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Sample records for carcinoma localmente avanzado

  1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments Q - T Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma : This man's skin has been ... treatment, SCC is highly curable. Learn more about squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Squamous cell ...

  2. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    In the U.S., an estimated 300 people are diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma each year.1 If detected at an early stage, this type of cancer can often be successfully treated. However, almost 70 percent of people are diagnosed with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.2 For patients at the latest stage of this cancer, less than 20 percent survive five years after diagnosis.

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, T.; Kojiro, M.

    1986-01-01

    With the remarkable recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances and the discovery of a possible pathogenetic role of hepatitis B virus, the study and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma are entering a new era. Parallel developments in the pathological study of this malignancy are also to be expected. To coincide with this new era, this book presents the authors' accumulated pathomorphological knowledge of hepatocellular carcinoma. The detailed coverage is based on the examination findings of 439 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma autopsied at the authors' department in the last twenty years.

  4. Ameloblastic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratne, Dakshika Abeydeera; Coleman, Hedley G.; Lim, Lydia; Morgan, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 66 Final Diagnosis: Ameloblastic carcinoma Symptoms: Jaw pain Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Surgical resection Specialty: Head and neck surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Ameloblastic carcinoma secondary type is an extremely rare and aggressive odontogenic neoplasm that exhibits histological features of malignancy in primary and metastatic sites. It arises through carcinomatous de-differentiation of a pre-existing ameloblastoma or odontogenic cyst, typically following repeated treatments and recurrences of the benign precursor neoplasm. Identification of an ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type presenting with histologic features of malignant transformation from an earlier untreated benign lesion remains a rarity. Herein, we report 1 such case. Case Report: A 66-year-old man was referred for management of a newly diagnosed ameloblastic carcinoma. He underwent radical surgical intervention comprising hemimandibulectomy, supraomohyoid neck dissection, and free-flap reconstruction. Final histologic analysis demonstrated features suggestive of carcinomatous de-differentiation for a consensus diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type (de-differentiated) intraosseous. Conclusions: Ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type represents a rare and challenging histologic diagnosis. Radical surgical resection with adequate hard and soft tissue margins is essential for curative management of localized disease. PMID:26126621

  5. [Analoghi sintetici dell'ormone di rilascio dell'ormone luteinizzante per il trattamento del carcinoma prostatico localmente avanzato o metastatico: analisi dei costi diretti e indiretti nello scenario italiano].

    PubMed

    Fadda, Valeria; Maratea, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Riassunto. Introduzione. Gli analoghi sintetici dell'ormone di rilascio dell'ormone luteinizzante (Lh-Rh) sono utilizzati per diverse indicazioni cliniche. I dati di outcome non riportano differenze significative in termini di efficacia tra i diverse analoghi di sintesi Lh-Rh. Materiali e metodi. La ricerca di letteratura è stata eseguita inserendo le seguenti parole chiave nelle biblioteche biomediche online (PubMed) e nei database online delle Agenzie regolatorie (EMA e FDA): "LHRH agonist AND prostatic cancer", "androgen deprivation therapy", "androgen suppression", "buserelin", "leuprorelin", "goserelin", "triptorelin", "degarelix". Nei costi diretti sono stati inclusi i costi relativi alle visite specialistiche di controllo, il costo dell'esame del PSA e il costo del farmaco. Tra i costi indiretti sono stati inclusi le giornate lavorative perse dal paziente. Risultati. Considerando lo schema terapeutico intermittente per tutti i farmaci considerati, il costo di trattamento più basso è attribuibile alla formulazione di Eligard 22,5 mg mentre la spesa più alta si registra con la somministrazione di Firmagon. Quando però vengono considerati anche i costi di accesso ospedaliero dovuti alla necessaria presenza di un operatore, la terapia meno costosa è rappresentata da Suprefact depot. Conclusioni. La presente analisi dimostra che il prezzo di acquisto del farmaco non può, da solo, rappresentare la spesa come unico determinante della stessa. A carico del Servizio Sanitario è infatti necessario imputare anche i costi associati alle visite specialistiche, agli accessi ambulatoriali e al tempo impiegato dall'operatore, necessari nel caso in cui per la somministrazione del farmaco sia obbligatoria la presenza di un operatore. PMID:26780073

  6. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  7. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    MedlinePLUS

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  8. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sophia C; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is uncommon in the United States, with only 0.2 to 0.5 cases per 100,00 people; this is in contrast to southern China and Hong Kong, where the incidence is 25 to 50 per 100,000 people. There is a potential link between Epstein-Barr virus and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiotherapy alone as a single modality leads to similar 10-year survival rates in United States, Denmark, and Hong Kong (34%, 37%, and 43%, respectively). Multiple studies have shown an advantage to concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of advanced disease. Radiation therapy remains the mainstay of salvage therapy, and modern techniques have allowed clinicians to achieve adequate local control without excessive toxicity. PMID:25979399

  9. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  10. [Urothelial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rübben, H; Vom Dorp, F

    2011-09-01

    Various study groups are working on the WHO classification of 2004 which eliminates the previous grades of differentiation G1, G2, and G3 and classifies non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer into genetically stable low-grade and genetically unstable high-grade urothelial carcinomas. In muscle-invasive bladder cancer, extended lymph node dissection as part of radical cystectomy should remain the standard procedure for now. PMID:21837494

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S A; Ferry, D R; El-Gazzaz, G; Mirza, D F; James, N D; McMaster, P; Kerr, D J

    2001-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer of men and eleventh most common cancer of women world-wide. However, because almost every individual who develops liver cancer dies of the disease, HCC is the third most common cause of the cancer deaths in men and seventh most common in women. The treatment of choice for hepatocellular carcinoma remains surgical resection or liver transplantation, in carefully selected cases. In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma not amenable to surgical intervention a variety of different therapeutic interventions have been investigated. These include direct ablation of the tumour using agents such as ethanol or acetic acid, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, or systemic chemotherapy. The evaluation of their efficacy is compromised by the paucity of adequately powered randomised clinical trials. The main challenge facing the research community over the next decade is to prioritise the most promising treatments and take these forward into multicentre controlled trials. Even if these fail to improve results, they will help reduce the variation in clinical practice by eliminating anecdotal treatment. PMID:11300318

  12. Adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) include diagnostic and prognostic risk stratification algorithms, increasing evidence of the impact of historical therapies on overall survival, and emerging targets from integrated epigenomic and genomic analyses. Advances include proper clinical and molecular characterization of all patients with ACC, standardization of proliferative index analyses, referral of these patients to large cancer referral centers at the time of first surgery, and development of new trials in patients with well-characterized ACC. Networking and progress in the molecular characterization of ACC constitute the basis for significant future therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:26038209

  13. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... genital warts Melanoma Merkel cell carcinoma Sebaceous carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Why see a dermatologist? Diseases: A-Z index ... et al . “Lack of evidence for basal or squamous cell carcinoma infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus in immunocompetent patients ...

  14. Carcinoma penis.

    PubMed

    Sandeman, T F

    1990-02-01

    Between 1954 and 1984, 102 cases of carcinoma of the penis were seen at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute. Their mean age was 62.5 years. Nearly twice as many patients were referred in the last decade as in the first, and this observation may be linked to the reduction in numbers of neonatal circumcisions in the last forty years. The material reported is selected by referral patterns of recurrence following surgery elsewhere or the patient's preference for conservative management. As a result the overall survival figures have little meaning. However it is apparent that where possible and where acceptable, partial surgical amputation is more likely to achieve local cure and to be less disturbing for patients with invasive disease. Radiotherapy can be effective in controlling superficial primaries and may be curative in early, or rarely in late, stage nodal disease. Prevention by circumcision in infancy is still the best policy. PMID:2357185

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

  16. Hereditary Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Renal Carcinoma Request Permissions Print to PDF Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is hereditary papillary renal carcinoma? Hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC) is a hereditary ...

  17. Renal cell carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) ... Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It occurs most often in men ...

  18. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  19. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Klink, B.K.; Karulf, R.E.; Maimon, W.N.; Peoples, J.B. )

    1991-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare clinical entity accounting for only 4 per cent of all cases of parathyroid neoplasia. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma is even rarer. Previously, virtually all patients with these lesions were treated for a nonspecific neck mass. However, in the present case, a preoperative diagnosis of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma was made based on the technetium pertechnetate/thallium 201 subtraction scan. The authors report on the 14th case of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, a review of the literature, and guidelines for the preoperative and operative evaluation of neck masses suspected to be parathyroid carcinoma.22 references.

  20. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Keshava; Pandey, Bhavna; Shetty, Pushparaja; Manohar, Vidya; Shruthilaxmi, M. K.; Patidar, Madhvika

    2014-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an unusual type of mucoepidermoid carcinoma with special histological features which differ from those of the classic type of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. We report the case of a 32-year-old male, who reported to the Vydehi Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore, India, with an asymptomatic swelling over the right parotid region which had been present for the previous two and a half years. Histopathological sections of the tumour mass showed mucous and epidermoid cell nests in a dense, hyalinised, sclerotic stroma. A diagnosis of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma was made. A superficial parotidectomy was performed on the patient and he has remained disease free to date. PMID:24790751

  1. Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Last Updated: May 08, 2013 What is lung cancer? Lung cancer accounts for more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women, about 28 percent of all cancer

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma —

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-W?klar, Daria; Da?czak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

  4. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare type of kidney cancer. This type of cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney. These small tubules help filter waste from the blood, making urine.

  5. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  6. Screening for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the second most common cause of death in Canada. Because there is a precursor lesion (that is, the polyp), screening is critically important to prevent the disease through polyp removal—and failing that, to detect colorectal carcinoma at an early stage, when it can be cured. Several screening modalities are available, but colonoscopy is considered the best. People should avail themselves of such examinations, and physicians should encourage them to do so. PMID:20404976

  7. Metronomics for thymic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    del Toro, Jacobo Muñoz; Castedo, Patricia Cortez; Salgado, Alfonso Cortés; García, M Eugenia Olmedo; López, Pilar Garrido

    2014-01-01

    Although thymomas are the most frequent primary tumours of the anterior mediastinum, thymic carcinoma is very infrequent and more aggressive. Combination chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for the advanced stages, but because of the lack of evidence from randomised trials, the management of the successive lines is a challenging field. We report a partial radiological response in the seventh line of a thymic carcinoma stage IV with an oral regimen. PMID:25624875

  8. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. PMID:26778815

  9. Carcinoma of the endometrium.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, D; Marsden, D E; Ruffolo, E H

    1984-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the cause of considerable morbidity among women, but the disease has been underrated and its management more casual than its virulence warrants. Endometrial carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed invasive neoplasm of the female genital tract in the US, and is third in incidence after breast and colonic cancer. The white population of the US has the highest age standardized incidence of endometrial cancer in the world, India and Japan have the lowest, and the European countries occupy intermediate positions. Between 75% and 80% of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer are postmenopausal, and the mean age at diagnosis is about 60 years. In many cases endometrial hyperplasia is misdiagnosed as frank malignancy. The predisposing factors for endometrial cancer seem to be obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or an abnormal glucose tolerance curve, and prolonged or unopposed estrogen stimulation. Raised estrogen levels may occur in the following situations: 1) women with functioning ovarian tumors that produce estrogen; 2) women with polycystic ovarian disease; 3) women with ovarian dysgensis (Turner's syndrome) managed with estrogen replacement therapy; 4) women taking high estrogen sequential oral contraceptives (OCs); and 5) women undergoing estrogen replacement therapy. There is an increased risk of endometrial carcinoma associated with nulliparity. Carcinoma of the endometrium occurs in a variety of subtypes, the most frequent being adenocarcinoma, followed by adenocanthoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma. Overall 5-year survival rates are 72% for adenocarcinoma, 68% for adenocanthoma, and 26% for adenosquamous carcinoma. The true extent of endometrial cancer can be ascertained only after exploratory laparotomy and then various therapies may be used according to the stage of the disease. PMID:6371616

  10. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C?A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients. PMID:21892948

  11. Gastric remnant carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bushkin, F L

    1976-01-01

    Over 1200 cases of carcinoma of the gastric remnant have been reported in the literature. There is an increase of this type of carcinoma in postoperative stomachs with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The cause and effect relationships remain to be fully elucidated. In patients with late postgastrectomy symptoms, carcinoma of the gastric remnant should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In a study of 350 asymptomatic patients who were more than 20 years from Billroth II gastric resection, 14 carcinomas were discovered in the region of the stoma. Preoperatively, gross endoscopic appearance and multiple biopsies will usually provide the diagnosis. At the time of revisional surgery, frozen section of gastric biopsies or the resected specimen may be necessary to exclude the diagnosis. At present there is widespread interest in several procedures in the treatment of benign ulcer disease. In selected patients, proximal gastric vagotomy is receiving particular interest. It remains to be determined what, if any, gastric mucosal alterations occur. Since the pyloric mechanism is intact, no stoma is created and no portion of the stomach resected; long-term followup of these patients will be of interest. Information as to the cause of gastric remnant carcinoma can be forthcoming only by evaluation of all groups of patients requiring gastric surgery for benign disease. At the same time, further investigation of patients with gastric carcinoma without prior resection who have atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia is also necessary. The histologic type of carcinoma that develops in the gastric remnant is usually more favorable for surgical cure than those seen in the intact stomach. This means that early diagnosis by radiologic and endoscopic study of postgastrectomy patients developing symptoms is highly desirable. Because of the long interval between gastrectomy and gastric remnant carcinoma these patients are often in the older age group. The location of the lesion in the remaining proximal stomach will nearly always require total gastrectomy. This plus the age factor means that the operative mortality will be rather high. We are unable to explain why in 22 years of observing postgastrectomy patients we have seen only one case of gastric remnant carcinoma. This patient was successfully treated by left transpleural transdiaphragmatic total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. This method is particulary easy in the patient who has has an antecolic Billroth II gastrectomy. If the jejunum cannot be adequately mobilized through a radial incision extending laterally from the esophageal hiatus, we use a peripheral diaphragmatic incision in circumferential fashion. This gives excellent exposure of the upper abdominal contents and also preserves the phrenic nerve. As a result, ventilatory function of the left leaf of the diaphragm is preserved postoperatively. PMID:957774

  12. [Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the larynx].

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, A; Fernández-Nogueras Jiménez, F; Perales Jodar, E; Rubí Uría, J; Fernández Sánchez, A

    1993-01-01

    A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the larynx es presented and the literature reviewed. The inherent difficulties in histologic mucoepidermoid carcinoma is discussed. At the present time, mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the larynx should be regarded as a separate entity, its treatment based in histological grade as well as clinical behavior. PMID:8357636

  13. Verrucous carcinoma of skin.

    PubMed

    Klima, M; Kurtis, B; Jordan, P H

    1980-04-01

    Five different cases of verrucous proliferative lesions of skin are described and discussed. One of each developed in a chronic ulcer on a heel, in a scar on a lower leg, and on the penis, and two appeared in the region of the buttock in relation to chronic inflammatory sinuses. All these lesions showed morphological and clinical features of verrucous carcinoma which are described. It has been concluded that the variously named verrucous lesions in the literature (epithelioma cuniculatum, florid papillomatosis, giant cutaneous papilloma and papillomatosis cutis carcinoides), as well as our five cases represent a verrucous carcinoma which is a particular type of squamous cell carcinoma. This tumor develops typically in moist areas which are frequently sites of chronic inflammation. Despite the favorable prognosis, it is a potentially invasive tumor. PMID:7372883

  14. Urachal carcinoma: imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Vanessa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Urachal carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, which accounts for only 0.5–2% of bladder malignancies, and arises from a remnant of the fetal genitourinary tract. A 46-year-old woman presented with a history of pelvic pain and frequent daytime urination. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) demonstrated a supravesical heterogeneous mass with calcifications. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy with en-bloc resection of the mass and histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis of urachal adenocarcinoma. Urachal carcinomas are usually associated with poor prognosis and early diagnosis is fundamental. CT and MR are useful to correctly diagnose and preoperatively staging. PMID:23986824

  15. Pathobiology of ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Genestie, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct tumor pathology and oncogenic potentiel. These tumors are subdivided into three main categories: epithelial, germ cell, and sex-cord stromal tumors. We report herein the newly described molecular abnormalities in epithelial ovarian cancers (carcinomas). Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease. Our better understanding of the molecular basis of ovarian carcinomas represents the first step in the development of targeted therapies in the near future. PMID:25556618

  16. Carcinoma Tongue--Clinicopathological Presentation.

    PubMed

    Majumder, K R; Karmakar, R; Alam, M M; Rahman, T

    2015-10-01

    This prospective study was done to observe the diversity of clinical presentation of carcinoma of tongue and to study the pathological variety of carcinoma of tongue and was conducted in the Department of General Surgery and Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka Medical College Hospital on 50 patients from January 2011 to July 2013. In this series highest number of patients were middle aged (36%). Male female ratio was 2:1. Average socioeconomic conditions of the patient were poor (68%). Betel nut and leaves chewing (88%) and smoking (56%) habits were commonly practiced for more than 10 years among the patients. Depending on site of involvement, variation in presenting symptoms has been observed. Oral tongue carcinoma mostly was presented with tongue lesion, pain and dysphagia where as the carcinoma of base of tongue commonly was presented with dysphagia, lump in neck. Lateral border of tongue (60%) was seen commonly involved. Ulcerative lesion (56%) predominantly was found in tongue lesion. Eighty percent (80%) of cases had no palpable Lymph node. Only few patients were found with Lymph node metastasis and most of them had carcinoma in base of the tongue (75%). Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma of tongue in our study commonly found in middle aged male patients. Variation of symptoms has depended on anatomical site involved. Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma other than squamous cell was not found. PMID:26620021

  17. Three cases of verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dogan, G; Oram, Y; Hazneci, E; Ozen, S; Karincao?lu, Y; Ciralik, H

    1998-11-01

    Verrucous carcinoma of the skin and mucosa is an uncommon clinicopathological variant of low grade squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present three different clinical types of verrucous carcinoma. The first patient presented with an anogenital verrucous carcinoma, also known as Buschke-Loewenstein tumour. The second patient had verrucous carcinoma of the heel with endophytic growth (i.e. epithelioma cuniculatum) and the third patient had gluteal verrucous carcinoma with a cauliflower-like appearance. Clinically, the lesion of the first patient best resembled giant condyloma accuminatum without any prominent verrucous component, whereas the second patient showed a big deep ulcer on the heel. None of the patients had metastasis. The diagnosis was confirmed with biopsy and total excision was performed in all cases. Although the cases have different clinical presentations in different locations, we think that they should be considered as a single entity; that is, verrucous carcinoma. PMID:9838724

  18. Carcinoma on old frostbites.

    PubMed

    Katsas, A; Agnantis, J; Smyrnis, S; Kakavoulis, T

    1977-03-01

    Two cases of carcinoma developing on old frostbite scars of the heel are presented. A short review of the subject follows, stressing the rarity of these "secondary" tumors and their general context within the skin cancers and the tragic experience of Greece with frostbite in the campaign of 1940-1941. PMID:848669

  19. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Asmaa I; Khan, Shahid A; Leen, Edward LS; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers worldwide, particularly in parts of the developing world, and is increasing in incidence. This article reviews the current modalities employed for the diagnosis of HCC, including serum markers, radiological techniques and histological evaluation, and summarises international guidelines for the diagnostic approach to HCC. PMID:19294759

  20. Pilomatrix carcinoma of the vulva

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mihae; Chekmareva, Marina; Bachmann, Gloria; Gibbon, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Background Pilomatrix carcinomas are rare, frequently occurring in older male patients. We report a case of vulvar pilomatrix carcinoma in a 30-year-old woman, the second known reported case occurring on the external genitalia. Case A 30-year-old female originally presented at an outside institution for the management of an asymptomatic vulvar mass that was biopsied and read as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Pathology review at our institution reclassified the vulvar mass as a low-grade pilomatrix carcinoma. The patient underwent radical hemivulvectomy without an inguinal–femoral groin node dissection. She has remained without evidence of disease recurrence for more than 5 years since her diagnosis. Conclusion Pilomatrix carcinoma can be confused for an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Due to its low risk of metastases, a less radical surgical approach can be taken. Consideration of this unusual malignancy is important in the determination of appropriate management.

