased in the last three decades and many patients seek medical attention for its treatment every year. Among follicular cell-derived tumors, the majority are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC), whose prognosis is very good with only 15% of the cases presenting disease persistence or recurrence after initial treatment. Medullary thyroid carcinoma has a worse prognosis, especially in patients with diffused cancers at the time of initial surgery. Traditional treatment options for persistent or recurrent disease include additional surgery, radioiodine treatment and TSH-suppression in DTC patients; external beam radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy, often have low efficacy and many patients with advanced disease ultimately die. In the last two decades many of the molecular events involved in cancer formation have been uncovered. This knowledge has prompted the development of novel therapeutic strategies mainly based on the inhibition of key molecular mediators of the tumorigenic process. In particular the class of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors was enriched by many compounds that have reached clinical trials and in some cases have had approval for clinical use in specific cancers. Many of these compounds entered clinical trials also for locally advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas showing very promising results. PMID:20126863

  1. Pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sahni, Sonu; Iftikhar, Asma; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for majority of all primary renal neoplasms. Classic manifestations of RCC include the triad of flank pain, hematuria and a palpable renal mass. Patients with RCC can develop various extra renal manifestations including involvements of the lungs, inferior vena cava, liver and the bones. The pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma include metastatic disease including endobronchial, pleural, parenchymal or lymph node metastasis, pleural effusion or hemothorax. Pulmonary embolism and tumor embolism is another common manifestation of renal cell carcinoma. RCC is a highly vascular tumor and can cause pulmonary arterio-venous fistulas leading to high output failure. Rarely, RCC can also present with paraneoplastic presentations including cough or bilateral diaphragm paralysis. Drugs used to treat RCC have been associated with drug related pneumonitis and form an important differential diagnosis in patients with RCC on therapy presenting with shortness of breath. In this review we discuss the various pulmonary manifestations of RCC. A high index of suspicion with these presentations can lead to an early diagnosis and assist in instituting an appropriate intervention. PMID:26525375

  2. A Mouse Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nicholes, Katrina; Guillet, Susan; Tomlinson, Elizabeth; Hillan, Kenneth; Wright, Barbara; Frantz, Gretchen D.; Pham, Thinh A.; Dillard-Telm, Lisa; Tsai, Siao Ping; Stephan, Jean-Philippe; Stinson, Jeremy; Stewart, Timothy; French, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    Most mouse models of hepatocellular carcinoma have expressed growth factors and oncogenes under the control of a liver-specific promoter. In contrast, we describe here the formation of liver tumors in transgenic mice overexpressing human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) in skeletal muscle. FGF19 transgenic mice had elevated hepatic ?-fetoprotein mRNA as early as 2 months of age, and hepatocellular carcinomas were evident by 10 months of age. Increased proliferation of pericentral hepatocytes was demonstrated by 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine incorporation in the FGF19 transgenic mice before tumor formation and in nontransgenic mice injected with recombinant FGF19 protein. Areas of small cell dysplasia were initially evident pericentrally, and dysplastic/neoplastic foci throughout the hepatic lobule were glutamine synthetase-positive, suggestive of a pericentral origin. Consistent with chronic activation of the Wingless/Wnt pathway, 44% of the hepatocellular tumors from FGF19 transgenic mice had nuclear staining for ?-catenin. Sequencing of the tumor DNA encoding ?-catenin revealed point mutations that resulted in amino acid substitutions. These findings suggest a previously unknown role for FGF19 in hepatocellular carcinomas. PMID:12057932

  3. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-13

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  4. Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-04

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  5. Evaluation of a Probabilistic Model for Staging of Oesophageal Carcinoma

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    in gastrointestinal oncology from the Nether lands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis, a decisionsupport system is being developed for patientspecific therapy selection for oe sophageal carcinoma. The kernel of the system is a probabilistic model describing the characteristics of oesophageal carcinoma and the patho

  6. Evaluation of a Probabilistic Model for Staging of Oesophageal Carcinoma

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    in gastrointestinal oncology from the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis, a decision- support system is being developed for patient-speci#12;c therapy selection for oesophageal carcinoma. The kernel of the system is a probabilis- tic model describing the characteristics of oesophageal carcinoma

  7. Late cardiac metastasis from colorectal carcinoma 15 years after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kasama, Keiichiro; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Suwa, Yusuke; Okudera, Koji; Suzuki, Shinichi; Masuda, Munetaka

    2016-01-01

    Late recurrence of malignant tumors in the heart more than 10 years after surgery is quite rare, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Here, we report a case of late cardiac metastasis from a primary colorectal carcinoma, which occurred more than 15 years after the initial surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first such reported case. PMID:24912608

  8. Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Permissions Print to PDF Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 09/2014 What is familial non-VHL clear cell renal cell carcinoma? Familial non-VHL clear cell ...

  9. Small cell carcinoma of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gnepp, D R; Corio, R L; Brannon, R B

    1986-08-01

    Small cell carcinoma is primarily a pulmonary neoplasm that rarely arises in extrapulmonic sites including salivary glands of the head and neck. Twelve cases of small cell carcinoma of salivary gland origin were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology files. Six tumors occurred in the parotid gland and six in the submandibular gland. Tumors were classified into two categories: those with areas of histologically typical small cell carcinoma (7 cases) and those with areas of typical small cell carcinoma with foci of ductal differentiation (5 cases). Follow-up information was available in all 12 cases. Electron microscopy was done on eight tumors; only one demonstrated round electron dense intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules. These observations further support evidence in the literature suggesting most of the small cell carcinomas of salivary gland origin are not true neuroendocrine ("oat cell") carcinomas, but actually are small cell ductal carcinomas. These tumors appear to have a better prognosis than small cell carcinoma of the lung or nonsalivary gland sites in the head and neck region, with an estimated 2- and 5-year survival of 70 and 46%, respectively. PMID:3015370

  10. Fractal analysis for classification of breast carcinoma in optical coherence

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Amy

    Fractal analysis for classification of breast carcinoma in optical coherence tomography Amanda C. Sullivan John P. Hunt Amy L. Oldenburg Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 07 Jun 2011 to 152 analysis for classification of breast carcinoma in optical coherence tomography Amanda C. Sullivan,a John P

  11. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Ranga Reddy, S V; Janaki, M; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2004-04-01

    Malignant tumors of the submandibular salivary glands are rare in occurrence, among which primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland is unusual and the documented evidence is 2 to 5% among malignant tumors A case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of submandibular salivary gland is being presented for its rarity. PMID:23120050

  12. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol is reported.

  13. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, we report a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-beta-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol.

  14. Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Victoria D.; Souza, Carlos; Vanderhart, Daniel; Boston, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female dog diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma and hypertrophic osteopathy was negative for additional lesions on computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen. Resection of the affected liver lobe resulted in resolution of clinical signs. This is the first case of hypertrophic osteopathy secondary to hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26130837

  15. Oat cell carcinoma of the bronchus and the carcinoid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salyer, D C; Eggleston, J C

    1975-10-01

    A man with high urinary levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid had an oat cell carcinoma of the bronchus. The patient had symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome and at autopsy was found to have evidence of carcinoid heart disease. This report supports the hypothesis that bronchial carcinoids and oat cell carcinomas are derived from argentaffin (Kulchitsky)-type cells of the lung. PMID:172051

  16. Salivary duct carcinoma cytologically diagnosed distinctly from salivary gland carcinomas with squamous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akihiko; Harada, Hiroshi; Akiba, Jun; Kage, Masayoshi

    2008-07-01

    It has been difficult cytologically to distinguish salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) from high-grade carcinoma. We investigated the microscopic cytological findings, morphometric image analyses, and immunohistochemical features of SDC, focusing on how we achieved an accurate differential diagnosis distinguishing SDC from salivary gland carcinomas with squamous differentiation. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for androgen receptor (AR), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP15), mammaglobin, human gastric mucin, MUC1, MUC2, p63, and cytokeratin high molecular weight. Of the 13 cases of SDC, 9 cases showed typical cytological findings of sheet clusters with polygonal granular cytoplasm with fine chromatin. The other 4 cases showed unusual cytological findings of a pseudo-papillary cluster or scattered cells only, and the tumor cells showed coarse chromatin. Morphometric image analysis showed that the nucleus area was statistically different between SDC and salivary gland carcinomas with squamous differentiation. AR-positive expression (P = 0.008), GCDFP15-positive expression (P = 0.005) and p63-negative expression (P = 0.001) were effective as SDC-specific markers in immunohistochemistry. An accurate cytological diagnosis of SDC can be determined by immunostaining with AR, GCDFP15, and p63, based on the nuclear findings. PMID:18528886

  17. Drug-sensitive FGFR2 mutations in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, Amit; Salvesen, Helga B.; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Ramos, Alex H.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Hatton, Charlie; Nicoletti, Richard; Winckler, Wendy; Grewal, Rupinder; Hanna, Megan; Wyhs, Nicolas; Ziaugra, Liuda; Richter, Daniel J.; Trovik, Jone; Engelsen, Ingeborg B.; Stefansson, Ingunn M.; Fennell, Tim; Cibulskis, Kristian; Zody, Michael C.; Akslen, Lars A.; Gabriel, Stacey; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sellers, William R.; Meyerson, Matthew; Greulich, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of tyrosine kinases is a common mechanism of carcinogenesis and, given the druggable nature of these enzymes, an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Here, we show that somatic mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) tyrosine kinase gene, FGFR2, are present in 12% of endometrial carcinomas, with additional instances found in lung squamous cell carcinoma and cervical carcinoma. These FGFR2 mutations, many of which are identical to mutations associated with congenital craniofacial developmental disorders, are constitutively activated and oncogenic when ectopically expressed in NIH 3T3 cells. Inhibition of FGFR2 kinase activity in endometrial carcinoma cell lines bearing such FGFR2 mutations inhibits transformation and survival, implicating FGFR2 as a novel therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma. PMID:18552176

  18. [Verrucous carcinoma of the penis. Report of 8 cases].

    PubMed

    Rics Torrent, J V; Casanova Ramn-Borja, J; Iborra Juan, I; Monros Lliso, J L; Dumont Martnez, R; Solsona Nrbon, E

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a retrospective study of the incidence and evolution of Penis Verruciform Carcinoma, covering a series of 101 cases of primitive penis carcinomas. Incidence reaches 7.9% of all cases. Analysis of tumour evolution is made and compared with Epidermoid Carcinoma. The findings are that there is neither loco-regional nor distant gangliar dissemination and that no patient dies due to this tumour as apposed to 38% deaths in epidermoid cases. Similarly, the survival likelihood at 5 years is 100% for verruciform carcinomas against 54% for epidermoid ones. All the above confirms the benignancy of Penis Verruciform Carcinoma, which makes it recommendable for conservative therapy, whenever volume and location would allow it. Thus, performance of lymphadenectomies is not generally justified since there is no tumoral dissemination, and adoption of an expectant attitude in presence of inguinal ganglia should be advisable. PMID:2080728

  19. [Research progress of Lgr4 in gastrointestinal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yibin; Chen, Lin

    2015-11-25

    Gastrointestinal carcinomas, whose incidence increases in recent years, are among the malignancies with highest morbidity and mortality. Many patients are always advanced stages when having diagnosis. So far, there are no any reliable tumor biomarkers which are able to screen people with high risk of developing cancer. Studies have shown that the expression level of Lgr4 is high in gastrointestinal carcinomas and Lgr4 is useful in diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis judgment of these carcinomas. Lgr4 belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptors family. Its function is to potentiate Wnt signaling and plays an important role in the development of multiple organs. Recent studies find that Lgr4 has close relationship with the development of many gastrointestinal carcinomas, such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer(CRC). In this article we review recent progress in understanding the relationship between Lgr4 and gastrointestinal carcinomas. PMID:26616818

  20. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the forehead: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rudi?, Milan; Kranjcec, Zoran; Lisica-Siki?, Natasa; Kovaci?, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6 cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carcinomas are rare tumors and are usually result of a long duration and patient neglect. In comparison to the ordinary basal cell carcinoma these tumors have a higher metastatic potential. Surgical resection with negative surgical margin is the best possible treatment option. PMID:22816239

  1. Renal cell carcinoma with areas mimicking renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor/clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Grossmann, Petr; Hora, Milan; Sperga, Maris; Montiel, Delia Perez; Martinek, Petr; Gutierrez, Maria Evelyn Cortes; Bulimbasic, Stela; Michal, Michal; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Hes, Ondrej

    2013-07-01

    We present a cohort of 8 renal carcinomas that displayed a variable (5%-95% extent) light microscopic appearance of renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor/clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (RAT/CCPRCC) without fulfilling the criteria for these tumors. All but 1 case predominantly (75%-95% extent) showed histopathologic features of conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In 5 of 7 cases with mostly conventional clear renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) morphology, a diagnosis of CRCC was supported by the molecular genetic findings (presence of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor [VHL] mutation and/or VHL promoter methylation and/or loss of heterozygosity [LOH] for 3p). Of the other 2 cases with predominantly characteristic CRCC morphology, 1 tumor did not reveal any VHL mutation, VHL promoter methylation, or LOH for 3p, and both chromosomes 7 and 17 were disomic, whereas the other tumor displayed polysomy for chromosomes 7 and 17 and no VHL mutation, VHL promoter methylation, or LOH for 3p. One tumor was composed primarily (95%) of distinctly RAT/CCPRCC-like morphology, and this tumor harbored a VHL mutation and displayed polysomy for chromosomes 7 and 17. Of the 5 cases with both histomorphologic features and molecular genetic findings of CRCC, we detected significant immunoreactivity for ?-methylacyl-CoA racemase in 2 cases and strong diffuse immunopositivity for cytokeratin 7 in 3 cases. Despite the combination of positivity for ?-methylacyl-CoA racemase and cytokeratin 7 in 2 cases, there was nothing to suggest of the possibility of a conventional papillary renal cell carcinoma with a predominance of clear cells. PMID:23434146

  2. Pathological and biological features of mammographically detected invasive breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Rajakariar, R.; Walker, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The pathological and biological features of a consecutive series of impalpable invasive breast carcinoma, detected by mammography in the prevalent round of the breast screening programme, have been compared with a clinically presenting group of carcinomas in age-matched patients. There was a significantly higher prevalence of tubular carcinomas as well-differentiated infiltrating ductal carcinomas in the mammographically detected group, and a lower prevalence of poorly differentiated infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Lymph node metastasis was found in 6.5% of the impalpable group compared with 53% of the clinical group. The prevalence of oestrogen receptor was much higher in the impalpable group (96%) than in the control group (67%), although there were no significant differences for progesterone receptor. The prevalence of pS2 was also much higher in the impalpable group, as was cathepsin D. This finding is surprising in view of the reported relationship between cathepsin D and poorer survival. p53 and c-erb-2 proteins were detectable in fewer impalpable carcinomas. The mean MIBI (Ki-67) index was lower in the impalpable group (11.6) than in the clinical group (15.25). Within the mammographically detected group there was a significant difference in the MIBI index between tubular carcinomas and the different grades of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, with a wide range in each category but no association with size. The impalpable carcinomas detected by mammography differ from clinically presenting carcinomas in many ways, raising the question of whether a proportion or all would progress (dedifferentiate) with time. PMID:7819032

  3. Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor. PMID:24078988

  4. Penile Carcinoma in Northern Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Ramdass, MJ; Naraynsingh, V; Young-Sing, Q; Mooteeram, J; Barrow, S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the current incidence as well as general and ethnic trends of penile carcinoma in northern Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases of penile carcinoma presenting in north and east Trinidad, as well as Tobago over an eight-year period. Results: There were 19 cases from October 2003 to February 2012 with an age range of 4296 years, mean of 59 years; peak age of presentation was 4150 years and the number of cases presenting per year varied from one to four, with an average of three new cases yearly. Of 19 cases, 63% (12) originated from Port-of-Spain General Hospital (POSGH), 26% (5) from Sangre Grande (SGH) and 11% (2) from Tobago (TRH). There were 14 (74%) patients of African descent, three mixed and two of East Indian descent. There were four associated inflammatory lesions, five with ulcers, five verrucous lesions and two (10.5%) with human papillomavirus (HPV). One case presented with metastatic disease to the groin with erosion into the common femoral artery resulting in a blow-out of the vessel. The patient had the vessel oversewn and an extra-anatomic bypass done. He later had an above-knee amputation due to graft infection and failure. Conclusion: The incidence of penile carcinoma in north Trinidad and in Tobago is low and has halved in the past two decades. It stands at 0.6 cases per 100 000 males with the peak age group being 4150 years, and with 95% of cases occurring between 41 and 80 years. There is a statistically significant association with active infection and being Afro-Caribbean. The decreasing incidence may be attributed to better hygiene, a higher rate of circumcision and low HPV rates in our population. PMID:25803395

  5. Molecular Classification of Breast Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Usha; Mei, Lu; Seema, Sethi; Hina, Qureshi; Wolman, Sandra R.; Worsham, Maria J.

    2006-01-01

    Pleomorphic variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (PILC) is an aggressive variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Its in situ counterpart, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) is a recently described entity. Morphologically it has the typical architectural pattern of LCIS, but the neoplastic cells resemble intermediate grade DCIS. Molecular signatures that distinguish PLCIS from DCIS and LCIS would provide additional tools to aid in the histopathologic classification of PLCIS as a lesion distinct from LCIS and DCIS. CIS lesions, obtained from a study cohort of 38 breast cancer patients, were divided into 18 DCIS, 14 PLCIS and 6 LCIS. DNA from microdissected archival tissue was interrogated for loss or gain of 112 breast-cancer-specific genes using the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification Assay (MLPA). Classification Regression Tree (CART) analysis was employed to develop a gene-based molecular classification to distinguish or separate out PLCIS from DCIS and LCIS. Molecular classification via CART, based on gene copy number, agreed with histopathology in 34/38 CIS cases. Loss of CASP1 was predictive of LCIS (n=4) with one misclassified PLCIS. Gain of RELA predicted only the LCIS classification (n=2 cases). STK15 and TNFRSF1B were predictive only for DCIS with no misclassifications. Gain of EHF and TNFRSF1B and loss of NCOA3 were predictive of PLCIS, but not without misclassification. Molecular reclassification by CART was accomplished in 4 CIS cases: 1 PLCIS was reclassified as LCIS, 1 LCIS reclassified as PLCIS, and 2 DCIS cases as PLCIS. This study provides additional rationale for molecular modeling strategies in the evaluation of CIS lesions. This diagnostic aid may serve to minimize misclassification between PLCIS and DCIS, and PLCIS and LCIS, aiding to increase accuracy in the differential diagnosis of CIS lesions. PMID:17375183

  6. Post-traumatic squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lifeso, R M; Rooney, R J; el-Shaker, M

    1990-01-01

    Between January 1, 1976, and January 1, 1986, we treated sixty-three patients who had histologically proved squamous-cell carcinoma that originated in a pre-existing scar or sinus of an extremity. In 49 per cent of the patients, metastases to regional lymph nodes either were present when the patient was first seen or subsequently developed. The age and sex of the patient, the etiology of the original scar, and the duration of illness bore no relationship to the result. The most significant factor in predicting the outcome was the grade of the tumor: for grade-I (low-grade) lesions, the incidence of metastasis was 10 per cent; for grade-II (moderately well differentiated) lesions, 59 per cent; and for grade-III (poorly differentiated) lesions, 86 per cent. Eleven patients had wide local excision of the lesion, which resulted in local recurrence in four patients and metastasis in three. Thirty patients had therapeutic amputation: one patient had recurrent disease and five patients had metastasis. Radical resection of lymph nodes after metastasis was uniformly unsuccessful in preventing additional metastasis. Ten patients who had a grade-II or grade-III tumor had prophylactic irradiation of the regional lymph nodes after the definitive operative treatment. At an average of thirty-seven months of follow-up, only one of them had metastasis. We recommend that well differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma be considered a low-grade tumor, according to the staging system for musculoskeletal neoplasms, and that more poorly differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma (grades II and III) be considered a high-grade lesion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2295659

  7. Prognostic factors and biomarkers of penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ademar

    2008-08-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare malignancy with highest incidence in underdeveloped and developing countries. Oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA, mainly types 16 and 18, are found in ? 100% of patients with uterine cervix carcinoma. The incidence of this virus in SCC and its variations range from 30.5 to 80%. Despite controversies, contrary to the cervical carcinoma, in the carcinogenesis and disease progression of SCC, HPV-dependent and HPV-independent tumors need to be considered. Lymphadenectomies continue to be the gold standard treatment of lymph node metastases. Undesirable accuracy on staging system methods and high rates of lymphadenectomy complications are the principal objections to these surgical procedures; therefore, the main issue in patients with SCC is to know who should or should not undergo lymphadenectomy. The search for primary tumor anatomopathological and biomarker risk factors for lymph node metastases, such as has occurred in other tumors, may be an important tool to select lymphadenectomies candidates better. Histological subtypes, tumor grade, growth pattern, tumor thickness, lymphatic embolization by neoplasic cells and depth of infiltration have been reported as important prognostic factors for lymph node metastases. In our series, lymphatic vascular permeation, palpable lymph node after primary tumor control (cN stage), pattern of invasion, p53 and PCNA immunoreactivity are independent lymph node metastases risk factors in the multivariate model. It is strongly recommended that patients be concentrated in specialized centers or cancer hospitals and multi-centric prospective studies carried out on tumor markers in this rare disease, in order to stage better lymph node disease and avoid unnecessary surgeries with high morbidity rates. PMID:23495866

  8. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    Although surgical resection remains the best option as potentially curative therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, radiofrequency thermal ablation has begun to receive much attention as an effective minimally invasive technique for the local control of unresectable malignant hepatic tumors. Most recent radiofrequency devices equipped with a powerful generator and larger needle electrode permit larger thermal lesions, up to 5 cm in diameter, with a single ablation. In this article, the author reviews the technical developments and early clinical results obtained with radiofrequency ablation techniques. PMID:11752952

  9. Ganglion affection in the invasive vulvar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lpez Garca, N; Recio Snchez, S; Snchez Clemente, C; Garca Gallego, A

    1987-01-01

    This is a study of 150 cases of epidermal carcinoma of the vulva, treated in the Service of Gynecology of the National Institute on Oncology, of which inguinal lymphoadenectomy was practised in 126 cases. The histopathological study of the ganglions removed shows an incidence of 42% of total metastasis. Ganglionic metastasis was analyzed side by side with the clinical state and that of the localization of the tumor. The results of the metastasis of the "Cloquet ganglions" are also presented plus the invasion of the regional pelvic-ganglions with the existence or non-existence in the above mentioned ganglions. PMID:3569318

  10. Cellular prognostic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Luigi; Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Damiano, Elvira; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Buonaguro, Franco M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the five big killers worldwide and is frequently associated with chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections. Tumor microenvironment consists of a complex network of cells and factors that plays a key role in the tumor progression and prognosis. This is true also for HCC. Several studies have shown strikingly strong correlation between HCC clinical prognosis and intratumoral infiltration of cells affecting tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. None of such cells is yet validated for routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment. The present review aims at providing a state-of-the-art of such studies. PMID:26043213

  11. Brain metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brcek, P; Asa, S L; Gentili, F; Ezzat, S; Kiehl, T-R

    2010-01-01

    The brain is an exceedingly rare site of metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A 50-year-old female who had a history of micro-MTC 11 years prior developed a cerebellar metastasis which was incidentally discovered. Imaging revealed a right cerebellar hemispheric mass with contrast enhancement on CT scans. Histopathologic exam demonstrated a metastatic tumour composed of nodules and sheets of large tumour cells with abundant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the origin from a MTC. This case report highlights the unique features of an unusual metastatic brain tumour, which followed an indolent course for a long time despite multiple distant metastases. PMID:22802478

  12. The Role of Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy is crucial for normal liver physiology and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. During the last decade, the function of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated extensively. Currently, autophagy is thought to play a dual role in HCC, i.e., autophagy is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. Recent investigations of autophagy have suggested that autophagy biomarkers can facilitate HCC prognosis and the establishment of therapeutic approaches. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of autophagy and discuss recent evidence for its role in HCC. PMID:26561802

  13. Esophageal recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dworzynska, Agnieszka; Lorente-Poch, Leyre; Sancho, Juan Jose; Sitges-Serra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) metastasizes to the regional lymph nodes and to the lungs, liver and bones. Only one case of recurrence of MTC involving the upper gastrointestinal tract has been reported so far. We describe the case of a 38-year-old woman with MTC, who developed an upper esophageal submucosal recurrence after two previous local recurrences treated surgically and one ethanol injection. After resection of the right lateral esophageal wall, calcitonin dropped by 60% and showed a doubling time >1 year. We cannot rule out the role of deep ethanol injection in the involvement of the cervical esophagus wall. PMID:26645011

  14. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Palatine Tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Teixeira, Luiz Carlos Santana; Passador-Santos, Fabrcio; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Arajo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary salivary gland malignancy in both adults and children. It has a slight female predilection and usually presents as a painless, rubber-like or soft mass, which may be fixed or mobile. Histologically, MEC is comprised of a mixture of cell types including mucous, epidermoid, and intermediate cells that can be arranged in solid nests or cystic structures. In the oral cavity, it most frequently occurs at the palate or buccal mucosa. The present paper aimed to describe an unusual case of MEC arising in the palatine tonsil. PMID:26550506

  15. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-02

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, A.M.; Sharma, S.M. )

    1991-04-15

    An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease.

  17. Intramedullary conus metastasis from carcinoma lung

    PubMed Central

    Mavani, Sandip B.; Nadkarni, Trimurti D.; Goel, Naina A.

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old male presented with progressive paraparesis and sensory impairment in both lower limbs since 2 months. He had urinary and bowel incontinence. On examination he had flaccid paraplegia with a sensory level at 11th dorsal vertebral level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the lumbosacral spine showed an enhancing intramedullary lesion in the conus. The patient underwent excision of the conus mass. Histopathology confirmed the tumor to represent a poorly differentiated metastatic carcinoma from an unknown primary. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan of the whole body revealed hypermetabolic activity in the hilum of the right lung confirmed to be a lung carcinoma on a CT-guided biopsy. The patient was undergoing chemoradiation at 1 month follow-up. The author's literature search has yielded only four other case reports of conus metastasis of which only one is in English literature. The present case report and review of literature are presented. PMID:24381457

  18. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R H; Clarke, T J; Sarsfield, P T; Gluckman, P G

    1991-01-01

    Four cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands arose as painless masses in patients over 60 years old, three in the parotid and one in the submandibular gland. Histologically, all the tumours were composed of small ducts with a double cell lining surrounded by a basement membrane. The inner cells were epithelial and the outer cells myoepithelial, the latter usually possessing clear cytoplasm. There was a variable degree of intervening hyalinised stroma. All the tumours were partly encapsulated, but also displayed local invasiveness. One of the tumours also showed areas of dedifferentiation when it later recurred and metastasised. The other three were apparently cured by initial excision, with adjuvant radiotherapy in one instance. In the past this tumour has been described as clear cell adenoma, and it was only recently that its true malignant nature, albeit low grade, was recognised. Reports of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma are still relatively few, with only one case described from Britain. It is recommended that this histologically distinct neoplasm deserves wider recognition. Images PMID:2045502

  19. Histopathological study of radionecrosis in laryngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, M.; Harwood, A.R.; Bryce, D.P.; van Nostrand, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    With modern radiotherapy techniques, clinical radionecrosis is uncommon following eradication of primary squamous cell carcinoma from the larynx. Histologic sections from 265 specimens, prepared by the technique of whole organ subserial step-sectioning were studied to determine the incidence and location of chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis in both irradiated and non-irradiated cases. Chondronecrosis occurred in only 1 of 41 early (pT1 - pT2) tumors but in 143 advanced tumors (pT - pT4) treated with radical radiotherapy and containing residual carcinoma, 27% had evidence of significant necrosis, compared with 24% of those not irradiated. Age, sex, tumor grade and previous laryngeal surgery did not appear to be significant factors in the development of necrosis in irradiated patients. The arytenoid cartilage was most frequently involved when chondronecrosis occurred in association with radiotherapy. Six total laryngectomy specimens (3%) were received from patients with symptoms of chondronecrosis and in whom no residual tumor was present. We conclude that although the incidence of clinical perichondritis is low, histologic chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis occurred in 26% of all the larynges studied. Radiotherapy appears to be a significant causative factor only in advanced supraglottic tumors.

  20. Combined treatment in carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Souhami, L.; Rabinowits, M.

    1988-08-01

    From October 1982 to August 1984, 30 previously untreated patients with biopsy-proven carcinoma of the nasopharynx, stage III (26.5%) and stage IV (73.5%), received combined radiotherapy (6,000 to 7,000 cGy over a period of 7 to 7.5 weeks) and chemotherapy (mitomycin-C 10 mg/M2, IV; 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/M2, IV; and methotrexate 30 mg/M2, IV) concomitantly. There were 20 males and 10 females, with a median age of 40 years. Minimal follow-up duration was 24 months. Actuarial overall survival rate at 48 months was 49%. Complete local response was achieved in 75% of the patients, with 31% of the cases failing distantly. The complication rate was high and included severe mucositis, xerostomia, and septicemia (fatal in two cases). Despite high local disease control, survival rate did not increase. A randomized trial is urgently needed to establish whether or not combined treatment is of value in advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx.

  1. Breast carcinomas: variations in sonoelastographic appearance

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Eduardo de Faria Castro; Assuno-Queiros, Maria do Carmo Guedes Alcoforado; Roveda, Decio

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed factors influencing the sonoelastographic presentation of breast carcinoma. Methods A prospective collaborative study was conducted by the Santa Casa de So Paulo and CTC-Center, on 540 breast lesions in women referred for percutaneous breast biopsy. Eighty-four carcinomas showing lesions on ultrasonography were included. These lesions were classified into four sonoelastographic scores, where scores of 1, 2, and 3 were considered false-negative, and a score of 4 was considered true-positive. Scores were compared against histopathologic results, which were divided into two groups, ie, soft lesions (group 1) and hard lesions (group 2). False-negative and true-positive results were also assessed for variation according to patient age and mean lesion diameter. Results Of the 84 lesions studied, nine yielded false-negative results on sonoelastography and 75 yielded true-positive results. In terms of histopathologic classification, eight were assigned to group 1 and 76 to group 2. The chi-squared test showed a correlation between sonoelastographic scores and histopathologic lesion type. No statistically significant differences were observed according to patient age or largest lesion diameter. Conclusion Our results revealed an association between sonoelastographic presentation of breast lesions and histology. False-negative results on sonoelastography were influenced by histologic type of lesion and not by lesion size or patient age. PMID:25177152

  2. MicroRNAs in ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Neetu; Morin, Patrice J.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in epithelial ovarian cancer initiation and progression are just beginning to be elucidated. In particular, it has become evident that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of molecules that post-trancriptionally regulates gene expression, play a major role in ovarian tumorigenesis. Several miRNA profiling studies have identified changes in miRNA patterns that take place during ovarian cancer development. While most deregulated miRNAs are down-regulated in cancer, and may therefore act as tumor suppressors, others are elevated and may represent novel oncogenes in this disease. A number of miRNAs identified as aberrantly expressed in ovarian carcinoma have been shown to have important functional roles in cancer development and may therefore represent targets for therapy. In addition, some of the miRNA patterns may have prognostic significance. The identification of functional targets represents a major hurdle in our understanding of miRNA function in ovarian carcinoma, but significant progress is being made. It is hoped that a better understanding of the miRNA expression and roles in ovarian cancer may provide new avenues for the detection, diagnosis, and therapy of this deadly disease. PMID:19903743

  3. Immunoscintigraphy of recurrences of gynecologic carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Chatal, J.F.; Fumoleau, P.; Saccavini, J.C.; Thedrez, P.; Curtet, C.; Bianco-Arco, A.; Chetanneau, A.; Peltier, P.; Kremer, M.; Guillard, Y.

    1987-12-01

    In a first, retrospective study, 15 patients with known ovarian carcinoma were injected with /sup 131/I-OC 125 F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody (MAb). The sensitivity of immunoscintigraphy based on the number of the tumor sites was 67% (12/18). In a second, prospective study, 29 patients with gynecologic carcinoma were injected with /sup 131/I-OC 125 F(ab')2 (24) or /sup 131/I-19-9 F(ab')2 (5) MAbs according to the histologic type. Based on the number of tested anatomic sites, sensitivity was 72% and specificity 86%. In two patients injected with both /sup 131/I-OC-125 F(ab')2 and /sup 125/I-NS F(ab')2 (nonspecific immunoglobulin) 1 and 4 days before tumor resection, tumor uptake of the specific antibody was 2.2 and 4.5 times greater than that of NS. Immunoscintigraphic results were complementary with those of ultrasonography and computed tomography. Finally, in one patient injected successively with /sup 131/I-OC 125 F(ab')2 and /sup 111/In-DTPA-OC 125 F(ab')2, the recurrent tumor was visualized with both radionuclides, with /sup 111/In providing better abdominal tumor contrast but causing much greater liver radioactivity than /sup 131/I.