  1. Brain metastases from ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from ovarian carcinoma. So far, less than 600 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence among ovarian carcinoma patients ranging from 0.29% to 11.6%. The ovarian carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage epithelial serous carcinoma, and the median interval between diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and brain metastases was 2 years. Most often, brain metastases, affected the cerebrum, were multiple and part of a disseminated disease. Treatment of brain metastasis has evolved over the years from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) only to multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by WBRT and/or chemotherapy. The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases was 6 months; nevertheless, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy compared to WBRT only. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be included in the followup of patients after treatment for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:22191058

  2. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  3. Pheochromocytoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Tariq; Qari, Faiza

    2009-08-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented with labile and difficult to control hypertension on 3 different anti-hypertensive medications. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland showed a 1.8 cm thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine, calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, intact parathyroid hormone, and calcium levels were within normal limits. A 24-hour urine metanephrine showed significant elevation in urine metanephrine of approximately 3 times the upper limit of normal, and the result of 131I-metaiodobenzyleguanjdjne (131I-MIBG) scintigraphy confirmed that the adrenal mass was pheochromocytoma. Right adrenalectomy and total thyroidectomy were performed. The final pathology was pheochromocytoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. An analysis of c-ret porto-oncogene mutation yielded a negative result. This unusual association of 2 tumors represents a new entity. PMID:19668893

  4. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  5. Parathyroid carcinoma in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Baretić, Maja; Tomić Brzac, Hrvojka; Dobrenić, Margareta; Jakovčević, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old female patient with parathyroid carcinoma, the rarest endocrine malignancy, had two pregnancies. In the first pregnancy, she had severe nausea and fatigue. Hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism were diagnosed in the postpartum period. Hyperemesis gravidarum masked a diagnosis of hypercalcemia. Neck ultrasound and Tc-99m sestamibi found an enlarged lower right parathyroid gland. The gland was surgically removed, and an initial pathology report described atypical adenoma. Shortly afterward, she became pregnant again. During the second pregnancy, her calcium level was frequently controlled but was always in the normal range. Normocalcemia is explained by the specific physiology of pregnancy accompanied by hemodilution, hypoalbuminemia and maternal hypercalciuria (mediated by increased glomerular filtration). During lactation, calcium levels rose, and a new neck ultrasound showed a solitary mass in the area of prior surgery and an enlarged pretracheal lymph node. Fine needle aspiration of the solitary mass and node showed parathyroid carcinoma cells. The tumor mass was resected en bloc with the contiguous tissues and surrounding lymph nodes (pathology report; parathyroid carcinoma with metastases). Over the next five years, four consecutive surgeries were performed to remove malignant parathyroid tissue, lymph nodes and local metastases. Following the surgical procedures, no hypocalcemia was observed. More serious hypercalcemia recurred; the calcium level was difficult to control with a combination of pamidronate, cinacalcet and loop diuretic. No elements of multiple endocrine neoplasia were present. PMID:24868516

  6. Brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  7. [Risk factors of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Nováková, Dana; K?enek, Martin; Vošmiková, Kv?tuše; Vl?ek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the worlds fastest growing tumor incidences. The number of new cases has particularly increased in differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the Czech Republic it is documented that the incidence of thyroid cancer continues to grow, since 1980 has increased four times. The Czech Republic has a higher incidence than most other European countries and at the same time is a country with average and declining mortality from this disease. This review summarizes the known risk factors that may contribute to the formation and rise of thyroid carcinomas.Key words: differentiated thyroid carcinoma - incidence - low risk carcinoma - microcarcinoma - risk factors. PMID:26375692

  8. Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Carol F.; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC) of the kidney is a unique, rare, and recently recognized neoplasm. Although originally considered a low-grade collecting duct carcinoma, TCC is now considered to be a distinct entity. TCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic renal neoplasms. We report a case of TCC arising in the left kidney. PMID:26130898

  9. [Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Varma, M; Seitz, G

    2016-02-01

    For many tumor entities, especially in breast cancer, an intraductal carcinoma is generally perceived as a precursor lesion, which precedes the emergence of invasive carcinoma. Therefore, in addition to parameters of the invasive carcinoma, histological parameters of the intraductal component have always played an important role in therapy planning of breast cancer. This is different in prostate cancer and although the term "intraductal carcinoma" has long been propagated by some authors, its routine use remains rare and inconsistent. This is certainly not only due to the far simpler therapy options of prostate cancer, in which focal and organ-preserving therapies still play a subordinate role, but also due to substantial interobserver variation and our inconsistent perception of intraductal carcinomas. This article gives a brief overview of currently available literature on this topic and explains why intraductal carcinoma of the prostate deserves our attention. In contrast to breast cancer, intraductal carcinoma of the prostate usually represents a post-invasive lesion, in which an aggressive tumor exhibits spread into pre-existing ducts; however, in rare cases, intraductal carcinoma may represent a true precursor lesion. PMID:26782033

  10. Ameloblastic Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panat, Sunil R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant lesion with characteristic histologic features and behavior that dictates more aggressive surgical approach than that of a simple ameloblastoma. Here we present a case of ameloblastic carcinoma of the mandible in a 30-year-old male patient with a clinical course of typical aggressiveness and extensive local destruction. PMID:26393226

  11. Ameloblastic Carcinoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur

    2015-07-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant lesion with characteristic histologic features and behavior that dictates more aggressive surgical approach than that of a simple ameloblastoma. Here we present a case of ameloblastic carcinoma of the mandible in a 30-year-old male patient with a clinical course of typical aggressiveness and extensive local destruction. PMID:26393226

  12. Ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Bleicher, Richard J

    2013-04-01

    Management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has evolved from radical surgery to the option of a more minimally invasive approach. Data show that breast conservation surgery performed with administration of radiotherapy, like mastectomy, is feasible and safe. Because efforts to find a safe group for elimination of radiotherapy have resulted in data that conflict, radiotherapy still remains standard of care as a part of breast conservation for DCIS. Tamoxifen has also shown a significant recurrence benefit and has become standard in the treatment of receptor-positive disease. Investigation of other agents, such as anastrazole and trastuzumab, are ongoing. PMID:23464692

  13. Papillary Kidney Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

  14. Clear Cell Kidney Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

  15. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  16. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  17. Diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, M C

    1990-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. It is very rare (incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 person-years) in most parts of the world and only a handful of populations are known to deviate from this low-risk profile, which include people of southern China, Eskimos and other natives of the Arctic region, natives of southeast Asia, and the mainly Arab populations of north Africa and Kuwait. There is now convincing evidence implicating dietary factors as the primary cause of NPC among Chinese. A series of case-control studies conducted in various Chinese populations with distinct risks of NPC, ranging from the very high-risk Cantonese to the relatively low-risk Northern Chinese, have suggested that ingestion of salted fish and other kinds of preserved foods by the Chinese constitutes the most important cause of NPC development among these people. Preliminary data on Malays in southeast Asia, Eskimos in Alaska, and Arabs of north Africa also suggest that ingestion of preserved foods by these population groups may be responsible for their raised incidence of NPC. Regardless of race and geography, the commonest form of nasopharyngeal cancers are those that arise from the epithelial cells lining the nasopharynx. These carcinomas (commonly referred to as NPCs) constitute 75-95% of nasopharyngeal cancers in low-risk populations and virtually all nasopharyngeal cancers in high-risk populations (Ho, 1971; Sugano et al, 1978; Levine and Connelly, 1985). PMID:2197634

  18. Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Juliette; Dufour, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18350603

  19. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Knigge, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. Trial registration number: NCT00781924. PMID:21918674

  20. Is Invasive Micropapillary Serous Carcinoma a Low-grade Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Imamura, Hiroko; Aman, Murasaki; Shida, Kaai; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-01-01

    "Invasive micropapillary serous carcinoma" has been proposed as a synonym for low-grade serous carcinoma by some expert pathologists. In contrast, Singer and colleagues reported that some serous carcinomas with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern (SC-IMPs) can show high-grade nuclear atypia. However, the molecular features of such tumors have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to demonstrate and emphasize the fact that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern. We selected 24 "SC-IMPs" and investigated: (1) their morphologic features; (2) the immunostaining pattern of p53 protein; and (3) KRAS/BRAF/TP53 gene mutations. The 24 SC-IMPs were subdivided into low-grade and high-grade tumors based primarily on the nuclear atypia, with the mitotic rate used as a secondary feature: low grade (n=5) and high grade (n=19). Low-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by low-mitotic activity, absence of abnormal mitosis, presence of serous borderline tumor, occasional BRAF mutation, and infrequent TP53 mutation. High-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by high-mitotic activity, presence of abnormal mitosis, conventional high-grade serous carcinoma, frequent TP53 mutation, and lack of KRAS/BRAF mutation. We demonstrated that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by aberrant p53 immunostaining and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern, validating Singer and colleague's report. Serous carcinoma with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern should not be readily regarded as low-grade serous carcinoma. Nuclear grade is the most important diagnostic feature in the SC-IMPs. PMID:26166721

  1. Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Minokadeh, Ardalan; Wulkan, Adam J; Beer, Kenneth; Waibel, Jill S

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old man presented for evaluation with a 1-month history of a rapidly growing asymptomatic pink nodule on his forearm. Biopsy results of the lesion demonstrated pathology consistent with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Immunohistochemical studies displayed positive cytoplasmic staining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, positive dot-like perinuclear staining for cytokeratin-20, diffuse cytoplasmic staining for neuron specific enolase, and no significant staining for S-100. Subsequent positron emission tomography did not reveal evidence of metastatic disease. Wide excision of the lesion was performed along with a sentinel node biopsy of his left axilla. The sentinel nodes were negative for MCC. Adjuvant radiation treatment of the tumor site was provided because the pathologist noted MCC within 2 mm of the deep margin. PMID:24933855

  2. Imaging in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Silvana C; Sagebiel, Tara; Balachandran, Aparna; Devine, Catherine; Lal, Chandana; Bhosale, Priya R

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Prognosis depends on patient age, histological grade, depth of myometrial invasion and/or cervical invasion, and the presence of lymph node metastases. Although EC is staged surgically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system, preoperative imaging can assist in optimal treatment planning. Several imaging techniques such as transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used as diagnostic tools for preoperative staging of EC. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, and PET/MRI have also been used in staging these patients. In this article, we review the value of imaging in diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and detection of recurrent disease in patients with EC. PMID:25969637

  3. Imaging in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Faria, Silvana C; Sagebiel, Tara; Balachandran, Aparna; Devine, Catherine; Lal, Chandana; Bhosale, Priya R

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Prognosis depends on patient age, histological grade, depth of myometrial invasion and/or cervical invasion, and the presence of lymph node metastases. Although EC is staged surgically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system, preoperative imaging can assist in optimal treatment planning. Several imaging techniques such as transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used as diagnostic tools for preoperative staging of EC. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, and PET/MRI have also been used in staging these patients. In this article, we review the value of imaging in diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and detection of recurrent disease in patients with EC. PMID:25969637

  4. Ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-10-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained a wide acceptance as a first-line therapeutic option for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For very early-stage HCC, despite a higher rate of local tumour progression, RFA is considered as a viable alternative to surgical resection owing to its comparable long-term survival, reduced morbidity, and greater preservation of hepatic parenchyma. For HCCs larger than 2 cm, RFA can contribute to near-curative therapy when combined with chemoembolization. RFA can be used as part of a multimodal treatment strategy for more advanced or recurrent cases, and could be a useful bridging therapy for patients who are waiting for liver transplantation. However, the use of RFA is still limited in treating large tumours and some tumours in high-risk locations. To overcome its current limitations, other ablation techniques are being developed and it is important to validate the role of other techniques for enhancing performance of ablation therapy for HCC. PMID:25260316

  5. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramahi, Emma; Choi, Jehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Eng, Tony Y.

    2011-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine neoplasm with a high mortality rate. Though the etiology is not precisely known, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) DNA has been found recently in a large percentage of MCC tumors. Other suggested risk factors include sun-exposure, immunosuppression and a history of prior malignancy. Work-up of patients with MCC most notably includes nodal staging via clinical exam or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The prognosis for most patients with MCC is poor, and the rarity of MCC precludes the prospective, randomized clinical trials necessary to elucidate optimum treatment protocols. Most published data support the use of a multimodality approach centered around surgical excision with negative margins, SNLB to establish the presence or absence of nodal metastases, adjuvant radiothearpy (RT) to decrease the risk of recurrence, and systemic chemotherapy in the case of widespread disease. PMID:21422993

  6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  7. Immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Angela D.; Butterfield, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are marginally effective and exacerbate underlying liver disease. The ability of immunotherapy to elicit nontoxic, systemic, long-lived anti-tumor activity makes it particularly well-suited for use in the setting of HCC. While therapeutic benefit has been achieved in early clinical trials, the efficacy of immune-based therapies is limited by several unique properties of HCC, most notably the inherently tolerogenic character of the liver in both healthy and diseased (chronically-infected or tumor-bearing) states. Therapeutic regimens that both counteract these immunosuppressive mechanisms and amplify tumor-specific immunity are expected to profoundly improve clinical outcomes for HCC patients. PMID:22720211

  8. Genetics of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Andreas; Staib, Frank; Kanzler, Stephan; Weinmann, Arndt; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Galle, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    The completely assembled human genome has made it possible for modern medicine to step into an era rich in genetic information and high-throughput genomic analysis. These novel and readily available genetic resources and analytical tools may be the key to unravel the molecular basis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, since an efficient treatment for this disease is lacking, further understanding of the genetic background of HCC will be crucial in order to develop new therapies aimed at selected targets. We report on the current status and recent developments in HCC genetics. Special emphasis is given to the genetics and regulation of major signalling pathways involved in HCC such as p53, Wnt-signalling, TGF?, Ras, and Rb pathways. Furthermore, we describe the influence of chromosomal aberrations as well as of DNA methylation. Finally, we report on the rapidly developing field of genomic expression profiling in HCC, mainly by microarray analysis. PMID:17511024

  9. Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Hariharan

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) continues to present major challenges in management, which is further complicated by the presence of associated chronic liver disease. Key issues in surgical resection of HCC include the site, size, and number of lesions, the severity of the chronic liver disease, and the size of the functional liver remnant. De novo HCC in the absence of chronic liver disease can be treated by major liver resection with little risk of postoperative liver failure. Liver resection can also be used a bridge to liver transplantation as it affords the possibility of determining the pathologic grade of the tumortumor and its invasiveness, and thereby the prognosis. This review summarizes the current treatment approaches to surgical resection for HCC. PMID:25755617

  10. Resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Hariharan

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) continues to present major challenges in management, which is further complicated by the presence of associated chronic liver disease. Key issues in surgical resection of HCC include the site, size, and number of lesions, the severity of the chronic liver disease, and the size of the functional liver remnant. De novo HCC in the absence of chronic liver disease can be treated by major liver resection with little risk of postoperative liver failure. Liver resection can also be used a bridge to liver transplantation as it affords the possibility of determining the pathologic grade of the tumortumor and its invasiveness, and thereby the prognosis. This review summarizes the current treatment approaches to surgical resection for HCC. PMID:25755617

  11. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  12. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  14. Hepatic intraductal oncocytic papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cocieru, Andrei; Kesha, Kilak; El-Fanek, Hani; Saldinger, Pierre F

    2010-05-01

    The authors report a case of hepatic intraductal oncocytic papillary carcinoma, a very rare subtype of hepatic papillary cholangiocarcinoma with only 8 cases reported so far in the English literature. PMID:19944406

  15. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Esmati, Ebrahim; Babaei, Mohammad; Matini, Amirhassan; Ashtiani, Monir Sadat Mirai; Hamed, Ehsan Akbari; Nosrati, Hassan; Razi, Farideh; Ganjalikhani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma usually originates from lung. Few data exist in the literature regarding neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue. Patient data including history, surgical procedure, histology, and radiology investigations were collected and summarized. A 40-year-old woman was referred after partial glossectomy. Squamous mucosa with neoplasm and cells with round nuclei and light cytoplasm was reported in the tongue biopsy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was positive for cytokeratin, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin and negative for leukocyte common antigen. This case showed a high proliferative activity (Ki-67 labeling index were 60%). These IHC findings were in favor of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. After surgery, she received chemotherapy and chemoradiation. The diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors in the present case is based on immunohistochemical markers and cellular shapes. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is a critical element of therapy for head and neck high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas, our patient received this treatment after surgery. PMID:26458666