  4. Microinvasive laser surgery for laryngeal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Jinping; Tao, Zhengde; Xiao, Jianyun; Luo, Junli; Chen, Xianghui; Zhao, Suping; Betz, Christian

    2001-08-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of microinvasive Nd:YAG laser surgery in case of early stage laryngeal carcinoma as well as it's effect on the cellular immune function of the tumor-bearing hosts. Material and Method: Thirty-seven patients with glottic Tis or T1 SCC were treated by fiberoptic laryngoscopic Nd:YAG laser surgery. Both before and after therapy, serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (SIL-2R) and interleukin- 2(IL-2) as well as the NK activity were determined via double-antibody sandwich technique, tritiated thymidine- deoxyribonucleoside incorporation and iodine 125-uridine- deoxyribunocleoside release technique, respectively. Result: All 37 patients tolerated the procedure well. A 3-8 year follow up in a subgroup of 31 patients resulted in a estimated cure rate of 87.1% (27/31). The posttherapy serum levels of SIL-2R were significantly declined (p<0.001), while those of IL-2 and NK activity were significantly elevated (p<0.001) as compared with those detected pretherapeutically. Conclusion: Therapy with fiberoptic laryngoscopic Nd:YAG laser surgery is simple, safe, effective and microinvasive for the patients with early stage laryngeal carcinoma and has an immuno-enhancing effect on its host.

  5. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S.; Hassan, Mohammad J.; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one years duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up. PMID:26629388

  6. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nishant; Akbani, Rehan; Aksoy, B. Arman; Ally, Adrian; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auman, J. Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B.; Behera, Madhusmita; Bernard, Brady; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bishop, Justin A.; Black, Aaron D.; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A.; Brookens, Robin; Brooks, Denise; Bryant, Robert; Buda, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carling, Tobias; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Carty, Sally E.; Chan, Timothy A.; Chen, Amy Y.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cheung, Dorothy; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ciriello, Giovanni; Clarke, Amanda; Clayman, Gary L.; Cope, Leslie; Copland, John; Covington, Kyle; Danilova, Ludmila; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; DiCara, Daniel; Dhalla, Noreen; Dhir, Rajiv; Dookran, Sheliann S.; Dresdner, Gideon; Eldridge, Jonathan; Eley, Greg; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Eng, Stephanie; Fagin, James A.; Fennell, Timothy; Ferris, Robert L.; Fisher, Sheila; Frazer, Scott; Frick, Jessica; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ganly, Ian; Gao, Jianjiong; Garraway, Levi A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Getz, Gad; Gehlenborg, Nils; Ghossein, Ronald; Gibbs, Richard A.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Gomez-Hernandez, Karen; Grimsby, Jonna; Gross, Benjamin; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Harper, Hollie A.; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Herman, James G.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hofree, Matan; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Franklin W.; Huang, Mei; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ideker, Trey; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kim, Jaegil; Kramer, Roger; Kreisberg, Richard; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Ladanyi, Marc; Lai, Phillip H.; Laird, Peter W.; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lee, Darlene; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Semin; Lee, William; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; McFadden, David G.; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Miller, Michael; Mills, Gordon; Moore, Richard A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Noble, Michael S.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J.; Parker, Joel S.; Paull, Evan O.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Ren, Xiaojia; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ringel, Matthew D.; Rivera, Michael; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Rosenthall, Matthew; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Sander, Chris; Santoso, Netty; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Schumacher, Steven E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Seidman, Jonathan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Seth, Sahil; Sharpe, Samantha; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Shen, John P.; Shen, Ronglai; Sherman, Steven; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sica, Gabriel L.; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Song, Xingzhi; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Stojanov, Petar; Stuart, Joshua M.; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Taylor, Barry S.; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh; Thorsson, Vsteinn; Tuttle, R. Michael; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vandin, Fabio; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Vinco, Michelle; Voet, Doug; Walter, Vonn; Wang, Zhining; Waring, Scot; Weinberger, Paul M.; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wheeler, David; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilson, Jocelyn; Williams, Michelle; Winer, Daniel A.; Wise, Lisa; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W.; Yang, Liming; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zeng, Dong; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Hailei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zmuda, Erik; Zou., Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  7. Integrated genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-10-23

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D, and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups ofBRAF-mutant tumors, and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  8. Small cell carcinoma of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Rosa; Schweizer, Michael; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Eisenberger, Mario A.

    2015-01-01

    Pure small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate is a rare entity and one of the most aggressive malignancies of the prostate. Histologically, prostatic SCCs of the prostate are part of a spectrum of anaplastic tumours of the prostate and are similar to SCCs of the lungs. In most cases, SCC of the prostate is associated with conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma. Both components of these mixed tumours frequently share molecular alterations such as ERG gene rearrangements or AURKA and MYCN amplifications, suggesting a common clonal origin. The clinical behaviour of small-cell prostate carcinomas is characterized by extensive local disease, visceral disease, and low PSA levels despite large metastatic burden. Commonly, the emergence of the SCC occurs in patients with high-grade adenocarcinoma who are often treated with androgen deprivation treatment (ADT). However, SCCs do not usually benefit from ADT. A biopsy of accessible lesions is strongly recommended to identify those with SCC pathological features, as management is undoubtedly affected by this finding. Chemotherapy is the standard approach for treating patients with either localized or advanced prostatic SCC. Despite the emergence of more-aggressive treatment modalities, the prognosis of men with prostatic SCC remains dismal. PMID:24535589

  9. The Youngest Korean Case of Urachal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ryeol; Kang, Haeyoun; Kang, Moon Hyung; Yu, Young Dong; Choi, Chang Il; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Park, Dong Soo; Hong, Young Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Urachal anomalies are relatively uncommon and result from incomplete obliteration of the urachus perinatally. In children, most urachal diseases including urachal cysts and sinuses are benign, and these can sometimes become secondarily infected. Malignant involvement of the urachus is rarely reported, one in 5 million people, accounting for 0.35% to 0.7% of all bladder cancers. There are only five cases of urachal cancer diagnosed at the age of twenties in English written literature. Age at the diagnosis of urachal carcinoma is important to understand pathogenetic transition from benign to malignancy. A 26-year-old man visited our clinic with gross hematuria starting a few months before. CT scan showed a 4.0 6.8?cm sized lobulated cystic mass over the bladder dome. Cystoscopy showed a ball-shaped extrinsic mass from the bladder dome with intact bladder mucosa. With an impression of urachal cancer, laparoscopic partial cystectomy with wide excision of urachus was performed. Final diagnosis was well differentiated mucinous urachal adenocarcinoma invading bladder muscle, staged as pT3a based on Sheldon's staging system. To our best knowledge, this case is the youngest Korean case of urachal carcinoma (the fourth youngest ever in English written literature). PMID:26146584

  10. Primary Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma A Rare Entity with Deviant Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    K, Anoosha; K, Amita; Shankar S, Vijay; Geeta K, Avadhani

    2014-01-01

    Primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare neoplasms. WHO classifies them under five categories of which, the moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma is synonymous with atypical or malignant carcinoid tumour. We report a rare case of primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma with an unusual and misleading clinical presentation. The initial cytological diagnosis of secondary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the cervical lymph node led to the suspicion of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the larynx. PMID:25386445

  11. Nasopharyngeal Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma - A Common Entity at an Uncommon Location

    PubMed Central

    Hemalatha, A.L.; Kumar H.K., Sharath; S., Geetanjali; M., Giripunja; S.D., Shashikumar

    2014-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinomas mostly occur in the major salivary glands, the minor salivary glands of oral cavity and in the lacrimal glands. These tumours rarely occur in the sino-nasal tract. When they occur in the sino-nasal tract, the most frequent site is the maxillary antrum, followed by the nasal cavity, the nasopharynx and the ethmoidal sinuses. As per review of literature, nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for 0.6% of salivary gland tumours and 4.8% of mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Extensive literature search revealed 21 cases of nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinomas reported till date. These cases showed an age incidence ranging from 20 to 60 years with a female preponderance. In contrast to nasopharyngeal carcinomas, these tumours show low positivity rates for Ebstein-Barr virus serological test. Histochemical positivity for mucin may be demonstrated in the glandular and mucinous components of these tumours. High grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of nasopharynx is treated with surgical excision combined with radiotherapy and is associated with poor survival. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are of utmost importance. This case report highlights the rare occurrence of a high grade nasopharyngeal muco-epidermoid carcinoma in a 70-year-old male and is presented for its unusual occurrence in the nasopharynx which is the most infrequent location for this lesion. PMID:24596757

  12. Thoracic roentgenologic manifestations in primary carcinoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Tsai, G L; Liu, J D; Siauw, C P; Chen, P H

    1984-09-01

    The most common extrahepatic metastasis of primary carcinoma of the liver is pulmonary metastasis. The discrepancy in the incidence of metastasis between clinical and postmortem series is quite obvious. The rapidly fatal course of hepatoma, the limitations of the chest x-ray film in detecting the small implantation, and incomplete follow-up of patients lead to the lower incidence in clinical series. From January 1974 to December 1982, there were 470 cases of primary carcinoma of the liver at Taipei Municipal Jen-Ai Hospital. Among them, we found 439 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 31 cases of cholangiocellular carcinoma. We also found 50 cases (11 percent) of hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis and ten cases (2 percent) of hepatocellular carcinoma with bone metastasis. Seven of the ten cases of bone metastasis were intrathoracic. Additionally, we found that it was rare to have pulmonary metastasis in cholangiocellular carcinoma; it only occurred once. Hematogenous and lymphatic spread and direct invasion are the principal ways for metastasis in primary hepatoma. Multiple nodulation and pleural effusion are the main manifestations in the chest x-ray film. Additionally, we saw lymphangitic carcinomatosis and miliary lesions in some of our patients. The common characteristic of these metastases is that most of the lesions arise from or are prominent in the right lower pulmonary field. Osteolysis appears in the patients with bone metastasis. Most of the metastases form a big protruding mass of tumor. PMID:6088178

  13. Combined small cell and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

    PubMed Central

    Ko?odziej, Pawe?; Ostasiewicz, Pawe?

    2012-01-01

    A case of combined small cell and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in a male patient in the sixth decade of life is reported. The etiopathogenesis of this combined tumor remains unclear; however, a number of hypotheses were proposed in the past including the pivotal role of Kulchitsky, squamous cells and the glandular cells. The gene mutations may also play an important role in laryngeal carcinogenesis. This unusual type of laryngeal combined carcinoma has previously been reported worldwide in only 17 cases. This is an extremely rare tumor the histological nature of which makes the diagnosis more complicated than in other types of laryngeal cancers. The diagnosis of this carcinoma is based on light microscopy and should be supported by immunohistochemical studies. In our case, the tumor was growing in the left pyriform sinus. Metastatic neck lymph nodes were found on the left side, but no distant metastases were observed. Microscopic sections revealed a combined tumor composed of small cell carcinoma neuroendocrine type and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Positive reaction to p16, bcl-2, thyroid transcription factor 1, synaptophysin and chromogranin A in the small cell neuroendocrine type carcinoma component was observed. The cells from squamous cell carcinoma component showed positive reaction to p63, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin and cytokeratin 5/6. PMID:23788908

  14. Combined small cell and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Ko?odziej, Pawe?; Ostasiewicz, Pawe?; Zi?kowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    A case of combined small cell and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in a male patient in the sixth decade of life is reported. The etiopathogenesis of this combined tumor remains unclear; however, a number of hypotheses were proposed in the past including the pivotal role of Kulchitsky, squamous cells and the glandular cells. The gene mutations may also play an important role in laryngeal carcinogenesis. This unusual type of laryngeal combined carcinoma has previously been reported worldwide in only 17 cases. This is an extremely rare tumor the histological nature of which makes the diagnosis more complicated than in other types of laryngeal cancers. The diagnosis of this carcinoma is based on light microscopy and should be supported by immunohistochemical studies. In our case, the tumor was growing in the left pyriform sinus. Metastatic neck lymph nodes were found on the left side, but no distant metastases were observed. Microscopic sections revealed a combined tumor composed of small cell carcinoma neuroendocrine type and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Positive reaction to p16, bcl-2, thyroid transcription factor 1, synaptophysin and chromogranin A in the small cell neuroendocrine type carcinoma component was observed. The cells from squamous cell carcinoma component showed positive reaction to p63, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin and cytokeratin 5/6. PMID:23788908

  15. PAX8-PPAR? fusion protein in thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Priyadarshini; Koenig, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy, and the incidence of thyroid carcinoma has been progressively increasing. Most thyroid carcinomas contain one of a small number of mutually exclusive driver mutations, such as BRAFV600E, RAS mutations, RET gene fusions, or PAX8/PPARG gene fusions. The PAX8/PPARG gene fusion results in production of a PAX8-PPAR? fusion protein, denoted PPFP, and is found in ~30 35% of follicular thyroid carcinomas as well as a subset of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas. In vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that PPFP can act as an oncoprotein. Although the specific mechanism of PPFP action is yet to be defined, PPFP is considered to act as a dominant negative inhibitor of wild type PPAR? and/or as a unique transcriptional activator of subsets of PPAR? and PAX8 responsive genes. Detection of the fusion transcript in thyroid nodule biopsy specimens can aid clinical decision-making when cytological analyses are indeterminate. The PPAR? agonist pioglitazone is highly therapeutic in a transgenic mouse model of PPFP thyroid carcinoma, suggesting that PPAR? agonists may be therapeutic in patients with PPFP thyroid carcinomas. PMID:25069464

  16. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome: An update

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Rubayat; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased dramatically by 80% over the past two decades in the United States. Numerous basic science and clinical studies have documented a strong association between hepatocellular carcinoma and the metabolic syndrome. These studies have documented that, in most patients, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma through the cirrhotic process. However, minority of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis. This review summarizes the current literature of the link between hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome with special emphasis on various components of the metabolic syndrome including risk of association with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Current understanding of pathophysiology, clinical features, treatments, outcomes, and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in the background of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is reviewed. With the current epidemic of metabolic syndrome, the number of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing. Subsequently, it is expected that the incidence and prevalence of HCC will also increase. It is very important for the scientific community to shed more light on the pathogenesis of HCC with metabolic syndrome, both with and without cirrhosis. At the same time it is also important to quantify the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with the metabolic syndrome in a prospective setting and develop surveillance recommendations for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24069511

  17. Hypercalcitoninemia is not Pathognomonic of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Sergio PA; Loureno, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; de Menezes Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (> 24 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (~90%100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, < 5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and consequent incorrect recommendation for thyroid surgery. PMID:19606248

  18. Radioimaging of human ovarian carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Manetta, A.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.; Hamilton, T.; Ozols, R.; Mortel, R.

    1987-11-01

    Human ovarian carcinomas in nude mice were radioimaged using a well-characterized antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (CA 125) and three transplantable human ovarian carcinoma tumor lines: NIH:OVCAR 3, NIH:OVCAR 5, and NIH:OVCAR 9. Radioiodinated monoclonal antibody OC125 was used in these studies. In order to establish the optimal conditions for imaging, tumor/blood ratios were determined. Gamma scintigraphy of nude mice bearing subcutaneous transplants of human ovarian carcinomas 3-4 days after /sup 131/I-OC125 administration demonstrated selective localization of the radiolabeled monoclonal antibody by these tumors without need for any background subtraction techniques.

  19. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the posterior tongue.

    PubMed

    Gumusay, Ozge; Yilmaz, Guldal; Aydil, Utku; Ozet, Ahmet; Tufan, Gulnihal; Erdem, Ozlem; Kizil, Yusuf; Benekli, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    In the head and neck mucosa, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the oral cavity is rare. Herein, we present the first report of a small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 54-year-old man on the right lateral posterior tongue. It is important to remember that although neuroendocrine small cell carcinomas (SCCs) are most commonly seen in the lung, they rarely may arise in the extrapulmonary sites, including salivary glands, as well. As there is not any standard therapeutic regimen already existing, it is important to be aware of and to know how to deal with such rare cases. PMID:26458628

  20. Ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type, of the mandible: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yukio; Toratani, Shigeaki; Ogawa, Ikuko; Okamoto, Tetsuji

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare, odontogenic, malignant tumor that has features of ameloblastoma in addition to cytologic atypia with or without metastasis. It is classified as primary type; secondary type, intraosseous; and secondary type, peripheral according to the World Health Organization classification of 2005. Ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type, is extremely rare, and few cases have been reported in the English-language literature. The authors report a case of ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type, arising at the mandible in a 17-year-old Japanese boy. PMID:23099227

  1. Nevoid Basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Bala Subramanyam, S; Naga Sujata, D; Sridhar, K; Pushpanjali, M

    2015-03-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises of a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Diagnosis may be difficult because of the variability of expressivity and different ages of onset for different traits of this disorder. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cysts like radiolucencies are discovered on panoramic view. This article reports a case of Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and provides an overview on diagnosis and management. PMID:25838663

  2. Primary Neuroendocrine (Merkel Cell) Carcinoma of the Anterior Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Matula, Christian; Roessler, Karl; Burian, Martin; Schuster, Herbert; Trattnig, Sigfried; Hainfellner, Johann A.; Budka, H.

    1997-01-01

    A case of a primary neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma arising in the anterior skull base involving the dura, both frontal lobes, and the paranasal sinuses is presented. The tumor was completely removed by an enlarged bifrontal transbasal approach. The neuropathological, immunohistological, and electron microscopical investigation revealed all characteristics of a Merkel cell carcinoma, normally presenting as a skin carcinoma of the head and neck. The history, treatment, neuropathology, and possible explanation for this rare manifestation are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2p153-bFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171025

  3. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens in different histological types of breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background On the past decade a plethora of investigations were directed on identification of molecules involved in breast tumorogenesis, which could represent a powerful tool for monitoring, diagnostics and treatment of this disease. In current study we analyzed six previously identified medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens including LGALS3BP, RAD50, FAM50A, RBPJ, PABPC4, LRRFIP1 with cancer restricted serological profile in different histological types of breast cancer. Methods Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 20 tissue samples including medullary breast carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma and non-cancerous tissues obtained from patients with fibrocystic disease (each of five) was performed using specifically generated polyclonal antibodies. Differences in expression patterns were evaluated considering percent of positively stained cells, insensitivity of staining and subcellular localization in cells of all tissue samples. Results All 6 antigens predominantly expressed in the most cells of all histological types of breast tumors and non-cancerous tissues with slight differences in intensity of staining and subcellular localization. The most significant differences in expression pattern were revealed for RAD50 and LGALS3BP in different histological types of breast cancer and for PABPC4 and FAM50A antigens in immune cells infiltrating breast tumors. Conclusions This pilot study made possible to select 4 antigens LGALS3BP, RAD50, PABPC4, and FAM50A as promising candidates for more comprehensive research as potential molecular markers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1860649350796892 PMID:23181716

  5. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with primary squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kebapci, N; Efe, B; Kabukcuoglu, S; Akalin, A; Kebapci, M

    2002-09-01

    A case of a very rare combination of diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSPC) and primary squamous thyroid carcinoma (PSC) is presented. A 25-yr-old woman with right-sided neck mass and hypothyroidism was admitted. US showed that the right lobe of the thyroid gland was enlarged with irregular margins and heterogen echogenity and there were multiple small punctate echogenic foci in the central portion. A scintigraphy with 99mTc showed decreased uptake in the right lobe. FNA of the right lobe induced us to consider the presence of follicular neoplasm. Chest roentgenogram was normal. Total thyroidectomy with right-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Findings related to Hashimoto's thyroiditis and abundant psammoma bodies were observed in the frozen sections. Histopathologic findings demonstrated the coexistence of DSPC and PSC in both lobes and 16 lymph nodes metastases and soft tissue infiltration. Radioiodine was administered to ablate residual thyroid tissue. She was given T4 suppression therapy. At the 44th month of follow-up, she remains well without recurrences and metastases. The coexistence of DSPC and thyroiditis or PSC is still under debate. Very few cases with the combination of papillary thyroid carcinoma and PSC have been reported previously, thus we discuss the clinico-pathologic features and possible explanation for this unusual coexistence of malignancies. PMID:12240907

  6. Mitochondrial proteomics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial proteomic alterations of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis remain unknown. Our purpose is to screen mitochondrial proteins for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis and the discovery of metastasis-related biomarkers. Methods Mitochondria were isolated from nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastatic (5-8F) and nonmetastatic (6-10B) cell lines, respectively. After characterization of isolated mitochondria, mitochondrial differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were quantified by two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and identified by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A functional enrichment analysis and a protein-protein interaction sub-network analysis for DEPs were carried out with bioinformatics. Furthermore, siRNAs transient transfections were used to suppress expressions of some up-regulated DEPs in metastatic cells (5-8F), followed by Transwell Migration assay. Results Sixteen mitochondrial DEPs including PRDX3 and SOD2 were identified. Those 5-8F cells with suppression of PRDX3 showed an increased mobility potential. The functional enrichment analyses of DEPs discovered five significant biological processes including cellular response to reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide metabolic process, regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell redox homeostasis and oxidation reduction, and five significant molecular functions including oxidoreductase activity, caspase inhibitor activity, peroxiredoxin activity, porin activity and antioxidant activity. A protein-protein interaction sub-network of DEPs was generated with literature data. Ten mitochondrial DEPs including PRDX3, PRDX6, SOD2, ECH1, SERPINB5, COX5A, PDIA5, EIF5A, IDH3B, and PSMC4 were rationalized in the tumor-stroma co-evolution model that mitochondrial oxidative stress directly contributes to tumor metastasis. Conclusions Sixteen mitochondrial DEPs were identified with mass spectrometry and ten of them were rationalized in the tumor-stroma co-evolution model. Those 5-8F cells with suppression of PRDX3 showed an increased mobility potential. These data suggest that those mitochondrial DEPs are potential biomarkers for NPC metastasis, and their dysregulation would play important roles in mitochondria oxidative stress-mediated NPC metastatic process. PMID:23217164

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis.

    PubMed

    Bedir, Recep; Yurdakul, Cneyt; Ger, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-07-01

    Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

  8. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:26169313

  9. The mutational landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex process, and HCC arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to changes in the genomic landscape. Current advances in genomic technologies have revolutionized the search for genetic alterations in cancer genomes. Recent studies in which all coding exons in HCC were sequenced have shed new light on the genomic landscape of this malignant disease. Catalogues of these somatic mutations and systematic analysis of catalogued mutations will lead us to uncover candidate HCC driver genes, although further functional validation is needed to determine whether these genes play a causal role in the development of HCC. This review provides an overview of previously known oncogenes and new oncogene candidates in HCC that were uncovered from recent exome or whole-genome sequencing studies. This knowledge provides direction for future personalized treatment approaches for patients with HCC. PMID:26523267

  10. A flowgraph model for bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Superficial bladder cancer has been the subject of numerous studies for many years, but the evolution of the disease still remains not well understood. After the tumor has been surgically removed, it may reappear at a similar level of malignancy or progress to a higher level. The process may be reasonably modeled by means of a Markov process. However, in order to more completely model the evolution of the disease, this approach is insufficient. The semi-Markov framework allows a more realistic approach, but calculations become frequently intractable. In this context, flowgraph models provide an efficient approach to successfully manage the evolution of superficial bladder carcinoma. Our aim is to test this methodology in this particular case. Results We have built a successful model for a simple but representative case. Conclusion The flowgraph approach is suitable for modeling of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:25080066

  11. Molecular Profiling of Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gelbard, Alexander; Hale, Katherine S.; Takahashi, Yoko; Davies, Michael; Kupferman, Michael E.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Hanna, Ehab Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma remains a poorly characterized malignancy at both the clinical and molecular level, and consequently the optimal treatment strategy remains undefined. Methods We utilized a mass spectroscopy-based approach (Sequenom) to evaluate 95 hallmark single nucleotide variations within 12 oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (AKT, BRAF, CDK4, Beta-catenin, EGFR, FBXW7, JAK2, c-KIT, KRAS, PDGFR, PI3K, VEGF) in 13 histologically confirmed SNUC cases. Results None of the samples demonstrated activating mutations in any of the 95 SNVs. Conclusions Select clinically relevant activating genomic mutations were not identified the 13 patient samples. However, polymorphisms were noted within the promoter region of VEGF. These may merit future study as predictive biomarkers for treatment response or overall survival. Additionally, future studies focusing on larger tumor sets and utilizing whole genome or exome sequencing may help define genetic aberrations in SNUC that can be clinically targeted with available or emerging biological agents. PMID:23633104

  12. Clinical Trials in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ying-Chun; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Chiun; Shao, Yu-Yun; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2013-01-01

    The success of sorafenib has spurred an explosive increase of clinical trials testing novel molecular targets and other agents in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The paradigm of the studies has been characterized by three noticeable changes. First, the molecular targets of interest have expanded from angiogenesis to cancer cell-directed oncogenic signaling pathways for advanced HCC treatment. Agents targeting EGFR, FGFR, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, TGF-?, c-Met, MEK, IGF signaling, and histone deacetylase have been actively explored. Second, the target indication has shifted from advanced stage to early or intermediate stages of disease. The feasibility of combining locoregional therapies and targeted agents, and the use of novel agents after curative treatments are currently under active investigation. Finally, the therapeutic strategy has shifted from monotherapy to combination targeted therapy. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of newly disclosed and ongoing clinical trials for the treatment of HCC. PMID:24400222

  13. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong Seob; Ko, Il Ju; Jun, Sun-Young; Kim, Jin Young

    2009-12-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is often founded in the head and neck region. However, BSCC in the sinonasal tract is rare. We report here on the case of a 58-yr-old woman who presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Computed tomography and examination of the nasal cavity revealed a tumor mass that originated from the right inferior turbinate with erosion of the nasal floor. The tumor that was attached to the inferior turbinate, the lateral nasal wall and the eroded right side hard palate, and so all this was resected. Histopathologic examination of the excised tumor confirmed BSCC in the nasal cavity. We report here on a nasal cavity BSCC that was treated with partial maxillectomy only. PMID:20072697

  14. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  15. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  16. Combined interventional therapies of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jun; Feng, Gan-Sheng; Vogl, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world, responsible for an estimated one million deaths annually. It has a poor prognosis due to its rapid infiltrating growth and complicating liver cirrhosis. Surgical resection, liver transplantation and cryosurgery are considered the best curative options, achieving a high rate of complete response, especially in patients with small HCC and good residual liver function. In nonsurgery, regional interventional therapies have led to a major breakthrough in the management of unresectable HCC, which include transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave coagulation therapy (MCT), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), etc. As a result of the technical development of locoregional approaches for HCC during the recent decades, the range of combined interventional therapies has been continuously extended. Most combined multimodal interventional therapies reveal their enormous advantages as compared with any single therapeutic regimen alone, and play more important roles in treating unresectable HCC. PMID:12970869

  17. Burden of basal cell carcinoma in USA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyuan; Elkin, Elena E; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy diagnosed in the USA and its incidence continues to increase. While BCC is still most prevalent in the older segments of the population, it is becoming ever more frequent in younger individuals. The costs of treatment and morbidity associated with BCCs place a heavy public health and economic burden on patients, their families and the American healthcare system and underscore the importance of efficient management and prevention efforts directed toward this malignancy. In this article, we address economic aspects of BCC using evidence from large-scale epidemiological studies. This information may help clinicians in developing better and more cost-effective methods for dealing with the most common cancer in America and in the world. PMID:26466906

  18. Gene Signatures in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    PubMed Central

    Studach, Leo; Merle, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant human cancer globally, with poor prognosis. New and efficacious therapy strategies are needed as well as new biomarkers for early detection of at-risk patients. In this review, we discuss select microarray studies of human HCCs, and propose a gene signature that has promise for clinical/translational application. This gene signature combines the proliferation cluster of genes and the hepatic cancer initiating/stem cell gene cluster for identification of HCCs with poor prognosis. Evidence from cell-based assays identifies the existence of a mechanistic link between these two gene clusters, involving the proliferation cluster gene Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). We propose that PLK1 is a promising therapy target for HCC. PMID:20851183

  19. Radiation induced carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; Amendola, M.A.; McClatchey, K.D.

    1985-07-01

    A squamous cell carcinoma presented in a 20 year old female nonsmoker three years after receiving a high dosage of radiation therapy to the base of the skull, face and entire neuroaxis and intense combination chemotherapy for a parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses is reported. The larynx received a dose of about 3,500 rads over an eight week period. This dosage in conjunction with the associated intense chemotherapy regimen given to the patient may explain the appearance of a radiation induced tumor in an unusually short latent period. This certainly represents a risk in young patients in whom an aggressive combined approach is taken and the physician should be aware of.

  20. Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): An Update.

    PubMed

    Li, Dave; Satomura, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed increased use of biomarkers in disease management. A biomarker is any characteristic that can be objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological process, pathogenic process, or pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention. The clinical measurements of biomarkers can be carried out in vivo using imaging modalities like ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as in vitro utilizing serum or plasma or other body fluids as specimens. In contrast to the imaging modalities, a prominent value of serum biomarkers is that they could be biologically relevant and disease-specific to pathophysiologic or pathologic process of disease development. This article provides an update of serum biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in risk assessment for early detection through surveillance. PMID:26530367

  1. Charged Particle Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Heath D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the use of external beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been limited by toxicity to the uninvolved liver and surrounding structures. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformality to the tumor and facilitated dose escalation, a key contributor to improved HCC radiation treatment outcomes. However, despite these advances in photon radiotherapy, significant volumes of liver still receive low doses of radiation that can preclude dose escalation, particularly in patients with limited functional liver reserves. By capitalizing on the lack of exit dose along the beam path beyond the tumor and higher biological effectiveness, charged particle therapy offers the promise of maximizing tumor control via dose escalation without excessive liver toxicity. In this review we discuss the distinctive biophysical attributes of both proton and carbon ion radiotherapy, particularly as they pertain to treatment of HCC. We also review the available literature regarding clinical outcomes and toxicity of using charged particles for the treatment of HCC. PMID:21939857

  2. Thymic carcinoma presenting as atypical chest pain.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sadiq; Connelly, Tara; Keita, Luther; Blazkova, Sylvie; Veerasingam, Dave

    2015-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a 2-month history of atypical chest pain was referred to the chest pain clinic by the general practitioner. Exercise stress test was positive and subsequent coronary angiogram revealed significant triple vessel disease with left ventricular impairment requiring a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The patient had a chest X-ray as part of the preoperative work up. Chest X-ray revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass. Subsequent thorax CT revealed a 7.2??cm anterior mediastinal mass. CT-guided biopsy of the mass revealed the diagnosis of a poorly differentiated thymic basaloid carcinoma. The patient was successfully treated with concomitant surgery involving complete resection of the mass and a CABG procedure. PMID:26607199

  3. Comprehensive Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Georgios; Zacharias, Georgios; Koukourakis, Michael; Pistevou-Gobaki, Kiriaki; Papaloukas, Christos; Kostakopoulos, Athanasios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract represents only 5% of all urothelial cancers. The 5-year cancer-specific survival in the United States is roughly 75% with grade and stage being the most powerful predictors of survival. Nephroureterectomy with excision of the ipsilateral ureteral orifice and bladder cuff en bloc remains the gold standard treatment of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancers, while endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches are rapidly evolving as reasonable alternatives of care depending on grade and stage of disease. Several controversies remain in their management, including a selection of endoscopic versus laparoscopic approaches, management strategies on the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the value of chemotherapy in upper tract disease. Aims of this paper are to critically review the management of such tumors, including endoscopic management, laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and management of the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the emerging role of chemotherapy in their treatment. PMID:19096525

  4. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their childhood. Multiple BCCs were seen in 79.3% and 10.3% of patients with history and without history of radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusions: X-ray radiation is still a major etiologic factor in developing BCC in northern Iran. Patients with positive history for radiotherapy have higher rate of recurrence. PMID:26114066

  5. Current management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Haga, Yuki; Omata, Masao; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The current management therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are discussed in this review. Despite the development of new therapies, HCC remains a difficult to treat cancer because HCC typically occurs in advanced liver disease or hepatic cirrhosis. The progression of multistep and multicentric HCC hampers the prevention of the recurrence of HCC. Many HCC patients are treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), although these modalities should be considered in only selected cases with a certain HCC number and size. Although there is a shortage of grafts, liver transplantation has the highest survival rates for HCC. Several modalities are salvage treatments; however, intensive care in combination with other modalities or in combination with surgical resection or RFA might offer a better prognosis. Sorafenib is useful for patients with advanced HCC. In the near future, HCC treatment will include stronger molecular targeted drugs, which will have greater potency and fewer adverse events. Further studies will be ongoing. PMID:26244066

  6. A Review: Proteomics in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze-Tan; Liang, Zhong-Guo; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is generally effective in the treatment of major nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), this treatment still makes approximately 20% of patients radioresistant. Therefore, the identification of blood or biopsy biomarkers that can predict the treatment response to radioresistance and that can diagnosis early stages of NPC would be highly useful to improve this situation. Proteomics is widely used in NPC for searching biomarkers and comparing differentially expressed proteins. In this review, an overview of proteomics with different samples related to NPC and common proteomics methods was made. In conclusion, identical proteins are sorted as follows: Keratin is ranked the highest followed by such proteins as annexin, heat shock protein, 14-3-3?, nm-23 protein, cathepsin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, enolase, triosephosphate isomerase, stathmin, prohibitin, and vimentin. This ranking indicates that these proteins may be NPC-related proteins and have potential value for further studies. PMID:26184160

  7. Undiagnosed Hepatocellular Carcinoma Presenting as Nasal Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Hassen; Sheikh, Rashid; Rahman, Waheed; Sheta, Sally; Dogan, Zeynel

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver with up to half of cases suffering from extrahepatic metastasis in the later stages of the disease. Commonly reported and encountered metastatic sites include the lymph nodes, lung, bone, and adrenal glands. This is an effort to throw a spotlight on a rare case of metastatic HCC which presented to us as two distinct lesions in the nose. It focuses on the presentation and the steps that were taken to reach this rare and unusual diagnosis. It sparks interest from a clinical and histopathology perspective. Our cynosure is the findings of the case coupled with a probe on the possible routes of spread of HCC to sinonasal region. PMID:26618018

  8. Gall bladder carcinoma presenting with spinal metastasis: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mohit K; Joshi, Richa; Chadha, Manish; Alam, Shan E; Varshneya, Hemant; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-05-01

    Skeletal metastasis as a primary presentation of gall bladder carcinoma is rare. A 50-year-old lady presented with neck pain and weakness in her right upper limb of 3 months duration. Clinical and imaging work-up suggested locally advanced gall bladder carcinoma with metastasis to cervical vertebra and sternum. Only one case till date has been reported where the patient presented with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture secondary to metastasis from an occult gall bladder carcinoma. Although rare, an occult gall bladder cancer may present with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture of spine secondary to metastasis. We present a brief review of literature of patients who presented with skeletal metastases in clinically silent gall bladder malignancy. Palliative care issues in advanced gall bladder carcinoma have also been discussed. PMID:24049354

  9. Gall Bladder Carcinoma Presenting with Spinal Metastasis: A Rare Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit K; Joshi, Richa; Chadha, Manish; Alam, Shan E; Varshneya, Hemant; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis as a primary presentation of gall bladder carcinoma is rare. A 50-year-old lady presented with neck pain and weakness in her right upper limb of 3 months duration. Clinical and imaging work-up suggested locally advanced gall bladder carcinoma with metastasis to cervical vertebra and sternum. Only one case till date has been reported where the patient presented with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture secondary to metastasis from an occult gall bladder carcinoma. Although rare, an occult gall bladder cancer may present with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture of spine secondary to metastasis. We present a brief review of literature of patients who presented with skeletal metastases in clinically silent gall bladder malignancy. Palliative care issues in advanced gall bladder carcinoma have also been discussed. PMID:24049354

  10. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  11. The Mutational Landscape of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    E-print Network

    Lander, Eric S.

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common, morbid, and frequently lethal malignancy. To uncover its mutational spectrum, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 74 tumor-normal pairs. The majority ...

  12. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  13. Iris metastasis from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LV, DONGLAI; HU, ZONGTAO; WANG, CHONG; GAO, SHILE; XU, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma metastatic to the eye is a rare condition, typically associated with a poor prognosis. Breast and lung cancers are the most common sources of intraocular metastases, and the majority of metastatic lesions involve the posterior uvea, with <8% of reported cases arising in the iris. Intraocular metastasis as the presenting form of esophageal carcinoma is highly uncommon. In the present report, a rare case of metastatic iris tumor resulting from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is discussed. A 64-year-old patient presented with a progressively distending pain in the right eye, with associated blurred vision. Local and systemic evaluation was performed, followed by treatment. Multiple examinations identified a neoplasm in the right iris and postoperative pathology revealed that the iris lesion was a metastasis of esophageal squamous cell cancer origin. The patient was treated with adjuvant radiation. To the best of our knowledge, this was only the second reported case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma metastasizing to the iris.

  14. A case of metastatic carcinoma from Christian Sayala (Egyptian Nubia).

    PubMed

    Strouhal, E

    1993-06-01

    The paper deals with a case of a most probable metastatic carcinoma, found in skeletal remains of a 35-45 year old female who lived in Sayala, Egyptian Nubia, during the Christian Period. The macroscopic and radiographic morphology supported by microscopic investigation by M. Schultz (Gttingen) revealed the predominating osteoclastic process in the lesions, combining with the slightly expressed osteoblastic component. Single lesions located in the skull, spine, sacrum, sternum, ribs, clavicle, scapula, radius, metacarpals and hand phalanges, ossa coxae, femur and tibia were described. Of the various differential diagnostic possibilities, the diagnosis was focused on distinction between myeloma multiplex and lytic metastatic carcinoma. The growing evidence of incidence of metastatic carcinoma, its relative frequency compared with that of myeloma multiplex, and the most probable primary source of metastases of our case--the carcinoma of the breast--were discussed. PMID:8333739

  15. Management of the pregnant patient with carcinoma of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Barnavon, Y.; Wallack, M.K. )

    1990-10-01

    The diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast during pregnancy poses a challenging dilemma. Although once regarded as incurable, recent reports reveal similar long term survival rates for pregnant and nonpregnant patients who have carcinoma of the breast. When referred to a surgeon, a pregnant woman with a suspicious mammary mass deserves an expedient histologic diagnosis; delay may jeopardize the chances of survival. Once the diagnosis is established, pregnant patients should be treated in a manner similar to nonpregnant patients because there is no evidence that carcinoma of the breast in pregnant women is biologically different than carcinoma of the breast in other premenopausal women. Fears of fetal exposure to radiation should not deter a physician from ordering appropriate preoperative diagnostic tests to stage the patients. Operation may be performed safely when general anesthesia is administered and postoperative adjuvant therapy should be administered when necessary. The involvement of multiple subspecialties in the management of these patients is highly recommended. 52 references.

  16. A Comparative Study between Carcinoma and Sarcoma Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani-Bidgoli, Z.; Baygi, M. H. Miran; Kabir, E.; Malekfar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find discriminating Raman spectral features between two major types of cancer, i.e., carcinoma and sarcoma. To this end, Raman spectra from adenocarcinoma, liposarcoma and fibrosarcoma samples were compared. A Raman system was used for the tissue Raman spectroscopic measurements at 785-nm laser excitation. After pre-processings, the Raman spectra were investigated, in major bands associated with protein and lipids, in the adenocarcinoma, liposarcoma, and fibrosarcoma groups. Principal component analysis and nonnegative matrix factorization were performed for finding most significant features in discriminating the spectra of carcinoma from those of sarcoma samples. The findings of this study show that the lipid content in the sarcoma samples decreases compared with the carcinoma samples. The achieved accuracy in discriminating carcinoma from sarcoma by linear discriminant analysis is 93.75 % and 90.63 % using the first nine principal components and nonnegative matrix factorization analysis, respectively.

  17. Carcinoma involving the gallbladder: a retrospective review of 23 cases - pitfalls in diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carcinoma of the gallbladder (GBC) clinically mimics benign gallbladder diseases and often escapes detection until advanced stage. Despite the frequency of cholecystectomy, diagnosis of GBC remains problematic in many situations. We sought to identify pathologic features that contribute to the difficulty in recognition of GBC. Methods We identified 23 patients (ranged from 45 to 86 years, male to female ratio 1:4.5) with carcinoma involving the gallbladder referred to an academic medical center over a period of 10 years for study. This includes 10 cases of primary GBC, 6 cases of metastatic tumor to gallbladder, 6 cases of directly invasive adenocarcinoma arising elsewhere in the biliary tree, and one case of unidentified origin adenocarcinoma. Primary tumors include adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS) in 6 cases, papillary adenocarcinoma in 2 cases, and single cases of undifferentiated carcinoma and combined adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Metastatic tumors to gallbladder were from a wide range of primary sites, predominantly the gastrointestinal tract. Results These cases illustrate seven potential pitfalls which can be encountered. These include: 1) mistakenly making a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of gallbladder when only benign lesions such as deeply penetrating Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are present (overdiagnosis), 2) misdiagnosing well-differentiated invasive carcinoma with minimal disease as benign disease (underdiagnosis), 3) differentiating between primary NEC of gallbladder and metastasis, 4) confusing primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of gallbladder with pseudomyxoma peritonei from a low grade appendiceal neoplasm disseminated to gallbladder, 5) confusing gangrenous necrosis related to cholecystitis with geographic tumoral necrosis, 6) undersampling early, grossly occult disease, and 7) misinterpreting extracellular mucin pools. Conclusions Clinical history and a high index of suspicion are prerequisite to detecting GBC. Detection of GBC at an early stage is difficult because the symptoms mimic benign gallbladder diseases. Misinterpretation of subtle microscopic abnormalities contributes diagnostic failures in early cases. Careful attention to any evidence of mural thickening, thorough sampling, particularly in older patients, and close examination of any deeply situated glandular structures are critical. Correlations with radiographic and clinical findings are important helps to avoid misdiagnosis in this commonly resected organ. PMID:22284391

  18. Afatinib After Chemoradiation and Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck at High-Risk of Recurrence

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-11

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  19. A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Cause, Treatment and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhao-You

    2001-01-01

    In the recent decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been found to be increasing in males in some countries. In China, HCC ranked second of cancer mortality since 1990s. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) and dietary aflatoxin intake remain the major causative factors of HCC. Surgery plays a major role in the treatment of HCC, particularly for small HCC. Down-staging unresectable huge HCC to smaller HCC and followed by resection will probably be a new approach for further study. Liver transplantation is indicated for small HCC, however, some issues remain to be solved. Different modes of regional cancer therapy for HCC have been tried. Systemic chemotherapy has been disappointing in the past but the future can be promising. Biotherapy, such as cytokines, differentiation inducers, anti-angiogenic agents, gene therapy and tumor vaccine will probably play a role, particularly in the prevention of tumor recurrence. HCC invasiveness is currently the major target of study. Tremendous works have been done at the molecular level, which will provide clues for biomarker of HCC progression as well as targets for intervention. Abbreviation: HCC-hepatocellular carcinoma, HBV-hepatitis B virus, HCV-hepatitis C virus, HGV-hepatitis G virus, TTV-transfusion transmitted virus, AFB1-aflatoxin B1, IFN-interferon, OLT-orthotopic liver transplantation, PH-partial hepatectomy, RCT-randomized controlled trial, TACE-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, PEI-percutaneous ethanol injection, PMCT-percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy, RF-radiofrequency, AFP-alpha fetoprotein, VEGF-vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:11819809

  1. Histopathological study of colo-ileal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    MATSUKUMA, SUSUMU; OKADA, KENJI; TAKEO, HIROAKI; SATO, KIMIYA

    2011-01-01

    Cases of colo-ileal carcinoma (CIC), defined as intestinal carcinoma involving the right-sided colon and the ileum, are rarely encountered. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics, which have been poorly understood, in such cases. A total of 16 CICs were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. Microsatellite instability-related histology was also evaluated according to previously published models, such as MsPath and PREDICT. CICs included 14 adenocarcinomas and 2 mucinous adenocarcinomas. The CICs showed focal or diffuse cytokeratin 20 expression and 7 CICs showed focal cytokeratin 7 co-expression. MsPath and PREDICT scores ranged from 1.6 to 6.6 (mean, 3.14) and from 1.6 to 7.8 (mean, 3.86), respectively. Three CICs showed loss of MLH1 immunoreactivity. Prominent neutrophilia and cancerous lymphangiosis in Peyers patches (CLPP) were found in 8 cases (50%) and in 3 cases (18.8%), respectively. Neither variable was associated with parameters such as gender, tumor size or poor prognosis. However, the PREDICT score in prominently neutrophilic CICs was significantly higher than that in CICs with non-prominent neutrophilia (P=0.004). Patients with CLPP-positive CICs were significantly younger than those with CLPP-negative CICs (P=0.031). This study showed that almost all CICs originate from the right-sided colon with possible high levels of microsatellite instability. Prominent neutrophilia may be an additional histological indicator for microsatellite instability. Prognosis-independent CLPP occasionally occurs in younger patients with CICs. PMID:22740977

  2. Microvessel density in pituitary adenomas and carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Vidal, S; Kovacs, K; Horvath, E; Scheithauer, B W; Kuroki, T; Lloyd, R V

    2001-06-01

    Tumor growth depends on several factors, including angiogenesis. Tumors cannot grow if new vessels are not formed to supply the cells with oxygen and other nutrients and to remove waste products. Increased angiogenesis can be correlated with tumor growth and metastatic potential in many tumor types, indicating that neoformation of vessels is a prognostic indicator of tumor behavior. We evaluated microvessel densities in 157 various pituitary adenoma types and seven pituitary carcinomas using immunocytochemistry for CD-34 antigen, a reliable marker of endothelial cells. The lowest percentage of microvessel density was found in growth hormone-producing adenomas, the highest level in pituitary carcinomas. In general, no major correlation was found between MIB-1 index (an indicator of cell proliferation) and microvessel density. The statistical study also demonstrated no gender-dependent changes in the microvessel density of pituitary tumors. Although the microvessel density was not significantly different in relation to invasiveness of pituitary tumors, our results demonstrate a tendency of invasive pituitary tumors to be more highly vascularized than non-invasive ones. Dopamine agonist and long-acting somatostatin analog treatment compared with untreated tumors did not significantly affect microvessel densities. Statistical differences were demonstrated in the microvessel density of macroadenomas between patients older and patients younger than 40 years. Significant differences were also apparent in the microvessel densities between microadenomas and macroadenomas diagnosed in young patients but not in the older age group. The strongly positive correlation observed between microvessel density and age is consistent with the view that age of the host may have an influence on the extent of neovascularization of pituitary adenomas. PMID:11469692

  3. Intergrin gene expression profiles of humanhepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lian-Xin; Jiang, Hong-Chi; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Hui; Zhu, An-Long; Wang, Xiu-Qin; Wu, Min

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gene expression profiles of intergrin genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through the usage of Atlas Human Cancer Array membranes, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot. METHODS: Hybridization of cDNA array membrane was performed with ? 32P-labeled cDNA probes synthesized from RNA isolated from hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent non-cirrhotic liver. AtlasImage, which is a software specific to array, was used to analyze the result. RT-PCR of 24 pairs specimen and Northern blot of 4 pairs specimen were used to confirm the expression pattern of some intergrin genes identified by Atlas arrays hybridization. RESULTS: Among 588 genes spotted in membrane, 17 genes were related to intergrin. Four genes were up-regulated, such as intergrin alpha8, beta1, beta7 and beta8 in HCC. Whereas there were no genes down-regulated in HCC. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis of intergrin beta1 gene gave results consistent with cDNA array findings. CONCLUSION: Investigation of these intergrin genes should help to disclose the molecular mechanism of the cell adhesion, invasive and metastasis of HCC. A few genes are reported to have changed in HCC for the first time. The quick and high-throughout method of profiling gene expression by cDNA array provides us overview of key factors that may involved in HCC, and may find the clue of the study of HCC metastasis and molecular targets of anti-metastasis therapy. The precise relationship between the altered genes and HCC is a matter of further investigation. PMID:12174369

  4. Urine cytomorphology of micropapillary urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Rohan, Stephen M; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2013-06-01

    Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma (MPUC) is a rare subtype of urothelial carcinoma (UC) with an aggressive clinical course. The cytomorphologic features of MPUC in urine cytology have not been well described. In this study, 23 urine specimens (11 voided urines and 12 bladder washings) from 23 patients with MPUC on follow-up surgical material and 28 specimens (14voided urines and 14 bladder washings) from 28 patients with high-grade UCs (HGUC) were retrieved. Cytologic features (nuclear grade, cytoplasmic characteristics), architectural features (single cell pattern, true papillary structures, flat sheets/nests, three dimensional clusters, micropapillary (inside-out, acinar-like, or cauliflower with nuclei located peripherally)), and necrosis were evaluated. Clinical follow-up was obtained by chart review. Two findings, micropapillae and cytoplasmic vacuoles, were seen more frequently in MPUC compared to HGUC, 81.0% vs. 14.3%, and 57.1% vs. 14.3%, respectively. The combination of these two findings had a sensitivity of 78%, a specificity of 86%, a positive predictive value of 82%, and a negative predictive value of 83% for the diagnosis of MPUC on subsequent biopsy. MPUC and HGUC can both exhibit a single cell pattern, papillary structures, flat sheets/nests, three dimensional clusters, high-nuclear grade, and necrosis, thus these findings are not useful in distinguishing these entities. Chart review revealed that patients with MPUC had a higher rate of metastasis to lymph nodes and distant organs than HGUC, 57% vs. 4%. Therefore, the findings of cytoplasmic vacuoles and micropapillary structures in UC from a urine cytology specimen are associated with MPUC on subsequent biopsy. PMID:22623512

  5. Intratumoral PV701 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

  6. Optimal management of a patient with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Perri, Francesco; DellOca, Italo; Muto, Paolo; Schiavone, Concetta; Aversa, Corrado; Fulciniti, Franco; Solla, Raffaele; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Buonerba, Carlo; Lorenzo, Giuseppe Di; Caponigro, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in western countries, accounting for less than 1% of all malignancies. Despite prognosis is satisfactory for newly diagnosed, non-metastatic disease, management of recurrent disease is challenging, with a survival expectancy of approximately 6 mo with the use of chemotherapy as the sole salvage treatment. We report a case of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery in the context of a multidisciplinary approach. A durable complete response was achieved. PMID:25032207

  7. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  8. Invasive Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Boy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qing; Lei, Wen-Ting; Fan, Guo-Run; Zhu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rare in children. Usually, laryngeal SCC in children has a poor prognosis. A 9-year-old boy is reported who was diagnosed as having poorly differentiated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with neck metastasis. This report aims to highlight the importance of a comprehensive knowledge of differential diagnosis, putting great attention to the onset of symptoms, early application of flexible laryngoscopy, and intensive studies on similar cases. PMID:26064803

  9. Primary Intraosseous Carcinoma of Mandible: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nandimath, Kirty; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.; Babshet, Medha

    2011-01-01

    Primary de novo intraosseous carcinoma is a rare neoplastic lesion which commonly occurs in the jaws. It is an epithelial odontogenic malignancy arising from odontogenic epithelial residues in the bone rather than from a preexisting epithelial lesion. In the present case report, the clinical, radiological and histological features of primary de novo intraosseous carcinoma are discussed and its aggressiveness and local invasiveness are highlighted. PMID:22013470

  10. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the nasal septum (case report).

    PubMed

    Alazzawi, Sarmad; Sivalingam, Shailendra; Raman, Rajagopalan; Mun, Kein Seong

    2015-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the nasal septum. A patient with a history of right-sided nasal obstruction presented to our clinic. Clinical examination revealed a mass in the right nasal cavity originating from the nasal septum. Biopsy revealed a high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The patient was treated with surgical resection only. Surgery alone might be suitable for small tumors when direct inspection of the surgical site is feasible to detect early recurrence. PMID:26506975

  11. Temporal bone carcinoma. Current diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic concepts.

    PubMed

    Lionello, M; Stritoni, P; Facciolo, M C; Staffieri, A; Martini, A; Mazzoni, A; Zanoletti, E; Marioni, G

    2014-09-01

    Temporal bone carcinoma is an uncommon aggressive malignancy. Its low incidence and the absence of a globally accepted staging system still make it difficult to compare different centers' approaches and results. In this review of the main available studies dealing with temporal bone carcinoma since 1995, we consider its rational preoperative staging and assessment, compare the effectiveness of different treatments by tumor stage, and outline the main actuarial prognostic factors. PMID:24962035

  12. Immunization With AFP + GM CSF Plasmid Prime and AFP Adenoviral Vector Boost in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Hepatoma; Liver Cancer, Adult; Liver Cell Carcinoma; Liver Cell Carcinoma, Adult; Cancer of Liver; Cancer of the Liver; Cancer, Hepatocellular; Hepatic Cancer; Hepatic Neoplasms; Hepatocellular Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neoplasms, Hepatic; Neoplasms, Liver

  13. Molecular biology of basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Emmert, Steffen; Schn, Michael P; Haenssle, Holger A

    2014-01-01

    The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Both so called nonmelanoma skin cancers comprise the most common cancers in humans by far. Common risk factors for both tumor entities include sun-exposure, DNA repair deficiencies leading to chromosomal instability, or immunosuppression. Yet, fundamental differences in the development of the two different entities have been and are currently unveiled. The constitutive activation of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway by acquired mutations in the PTCH and SMO genes appears to represent the early basal cell carcinoma developmental determinant. Although other signaling pathways are also affected, small hedgehog inhibitory molecules evolve as the most promising basal cell carcinoma treatment options systemically as well as topically in current clinical trials. For squamous cell carcinoma development mutations in the p53 gene, especially UV-induced mutations, have been identified as early events. Yet, other signaling pathways including epidermal growth factor receptor, RAS, Fyn, or p16INK4a signaling may play significant roles in squamous cell carcinoma development. The improved understanding of the molecular events leading to different tumor entities by de-differentiation of the same cell type have begun to pave the way for modulating new molecular targets therapeutically with small molecules. PMID:25207369

  14. Cervical lymph node metastasis in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    zkiri?, Mahmut; Kubilay, Utku; Sezen, Ozan Seymen

    2011-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma represents 3% of all adult malignant tumors. It occurs more frequently in the fifth and sixth decade of life and in a malefemale ratio of 1.5 : 1. Among all the primary tumors that arise below the level of the clavicle, renal cell carcinoma is the third most common neoplasm that metastasizes to the head and neck region, but rarely has it been described as the presenting symptom of this tumor. In 7.5% of the patients with renal cell carcinoma, head and neck metastasis is the presenting complaint. However, only 1% of the patients with renal cell carcinoma have metastases confined only to the head and neck; and a solitary cervical metastatic mass, as in the case of our patient, is rare.It seems that head and neck metastasis of renal cell carcinoma should preferentially be treated with surgical excision because of the associated morbidity and quality-of-life issues. Renal cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any growing lesion in the head and neck. PMID:22529583

  15. Non-functioning parathyroid gland carcinoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Krvavica, Ana; Kovaci?, Marijan; Baraka, Ivan; Rudi?, Milan

    2011-06-01

    Parathyroid gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy. The tumor is mostly functioning, causing severe hyperparathyroidism, with high serum calcium level and severe bone disease. Non-functioning parathyroid carcinomas are extremely rare. We report on a 60-year-old male patient admitted to ENT Department due to a large neck tumor mass compressing the thyroid and trachea. Preoperatively, thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium serum levels were normal. The following immunohistochemical markers (DAKO, Denmark) were used: bcl-2; CD-10; Chromogranin-A; Cyclin-D1; EMA; Ki-67; Mdm-2; p-53; PGP-9,5; RCC; Synaptophysin; Thyroglobulin; and TTF-1. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the diagnosis of a primary parathyroid gland carcinoma. Tumor cells showed diffusely positive immunohistochemical staining with chromogranin-A and PGP-9,5, positive staining of variable intensity with synaptophysin, and weakly positive reaction with EMA. Also, the cytoplasm of tumor cells was diffusely positively stained with bcl-2, while the nuclei showed positive reaction with p-53 oncogene and TTF-1. The remaining markers (CD-10, cyclin-D1, Ki-67, Mdm-2, RCC and thyroglobulin) were negative. Four years after the surgery, the patient died from renal carcinoma pulmonary metastases and liver cirrhosis complications. In conclusion, non-functioning parathyroid gland carcinoma is a very rare disease. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis is needed to distinguish it from other thyroid and parathyroid neoplasms and metastatic carcinoma. Surgical treatment is presently the best mode of therapy. PMID:22263388

  16. The histone acetyltransferase hMOF suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Hui; Pan, Hao; Yang, Yuan; Huang, Gang; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Pan, Ze-Ya

    2014-09-26

    Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyltransferase belongs to the MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and TIP60) family. In mammals, MOF plays critical roles in transcription activation by acetylating histone H4K16, a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF can also acetylate transcription factor p53 on K120, which is important for activation of pro-apoptotic genes; and TIP5, the largest subunit of NoRC, on K633. However, the role of hMOF in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. Here we find that the expression of hMOF is significantly down-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma and cell lines. Furthermore, our survival analysis indicates that low hMOF expression predicts poor overall and disease-free survival. We demonstrate that hMOF knockdown promotes hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo, while hMOF overexpression reduces hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanically, we show that hMOF regulates the expression of SIRT6 and its downstream genes. In summary, our findings demonstrate that hMOF participates in human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting SIRT6, and hMOF activators may serve as potential drug candidates for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. PMID:25181338

  17. Heavy water delays growth of human carcinoma in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Altermatt, H.J.; Gebbers, J.O.; Laissue, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    Deuterium-enriched water has an antiproliferative effect on transplantable mouse tumors without toxic side effects. Since the response to treatment of human carcinomas growing in nude mice is deemed to be a good indicator of the potential clinical behavior of these tumors, we studied the influence of this stable isotope of hydrogen on the growth of xenotransplanted human carcinomas of various histologic types, grades, and primary sites. Seven-week-old Balb/c-nu/nu mice were inoculated subcutaneously, either with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas or with carcinomas of the large intestine. After tumor inoculation, the mice were given drinking water containing 30 atom% D/sub 2/O. Heavy water effectively retarded the growth of the human carcinomas. At the end of the experiment, the weight of the tumors was reduced to values ranging from 22% to 65% of the control values. The reproducible antiproliferative effect was more conspicuous in poorly differentiated carcinomas than in moderately well-differentiated variants. Since animals in both groups, kept under identical conditions, drank the same amount of water and had similar body weights, the difference in tumor growth can be attributed to the moderate deuteration of the hosts.

  18. Genomic profiling screens small molecules of metastatic prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    XU, AXIANG; SUN, SHENGKUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathogenesis of metastatic prostate carcinoma, to find the metabolic pathways changed in the disease and to screen out the potential therapeutic drugs. GSE38241 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus; the Geoquery package was applied to preprocessed expression profiling, and the differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were selected with limma (linear regression model packages). Next, WikiPathways cluster analysis was performed for DEGs on a Gene Set Analysis Toolkit V2 platform, and DEGs with hypergeometric algorithms were calculated through gene set enrichment analysis. A total of 1,126 DEGs were identified between the normal prostate and metastatic prostate carcinoma. In addition, KPNA4, SYT1, PLCB1, SPRED1, MBNL2, RNF165, MEF2C, MBNL1, ZFP36L1 and CELF2, were found to be likely to play significant roles in the process of metastatic prostate carcinoma. The small molecules STOCK1N-35874 and 5182598 could simulate the state of normal cells well, while the small molecules MS-275 and quinostatin could simulate the state of metastatic prostate carcinoma cells. In conclusions, the small molecules STOCK1N-35874 and 5182598 were identified to be good potential therapeutic drugs for the treatment of metastatic prostate carcinoma, while the two small molecules MS-275 and quinostatin could cause metastatic prostate carcinoma. PMID:26622681

  19. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Ovary Associated with Serous Carcinoma with Mucin Production: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Draganova-Tacheva, Rossitza Anguelova; Khurana, Jasvirs S.; Huang, Yajue; Hernandez, Enrique; Zhang, Xinmin

    2009-01-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the ovary is a rare entity and is frequently associated with ovarian surface epithelial tumors. However, its association with serous carcinoma has only been described recently in one case. We report another case of such with mucin production in a 68-year old woman. Immunohistochemistry and mucicarmine stain confirmed the diagnosis. Its clinicopathologic association is discussed and the literature is reviewed. PMID:19079625

  20. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  1. Metastatic lobular carcinoma of breast mimics primary cervix carcinoma: two case reports and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lokadasan, Rajitha; Ratheesan, K; Sukumaran, Renu; Nair, Sindhu P

    2015-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast exhibits unusual clinicopathological, radiological, histological, and metastatic patterns. We present here two cases of ILC of the breast that presented with an unusual pattern of metastasis involving the uterus. Our first patient presented to her primary gynaecologist with profuse vaginal bleeding and underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophrectomy. She had fibroadenoma excised from her left breast four years previously. Histopathology revealed lobular carcinoma diffusely infiltrating uterus, cervix, and bilateral ovaries. Retrospective examination of the left breast showed induration along the previous fibroadenoma excision scar. A biopsy from the scar suggested lobular carcinoma. Our second patient presented with a hard indurated cervix mass that mimicked primary cervix carcinoma. She had ILC of the right breast four years previously for which she underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. She was on tamoxifen. Further evaluation at presentation with imaging showed extensive intra-abdominal disease involving peritoneum with moderate ascites, adnexal masses, and confluent para-aortic nodal mass. A cervix biopsy confirmed metastasis from lobular carcinoma. Metastatic involvement of the genital tract should be considered in women with a history of breast cancer who present with abnormal vaginal bleeding, suspicious pelvic examination, or radiological findings. We suggest such patient be vigorously screened with biopsy even if the patient is disease-free for several years. It is crucial to differentiate the metastasis from primary carcinoma of the genital tract as there are vast differences in the management of each. PMID:26435744

  2. Absence of ras gene mutations in early gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Craanen, M E; Blok, P; Top, B; Boerrigter, L; Dekker, W; Offerhaus, G J; Tytgat, G N; Rodenhuis, S

    1995-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and type of activating point mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 of the Ki-, Ha-, and N-ras genes in a series of early gastric carcinomas in white patients and to correlate these ras gene mutations, if any, with the histological type (Lauren classification), the type of growth pattern, and with the Helicobacter pylori status. Haematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa stained sections from 45 formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded early gastric carcinomas were used to assess the Lauren type, the type of growth pattern, and the antral H pylori status. DNA was extracted according to standard procedures. Mutations at codon 12 of the Ki-ras gene were examined with a polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and dot blot hybridisation with allele-specific 32P-labelled oligodeoxynucleotide (ASO) probes. All other ras genes were analysed with specific PCR amplification and dot blot hybridisation with ASO probes. Mutations were detected by overnight autoradiography at -70 degrees C. Some 20 intestinal-type and 25 diffuse-type early gastric carcinomas were seen. According to growth pattern, there were 24 small mucosal type early gastric carcinomas, five superficial spreading type early gastric carcinomas, and 16 penetrating type early gastric carcinomas (four penetrating A type, 12 penetrating B type). H pylori was found in the antral mucosa of 28 early gastric carcinomas (62%). Activating ras gene mutations were not found. It was discovered that activating point mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 of the Ki-, Ha-, and N-ras genes do not play a part in the development of early gastric carcinomas in white subjects, irrespective of Lauren type. Moreover, differences in biological behaviour between early carcinomas with different types of growth pattern are not related to these ras gene mutations. Finally, H pylori positive and H pylori negative gastric carcinomas cannot be discriminated on the basis of ras gene mutational analysis. Images Figure 2 PMID:8537044

  3. A colorectal carcinoma imitating a primary ovarian carcinoma in a postpartum woman

    PubMed Central

    Aiyer, Rohit; Sweetman, Kieran; Larsen-Disney, Peter; Fish, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This is a case report of a 33-year-old woman who presented 5?days post-partum with abdominal distension, abdominal discomfort, increased bladder pressure and fatigue. These symptoms prompted a pelvic ultrasound and CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis which showed a large 20?cm left-sided adnexal mass. Following this imaging, blood tests revealed elevated tumour markers CA-125 and lactate dehydrogenase, resulting in referral to and surgical intervention by the gynaecology oncology team. Pathology and immunohistochemistry indicated that the tumour was a metastasis from the colon, that prompted for colonoscopy which confirmed that the carcinoma was a metastases from the sigmoid. PMID:24275334

  4. Specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma by delayed hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Y.; Nakano, S.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Sasaki, Y.; Imaoka, S.; Fujita, M.; Kawamoto, S.; Kasugai, H.