  16. Onychocytic carcinoma: a new entity.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe; Langbein, Lutz; Ambrossetti, Damien; Erfan, Nouran; Schweizer, Jürgen; Michiels, Jean-François

    2013-08-01

    We have recently described a new nail tumor known as onychocytic matricoma. Herein, we describe its malignant counterpart. Clinically, the tumor simulates onychomatricoma (OM). Histologically, this in situ malignant epithelial tumor exhibits a distinct picture of onychocytic differentiation with signs of both nail matrical differentiation and nail plate differentiation. We have proposed the name onychocytic carcinoma for this singular adnexal neoplasm. Given the peculiar thickening of the nail plate observed in OM, onychocytic matricoma, and onychocytic carcinoma, the clinical individualization of a new type of nail band pattern could be proposed. It presents as an acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal pachyonychia. Such longitudinal pachyonychia allow the recognition of the matrical nail tumor, which has a limited etiological spectrum. Xantholeucopachyonychia suggests mainly OM and rarely onychocytic carcinoma. Pachymelanonychia suggests onychocytic matricoma and rarely pigmented OM or onychocytic carcinoma. PMID:23518638

  17. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  18. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Emre; ?dilman, ?lkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaalt?ncaba, Mu?turay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  19. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  20. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe; Feily, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  1. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Chawla, Yogesh K; Arora, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancy of the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhotic liver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplastic disease-related deaths. A diverse array of infiltrating immunocytes regulates the development and progression of HCC, as is the case in many other cancers. An understanding of the various immune components during HCC becomes necessary so that novel therapeutic strategies can be designed to combat the disease. A dysregulated immune system (including changes in the number and/or function of immune cells, cytokine levels, and the expression of inhibitory receptors or their ligands) plays a key role in the development of HCC. Alterations in either the innate or adaptive arm of the immune system and cross-talk between them make the immune system tolerant to tumors, leading to disease progression. In this review, we have discussed the status and roles of various immune effector cells (e.g., dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cells), their cytokine profile, and the chemokine-receptor axis in promoting or impeding HCC. PMID:26301050

  2. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liccioni, Alexandre; Reig, Maria; Bruix, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly prevalent and lethal neoplasia. Several studies have shown that HCC is the main cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. A better knowledge of the natural history of the tumor and the development of staging systems has allowed to refine the prognosis of the patients. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer system (BCLC) has become the preferred staging system since it takes into account the tumor characteristics, the degree of liver impairment and the physical performance. It has been endorsed by several scientific associations and research consortia as it does not just define prognosis, but, more interestingly, it links staging with prognosis assessment and treatment recommendation. Curative therapies such as resection, transplantation and ablation can improve survival in patients diagnosed at an early HCC stage and may offer a long-term cure with overall survival that may exceed 70% at 5 years. Patients with intermediate stage HCC benefit from chemoembolization and proper selection of candidates permits a 50% survival at 3-4 years. Finally, patients diagnosed at an advanced stage benefit from sorafenib, an oral available, multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. Current research efforts are aimed at further refining prognosis prediction through molecular profiling and enhanced clinical characterization. At the same time, better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of cancer should result in a further improvement of the current life expectancy of patients. PMID:25034288

  3. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Chawla, Yogesh K; Arora, Sunil K

    2015-08-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancy of the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhotic liver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplastic disease-related deaths. A diverse array of infiltrating immunocytes regulates the development and progression of HCC, as is the case in many other cancers. An understanding of the various immune components during HCC becomes necessary so that novel therapeutic strategies can be designed to combat the disease. A dysregulated immune system (including changes in the number and/or function of immune cells, cytokine levels, and the expression of inhibitory receptors or their ligands) plays a key role in the development of HCC. Alterations in either the innate or adaptive arm of the immune system and cross-talk between them make the immune system tolerant to tumors, leading to disease progression. In this review, we have discussed the status and roles of various immune effector cells (e.g., dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cells), their cytokine profile, and the chemokine-receptor axis in promoting or impeding HCC. PMID:26301050

  4. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line “gain of function” mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective.

  5. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC. PMID:25134314

  6. Renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianjun; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed greatly over the past 15 years. Progress in the surgical management of the primary tumor and increased understanding of the molecular biology and genomics of the disease have led to the development of new therapeutic agents. The management of the primary tumor has changed owing to the realization that clean margins around the primary lesion are sufficient to prevent local recurrence, as well as the development of more sophisticated tools and techniques that increase the safety of partial nephrectomy. The management of advanced disease has altered even more dramatically as a result of new agents that target the tumor vasculature or that attenuate the activation of intracellular oncogenic pathways. This review summarizes data from prospective randomized phase III studies on the surgical management and systemic treatment of RCC, and provides an up to date summary of the histology, genomics, staging, and prognosis of RCC. It describes the management of the primary tumor and offers an overview of systemic agents that form the mainstay of treatment for advanced disease. The review concludes with an introduction to the exciting new class of immunomodulatory agents that are currently in clinical trials and may form the basis of a new therapeutic approach for patients with advanced RCC. PMID:25385470

  7. Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising worldwide. Spontaneous rupture of HCC occasionally occurs, and ruptured HCC with intraperitoneal hemorrhage is potentially life-threatening. The most common symptom of ruptured HCC is acute abdominal pain. The tumor size in ruptured HCC is significantly greater than that in non-ruptured HCC, and HCC protrudes beyond the original liver margin. In the acute phase, hemostasis is the primary concern and tumor treatment is secondary. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) can effectively induce hemostasis. The hemostatic success rate of TAE ranges 53-100%. A one-stage surgical operation is a treatment modality for selected patients. Conservative treatment is usually given to patients in a moribund state with inoperable tumors and thus has poor outcomes. Patients with severe ruptures of advanced HCC and poor liver function have high mortality rates. Liver failure occurs in 12-42% of patients during the acute phase. In the stable phase, tumor treatment, such as transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic resection should be concerned. The combination of acute hemorrhage and cancer in patients with ruptured HCC requires a two-step therapeutic approach. TAE followed by elective hepatectomy is considered an effective strategy for patients with ruptured HCC. PMID:25631290

  8. Diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, M C

    1990-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. It is very rare (incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 person-years) in most parts of the world and only a handful of populations are known to deviate from this low-risk profile, which include people of southern China. Eskimos and other natives of the Arctic region, natives of southeast Asia, and mainly Arab populations of north Africa and Kuwait. There is now convincing evidence implicating dietary factors as the primary cause of NPC among Chinese. A series of case-control studies conducted in various Chinese populations with distinct risks of NPC, ranging from the very high-risk Cantonese to the relatively low-risk Northern Chinese, have suggested that ingestion of salted fish and other kinds of preserved foods by the Chinese constitutes the most important cause of NPC development among these people. Preliminary data on Malays in southeast Asia, Eskimos in Alaska, and Arabs of north Africa also suggest that ingestion of preserved foods by these population groups may be responsible for their raised incidence of NPC. PMID:2285519

  9. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  10. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  11. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-04

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  12. Pulmonary Actinomycosis Simulating Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pritzker, H. G.; MacKay, J. S.

    1963-01-01

    During a 2½-year period, in a 360-bed general hospital, three cases of pulmonary actinomycosis were encountered in men aged 38, 47 and 49 years. In each instance the symptoms, signs and radiological and laboratory findings were such as to warrant a presumptive clinical diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma. Thoracotomy was performed in each case. This experience suggests that a definitive clinical diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma should not be made without histological evidence. Furthermore, such individuals should have the benefit of exploratory thoracotomy on the off-chance that the pulmonary lesion may be benign and amenable to treatment. Above all it should be remembered that pulmonary actinomycosis can simulate bronchogenic carcinoma to a marked degree. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:13986257

  13. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Aflibercept in epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, John W; Sood, Anil K; Coleman, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant transformation. With improved understanding of angiogenic signaling in both the normal and malignant state, there have been a number of agents developed that target VEGF signaling. These targeted agents can affect downstream VEGF signal transduction via unique mechanisms at different cellular and extracellular locations. The aflibercept, or VEGF-Trap, molecule is the subject of this article. Its molecular structure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, and preclinical and early clinical data in epithelial ovarian carcinoma is reviewed. For comparison, other anti-angiogenic agents that have been or are currently being studied in epithelial ovarian carcinoma are also summarized. Finally, the anticipated role of aflibercept in the treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma is also discussed. PMID:19519199

  15. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B. )

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.

  16. Current management of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Lillemoe, K D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The author seeks to provide an update on the current management of pancreatic carcinoma, including diagnosis and staging, surgical resection and adjuvant therapy for curative intent, and palliation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: During the 1960s and 1970s, the operative mortality and long-term survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic carcinoma was so poor that some authors advocated abandoning the procedure. Several recent series have reported a marked improvement in perioperative results with 5-year survival in excess of 20%. Significant advances also have been made in areas of preoperative evaluation and palliation for advanced disease. CONCLUSION: Although carcinoma of the pancreas remains a disease with a poor prognosis, advances in the last decade have led to improvements in the overall management of this disease. Resection for curative intent currently should be accomplished with minimal perioperative mortality. Surgical palliation also may provide the optimal management of selected patients. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 7. PMID:7531966

  17. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  18. Thyroid carcinoma and its treatment

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Selwyn

    1968-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a rare disease. Aetiological factors are increased secretion of TSH and exposure of the growing gland to ionizing radiation. Pathological classification is in two main groups: differentiated and undifferentiated. Differentiated is subdivided into papillary, follicular and medullary. Papillary and medullary carcinomas occur in young patients, grow slowly, spread by lymphatics. Treatment is surgical excision of thyroid and affected nodes plus thyroid hormone replacement. Follicular carcinoma spreads by blood to lungs and bones. Treatment is total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy of the metastases followed by thyroid hormone replacement. Undifferentiated tumours occur in old patients. They are identified by drill biopsy and treated with radiotherapy. PMID:4871774

  19. Interferon prophylaxis of hepatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Voiosu, R; Dimitriu, L; Dragomir, P; Eremia, L

    1999-01-01

    The present article reveals the importance of hepatic carcinoma among the other diseases in digestive oncology, and also the importance of a correct designation of these cases. Epidemiology and actual hypothesis on the mechanisms of oncogenesis are discussed. There are reviewed some studies in the literature concerning infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, coinfection (B and C viruses, B and D viruses), the role of interferon prophylaxis in such cases. Also there is present a statistics on chronic viral hepatits, cirrhosis of viral etiology and hepatic carcinoma, diagnosed in patients in "N.Gh.Lupu" Hospital, over two decades. PMID:15523946

  20. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  1. Interventional therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Isaac R.; Novelli, Paula M.; Vellody, Ranjith; Pandya, Amit; Krishnamurthy, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer-related death. In the past few years, staging systems have been developed that enable patients to be stratified into treatment algorithms in a multidisciplinary setting. Several of these treatments involve minimally invasive image-guided therapy that can be performed by radiologists. PMID:22487698

  2. Radiation-associated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Razack, M.S.; Sako, K.; Shimaoka, K.; Getaz, E.P.; Rao, U.; Parthasarathy, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since February, 1977, 735 patients having a history of receiving radiation therapy for benign conditions of the head and neck areas during infancy and childhood were examined in a thyroid screening program, and 159 patients were found to have palpable thyroid nodules. These patients had thyroid function tests and indirect laryngoscopy and were followed closely on suppression therapy consisting of either Cytomel or thyroid extract. Thyroidectomy was advised in those in whom the nodules persisted or increased in size. This study documents the incidence of carcinoma and other benign pathological changes and postoperative complications in this group of patients. So far, 49 patients had either a lobectomy with isthmusectomy or a total thyroidectomy. Eleven patients were found to have carcinoma (six had papillary, fou had mixed papillary and follicular, and one had follicular carcinoma). Three patients had a therapeutic modified neck dissection following the documentaion of microscopic involvement of paratracheal lymph nodes. A high incidence of chronic nonspecific thyroiditis, postradiation fibrosis, and follicular adenomas were also found in these patients. Three patients had temporary hypocalcemia (two weeks) and none had wound infection, hematoma, or postoperative nerve palsy. Of patients who had surgical resection, 22.4% showed thyroid carcinoma.

  3. Radiation-associated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Razack, M.S.; Sako, K.; Shimaoka, K.; Getaz, E.P.; Rao, U.; Parthasarathy, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since February 1977, 735 patients having a history of receiving radiation therapy for benign conditions of the head and neck areas during infancy and childhood were examined in a thyroid screening program, and 159 patients were found to have palpable thyroid nodules. These patients had thyroid function tests and indirect laryngoscopy and were followed closely on suppression therapy consisting of either Cytomel or thyroid extract. Thyroidectomy was advised in those in whom the nodules persisted or increased in size. This study documents the incidence of carcinoma and other benign pathological changes and postoperative complications in this group of patients. So far, 49 patients had either a lobectomy with isthmusectomy or a total thyroidectomy. Eleven patients were found to have carcinoma (six had papillary, four had mixed papillary and follicular, and one had follicular carcinoma). Three patients had a therapeutic modified neck dissection following the documentation of microscopic involvement of paratracheal lymph nodes. A high incidence of chronic nonspecific thyroiditis, postradiation fibrosis, and follicular adenomas were also found in these patients. Three patients had temporary hypocalcemia (two weeks) and none had wound infection, hematoma, or postoperative nerve palsy. Of patients who had surgical resection, 22.4% showed thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Bronchogenic carcinoma in Northern India.

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, S K; Malik, S K; Dhand, R; Gujral, J S; Malik, A K; Datta, B N

    1982-01-01

    A study of 336 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma was carried out in Chandigarh, Northern India. The findings suggest that its epidemiology differs in several respects from that in Western countries. Almost a third of all patients and 94.4% of the 54 women had never smoked. The peak frequency of bronchogenic carcinoma occurred between the ages of 51 and 60 years, 14.6% of the patients being aged less than 41 years. Of the 232 smokers and ex-smokers, 48.3% had smoked only cigarettes, 28.4% only bidis (made of naturally cured tobacco), 19.8% both cigarettes and bidis, and 3.4% hukkas. There was a clear association between duration of smoking and frequency of carcinoma. Tumours were classified in 287 (85%) of the patients. Squamous-cell carcinoma was relatively more frequent (32.4%) than any other tumour type and occurred almost exclusively in smokers. Adenocarcinoma was found in 13.2% of patients and was the most frequent tumour in non-smokers. No differences of histological type were found between cigarette smokers and bidi smokers. PMID:7112470

  5. Transrectal Ultrasound of Prostatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Daniel J.; Cooperberg, Peter L.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Toi, Ants

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the indications for transrectal ultrasound; to briefly describe the sonographic technique; to describe the sonographic findings of prostatic carcinoma; to review the indications for transrectal sonographic-guided biopsy; and to discuss the controversles of routine screening and staging. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21229044

  6. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Livraghi, Tito

    2011-04-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), usually performed under percutaneous ultrasound guidance, is considered the gold standard among minimally invasive therapies. On the strength of some recent randomized trials, its indications include operable patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma and inoperable patients with more advanced disease also in combination with other therapies. RFA has lower complication rates and costs less than surgery. PMID:21377584

  7. Papillary carcinoma of breast: Minireview

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Sachin B; Murdeshwar, Hemant G; Siddiqui, Saleha

    2016-01-01

    The term “intracystic papillary ductal carcinoma in situ” constitutes only 0.5% to 1% of all breast cancers. It is usually seen in postmenopausal age group. Herein, we are presenting a minireview about this unusual breast malignancy usually difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds and highlighting modalities of diagnosis and management. PMID:26798627

  8. Apocrine carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masaharu; Nagata, Yoshika; Monji, Shoko; Shigematsu, Yoshiki; Baba, Tetsuro; Shimokawa, Hidehiko; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Yamada, Sohsuke; Hanagiri, Takeshi; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2011-12-01

    Apocrine carcinoma is a rare variant of breast carcinoma, and accounts for 0.3 to 1.0% of all breast cancers. A 55-year-old Japanese female patient presented with a right breast tumor, which had been detected by mass-screening, and she was admitted to our hospital. The physical examination revealed an elastic hard lump in the upper lateral quadrant of the right breast. The tumor size was approximately 1.0 cm in diameter, and the border was clear. There were no palpable axillary lymph nodes nor supraclavicular nodes. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient underwent a partial resection of the right breast (breast conserving therapy) and a right axillary lymphadenectomy. Macroscopically, the resected specimen revealed a white tumor measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.0 cm. The TNM classification was diagnosed as T1cN0M0 stage I. Histopathologically, the tumor revealed a proliferation of atypical epithelial cells with apocrine differentiation, arranged in a papillotubular or cribriform growth pattern with stromal invasion. The tumor cells showed irregular round-shaped nuclei often containing prominent nucleoli, and had particularly abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. In the immunohistochemical analysis, these carcinoma cells were positive for Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein 15 and the androgen receptor, whereas they were negative for the estrogen and progesterone receptors. Immunohistochemical staining for Her2 using the HercepTest was found to be negative (score 0). Thus, the pathological diagnosis was apocrine carcinoma. There were no metastases in the axillary lymph nodes. The patient has had no recurrence in 8 years after surgery. PMID:22259834

  9. Tonsil neuroendocrine carcinoma concurrent with hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, YAN; ZOU, QING-FENG; HU, XIAO-YE; LIU, MEI-YUAN

    2014-01-01

    The majority of neuroendocrine tumors appear to be sporadic. Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) typically arises in pancreatic, parathyroid and adrenal glands, but rarely arises in salivary glands. NEC of the tonsil is a rare type of tumor and the concurrent presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be more uncommon. There are few case reports of NEC of the tonsil in the literature and to date no studies have been conducted to establish its optimal management. The current study presents a case of a 72-year-old male who presented with left neck and tonsil tumors. A biopsy from the tonsil revealed a NEC, and computed tomography showed liver cirrhosis, multiple liver cancers and portal vein thrombosis, as well as metastasis to the hilar, abdomen and retroperitoneum. Histological examination of the hepatic revealed primary HCC. To the best of our knowledge, this is a condition that has not previously been reported. PMID:25120653

  10. CLDN3 expression and significance - breast carcinoma versus ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ionescu Popescu, Carmen; Liliac, Ludmila; Ceauşu, Raluca Amalia; Balan, Raluca; Grigoraş, Adriana; Căruntu, Irina Draga; Amălinei, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Claudins (CLDNs) are transmembrane proteins, as normal constituents of the architecture of tight junctions. Recent studies support their involvement in carcinogenesis, as changes in CLDNs structure result in alterations in tight junctions' structure and function, facilitating malignant transformation. We aimed CLDN3 investigation in both breast and ovarian carcinoma, targeting the identification of its expression differences. The immunohistochemical assessment was performed on 20 cases of breast carcinomas (Group 1) and 19 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinomas (Group 2). Firstly, the specific panel for the molecular classification was applied for specimens of the first group. Then, all the specimens were immunostained for CLDN3 and a semi-quantitative evaluation was made, based on the percentage of positive cells and the intensity of staining. In Group 1, in the ER positive category, CLDN3 was overexpressed in five cases (four cases of luminal A and one case of luminal B subtype, respectively), negative in three cases (luminal A subtype) and weakly expressed in a single case (luminal A subtype); in ER negative category, CLDN3 expression was strong in four cases (one case of Her2/neu subtype and three cases of basal-like subtype), negative in two cases (normal breast-like subtype) and weak in five cases (one case of Her2/neu subtype, one triple-negative subtype, and three basal-like subtype). In Group 2, CLDN3 was overexpressed in 15 cases, histopathologically diagnosed as serous (10 cases), mucinous (two cases), endometrioid (two cases), and mixed carcinomas (one case); a weak expression was noticed in a single case, of the serous subtype; CLDN3 was undetectable in three cases (one serous, one clear cell, and one endometrioid type). Our comparative analysis of CLDN3 profile in breast and ovarian cancer clearly indicates organ specificity. PMID:23529315

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed January 2015 What is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that arises ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2015 What is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? Squamous cell carcinoma is a ...