    1986-01-15

    For assessment of the value of delayed hepatobiliary imaging with technetium 99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-(Sn)-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (/sup 99m/Tc-PMT) for specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, 88 patients with various malignant and benign liver diseases (49 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 4 with cholangiocellular carcinoma, 10 with metastatic liver carcinoma, 2 with liver cysts, 2 with liver hemangioma, 1 with liver abscess, 2 with intrahepatic lithiasis, 12 with liver cirrhosis, and 6 with chronic hepatitis) were studied. In 20 (41%) of the 49 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, greater uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT by the tumor than by the surrounding liver tissue was seen in delayed hepatobiliary images, whereas in eight patients (16%), equilibrated uptake was seen. No increased uptake of the radioisotope by hepatic lesions was seen in 21 patients with localized liver diseases other than hepatoma. Moreover, in 18 patients with diffuse liver diseases, no focal accumulation of the radioisotope was seen in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images. In addition, of 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in whom the serum alpha-fetoprotein level showed little or no increase, 12 showed increased uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT by the tumor. In assessing delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images, however, it was necessary to consider following complications: accumulation of tracer in obstructed and dilated biliary trees; retention of radioactivity in nonneoplastic liver tissues; difficulties in evaluating /sup 99m/Tc-PMT uptake by small hepatic tumors; overlapping of radioactivity in the gut and gallbladder in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images of tumors. This study indicates that delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images can be useful in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. [The potentials and limits of the radiotherapy of laryngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Fietkau, R; Sauer, R

    1992-01-01

    Early stage glottic carcinoma can be treated with primary radiotherapy reaching equally good results compared to primary surgery; for supraglottic carcinoma surgery offers only slight advantages over primary radiotherapy. Tumor control for recurrences is considerably improved by salvage surgery. The use of primary radiotherapy allows improved or at least preserved voice and reduced rates of acute complications and late treatment sequelae. However, treatment duration is longer and probably more expensive compared to function preservation microlaryngoscopic surgery. Which treatment approach is chosen, depends on individual patient factors and specific conditions in the clinical setting. In any case, primary radiotherapy deserves a stronger say in the early stage tumor situation. In our institution early stage supraglottic carcinomas undergo primary surgery. Advanced carcinomas (T2b and more) are rarely suited for primary radiotherapy with the exception of some very confined T3 tumors. Surgical approaches should be favoured, since they provide a detailed pathohistological tumor staging including R-classification, which would be lacking using primary radiotherapy. There are clear reasons to treat the lymph nodes for glottic carcinomas stage T2b and more and for all supraglottic carcinomas with radiotherapy. Specific risk factors are: tumor at the margins of the incision (R1), infiltration of the cartilage and pre-epiglottic space, paratracheal and subglottic extension of more than 1 cm, perineural invasion, grade III and IV as well as emergency tracheostomy. Postoperative radiotherapy should be given to the lymph nodes for all positive neck-dissections. New therapeutic approaches are on the horizon, which may improve the results of radiotherapy even for advanced larynx carcinomas, like hyperfractionation radiotherapy and simultaneous radio-chemotherapy combined enoral resection and postoperative radiotherapy may yield larynx preservation even for advanced stages. New imaging techniques allow an improved staging and predictive radiobiological assays may play a major role in tumor prognosis. PMID:1734584

  6. Brachytherapy in Lip Carcinoma: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Guibert, Mireille; David, Isabelle; Vergez, Sebastien; Rives, Michel; Filleron, Thomas; Bonnet, Jacques; Delannes, Martine

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose-rate brachytherapy for local control and relapse-free survival in squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the lips. We compared two groups: one with tumors on the skin and the other with tumors on the lip. Patients and methods: All patients had been treated at Claudius Regaud Cancer Centre from 1990 to 2008 for squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was performed with iridium 192 wires according to the Paris system rules. On average, the dose delivered was 65 Gy. Results: 172 consecutive patients were included in our study; 69 had skin carcinoma (squamous cell or basal cell), and 92 had squamous cell mucosal carcinoma. The average follow-up time was 5.4 years. In the skin cancer group, there were five local recurrences and one lymph node recurrence. In the mucosal cancer group, there were ten local recurrences and five lymph node recurrences. The 8-year relapse-free survival for the entire population was 80%. The 8-year relapse-free survival was 85% for skin carcinoma 75% for mucosal carcinoma, with no significant difference between groups. The functional results were satisfactory for 99% of patients, and the cosmetic results were satisfactory for 92%. Maximal toxicity observed was Grade 2. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate brachytherapy can be used to treat lip carcinomas at Stages T1 and T2 as the only treatment with excellent results for local control and relapse-free survival. The benefits of brachytherapy are also cosmetic and functional, with 91% of patients having no side effects.

  7. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma - Douglas Levine Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need

  8. Cutaneous Metastasis of Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with Unknown Primary Site: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Gustavo Moreira; Quintella, Danielle; Cuzzi, Tullia; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of neuroendocrine carcinoma for which it was not possible to find the primary site until now. The recent medical literature about skin metastasis of neuroendocrine carcinoma (neuroendocrine tumor) is discussed. PMID:26557073

  9. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma - Thomas J. Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma - Thomas J. Giordano Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma - Thomas J. Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium

  10. Tumor associated endothelial expression of B7-H3 predicts survival in ovarian carcinomas

    E-print Network

    Zang, Xingxing

    Tumor associated endothelial expression of B7-H3 predicts survival in ovarian carcinomas Xingxing studies have correlated their overexpression with poor prognosis and decreased tumor in 103 ovarian borderline tumors and carcinomas and study associations with clinical outcome. Using

  11. Cutaneous Metastasis of Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with Unknown Primary Site: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Gustavo Moreira; Quintella, Danielle; Cuzzi, Tullia; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of neuroendocrine carcinoma for which it was not possible to find the primary site until now. The recent medical literature about skin metastasis of neuroendocrine carcinoma (neuroendocrine tumor) is discussed. PMID:26557073

  12. Genomic Characterization of Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma - Michael L. Gatza, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Genomic Characterization of Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma - Michael L. Gatza Genomic Characterization of Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma - Michael L. Gatza, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014 You will

  13. Painful ophthalmoplegia from metastatic nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma: case study and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Eurelings, Marijke; Frijns, Catharina J. M.; Jeurissen, Frank J. F.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy. Of the fewer than 400 cases reported, most have been cases of producing parathyroid carcinoma with accompanying hypercalcemia. Only 13 patients with nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma have been described. Nine of these 13 patients had metastatic disease. We report a patient with i.c. metastasis. Distal metastases of producing parathyroid carcinoma are treated surgically to prolong survival and prevent complications of hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia. One half of the patients with producing parathyroid carcinoma die within 5 years, mostly because of the complications of hypercalcemia. Nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma compares unfavorably with producing parathyroid carcinoma in terms of tumor progression and prognosis. Few data on choice of therapy in nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma are available. We treated our patient with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Treatment was followed by an unexpectedly prolonged survival of 31 months after diagnosis of metastatic disease. PMID:11772432

  14. Comprehensive Pan-Genomic Characterization of Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Tom Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Comprehensive Pan-Genomic Characterization of Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Tom Giordano, TCGA Scientif Comprehensive Pan-Genomic Characterization of Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Tom Giordano, TCGA Scientific

  15. Comprehensive Molecular Profiling of Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Siyuan Zheng, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Comprehensive Molecular Profiling of Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Siyuan Zheng Comprehensive Molecular Profiling of Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Siyuan Zheng, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014 You will need

  16. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma - Chad Creighton, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma - Chad Creighton Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma - Chad Creighton, TCGA Scientific

  17. TCGA Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Project - Chad Creighton, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos TCGA Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Project - Chad Creighton TCGA Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Project - Chad Creighton, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later

  18. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma - W. Marston Linehan, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma - W. Marston Linehan, TCG Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma - W. Marston Linehan, TCGA

  19. Validated Targets Associated With Curatively Treated Advanced Serous Ovarian Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Validated Targets Associated With Advanced Serous Ovarian Carcinoma - Douglas Levine Validated Targets Associated With Curatively Treated Advanced Serous Ovarian Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific

  20. Aberrant FHIT transcripts in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y. J.; Chen, P. H.; Chang, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    To study abnormalities of the FHIT gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), eight liver cancer cell lines, 18 matched tumorous and non-tumorous tissues from patients with HCC and three normal liver tissues were analysed by microsatellite polymorphism analysis and reverse transcription of FHIT mRNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the products. No loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 3p14.2 as defined by markers D3S1300 and D3S1312 was detected in any of the specimens. In addition, a normal transcript of the gene without any sequence change was found to be expressed in all the cell lines, 17 of the 18 tumorous and all 21 non-tumorous liver tissues tested. Although five out of eight liver cancer cell lines (62.5%), 12 out of 18 HCC tissues (66.7%) and 8 out of 18 paired non-tumorous liver tissues (44.4%) displayed abnormal faint bands of smaller size, sequence analysis revealed that they were aberrant FHIT transcripts lacking three or more exons and might represent alternatively spliced transcripts only. In conclusion, these studies indicate that abnormalities of the FHIT gene transcripts occur in a fairly high frequency of tumorous and non-tumorous liver tissues. However, it might not be causally related to the hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:9472637

  1. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nex, Bjrn A.; Tjnneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, Jos I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 10?12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 10?9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 10?12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 10?16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  2. Synchronous Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Athanasopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Hadjittofi, Christopher; Luong, Tu Vinh; OBeirne, James; Sharma, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We would like to report the first case in English literature, to the best of our knowledge, of a synchronous hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as to address the current trends and challenges in the management of HEHE. An otherwise well 58-year-old man was referred to his local hepatology service with elevated serum ?-GT levels. Imaging revealed bilobar liver lesions consistent with HEHE, a discrete left lobe lesion suspected as HCC, and multiple pulmonary nodules. Biopsies confirmed HEHE with pulmonary metastases. After multidisciplinary team discussions, the patient was admitted under our team and underwent an uneventful laparoscopic left lateral hepatectomy for suspected HCC, which was confirmed histologically. As part of a watch-and-wait approach to metastatic HEHE, in the first follow-up (3 months postoperatively) the patient was clinically fine and the surveillance CT scan did not show recurrent disease. By presenting this case, we aim to raise awareness that this rare entity can coexist with others, potentially complicating their management. PMID:26313777

  3. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandan J; Thingujam, Usha; Panda, Ananya; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT (pCT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. pCT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using pCT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of pCT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs. PMID:26217456

  4. Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary ME; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa. PMID:25429316

  5. [Diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Baer, H U; Holzinger, F; Feodorovici, M; Bchler, M W

    1998-02-01

    Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common intra-abdominal malignancy. It occurs mostly in patients who are carriers of the hepatitis B or C virus and/or have liver cirrhosis. There is no screening-test for early recognition of the development of liver cancer and this delays often an accurate diagnosis and early treatment. Resection is the best form of treatment offering a chance of cure. In the last decades, considerable progress has been made in the field of liver diagnostic and operative techniques for liver resection. This has been followed by an increase in the resection rate of patients with malignant liver tumours and by a decrease in postoperative morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, after curative resection, 5-year survival rates up to 30% can be achieved. Promising results are also obtained by new adjuvant therapeutic modalities demonstrating improvement in survival. Therefore, in the field of malignant liver tumours there is no more space for therapeutic nihilismus. PMID:9545856

  6. Elastographic presentation of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Amendola, Stefano; Valabrega, Stefano; Fukunari, Nobuhiro; Mirella, Moro; Persani, Luca

    2014-02-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the elastographic appearance of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) by a retrospective evaluation of 18 nodules histologically proven as MTC. Free-hand qualitative elastography was performed using Hitachi Logos EUB 7500. The elasticity score (ES), was assessed based on a colour elastogram, the blue colour being correlated with hard tissue, red colour with soft tissue, and green with intermediate hardness. Nodules were classified into four classes. A alleged diagnosis of malignancy was assigned to nodules with ES3 or 4 and a presumptive diagnosis of benignity was assigned to nodules with an ES1 or 2. More than half (55.6 %) of MTCs have a low-intermediate grade of elasticity. The hardest lesions (ES4) were those with ultrasonographic features highly suspicious for malignancy. In conclusion, most of MTCs present an elastographic pattern of benignity. Therefore, qualitative elastography does not add useful information in pointing out MTC on the basis of its hardness. Our data suggest a marginal role for this technique in MTC evaluation. PMID:24065313

  7. Resection of pulmonary metastases from colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zanella, A; Marchet, A; Mainente, P; Nitti, D; Lise, M

    1997-10-01

    A retrospective study was made on 22 patients who underwent surgery (28 operations) for lung metastases of colorectal origin from 1986 to 1995 at the Department of Surgery II, Padova University. The overall 5-year survival (OS) following pulmonary resection was 62% and the 5-year disease-free interval after metastasectomy (DFIM) 45%. The median survival was 23.6 months and the median DFIM 15.3 months. Univariate (Mantel Cox) and multivariate (Cox's model) analyses were used to identify any prognostic factors significant for OS and DFIM. Site and stage of primary colorectal carcinoma, number of pulmonary metastases at presentation, disease-free intervals between treatment of primary tumour and diagnosis of lung metastases (DFIP) appeared to have no influence on OS and DFIM. However, patients who underwent radical resection for metastases had a significantly longer DFIM than those who underwent 'non-radical' resections (P = 0.02), but radical resection had no significant positive effect on OS. A short DFIP, multiple and/or bilateral lesions, lung metastases occurring after liver resection with a curative aim are not contraindications to surgery in patients with pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer, the main criterion for selection of patients being the possibility of performing 'radical' resection. PMID:9393571

  8. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: newer radiological tools.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Kyung Won

    2012-08-01

    With the recent dramatic advances in diagnostic modalities, the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily based on imaging. Ultrasound (US) plays a crucial role in HCC surveillance. Dynamic multiphasic multidetector-row CT (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the standard diagnostic methods for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, which can be made based on hemodynamic features (arterial enhancement and delayed washout). The technical development of MDCT and MRI has made possible the fast scanning with better image quality and resolution, which enables an accurate CT hemodynamic evaluation of hepatocellular tumor, as well as the application of perfusion CT and MRI in clinical practice. Perfusion CT and MRI can measure perfusion parameters of tumor quantitatively and can be used for treatment response assessment to anti-vascular agents. Besides assessing the hemodynamic or perfusion features of HCC, new advances in MRI can provide a cellular information of HCC. Liver-specific hepatobiliary contrast agents, such as gadoxetic acid, give information regarding hepatocellular function or defect of the lesion, which improves lesion detection and characterization. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the liver provides cellular information of HCC and also has broadened its role in lesion detection, lesion characterization, and treatment response assessment to chemotherapeutic agents. In this article, we provide an overview of the state-of-the art imaging techniques of the liver and their clinical role in management of HCC. PMID:22846858

  9. Staging Systems for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Lo, Chung-Yau; Chan, Wai-Fan; Lam, King-Yin; Wan, Koon-Yat

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To find out the most predictive staging system for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) currently available in the literature. Background: Various staging systems or risk group stratifications have been used extensively in the clinical management of patients with PTC, but the most predictive system for cancer-specific survival (CSS) based on distinct histologic types remains unclear. Methods: Through a comprehensive MEDLINE search from 1965 to 2005, a total of 17 staging systems were found in the literature and 14 systems were applied to the 589 PTC patients managed at our institution from 1961 to 2001. CSS were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by log-rank test. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis, the relative importance of each staging system in determining CSS was calculated by the proportion of variation (PVE). Results: All 14 staging systems significantly predicted CSS (P < 0.001). The 3 highest ranked staging systems by PVE were the Metastases, Age, Completeness of Resection, Invasion, Size (MACIS) (18.7) followed by the new AJCC/UICC 6th edition tumor, node, metastases (TNM) (17.9), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) (16.6). Conclusions: All of the currently available staging systems predicted CSS well in patients with PTC regardless of which histologic type from which they were derived. When predictability was measured by PVE, the MACIS system was the most predictive staging system and so should be the staging system of choice for PTC in the future. PMID:17435543

  10. Telomerase Activity in Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counter, Christopher M.; Hirte, Hal W.; Bacchetti, Silvia; Harley, Calvin B.

    1994-04-01

    Telomeres fulfill the dual function of protecting eukaryotic chromosomes from illegitimate recombination and degradation and may aid in chromosome attachment to the nuclear membrane. We have previously shown that telomerase, the enzyme which synthesizes telomeric DNA, is not detected in normal somatic cells and that telomeres shorten with replicative age. In cells immortalized in vitro, activation of telomerase apparently stabilizes telomere length, preventing a critical destabilization of chromosomes, and cell proliferation continues even when telomeres are short. In vivo, telomeres of most tumors are shorter than telomeres of control tissues, suggesting an analogous role for the enzyme. To assess the relevance of telomerase and telomere stability in the development and progression of tumors, we have measured enzyme activity and telomere length in metastatic cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We report that extremely short telomeres are maintained in these cells and that tumor cells, but not isogenic nonmalignant cells, express telomerase. Our findings suggest that progression of malignancy is ultimately dependent upon activation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors may be effective antitumor drugs.

  11. Biological features and biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Saito, Tomoko; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Tawada, Akinobu; Iwama, Atsushi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other cancers, a multistep process of carcinogenesis is observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the mechanisms underlying the development of HCC have been investigated in terms of oncology, virology, and stem cell biology, the whole picture of hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. Recent progress in molecular biology has provided clues to the underlying cause of various diseases. In particular, sequencing technologies, such as whole genome and exome sequencing analyses, have made an impact on genomic research on a variety of cancers including HCC. Comprehensive genomic analyses have detected numerous abnormal genetic alterations, such as mutations and copy number alterations. Based on these findings, signaling pathways and cancer-related genes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis could be analyzed in detail. Simultaneously, a number of novel biomarkers, both from tissue and blood samples, have been recently reported. These biomarkers have been successfully applied to early diagnosis and prognostic prediction of patients with HCC. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in molecular cancer research on HCC and explain the biological features and novel biomarkers. PMID:26261691

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bellissimo, Francesco; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2015-11-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasing health problem, representing the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The major risk factor for HCC is cirrhosis. In developing countries, viral hepatitis represent the major risk factor, whereas in developed countries, the epidemic of obesity, diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis contribute to the observed increase in HCC incidence. Cirrhotic patients are recommended to undergo HCC surveillance by abdominal ultrasounds at 6-mo intervals. The current diagnostic algorithms for HCC rely on typical radiological hallmarks in dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, while the use of ?-fetoprotein as an independent tool for HCC surveillance is not recommended by current guidelines due to its low sensitivity and specificity. Early diagnosis is crucial for curative treatments. Surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation and liver transplantation are considered the cornerstones of curative therapy, while for patients with more advanced HCC recommended options include sorafenib and trans-arterial chemo-embolization. A multidisciplinary team, consisting of hepatologists, surgeons, radiologists, oncologists and pathologists, is fundamental for a correct management. In this paper, we review the diagnostic and therapeutic management of HCC, with a focus on the most recent evidences and recommendations from guidelines. PMID:26576088

  13. Comparative drug screening in NUT midline carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beesley, A H; Stirnweiss, A; Ferrari, E; Endersby, R; Howlett, M; Failes, T W; Arndt, G M; Charles, A K; Cole, C H; Kees, U R

    2014-01-01

    Background: The NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but fatal cancer for which systematic testing of therapy options has never been performed. Methods: On the basis of disease biology, we compared the efficacy of the CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol (FP) with a panel of anticancer agents in NMC cell lines and mouse xenografts. Results: In vitro anthracyclines, topoisomerase inhibitors, and microtubule poisons were among the most cytotoxic drug classes for NMC cells, while efficacy of the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 varied considerably between lines carrying different BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4)NUT (nuclear protein in testis) translocations. Efficacy of FP was comparable to vincristine and doxorubicin, drugs that have been previously used in NMC patients. All three compounds showed significantly better activity than etoposide and vorinostat, agents that have also been used in NMC patients. Statins and antimetabolites demonstrated intermediate single-agent efficacy. In vivo, vincristine significantly inhibited tumour growth in two different NMC xenografts. Flavopiridol in vivo was significantly effective in one of the two NMC xenograft lines, demonstrating the biological heterogeneity of this disease. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that FP may be of benefit to a subset of patients with NMC, and warrant a continued emphasis on microtubule inhibitors, anthracyclines, and topoisomerase inhibitors as effective drug classes in this disease. PMID:24518598

  14. Senescence and immortality in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Mehmet; Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Bagislar, Sevgi; Senturk, Serif; Yuzugullu, Haluk

    2009-12-01

    Cellular senescence is a process leading to terminal growth arrest with characteristic morphological features. This process is mediated by telomere-dependent, oncogene-induced and ROS-induced pathways, but persistent DNA damage is the most common cause. Senescence arrest is mediated by p16(INK4a)- and p21(Cip1)-dependent pathways both leading to retinoblastoma protein (pRb) activation. p53 plays a relay role between DNA damage sensing and p21(Cip1) activation. pRb arrests the cell cycle by recruiting proliferation genes to facultative heterochromatin for permanent silencing. Replicative senescence that occurs in hepatocytes in culture and in liver cirrhosis is associated with lack of telomerase activity and results in telomere shortening. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells display inactivating mutations of p53 and epigenetic silencing of p16(INK4a). Moreover, they re-express telomerase reverse transcriptase required for telomere maintenance. Thus, senescence bypass and cellular immortality is likely to contribute significantly to HCC development. Oncogene-induced senescence in premalignant lesions and reversible immortality of cancer cells including HCC offer new potentials for tumor prevention and treatment. PMID:19070423

  15. BRAF Testing in Multifocal Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrell, Hillary Z.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Ratnayaka, Swarnamala; Japa, Shanker; Lacey, Michelle; Carpio, Gandahari; Bhatia, Parisha; Kandil, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Background. BRAF V600E mutation is associated with poor prognosis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). PTC is often multifocal, and there are no guidelines on how many tumors to test for BRAF mutation in multifocal PTC. Methods. Fifty-seven separate formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded PTCs from twenty-seven patients were manually macrodissected and tested for BRAF mutation using a commercial allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay (Entrogen, Woodland Hills, CA). Data related to histologic characteristics, patient demographics, and clinical outcomes were collected. Results. All mutations detected were BRAF V600E. Seventeen patients (63%) had concordant mutation status in the largest and second-largest tumors (i.e., both were positive or both were negative). The remaining ten patients (37%) had discordant mutation status. Six of the patients with discordant tumors (22% overall) had a BRAF-negative largest tumor and a BRAF-positive second-largest tumor. No histologic feature was found to help predict which cases would be discordant. Conclusions. Patients with multifocal PTC whose largest tumor is BRAF-negative can have smaller tumors that are BRAF-positive. Therefore, molecular testing of more than just the dominant tumor should be considered. Future studies are warranted to establish whether finding a BRAF mutation in a smaller tumor has clinical significance. PMID:26448939

  16. Primary hepatic sarcomatoid carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LENG, QIANYING; XIANG, XI; TANG, YUANJIAO; YANG, YUJIA; QIU, LI

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) is a malignant tumor type of unclear pathogenesis, which rarely occurs in the liver. The present study reports the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with multiple masses in her liver, with no fever, abdominal pain or jaundice. Serological markers for hepatitis B and C virus were negative, as was the test for ? fetoprotein. Abdominal enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examination confirmed multiple lesions in the liver, and liquefactive necrosis was observed. The patient underwent a right hepatectomy, in addition to a cholecystectomy. Cytokeratin 8 (CK8), cluster of differentiation 117, pancytokeratin and vimentin were positively detected using immunohistochemistry, and thus the diagnosis of primary hepatic SC (PHSC) was established. During the follow-up period, characteristic imaging manifestations of tumor recurrence were detected, including peripheral enhancement, central necrosis, variable enhancement, venous invasion and intrahepatic metastasis. The immunohistochemical detection of CK, epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin, with CK8 as a critical indicator, may be useful for the diagnosis of PHSC. The preferred treatment for PHSC is surgical resection and the prognosis is poor.

  17. Potentiality of immunotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Yu; Endo, Itaru; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Despite the high incidence, treatment options remain limited for advanced HCC, and as a result prognosis continues to be poor. Current therapeutic options, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have only modest efficacy. New treatment modalities to prolong survival and to minimize the risk of adverse response are desperately needed for patients with advanced HCC. Tumor immunotherapy is a promising, novel treatment strategy that may lead to improvements in both treatment-associated toxicity and outcome. The strategies have developed in part through genomic studies that have yielded candidate target molecules and in part through basic biology studies that have defined the pathways and cell types regulating immune response. Here, we summarize the various types of HCC immunotherapy and argue that the newfound field of HCC immunotherapy might provide critical advantages in the effort to improve prognosis of patients with advanced HCC. Already several immunotherapies, such as tumor-associated antigen therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors and cell transfer immunotherapy, have demonstrated safety and feasibility in HCC patients. Unfortunately, immunotherapy currently has low efficacy in advanced stage HCC patients; overcoming this challenge will place immunotherapy at the forefront of HCC treatment, possibly in the near future. PMID:26420958

  18. Current and future treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlachterman, Alexander; Craft Jr, Willie W; Hilgenfeldt, Eric; Mitra, Avir; Cabrera, Roniel

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a unique challenge for physicians and patients. There is no definitively curative treatment. Rather, many treatment and management modalities exist with differing advantages and disadvantages. Both current guidelines and individual patient concerns must be taken into account in order to properly manage HCC. In addition, quality of life issues are particularly complex in patients with HCC and these concerns must also be factored into treatment strategies. Thus, considering all the options and their various pros and cons can quickly become complex for both clinicians and patients. In this review, we systematically discuss the current treatment modalities available for HCC, detailing relevant clinical data, risks and rewards and overall outcomes for each approach. Surgical options discussed include resection, transplantation and ablation. We also discuss the radiation modalities: conformal radiotherapy, yttrium 90 microspheres and proton and heavy ion radiotherapy. The biologic agent Sorafenib is discussed as a promising new approach, and recent clinical trials are reviewed. We then detail currently described molecular pathways implicated in the initiation and progression of HCC, and we explore the potential of each pathway as an avenue for drug exploitation. We hope this comprehensive and forward-looking review enables both clinicians and patients to understand various options and thereby make more informed decisions regarding this disease. PMID:26229392

  19. Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary Me; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2014-11-27

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa. PMID:25429316

  20. Endoscopic surgery for recurrent undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Emanuelli, Enzo; Albu, Silviu; Cazzador, Diego; Pedruzzi, Barbara; Babighian, Gregorio; Martini, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges for otolaryngologists is represented by the locally recurrent undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (uNPC). Despite improvements in its treatment options, such as modern radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or external surgical approaches, the risk for severe complications, functional disabilities, and even death remains considerable. Over the years, advances in endoscopic surgery have led to a new alternative in the salvage surgery for recurrent uNPC: the nasopharyngeal endoscopic resection (NER). We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of 8 patients (6 men and 2 women), who underwent NER for recurrent T1 (rT1) locally recurrent uNPC between 2008 and 2011. Together with resections for subsequent recurrences, a total of 9 NERs were performed by a single surgeon with curative intent. Negative margins were obtained for the whole group of patients. After a mean follow-up period of 27 months (range, 16-54 mo), all the patients had no evidence of the disease. We had only 1 recurrence after 7 months. Two-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 100% and 88.9%, respectively. Only 1 patient presented with a complication, osteitis. Nasopharyngeal endoscopic resection can be considered a valid and promising treatment option for rT1 locally recurrent uNPC, showing encouraging short-term outcomes and complication rate. Long-term follow-up is needed to state the efficacy of NER, together with a larger number of patients. PMID:24670277

  1. Spontaneous neoplastic remission of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bae; Kang, Wonseok; Shin, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Seung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Gi Hong; Park, Jun Yong

    2015-05-01

    We report on a case of a 57-year-old male who underwent a curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with histological confirmation of a spontaneously necrotized tumor. Initial serum AFP level was 4,778 ng/mL. A 3.7 cm hyperechoic mass in segment 6 of the liver was observed on ultrasonography and dynamic contrast-enhanced liver MRI showed a 3.7 3.1 cm sized HCC. He was scheduled to undergo curative surgical resection under the clinical diagnosis of an early stage HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A). Without treatment, the serum AFP level declined rapidly to 50 ng/mL over five weeks. He underwent curative wedge resection of segment 6 of the liver. Histology revealed complete necrosis of the mass rimmed by inflamed fibrous capsule on a background of HBV-related cirrhosis with infiltration of lymphoplasma cells. Exact pathophysiology underlying this event is unknown. Among the proposed mechanisms of spontaneous neoplastic remission of HCC, circulatory disturbance and activation of host immune response offer the most scientific explanation for the complete histologic necrosis of HCC in the resected mass seen in our patient. PMID:25998978

  2. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Issing, Peter R.; Hemmanouil, Ilias; Stver, Timo; Kempf, Hans-Georg; Wilkens, L.; Heermann, R.; Lenarz, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a slowly growing tumor with a particular tendency to infiltrate the surrounding tissue by perineural spread. The clinical diagnosis may prove difficult due to the submucons extension of the tumor, especially at the skull base. This article outlines the clinical characteristics, diagnostics, and treatment modalities in a series of 56 patients with an ACC in the head and neck diagnosed between 1970 and 1998 in 32 females and 24 males. The youngest patient was aged 24 years, the oldest 77 years. The average age was 54 years. In 16 patients the tumor originated in the paranasal sinuses or the nasopharynx and involved the skull base. As a rule, several months passed between the manifestation of the first symptoms such as pain, blocked nose, epistaxis, or diplopia and the initial clinical diagnosis. All patients received surgical treatment, however, complete microscopical resection could only be achieved in approximately one third of the cases. Therefore, nine patients were postoperatively treated with radiotherapy. The average survival rates of the patients with an ACC of the skull base were only 99 months as compared to 144 months in the patients without skull base involvement. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:17171116

  3. Diagnostic and therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bellissimo, Francesco; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasing health problem, representing the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The major risk factor for HCC is cirrhosis. In developing countries, viral hepatitis represent the major risk factor, whereas in developed countries, the epidemic of obesity, diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis contribute to the observed increase in HCC incidence. Cirrhotic patients are recommended to undergo HCC surveillance by abdominal ultrasounds at 6-mo intervals. The current diagnostic algorithms for HCC rely on typical radiological hallmarks in dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, while the use of ?-fetoprotein as an independent tool for HCC surveillance is not recommended by current guidelines due to its low sensitivity and specificity. Early diagnosis is crucial for curative treatments. Surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation and liver transplantation are considered the cornerstones of curative therapy, while for patients with more advanced HCC recommended options include sorafenib and trans-arterial chemo-embolization. A multidisciplinary team, consisting of hepatologists, surgeons, radiologists, oncologists and pathologists, is fundamental for a correct management. In this paper, we review the diagnostic and therapeutic management of HCC, with a focus on the most recent evidences and recommendations from guidelines. PMID:26576088

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical frontiers and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bruix, Jordi; Gores, Gregory J; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is currently the main event leading to death in patients with cirrhosis. Evolving information suggests that the metabolic syndrome with non-alcoholic liver disease may be an important cause of HCC in addition to viral hepatitis and alcohol-induced liver disease. The molecular pathogenesis is extremely complex and heterogeneous. To date the molecular information has not impacted on treatment decisions. Periodic surveillance imaging of patients with cirrhosis is widely practiced, especially because diagnostic, radiographic criteria for early-stage HCC have been defined (including nodules between 1 and 2 cm) and effective treatment is available for tumours detected at an early stage. Worldwide the approach to resection versus transplantation varies depending upon local resources, expertise and donor availability. The criteria for transplantation are discussed, and the controversial areas highlighted with evidence-based recommendations provided. Several approaches are available for intermediate stage disease, including radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation and radioembolisation; the rationale for these therapies is buttressed by appropriate outcome-based studies. For advanced disease, systemic therapy with sorafenib remains the option best supported by current data. Thus, while several trials have failed to improve the benefits of established therapies, studies assessing the sequential or combined application of those already known to be beneficial are needed. Also, new concepts are provided in regards to selecting and stratifying patients for second-line studies, which may help explain the failure of prior studies. PMID:24531850

  5. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Oman: ?A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, AbdulAziz; Al-Sheibani, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to analyze all cases of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) in Oman to determine the most common clinical presentation, whether it is associated with certain tribes in Oman, and its distribution in different regions of the country. We also looked at the histopathological diagnosis, treatment modality, recurrence, and metastasis. Methods This retrospective chart analysis was performed using the data of all patients with NPC who presented to the Al Nahdha Hospital (the main tertiary hospital of head and neck surgery in Oman) from January 2003 until August 2011. Results Twenty-six cases of NPC were included in the final study population. Muscat (the capital city of Oman) had the highest number of cases followed by the Ash Sharqiyah, Al-Batinah, and Dhofar regions. The largest number of cases were found in the Al-Balushi tribe. Cases had a bimodal distribution within two age groups (2030 years and 5060 years). Follow-up ranged between six months and seven years. Conclusion Neck mass and nasal symptoms were the most common presentations of NPC in Oman. Further studies, with a larger sample size are required in order to support our results. PMID:26171122

  6. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-03-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world's largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue. PMID:23539499

  7. Maxillary sinus carcinoma: result of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, H.; Horiuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.; Shioda, S.; Enomoto, S.

    1984-07-01

    This hundred and sixteen patients with carcinoma of the maxillary sinus received primary therapy consisting of external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy at the Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, between 1953 and 1982. In our institution, methods of treating cancer of the maxillary sinus have been changed from time to time and showed different control rates and clinical courses. An actuarial 10-year survival rate of 21% has been obtained by the megavoltage irradiation alone as well as 34% actuarial 10-year survival rate by megavoltage irradiation with surgery. After the introduction of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, the local control rate has been improved. The amount of functional, cosmetic, and brain damages have been remarkably decreased by this mode of therapy. The actuarial five year survival rate was 67%. In addition, along with the improvement of the local control rate, the control of nodal and distant organ metastases have been emerging as one of the important contributions to the prognosis of this disease.

  8. The enigmatic epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ellen T; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2006-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a unique and complex etiology that is not completely understood. Although NPC is rare in most populations, it is a leading form of cancer in a few well-defined populations, including natives of southern China, Southeast Asia, the Arctic, and the Middle East/North Africa. The distinctive racial/ethnic and geographic distribution of NPC worldwide suggests that both environmental factors and genetic traits contribute to its development. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of NPC and to propose new avenues of research that could help illuminate the causes and ultimately the prevention of this remarkable disease. Well-established risk factors for NPC include elevated antibody titers against the Epstein-Barr virus, consumption of salt-preserved fish, a family history of NPC, and certain human leukocyte antigen class I genotypes. Consumption of other preserved foods, tobacco smoking, and a history of chronic respiratory tract conditions may be associated with elevated NPC risk, whereas consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and other human leukocyte antigen genotypes may be associated with decreased risk. Evidence for a causal role of various inhalants, herbal medicines, and occupational exposures is inconsistent. Other than dietary modification, no concrete preventive measures for NPC exist. Given the unresolved gaps in understanding of NPC, there is a clear need for large-scale, population-based molecular epidemiologic studies to elucidate how environmental, viral, and genetic factors interact in both the development and the prevention of this disease. PMID:17035381

  9. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: epidemiology and dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Yu, M C

    1991-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. It is very rare (incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 person-years) in most parts of the world, and in only a handful of populations does this low-risk profile deviate; these groups include people in southern China, Eskimos and other natives of the Arctic region, natives of south-east Asia, and the mainly Arab populations of North Africa and Kuwait. Convincing evidence implicates dietary factors as the primary cause of NPC among Chinese. A series of case-control studies conducted in various Chinese populations with distinct risks of NPC, ranging from the very high-risk Cantonese populations to the relatively low-risk northern Chinese, have suggested that ingestion of salted fish and other kinds of preserved foods constitutes the most important cause of NPC among these people. Preliminary data on Malays in south-east Asia, Eskimos in Alaska and Arabs of North Africa also suggests that ingestion of preserved foods by these population groups may be responsible for their raised incidence of NPC. PMID:1855886

  10. [Conventional and CT diagnostics of bronchial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Schaefer-Prokop, C

    2010-08-01

    A number of important technical advances made in recent years in the area of both digital radiography as well as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have improved detection and staging of bronchial carcinoma. The aim of elaborate processing such as temporal subtraction, rib suppression, dual energy subtraction or CAD is to aid the radiologist in detecting lung tumors at the earliest stage possible. For both CT and radiography techniques the differentiation between true and false positive lesions seems to be the biggest challenge. MDCT with multiplanar projections is the imaging method of choice for staging of the extent of local tumor spread (T staging), while N staging and M staging are the domain of positron emission tomography (PET) or even better of integrated PET/CT. Management rules for follow-up of solid and semi-solid lesions seen in CT consider the risks of the patient and are summarized in international guidelines. In 2009 a new 7th edition of the TNM classification was published, which, among other aspects, sub-classifies tumor size more specifically and the presence of a satellite nodule in the tumor lobe is down-staged to T3 and no longer determines tumor resectability. The N staging was not modified. One of the most important new features is the fact that the new classification no longer applies only to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but also to SCLC and carcinoid tumors. PMID:20628724

  11. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: beyond international guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sangiovanni, Angelo; Colombo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is guided by the tumour stage. The Barcelona clinical liver cancer (BCLC) score endorsed by the European Society of the Liver EASL divides patients into five prognostic categories, each with a distinct treatment indication. Hepatic resection, orthotopic liver transplantation and percutaneous local ablation are strongly indicated in accurately selected patients with very early (BCLC 0) and early stage (BCLC A) tumours providing a survival rate of between 50 and 75% at year five. In patients with a large tumour burden such as those with intermediate stage BCLC B, repeated treatments with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) are advocated with clinical benefits (from 16 to 22months). Survival may also improve in patients who are in poor condition or who do not respond to TACE and those with an advanced HCC (BCLC C), following oral therapy with the multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib. However, most recommendations are based on uncontrolled studies and expert opinions rather than well-designed controlled trials, and up to one-third of patients do not fit recommendations because of advanced age, the presence of significant comorbidities or a strategic location of the nodule. For these patients, treatment of HCC beyond guidelines is often advocated. PMID:26725909

  12. The investigation of foxe1 variations in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Somuncu, Erkan; Karatas, Adem; Ferahman, Sina; Saygili, Neslihan; Yilmaz, Eren; Ozturk, Oguz; Kapan, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent reports indicated that incidence of thyroid carcinoma is increasing throughout the worldwide. The aim of our study was to determine a possible relationship between Forkhead box E1 (FOXE1) gene variants and histopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods: FOXE1 gene variations; rs894673, rs1867277 and rs3758249 were analyzed in 57 Papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and 51 age matched healthy control subjects. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was used to specifically detect the variations. Results: There was a significant difference in the distribution of rs894673 genotypes in Papillary thyroid carcinoma cases (P=0.01). AA genotype presence of rs1867277 was more significantly associated with several histopathological parameters such as focal and diffuse capsular invasion, lymphatic invasion, P3 with P4 tumor grade and surgical margins. AA genotype presence in rs1867277 variation was significantly associated with the classical variant which is subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, the presence of the allel A was found to be related with lymph node invasion risk by 2.46 fold, capsular invasion risk by 2.97 fold, and pT3 with pT4 pathological stage risk by 4.13 fold and the presence of allele A in rs1867277 was significantly associated with classic variants. The presence of allele A in rs1867277 was more significantly associated with several histopathological parameters in classic variant in papillary thyroid carcinoma cases such as, the presence of the A allele was found relationship with lymph node invasion risk by 2.0 fold, capsular invasion risk by 2.39 fold , and pT3 with pT4 pathological stage risk by 3.57 fold. In addition, AATT, AAAA and GATT haplotypes (rs1867277 and rs894673) were evaluated for association with papillary thyroid carcinoma cases. Our results indicate that the significant difference according to two-allele haplotype distribution between papillary thyroid carcinoma cases and control groups. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that FOXE1 variations generate a higher risk for poor histopatological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:26722557

  13. Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Clinical Data From A University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Imazawa, Alice T.; Loureno, Delmar M.; Ezabella, Marilza C. L.; Tavares, Marcos R.; Toledo, Sergio P. A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a sporadic (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75%) or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%). These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients. In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored. PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes observed in s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases from a university group and to attempt to improve earlier diagnosis of s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Some procedures for diagnostics are also recommended. METHOD: Patients (n=26) with apparent s-medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied. Their clinical data were reviewed and peripheral blood was collected and screened for RET germline mutations. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 43.9 years ( 10.82 SD) and did not differ between males and females. Calcitonin levels were increased in all cases. Three patients presented values that were 100-fold greater than the normal upper limit. Most (61.54%) had values that were 20-fold below this limit. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels were high in 70.6% of cases. There was no significant association between age at diagnosis, basal calcitonin levels or time of disease onset with thyroid tumor size (0.615 cm). Routine thyroid cytology yielded disappointing diagnostic accuracy (46.7%) in this set of cases. After total thyroidectomy associated with extensive cervical lymph node resection, calcitonin values remained lower than 5 pg/mL for at least 12 months in eight of the cases (30.8%). Immunocyto- and histochemistry for calcitonin were positive in all analyzed cases. None of the 26 cases presented germline mutations in the classical hotspots of the RET proto-oncogene. CONCLUSION: Our cases were identified late. The basal calcitonin measurements and immunostaining for calcitonin were highly useful for diagnosing s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. The rate of complete patient recovery was low, and none of the parameters analyzed were useful predictors of the thyroid tumor size. Our findings support previous recommendations for routine serum calcitonin evaluation and immunostaining analysis involving single thyroid nodules. PMID:19488601

  14. Cultured High-Fidelity Three-Dimensional Human Urogenital Tract Carcinomas and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are propagated under in vitro-microgravity conditions from carcinoma cells. Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are also propagated from a coculture of normal urogenital tract cells inoculated with carcinoma cells. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  15. A synchronous hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma treated with radio-frequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Serk; Yoon, Hyeon Young; Choe, Won Hyeok; Kwon, So Young; Lee, Chang Hong

    2014-01-01

    Radio-frequency ablation (RFA) is a curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Percutaneous RFA has been shown to be beneficial for patients with small renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lacking indications for resection. We experienced the case of a 53-year-old male who had conditions that suggested HCC, RCC, and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image showed liver cirrhosis with 2.8 cm ill-defined mass in segment 2 of the liver and 1.9 cm hypervascular mass in the left kidney. These findings were compatible with the double primary cancers of HCC and RCC. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) was performed to treat the HCC. After the TACE, a focal lipiodol uptake defect was noticed on a follow up CT images and loco-regional treatment was recommended. Therefore, we performed RFAs to treat HCC and RCC. There was no evidence of recurrence in the follow up image after 1 month. PMID:25320735

  16. Sarcomatoid Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma (Carcinosarcoma, Spindle Cell Carcinoma): A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey; Titi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sarcomatoid variant of urothelial carcinoma (SVUC) was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature. Materials and Method. Various internet databases were used. Result. SVUCs are rare biphasic malignant neoplasms exhibiting morphologic/immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation with the presence or absence of heterologous elements. Some cases of SVUC have been associated with radiation therapy and cyclophosphamide treatment. Patients' ages range from 50 to 77 years (mean age 66). Patients tend to be younger and they more commonly presented with high-grade histology and advanced stage disease, in comparison with patients who had conventional urothelial carcinoma (CUC). Results of molecular/genetic studies strongly argue for a common monoclonal cell origin of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components in SUVC. The cancer specific survival of SVUC is poor in comparison with CUC. Radical surgical excision and chemoradiation may be associated with improved prognosis; chemoradiation as an organ preserving alternative to radical excision may be associated with improved outcome. There is no consensus opinion on the best treatment modalities for SUVC. Conclusions. SVUC is rare and is associated with inferior outcome compared with CUC. A multicentre trial of various treatment options is required. Cases of SVUC should be reported. PMID:24587922

  17. Basal cell carcinoma and breast carcinoma following repeated fluoroscopic examinations of the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Myskowski, P.L.; Gumpertz, E.; Safai, B.

    1985-03-01

    A 69-year-old white Italian woman was first seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in 1981 concerning several skin growths on her back. The patient had had several basal cell carcinomas surgically removed from her back during the preceding 5 years. There was no history of arsenic ingestion or prolonged sun exposure and her family history was negative for skin cancer. The patient had developed pulmonary tuberculosis in 1938 and was treated with pneumothorax therapy. She had had more than 50 fluoroscopic examinations of the chest following this therapy, as well as multiple diagnostic x-ray films since that time. On the back, clustered in the interscapular region, were multiple scars and nine erythematous nodules with pearly borders, telangiectasia, and translucent surfaces. Within several nodules there were areas of light and dark brown pigmentation. Biopsy of all lesions revealed basal cell carcinoma, some of which were pigmented, without evidence of chronic radiodermatitis. All lesions were treated with curettage and electrodesiccation three times with good cosmetic results.

  18. Targeted Therapy for Orbital and Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Vivian T.; Pfeiffer, Margaret L.; Esmaeli, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To review the literature on targeted therapy for orbital and periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and provide examples of patients recently treated with such therapy. Methods We reviewed the literature on clinical results of targeted therapy and the molecular basis for targeted therapy in orbital and periocular BCC and cutaneous SCC. We also present representative cases from our practice. Results Mutation in the patched gene (PTCH1) has been implicated in BCC, and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown in SCC. Vismodegib, an inhibitor of smoothened, which is activated upon binding of hedgehog to Ptc, has been shown to significantly decrease BCC tumor size or even produce complete resolution, especially in cases of basal cell nevus syndrome. Similarly, EGFR inhibitors have been shown to significantly decrease SCC tumor size in cases of locally advanced and metastatic disease. We describe successful outcomes after vismodegib treatment in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome with numerous bulky lesions of the eyelid and periocular region and erlotinib (EGFR inhibitor) treatment in a patient with SCC who was deemed not to be a good surgical candidate because of advanced SCC of the orbit with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes, advanced age, and multiple medical comorbidities. Conclusion Targeted therapy using hedgehog pathway and EGFR inhibitors shows significant promise in treatment of orbital and periocular BCC and cutaneous SCC, respectively. Such targeted therapy may be appropriate for patients who are not good candidates for surgery. PMID:23446297

  19. Ectopic ACTH Production in Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Gewirtz, George; Yalow, Rosalyn S.

    1974-01-01

    Immunoreactive ACTH was found in almost all tissue extracts of lung carcinoma from patients without clinical evidence of Cushing's syndrome; i.e. 14 of 15 primary tumors, nine of nine metastatic lymph nodes, and four of four metastatic liver nodules contained immunoreactive ACTH. The incidence of ACTH in extracts of other tumor types was much lower. Comparable normal tissues contained no detectable ACTH. Immunoreactive growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, or gastrin was not found in the same carcinoma tissue. The predominant form of ACTH in the tumor extracts was big ACTH. In pituitary extracts little ACTH predominated. 53% of 83 patients with lung carcinoma had afternoon plasma ACTH levels greater than 150 pg/ml; more than 90% of plasmas containing less than 150 pg/ml were obtained from patients who had received radiation therapy or chemotherapy. 31% of 45 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 28% of 25 patients with other severe lung disease, and 6% of 33 controls had elevated values. Big ACTH predominated in the plasma of patients with lung carcinoma or COPD having elevated ACTH levels. Tissue from the lung of a smoking dog with atypical histologic changes contained immunoreactive ACTH, almost exclusively in the big form, while tissue from another smoking dog that was histologically normal contained no ACTH. Thus ACTH may be present even in precancerous lung lesions. These studies suggest that serial plasma ACTH levels may be of value in screening for, and/or management of, patients with carcinoma of the lung. PMID:4360854

  20. LRG1 is an independent prognostic factor for endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shan-Yun; Zhang, Li-Na; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yan-Li; Ma, Li; Ge, Qiu-Lin; Jiang, Shu-Heng; Zhu, Xiao-Lu; Xu, Wei; Ding, Wen-Jing; Yang, Bing-Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Teng, Yin-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common female malignancies. The patients with high-risk factors may have poor prognosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a new molecule to more accurately predict survival of patients. Leucine-rich-alpha-2-glycoprotein1 (LRG1), one of leucine-rich repeat family, was closely associated with cancer metastasis and poor prognosis. The biological functions and the expression level of LRG1 remain obscure in EC. In this study, by immunohistochemical analysis of 242 EC patient tissues, we found that LRG1 expression was associated with stage and lymphatic metastasis in both test cohort (133 patients) and validation cohort (109 patients). Furthermore, to investigate the prognostic value of LRG1 in endometrial carcinoma, we analyzed the correlation between variables and overall survival with Cox proportional hazard regression. The result showed that LRG1 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of endometrial carcinoma patients. To further evaluate the prognostic efficiency of LRG1 in endometrial carcinoma, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of LRG1 in endometrial carcinoma prognosis by logistic regression. The result showed that LRG1 combining with other clinicopathological risk factors was a stronger prognostic model than clinicopathological risk factors alone or their combination. Thus, LRG1 potentially offered clinical value in directing personal treatment for endometrial carcinoma patients. PMID:24760273

  1. Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma with a twist

    PubMed Central

    Nwaeze, Obinna; Obidike, Stephen; Mullen, Dorinda; Aftab, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    Background We report an adnexal lesion, which turned out to be a metastasis to the scalp from a left sided follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer. The patient has had history of right multi-nodular goiter 10 years prior to presentation. Case presentation A 75-year old lady presented with a cutaneous lesion about 1 year post left total thyroidectomy for FVPTC. She underwent surgical excision of the lesion and histology revealed it to be metastases from a thyroid carcinoma. Discussion Cutaneous metastases from thyroid carcinomas are relatively uncommon in clinical practice. A worldwide literature review reveals that follicular carcinoma has a greater preponderance than papillary carcinoma for cutaneous metastasis and that the majority of skin metastases from either papillary or follicular thyroid cancer are localized to the head and neck, with the scalp as the commonest site. Conclusion Skin metastasis from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon occurrence and these lesions should be differentiated from primary skin tumors. They are very important to recognize as early recognition can lead to accurate and prompt diagnosis leading to timely treatment. The scalp has been found to be the commonest site of cutaneous metastasis that may appear benign. PMID:25651538

  2. Cricotracheal resection for laryngeal invasion by thyroid carcinoma: our experience.

    PubMed

    Morisod, Benot; Monnier, Philippe; Simon, Christian; Sandu, Kishore

    2014-08-01

    Invasion of the laryngeal framework by thyroid carcinoma requires specific surgical techniques and carries a higher rate of complications that deserve to be highlighted. We reviewed our data from 1995 to 2012 and found six patients with laryngotracheal invasion by thyroid carcinoma. All underwent total thyroidectomy and single-stage cricotracheal resection, plus anterolateral neck dissection. Three had airway obstruction that necessitated prior endoscopic debulking. None of the patients needed a tracheotomy. There were four cases of papillary carcinoma, and two cases of undifferentiated carcinoma. One patient died of complications of the procedure (anastomotic dehiscence and tracheo-innominate artery fistula). Another died 2 months after the procedure from local recurrence and aspiration pneumonia. One case presented recurrence at 15 months, which was managed by re-excision and adjuvant radiotherapy; after 26 months of follow-up, he has no evidence of locoregional recurrence. The three other patients are alive without evidence of disease at 6, 18 and 41 months, respectively. Cricotracheal resection for subglottic invasion by thyroid carcinoma is an effective procedure, but carries significant risks of complications. This could be attributed to the devascularisation of the tracheal wall due to the simultaneous neck dissection, sacrifice of the strap muscles or of a patch of oesophageal muscle layer. We advocate a sternocleidomastoid flap to cover the anastomosis. Cricotracheal resection for subglottic invasion can be curative with good functional outcomes, even for the advanced stages of thyroid cancer. Endoscopic debulking of the airway prior to the procedure avoids tracheotomy. PMID:24129693

  3. CT pancreatogram in carcinoma of the pancreas and chronic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Karasawa, E.; Goldberg, H.I.; Moss, A.A.; Federle, M.P.; London, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    CT has made it possible to determine the contour of the pancreatic duct, to measure its caliber, and to detect dilatation of the duct. CT scans of 75 patients with pancreatic carcinoma and of 45 patients with chronic pancreatitis were obtained. Dilatation of the pancreatic duct was seen in 56% of patients with carcinoma, and in 70% of those with tumors confined to the pancreatic head and body. Smooth dilatation (43%) or beaded dilatation (40%) were most commonly associated with carcinoma. Ductal dilatation was present in 58% of the patients with chronic pancreatitis, and irregular dilatation was seen in 73% of the patients in this group. About half of the patients who had irregular dilatation had calculi within the ducts. Eight cases of dilatation of the duct with no detectible pancreatic mass were seen in a subgroup of 13 patients who had small carcinomas of the pancreas (tumor size of 3 cm or less). Our findings indicate that a dilated pancreatic duct with a smooth contour and a ratio of duct to total gland width of 0.50 or greater suggests carcinoma as the underlying pathology.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma in functional renal graft: Toward ablative treatments.

    PubMed

    Tillou, Xavier; Guleryuz, Kerem; Collon, Sylvie; Doerfler, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a kidney transplant tumor is a rare but serious issue with a double risk: the return to dialysis and the development of metastatic cancer. Publications on this topic are mainly case reports. The purpose of this review was to report an exhaustive literature review of functional graft renal cell carcinomas to highlight the impact of tumors on the renal graft outcomes. 201 de novo renal carcinomas in functional renal grafts from 69 publications were included. Incidence was estimated at 0.18%. Graft tumors were mostly asymptomatic (85.9%). Whatever the discovery circumstances of graft tumors, they were mostly documented by graft ultrasounds supplemented by CT-scanning or MR imaging. Nephron sparing surgery (95 patients) was the first treatment performed followed by radiofrequency ablation (38 patients) and cryotherapy (10 patients). The most common tumor graft histology was clear cell carcinoma (46.4%), followed by papillary carcinoma (43.7%). Specific mortality was 2.9% with 6 deaths. Renal graft cell carcinoma is a rare pathology with a low specific death. When possible, conservative treatment should be the first choice. PMID:26318289

  5. Persistence of endometrial activity after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, D.; Heller, P.; Dames, J.; Hoskins, W.; Gallup, D.; Park, R.

    1985-12-01

    Radiation therapy is a proved treatment for cervical carcinoma; however, it destroys ovarian function and has been thought to ablate the endometrium. Estrogen replacement therapy is often prescribed for patients with cervical carcinoma after radiation therapy. A review of records of six teaching hospitals revealed 16 patients who had endometrial sampling for uterine bleeding after standard radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. Fifteen patients underwent dilatation and curettage, and one patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy when a dilatation and curettage was unsuccessful. Six patients had fibrosis and inflammation of the endometrial cavity, seven had proliferative endometrium, one had cystic hyperplasia, one had atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and one had adenocarcinoma. Although the number of patients who have an active endometrium after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma is not known, this report demonstrates that proliferative endometrium may persist, and these patients may develop endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma. Studies have indicated that patients with normal endometrial glands have an increased risk of developing endometrial adenocarcinoma if they are treated with unopposed estrogen. Patients who have had radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma should be treated with estrogen and a progestational agent to avoid endometrial stimulation from unopposed estrogen therapy.

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of keratin proteins in urinary bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Asamoto, M; Fukushima, S; Tatemoto, Y; Yamada, K; Fukui, S; Mori, M

    1989-02-01

    Transitional carcinomas of the urinary bladder were examined immunohistochemically for keratin proteins with the use of polyclonal antiserum (TK, 41-65 kDa) and 3 monoclonal antibodies (KL 1, 55-57 kDa; PKK 1, nos. 19, 18, 8; and K 8.12, nos. 16, 13). Umbrella cells gave particularly strong staining for TK, KL 1 and PKK 1, whereas they were negative for K 8.12. Basal- and intermediate-layer cells in urothelial epithelium were moderately positive for all keratins. Brunn's nests cells showed comparatively slight or moderate keratin staining, and K 8.12 staining of Brunn's nests was higher than in urothelial epithelial cells. Transitional carcinoma (grades I and II) indicated uniform keratin distribution, and staining was strong with TK, while that of KL 1, PKK 1 and K 8.12 varied, and grade III tumors showed the lowest intensity of staining. K 8.12 staining in papillary transitional carcinomas was strongly positive in basal located tumor cells, as compared with apical tumor cells. Squamous cell carcinoma was varying positive to keratin reactions dependent on the degree of keratinization. Heterogenity of keratin distribution in papillary transitional carcinomas was given between basal tumor cells and well differentiated tumor cells including umbrella-like cells. PMID:2469067

  7. Collision of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of Anogenital Mammary-like Glands and Vulvar Sarcomatoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tien A N; Deavers, Michael T; Carlson, J Andrew; Malpica, Anais

    2015-09-01

    A spectrum of invasive adenocarcinomas presumably arising from the anogenital mammary-like glands of the vulva has been reported. Even rarer are the cases of pure ductal carcinoma in situ that originated from these unique glandular structures. Herein, we report an 81-yr-old woman presented with an invasive well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Unexpectedly, the underlying dermis demonstrated a cystically dilated structure that displayed a layer of malignant squamous cells in the periphery, and a second centrally located population of neoplastic cells exhibiting glandular differentiation. In addition, a spindle and pleomorphic malignant cell population consistent with a sarcomatoid carcinoma was identified around the cystic structure. Scattered benign anogenital mammary-like glands were present in the adjacent dermis. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with those of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone sarcomatoid transformation after spreading in a pagetoid fashion into an underlying focus of ductal carcinoma in situ of anogenital mammary-like gland origin. PMID:26107561

  8. Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma presenting as acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Wei; Lin, Shan-Zu; Sun, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Yang, An-Hang; Chang, Full-Young; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2013-02-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of hyperparathyroidism, accounting for fewer than 1% of cases. The incidence of acute pancreatitis in patients with hyperparathyroidism was reported to be only 1.5%. We report a very rare case of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma presenting as acute pancreatitis. A 72-year-old man presented with acute pancreatitis and hypercalcemia. During the work-up for hypercalcemia, a mediastinal parathyroid tumor was identified by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor was completely removed via a lower cervical collar incision. The histopathology revealed parathyroid carcinoma. There was no tumor recurrence or abdominal symptoms at 3-year follow-up. PMID:23351422

  9. Hereditary Renal Cell Carcinoma Syndromes: Clinical, Pathologic, and Genetic Features.

    PubMed

    Adeniran, Adebowale J; Shuch, Brian; Humphrey, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinomas associated with syndromes of a heritable nature account for about 4% of all renal cell carcinomas. They are characterized by an earlier age of onset, and are often multicentric and bilateral. Some of these patients may fit into well-characterized kidney cancer syndromes, while many more may have a genetic component that is not fully recognized or understood. The presence of extrarenal clinical features may suggest a specific renal tumor susceptibility syndrome. Moreover, each syndrome is associated with specific renal pathology findings. Recognition of individuals and families with a high risk of renal neoplasia is important so that surveillance for renal tumors may be initiated. This manuscript reviews the clinical, pathological, and molecular features of hereditary renal cell carcinoma syndromes with emphasis on the morphologic features of these tumors and the molecular mechanisms of hereditary renal tumorigenesis. PMID:26559379

  10. Carcinoma of the hand: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, D.J.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    We reviewed our 20-year experience with cutaneous carcinoma of the hand and identified 70 cases (basal cell 23%, squamous cell 77%). The documented risk factors included solar radiation, trauma, and irradiation. Lesions were treated surgically with amputation, excision, skin graft, or flap closure, and nonsurgically with cryosurgery, curettage, 5-fluorouracil, or irradiation. The recurrence was lower with surgical treatment (3%) than with nonsurgical (33%). Regional lymphadenectomy was required in four patients for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Recurrence was greater (9%) and metastasis more common (38%) in patients with Marjolin's type of secondary squamous cell carcinoma than with solar-induced lesions. Cause is an important factor in outcome and should be considered in initial treatment and long-term management.

  11. Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Recurring as Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Demir; Senem, Demiroz Ahu; Ovgu, Aydin; Hakan, Erenel; Sennur, Ilvan; Zerrin, Calay; Fuat, Demirkiran

    2015-01-01

    Only five cases of recurrence of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (carcinosarcoma) from the ovarian carcinoma have been published in the literature to our knowledge. A 64-year-old woman first underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy because of pelvic mass. Histological diagnosis was serous papillary carcinoma of the left ovary. After six courses of chemotherapy, CA125 level returned to normal range. However, she had persistent multiple mediastinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathies in spite of additional six courses of chemotherapy. Then she underwent the second operation about 2 years after primary surgery. Multiple excisional biopsies were taken from subcutaneous tissue, over the bowels and the left external iliac artery. The histopathological diagnosis which was confirmed by immunohistochemical study was malignant mixed Mullerian tumor for all metastatic foci. A rare case of ovarian serous papillary carcinoma recurring as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor is reported. PMID:26713165

  12. Optical diagnosis of mammary ductal carcinoma using advanced optical technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-02-01

    Clinical imaging techniques for diagnosing breast cancer mainly include X-ray mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have respective drawbacks. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become a potentially attractive optical technique to bridge the current gap in clinical utility. In this paper, MPM was used to image normal and ductal cancerous breast tissues, based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Our results showed that MPM has the ability to exhibit the microstructure of normal breast tissue, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) lesions at the molecular level comparable to histopathology. These findings indicate that, with integration of MPM into currently accepted clinical imaging system, it has the potential to make a real-time histological diagnosis of mammary ductal carcinoma in vivo.

  13. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Mendaolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Maringela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hlio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype.

  14. Azo pigments and a basal cell carcinoma at the thumb.

    PubMed

    Engel, Eva; Ulrich, Heidi; Vasold, Rudolf; Knig, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Sttinger, Rudolf; Bumler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of the skin, whereas the localization at the nail unit is very rare. We report the case of a 58-year-old patient with a periungual basal cell carcinoma at the thumb. The specific feature of the reported case is the frequent exposure to fishing baits that the patient had stained with an unknown colorant. The use of chromatography, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy revealed the colorant as the azo pigment Solvent Red 8. Solvent Red 8 is a widespread synthetic azo pigment that is applied to stain consumer products. Compounds such as Solvent Red 8 can be cleaved to carcinogenic amines under, for example, light exposure, in particular after incorporation into the human body. As a result of the frequent skin contact to this azo pigment, this hazard compound might have induced the basal cell carcinoma in our patient. PMID:18032904

  15. Biomarker signatures of mitochondrial NDUFS3 in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suhane, Sonal; Berel, Dror; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2011-09-01

    We present evidence for potential biomarker utility of a mitochondrial complex I subunit, (NDUFS3) in discriminating normal and highly invasive breast carcinoma specimens obtained from clinical patients. Besides being a robust indicator of breast cancer aggressiveness, NDUFS3 also shows clear signatures of a hypoxia/necrosis marker in invasive ductal carcinoma specimens. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between nuclear grade and NDUFS3 expression level in the tumor specimens analyzed. We support these findings with a plausible mechanism involving mitochondrial complex I assembly defects and/or redox buffering induced mitochondrial dysfunction during the process of cancer cell transformation. From a clinical standpoint, this novel observation adds value in augmenting the current receptor-based biomarkers for better accuracy in diagnosis and predicting survival rate in patients with breast carcinoma. PMID:21867691

  16. Induction of Leukaemia by 131I Treatment of Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brincker, H.; Hansen, H. S.; Andersen, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    The records of 194 patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131I, representing all cases thus treated in Denmark from 1948 to 1972, were reviewed. Two cases of myeloid leukaemia were found compared with 0097 expected cases of non-lymphocytic leukaemia (005 > P > 001). In 5 series of 131I treated thyroid carcinomata, 10 cases of myeloid leukaemia occurred in a total of 487 patients, corresponding to a frequency of leukaemia of about 2%. These findings appear to show that 131I treatment of thyroid carcinoma is associated with a certain risk of development of leukaemia. This risk must be considered when treatment of localized thyroid carcinoma is planned. PMID:4517840

  17. Ovarian serous carcinoma: recent concepts on its origin and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recent morphologic and molecular genetic studies have led to a paradigm shift in our conceptualization of the carcinogenesis and histogenesis of pelvic (non-uterine) serous carcinomas. It appears that both low-grade and high-grade pelvic serous carcinomas that have traditionally been classified as ovarian in origin, actually originate, at least in a significant subset, from the distal fallopian tube. Clonal expansions of the tubal secretory cell probably give rise to serous carcinomas, and the degree of ciliated conversion is a function of the degree to which the genetic hits deregulate normal differentiation. In this article, the authors review the evidentiary basis for aforementioned paradigm shift, as well as its potential clinical implications. PMID:22405464

  18. Primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Minni, A; Roukos, R; De Carlo, A; Di Tillo, G; Illuminati, G; Gallo, P

    2012-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an extremely rare neoplasm but is common in the major and minor salivary glands accounting of approximately 30% of all malignant tumors arising from these glands. Cutaneous involvement should be carefully assessed to exclude the possibility of metastases from distant sites. We report an 81 year-old man presenting a primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma infiltrating his left parotid gland. Excision of the affected skin and a total parotidectomy with supraomohyoid neck dissection (level I-III) was performed followed by radiotherapy. No relapse after 2 years follow up has been observed. Since the primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that frequently develops metastases it is important to distinguish it from primary MEC originating from the salivary glands for better management and suitable therapeutic decisions. PMID:23090800

  19. Photodynamic therapy in patients with recurrent gynecological carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, Heinz; Mueller, Elisabeth; Kostron, Herwig

    1993-03-01

    Patients with recurrent gynecological carcinomas have a poor prognosis with a median survival time of 3 - 6 months. Four patients with recurrent vulva carcinomas, one patient with a recurrent breast cancer, and one with a recurrent cervical carcinoma underwent PDT after parenteral or topical sensitization with Photosan 3. Of those patients two women made a complete recovery with no evidence of disease 27 and 24 months after. One patient responded partially with two recurrences which were retreated twice after topical sensitization, she has survived 16 months. The remaining patients showed partial response and died 3 and 8 months after PDT. The energy delivered by an argon-dye-laser ranged between 225 and 750 J/cm2. Photosan 3 was given intravenously at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight and was tolerated without any allergic reaction. A response rate of nearly 50% in recurrent gynecological malignancies encourages us to pursue PDT in gynecological diseases.