  13. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction. PMID:22620007

  14. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  15. Extracutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas harbor polyomavirus DNA.

    PubMed

    de Biase, Dario; Ragazzi, Moira; Asioli, Sofia; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor, with characteristic morphological and immunohistochemical features. Originally reported as primary carcinoma of skin, it has been described in numerous other sites such as lymph nodes, oral cavity, breast, vaginal walls, and salivary glands. Recent studies have revealed in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas a clonally integrated polyomavirus, named Merkel cell polyomavirus. The aim of the present study was to verify the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in 5 cases of primary Merkel cell carcinomas of lymph nodes and 1 case of parotid gland to investigate similarities or differences among Merkel cell carcinomas from various sites. Cases studied were 5 primary Merkel cell carcinomas in lymph nodes, 1 in the parotid gland, and 12 in the skin. Twelve cases of primary and metastatic small cell carcinoma of the lung were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry for keratin 20, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and thyroid transcription factor 1 was performed in all cases. Viral DNA was studied using polymerase chain reaction assay and the products evaluated in agarose gel and sequenced. Cytokeratin 20 and Merkel cell polyomavirus were detected in all cases of primary Merkel cell carcinoma irrespective of their site of origin. On the contrary, all cases of pulmonary small cell carcinoma were negative for both Merkel cell polyomavirus and cytokeratin 20. It appears that cutaneous and extracutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas share similar histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. This is further evidence that Merkel cell carcinomas are a multiorgan carcinoma and that Merkel cell polyomavirus might play a role in the pathogenesis of this neoplasm. PMID:22204708

  16. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26550910

  17. Sinonasal verrucous carcinoma with oral invasion.

    PubMed

    Karthikeya, P; Mahima, V G; Bhavna, G

    2006-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare warty variant of squamous cell carcinoma, most often seen in the oral cavity and larynx. Its occurrence in the sinonasal tract is rare. This tumor constitutes approximately 1% of all sinonasal neoplasms. The clinical presentation and the histopathological features of verrucous carcinoma are a subject of continuous discussion amongst diagnosticians and pathologists. A case with oral and nasal presentation of this tumor is reported here. PMID:17051874

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B e antigen.

    PubMed

    Kane, Loren S

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B e antigen serum persistence in an individual chronically infected with the Hepatitis B virus may be associated with a greatly increased risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This article presents an overview of the Hepatitis B e antigen and discusses the findings of a recent study evaluating its associated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A gross photographic image of hepatocellular carcinoma is provided. PMID:14694826

  19. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Gaopande, Vandana L.; Joshi, Avinash R.; Khandeparkar, Siddhi G. S.; Deshmukh, Sanjay D.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is a very rare skin tumor. It commonly presents in the old age and the common sites are head, neck and extremities. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination with immunohistochemical correlation. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma stage IIIB with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy that on FNAB showed metastatic deposits of the tumor. PMID:26225333

  20. Telomere length in different histologic types of ovarian carcinoma with emphasis on clear cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Meeker, Alan K; Visvanathan, Kala; Gross, Amy L; Wang, Tian-Li; Kurman, Robert J; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is composed of a heterogeneous group of tumors with distinct clinico-pathological and molecular features. Alteration of telomerase activity has been reported in ovarian tumors but the pattern of telomere length in their specific histological subtypes has not been reported. In this study, we performed quantitative telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization on a total of 219 ovarian carcinomas including 106 high-grade serous carcinomas, 26 low-grade serous carcinomas, 56 clear cell carcinomas and 31 low-grade endometrioid carcinomas. The mean relative telomere length of carcinoma to stromal cells was calculated as a telomere index. This index was significantly higher in clear cell carcinoma compared with the other histologic types (P= 0.007). Overall there was no association between the telomere index and mortality, but when stratified by histologic types, the hazard ratio for death among women with clear cell carcinoma with a telomere index >1 was significantly increased at 4.93 (95% CI 1.64–14.86, P= 0.005) when compared with those with a telomere index ?1. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence that telomere length significantly differs by histologic type in ovarian carcinoma. Specifically, clear cell carcinomas have longer mean relative telomere lengths compared with the other histologic types and longer telomeres in clear cell carcinoma are associated with increased mortality suggesting that aberrations in telomere length may have an important role in the development and progression of this neoplasm. PMID:21499239

  1. [Urachus' carcinoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Alfredo; Tirone, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Vuolo, Giuseppe; Verre, Luigi; Savelli, Vinno; Piccolomini, Alessandro; Di Cosmo, Leonardo; Cesaretti, Manuela; Carli, Anton Ferdinando

    2007-01-01

    Urachus' carcinoma represents a rare oncologic disease with an unfavourable prognosis due to the usual delay of correct diagnosis for its anatomical localization. Its surgical treatment varies from radical cystectomy to segmentary resection of the bladder with pelvic lymphadenectomy. We report a case occurred in a ninety years old female, in which the diagnosis was achieved only at laparotomy. The patient was submitted to surgery with the only generic diagnosis of "lower abdominal mass", and treated with segmentary resection. PMID:18338557

  2. Microcystic Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2013-01-01

    Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i) Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii) The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii) The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2?mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv) Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour. PMID:24363668

  3. Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma was added to the WHO's classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. Results. About 200 cases of the tumour have been reported so far and it has the ensuing morphological features: large numbers of small confluent irregular nests of bland-appearing, closely packed, haphazardly arranged, and poorly defined urothelial cells infiltrating the lamina propria and the muscularis propria. The tumour has a bland histomorphologic appearance, has an aggressive biological behaviour, and has at times been misdiagnosed as a benign lesion which had led to a significant delay in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and contributing to the advanced stage of the disease. Immunohistochemically, the tumour shares some characteristic features with high-risk conventional urothelial carcinomas such as high proliferation index and loss of p27 expression. However, p53, bcl-2, or EGF-r immunoreactivity is not frequently seen. The tumour must be differentiated from a number of proliferative lesions of the urothelium. Conclusions. Correct and early diagnosis of this tumour is essential to provide early curative treatment to avoid diagnosis at an advanced stage. A multicentre trial is required to identify treatment options that would improve the outcome of this tumour. PMID:24587796

  4. Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

  5. Surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Vincent G.; Kanagarajah, Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Upper tract urothelial cell carcinoma accounts for 5% of all urothelial tumors. Compared to lower urinary tract tumors, upper tract urothelial carcinoma is diagnosed more frequently at advanced stages. Open radical nephroureterectomy remains the gold standard treatment option for upper tract tumors. However, with the advancement of minimally invasive techniques and the benefits of these procedures regarding perioperative morbidity, cosmesis, and earlier convalescence, these options have shown promise in managing the patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Despite the perioperative advantages, concerns exist on the oncological safety after minimally invasive surgery. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. PMID:21716884

  6. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: A rare carcinoma with chondroid metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ta?demir, Arzu; O?uz, Arzu; Ünal, Dilek; Tuna, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of breast malignancies. Huvos et al. first introduced the term metaplastic carcinoma in 1974. It is usually seen together with poorly differentiated ductal carcinoma of the breast. Within its mesenchymal components, undifferentiated connective tissue cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts and chondroblasts can be found. Metaplastic breast carcinoma is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. In this report, a case of a 45-year-old female patient who underwent segmental mastectomy with a diagnosis of metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is presented. PMID:25931882

  7. Monitoring the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma is a precancerous lesion of the breast and the immediate precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, which can improve early detection of precursor lesions and halt progression to invasive neoplastic disease. It was found that MPM has the capability to reveal the qualitative changes in features of cells, structure of basement membranes, and architecture of collagens during the development from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, as well as the quantitative alterations in nuclear area, circle length of basement membrane, and collagen density. Combined with intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle, MPM has the potential to provide immediate histological diagnosis of tumor progression in the field of breast carcinoma.

  8. Carcinoma of the prostate of ductal origin.

    PubMed

    Lemberger, R J; Bishop, M C; Bates, C P; Blundell, W; Ansell, I D

    1984-12-01

    Thirty-nine patients with ductal prostatic carcinoma have been reviewed. Their mode of presentation, initial stage, plasma phosphatase levels and response to hormone therapy were found to be similar to those in a group of 124 patients with the common acinar prostatic cancer. Histochemical examination demonstrated prostate-specific antigen in all ductal carcinomas. PMID:6085481

  9. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

  10. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinoma on Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sudip; Kunal, Pranaya; Kishore, Barunesh; Ghosh, Kisalay

    2016-01-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a very rare entity. Usually, they occur due to the negligence of the patient. Local or distant metastasis is present in most cases. Here, we present a case of giant BCC that clinically resembled squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated no metastasis at presentation.

  11. Laminin 332 Expression in Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Young; Chae, Seoung W.; Wilczynski, Sharon P.; Arain, Ahmad; Carpenter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Laminin 332 (LN332) is a basally expressed extracellular matrix protein that enhances the migration and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. The goal of this study was to examine LN332 expression breast carcinoma. Triple negative breast carcinomas lack estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) expression and HER2 positivity. Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, HER2, and dual silver in situ hybridization for the HER2 gene were used to define the phenotype of 243 breast cancers in biopsies or arrays. Immunohistochemistry for LN332 revealed that 70 % of triple negative carcinomas stained for LN332. Cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p63 alone stained fewer triple negative breast carcinomas each, but the combination of LN332 and CK 5/6 or EGFR identified 92% of triple negative breast carcinoma.. Of the 163 non- triple negative cases, LN332 was expressed in only 15%. The identification of LN332 in triple negative breast carcinomas is consistent with gene profiling studies showing its expression among breast carcinomas with a basal phenotype. The observation that a pro-invasive protein such as LN332 is expressed in breast cancer suggests another mechanism by which the triple negative phenotype could be aggressive. PMID:22427740

  12. Pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Paner, Gladell P; Cox, Roni Michelle; Richards, Kyle; Akki, Ashwin; Gokden, Neriman; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Krausz, Thomas; McKenney, Jesse K; Steinberg, Gary D

    2014-09-01

    The pseudoangiosarcomatous pattern has been described mostly in cutaneous and some visceral squamous cell carcinomas and is unique for its striking morphologic resemblance to angiosarcoma. Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic features of 7 pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas that occurred in the urinary bladder. The patients included 6 men and 1 woman ranging in age from 47 to 87 years (median 70 y). The pseudoangiosarcomatous morphology was observed in 7 urothelial carcinomas including 3 with squamous differentiation and comprised 35% to 85% of the invasive tumor. Histologically, the pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinomas were characterized by tumor cell discohesion and lysis that created pseudolumina formations surrounded by attached residual tumor cells. Detached degenerating tumor cells variably admixed with inflammatory cells were common in the false lumina. Partly intact urothelial carcinoma nests contained irregular or cleft-like spaces and disintegrating tumor cells with stretched intercellular bridges. The tumor was commonly associated with a dense collagenous matrix, often surrounding the lytic nests. Similar tumor cell discohesion and breakdown were observed in 3 tumors with foci of squamous cell differentiation, distinguished by the presence of dyskeratosis and keratin formation. All 7 tumors contained other nonpseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma components such as conventional urothelial carcinoma (5), squamous differentiation (4), sarcomatoid spindle cell carcinoma (2), small cell carcinoma (1), micropapillary carcinoma (1), and glandular differentiation (1). The pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas were all (7/7) diffusely CK7 positive, most (6/7) were GATA3 positive, and none (0/7) expressed vascular-associated markers. There was no evidence to suggest that apoptosis (by TUNEL assay and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining) or loss of the adhesion molecules CD138 and e-cadherin were possible causes for the tumor cell discohesion and breakdown. All 7 tumors were high stage at cystectomy and included 1 pT3a, 2 pT3b, and 4 pT4a tumors, and 3 had pelvic lymph node involvement. Follow-up data available in 6 cases revealed a poor outcome with an overall median survival of 8.5 months. In conclusion, we present an unusual morphology of bladder carcinoma that has a striking resemblance to a malignant vasoformative tumor. Our series showed that bladder pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma morphology is associated with a higher tumor stage at cystectomy, commonly admixed with other aggressive carcinoma variant morphologies, and portend a poorer outcome. Knowledge of this pattern is also important to avoid misdiagnosis, particularly in limited tissue samples. PMID:25133708

  13. Scalp Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Basim A.; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A.; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Context: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Case Report: Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. Conclusion: In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving. PMID:24695441

  14. Thyroid carcinoma, version 2.2014.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, R Michael; Haddad, Robert I; Ball, Douglas W; Byrd, David; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M; Lydiatt, William M; McCaffrey, Judith; Moley, Jeffrey F; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D; Ridge, John A; Ringel, Matthew D; Scheri, Randall P; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Steven I; Sturgeon, Cord; Waguespack, Steven G; Wang, Thomas N; Wirth, Lori J; Hoffmann, Karin G; Hughes, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the major updates to the 2014 NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma. Kinase inhibitor therapy may be used to treat thyroid carcinoma that is symptomatic and/or progressive and not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Sorafenib may be considered for select patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, whereas vandetanib or cabozantinib may be recommended for select patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Other kinase inhibitors may be considered for select patients with either type of thyroid carcinoma. A new section on "Principles of Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Cancer" was added to the NCCN Guidelines to assist with using these novel targeted agents. PMID:25505208

  15. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-08-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  16. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  17. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  18. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation. PMID:26527523

  19. Comprehensive Cytomorphologic Analysis of Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Comparison to Small Cell Carcinoma and Non-pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokhwi; Chu, Jinah; Kim, Hojoong; Han, Joungho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is frequently challenging and differential diagnosis with small cell carcinoma is often difficult. Methods: Eleven cytologically diagnosed cases of pulmonary AdCC were collected and reviewed according to fifteen cytomorphologic characteristics: small cell size, cellular uniformity, coarse chromatin, hyperchromasia, distinct nucleolus, frequent nuclear molding, granular cytoplasm, organoid cluster, sheet formation, irregular border of cluster, hyaline globule, hyaline basement membrane material, individual cell necrosis or apoptotic body, and necrotic background. Twenty cases of small cell carcinoma and fifteen cases of non-pulmonary AdCC were also reviewed for the comparison. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified between pulmonary AdCC and small cell carcinoma in fourteen of the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria (differences in sheet formation were not statistically significant). Cellular uniformity, distinct nucleolus, granular cytoplasm, distinct cell border, organoid cluster, hyaline globule, and hyaline basement membrane material were characteristic features of AdCC. Frequent nuclear molding, individual cell necrosis, and necrotic background were almost exclusively identified in small cell carcinoma. Although coarse chromatin and irregular cluster border were observed in both, they favored the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Hyaline globules were more frequently seen in non-pulmonary AdCC cases. Conclusions: Using the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria described by this study, pulmonary AdCC could be successfully distinguished from small cell carcinoma. Such a comprehensive approach to an individual case is recommended for the cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary AdCC. PMID:26477588

  20. Familial factors in bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lynch, H T; Walzak, M P; Fried, R; Domina, A H; Lynch, J F

    1979-10-01

    Surprisingly, little is known about host factors in cases of bladder carcinoma. We investigated 2 families prone to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A high degree of pathology verification of cancer of all anatomic sites and a meticulous recording of genealogy, associated diseases and environmental exposures, when known, have allowed a more cogent appraisal of cancer etiology. It is reasonable to assume that members of the subject families may be more susceptible to variable carcinogenic exposures, a concept that is in accord with a genetic-environmental interaction hypothesis for cancer etiology. In addition to increased surveillance of high risk patients for earlier detection of bladder cancer, cancer control measures also should take into consideration preventive programs directed toward the avoidance of known carcinogenic exposures, such as cigarette smoking in high risk relatives of cancer-affected probands. We propose that the etiology of familial bladder cancer may be complex, involving possible other associated malignant neoplasms and/or certain non-neoplastic disorders, in addition to specific carcinogenic exposures. There is a serious need for the detailed reporting of families prone to bladder cancer wherein all of these potentially important associated factors are considered, so that a fuller appraisal of etiology might be achieved. PMID:480484

  1. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  2. Surgical Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Madkhali, Ahmad A.; Fadel, Zahir T.; Aljiffry, Murad M.; Hassanain, Mazen M.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an epithelial tumor derived from hepatocytes; it accounts for 80% of all primary liver cancers and ranks globally as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. HCC treatment is a multidisciplinary and a multimodal task, with surgery in the form of liver resection and liver transplantation (LT) representing the only potentially curative modality. However, there are variable opinions and discussions about applying these surgical options and using other supporting treatments. This article is a narrative review that includes articles published from 1984 to 2013 located by searching scientific databases such as PubMed, SCOPUS, and Elsevier, with the main keyword of hepatocellular carcinoma in addition to other keywords such as liver transplantation, liver resection, transarterial chemoembolization, portal vein embolization, bridging therapy, and downstaging. In this review, we focus mainly on the surgical treatment options offered for HCC, in order to illustrate the current relevant data available in the literature to help in applying these surgical options and to use other supporting treatment modalities when appropriate. PMID:25672233

  3. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, G; Monari, P; Apalla, Z; Lallas, A

    2015-08-01

    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common human neoplasms, encompassing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but also cutaneous lymphomas, adnexal tumors, merckel cell carcinoma and other rare tumors. The incidence of BCC and SCC varies significantly among different populations, and the overall incidence of both tumors has increased over the last decades. Although generally associated with a favorable prognosis, recent evidence suggests that the mortality rates of SCC might have been underestimated up-to-date.1 According to Medicare data, NMSC is the fifth most expensive cancer for health care systems. This increased economic burden is not associated with the cost of treating an individual patient, but with the large number of affected patients and the recurrence rates.2 Therefore, the adequate management of the primary tumor with a complete excision becomes a priority not only for the patient but also for the public health systems. Multiple treatment modalities are currently usedin clinicalpractice for the treatment of NMSC. While surgical excision (SE) remains the gold standard of care, non-surgical techniques have gained appreciation due to lower morbidity and better cosmetic results. The optimal management of treatment includes a complete tumor clearance, preservation of the normal tissue function, and the best possible cosmetic outcome.3 Surgery with a predefined excision margin is the treatment of choice for most NMSCs, with Mohs micrographic surgery being recommended for tumors considered to be at a higher recurrence risk or those developing on cosmetically sensitive areas.4, 5 Therefore, the surgical approach of a NMSC consists with three different and equally important steps. First the preoperative clinical assessment of the tumor margins, which can be facilitated by the use of dermoscopy. Second, the definition of the surgical margins depending on the tumor subtype and its biological behavior. Finally, the surgical procedure must be designed based on the anatomic site and the patient's charachteristics. This preoperative assessment requires specific skills and might be performed by a physician, the dermatosurgeon, two collaborating specialists, namely a dermatologist and a surgeon. PMID:26140396

  4. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  5. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-08

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  6. Opposed expression of IKKα: loss in keratinizing carcinomas and gain in non-keratinizing carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Desheng; Jia, Jiantao; Shi, Ying; Fu, Chunyan; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Yiqun; Zhou, Li; Liu, Shuang; Tao, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    The functional role of IKKα in vivo is pretty complicated, largely due to its diverse functions through cell autonomous and non-autonomous manners. In addition, most of the studies on IKKα were derived from animal models, whether these findings hold true in human tumors remain unclear. Here we examined the expression of IKKα in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which includes non-keratinizing carcinoma and keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, and lung squamous cell carcinoma with keratinization and non-keratinization. We demonstrated that IKKα expression was almost negative in keratinizing cancer and higher expression of IKKα was found in non-keratinizing cancer, and that IKKα expression correlateed with cellular differentiation of tumors in non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. These findings demonstrate that IKKα is diversely expressed in keratinizing and non-keratinizing carcinomas in the same type of cancer. PMID:26317791

  7. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  8. Metastatic Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma to the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nicolas A.; Pannala, Rahul; Faigel, Douglas O.; Haakinson, Danielle J.; Katariya, Nitin; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Jaroszewski, Dawn; Lidner, Thomas K.; Byrne, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, usually presenting in the younger population (<40 years) without underlying liver disease. Although it has a better prognosis than hepatocellular carcinoma, it has a high rate of recurrence months to years after primary resection. While sites of recurrence usually involve the liver, regional lymph nodes, peritoneum, and lung, metastasis to the pancreas is extremely rare, with only 2 other cases reported in the literature. We present the case of a 46-year-old patient with metastatic FL-HCC to the pancreas 30 years after diagnosis and 26 years since his last resected liver recurrence. PMID:26351415

  9. Amphicrine carcinoma of the ampullary region.

    PubMed

    Ginori, Alessandro; Lo Bello, Giuseppe; Vassallo, Loretta; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Amphicrine carcinoma is a peculiar tumor in which the cells have both exocrine and neuroendocrine differentiation, with mucus and neuroendocrine granules within the cytoplasm. In the 2010 WHO classification of tumors of the digestive tract, they have been included in the intermediate-grade malignant category of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs). These tumors are extremely rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Four cases have been reported in the stomach, three in the pancreas, and one in the liver. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first case of amphicrine carcinoma in the ampullary region. PMID:25702653

  10. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Harald J.; Wirth, Thomas; Beug, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death and is characterized by early invasion and metastasis. The developmental program of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is of potential importance for this rapid tumor progression. During EMT, tumor cells lose their epithelial characteristics and gain properties of mesenchymal cells, such as enhanced motility and invasive features. This review will discuss recent findings pertinent to EMT in pancreatic carcinoma. Evidence for and molecular characteristics of EMT in pancreatic carcinoma will be outlined, as well as the connection of EMT to related topics, e.g., cancer stem cells and drug resistance. PMID:24281218

  11. Intraglomerular micrometastasis of squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Kumar, Sajal; Chenal, Mario E.; Nicosia, Roberto F.

    2012-01-01

    Intraglomerular metastasis is a rare manifestation of disseminated malignancies. We present here a case of intraglomerular metastatic carcinoma diagnosed as an incidental finding on a kidney biopsy in a 62-year-old male presenting with acute renal failure and metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. A proliferative lesion composed of highly atypical epithelial cells was found within a capillary loop and adjacent urinary space of an isolated glomerulus, which was immunoreactive for markers of squamous cell carcinoma. This case is a reminder that circulating cancer cells can occasionally lodge in glomeruli and appear as micrometastasis in kidney biopsies performed for the evaluation of renal dysfunction. PMID:25874083

  12. Xenograft models for adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hantel, Constanze; Beuschlein, Felix

    2016-02-01

    Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, heterogeneous and very malignant endocrine tumors with a poor prognosis. An important prerequisite to optimize existing therapeutic regimens and to develop novel therapeutic strategies are preclinical disease models. In recent years molecular and genetic profiling of surgical tumor specimen led to the identification of novel interesting markers. However, precise involvement of these markers in tumorigenesis and their functional relevance in therapeutic outcome is still under investigation. Xenograft models are important tools for such functional studies as they bear the potential to mimic the complexity of solid tumors including tumor cells, stroma and blood vessels. Thus, for the successful and safe development of novel therapeutic strategies xenograft models remain to be indispensable experimental tools. Here we provide an overview on currently existing xenograft models for ACC, their tissue origins, establishment, implications as well as limitations. PMID:26033247

  13. Hypopharyngeal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-I; Ameratunga, Malaka; du Plessis, Justin; Gan, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the head and neck is rare. We report a case of a 56-year-old man with a 6-week history of dysphagia, a neck mass and weight loss. He was diagnosed with a hypopharyngeal large cell NEC (LCNEC) with metastases to multiple sites. He received two cycles of cisplatin and etoposide. Subsequent restaging scan revealed progressive disease. The patient declined further chemotherapy and died shortly after. This is the third case of LCNEC of hypopharynx reported in the English literature and the first to progress on platinum-based chemotherapy. Although LCNEC of the head and neck is still classified as an atypical carcinoid, there is increasing evidence it is a distinct clinicohistopathological entity that carries an especially poor prognosis. Currently, there is a paucity of data to guide treatment of this rare malignancy. PMID:26715138

  14. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Byam, Jerome; Renz, John

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of the liver and is considered an aggressive tumor with mean survival estimated between 6 and 20 months. Hepatitis B and C are the most common etiologies. Pathological, laboratory and radiologic imaging all aid in diagnosis but much controversy exists in the utilization of any given modality. Many treatment options exist for management of HCC, each has its own limitation. Liver transplantation offers the most reasonable expectation for curative treatment while simultaneously removing the burden of the diseased liver. Still, advancements in the field have thus far not yet matched its potential, although new immunosuppressive and chemotherapy regimen may allow transplantation to push the envelope once again. PMID:24570911

  15. Liver transplantation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Josep; Charco, Ramón; Llovet, Josep M; Bruix, Jordi; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos

    2005-03-01

    Liver transplantation is one option of surgical treatment for cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, it not only treats the malignancy but also the underlying disease. After an initial period of disappointing results, mainly due to lack of adequate selection, survival nowadays is similar to that obtained by cirrhotic patients without tumor. Currently the scarcity of donors is the main limitation in the treatment of this type of patients. Increased time on the waiting list does compromise the results if they are analyzed in an intention-to-treat basis. Adjuvant therapy on the waiting list (ethanol injection, chemoembolization, surgery, etc.) or the use of marginal grafts in order to increase the donor pool may be some alternatives to overcome this deficit. The development of adult living donor liver transplantation has proved to be a good alternative in this type of patients even if they do not fulfill the conventional criteria. PMID:15730486

  16. Arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jian; Ten, Gao-Jing; He, Shi-Cheng; Guo, Jin-He; Yang, Dong-Pei; Weng, Guo-Ying

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic effects of transcatheter arterial three-segment chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: According to the anatomy of vessels, the tumor capillary networks, muscular arterioles and feeding arteries were successively occluded using lipiodol ultra-fluid (LUF), sinobufagin microsphere (SBMs) and particles of gelatin sponge (PGS). In this series of 80 cases, therapeutic effects were evaluated in 76 cases. RESULTS: There were 22 cases (28.9%) with partial response and 41 (53.9%) with minor response in the 76 evaluated patients. The 6-month, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 97.4%, 86.8%, 46.1% and 27.6% respectively. CONCLUSION: This regimen was a rational chemoembolization method for HCC patients. PMID:11819226

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Waller, Lisa P; Deshpande, Vrushak; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival. PMID:26609342

  18. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    PubMed

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  19. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the “Milan criteria” were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Lisa P; Deshpande, Vrushak; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival. PMID:26609342

  1. Microsatellite instability in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moy, Andrea P; Shahid, Mohammad; Ferrone, Cristina R; Borger, Darrell R; Zhu, Andrew X; Ting, David; Deshpande, Vikram

    2015-04-01

    The genetic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) remain unclear. Microsatellite instability (MSI) has been described in many carcinomas, but little is known about the significance of mismatch repair in gallbladder carcinogenesis. Additionally, methylation status of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1), a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation, has defined distinct subsets of other cancer types but has not been explored in GBC. Immunohistochemical expression of MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2 and LINE-1 mRNA in situ hybridization was evaluated in 67 primary and 15 metastatic GBCs from 77 patients. Amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genotyping for 24 genes involved in carcinogenesis was performed using a multiplex PCR-based platform. MSI was present in 6 of 77 GBCs (7.8 %). Loss of MSH2/MSH6 was detected in five cases and loss of MLH1/PMS2 in one case. MSI status was not associated with Lynch syndrome, tumor grade, extracellular mucin, or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. There was no significant difference in mean overall survival of patients with and without MSI. Strong LINE-1 staining was identified in none of the GBC with MSI and in 36 of 69 (52 %) of those without MSI (p = 0.005), suggesting that LINE-1 in the former cohort was hypermethylated. All MSI tumors were negative for HER2 amplification, and TP53 and NRAS mutations were only found in GBC without MSI. MSI was identified in a minority of GBC cases. The strong correlation between global DNA methylation as measured by LINE-1 and loss of mismatch repair proteins suggests that methylation may account for the loss of these proteins. These hypermethylated tumors appear to represent a genetically unique cohort of gallbladder neoplasms, and the data suggests that demethylating agents may have a therapeutic value in this class of tumors. PMID:25680569

  2. Unstable cellular differentiation in adenosquamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, V.E.; Netteshelm, P.

    1981-07-01

    For the determination of whether two or more stem lines with fixed or stable differentiation are present in a growing mixed adenosquamous cell carcinoma, two different mixed tumors, derived from transformed F344 rat tracheal epithelium, were dissociated and ten single cells were isolated from each tumor. All clones were then inoculated into animals for the assessment of in vivo differentiation. Of the ten single cell clones isolated from the first tumor, seven clones produced mixed adenosquamous carcinomas and three produced adenocarcinomas in which no squamous cell component was found. From the second tumor, eight clones produced mixed tumors and two produced squamous cell carcinomas in which no adenocarcinoma component was found. These studies strongly suggest that the mixture of differentiated cell types in adenosquamous cell carcinomas is not the result of a mixture of stem cells with one fixed phenotype within the tumor, but rather is the result of an instability of differentiation; the neoplastic cells can express both types of differentiation.

  3. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma in trophic ulcer cases.

    PubMed

    Arora, S K; Mukhija, R D

    1987-01-01

    Two cases having trophic ulcer over the heel, for long time, later developed squamous cell carcinoma are reported, because of its paucity in literature. Various factors blamed for carcinomatous change are enumerated. PMID:3611854

  7. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  8. Mucoid breast carcinomas: histology and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, I. S.; Millis, R. R.; Smith, P.; Ellul, J. P.; Lampejo, O.

    1997-01-01

    In a series of 73 patients with mucoid breast carcinomas treated at Guy's Hospital between 1973 and 1989, 24 (33%) patients had pure mucoid lesions and 49 (67%) had mixed mucoid carcinomas. The patients with pure mucoid cancers had significantly smaller tumours and, among those in whom an axillary dissection was performed, mixed mucoid cancers were more likely to be associated with axillary nodal metastases (46% vs 14%). After long-term follow-up of 64 patients, both relapse-free and overall survival were significantly better for those with pure mucoid carcinomas, for whom the 10-year actuarial overall survival was 100%. The overall proportion of the tumour that was mucoid was also positively associated with a more favourable prognosis in patients with mixed tumours. With such a good prognosis, patients with pure mucoid carcinomas may not require systemic adjuvant therapy after adequate primary treatment. PMID:9083343

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Carcinoma of Unknown Primary)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diagnosed Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Cervical (Neck) Lymph Nodes Cancer found in cervical (neck) lymph nodes may ... Cancer Treatment for more information. Isolated Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis Cancer found only in the axillary (armpit) ...

  10. Ameloblastic carcinoma in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Sozzi, Davide; Morganti, Valeria; Valente, Gabriella Maria; Moltrasio, Francesca; Bozzetti, Alberto; Angiero, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Owing to the rarity of publications describing ameloblastic carcinoma, little is known about this entity in pediatric patients. To our knowledge, malignant transformation from an odontogenic cyst into an ameloblastic carcinoma in a pediatric patient has not been documented to date. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy in whom a large osteolytic lesion associated with an impacted right maxillary third molar germ was fortuitously detected by orthopanoramic radiography. With a preoperative clinical-radiographic diagnosis of odontogenic cyst, the patient underwent surgical enucleation of the lesion. Histologic evaluation rendered a diagnosis of follicular cyst with a focal area of ameloblastic carcinoma. The literature addressing ameloblastic carcinoma is reviewed. PMID:24184061

  11. An Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Farrokh, Donya; Abedi, Mahboobeh; Fallah Rastegar, Yalda

    2013-01-01

    Intracystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Among allmalignant breast tumors, this lesion has an incidence of 0.2-0.5%. These neoplasms have certain characteristic imaging findings which help to differentiate these lesions from other focal breast abnormalities.This report is on the case of a 48-year-old woman with a palpable, painless lump in her right breast. Mammography demonstrated an oval well-circumscribed mass without calcification. Breast ultrasonography showed a cystic lesion with an intracystic solid component projecting from its posterior wall. Cyst aspiration revealed a hemorrhagic fluid and a suspicious cytology. Excisional biopsy revealed papillary carcinoma suggesting of intracystic papillary carcinoma. PMID:25250121

  12. Skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma - spreading (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This skin cancer, a basal cell carcinoma, is 5 to 6 centimeters across, red (erythematous), with well defined (demarcated) borders and sprinkled brown pigment along the margins. This cancer is located on the person's back.