  20. [Panuveitis associated with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Pierru, A; Tieulie, N; Gastaud, P; Baillif, S

    2013-12-01

    Ocular involvement secondary to thyroid carcinomas is uncommon. Uveal metastasis may occur. More rarely, they can be responsible for paraneoplastic syndromes. We report the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with a severe bilateral panuveitis with venous vasculitis associated with hyperthyroidism from a multinodular goiter, complicated by papillary carcinoma. Systemic steroid therapy was initiated; ocular symptoms resolved completely after total thyroidectomy. Other causes of panuveitis with venous vasculitis were ruled out. This is the first reported case of panuveitis associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma. The occurrence of the ocular symptoms with hyperthyroidism and their remission after surgery supports the possibility that this association may not be coincidental. A paraneoplastic phenomenon is suspected. PMID:24211307

  1. Case report: microcystic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Radopoulos, Demetrios; Kalyvas, Konstantinos; Kotakidou, Rodi; Panagiotopoulou, Konstantina; Katsikas, Vasilios; Papathanasiou, Michalis

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of microcystic transitional cell carcinoma involving the urinary bladder, in a 38-year-old man, and we add our experience in the treatment of this neoplasm. The tumor was muscle invasive, and a radical cystectomy was performed. The patient received no postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and he has not signs of local recurrence or distal metastasis after 3 years of intense follow up. Even though the number of cases documented so far, is insufficient to draw safe conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of the microcystic variant of transitional cell carcinoma. Our case indicates that even in cases of microcystic transitional cell carcinoma with infiltrative nature, aggressive therapy is associated with good control of the disease locally and distally. PMID:16142558

  2. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Anne C; Sun, Michelle T; James, Craig; Huilgol, Shyamala C; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-12-01

    An elderly woman was incidentally noted to have a nodular mass on the upper eyelid, whilst under investigation for cataracts. Punch biopsy of this presumed basal cell carcinoma revealed it to be endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC). The tumour extended to the deep dermal layer and comprised solid nests with foci of cystic and papillary change, and additional cytoplasmic and focal extracellular mucin deposits. Immunohistochemistry confirmed epithelial lineage and neuroendocrine differentiation, and adjacent tissue invasion. The tumour was excised completely with Mohs micrographic surgery with no recurrence after 8months. EMPSGC is a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma with variable neuroendocrine differentiation, a solid, papillary, or cystic growth pattern, and a predilection for the eyelid of elderly women [Am J Surg Pathol 29:1330-1339, 2005]. There have been 54 previously documented cases of EMPSCG. We report an additional case and review the literature. PMID:26373656

  3. Pathology of gallbladder carcinoma: current understanding and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bal, Munita Meenu; Ramadwar, Mukta; Deodhar, Kedar; Shrikhande, Shailesh

    2015-07-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare and highly lethal malignancy. It stands out from amongst the other GI tract malignancies for its unique epidemiological profile, proclivity for female gender, definitional ambiguities, ability to escape early diagnosis, and absence of effective treatment. Pathobiology of gallbladder carcinoma continues to remain poorly understood. Recently, better characterization of the precursor lesions and elucidation of underlying molecular pathways has enhanced our understanding of gallbladder tumorigenesis. Proposal of a unified terminology and evolving consensus in classifying gallbladder pre-invasive neoplasia offers hope of better assimilation of rare data from diverse parts of the world. Identifying biomarkers and cancer specific cellular targets that will pave the way for novel therapeutic approaches for gallbladder carcinoma is urgently needed. In this review we delve into the epidemiologic, genetic and pathologic characteristics of this enigmatic disease with a special focus on the recent advancements in the field of gallbladder pathology. PMID:25618479

  4. Glottic carcinoma. The roles of surgery and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.J.; Johns, M.E.; Clark, D.A.; Cantrell, R.W.

    1984-06-15

    The treatment of 336 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx seen at the University of Virginia Medical Center from 1960 through 1977 was reviewed. Two hundred eighty-five patients form the basis of this report. Patients were grouped by stage and by other prognostic factors. Five-year actuarial survival, recurrences, salvage therapy, complications, second primaries, and incidence in patients younger than 45-years-old were examined. The actuarial 5-year survivals are Stage I, 96%; Stage II, 88%; Stage III, 65%; and Stage IV, 57%. Early glottic carcinoma responded equally well to radiation therapy or surgery, and mortality from intercurrent disease was more common than death from glottic carcinoma. Anterior commissure involvement was not found to significantly decrease prognosis in Stage I disease. Within Stage II, patients with impaired true cord mobility had a significantly decreased survival, 71%, versus 93% for Stage II carcinoma with mobile cords. Surgery was superior to irradiation when cord mobility was impaired or fixed. Surgical salvage was successful in 70% of cases when the cords were originally mobile but 11% when cord motion had been impaired or fixed. Patients younger than age 45 years presented with more advanced disease, but by stage, treatment response did not differ from the remaining older group. Based on this review and from data reported in the literature, the authors recommend curative radiation therapy in patients with glottic carcinoma where the vocal cords are fully mobile. When cord mobility is impaired or fixed, the inclusion of surgery in the initial management results increased survival over irradiation alone. Recognizing that glottic carcinoma is often part of a multisystem disease, individualization of treatment is especially important in these advanced tumors.

  5. Considerations regarding current diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, CG; Gheonea, IA; S?ndulescu, LD; Gheonea, DI; Ciurea, T; Purcarea, MR

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major health issue, ranked the fifth most common tumor and currently being responsible for a third of the cancer-related deaths globally, with an ever-increasing number of fatalities. Current advances in contrast-enhanced imaging techniques such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, multi-detector computed tomography and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are improving the rate of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has widely become the first choice in liver tumor assessment, as it is faster, simpler and safer than other forms of diagnostic imaging. On the other hand, cross sectional computed tomography is frequently employed when a hepatic formation is suspected of malignancy and allows a more accurate characterization of lesions through multiphasic multi-detector computed tomography technology. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging represents another addition to the wide range of diagnostic and prognostic techniques available for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and is currently regarded as one of the best tools for the characterization of these lesions. Furthermore, groundbreaking biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma are being discovered, although alpha-fetoprotein remains one of the most frequently used serum test in the early stages. Nonetheless, further advances are required for the detection of small liver carcinomas. Abbreviations : AASLD = American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, AFP = Alpha-fetoprotein, AFP-L3 = Alpha-fetoprotein isoform 3, CEUS = Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, DCP = Des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin, DW-MRI = Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, FNA = Fine neddle aspiration, Gd-EOB-DTPA = Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, GGT-II = Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase II, GP73 = Golgi protein 73, HCC = Hepatocellular carcinoma, HCCR-1 = Human cervical cancer proto-oncogene 1, IL-18 = Interleukin 18, MDCT = Multi-detector computed tomography, PET-CT = Positron emission tomography computed tomography, SUV = Standardized Uptake Value PMID:25866565

  6. Differential expression of degradome components in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Nijaguna B; Fischer, Anne C; Chuang, Alice Y; Wright, Jerry M; Yang, Ting; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Westra, William H; Liegeois, Nanette J; Hess, Allan D; Tufaro, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    Although the cure rate for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is high, the diverse spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma has made it difficult for early diagnosis, particularly the aggressive tumors that are highly associated with mortality. Therefore, molecular markers are needed as an adjunct to current staging methods for diagnosing high-risk lesions, and stratifying those patients with aggressive tumors. To identify such biomarkers, we have examined a comprehensive set of 200 histologically defined squamous cell carcinoma and normal skin samples by using a combination of microarray, QRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. A characteristic and distinguishable profile including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) as well as other degradome components was differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin samples. The expression levels of some of these genes including matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1), matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10), parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS), interleukin 6 (IL6) and reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) were significantly differentially expressed (P?0.02) in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin. Furthermore, based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 are significantly higher in aggressive tumors compared with non-aggressive tumors. Given that MMPs represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis, we believe that they may have an important role in modulating the tumor microenvironment of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24356192

  7. Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Bile Duct Tumor Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong; Xu, Lei-bo; Wen, Jian-ming; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Man-sheng; Shi, Xiang-de; Liu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT) is a rare entity, most patients experience tumor recurrence even after curative resection and the prognosis remains dismal. This study aimed to analyze the clinicopathological risk factors for recurrence and poor outcome after surgical treatment of HCC with BDTT. Clinicopathological data of 37 patients with HCC and BDTT who underwent surgical treatment from July 2005 to June 2012 at the authors hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Prognostic factors and potential risk factors for recurrence were assessed by Cox proportional hazard model and binary logistic regression model, respectively. Among the 37 patients, anatomical and nonanatomical liver resection was performed in 26 and 11 patients, respectively. The resection was considered curative in 19 patients and palliative in 18 patients. Also, 21 cases had tumor recurrence after operation and 7 cases of them were reoperated. Multivariate binary logistic regression model revealed that surgical curability was the only independent risk factor associated with postoperative tumor recurrence (P?=?0.034). In addition, postoperative overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 64.2%, 38.9%, and 24.3%, respectively. Cox multivariate analysis indicated that surgical curability and tumor recurrence were independent prognostic factors for both overall survival and recurrence-free survival (P?

  8. [Hepatic artery embolization for primary hepatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ye, W J

    1989-03-01

    Twenty patients with primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) treated by hepatic arterial embolization in our department from Dec. 1986 to Mar. 1987 are reported. There were 15 males and 5 females. The ages ranged from 34 to 75 years with an average of 50.7. Preoperative diagnosis and localization of the tumor were done by AFP, B-us, CT and angiography (right lobe 15 cases, left lobe 1 case, both lobes 4 cases). Celiac and superior mesenteric angiography was carried out by femoral artery approach and then highly selective hepatic catheterization was utilized for hepatic arterial embolization. Antitumor agent (5-Fu, adriamycin), iophendylate and foamy gel sponge were used for peripheral and proximal embolization. Manifestations were improved in most of the patients after embolization, such as relief of abdominal pain, improvement of appetite, decrease of tumor size. Total necrosis of the tumor was found in 2 patients who underwent surgery 1 month after embolization. The side effects of the posthepatic embolization such as, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever could be relieved by symptomatic treatment. No severe complications, such as gangrene of the gall bladder, hepatic failure, liver abscess, intestinal necrosis or pulmonary embolization were found except 3 patients who died of renal failure after the procedure. The liver dys-function returned to normal within 2 weeks. Hepatic arterial embolization provides an alternative treatment for the patients with PHC who has compensated liver function without severe systemic diseases, especially renal endocrine problems and severe portal hypertension. They should have patent portal system as proved by angiography. The authors considered that this therapeutic embolization with hepatic chemotherapy infusion is safe and effective in the management of PHC. It may increase the resectability and provide palliative means for the advanced and terminal cases. PMID:2553366

  9. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, Gary D. Wang Lishu; Chen Tong

    2007-11-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC.

  10. Genetic Landscape and Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Villanueva, Augusto; Nault, Jean-Charles; Llovet, Josep M

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has emerged as a major cause of cancer-related death. Its mortality has increased in Western populations, with a minority of patients diagnosed at early stages, when curative treatments are feasible. Only the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is available for the management of advanced cases. During the last 10 years, there has been a clear delineation of the landscape of genetic alterations in HCC, including high-level DNA amplifications in chromosome 6p21 (VEGFA) and 11q13 (FGF19/CNND1), as well as homozygous deletions in chromosome 9 (CDKN2A). The most frequent mutations affect TERT promoter (60%), associated with an increased telomerase expression. TERT promoter can also be affected by copy number variations and hepatitis B DNA insertions, and it can be found mutated in preneoplastic lesions. TP53 and CTNNB1 are the next most prevalent mutations, affecting 25%-30% of HCC patients, that, in addition to low-frequency mutated genes (eg, AXIN1, ARID2, ARID1A, TSC1/TSC2, RPS6KA3, KEAP1, MLL2), help define some of the core deregulated pathways in HCC. Conceptually, some of these changes behave as prototypic oncogenic addiction loops, being ideal biomarkers for specific therapeutic approaches. Data from genomic profiling enabled a proposal of HCC in 2 major molecular clusters (proliferation and nonproliferation), with differential enrichment in prognostic signatures, pathway activation and tumor phenotype. Translation of these discoveries into specific therapeutic decisions is an unmeet medical need in this field. PMID:26099527

  11. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Andolino, David L.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Maluccio, Mary; Kwo, Paul; Tector, A. Joseph; Zook, Jennifer; Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Cardenes, Higinia R.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2009, 60 patients with liver-confined HCC were treated with SBRT at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center: 36 Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) Class A and 24 CTP Class B. The median number of fractions, dose per fraction, and total dose, was 3, 14 Gy, and 44 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class A cirrhosis and 5, 8 Gy, and 40 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class B. Treatment was delivered via 6 to 12 beams and in nearly all cases was prescribed to the 80% isodose line. The records of all patients were reviewed, and treatment response was scored according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: The median follow-up time was 27 months, and the median tumor diameter was 3.2 cm. The 2-year LC, PFS, and OS were 90%, 48%, and 67%, respectively, with median TTP of 47.8 months. Subsequently, 23 patients underwent transplant, with a median time to transplant of 7 months. There were no {>=}Grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities. Thirteen percent of patients experienced an increase in hematologic/hepatic dysfunction greater than 1 grade, and 20% experienced progression in CTP class within 3 months of treatment. Conclusions: SBRT is a safe, effective, noninvasive option for patients with HCC {<=}6 cm. As such, SBRT should be considered when bridging to transplant or as definitive therapy for those ineligible for transplant.

  12. Angiogenic Blockade and Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Liao, Chao-Sheng; Chang, Chih-Chia; Ko, Hui-Ling; Tsang, Yuk-Wah; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: We report our preliminary experience of combining sunitinib and helical tomotherapy in patients with advanced HCC. Methods and Materials: Records of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with helical tomotherapy and sunitinib after radiation therapy (RT) from March 2007 to August 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. We report acute toxicities, radiologic response, serial {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP) kinetics, and survival. Results: Of 23 evaluable patients, 60% had {>=}2 hepatic lesions, extrahepatic disease was present in 5 (21.7%), and all received 2 tablets (25 mg) of sunitinib at least 1 week before, during, and 2 weeks after RT. Thirteen patients continued maintenance sunitinib after RT until disease progression. Hypofractionated RT with a median target dose of 52.5 Gy/15 fractions was delivered. An objective response was achieved in 74% of patients. The 1-year survival rate was 70%, with median survival of 16 months. Multivariate analysis showed that maintenance sunitinib was the most significant factor for survival. The time to progression was 10 months in the maintenance group compared with 4 months in the control group. Eighteen out of 21 patients with elevated AFP (85.7%) had {>=}50% decline of AFP within 2 months after RT. There were three episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and one episode of pancreatitis; 10 patients had {>=}Grade 2 elevation of liver enzymes, and 15 had {>=}Grade 2 thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that sunitinib and helical tomotherapy yield high Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and AFP response rates in advanced HCC with an acceptable safety profile. Maintenance sunitinib after RT potentially prolongs survival. A randomized trial is warranted.

  13. Prevertebral muscle involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, A.-C.; Wu, M.-C.; Tsai, Stella Y.C. . E-mail: afeng@mail.kfcc.org.tw; Chan, K.-Y.; Cheng, Skye H.; Wang, Angel; Chen, S.-S.; Jian, James J.; Terng, S.-D.; Huang, Andrew T.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of prevertebral muscle involvement in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: Between July 1990 and December 2001, 521 newly diagnosed patients with NPC treated at Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center (KF-SYSCC) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evidence of prevertebral muscle involvement before treatment. Patients were staged according to the 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging classification of NPC based on the physical exams and MRI findings. All patients received radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. The association between clinical prevertebral muscle involvement and posttreatment outcomes (overall survival, locoregional recurrence, and distant metastasis) were evaluated using Cox regression model to adjust for other prognostic factors. Results: Of 521 patients treated at KF-SYSCC, 181 (35%) patients were found to have prevertebral muscle involvement, one-third in those with Stage II/III tumors and two-thirds in those with Stage IV tumor. In multivariate analysis accounting for all previously known prognostic factors, prevertebral muscle invasion was associated with an increased risk for any recurrence (adjusted relative risk, 2.01; p < 0.001), locoregional recurrence (adjusted relative risk, 2.69; p < 0.001), and distant metastasis (adjusted relative risk, 2.25; p < 0.001), and with a borderline significant increased risk for overall survival (adjusted relative risk, 1.44; p = 0.10). Conclusions: Prevertebral muscle involvement is an independent prognostic factor for NPC recurrence.

  14. Prognostic factors of spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiang-Jun; Su, Hong-Ying; Shao, Hai-Bo; Xu, Ke

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic factors in patients with spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Seventy-nine patients experiencing spontaneous rupture of HCC between April 2004 and August 2014 were enrolled in this study. The clinical features, treatment modalities and outcomes were reviewed. The statistical methods used in this work included univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank tests, and multivariate analysis using a Cox regression hazard model. RESULTS: Of the 79 patients with HCC rupture, 17 (21.5%) underwent surgery, 32 (40.5%) underwent transarterial embolization (TAE), and 30 (38%) received conservative treatment. The median survival time was 125 d, and the mortality rate at 30 d was 27.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed that lesion length (HR = 1.46, P < 0.001), lesion number (HR = 1.37, P = 0.042), treatment before tumor rupture (HR = 4.36, P = 0.019), alanine transaminase levels (HR = 1.0, P = 0.011), bicarbonate levels (HR = 1.18, P < 0.001), age (HR = 0.96, P = 0.026), anti-tumor therapy during the follow-up period (HR = 0.21, P = 0.008), and albumin levels (HR = 0.89, P = 0.010) were independent prognostic factors of survival after HCC rupture. The Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage was also an important prognostic factor; the median survival times for BCLC stages A, B and C were 251, 175 and 40 d, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Anti-tumor therapy during the follow-up period, without a history of anti-tumor therapy prior to HCC rupture, small tumor length and number, and early BCLC stage are the most crucial predictors associated with satisfactory overall survival. Other factors play only a small role in overall survival. PMID:26139994

  15. Hyponatremia in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicating with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Ohara, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Azusa; Saito, Sumio; Nishijima, Norihiro; Nasu, Akihiro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: We aimed to investigate the effect of serum sodium level on survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients complicating with liver cirrhosis (LC). Methods: A total of 1170 HCC patients with LC were analysed. We classified these patients into three groups according to serum sodium level at HCC diagnosis: group A (n=96); serum sodium ?135 mmol/L, group B (n=520); 135 mmol/L < serum sodium ?140 mmol/L, group C (n=554); serum sodium >140 mmol/L. We compared the baseline characteristics and overall survival (OS) among these three groups. Furthermore, we examined the factors linked to OS using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: In our results, decreased baseline serum sodium level was significantly associated with Child-Pugh classification and HCC stage along with several laboratory parameters in groups A, B and C. The median follow-up period was 1.1 years in group A, 2.4 years in group B and 3.3 years in group C. The 1-, 3- and 5-year cumulative OS rates in groups A, B and C were 64.8%, 46.9% and 25.7%, respectively, in group A, 85.5%, 60.5% and 41.1%, respectively, in group B and 90.7%, 66.6% and 48.2%, respectively, in group C (P<0.001). The multivariate analyses showed that Child-Pugh classification (P<0.001), HCC stage (P<0.001), serum sodium (P<0.001), aspartate aminotransferase ?57 IU/L (P=0.002), alkaline phosphatase ?348 IU/L (P<0.001), alpha-fetoprotein ?29.2 ng/mL (P=0.019) and des-?-carboxy prothrombin ?55 mAU/mL (P<0.001) were significant independent predictors linked to OS. Conclusion: Lower serum sodium concentration is a useful predictor in HCC patients complicating with LC. PMID:25874013

  16. Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Premashis

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of death all over the world, more so in Asia and Africa. The representative data on epidemiology of HCC in India is very scanty and cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. 45 million people who are suffering from chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 15 million people who are afflicted with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. HBV and HCV infection is considered an important etiologic factor in HCC. Positive association between HCC and consumption of alcohol where alcohol contribute as a cofactor for hepatotoxins and hepatitis viruses. Aflatoxin contamination in the diets, Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis in Andhra Pradesh, India and direct chronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of liver of any cause lead to develop about 70%90% of HCC. Aflatoxin interact synergistically with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which increase the risk of HCC. HBV infection, HBV infection with Aflatoxin exposure, viral infection and alcohol consumption leading to overt cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol consumption leading to cirrhosis of the liver with viral infection are the predominant risk factor for the development of HCC. HCV and alcohol are also associated with HCC in India. Indians develop diabetes at younger age, Asians have strong genetic susceptibility for type II diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is identified as a risk factor for HCC. Prevention of viral infection by universal vaccination against hepatitis virus, HCC surveillance program, preventing alcoholic liver diseases, fungal contamination of grains and ground crops to prevent basically Aflatoxin exposure are important measures to prevent liver diseases and HCC among those at risk. PMID:25755609

  17. Quality of life and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Khubchandani, Sapna; Iyer, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and rapidly fatal cancer ranking third among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Potentially curative therapies like surgery, transplant and ablation are not an option for most patients as they are often diagnosed when the disease is advanced. Liver directed therapy and oral targeted therapies are used in these patients to prolong life and palliate symptoms of the cancer and associated liver failure. Overall survival remains poor and hence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is of paramount importance in these patients. As novel therapies are developed to improve outcomes, a comprehensive knowledge of available tools to assess impact on QoL is needed. Hence we reviewed all the studies in HCC patients published within the last 13 years from 2001-2013 which assessed HRQoL as a primary or secondary endpoint. A total of 45 studies and 4 meta-analysis were identified. Commonly used tools were European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) (15 studies) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary Questionnaire (FACT-Hep) (14 studies). Of the 45 publications which incorporated HRQoL as end-point only 24 were clinical trials, 17/24 (71%) assessed systemic therapies while 7/24 (29%) assessed liver-directed therapies. Majority of the publications (trials + retrospective reviews) that had HRQoL as an endpoint in HCC patients were studies evaluating liver-directed therapies (23/45 or >50%). We discuss the measures included in the tools, their interpretation, and summarize existing QoL data that will help design future HCC trials. PMID:25083303

  18. Cutaneous Metastases from Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, I; Bruney, GF; Sands, C; Shirodkar, G; Recine, M

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the advances in imaging, earlier detection of recurrence and metastatic disease is possible. However, there are limited data on the metastatic pattern of bladder cancer. In addition, cutaneous metastases from primary genitourinary malignancies are rare and, in spite of advances in imaging which detect smaller lesions, the patterns of metastases from bladder cancer have not been well described. Very few cases of skin metastasis from urothelial carcinoma have been reported in the past. We present a case of primary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in which a cutaneous metastasis was the initial presentation. PMID:25781301

  19. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Manav, Alper Nesip; Kazan, Ercan; Ertek, Mehmet ?irin; Amasyal?, Ak?n Soner; ulhac?, Nil; Erol, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling. PMID:25120937

  20. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia radiologically mimicking osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Laurence Patrick; O'Neill, Barry James; Quinlan, John Francis

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old lady with transitional cell carcinoma and no evidence of metastatic disease presenting with gradual weight loss, pretibial swelling and painful weightbearing. Investigations revealed a lesion of the right tibial diaphysis. The radiological and clinical appearance was that of primary osteosarcoma. Biopsy results revealed metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia. Intramedullary nailing was performed which relieved pain on weightbearing. The patient declined radiotherapy and was started on a palliative care regimen. This case illustrates the importance of histological diagnosis in the treatment of diaphyseal lesions. PMID:24172772

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva: A diagnostic enigma

    PubMed Central

    Bharanidharan, R; Dineshkumar, T; Raghavendhar, Karthik; Kumar, A Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignant neoplasm affecting the oral cavity; early detection is an important criterion for achieving high cure rate. Occasionally, it may be misdiagnosed because of its variable and innocuous clinical appearance. Carcinomas of the gingiva are a unique subset of OSCC, constituting approximately 10% of OSCCs and can mimic a multitude of oral lesions especially those of inflammatory origin with benign features, often leading to delay in the diagnosis and hence delayed treatment. This article reports a rare case of gingival OSCC in a 62-year-old female patient mimicking an inflammatory gingival mass. PMID:26604512

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M; Tomlinson, D; Stewart, S

    1995-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus accounts for 2%-3% of all malignancies of the lower gastrointestinal tract. There is an increased incidence in homosexual males who practise receptive and anal intercourse [1]. We report on three cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), all of whom were treated with conventional radiotherapy. Increased normal tissue damage with delayed healing was a severe problem in each patient. This led to prolonged delays in delivering an adequate dose of radiotherapy to the site of disease. Reasons for this are explored and suggestions made for the treatment of such patients in the future. PMID:7727308

  3. Fascin1 in carcinomas: Its regulation and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yafeng; Machesky, Laura M

    2015-12-01

    Previous cell biological studies demonstrate that the actin bundling protein fascin1 regulates cell motility, migration and invasion. Human studies demonstrate that fascin1 is upregulated in many epithelial cancers. This review gives a brief overview of the role of fascin1 in cell migration and invasion, but focuses mainly on the regulation and clinical relevance of fascin1 in epithelial cancers. Here, we propose fascin1 as a potent prognostic biomarker for breast, colorectal, esophageal cancers and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Fascin1 may also be an attractive drug target against these carcinomas in the future, but more studies are needed. PMID:25302416

  4. [Follow-up after radiotherapy of anal canal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Meillan, N; Huguet, F; Peiffert, D

    2015-10-01

    Anal canal carcinoma is a rare and curable disease for which the standard of care is radiation therapy with concurrent 5-fluoro-uracil and mitomycine-based chemotherapy. Post-treatment follow-up however is rather poorly defined. This article offers a review of the various post-treatment surveillance options both for early diagnosis of relapse and care for late treatment effects. While follow-up remains mostly clinical, we will discuss morphologic (endorectal echoendoscopy, pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, tomodensitometry and positron emission tomography) and biologic (squamous cell carcinoma antigen and pathology) follow-up so as to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:26323891

  5. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Atmaca, Hulusi; olak, Ramis; Yazici, Zihni Acar; Kefeli, Mehmet; Tosun, Fevziye Canbaz

    2015-01-01

    Graves disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) also within Graves thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far. PMID:26110000

  6. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Hulusi; olak, Ramis; Yazici, Zihni Acar; Kefeli, Mehmet; Tosun, Fevziye Canbaz

    2015-04-01

    Graves' disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) also within Graves' thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves' disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far. PMID:26110000

  7. Anal squamous cell carcinoma: An evolution in disease and management

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Marc C; Maykel, Justin; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Anal cancer represents less than 1% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. Yet, despite the relative paucity of cases, the incidence of anal cancer has seen a steady about 2% rise each year over the last decade. As such, all healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the evaluation and treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma. While chemoradiation remains the mainstay of therapy for most patients with anal cancer, surgery may still be required in recurrent, recalcitrant and palliative disease. In this manuscript, we will explore the diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. PMID:25278699

  8. Isolated adrenal masses in nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Bernardino, M.E.; Miller, J.I.; Mansour, K.; Greene, D.; Davis, W.A.

    1984-10-01

    Computed tomography has become an important diagnostic modality in the preoperative staging of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. The adrenal glands represent one of the most frequent sites of metastasis. Therefore, an isolated adrenal mass discovered on preoperative thoracoabdominal CT poses a diagnostic problem. Three hundred thirty patients with histologically proved nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma were evaluated. Thirty-two had adrenal masses without further evidence of disease in the abdomen, Eight of these 32 masses were metastases, 17 were proved adenomas, and 7 did not undergo biopsy. Thus an isolated adrenal mass is more likely benign than metastatic, and biopsy is advocated prior to withholding potentially curative surgery.

  9. A Case of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Pancreatic Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Choulki; Kim, Youn Hwa; Hwang, Eun Jung; Na, Ki Yong; Kim, Kyung-Yup; Park, Jae Hyun; Chang, Young Woon

    2013-01-01

    Solitary pancreatic metastasis of esophageal cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a 58-year-old male admitted with esophageal cancer. Additional asymptomatic solitary hepatic and pancreatic masses were observed in the staging work-up for esophageal cancer. The hepatic mass was confirmed as a primary hepatocellular carcinoma with an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy. An esophagectomy with a distal pancreatectomy and radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma were performed. Histologically, the pancreatic mass was confirmed to be a metastasis from the esophageal cancer. The patient has been followed up with chemotherapy. PMID:23614134

  10. The epidemiology and etiology of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Busnardo, B; De Vido, D

    2000-07-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a rare tumor with a relatively good prognosis, but in about 10% of cases it may be the cause of death. Papillary carcinoma is more frequent (about 70-80% of cases) and less aggressive than follicular cancer: the papillary/follicular ratio is increased in areas of high iodine intake. In recent years many genes have been found to be mutated in DTC, the most important of these being ras, ret, trk, and met. The relationship between radiation exposure and DTC is well recognized, especially in children. Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, a high incidence of DTC has been found in children exposed to fallout. PMID:10989966

  11. High-Level Microsatellite Instability in Appendiceal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, Melissa W.; Galbincea, John; Mansfield, Paul F.; Fournier, Keith F.; Royal, Richard E.; Overman, Michael J.; Rashid, Asif; Abraham, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    High-level microsatellite instability (MSI-high) is found in approximately 15% of all colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs) and in at least 20% of right-sided cancers. It is most commonly due to somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter region, with familial cases (Lynch syndrome) representing only 23% of CRCs overall. In contrast to CRC, MSI-high in appendiceal adenocarcinomas is rare. Only four MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas and one MSI-high appendiceal serrated adenoma have been previously reported, and the prevalence of MSI in the appendix is unknown. We identified 108 appendiceal carcinomas from M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in which MSI status had been assessed by immunohistochemistry for the DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (n=83), polymerase chain reaction (n=7), or both (n=18). Three cases (2.8%) were MSI-high and one was MSI-low. The three MSI-high cases included: 1) a poorly differentiated nonmucinous adenocarcinoma with loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, lack of MLH1 promoter methylation, and lack of BRAF gene mutation, but no detected germline mutation in MLH1 from a 39-year-old man; 2) an undifferentiated carcinoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6, but no detected germline mutation in MSH2 or TACSTD1, from a 59-year-old woman; and 3) a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6 expression, in a 38-year-old man with a strong family history of CRC who declined germline testing. When the overall group of appendiceal carcinomas was classified according to histologic features and precursor lesions, the frequencies of MSI-high were: 3 of 108 (2.8%) invasive carcinomas, 3 of 96 (3.1%) invasive carcinomas that did not arise from a background of goblet cell carcinoid, and 0 of 12 (0%) signet ring and mucinous carcinomas arising in goblet cell carcinoid tumors. These findings, in conjunction with the previously reported MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas, highlight the low prevalence of MSI in the appendix as compared to the right colon and suggest that MLH1 promoter methylation is not a mechanism for microsatellite instability in this location. PMID:23648460

  12. "Hidden" bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma: a clinical note.

    PubMed

    Sioka, C; Skarulis, M C; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Heiss, J D; Reynolds, J C

    2014-01-01

    The (131)I-iodide ((131)I) whole-body scan, for thyroid carcinoma is at times difficult to interpret. In a diagnostic whole body (131)I scan of a patient with follicular carcinoma, a posterior skull lesion was partially hidden by overlapping facial structures. On lateral head view, the abnormality was clearly evident. SPECT/CT and MRI showed the lesion originated in the occipital bone and had enlarged into the posterior fossa. The mass was surgically removed and the patient received (131)I therapy for residual tissue. The study demonstrates a pitfall in the reading of two dimensional radioiodine images which can be overcome by SPECT or lateral imaging. PMID:23845451

  13. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the fallopian tube: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Polat; Salman, Mehmet Coskun; Taskiran, Cagatay; Usubutun, Alp; Ayhan, Ali

    2004-02-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinomas arise from Kulchitsky cells and are frequently seen in gastrointestinal tract and lungs. But they are unusual in gynecology practice. The Fallopian tube is one of the rarest locations for the development of a female genital malignancy. The most common histologic subtype is adenocarcinoma in malignancies of fallopian tubes, but rarely other histologic subtypes have been reported. Here we present a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the fallopian tube. To the best of the our knowledge, it was not reported previously. PMID:14981411

  14. Transcription factor EGR-1 inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Miao-Wang; Liang, Ying-Rui; Liu, Yan-Fang; Liu, Li; Wu, Ming-Yao; Yang, Huan-Xing

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The transcription factor EGR-1 (early growth response gene-1) plays an important role in cell growth, differentiation and development. It has identified that EGR-1 has significant transformation suppression activity in some neoplasms, such as fibrosarcoma, breast carcinoma. This experiment was designed to investigate the role of egr-1 in the cancerous process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and esophageal carcinoma (EC), and then to appraise the effects of EGR-1 on the growth of these tumor cells. METHODS: Firstly, the transcription and expression of egr-1 in HCC and EC, paracancerous tissues and their normal counterpart parts were detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, with normal human breast and mouse brain tissues as positive controls. Egr-1 gene was then transfected into HCC (HHCC, SMMC7721) and EC (ECa109) cell lines in which no egr-1 transcription and expression were present. The cell growth speed, FCM cell cycle, plate clone formation and tumorigenicity in nude mice were observed and the controls were the cell lines transfected with vector only. RESULTS: Little or no egr-1 transcription and expression were detected in HCC, EC and normal liver tissues. The expression of egr-1 were found higher in hepatocellular paracancerous tissue (transcription level P = 0.000; expression level P = 0.143, probably because fewer in number of cases) and dysplastic tissue of esophageal cancer (transcription level P = 0.000; expression level P = 0.001). The growth rate of egr-1 -transfected HHCC (HCC cell line) cells and ECa109 (EC cell line) cells was much slower than that of the controls. The proportion of S phase cell, clone formation and tumorigenicity were significantly lower than these of the controls' (decreased 45.5% in HHCC cells and 34.1% in ECa109 cells; 46.6% and 41.8%; 80.4% and 72.6% respectively). There were no obvious differences between SMMC7721 (HCC) egr-1-transfected cells and the controls with regard to the above items. CONCLUSION: The decreased expression of egr-1 might play a role in the dysregulation of normal growth in the cancerous process of HCC and EC. egr-1 gene of transfected HHCC and ECa109 cells showed obvious suppression of the cell growth and malignant phenotypes, but no suppression in SMMC7721 (HCC cell line) cells. PMID:11925592

  15. [Cervical cystic metastasis in ENT carcinoma. Differential diagnosis with the branchioma].