  13. Cardiac metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Tam, James

    2006-12-01

    A 59-year-old man developed an episode of syncope while he was driving. This resulted in a motor vehicle accident, and the patient sustained an open fracture of the left femur. Biopsy of the left femur fracture showed a metastastic renal cell carcinoma, and echocardiography revealed a right ventricular mass without contiguous vena caval or right atrial involvement. This is one of the few reported cases of renal cell carcinoma associated with syncope as an initial symptom. PMID:17151773

  14. Impaired FHIT expression characterizes serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, K; Enomoto, T; Yoshino, K; Fujita, M; Buzard, G S; Kawano, K; Yamasaki, M; Murata, Y

    2001-01-01

    The FHIT (fragile histidine triad) gene on chromosome 3p14.2 is a candidate tumour suppressor gene. To define the role of the FHIT gene in the development of ovarian cancer, we have examined 33 ovarian carcinomas, 2 borderline tumours and 10 benign adenomas for the presence of FHIT gene alterations. FHIT transcripts were analysed by RT-PCR and sequencing. Aberrant FHIT transcripts were observed in 5/33 carcinomas (15%) and in 1 of 2 borderline tumours. Loss of normal FHIT transcript was observed in 5/33 carcinomas (15%) but not in 2 borderline tumours or 10 benign adenomas. Allelic losses at D3S1300 and D3S4103, both located within intron 5 of FHIT were detected in 5/24 (21%) and 5/25 (20%) informative ovarian carcinomas, respectively. Expression of Fhit protein was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 44 carcinomas, 19 borderline tumours and 16 benign adenomas. Loss or significantly reduced expression of Fhit protein was observed in 6/44 (14%) ovarian carcinomas but not in any of 19 borderline tumours or 16 benign adenomas. The impaired Fhit protein expression was significantly correlated with the loss of normal FHIT transcription. Most notably, loss of normal FHIT transcript and impaired expression of Fhit protein occurred only in serous adenocarcinomas of grade 2 and 3 (5/15; 33% and 6/19; 32%, respectively). The present data suggest that inactivation of the FHIT gene by loss of expression is one of the important molecular events associated with the genesis of ovarian carcinoma, especially of high-grade serous carcinoma. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11461085

  15. Posterior mediastinal hyperfunctioning insular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bellantone, Rocco; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Bossola, Maurizio; Fadda, Guido; Salvatori, Massimo; Princi, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    A case is presented of a posterior mediastinal mass arising in a 57-year-old woman with severe compressive cervical symptoms and hyperthyroidism. Computed tomography showed intrathoracic thyroid tissue that displaced the trachea towards the front and the right and invaded the posterior mediastinum. Pathological examination showed features of a poorly differentiated (insular) thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a posterior mediastinal insular thyroid carcinoma with thyroid hyperfunction. PMID:16277105

  16. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Robert I; Lydiatt, William M; Ball, Douglas W; Busaidy, Naifa Lamki; Byrd, David; Callender, Glenda; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M; McCaffrey, Judith C; Moley, Jeffrey F; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D; Ridge, John A; Ringel, Matthew D; Scheri, Randall P; Shah, Jatin P; Smallridge, Robert C; Sturgeon, Cord; Wang, Thomas N; Wirth, Lori J; Hoffmann, Karin G; Hughes, Miranda

    2015-09-01

    This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Thyroid Carcinoma focuses on anaplastic carcinoma because substantial changes were made to the systemic therapy recommendations for the 2015 update. Dosages and frequency of administration are now provided, docetaxel/doxorubicin regimens were added, and single-agent cisplatin was deleted because it is not recommended for patients with advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:26358798

  17. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma simulating scarring alopecia*

    PubMed Central

    Castanon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Casali, Sandra Maria Gasparete; Lamim, Raul Fernando Binato; Nagahama, Marina Vieira; Silva, Camila Bastos Xavier Vassimon; de Carvalho, Rafael Guerra Nannetti

    2015-01-01

    The microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare, locally aggressive malignant adnexal neoplasm associated with signifi cant morbidity. It is often underdiagnosed due to clinical and histopathological resemblance with other cutaneous neoplasms and / or a combination of lack of familiarity associated with inadequate samples. We report a case with clinical hypothesis of scarring alopecia and histopathological diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma with favorable outcome in a follow-up of eleven years, after surgical treatment. PMID:26312669

  18. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate gland

    PubMed Central

    Hoof, Pamela; Tsai-Nguyen, Ginger; Paulson, Scott; Syed, Almas

    2016-01-01

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) has a clinical course and prognosis that is markedly different from that of common adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient in this case presented with fever of unknown origin, dyspnea, and near spinal cord compression. He was subsequently found to have widely metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostatic origin. This case emphasizes that despite the commonality of prostate cancer, there are rare presentations of this common disease. PMID:26722176

  19. Ureterocele urothelial carcinoma: managing a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Abad-Licham, Milagros; Silva, Eloy; Alvarez, Víctor; Piccone, Francis; Cruz, Enrique; Redorta, Joan Palou

    2016-01-01

    It is very uncommon for urothelial carcinoma to develop in an ureterocele. It is generally discovered in an imaging study or in connection with haematuria. We found very few reports in the literature. Here, we report on the case of a 71-year-old male who initially presented with haematuria and low back pain and who then underwent transurethral resection for an intraureterocele tumour. Pathology confirmed urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26913072

  20. Secondary mucinous carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Frances, Laura; Cuesta, Laura; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Bañuls, Jose

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman who presented with a cystic-appearing nodule on her left nipple. After cutaneous biopsy and gynecological staging study, she was diagnosed with skin invasion of mucinous carcinoma of the breast. We describe the main features of this rare tumor and the controversies in its diagnosis because primary and metastatic mucinous carcinomas in skin are histologically indistinguishable. PMID:24746304

  1. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  2. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  3. STK11 Mutation Identified in Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Brose, Marcia S; Montone, Kathleen T; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Baloch, Zubair W

    2016-03-01

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder, in which germline mutation of serine threonine-protein kinase 11 (STK11) is identified in up to 90 % of the patients who meet clinical criteria for PJS. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of the tumor were reviewed to confirm areas with at least 25 % of tumor cellularity. Then, the designated area was extracted for genomic DNA. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis was performed using a 47-gene panel. Case 1 is a 71-year-old man with high grade follicular thyroid carcinoma with clear cell and oncocytic features. The carcinoma showed a missense mutation in TP53 (p.R342G, c.1024C?>?G) and a 16-nucleotide intronic deletion started next to the 3' of exon 6 (involving the canonical +1 and +2 bases of the splice donor site) in STK11 (p.?, c.862?+?1_862?+?16delGTGGGAGCCTCATCCC). Case 2 is a 76-year-old woman with tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. The carcinoma demonstrated a missense mutation in BRAF (p.V600E, c.1799T?>?A) and a missense mutation in STK11 (p.F354L, c.1062C?>?G). In summary, we present two elderly patients with thyroid carcinoma harboring STK11 mutation without clinical manifestation of PJS. The findings suggest that STK11 may play a role in thyroid carcinoma development. PMID:26662608

  4. Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A.; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L.; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K.; Hoivik, Erling A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D.; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L.; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P.; Neuberg, Donna S.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10–15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS4–7 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole genome sequencing of 14 tumor-normal pairs. Novel somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%) TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observed somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas had higher frequencies of somatic mutations in the Tp*C dinucleotide context than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were significantly higher in tumors with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumors without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest novel strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

  5. Controversies in the Management of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common type of female genital tract malignancy. Although endometrial carcinoma is a low grade curable malignancy, the condition of the disease can range from excellent prognosis with high curability to aggressive disease with poor outcome. During the last 10 years many researches have provided some new valuable data of optimal treatments for endometrial carcinoma. Progression in diagnostic imaging, radiation delivery systems, and systemic therapies potentially can improve outcomes while minimizing morbidity. Firstly, total hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy is the primary operative procedure. Pelvic lymhadenectomy is performed in most centers on therapeutic and prognostic grounds and to individualize adjuvant treatment. Women with endometrial carcinoma can be readily segregated intraoperatively into “low-risk” and “high-risk” groups to better identify those women who will most likely benefit from thorough lymphadenectomy. Secondly, adjuvant therapies have been proposed for women with endometrial carcinoma postoperatively. Postoperative irradiation is used to reduce pelvic and vaginal recurrences in high risk cases. Chemotherapy is emerging as an important treatment modality in advanced endometrial carcinoma. Meanwhile the availability of new hormonal and biological agents presents new opportunities for therapy. PMID:20613958

  6. Immunohistochemical study of 158 lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L; Andersson, C; Albin, M

    1992-10-01

    Lung carcinomas were studied immunohistochemically and the results were related to type of tissue sample (bronchoscopic biopsies, surgical specimens, autopsies). All cytokeratins (CAM 5.2, PKK-1, AE1/AE3) reacted with virtually all adenocarcinomas, most squamous, and 65% of the large cell carcinomas, while CAM 5.2 was most efficient with the small cell carcinomas. CEA stained 33% and 60% of the small and large cell carcinomas, respectively, most adenocarcinomas, and 84% of the squamous cell carcinomas, among which staining decreased with dedifferentiation and was often focal. EMA reacted with 90%, and NSE with 20% of all histological types. There was no staining for NF. All antibodies, except EMA, were more efficient with surgical specimens. Our study implies that the cytokeratins we used work better with surgical material, but are generally comparable to monospecific cytokeratin antibodies. Also, EMA is a reliable marker for epithelial differentiation with all types of tissue samples. Moreover, CEA negativity in several poorly differentiated lung carcinomas might have implications in the differential diagnosis against pleural mesothelioma. PMID:1280149

  7. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  8. [Primary transitional carcinoma of the prostatic ductus].

    PubMed

    Queipo Zaragozá, J A; Budía Alba, A; Pérez Ebrí, M; Vera Donoso, C D; Vera Sempere, F; Jiménez Cruz, J F

    2000-05-01

    Primary prostate transitional cell carcinoma is a very rare tumour originating in the transitional epithelial cells of the intraprostate periurethral ductus. Only 17 of 829 patients diagnosed with prostate carcinoma were found to have the transitional cell variety. Eight (8) of those had pure transitional cell carcinoma and 9 a mixed presentation of acinar adenocarcinoma and transitional cell ductal carcinoma. Bladder origin of the tumour was ruled out in all cases. We report a retrospective study on the clinical behaviour of prostate transitional cell carcinoma. Compared to acinar carcinomas, few differences were found when age, symptoms, physical findings and imaging diagnosis were evaluated. Clinical presentation, DRE, PSA, metastatic spread and presence of supravesical obstructive uropathy where also studied to establish a diagnosis. Radiotherapy was the most frequently used therapeutical approach. Mean survival is 26.6 months (4-60 months) and there has been 11 death up to now. Compared to acinar forms, this tumour shows a hormone-resistant, aggressive biological behaviour with poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and radical surgery are the only options available to increase life expectancy for these patients. PMID:10965577

  9. Carcinoma of the lung in Lancashire coalminers.

    PubMed Central

    Rooke, G B; Ward, F G; Dempsey, A N; Dowler, J B; Whitaker, C J

    1979-01-01

    The prevalence at death of carcinoma of the lung in miners and ex-miners has been compared in those with and without pneumoconiosis at necropsy. The prevalence of 11.4% in the group as a whole is no greater than that in the male population in North-west England. Carcinoma of the lung was present in 62 (13.1%) of those without pneumoconiosis and in 52 (9.8%) of those with pneumoconiosis. The mean age at death of those with pneumoconiosis was 71.3 years so that they cannot be said to have died before the age at which they would have developed carcinoma. Those with progressive massive fibrosis whose mean age at death was 72 years had the lowest prevalence of carcinoma of the lung at all ages--8.4%. For reasons stated in the text this is inevitably a biased sample. The number of those without pneumoconiosis is probably lower than the true figure because the deaths of miners and ex-miners in whom there is no suspicion of lung disease may not have been reported to the coroner or to the pneumoconiosis medical panel. There appears to be no positive link between carcinoma of the lung and pneumoconiosis. There is a surprisingly high number of smokers and ex-smokers among these miners, and this appears to have more relevance to the prevalence of carcinoma of the lung than does pneumoconiosis. PMID:483190

  10. The expression of interleukin-10 in patients with primary ovarian epithelial carcinoma and in ovarian carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Ye, F; Chen, H; Lv, W; Gan, N

    2007-01-01

    This study determined interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression in patients with ovarian carcinoma and in ovarian carcinoma cell lines, and investigated its clinical significance in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. Expression of IL-10 in ovarian carcinoma, benign ovarian tumour, normal control tissues and ovarian carcinoma cell lines was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. IL-10 concentrations in sera and ascites from patients with ovarian carcinoma, in sera from patients with benign ovarian tumour and normal controls, and in supernatants of ovarian carcinoma cell line cultures were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The tissue level of IL-10 in ovarian carcinoma was significantly higher than in benign ovarian tumour and normal controls. IL-10 expression was detectable in cell lysate and supernatant from ovarian carcinoma cell lines. In patients with ovarian carcinoma the IL-10 level in ascitic fluid was significantly higher than in sera, and the serum IL-10 level in ovarian carcinoma was significantly higher than in benign ovarian tumour and normal controls. Ascitic IL-10 levels in ovarian carcinoma were significantly correlated with disease stage but not cytological grade. These results suggest that ovarian carcinoma cells are able to synthesize and secrete IL-10, which probably assists in promoting the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:17593856

  11. Concurrent Primary Peritoneal Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma and Endometrial High-Grade Serous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Megan G.; Deavers, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    A 64-yr-old postmenopausal woman with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance on her Pap test was found to have endometrial serous carcinoma (high grade) involving a polyp in a subsequent endometrial biopsy. She underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with multiple biopsies of the peritoneum. Microscopic examination of the entirely submitted uterus showed no residual serous carcinoma. Multiple foci of low-grade serous tumor with extensive calcifications and psammoma bodies were identified on the surfaces of the left fallopian tube, ovaries, and biopsies of the peritoneum, consistent with peritoneal primary low-grade serous carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of low-grade serous carcinoma of the peritoneum with a concurrent (high-grade) serous carcinoma of the endometrium arising from an endometrial polyp. PMID:25760900

  12. Small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma colliding with squamous cell carcinoma at esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Luoluo; Sun, Xun; Zou, Yabin; Meng, Xiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Collision tumor is an extremely rare tumor which defined as the concrescence of two distinct primaries neoplasms. We report here a case of collision tumor at lower third esophagus composed of small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which is an very rare, highly aggressive and poorly prognostic carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). In our case, pathologically, the small cell carcinoma display the characteristic of small, round, ovoid or spindle-shaped tumor cells with scant cytoplasm, which colliding with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated positive activities for CD56, synaptophysin, 34?E12, CK 5/6, ki-67 (70%-80%), but negative for CD99, chromogranin A, and TTF-1. Accurate diagnosis was made base on these findings. PMID:24817981

  13. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Michielsen, Peter P; Francque, Sven M; van Dongen, Jurgen L

    2005-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The incidence of HCC varies considerably with the geographic area because of differences in the major causative factors. Chronic hepatitis B and C, mostly in the cirrhotic stage, are responsible for the great majority of cases of HCC worldwide. The geographic areas at the highest risk are South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, here hepatitis B is highly endemic and is the main cause of HCC. In areas with an intermediate rate of HCC such as Southern Europe and Japan, hepatitis C is the predominant cause, whereas in low rate areas such as Northern Europe and the USA, HCC is often related to other factors as alcoholic liver disease. There is a rising incidence in HCC in developed countries during the last two decades, due to the increasing rate of hepatitis C infection and improvement of the clinical management of cirrhosis. Methods This article reviews the literature on hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Medline search was carried out using these key words and articles were selected on epidemiology, risk factors, screening, and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results Screening of patients with advanced chronic hepatitis B and C with hepatic ultrasound and determination of serum alfa-fetoprotein may improve the detection of HCC, but further studies are needed whether screening improves clinical outcome. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) can be implicated in the development of HCC in an indirect way, through induction of chronic inflammation, or directly by means of viral proteins or, in the case of HBV, by creation of mutations by integration into the genome of the hepatocyte. Conclusion The most effective tool to prevent HCC is avoidance of the risk factors such as viral infection. For HBV, a very effective vaccine is available. Preliminary data from Taiwan indicate a protective effect of universal vaccination on the development of HCC. Vaccination against HBV should therefore be a health priority. In patients with chronic hepatitis B or C, interferon-alfa treatment in a noncirrhotic stage is protective for HCC development in responders, probably by prevention of cirrhosis development. When cirrhosis is already present, the protective effect is less clear. For cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, a protective effect was demonstrated in Oriental, but not in European patients. For cirrhosis due to hepatitis C, interferon-alfa treatment showed to be protective in some studies, especially in Japan with a high incidence of HCC in untreated patients. Virological, but also merely biochemical response, seems to be associated with a lower risk of development of HCC. As most studies are not randomized controlled trials, no definitive conclusions on the long-term effects of interferon-alfa in HBV or HCV cirrhosis can be established. Especially in hepatitis C, prospective studies should be performed using the more potent reference treatments for cirrhotics, namely the combination of peginterferon and ribavirin. PMID:15907199

  14. Expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene in human gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chun-Yang; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Wang, Ai-Ping; Nakashima, Masahiro; Ding, Yi-Tao; Ito, Masahiro; Ishibashi, Hiromi; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Sekine, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) is overexpressed in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas of the lung, breast, colon, as well as in leukemia, lymphoma and pituitary adenomas. However, there is little information on its expression in gastric carcinoma. We sought to investigate the expression of PTTG1 in gastric carcinoma and to explore the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological factors. METHODS: We studied 75 primary human gastric adenocarcinomas, including 17 mucosal carcinomas, 21 submucosal infiltrative carcinomas, 12 carcinomas invading proprial muscle layers, 6 carcinomas reaching the subserosa, and 19 carcinomas penetrating the serosal surface. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using paraffin-embedded sections of gastric adenocarcinomas. RESULTS: PTTG1 was expressed heterogeneously in carcinomas. Positive PTTG1 staining was observed in 65.3% of the carcinomas (49 of 75). Its expression did not correlate significantly with either the histological type or the depth of infiltration of the gastric carcinomas. However, a statistical analysis showed significant differences between the primary adenocarcinomas and the associated metastatic lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that PTTG1 expression is enhanced in metastatic lymph nodes in comparison to that in primary carcinomas. We suggest that PTTG1 may contribute to lymph node metastases in gastric carcinoma. PMID:14966902

  15. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

    2013-07-01

    Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23821212

  16. Targeting Src in Mucinous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Nishimura, Masato; Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.; Huang1, Jie; Komurov, Kakajan; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Shahzad, Mian M. K.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Roh, Ju Won; Sanguino, Angela M.; Lu, Chunhua; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshien, Neil B.; Sakakibara, Atsuko; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Yamasaki, Masato; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Tadashi; Ram, Prahlad T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Gallick, Gary E.; Wong, Kwong K.; Frumovitz, Michael; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Mucinous ovarian carcinomas have a distinct clinical pattern compared to other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Here, we evaluated (i) stage-specific clinical significance of mucinous ovarian carcinomas in a large cohort and (ii) the functional role of src kinase in pre-clinical models of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1302 ovarian cancer patients including 122 (9.4%) cases of mucinous carcinoma were evaluated for survival analyses. Biological effects of src kinase inhibition were tested in a novel orthotopic mucinous ovarian cancer model (RMUG-S-ip2) using dasatinib-based therapy. RESULTS Patients with advanced-stage mucinous ovarian cancer had significantly worse survival compared to those with serous histology: median overall survival, 1.67 versus 3.41 years, p=0.002; and median survival time after recurrence of 0.53 versus 1.66 years, p<0.0001. Among multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUG-S-ip2 mucinous ovarian cancer cells showed the highest src kinase activity. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment induced phosphorylation of src kinase. This induced activity by oxaliplatin therapy was inhibited by concurrent administration of dasatinib. Targeting src with dasatinib in vivo showed significant anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model, but not in the serous ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3-TR) model. Combination therapy of oxaliplatin with dasatinib further demonstrated significant effects on reducing cell viability, increasing apoptosis, and in vivo anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that poor survival of women with mucinous ovarian carcinoma is associated with resistance to cytotoxic therapy. Targeting src kinase with combination of dasatinib and oxaliplatin may be an attractive approach in this disease. PMID:21737505

  17. Cisplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-05

    Colorectal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gallbladder Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Pancreatic Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Small Intestinal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

  18. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  19. Imaging of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Brown, Anna; Cieciera, Matthaeus; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2016-03-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer in adults. Early and accurate imaging plays an important role in the detection, staging, and follow-up of RCC. Patient care and case management revolves heavily around diagnostic imaging so it is imperative that appropriate and adequate imaging is acquired. There are well-established standard imaging protocols available to patients and their providers, although at the same time, there is also extensive ongoing research on improving the various modalities. Ultrasound has been the most commonly used imaging technique for renal imaging in general. However, computed tomography (CT) is the first choice for imaging of renal masses, and has been the mainstay for several decades. High resolution, reproducibility, reasonable preparation and acquisition time, and acceptable cost allow CT to remain as the primary choice for radiologic imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered as an important alternative in patients requiring further imaging or in cases of allergies, pregnancy, or surveillance. With increasing concern over radiation exposure, there has been a trend toward the higher use of MRI. It is important to understand the various imaging options available, as well as the current status of and results from recent RCC imaging studies. In this review we discuss these modalities, including the current state of ultrasound, CT, and MRI in RCC. PMID:26094171

  20. Gut Microbiota and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xuemei; Wang, Ning; Qin, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common complication of liver diseases such as those related to viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The gut-liver axis is gaining increasing attention as a key pathophysiological mechanism responsible for the progression of HCC. Here, we will review the data from the published literature to address the association between HCC and gut microbiota. Summary The presence of high levels of endotoxemia in the blood results in portal hypertension and ensuing hepatocyte damage, thus leading to the development of HCC. Probiotics can be used to treat or prevent the progression of HCC, because they may decrease the counts of gut microbiota and thus improve the endotoxemia. Key Message Increased bacterial translocation can result in endotoxemia, which may play a critical role in the progression of HCC. Modulation of the gut microbiota by probiotics may represent a new avenue for therapeutic intervention in HCC. Practical Implications Breakdown in intestinal barrier function and bacterial overgrowth are main events in the development of HCC. When the intestinal barrier function is disrupted, large amounts of bacterial products can enter the liver and induce inflammation through their receptors, leading to liver diseases. Altering the gut microflora has been proposed as an adjunctive therapy to reduce bacterial translocation and prevent progression of HCC. The purpose of this review is to discuss the relationship between gut microbiota and HCC in both pathogenesis and treatment by probiotics. PMID:26673641

  1. Chemopreventive strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Singh, Preet Paul; Roberts, Lewis R.; Sanchez, William

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of death from cancer. The incidence and mortality of HCC are increasing in most Western countries as a result of an ageing cohort infected with chronic hepatitis C, and are expected to continue to rise as a consequence of the obesity epidemic. Chemopreventive strategies aimed at decreasing the risk or delaying the onset of HCC are needed. Universal immunization against HBV and antiviral therapy against HBV and HCV in patients with established disease has consistently been associated with reduced HCC risk, especially in patients who achieve sustained virologic response. However, the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for primary HCC prevention is not known. Several commonly prescribed medications seem promising as chemopreventive agents against HCC, including statins, antidiabetic medications and aspirin. Dietary agents such as coffee, vitamin E and fish oil as well as phytochemicals might also be associated with reduced risk of HCC. Though randomized controlled trials are ideally needed to firmly establish efficacy, such chemoprevention trials are logistically and ethically challenging. Well-designed, prospective, population-based cohort studies might provide the best evidence for chemopreventive efficacy of these agents. PMID:23938452

  2. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X D; Tang, Z Y; Yu, Y Q; Hou, Z

    1991-12-01

    After a long, hopeless period in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the diagnosis and treatment of HCC have progressed remarkably in the past decade. In particular the discovery of asymptomatic HCC in the early 1970s opened up a new era in clinical research of HCC. With the progress in the diagnostic imaging of liver tumors, a 1 cm hepatic mass can now be detected. It is especially worth noting that a 5-year survival rate of 72.9% has been achieved after the resection of the tumor in asymptomatic HCC patients. The role of surgery in the treatment of HCC has become more important. Various modalities of medical treatment and combination therapy have been recommended and used. Despite the progress in the early diagnosis and treatment of HCC, a complete cure is very rare. Problems to be studied include new tumor markers for the early detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative HCC, the development of more specific treatments for unresectable HCC with uncompensated cirrhosis, and an effective approach to preventing recurrence and metastasis after radical resection. PMID:1668377

  3. Multimodal treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Graf, Dirk; Vallböhmer, Daniel; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Kröpil, Patric; Antoch, Gerald; Sagir, Abdurrahaman; Häussinger, Dieter

    2014-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most common liver cancer with an increasing incidence and it accounts for the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Even though the clinical diagnosis and management of HCC improved significantly in the last decades, this malignant disease is still associated with a poor prognosis. It has to be distinguished between patients with HCCs, which developed from liver cirrhosis, and patients without underlying liver cirrhosis as classification systems, prognosis estimation and therapy recommendations differ in-between. In case of HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis in Europe, treatment allocation and prognosis estimation are mainly based on the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system. Based on this staging system different surgical, interventional radiological/sonographical and non-interventional procedures have been established for the multimodal treatment of HCC. The BCLC classification system represents a decision guidance; however because of its limitations in selected patients treatment allocation should be determined on an individualized rather than a guideline-based medicine by a multidisciplinary board in order to offer the best treatment option for each patient. This review summarizes the current management of HCC and illustrates controversial areas of therapeutic strategies. PMID:24666568

  4. [Epidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Relmi, F; Russo, A; Magnacca, F; Leombruni, E; Buccoliero, G; Picardi, N

    1998-01-01

    About thyroid neoplasms the epidermoidal carcinoma represents an ingrown minority (0.3-0.74%). Several etiopathological hypotheses are considered and this testifies the notable uncertainty that still winds the origin of the neoplasm. In the actual case, the more accredited hypothesis foresees the origin of the neoplasm from a histopathological of Hashimotos' tyhroiditis. The objectivity of the case in examination constitutes the clinical picture of reference of the malignant neoplasms of the thyroid: oligosintomatic low cervical mass of increased consistence, adherent to the imminent pianos strictly following laryngeal movements, dysfagia and dysfonia. Additionally they were present pulmonary and right cervical lymphonodal metastases. After an adjuvant treatment with Paraplatin and 5-FU, to some months from the intervention of total thyroidectomy, local relapse in form of a festered mass is highlighted in sovrajugular region with result in cutaneous-esophagustracheal fistula. The diagnosis of certainty of the neoplasm, despite the rarity, it doesn't constitute a problem, albeit the percents of survival, anyway substantially more favorable respect to anaplastic neoplasms, concerning to as numerical as chronological aspects, result to be hardly discouraging. PMID:9835109

  5. Surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Tony CY; Lam, Vincent WT

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Standard potentially curative treatments are either resection or transplantation. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical management of HCC, as well as highlight current issues in hepatic resection and transplantation. In summary, due to the relationship between HCC and chronic liver disease, the management of HCC depends both on tumour-related and hepatic function-related considerations. As such, HCC is currently managed largely through non-surgical means as the criteria, in relation to the above considerations, for surgical management is still largely restrictive. For early stage tumours, both resection and transplantation offer fairly good survival outcomes (5 years overall survival of around 50%). Selection therefore would depend on the level of hepatic function derangement, organ availability and local expertise. Patients with intermediate stage cancers have limited options, with resection being the only potential for cure. Otherwise, locoregional therapy with transarterial chemoembolization or radiofrequency ablation are viable options. Current issues in resection and transplantation are also briefly discussed such as laparoscopic resection, ablation vs resection, anatomical vs non-anatomical resection, transplantation vs resection, living donor liver transplantation and salvage liver transplantation. PMID:25729479

  6. Clinical guideline SEOM: hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sastre, J; Díaz-Beveridge, R; García-Foncillas, J; Guardeño, R; López, C; Pazo, R; Rodriguez-Salas, N; Salgado, M; Salud, A; Feliu, J

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Surveillance with abdominal ultrasound every 6 months should be offered to patients with a high risk of developing HCC: Child-Pugh A-B cirrhotic patients, all cirrhotic patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation, high-risk HBV chronic hepatitis patients (higher viral load, viral genotype or Asian or African ancestry) and patients with chronic hepatitis C and bridging fibrosis. Accurate diagnosis, staging and functional hepatic reserve are crucial for the optimal therapeutic approach. Characteristic findings on dynamic CT/MR of arterial hyperenhancement with "washout" in the portal venous or delayed phase are highly specific and sensitive for a diagnosis of HCC in patients with previous cirrhosis, but a confirmed histopathologic diagnosis should be done in patients without previous evidence of chronic hepatic disease. BCLC classification is the most common staging system used in Western countries. Surgical procedures, local therapies and systemic treatments should be discussed and planned for each patient by a multidisciplinary team according to the stage, performance status, liver function and comorbidities. Surgical interventions remain as the only curative procedures but both local and systemic approaches may increase survival and should be offered to patients without contraindications. PMID:26607931

  7. Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Laca, L; Dedinska, I; Miklusica, J; Janik, J; Palkoci, B; Pindura, M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Europe and throughout the world is currently increasing. This is caused by an increase in the number of patients with alcoholic liver damage, metabolic syndrome, and by increasing incidence of hepatitis B and C.From January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, resection or radiofrequency ablation of the liver was done in 360 patients with benign lesions or malignant tumors of the liver. In 28 patients HCC was diagnosed and histologically confirmed (7.8 %). Seven patients had HCC associated with liver cirrhosis (25 %), and 21 patients were without histologically confirmed cirrhosis (75 %). R0 resection was done in 18 (64 %) patients.Surgical complications occurred in 6 (21 %) patients and reoperation due to tumor relapse or progression was done eight times in 6 (21 %) patients. One-year and five-year patients' survivals were 64 % and 10 %, repectively, and did not statistically differ from the survival of the whole set of patients with tumor diseases in the given time period. In the future it will be possible to improve the long-term survival of patients with HCC by using screening methods for presymptomatic diagnosis of HCC, precise preoperative diagnosis and efforts for R0 resection (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 11). PMID:26435018

  8. Thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lencioni, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cause of cancer, and its incidence is increasing worldwide because of the dissemination of hepatitis B and C virus infection. Patients with cirrhosis are at the highest risk of developing HCC and should be monitored every 6 months to diagnose the tumour at an early, asymptomatic stage. Patients with early-stage HCC should be considered for any of the available curative therapies, including surgical resection, liver transplantation and percutaneous image-guided ablation. Liver transplantation is the only option that provides cure of both the tumour and the underlying chronic liver disease. However, the lack of sufficient liver donation greatly limits its applicability. Resection is the treatment of choice for HCC in non-cirrhotic patients, who account for about 5% of the cases in western countries. However, in patients with cirrhosis, candidates for resection have to be carefully selected to reduce the risk of postoperative liver failure. It has been shown that a normal bilirubin concentration and the absence of clinically significant portal hypertension are the best predictors of excellent outcomes after surgery. However, less than 5% of cirrhotic patients with HCC fit these criteria. Image-guided percutaneous ablation is the best therapeutic choice for non-surgical patients with early-stage HCC. While ethanol injection has been the seminal percutaneous technique, radiofrequency ablation has emerged as the most effective method for local tumour destruction and is currently used as the primary ablative modality at most institutions. PMID:18331969

  9. Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam; Abbas, Sarim; Shazi, Lubna

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective circular shape single stranded HDV RNA virus with two types of viral proteins, small and large hepatitis D antigens, surrounded by hepatitis B surface antigen. Superinfection with HDV in chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more threatening form of liver disease leading to rapid progression to cirrhosis. In spite of some controversy in the epidemiological studies, HDV infection does increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Hepatic decompensation, rather than development of HCC, is the first usual clinical endpoint during the course of HDV infection. Oxidative stress as a result of severe necroinflammation may progress to HCC. The large hepatitis D antigen is a regulator of various cellular functions and an activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Another proposed epigenetic mechanism by which HCC may form is the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes by DNA Methyltransferases. HDV antigens have also been associated with increased histone H3 acetylation of the clusterin promoter. This enhances the expression of clusterin in infected cells, increasing cell survival potential. Any contribution of HBV DNA integration with chromosomes of infected hepatocytes is not clear at this stage. The targeted inhibition of STAT3 and cyclophilin, and augmentation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ have a potential therapeutic role in HCC. PMID:25914778

  10. Chemopreventive strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Siddharth; Singh, Preet Paul; Roberts, Lewis R; Sanchez, William

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of death from cancer. The incidence and mortality of HCC are increasing in most Western countries as a result of an ageing cohort infected with chronic hepatitis C, and are expected to continue to rise as a consequence of the obesity epidemic. Chemopreventive strategies aimed at decreasing the risk or delaying the onset of HCC are needed. Universal immunization against HBV and antiviral therapy against HBV and HCV in patients with established disease has consistently been associated with reduced HCC risk, especially in patients who achieve sustained virologic response. However, the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for primary HCC prevention is not known. Several commonly prescribed medications seem promising as chemopreventive agents against HCC, including statins, antidiabetic medications and aspirin. Dietary agents such as coffee, vitamin E and fish oil as well as phytochemicals might also be associated with reduced risk of HCC. Though randomized controlled trials are ideally needed to firmly establish efficacy, such chemoprevention trials are logistically and ethically challenging. Well-designed, prospective, population-based cohort studies might provide the best evidence for chemopreventive efficacy of these agents. PMID:23938452

  11. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-31

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation. PMID:25386788

  13. Computed tomography evaluation of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scharling, E S; Wolfman, N T; Bechtold, R E

    1996-04-01

    Knowledge of the extent of primary colorectal carcinoma at initial diagnosis is critical for proper management of disease. Currently, CT does not have a role in screening for colorectal carcinoma, though promising work on virtual colonoscopy is on the horizon. In patients with proven colorectal carcinoma, accurate prospective noninvasive assessment can identify those who may benefit from preoperative local radiotherapy, hepatic resection or cryoablation, or intra-arterial chemotherapy. CT should be considered complementary to the clinical assessment of colorectal carcinoma and to other modalities, such as barium enema, endorectal ultrasonography, MRI, and immunoscintigraphy. Although limited in evaluation of the primary tumor and local spread, CT has proven useful in assessing patients thought to harbor extensive local or metastatic disease. CT is generally the modality of choice for imaging the postoperative patient. The cross-sectional display of CT clearly depicts the operative bed, particularly after abdominoperineal resection. Baseline examinations should be obtained 2 to 4 months after surgery, with follow-up examinations every 6 to 9 months for 2 years, and yearly studies thereafter. CT-guided biopsies should be performed when findings suggest recurrent carcinoma. PMID:8848730

  14. Epstein-barr virus in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation. PMID:25386788

  15. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Violi, Maria Antonia; Galletti, Bruno; Baldari, Sergio; Campennì, Alfredo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2016-01-01

    The lingual thyroid is the most common form of thyroid ectopy. The ectopic tissue may display any disease affecting the thyroid, including malignancies, which have an estimated incidence of less than 1 %. To date only 51 cases of lingual thyroid cancer were reported. Analogously to what observed in orthotopic thyroid, papillary carcinoma is the predominant histotype in lingual thyroid carcinoma. The higher frequency of lingual follicular thyroid carcinoma previously reported is possibly related to histological misclassification in some early reports, prior to the standardization of histological typing of differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Nonetheless, the frequency of the follicular histotype is not negligible, accounting for about one-third of the reported cases. Both natural history and prognosis of lingual thyroid carcinoma are poorly known, likely because of the rarity of the disease and the heterogeneity in the therapeutic approach. However, among the cases more recently reported, surgical excision of the mass, either alone or followed by radioiodine ablation, is the first-line approach, with only two cases treated by radioiodine alone. The nonsignificant rate of neoplastic transformation in lingual thyroid should encourage efforts to obtain a widely accepted consensus for the management of this rare condition, along with standardization of either diagnostic or therapeutic handling of malignancies arising in ectopic thyroid. PMID:25987346

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, FANGYIN; XU, YIPENG; WANG, HUA; CHEN, BO; WANG, ZONGPING; ZHAO, YANG; ZHU, SHAOXING; CHEN, GUIPING

    2015-01-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare disease that, at present, has not been well characterized. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this carcinoma remain poorly understood, particularly in the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to discuss the methods of diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma in the Chinese population. The clinical and pathological data of 10 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma were analyzed alongside a literature review. All the tumors were exophytic papillary lesions, ranging between 0.4 and 4 cm in diameter and all 10 patients underwent partial penectomy with tumor-negative surgical margins. None of the 10 patients underwent ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy. All patients were regularly followed up for 0.7–9 years, which revealed that no patients developed recurrence, and only one case resulted in mortality due to unassociated causes. It was found that penile verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated disease with low malignant potential and locally aggressive features, which seldom metastasizes to regional lymph nodes or distant regions. However, misdiagnosis may occur due to an incorrect biopsy. Favorable outcomes can be achieved by surgery, even without any adjuvant therapy, but patients should be carefully followed up. PMID:25789024

  17. Epigenetic dysregulation in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Thian-Sze; Gao, Wei; Li, Zeng-Hong; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Ho, Wai-Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer with poor prognosis. Patients with laryngeal carcinoma usually present late leading to the reduced treatment efficacy and high rate of recurrence. Despite the advance in the use of molecular markers for monitoring human cancers in the past decades, there are still no reliable markers for use to screen laryngeal carcinoma and follow the patients after treatment. Epigenetics emerged as an important field in understanding the biology of the human malignancies. Epigenetic alterations refer to the dysregulation of gene, which do not involve the alterations of the DNA sequence. Major epigenetic changes including methylation imbalance, histone modification, and small RNA dysregulation could play a role in the development of human malignancies. Global epigenetic change is now regarded as a molecular signature of cancer. The characteristics and behavior of a cancer could be predicted based on the specific epigenetic pattern. We here provide a review on the understanding of epigenetic dysregulation in laryngeal carcinoma. Further knowledge on the initiation and progression of laryngeal carcinoma at epigenetic level could promote the translation of the knowledge to clinical use. PMID:22645613

  18. Synchronous Renal Cell Carcinoma and Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dafashy, Tamer J.; Ghaffary, Cameron K.; Keyes, Kyle T.; Sonstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    While renal cell carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of the kidney, its simultaneous diagnosis with a gastrointestinal malignancy is a rare, but well reported phenomenon. This discussion focuses on three independent cases in which each patient was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and a unique synchronous gastrointestinal malignancy. Case 1 explores the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 66-year-old male patient synchronously diagnosed with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a carcinoid tumor of the small bowel. Case 2 describes the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 61-year-old male found to have clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm. Lastly, Case 3 focuses on the interventions and management of a 36-year-old female diagnosed with synchronous clear cell renal carcinoma and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. This case series examines each distinct patient's presentation, discusses the diagnosis, and compares and contrasts the findings while discussing the literature on this topic. PMID:26904353