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Nogueras Jimnez, F J; Fernndez-Prez, A; Rub Ura, J

    1993-01-01

    This study report 3 cases of nodal cystic metastasis in the neck. One of them was diagnosed as an epidermoid carcinoma of unknown origin and the other 2 were an epidermoid carcinoma and an mucoepidermoid carcinoma respectively, arising in the larynx. Treatment of these patients included removal of the cystic metastasis with or without neck dissection and irradiation. Cystic metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma have often been mistaken for primary squamous cell carcinoma of branchiogenic origin. The distinctive histological features of cystic metastasis reviewed after its correct identification, can lead to the discovery of an unsuspected primary lesion and result in specific treatment options. PMID:8214443

  16. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  17. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Submandibular Salivary Gland with Sialo-Cutaneous Fistula: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sanjiv S.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary glands are rare entities. Most common malignant tumour of submandibular gland is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histological finding of squamous cell carcinoma is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. Metastasis from distant primary squamous malignancy, direct invasion from cutaneous or mucosal squamous carcinoma, squamous component of mucoepidermoid carcinoma or primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary origin are some of the possible causes. Of these, the latter is distinctly uncommon. Primary squamous malignancy is diagnosed only after ruling out other possible explanations. A positive mucin stain in the tumour or synchronous/ metachronous squamous carcinoma elsewhere excludes the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma. Primary squamous carcinoma is seen most commonly in parotid gland and rarely in submandibular gland. We present a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of right submandibular salivary gland in a 45-year old-man. This case is presented for the rare entity of primary squamous cell carcinoma in submandibular salivary gland. PMID:26435997

  18. Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix in a 20-year-old female: a case report

    PubMed Central

    DePond, William David; Flauta, Victor Santos; Lingamfelter, Daniel Christian; Schnee, David Mark; Menendez, Kristyn Poncy

    2006-01-01

    Background Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition mostly occurring among postmenopausal women. Although it can be confused with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix, adenoid basal carcinoma has several clinicopathologic features that will allow distinction from adenoid cystic carcinoma. Case presentation This is the case of a twenty-year old African-American female who initially presented with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on Pap smear, with a subsequent cervical LEEP specimen revealing adenoid basal carcinoma. The lesion showed the characteristic histologic features of adenoid basal carcinoma and was positive for the immunohistochemical marker EMA and negative for collagen IV, further defining the tumor while helping to rule out the possibility of adenoid cystic carcinoma. As far as the authors are aware, this is the youngest reported case of adenoid basal carcinoma to date. Conclusion This case shows that adenoid basal carcinoma can deviate markedly from its typical postmenopausal demographics to affect women as young as 20 years of age. In addition, adenoid basal carcinoma has several identifiable features that will differentiate it from adenoid cystic carcinoma including histologic and cellular morphologies, as well as immunohistochemistry. Treatment for most patients involves hysterectomy, LEEP, or a conization procedure which provides a favorable prognosis because of this lesion's low potential for recurrence and metastasis. PMID:16914043

  19. Citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Cho, Eunyoung; Feskanich, Diane; Li, Wen-Qing; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-10-01

    Animal experiments have demonstrated the photocarcinogenic properties of furocoumarins, a group of naturally occurring chemicals that are rich in citrus products. We conducted a prospective study for citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin based on data from 41530 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010) and 63759 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) who were free of cancers at baseline. Over 24-26 years of follow-up, we documented 20840 incident BCCs and 3544 incident SCCs. Compared to those who consumed citrus products less than twice per week, the pooled multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.99-1.08] for BCC and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00-1.30) for SCC for those who consumed two to four times per week, 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.11) for BCC and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02-1.28) for SCC for five to six times per week, 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.16) for BCC and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.08-1.37) for SCC for once to 1.4 times per day and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09-1.23) for BCC and 1.21 (95% Cl: 1.06-1.38) for SCC for 1.5 times per day or more (P trend = 0.001 for BCC and 0.04 for SCC). In contrast, consumption of non-citrus fruit and juice appeared to be inversely associated with risk of BCC and SCC. Our findings support positive associations between citrus consumption and risk of cutaneous BCC and SCC in two cohorts of men and women, and call for further investigations to better understand the potential photocarcinogenesis associated with dietary intakes. PMID:26224304

  20. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Ghazi, Narges; Meshkat, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP) is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR) has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions. Methods One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs) and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group) were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%), we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18). All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230). Additionally, 15 (13.1%) SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830). The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11). A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity. Conclusion More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions. PMID:26674929

  1. Renal cell carcinoma growing into the renal pelvis and mimicking transitional cell carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    LI, YIFAN; DING, YU; CHEN, DUQUN; YU, ZUHU; GUI, YAOTING; YANG, SHANGQI; LAI, YONGQING

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) originated from parenchyma and the majority of malignancies originating in the renal pelvis are transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). In the present study, a rare case of RCC growing into the renal pelvis and mimicking TCC in medical imaging is reported. The preoperative differentiation between RCC and TCC is important in order to identify the type of surgical treatment required: Nephrectomy or ureteronephrectomy. The role of ureteroscopy and biopsy is emphasized in the accurate preoperative diagnosis of a renal pelvic mass. Thus, the present study provided fundamental evidence for the pathogenesis of RCC with pelvic extension and challenged the present tumor node metastasis staging system of RCC. PMID:25789058

  2. Common and uncommon histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma: imaging spectrum with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Srinivasa R; Humphrey, Peter A; Catena, Jay R; Narra, Vamsi R; Srigley, John R; Cortez, Arthur D; Dalrymple, Neal C; Chintapalli, Kedar N

    2006-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 35,000 new cases and 12,480 deaths in the United States in 2003. Recent advances in imaging technology, pathology, urology, and oncology permit early diagnosis of RCC and facilitate optimal management. The 2004 World Health Organization classification for renal neoplasms recognizes several distinct histologic subtypes of RCC. These subtypes include clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, hereditary cancer syndromes, multilocular cystic RCC, collecting duct carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, neuroblastoma-associated RCC, Xp11.2 translocation-TFE3 carcinoma, and unclassified lesions. Different histologic subtypes of RCC have characteristic histomorphologic and biologic profiles. Clear cell RCC is the most common subtype and has a less favorable prognosis (stage for stage) than do papillary RCC and chromophobe RCC. Collecting duct carcinoma and renal medullary carcinoma are associated with aggressive clinical behavior and a poor prognosis. PMID:17102051

  3. Synchronous Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma of the Colon: A Link for Common Stem Cell Origin?

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Cordovi, Jorge; Avezbakiyev, Boris; Freedman, Lester; Clark, Toshimasa; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Synchronous carcinomas have been recognized for over a century, with synchronous primary adenocarcinoma of the colon reported to range from 211% of cases involving this type of malignancy. Small cell carcinomas occur frequently with colorectal adenomas; however, despite these reports and a known adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence, scarce literature exists on synchronous colorectal adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinomas. We present a rare cancer of synchronous small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and discuss a possible link between these two cancers. PMID:26157837

  4. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma by Egyptian physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hassany, Sahar M; Moustafa, Ehab F Abdou; Taher, Mohamed El; Abdeltwab, Afaf Adel; Blum, Hubert E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the practice of Egyptian physicians in screening patients for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The study included 154 physicians from all over Egypt caring for patients at risk for HCC. The study was based on a questionnaire with 20 items. Each questionnaire consisted of two parts: (1) personal information regarding the physician (name, age, specialty and type of health care setting); and (2) professional experience in the care of patients at risk for HCC development (screening, knowledge about the cause and natural course of liver diseases and HCC risk). RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of doctors with an MD degree, 48% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma and 40% of doctors with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery certificate considered the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype as risk factor for HCC development (P < 0.05). Ninety percent of physicians specialized in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 67% of physicians in other specialties advise patients to undergo screening for HCV and hepatitis B virus infection as well as liver cirrhosis (P < 0.05). Eighty-six percent of doctors in University Hospitals and 69% of Ministry of Health (MOH) doctors consider HCV infection as the leading cause of HCC in Egypt (P < 0.05). Seventy-two percent of doctors with an MD degree, 55% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma, 56% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate, 74% of doctors in University Hospitals and 46% of MOH hospital doctors consider abdominal ultrasonography as the most important investigation in HCC screening (P < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of physicians in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 37% of physicians in other specialties recommend as HCC screening interval of 3 mo (P < 0.05). Seventy-one percent of doctors with an MD degree, 50% of doctors with a master degree or diploma and 60% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate follow the same recommendation. CONCLUSION: In Egypt, physicians specialized in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology with an MD degree and working in a University Hospital are best informed about HCC. PMID:26380060

  5. The prognostic molecular markers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lun-Xiu; Tang, Zhao-You

    2002-01-01

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still remains dismal, although many advances in its clinical study have been made. It is important for tumor control to identify the factors that predispose patients to death. With new discoveries in cancer biology, the pathological and biological prognostic factors of HCC have been studied quite extensively. Analyzing molecular markers (biomarkers) with prognostic significance is a complementary method. A large number of molecular factors have been shown to associate with the invasiveness of HCC, and have potential prognostic significance. One important aspect is the analysis of molecular markers for the cellular malignancy phenotype. These include alterations in DNA ploidy, cellular proliferation markers (PCNA, Ki-67, Mcm2, MIB1, MIA, and CSE1L/CAS protein), nuclear morphology, the p53 gene and its related molecule MDM2, other cell cycle regulators (cyclin A, cyclin D, cyclin E, cdc2, p27, p73), oncogenes and their receptors (such as ras, c-myc, c-fms, HGF, c-met, and erb-B receptor family members), apoptosis related factors (Fas and FasL), as well as telomerase activity. Another important aspect is the analysis of molecular markers involved in the process of cancer invasion and metastasis. Adhesion molecules (E-cadherin, catenins, serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1, CD44 variants), proteinases involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix (MMP-2, MMP-9, uPA, uPAR, PAI), as well as other molecules have been regarded as biomarkers for the malignant phenotype of HCC, and are related to prognosis and therapeutic outcomes. Tumor angiogenesis is critical to both the growth and metastasis of cancers including HCC, and has drawn much attention in recent years. Many angiogenesis-related markers, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), thrombospondin (TSP), angiogenin, pleiotrophin, and endostatin (ES) levels, as well as inratumor microvessel density (MVD) have been evaluated and found to be of prognostic significance. Body fluid (particularly blood and urinary) testing for biomarkers is easily accessible and useful in clinical patients. The prognostic significance of circulating DNA in plasma or serum, and its genetic alterations in HCC are other important trends. More attention should be paid to these two areas in future. As the progress of the human genome project advances, so does a clearer understanding of tumor biology, and mo re and more new prognostic markers with high sensitivity and specificity will be found and used in clinical assays. However, the combination of some items, i.e., the pathological features and some biomarkers mentioned above, seems to be more practical for now. PMID:12046056

  6. Metabolism of Radiolabeled Methionine in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yu; Wang, Fangjing; Corn, David J.; Tian, Haibin; Lee, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Radiolabeled methionine (Met) promises to be useful in the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its metabolic routes in HCC have not yet been fully understood. In this study, the metabolic pathway(s) of radiolabeled Met in HCC were investigated. Procedures To simulate the rapid blood clearance of radiolabeled Met, pulsechase experiments were conducted. L-[methyl-3H]-Met or L-[1-14C]-Met was pulsed over control or cycloheximide- treated WCH17 cells and rat hepatocytes for 5 min and chased with cold media. The water-soluble, lipid-soluble, DNA, RNA, and protein phases were subsequently extracted and measured from the acid-precipitable and acid-soluble fractions of whole cells. The radioactive metabolites Met, S- adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine, Met sulfoxide, and Met sulfone were further separated by radio thin layer chromatography. Results (1) The uptake of L-[methyl-3H]-Met in both cell types was higher than that of L-[1-14C]-Met. In rat hepatocytes, the uptake of L-[methyl-3H]-Met was significantly higher than that of L-[1-14C]-Met, which may contribute to its physiologic accumulation in surrounding hepatic tissues seen in PET imaging of HCC using L-[methyl-11C]-Met. Compared to rat hepatocytes, WCH17 cells had significantly higher uptake of both radiotracers. (2) For L-[methyl-3H]-Met, the major intracellular uptake was found mostly in the protein phase and, to a lesser degree, in the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) methylation pathway, which is fairly stabilized within the 55-min chase period (the main metabolites were SAM, Met, Met sulfoxide, and Met sulfone). In contrast, the uptake of Met in rat hepatocytes mainly points to phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis through the PE methylation pathway (the main metabolite was PC). (3) Both cell types incorporated L-[1-14C]-Met predominantly into protein synthesis. (4) Finally, when the protein synthesis pathway was inhibited, the incorporation of SAM derived from L-[methyl-3H]-Met to lipid class (PC was the main metabolite) occurred at a reduced rate in WCH17 cells, suggesting that the route may be impaired in HCC. Conclusions This study demonstrated that different metabolic pathways of radiolabeled Met exist between HCC and surrounding hepatic tissue and contribute to the patterns of increased uptake of radiolabeled Met in HCC. PMID:23921714

  7. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Basic and Transitional Research

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chuan; Xie, Wei-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The outcome of HCC therapy depends on the stage of HCC. Early-stage HCC patients can be cured with radical treatment approaches, whereas no standard treatment regimens can be recommended for patients with advanced disease. Summary In-depth basic research into the molecular mechanisms of HCC has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic agents. This article reviews several key classes of novel therapeutic agents that are under development, including molecular-targeted therapies, cancer stem cell (CSC)-based therapy and differentiation therapy. Key Message A greater understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic agents. This article reviews several key classes of novel therapeutic agents that are under development, including molecular-targeted therapies, CSC-based therapy and differentiation therapy. Practical Implications Molecular-targeted therapies based on signaling pathways involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and progression are being evaluated in several clinical trials. There are three main categories of targeted agents: tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), monoclonal antibodies and enzyme inhibitors. The best-established agent is sorafenib, a non-specific TKI that is accepted as first-line therapy for specific patients. Other similar agents under investigation include erlotinib, linifanib and brivanib. CSC-based therapies are still in the earlier stages of development and include a neutralizing anti-CD44 antibody, small interfering RNA to suppress epithelial cell adhesion molecular levels, a neutralizing anti-CD13 antibody and a CD13 inhibitor. An important point is that CSC-targeted therapy should be combined with conventional therapies to achieve complete tumor regression. Differentiation therapy is defined as a strategy that induces malignant reversion of tumor cells. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? or 1?, important transcriptional factors for hepatocyte differentiation and phenotype maintenance, have shown significant antitumor effects by inducing differentiation of both non-CSCs and CSCs in HCC towards a hepatocyte-like phenotype.

  8. [Comparative genomic classification of human hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kaposi-Novk, Pl

    2009-03-01

    Global transcriptome analysis has been successfully applied to characterize various human tumors, including hepatocellular carcinomas. This novel technology can facilitate early diagnosis, as well as prognostic and therapeutic diversification of cancer patients. To enhance access to the genomic information buried in archived pathology samples, we assessed RT-PCR amplification rates in paraffin-embedded tissues preserved in three different fixatives. Reliable amplification could be achieved from all paraffin-embedded specimens, when the amplicon size did not exceed 225 bp. A longer amplicon size resulted in rapid decrease of yield and reproducibility. In addition, formalin provided superior morphology and better reactivity with claudin-4 and -7 immunohistochemistry. Amplification of the initial sample is often required before transcriptome analysis of clinical specimens could be performed. We introduced a random nonamer primed T3 polymerase reaction into the conventional linear RNA amplification protocol. The modified T3T7 method generated a sense strand product ideal for synthesizing indirectly labeled cDNA templates. Microarray analysis of amplified frozen and laser-microdissected Myc and Myc/TGFalpha mouse liver tumors confirmed good reproducibility (r=0.9) of the reaction and conservation of original transcriptional patterns (r=0.78). Finally, we tested the utility of expression profiling for the classification of human HCC samples. By comparing expression data from HGF-treated c-Met conditional knock-out and control primary mouse hepatocytes, we identified 690 HGF/c-Met target genes. Functional analysis of the significant gene set implicated c-Met as key regulator of hepatocyte motility and oxidative homeostasis. Cross comparison of the c-Met-induced transcription signature with human HCC expression profiles revealed a group of tumors (27%) with potentially activated c-Met signaling (MET+). These tumors were characterized by higher vascular invasion rate, increased microvessel density, and shortened survival. A prediction model based on 111 cross-species conserved c-Met signature genes was able to diversify HCC patients into good and bad prognostic groups with 83-95% accuracy. Our results therefore demonstrate that careful experimental design and state-of-the-art laboratory methods could open the way for global expression profiling of archived and limited availability pathologic samples. Comparative functional genomics based analysis of the cancer transcriptome could lead to novel molecular classification systems which are essential for the introduction of individualized cancer therapeutics. PMID:19318328

  9. [Paliative managment of oesophageal carcinomas--our experience].

    PubMed

    Polaneck, O; Pazdro, A; Tvrdon, J; Tersp, T; Smejkal, P; Smejkal, M; Hladk, P; Pafko, P

    2006-04-01

    The authors of this presentation explain their experience with methods of paliative care of oesophagus carcinoma. The indication criteria are described and compared advantages and disadvantages of those methods. There is an accent in most frequent method--oesophagus stent implementation. The results in the group of patients after the stent implementation are described, also complications and other solutions. PMID:16719415

  10. Pilomatrix carcinoma: a rare cause of facial tumor.

    PubMed

    Alcntara-Gonzlez, Javier; Snchez-Largo, Maria Elena; Caminoa, Alejandra; Erana, Itziar; Calzado-Villarreal, Leticia

    2014-07-01

    Pilomatrix carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that originates from hair matrix cells. It is not usually considered in a differential diagnosis owing to its low incidence. We present a case of this uncommon entity and review the literature. PMID:25046461

  11. Identification of Driver Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Sean P.; Jeck, William R.; Zhao, Xiaobei; Chen, Kui; Selitsky, Sara R.; Savich, Gleb L.; Tan, Ting-Xu; Wu, Michael C.; Getz, Gad; Lawrence, Michael S.; Parker, Joel S.; Li, Jinyu; Powers, Scott; Kim, Hyeja; Fischer, Sandra; Guindi, Maha; Ghanekar, Anand; Chiang, Derek Y.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic alterations in specific driver genes lead to disruption of cellular pathways and are critical events in the instigation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. As a prerequisite for individualized cancer treatment, we sought to characterize the landscape of recurrent somatic mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma. We performed whole exome sequencing on 87 hepatocellular carcinomas and matched normal adjacent tissues to anaverage coverage of 59x. The overall mutation rate was roughly 2 mutations per Mb, with a median of 45 non-synonymous mutations that altered the amino acid sequence (range 2 to 381). We found recurrent mutations in several genes with high transcript levels: TP53 (18%), CTNNB1 (10%), KEAP1 (8%), C16orf62 (8%), MLL4(7%) and RAC2 (5%). Significantly affected gene families include the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, calcium channel subunits, and histone methyltransferases. In particular, the MLL family of methyltransferases for histone H3 lysine 4 were mutated in 20% of tumors. Conclusion The NFE2L2-KEAP1 and MLL pathways are recurrently mutated in multiple cohorts of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23728943

  12. RESEARCH Open Access Cathepsin B trafficking in thyroid carcinoma cells

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    RESEARCH Open Access Cathepsin B trafficking in thyroid carcinoma cells Sofia Tedelind1* , Silvia Background: The cysteine peptidase cathepsin B is important in thyroid physiology by being involved, cathepsin B has also been localized to the extrafollicular space in thyroid cancer tissue, and is therefore

  13. Probabilities for a Probabilistic Network: A Casestudy in Oesophageal Carcinoma

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    With the help of two experts in gastrointestinal oncology from the Netherlands Can cer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis, a decisionsupport system is being devel oped for patientspecific therapy selection for oesophageal carcinoma. The kernel of the system is a probabilistic network that describes the characteristics

  14. Expression of the transcription factor PITX2 in ameloblastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Garca-Muoz, Alejandro; Rodrguez, Mario A; Licaga-Escalera, Carlos; Licaga-Reyes, Rodrigo; Carren-Burciaga, Ramn Gil; Gonzlez-Gonzlez, Rogelio; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-06-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumour that combines the histological features of ameloblastoma with cytological atypia. Until 2005, the incidence of ameloblastic carcinoma was unknown, and since then, fewer than 60 cases have been reported. These tumours may originate from pre-existing tumours or cysts, or they arise de novo from the activation or transformation of embryological cells. PITX2 is a transcription factor that is a product and regulator of the WNT cell signalling pathway, which has been involved in development of several tumours. To analyse whether PITX2 could be involved in the biological behaviour of ameloblastic carcinoma, we analysed the expression of this transcription factor in a sample of this tumour and nine benign ameloblastomas to compare. The results of Western blotting and RT-PCR analyses were positive, and considering the hundreds of genes that PITX2 regulates, we believe that its expression could be intimately linked to the behaviour of ameloblastic carcinoma and possibly other odontogenic lesions. PMID:25791324

  15. Genetic Alterations in Poorly Differentiated and Undifferentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Paula; Lima, Jorge; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patricia; Vinagre, Joo; Celestino, Ricardo; Couto, Joana P; Prazeres, Hugo; Eloy, Catarina; Mximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simes, M

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid gland presents a wide spectrum of tumours derived from follicular cells that range from well differentiated, papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively), usually carrying a good prognosis, to the clinically aggressive, poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC). It is usually accepted that PDTC and UTC occur either de novo or progress from a pre-existing well differentiated carcinoma through a multistep process of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to clonal expansion and neoplastic development. Mutations and epigenetic alterations in PDTC and UTC are far from being totally clarified. Assuming that PDTC and UTC may derive from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), it is expected that some PDTC and UTC would harbour genetic alterations that are typical of PTC and FTC. This is the case for some molecular markers (BRAF and NRAS) that are present in WDTC, PDTC and UTC. Other genes, namely P53, are almost exclusively detected in less differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumours, supporting a diagnosis of PDTC or, much more often, UTC. Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR?, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation. In the present review we have summarized the molecular changes associated with the two most aggressive types of thyroid cancer. PMID:22654560

  16. Transitional cell carcinoma arising in a tailgut cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Adnan A.; Rotimi, Olorundi; Jacob, Deepa; Hyland, Racheal; Sagar, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation in tailgut cysts (TGCs) is extremely rare, with no reports of transitional cell carcinoma arising in them in the UK literature. Here, we discuss a case of a patient with a malignant TGC encapsulating the rectum. This case report highlights the pathological and diagnostic considerations and discusses its management. PMID:26217002

  17. [Clinical and epidemiological aspects of medullary thyroid carcinoma in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Kvacheniuk, A M; Re?zin, D V

    2013-06-01

    Analyzed data from 232 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma who were treated in the surgical department of the Institute from 1979 to 2012 (inclusive). Found that the analyzed cohort of patients to meet other samples in such characteristics as age of patients and the distribution of the forms of the disease (sporadic, familial, in the syndrome MEN-2B). At the same time it is shown that the number of patients with sporadic medullary carcinoma from the end of the century the alien has increased significantly mainly due to the increase in the number of female patients. Analysis of the distribution of patients in the community shows that the share of the 5 most industrially polluted regions of Ukraine--Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Lugansk, Zaporozhye, Kiev (and Kiev)--more than a third of patients with the sporadic form of medullary carcinoma of the cohort of patients, whereas in share of the best "clean" areas--Chernivtsi, Rivne, Volyn, Ternopil and Zhytomyr--3.6 times less. While noting some patients most of the areas most affected by the Chernobyl accident. The increase in the last decade the number of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma, and more than the other samples, the number of female patients showed some features of the causes of this form of the disease among the population of Ukraine and can be due to the adverse impact of environmental factors, especially the female body. PMID:25095686

  18. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: clinical implication of DNA content analysis.

    PubMed

    el-Naggar, A K; Ro, J Y; Ensign, L G

    1993-03-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is considered a less-aggressive histomorphologic variant of renal cell carcinoma. We investigated the clinicopathologic features and the DNA ploidy pattern in 22 papillary renal cell carcinoma cases and correlated the findings to the patients' length of survival. In this study the demographic data were similar to those of previously published series. Histologically, two neoplasms were Fuhrman's nuclear grade 1, eight were nuclear grade 2, 11 were nuclear grade 3, and one was nuclear grade 4. Six tumors were stage I, three were stage II, five were stage III, and eight were stage IV. With a mean follow-up period of 42 months, eight patients died of disease and 14 were alive and well. DNA aneuploidy was found in 50% of the neoplasms and was frequently associated with high tumor nuclear grade, high tumor stage, and poor prognosis. Conversely, DNA diploidy was preponderantly noted in neoplasms with low tumor nuclear grade and stage, and none of the patients died of their disease. A statistically significant difference between DNA ploidy/tumor stage and patient outcome was obtained. No significant correlation between DNA ploidy and nuclear grade was observed. Our results suggest that DNA content measurements may assist in evaluating the clinical outcome of this neoplasm. Moreover, they indicate that papillary renal cell carcinomas manifest clinicopathologic, DNA content, and biologic characteristics akin to those of nonpapillary variants. PMID:8454276

  19. SMAD4 expression in breast ductal carcinoma correlates with prognosis

    PubMed Central

    LIU, NANNAN; YU, CHUNYAN; SHI, YANFEN; JIANG, JING; LIU, YUHE

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined SMAD4 expression in fine-needle aspiration cell blocks from patients with breast ductal carcinoma, in order to assess its viability as a prognostic marker. Using immunohistochemistry, the SMAD4 protein status of 86 breast ductal carcinoma fine-needle biopsies, from patients who underwent tumor resection at Beihua University Affiliated Hospital (Jilin, China) between 2002 and 2008, was characterized. The association between SMAD4 expression and clinicopathological parameters, as well as prognosis was assessed using the Mantel-Haenszel method and Cox proportional hazards regression. SMAD4 staining was observed in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and its expression was found to be decreased in ductal breast carcinoma as compared with adjacent normal breast epithelia. Patients with reduced SMAD4 expression levels tended to exhibit more poorly differentiated tumors, a higher risk of recurrence and shorter overall survival. These results demonstrated that the evaluation of SMAD4 protein status in fine-needle biopsy specimens of breast ductal carcinoma may provide additional prognostic information. PMID:26622737

  20. Defective DNA Mismatch Repair Influences Expression of Endometrial Carcinoma Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Ekene I; Bruegl, Amanda S; Fellman, Bryan; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Broaddus, Russell R

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial endometrioid carcinomas are related to estrogen excess and express estrogen and progesterone receptors. However, hormone receptor expression can be variable from tumor to tumor, and this variability is not always explained by differences in tumor grade. Variable expression of other biomarkers that may be used in the diagnostic work-up of endometrial cancer has also been noted. We hypothesized that mismatch repair (MMR) defects may contribute to this variability. A total of 411 unselected endometrial carcinomas were evaluated for immunohistochemical expression of DNA MMR proteins and MLH1 methylation. Loss of immunohistochemical expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2 was defined as MMR deficient; positive expression was defined as MMR intact. A case-control cohort of 80 Grade 2 endometrioid carcinomas was selected from this set (40 MMR deficient, 40 MMR intact). Cases were matched for histotype, grade, and age. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, CK7, CK20, and Pax-8 immunohistochemistry was evaluated. The median percentage of CK7 tumor cells was significantly lower in the MMR deficient group compared with the MMR intact group. The mean percentage of tumor cells exhibiting estrogen receptor expression was similar in both the MMR-deficient and MMR intact groups. However, there was greater variability in the MMR-deficient group. Our study shows that MMR defects influence the expression of clinically important biomarkers for endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma as decreased cytokeratin 7 expression is more commonly associated with MMR deficiency. PMID:25851713

  1. Biomarker signatures of mitochondrial NDUFS3 in invasive breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, Sonal; Berel, Dror; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} We monitored mitochondrial NDUFS3 expression in clinical breast cancer specimens. {yields} NDUFS3 expression is significantly higher in highly invasive cancer specimens. {yields} Increased NDUFS3 expression correlates with tumor nuclear grade. {yields} NDUFS3 expression in invasive ductal carcinoma is a potential hypoxia marker. -- Abstract: We present evidence for potential biomarker utility of a mitochondrial complex I subunit, (NDUFS3) in discriminating normal and highly invasive breast carcinoma specimens obtained from clinical patients. Besides being a robust indicator of breast cancer aggressiveness, NDUFS3 also shows clear signatures of a hypoxia/necrosis marker in invasive ductal carcinoma specimens. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between nuclear grade and NDUFS3 expression level in the tumor specimens analyzed. We support these findings with a plausible mechanism involving mitochondrial complex I assembly defects and/or redox buffering induced mitochondrial dysfunction during the process of cancer cell transformation. From a clinical standpoint, this novel observation adds value in augmenting the current receptor-based biomarkers for better accuracy in diagnosis and predicting survival rate in patients with breast carcinoma.

  2. Role of Endothelin-1 in Neovascularization of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Debora; Di Castro, Valeriana; Nicotra, Maria Rita; Rosan, Laura; Tecce, Raffaele; Venuti, Aldo; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Bagnato, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is overexpressed in ovarian carcinomas and acts, via ETA receptors (ETAR), as an autocrine growth factor. In this study we investigate the role of ET-1 in the neovascularization of ovarian carcinoma. Archival specimens of primary (n = 40) and metastatic (n = 8) ovarian tumors were examined by immunohistochemistry for angiogenic factor and receptor expression and for microvessel density using antibodies against CD31, ET-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and their receptors. ET-1 expression correlated with neovascularization and with VEGF expression. The localization of functional ETAR and ETAR mRNA expression, as detected by autoradiography and in situ hybridization, was evident in tumors and in intratumoral vessels, whereas ETBR were expressed mainly in endothelial cells. High levels of ET-1 were detected in the majority of ascitic fluids of patients with ovarian carcinoma and significantly correlated with VEGF ascitic concentration. Furthermore ET-1, through ETAR, stimulated VEGF production in an ovarian carcinoma cell line, OVCA 433, by an extent comparable to hypoxia. Finally, conditioned media from OVCA 433 as well as ascitic fluids caused an increase in endothelial cell migration and the ET-1 receptor blockade significantly inhibited this angiogenic response. These findings indicate that ET-1 could modulate tumor angiogenesis, acting directly and in part through VEGF. PMID:11073813

  3. Reconstruction techniques for hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; He, Xiaotian; Wu, Duoguang; Han, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of perioperative complications in patients with hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma who underwent three types of esophageal defect reconstruction procedures. Methods Clinical data from 105 patients with hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma who were treated at SUN YAT-SEN Memorial Hospital from January 2003 to February 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 45 underwent a pectoral major muscle skin flap reconstruction following carcinoma resection (group A); 32 patients were treated with stomach replacement of the esophagus (group B), and 28 patients were treated with tube stomach replacement of the esophagus (group C). The incidences of perioperative complications were compared among these three groups. Results The incidences of anastomotic leakage, neck swelling, and incision infection were significantly lower in group C than in group A (P<0.05). The incidences of anastomotic leakage, reflux esophagitis, and thoracic stomach syndrome were significantly lower in group C than in group B (P<0.05). Conclusions Tube stomach replacement of the esophagus in the setting of hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma reduced the incidence of complications; therefore, it is a reasonable procedure for the management of esophageal defects. PMID:25922724

  4. Ameloblastic carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study and assessment of eight cases.

    PubMed

    Corio, R L; Goldblatt, L I; Edwards, P A; Hartman, K S

    1987-11-01

    The term ameloblastic carcinoma is differentiated from the term malignant ameloblastoma and is defined as an ameloblastoma in which there is histologic evidence of malignancy in the primary tumor or the recurrent tumor (or metastasis), regardless of whether it has metastasized. Eight cases of ameloblastic carcinoma from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) are reported. The mean age of patients was 30.1 years, with no sex predilection noted. Seven cases involved the mandible and one involved the maxilla, with the posterior regions favored. The most common sign was swelling, although pain, rapid growth, trismus, and dysphonia also occurred. Lesions characteristically were evident as ill-defined destructive radiolucencies, with occasional radiopacities noted. Histologic features generally resembled those of conventional ameloblastoma but with cytologic features of epithelial malignant disease. The clinical course was uniformly aggressive with extensive local destruction and spread, frequent recurrences, and one case of neck node metastasis. The nomenclature and classification of odontogenic carcinomas are discussed, as well as entities that should be included in the differential diagnosis. Further reporting of ameloblastic carcinoma is encouraged. PMID:3313152

  5. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the maxillary sinus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the maxillary sinus is a very rare malignancy and it can be difficult to make a pre-operative diagnosis. Case presentation A 72-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with an isolated right-side epistaxis that had been present for three months, with the results of a computed tomography scan showing a soft tissue mass in the right maxillary sinus with an impacted tooth. The results of a transnasal endoscopic biopsy were compatible with a lymphoepithelial carcinoma, following which our patient underwent a radical excision of the mass. The final histology results revealed lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the maxillary sinus with negative assays for Epstein-Barr virus. Our patient was given post-operative external radiotherapy and has remained disease-free at three-year follow-up. Conclusions This report details the diagnosis and management of a case of lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the maxillary sinus, which is a very rare malignant tumor with very little mention in the literature. Only a strong suspicion with systematic use of various patho-immunological tests helps to arrive at a definitive diagnosis by excluding other better-known tumors. PMID:23231992

  6. Oral Verrucous Carcinoma and Ameloblastoma: A Rare Coincidence

    PubMed Central

    Dalirsani, Zohreh; Falaki, Farnaz; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Vazifeh Mostaan, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is a rare malignancy of the oral cavity that was first described by Ackerman. This tumor is a well-differentiated low-grade, slow growing cancer that is locally invasive without metastasis. Ameloblastoma is one of the most common odontogenic tumors, which originates from the odontogenic epithelium. Verrucous carcinoma along with central ambloblastoma is a rare phenomenon. Case Report: A case of verrucous carcinoma along with central ambloblastoma in a 49-year-old man, which was referred with a painless exophytic lesion with a verrucous and granular surface, is reported. Panoramic radiography revealed a well-defined radiolucency with sclerotic borders. To the best available knowledge, this phenomenon has not yet been reported. Conclusion: Verrucous carcinoma could occur in the wall of odontogenic cysts and tumors and should be considered during the differential diagnosis of a radiolucency, which is observed in the jaws with rapid growth or which presents some changes from its previous appearance. PMID:25938088

  7. Carcinoma of the Skin in Machine Tool Setters

    PubMed Central

    Fife, J. G.

    1962-01-01

    Two cases of extensive squamous carcinoma of the scrotum are described in men who were working together as capstan lathe setters in the same workshop. The incidence of cancer of the skin is discussed with special reference to workers outside the cotton industry, and the importance of periodic medical examination of persons in contact with mineral oil is emphasized. PMID:13892796

  8. [The diagnosis of occult mammarian carcinoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fochem, K; Pflanzer, K

    1975-11-01

    The proceeding of dedection of ocult mammarian carcinomas by an effective coordination of mammography and thermography is described. The frequency was 7%o of 2000 examinations and with that higher than given in the literature. The importance of post-operative controls is emphasized. PMID:1198033

  9. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN THE GULF MENHADEN, 'BREVOORTIA PATRONUS' GOODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The communication reports a case (RTLA 3618) of squamous cell carcinoma from the gulf menhaden, Brevoortia patronus Goode, the first tumor reported from the species. The affected fish was collected in a gill net on 15 January 1986 in the northern Gulf of Mexico near Round Island,...

  10. A Novel Protein Is Lower Expressed in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ruili; Xu, Yongde; Lei, Hongen; Gao, Zhezhu; Xin, Zhongcheng; Guo, Yinglu

    2014-01-01

    Engrailed-2 (EN2) has been identified as a candidate oncogene in breast cancer and prostate cancer. It is usually recognized as a mainly nuclear staining in the cells. However, recent studies showed a cytoplasmic staining occurred in prostate cancer, bladder cancer and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The inconsistency makes us confused. To clarify the localization and expression of EN2 in renal cell carcinoma, anti-EN2 antibody (ab28731) and anti-EN2 antibody (MAB2600) were used for immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively. Interestingly, we found that EN2 detected by ab28731 was mainly presented in cytoplasm while EN2 detected by MAB2600 was mainly presented in nucleus. To further investigate the different patterns observed above, lysates from full-length EN2 over expression in HEK293T cells were used to identify which antibody the EN2 molecule bound by western blot. Results showed ab28731 did not react with the lysates. For this reason, the novel specific protein detected by ab28731 was not the EN2 molecule and was named nonEN2. Then using the renal carcinoma tissue microarray and renal tissues, we found that the protein expression levels of nonEN2 in kidney tumor tissues was significantly lower than that in kidney normal tissues (p < 0.05), so was in renal cell lines. Taken together, nonEN2 is lower expressed and may play an important role in renal cell carcinoma. PMID:24786097

  11. Bronchial carcinoma in a Red Shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neoplasms of respiratory tract are rare in birds. This report describes carcinoma of the bronchial epithelium in a Red Shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus). Grossly, the caudal air sac and coelomic cavity contained approximately 15 ml of dark brown cloudy fluid that displaced the intestines cranially....

  12. Identification of somatic gene mutations in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrndiz-Pulido, Carla; Hernndez-Losa, Javier; Masferrer, Emili; Vivancos, Ana; Somoza, Rosa; Mars, Roso; Valverde, Claudia; Salvador, Carlos; Placer, Jose; Morote, Juan; Pujol, Ramon M; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; de Torres, Ines; Toll, Agusti; Garca-Patos, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of studies on somatic gene mutations and cell signaling driving penile carcinogenesis. Our objective was to analyze somatic mutations in genes downstream of EGFR in penile squamous cell carcinomas, especially the mTOR and RAS/MAPK pathways. We retrospectively analyzed somatic mutations in 10 in situ and 65 invasive penile squamous cell carcinomas by using Sequenom's Mass Spectrometry iPlex Technology and Oncocarta v1.0 Panel. The DNA was extracted from FFPE blocks and we identified somatic missense mutations in three in situ tumors and in 19 invasive tumors, mostly in PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and PDGFA genes. Somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene or RAS family genes were neither associated with tumor grade, stage or outcome, and were equally often identified in hrHPV positive and in hrHPV negative tumors that showed no p53 expression. Mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, and HRAS are frequent in penile squamous cell carcinoma and likely play a role in the development of p53-negative tumors. Although the presence of these mutations does not seem to correlate with tumoral behavior or outcome, they could be biomarkers of treatment failure with anti-EGFR mAb in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26216163

  13. Carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qin

    2012-12-28

    Carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) is defined as carcinoma that crosses the GEJ line, irrespective of where the tumor epicenter is located. This group of cancer is rare but controversial. Based on study results from the majority of epidemiologic and clinicopathologic investigations carried out in Western countries, this cancer is believed to arise from Barrett's esophagus (BE) and includes both distal esophageal and proximal gastric carcinomas because of similar characteristics in epidemiology, clinicopathology, and molecular pathobiology in relation to BE. As such, the most recent American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual requires staging all GEJ carcinomas with the rule for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). This mandate has been challenged recently by the data from several studies carried out mainly in Chinese patients. The emerging evidence derived from those studies suggests: (1) both BE and EA are uncommon in the Chinese population; (2) almost all GEJ cancers in Chinese arise in the proximal stomach and show the features of proximal gastric cancer, not those of EA; (3) application of the new cancer staging rule to GEJ cancer of Chinese patients cannot stratify patients' prognosis effectively; and (4) prognostic factors of GEJ cancer in Chinese are similar, but not identical, to those of EA. In conclusion, the recent evidence suggests that GEJ cancer in Chinese shows distinct clinicopathologic characteristics that are different from EA. Further investigations in molecular pathology may help illustrate the underlying pathogenesis mechanisms of this cancer in Chinese patients and better manage patients with this fatal disease. PMID:23326117

  14. Evaluation of combined therapy in carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Kagan, A R; Gilbert, H A

    1978-01-01

    A number of studies are considered in order to evaluate the benefits of combined treatment for patients with Stage B2C transitional carcinoma of the bladder. It is found that for a variety of reasons, such treatment is not shown to be beneficial; the conclusion is that routine combined preoperative therapy is investigative but cannot be recommended as a community standard. PMID:391430

  15. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the stomach: A diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chih-En; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Chi, Chen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Myoepithelioma/myoepithelial carcinomas are not commonly found in soft tissues and are especially rare at visceral sites. This report describes a case of a rare low-grade myoepithelial carcinoma of the stomach. A 61-year-old female patient presented with postprandial abdominal discomfort. Endoscopy revealed a 1.1 cm submucosal lesion. Local excision was performed after malignancy was confirmed by biopsy. The resection margin is free of tumor and she received no adjuvant therapy. The tumor was characterized by multinodular growth with biphasic epithelioid and spindle components. Infiltrative margin and nuclear pleomorphism are seen. Tumor cells were positive for both epithelial and myoepithelial markers. Evidence of epithelial differentiation was confirmed by electron microscopy. No EWSR1 rearrangement was detected. The final diagnosis was low-grade myoepithelial gastric carcinoma. The patient is currently well, and no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was found after ten-month of follow-up. Myoepithelial carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a biphasic gastric tumor. PMID:25892892

  16. PTEN and TP53 Mutations in Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Montone, Kathleen T; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Baloch, Zubair W

    2015-12-01

    Oncocytic follicular carcinoma (OFC)/Hrthle cell carcinoma represents 3-4 % thyroid carcinomas and can be associated with more aggressive behavior and compromised survival compared to non-oncocytic thyroid carcinoma. In this study, we utilized targeted next-generation sequencing to investigate the molecular alterations in a heterogeneous group of clinically aggressive OFC. A total of 12 cases of OFC were included in this study. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed using panels of 47 or 20 genes, which are frequently mutated in solid tumors. The case cohort comprised eight cases of angioinvasive OFC, two cases of poorly differentiated OFC, one case of OFC with anaplastic change, and one case of OFC with capsular invasion only. Five out of 12 cases (42 %) harbored TP53 mutation. PTEN mutations were also seen in three cases with TP53 mutation (25 %). Based on this study, TP53 and PTEN are possibly involved in the pathogenesis of OFC. Further studies on a larger case cohort are needed to further elucidate this mechanism and its effect on clinical behavior of these intriguing tumors. PMID:26530486

  17. Hybrid Generative-Discriminative Nucleus Classification of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    E-print Network

    Bicego, Manuele

    of primary tumors on DNA, RNA, and protein level. Corresponding author. M. Pelillo and E.R. Hancock (Eds analysis software for TMAs requires extensive user interaction to properly identify cell populations in their daily work. One keypoint in the automatic TMA analysis for renal cell carcinoma Fig. 1. The nuclei

  18. [Leukemoid reaction and hypercalcemia in carcinoma of the bladder].

    PubMed

    Alam, T; De Weweire, A; Gris, P; Coffernils, M; Van den Heule, B; Delmez, J P; Longeval, E

    1990-03-01

    A 76 year-old man with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder presented marked leucocytosis (69,300 mm3) and hypercalcemia (15.4 mg/mm3). The paraneoplastic origin of these observations was demonstrated. The authors review other reported cases and discuss the pathogenic factors and the mechanisms of this paraneoplastic association. PMID:2181581

  19. Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Forster, B B; Mller, N L; Miller, R R; Nelems, B; Evans, K G

    1989-02-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung are characterized by differentiation toward Kulchitsky cells and are classified as Kulchitsky-cell carcinoma (KCC) I (classic carcinoid), KCC II (atypical carcinoid), and KCC III (small-cell carcinoma). The clinical, computed tomographic (CT), and pathologic findings in 31 patients with KCC were reviewed. KCC I lesions generally occurred in younger (56 years +/- 18) nonsmoking women, were small (1.8 cm +/- 0.7 in diameter on CT scans), and were associated with lymphadenopathy in one of ten patients. KCC II tumors were found predominantly in older (66 years +/- 12) smoking men and were larger (3.9 cm +/- 1.3 in diameter, P less than .001); four of ten patients had CT evidence of lymphadenopathy. KCC III tumors occurred in older (66 years +/- 8) smoking men and were large (4.2 cm +/- 1.0); 11 of 11 patients had massive lymphadenopathy. Clinical, radiologic, or pathologic overlap was noted in three patients. Sputum cytologic and fine-needle and bronchoscopic biopsy findings were often nondiagnostic or misleading, particularly for KCC II lesions. CT of the chest provides additional discriminating information in the preoperative diagnosis of neuroendocrine lung carcinomas. PMID:2536187

  20. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  1. Repeated Localized Treatment for Endobronchial Metastasis of Thymic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Furugen, Tomonori; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 59 Final Diagnosis: Thymic carcinoma Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Clinical Procedure: Bronchoscopy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Endobronchial metastases derived from nonpulmonary tumors are uncommon, although a variety of malignant tumors have been reported to be associated with endobronchial metastasis. We herein report a case of repeated bronchoscopic resection of endobronchial metastasis of a thymic carcinoma. Case Report: A 59-year-old woman was diagnosed with primary thymic carcinoma, Masaoka stage IVA, in May 2009. In June 2013, she developed dyspnea. A chest CT scan revealed left upper lobe atelectasis, and a polypoid lesion was noted in the left upper bronchus on bronchoscopy. A pathological examination of the lesion revealed metastatic thymic carcinoma, and bronchoscopic resection was performed for symptom relief. However, the lesion was partially resected, based on the operative findings, which showed the peripheral part of B3 to be the origin of the polypoid lesion and bronchoscopy could not be used to reach this site. Although the patient underwent repeated partial bronchoscopic resection of the polypoid lesion due to the symptoms of dyspnea caused by regrowth of the polypoid metastatic thymic cancer in the left upper bronchus, she remains alive with an excellent performance status and no evidence of widespread or other metastases for more than 5 years after the initial diagnosis. Conclusions: We speculate that this case was successfully managed with repeated partial bronchoscopic resection because thymic cancer tends to be a slow-growing tumor. Therefore, it is worth resecting endobronchial metastatic thymic carcinoma repeatedly in such cases, even if the resection is partial. PMID:26204486

  2. Estramustine: A novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, S.; Gabel, M.; Khil, M.S.

    1994-08-30

    Estramustine (EM), an antimicrotubule agent, binds microtubule-associated proteins, causes spindle disassembly, and arrests cells at the late G{sub 2}/M phase of the cell cycle. Since cells in the G{sub 2}/M phase are the most radiosensitive and some human cancer cells contain high level of EM-binding protein, experiments were carried out to determine whether radiation sensitization could be obtained in human carcinoma cells. Cells containing a high level of EM-binding protein such as prostate carcinoma (DU-145), breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and malignant glioma (U-251) were used to demonstrate radiosensitization. Cervical carcinoma (HeLa-S{sub 3}) and colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells which are not known to contain EM-binding protein were also employed. Cell survival was assayed by the colony forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. Pretreatment of DU-145, MCF-7, and U-251 cells to a nontoxic concentration (5 {mu}M) of EM for more than one cell cycle time, substantially enhanced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The sensitizer enhancement ratio of these cells ranged from 1.35-1.52. The magnitude of the enhancement was dependent on the drug concentration and exposure time. The rate of cell accumulation in G{sub 2}/M phase, as determined by flow cytometry, increased with longer treatment time in the cell lines which showed radiosensitization. Other antimicrotubule agents such as taxol and vinblastine caused minimal or no radiosensitization at nontoxic concentrations. The data provide a radiobiological basis for using EM as a novel radiation enhancer, with the property of tissue selectivity. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  4. Urachal carcinoma: a pathologic and clinical study of 46 cases.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Jasreman; Liang, Yu; Kamat, Ashish M; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan; Guo, Charles C

    2015-12-01

    Urachal carcinoma is a rare tumor that has not been well studied. To determine the pathologic and clinical features of this disease, we retrospectively evaluated 46 cases from our surgical pathology files. The patients included 16 women and 30 men, with a mean age of 53.4 years (range, 28-82 years). Forty patients had undergone cystectomy, and the remaining 6 had undergone transurethral bladder biopsy. Most tumors were located at the dome (n = 44); only 2 were located at both the dome and anterior wall. All tumors consisted of adenocarcinoma, including mucinous (n = 36), enteric (n = 7), not otherwise specified (n = 2), and signet ring cell (n = 1) types. Focal areas of signet ring cell features were present in 23 cases, but urothelial carcinoma in situ was not identified in any cases. The tumors invaded the muscularis propria (n = 8), perivesical adipose tissue (n = 27), and abdominal wall (n = 3). Twenty-five patients had died of cancer at a mean of 32 months (range, 12-74 months), and 21 patients were alive at a mean of 65 months (range, 7-230 months). The median cancer-specific survival time of urachal adenocarcinoma patients was 45 months, which was significantly longer than that of bladder urothelial carcinoma patients with similar-stage disease (P = .047). Patients' cancer-specific survival was associated with tumor stage according to the Sheldon, Mayo, and TNM staging systems. In conclusion, urachal carcinomas are predominantly composed of invasive adenocarcinomas, which commonly demonstrate mucinous features. Most tumors present at advanced stages but are still associated with a better survival rate than bladder urothelial carcinomas. PMID:26364859

  5. Signet ring variant of lobular carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Raju, U; Ma, C K; Shaw, A

    1993-09-01

    Signet ring carcinoma of the breast often metastasizes to gastrointestinal tract and female genital tract. We report clinicopathologic features of 10 breast carcinomas with signet ring features, five of which had unusual metastatic patterns. The primary breast tumor in all these cases was lobular carcinoma. Although signet ring cells were prominent in metastatic sites, the primary tumor lacked signet ring cells in two cases. A linitis plastica-like presentation and presence of signet ring cells in gastric metastases raised a strong possibility of primary gastric carcinoma in three cases. The monoclonal antibody to gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) was positive in signet ring cell-rich areas in the primary breast tumor (8/10) and/or in the metastases in all cases. For comparison we studied GCDFP-15 immunoreactivity in 10 infiltrating lobular and 10 infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas with no obvious signet ring cells, and in 14 signet ring carcinomas from other sites (10 gastric, 2 prostatic, 2 colonic). The gastric, colonic, and one prostatic signet ring carcinoma were nonreactive. One prostatic signet ring carcinoma exhibited focal but unequivocal positivity with GCDFP-15. The cases of this report reinforce the concept that signet ring carcinoma of the breast is usually a variant of lobular carcinoma and not a distinct entity. Signet ring cell predominance in metastases, even in the absence of signet ring cells in the primary tumor, attest to the morpho-functional heterogeneity of lobular carcinoma. GCDFP-15 is a sensitive marker for signet ring breast carcinoma and a very useful adjunct tool in the diagnosis of metastatic signet ring carcinoma of mammary origin. PMID:8248106

  6. Trefoil factor 3 as a novel biomarker to distinguish between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-05-01

    In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an additional biomarker for distinguishing adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25997063

  7. Mechanical properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gang; Long, Mian; Wu, Zhe-Zhi; Yu, Wei-Qun

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the viscoelastic properties of human hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells under cytoskeletal perturbation, and to further to study the viscoelastic properties and the adhesive properties of mouse hepatoma cells (HTC) in different cell cycle. METHODS: Micropipette aspiration technique was adopted to measure viscoelastic coefficients and adhesion force to collagen coated surface of the cells. Three kinds of cytoskeleton perturbing agents, colchicines (Col), cytochalasin D (CD) and vinblastine (VBL), were used to treat HCC cells and hepatocytes and the effects of these treatment on cell viscoelastic coefficients were investigated. The experimental results were analyzed with a three-element standard linear solid. Further, the viscoelastic properties of HTC cells and the adhesion force of different cycle HTC cells were also investigated. The synchronous G1 and S phase cells were achieved through thymine-2-desoryriboside and colchicines sequential blockage method and thymine-2-desoryriboside blockage method respectively. RESULTS: The elastic coefficients, but not viscous coefficient of HCC cells (K1 = 103.6 12.6 Nm-2, K2 = 42.5 10.4 Nm-2, ? = 4.5 1.9 Pas), were significantly higher than the corresponding value for hepatocytes (K1 = 87.5 12.1 Nm-2, K2 = 33.3 10.3 Nm-2, ? = 5.9 3.0 Pas, P < 0.01). Upon treatment with CD, the viscoelastic coefficients of both hepatocytes and HCC cells decreased consistently, with magnitudes for the decrease in elastic coefficients of HCC cells (K1: 68.7 Nm-2 to 81.7 Nm-2, 66.3% to 78.9%; K2: 34.5 Nm-2 to 37.1 Nm-2, 81.2% to 87.3%, P < 0.001) larger than those for normal hepatocytes (K1: 42.6 Nm-2 to 49.8 Nm-2, 48.7% to 56.9%; K2: 17.2 Nm-2 to 20.4 Nm-2, 51.7% to 61.3%, P < 0.001). There was a little decrease in the viscous coefficient of HCC cells (2.0 to 3.4 Pas, 44.4 to 75.6%, P < 0.001) than that for hepatocytes (3.0 to 3.9 Pas, 50.8 to 66.1% P < 0.001). Upon treatment with Col and VBL, the elastic coefficients of hepatocytes generally increased or tended to increase while those of HCC cells decreased. HTC cells with 72.1% of G1 phase and 98.9% of S phase were achieved and high K1, K2 value and low ? value were the general characteristics of HTC cells. G1 phase cells had higher K1 value and lower ? value than S phase cells had, and G1 phase HTC cells had stronger adhesive forces [(275.9 232.8) 10-10 N] than S phase cells [(161.2 120.4) 10-10 N, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The difference in both the pattern and the magnitude of the effect of cytoskeletal perturbing agent on the viscoelastic properties between HCC cells and hepatocytes may reflect differences in the state of the cytoskeleton structure and function and in the sensitivity to perturbing agent treatment between these two types of cells. Change in the viscoelastic properties of cancer cells may affect significantly tumor cell invasion and metastasis as well as interactions between tumor cells and their micro-mechanical environments. PMID:11925600

  8. The development of high-grade serous carcinoma from atypical proliferative (borderline) serous tumors and low-grade micropapillary serous carcinoma: a morphologic and molecular genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dehari, Reiko; Kurman, Robert J; Logani, Sanjay; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2007-07-01

    Recently, we have proposed a model for the development of ovarian surface epithelial tumors. In this model, all histologic types of surface epithelial tumors are divided into 2 categories designated type I and type II which correspond to 2 pathways of tumorigenesis. Type I tumors include low-grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, malignant Brenner tumor, and clear cell carcinoma which develop slowly in a stepwise fashion from well-recognized precursors, namely atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors. Type II tumors are high-grade, rapidly growing tumors that typically have spread beyond the ovaries at presentation. They include high-grade serous carcinoma ("moderately" and "poorly" differentiated), malignant mixed mesodermal tumors (carcinosarcomas), and undifferentiated carcinoma. These tumors are rarely associated with morphologically recognizable precursor lesions and it has been proposed that they develop "de novo" from ovarian inclusion cysts. This model implies that the pathogenesis of type I and type II tumors are separate and independent but it is not clear whether some type II tumors develop from type I tumors. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by determining the clonality of 6 cases of high-grade serous carcinomas that were closely associated with atypical proliferative serous (borderline) tumors and invasive low-grade micropapillary serous carcinomas. We reviewed 210 ovarian serous tumors from the surgical pathology files of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and identified 3 high-grade serous carcinoma that were directly associated with atypical proliferative serous (borderline) tumors and 3 that were associated with invasive low-grade micropapillary serous carcinomas. A morphologic continuum between the high-grade carcinoma and the low-grade tumors was observed in 4 cases whereas in the remaining 2 cases the high-grade and low-grade components were separate. Mutational analyses for KRAS, BRAF, and p53 genes were performed on microdissected samples from the high-grade and low-grade tumor areas for each case. All 6 tumors demonstrated wild-type BRAF and p53 genes. Only 2 of the 6 cases were informative from a molecular genetic standpoint. In those 2 cases we found the same mutations of KRAS in both the atypical proliferative serous (borderline) tumor and the high-grade serous carcinoma component of the tumor, indicating a clonal relationship. The above results suggest that the majority of high-grade and low-grade carcinomas develop independently but in rare cases, a high-grade serous carcinoma may arise from an atypical proliferative serous (borderline) tumor. PMID:17592266

  9. A Phase Ib/II Study of BYL719 and Cetuximab in Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-16

    Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (RM HNSCC) Patients Who Are Resistant or Ineligible/Intolerant to Platinum-based Chemotherapy.; Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. A patient presenting with spinal cord compression who had two distinct follicular cell type thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Koca, E; Sokmensuer, C; Yildiz, B O; Engin, H; Bozkurt, M F; Aras, T; Barista, I; Gurlek, A

    2004-06-01

    A 61-yr-old woman presented with complaints of weakness and pain in her legs. A magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3 x 5.6 x 7.8 cm mass lesion destructing the T1 and T2 vertebral bodies and compressing the spinal cord. The mass was excised surgically. It was follicular carcinoma metastasis of the cervicodorsal region. Then, she underwent a total thyroidectomy. Pathological examination showed two different types of carcinomas in two different focuses; follicular carcinoma in the left lobe and follicular variant papillary carcinoma in the isthmic lobe. After the operation she was given 100 mCi 131I. This is the first report of a patient who had both metastatic follicular carcinoma and follicular variant papillary carcinoma together. PMID:15717654

  11. The Genomic Heterogeneity of FIGO Grade 3 Endometrioid Carcinoma Impacts Diagnostic Accuracy and Reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Yaser R; Broaddus, Russell; Weigelt, Britta; Levine, Douglas A; Soslow, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified 4 groups of endometrial carcinomas based on an integrated genomic characterization: POLE ultramutated (POLE), microsatellite instability-high, copy number-low (CN-L), and copy number-high (CN-H). In that study, CN-H comprised all of the serous carcinoma cases and 25% of all International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma cases. In this study, 2 expert gynecologic pathologists undertook a morphologic reassessment of the FIGO Grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma subset of the TCGA study cohort, including an analysis for evidence of serous differentiation. Interobserver variability ?values are reported for the histologic evaluation of all 4 genomic clusters, and diagnostic discrepancies are discussed. Overall, there were 55 agreements, 6 disagreements, and 14 deferrals. Of the 75 cases analyzed, 6 cases had a consensus morphologic diagnosis of serous carcinoma, but only 2 of these cases had a serous carcinoma genotype, whereas the remaining 4 cases were genotypically endometrioid carcinoma. For the CN-H group, 2 of 15 cases were serous carcinoma by morphology and genotype, whereas at least 1 pathologist interpreted the remaining 13 cases as endometrioid carcinoma. The interobserver agreement rate was highest in the CN-L group (90%; ?=0.9), compared with the other genomic groups (POLE: 62%, ?=0.55; microsatellite instability-high: 78%, ?=0.74; and CN-H: 53%, ?=0.48). Our review confirms that most high-grade endometrial carcinomas diagnosed by TCGA as FIGO Grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma are indeed endometrioid carcinomas by morphology and genotype, and that the reproducibility of histologic diagnosis between pathologists varies between the TCGA-integrated genomic clusters. PMID:26166718

  12. Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 modulates the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma cells involving apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, L. F.; Chen, A.; Wei, Y. H.; Ho, K. C.; Cheng, J. Y.; Meng, C. L.; Lee, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    About 10% of gastric carcinomas including lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In EBV-associated gastric carcinomas, the tumor cells express Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) but not EBNA-2, -3A, -3B, or -3C, leader protein, or latent membrane proteins (LMPs) because of gene methylation. Only a few exceptional cases have LMP1 expression in tumor cells as demonstrated by immunohistochemical studies. To elucidate the biological effects of LMP1 and the significance of its restricted expression in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas, the LMP1 gene was transferred into EBV-negative gastric carcinoma cell lines (SCM1 and TMC1) and into EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells (HONE-1) as a control. The biological effects of LMP1 in gastric carcinoma cells were monitored in vitro and in vivo. These results showed that the consequence of LMP1 expression is a growth enhancement in NPC cells, but it is a growth suppression in gastric carcinoma cells. The LMP1-expressing gastric carcinoma cells had a reduced growth rate, colony-forming efficiency, mean colony size, and tumorigenicity and a lower malignant cytological grade. The reduced growth rate, colony-forming efficiency, and mean colony size were partially reversible in vitro with treatment with LMP1 antisense oligonucleotide. In addition, enhanced apoptosis was found in the LMP1-expressing gastric carcinoma cells. This suggests that LMP1 may negatively modulate the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma cells via an enhancement of apoptosis. We concluded that the restriction of LMP1 expression in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas may lead to a growth advantage for tumor cells by avoiding LMP1 apoptotic effects and immunologically mediated elimination. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9422524

  13. Trichilemmoma in continuity with pigmented basal cell carcinoma; with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kaptan, Moayad Al; Kattampallil, Joseph; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    A case of trichilemmoma in continuity with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma is presented with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology. The distinction between the two lesions was evident dermatoscopically and was confirmed dermatopathologically. While trichilemmoma has been reported in association with basal cell carcinoma and dermatoscopy images of four previous cases of trichilemmoma have been published, no previous dermatoscopy image has been published of trichilemmoma associated with basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26114053

  14. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Incidental Carcinoma of the Gallbladder with Abdominal Wall and Axillary Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Fligelstone, Louis J.; Wheeler, Malcolm H.; Horgan, Kieran; Maughan, Timothy S.

    1997-01-01

    A case report is presented of intra-mural gallbladder carcinoma discovered incidentally after laparoscopic cholecystectomy who subsequently developed abdominal wall recurrence at the epigastric exit port, and axillary lymph node metastases. Possible preventative steps for tumour dissemination and a management plan if incidental carcinoma is diagnosed is discussed. The use of a non-porous retrieval bag, early recognition of the carcinoma and excision of the exit wound are advocated. PMID:9174863

  15. Intratumoral morphologic and molecular heterogeneity of rhabdoid renal cell carcinoma: challenges for personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh R; Murugan, Paari; Patel, Lalit R; Voicu, Horatiu; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Wani, Khalida; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G; Creighton, Chad J; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Broaddus, Russell R; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Czerniak, Bogdan; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Sircar, Kanishka

    2015-09-01

    Rhabdoid histology in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma may also be influenced by molecular alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between histologic features and salient molecular changes in rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. We macrodissected the rhabdoid and clear-cell epithelioid components from 12 cases of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. We assessed cancer-related mutations from eight cases using a clinical next-generation exome-sequencing platform. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (n=8) and non-rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) was assessed by RNA-seq and gene expression microarray. VHL (63%) showed identical mutations in all regions from the same tumor. BAP1 (38%) and PBRM1 (13%) mutations were identified in the rhabdoid but not in the epithelioid component and were mutually exclusive in 3/3 cases and 1 case, respectively. SETD2 (63%) mutations were discordant between different histologic regions in 2/5 cases, with mutations called only in the epithelioid and rhabdoid components, respectively. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma was distinct from advanced-stage and high-grade clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. The diverse histologic components of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, however, showed a similar transcriptomic program, including a similar prognostic gene expression signature. Rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is transcriptomically distinct and shows a high rate of SETD2 and BAP1 mutations and a low rate of PBRM1 mutations. Driver mutations in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma are often discordant across different morphologic regions, whereas the gene expression program is relatively stable. Molecular profiling of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma may improve by assessing for gene expression and sampling tumor foci from different histologic regions. PMID:26111976

  16. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

  17. CT characters versus morphopathological characters in pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bratu, Ana Magdalena; S?lcianu, Iulia Alecsandra; Cristian, Daniel Alin; Zaharia, Constantin; Mateescu, Garofi?a Olivia; Matei, Marius; Berte?teanu, ?erban Vifor Gabriel; Lic?, Gabriela; Niculescu, Elena Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, whose incidence increases with age. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is an easy way to explore the pharyngeal region, having the advantage of being able to highlight and characterize the existence of a tumor in this region, and to determine its local extension and lymphatic metastasis. In this group were included a total of 27 patients, who, following the histopathological findings were diagnosed with pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and who have previously received a CT scan. CT examination protocol included a native scan and post-intravenous administration of contrast medium, in both the arterial phase and in parenchymal and venous phase. The scan was made with 2 mm thin sections, subsequently were performed coronal and sagittal reconstructions. The examination plan included the thoracic region down to the aperture. The paper tries to establish correlations between the morphological appearance and semiological computed tomography characters of the lesions. PMID:25826506

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Kwon, Young Suk; Labib, Mina; Foran, David J.; Singer, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    As the most common neoplasm arising from the kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to have a significant impact on global health. Conventional cross-sectional imaging has always served an important role in the staging of RCC. However, with recent advances in imaging techniques and postprocessing analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now has the capability to function as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarker for RCC. For this narrative literature review, a PubMed search was conducted to collect the most relevant and impactful studies from our perspectives as urologic oncologists, radiologists, and computational imaging specialists. We seek to cover advanced MR imaging and image analysis techniques that may improve the management of patients with small renal mass or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26609190

  19. Simple sugar intake and hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological and mechanistic insight.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta; Roglans, Nria

    2014-12-01

    Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Interestingly, all of these metabolic alterations have also been related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence coming from epidemiological studies and data from animal models relating the consumption of simple sugars, and specifically fructose, with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and to gain insight into the putative molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:25533006

  20. Molecular aspects of renal cell carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Hari; Huh, Jung-Sik; Rove, Kyle O; Crompton, Luiza; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Kim, Fernando J

    2011-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tubules of the kidney. RCC, the incidence of which is increasing annually, represents five percent of adult epithelial cancers. Clear cell carcinoma represents the most frequent histological subtype. RCC is characterized by a lack of early warning signs, diverse clinical manifestations. Incidentally detected tumors in asymptomatic individuals have been steadily increasing owing to the increased usage of various imaging technologies. Currently there are no recommendations for screening to detect and make an early diagnosis of renal cancer. But in recent years, the discovery of new molecular and cytogenetic markers has led to the recognition and classification of several novel subtypes of RCC, and the introduction of molecular-targeted therapy for advanced-stage RCC. We performed a literature review using PubMed and discuss current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, treatment, and future research directions of RCC. PMID:21969126