  19. Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jando, Daniel; Kascak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD) is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation, but it was rarely described also in some visceral carcinomas. We report a case of ovarian basaloid carcinoma with SCD. The tumor presented as a 14?cm ovarian mass in a 45-year-old woman, and therefore the adnexectomy and hysterectomy were performed. The tumor was of high stage. Multiple metastases were found in the liver, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes, and the lung. Histologically, the tumor showed a pattern of high-grade basaloid carcinoma with numerous shadow cells. Extensive histologic examination did not reveal any glandular or preexisting teratoma component. Immunohistochemically, the tumor expressed markers of squamous cell differentiation, such as p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and high-molecular-weight keratin. Cytokeratin 7 and CA125 were positive in scattered cells of the lesion. Estrogen and progesterone receptor, vimentin, and p53 were negative. Beta-catenin showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity, indicating possible tumor proliferation/differentiation via Wnt signaling pathway. To our knowledge, SCD in basaloid carcinoma of the ovary was not described before. In addition to the description of the case, we review the literature on SCD in visceral carcinomas. PMID:24639909

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Buhong; Zhang, Zhenxi; Xie, Shusen; Lin, Huiyun

    2005-01-01

    The spectroscopic characteristics of autofluorescence for the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE cells) were investigated, respectively. The characteristics of fluorescence agree with the results that deduced from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vivo, and the optimal excitation-emission wavelength was found at 350-500 nm. Secondly, the selectivity and optimal time for optical diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by using the new photosensitizer of Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether (HMME) has been demonstrated and determined by incubated CNE cells with HMME. The fluorescence emission peaks of 615 and 675 nm characterized the selective accumulation of HMME in CNE cells, and the optimal time for optical diagnostics with HMME was about 140 mins after clinic intravenous administration. Moreover, when the concentration of HMME in CNE cells below 32 ?g/mL, the fluorescence intensity versus HMME concentration reveals an obvious linearity. Finally, the fluorescence intensity of CNE cells increases linearly with concentration over the entire range up to 9.0E+05 cells/mL. These results can be used to helpfully improve the accuracy of optical diagnosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  1. Computed tomographic findings of Bellini duct carcinoma of the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki

    1996-05-01

    To analyze CT findings of Bellini duct carcinoma, a rare variant of renal cell carcinoma. The CT findings of five cases of Bellini duct carcinoma were reviewed and the findings were recorded. In all cases the affected kidneys maintained the normal outer contours. In four cases the renal masses protruded into the central sinuses. Contrast enhancement was minimal in four cases. Bellini duct carcinoma should be suspected in cases with these CT findings. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Reconstruction of the Auricular Defect After Excision of Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Ho Seok; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a highly differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma with a high local recurrence rate. Few studies of primary verrucous carcinoma of the auricle have reported on the surgical outcome. The authors present herein a case in which a verrucous carcinoma of the auricle was successfully removed and reconstructed using a retroauricular pull-through island flap, and the authors briefly review the relevant literature. PMID:26674896

  3. Localization of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.T.; Anderson, J.H.; Jelinek, J.; Anderson, D.W. )

    1991-02-01

    Data are limited on the localization of Ga-67 in primary or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma. We report the localization of Ga-67 to pathologically confirmed adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the lung. A review of the literature revealed four patients have previously been reported to have metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma detected on Ga-67 scan. Gallium imaging may be useful in the evaluation of patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma. SPECT imaging should further improve lesion resolution and localization.

  4. TERT Promoter Mutations Are Frequent in Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Griewank, Klaus G.; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Möller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. PMID:24260374

  5. [Squamous epithelial and basal cell carcinomas in naevus sebaceus (Jadassohn)].

    PubMed

    Smolin, T; Hundeiker, M

    1986-03-01

    Investigation of 181 nevi sebacei (Jadassohn) revealed the development of basal cell carcinoma in 21 cases, prickle-cell carcinoma in 1 patient. 2 basal cell carcinomas had been taken from different parts of the same systematized nevus. All these secondary tumors had developed in postpubertal patients. PMID:3962409

  6. AZD1775, Docetaxel, and Cisplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Borderline Resectable Stage III-IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-06

    Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Taxol: efficacy against oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ledwitch, Kaitlyn; Ogburn, Ryenne; Cox, Jodi; Graham, Rebekah; Fritzsche, Allison; Gosnell, Donna; Manning, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In medicinal chemistry, one of the most studied molecules in recent history is taxol. Taxol is a versatile natural product that is used in various cancer treatment regimens. It is administered to patients with breast, lung, and ovarian cancers, and is currently being studied for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and tongue. Taxol has been tested in a number of research and clinical phase trials to determine feasibility, toxicity, and cytotoxicity against oral squamous cell carcinoma as a single drug regimen and as a contributing drug component in treatment plans. This paper reviews over forty articles that examine cell lines, murine models, and human results for the response of taxol against squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and the tongue. PMID:23373651

  8. Pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma of the genitourinary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, M A; Morphopoulos, G; Wells, S; Bisset, D L

    1995-01-01

    Two cases of pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma of the genitourinary tract, arising in the vulva in one and the bladder in the other, are presented. In case 1, an 84 year old woman, the vulvectomy specimen contained an irregular ulcerated tumour, infiltrating the left labia and extending into the clitoris. In case 2, a 59 year old woman, the excised bladder showed diffuse thickening of its wall by infiltrating haemorrhagic tumour. Both tumours showed focal keratinisation. This, in association with the presence of atypical squamous epithelium, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural analysis, led to a diagnosis of pseudosarcomatous carcinoma in both cases. Pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of malignant angiomatoid tumours, particularly those that arise at sites, like the genitourinary tract, where angiosarcoma is rare. Images PMID:8543633

  9. Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Medhioub, Mouna; Chelbi, Emna

    2015-11-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach is very rare. Its pathogenesis is unclear and the treatment strategy is controversial. We report an agressive primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with liver and lung metastases in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple liver metastases. Endoscopic examination showed two tumour masses on the fundus of the stomach. Biopsy of the lesions revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Chest x-ray showed multiple large pulmonary nodules highly suggestive of pulmonary metastases. The patient died ten days after he was admitted because of progression of the tumour and before any therapeutic decision. PMID:26673808

  10. Expression of survivin in squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A comparative immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Refaiy, Abeer EL-Refaiy M.; Badary, Fatma Ahmed Mahmoud; Abdelkawi, Islam F.; Merseburger, Axel S.; Mohammed, Rabab Ahmed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the expression of survivin and its association with clinicopathological criteria in major types of urinary bladder carcinoma, specifically, transitional cell carcinoma with and without squamous differentiation and squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods Immunohistochemical staining for survivin and Ki67 was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of 104 carcinomas: 52 transitional cell carcinoma, 20 transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation, and 32 squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of survivin in >10% of tumor cells was described as altered survivin status. Ki67 staining in >20% of tumor cells was described as a high proliferation index. Results Altered survivin expression was detected in 60/104 specimens (58%) and was significantly more frequent in transitional cell carcinoma (78%) than in squamous cell carcinoma (38%) or transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation (40%) (p<0.0001). In transitional cell carcinoma but not in squamous cell carcinoma, altered survivin status was associated with higher tumor grade, higher proliferation index, and recurrence. In the whole specimens, altered survivin expression was significantly associated with advanced stage (p<0.001), recurrence (p=0.005), distant metastasis (p<0.001), and death (p=0.001). In the multivariate analysis, altered survivin was an independent poor prognostic factor for recurrence. Conclusions Unlike in transitional cell carcinoma, alteration of survivin expression in squamous cell carcinoma occurs less frequently and is not associated with features of tumor aggression or patient outcome. These findings raise a question: are urinary bladder carcinoma patients with squamous cell carcinoma type suitable candidates for survivin vaccine? This is an important question to be answered before approving the vaccine in management. PMID:25598934

  11. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-03-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  12. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where are we?

    PubMed Central

    Mazzanti, Roberto; Arena, Umberto; Tassi, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. The geographic distribution of this disease accompanies its principal risk factors: Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and some genetic attributes. Recently, type II diabetes has been shown to be a risk factor for HCC together with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although the risk factors are quite well known and it is possible to diagnose HCC when the tumor is less than 1 cm diameter, it remains elusive at the beginning and treatment is often unsuccessful. Liver transplantation is thus far considered the best treatment for HCC as it cures HCC and the underlying liver disease. Using the Milan criteria, overall survival after liver transplantation for HCC is about 70% after 5 years. Many attempts have been made to go beyond the Milan Criteria and according to recent works reasonably good results have been achieved by using a histochemical marker such as cytokeratine 19 and the so-called “up to seven criteria” to divide patients into categories according to their risk of relapse. In addition to liver transplantation other therapies have been proposed such as resection, tumor ablation by different means, embolization and chemotherapy. An important step in the treatment of advanced HCC has been the introduction of sorafenib, the first oral, systemic drug that has provided significant improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC patients must be multidisciplinary and by using the different approaches discussed in this review it is possible to offer prolonged survival and quite good and sometimes even excellent quality of life to many patients. PMID:26929917

  14. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where are we?

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Roberto; Arena, Umberto; Tassi, Renato

    2016-02-20

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. The geographic distribution of this disease accompanies its principal risk factors: Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and some genetic attributes. Recently, type II diabetes has been shown to be a risk factor for HCC together with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although the risk factors are quite well known and it is possible to diagnose HCC when the tumor is less than 1 cm diameter, it remains elusive at the beginning and treatment is often unsuccessful. Liver transplantation is thus far considered the best treatment for HCC as it cures HCC and the underlying liver disease. Using the Milan criteria, overall survival after liver transplantation for HCC is about 70% after 5 years. Many attempts have been made to go beyond the Milan Criteria and according to recent works reasonably good results have been achieved by using a histochemical marker such as cytokeratine 19 and the so-called "up to seven criteria" to divide patients into categories according to their risk of relapse. In addition to liver transplantation other therapies have been proposed such as resection, tumor ablation by different means, embolization and chemotherapy. An important step in the treatment of advanced HCC has been the introduction of sorafenib, the first oral, systemic drug that has provided significant improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC patients must be multidisciplinary and by using the different approaches discussed in this review it is possible to offer prolonged survival and quite good and sometimes even excellent quality of life to many patients. PMID:26929917

  16. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients.

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Therapy and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Hubert E

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. The major etiologies and risk factors for the development of HCC are well defined and some of the multiple steps involved in hepatocarcinogenesis have been elucidated in recent years. Despite these scientific advances and the implementation of measures for the early detection of HCC in patients at risk, patient survival has not improved during the last three decades. This is due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of clinical presentation and limited therapeutic options. The therapeutic options fall into five main categories: surgical interventions including tumor resection and liver transplantation, percutaneous interventions including ethanol injection and radiofrequency thermal ablation, transarterial interventions including embolization and chemoembolization, radiation therapy and drugs as well as gene and immune therapies. These therapeutic strategies have been evaluated in part in randomized controlled clinical trials that are the basis for therapeutic recommendations. Though surgery, percutaneous and transarterial interventions are effective in patients with limited disease (1-3 lesions, <5 cm in diameter) and compensated underlying liver disease (cirrhosis Child A), at the time of diagnosis more than 80% patients present with multicentric HCC and advanced liver disease or comorbidities that restrict the therapeutic measures to best supportive care. In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality of HCC, early diagnosis and the development of novel systemic therapies for advanced disease, including drugs, gene and immune therapies as well as primary HCC prevention are of paramount importance. Furthermore, secondary HCC prevention after successful therapeutic interventions needs to be improved in order to make an impact on the survival of patients with HCC. New technologies, including gene expression profiling and proteomic analyses, should allow to further elucidate the molecular events underlying HCC development and to identify novel diagnostic markers as well as therapeutic and preventive targets. PMID:16437707

  18. Hepatic Angiomyolipoma Mimicking Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Li, Hong-Yan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chang-Chun; Liu, Shu-Hong; Gao, Xu-Dong; Qu, Jian-Hui; Liu, Ze; Chang, Xiu-Juan; Lu, Yin-Ying; Zeng, Zhen; Lou, Min; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the liver with marked histological diversity. The present study was to review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical pathological features of HAML resembling hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nine patients who underwent surgical resection and had pathological diagnosis of HAML were retrospectively analyzed. All of 9 patients (5 males and 4 females) had a solitary hepatic mass with a median size of 4?cm (from 1.4?cm to 15.3?cm). Seven cases were identified as incidental liver tumors during health screening and 2 patients were diagnosed for hepatic mass when visited hospitals with unspecific abdominal discomfort. Before resection, 6 cases were diagnosed as HCC on MRI. MRI on chemical shift imagings showed a large amount of lipids in 5 cases. The enhancement pattern of MRI was classified into 2 types: in 2 cases, lesions with small or no vessels that demonstrated prolonged enhancement (1 mixed subtype and 1 myomatous subtype) and in 7 cases, lesions with abundant central vessels that show rapid washout (3 mixed subtypes and 4 myomatous subtypes) in the portal venous/delayed phase. All patients underwent resection of hepatic tumor and no recurrence was observed during follow-up (range: 2–24 months) of median 10 months. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells demonstrated positive immunostaining for human melanoma black-45, smooth muscle actin, and CD34. In conclusion, all of 9 patients with HAML presented with none or nonspecific clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of HAML relies on disease and immunohistochemistry, but not MRI due to its resemblance to HCC. PMID:25526436

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitor for NUT midline carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maher, Ossama M; Christensen, Anthony M; Yedururi, Sireesha; Bell, Diana; Tarek, Nidale

    2015-04-01

    NUT Midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare and invariably fatal poorly differentiated carcinoma characterized by chromosomal rearrangement involving the nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) gene. Current approaches do not provide durable response. We report a case of widely metastatic NMC in a 17-year-old female who, following an initial response to combination chemotherapy developed rapid disease progression. Treatment with vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) resulted in an objective response, yet she died in less than one year from initial diagnosis. This report shows a potentially promising activity of HDACi in the treatment of NMC that needs further exploration. PMID:25557064

  20. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  1. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea.

    PubMed

    Desai, Heena M; Thakare, Rohit; Amonkar, Gayathri P; Karkhanis, Vinaya; Joshi, Jyotsna M

    2015-01-01

    Primary salivary gland - type tumors of the lung and airways being unusual, they pose a diagnostic challenge on small biopsies and are usually consigned as non-small cell lung carcinomas. Since the clinical behavior of these tumors is different from the conventional lung tumors, it is important to accurately diagnose them. Among this category of tumors, adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the lungs and airways is exceedingly rare. Few large studies and maximum case reports have been reported in literature on ACC of the lungs and trachea so far. We herein report a rare case of primary ACC of the trachea diagnosed on bronchoscopic biopsy. PMID:26549080

  2. Vertigo caused by a nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Krause, Eike; Hempel, John Martin; Gürkov, Robert

    2007-11-01

    A case of a 63 year-old woman with acute vertigo, hearing loss and tinnitus caused by a nasopharyngeal carcinoma is reported. Despite a long-standing unilateral Eustachian tube dysfunction, only the occurrence of vertigo attacks lead to the diagnosis in this patient. Inner ear-related symptoms are rare in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the disease is uncommon in Europe. Skull base tumors are an important differential diagnosis of labyrinth dysfunction that can be detected by MRI. A complete diagnostic work-up is necessary in patients with unilateral tube dysfunction, to allow early detection of this disorder. PMID:17588167

  3. Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma With Multiple Muscle Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chung Hsiung; Chang, Chen; Sy, Edgar; Lai, Hung-Wen; Kuo, Yao-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare type of breast carcinoma. Recurrence presenting as chest wall invasion is common but rarely as metastasis to distal skeletal muscle in which most patients present with a painful mass. Herein, we report a rare case of 65-year-old woman, with MBC and recurrence presenting as distal multiple muscle metastasis. The patient received surgical excision for symptomatic relief. Unfortunately, she died 12 months postoperatively due to disease progression with multiple lung metastasis. In addition to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, surgical excision is an alternative option in selected patients such as those with painful, isolated, and easily approachable mass. PMID:25929895

  4. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    González-Cantú, Yessica M.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy. PMID:26509093

  5. Value of cytoprognostic classification in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Mouriquand, J; Gozlan-Fior, M; Villemain, D; Bouchet, Y; Sage, J C; Mermet, M A; Bolla, M

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and four cases of breast carcinoma were classified according to cytological features, and these were related to prognosis. A disease free interval of seven years was 95% for patients with grade I, 70% for those with grade II, and 45% for those with grade III tumours. The risk of recurrence was also related to tumour size and the presence or absence of steroid receptors in the tumour. Cytological classification of breast carcinoma based on fine needle aspiration provides valuable information concerning the prognosis of patients, which is relevant to their clinical management. Images PMID:3722403

  6. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

  7. Unusual presentation of carcinoma of penis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Gulzar Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    A case of carcinoma of the penis in a 55-year-old landlord is described. He presented with a fungating growth on the shaft of his penis with an unusual history. The lesion started as a nodule in the coronal sulcus leading to thinning of urinary stream and ultimately retention of urine, which was diagnosed and treated as a case of urethral stricture. Wedge biopsy of the growth revealed the case of squamous cell carcinoma of penis. Ultrasonography and CT scan of pelvis and abdomen proved the disease to be localized to penis and total penectomy was carried out. PMID:18452667

  8. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  9. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Penticuff, Justin C; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of “targeted therapies”. Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC. PMID:26309897

  10. Ossifying Parotid Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Suresh; Puram, Sidharth V.; Yarlagadda, Bharat; Nosé, Vania; Deschler, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a unique case of an extensively ossified carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) in a 76-year-old man with a five-year history of a slowly growing parotid mass. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass was nondiagnostic. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the lesion revealed a well-circumscribed mass with peripheral calcification. Initial pathological analysis suggested a benign parotid mass, but rigorous decalcification revealed noninvasive CXPA. The patient underwent complete resection of the mass and remained disease-free nine months later. Extensive ossification of a seemingly benign parotid mass may mask areas of carcinoma that may progress if left untreated. PMID:26075129

  11. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

    2014-01-01

    The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5th and 6th decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed. PMID:25328314

  12. Renal cell carcinoma and amyopathic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Adili, Anthony F.; Liaconis, Haralambos; Gusenbauer, Kaela; Kapoor, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Amyopathic dermatomyositis (dermatomyositis siné myositis) is a rare disorder with cutaneous lesions identical to those of classic dermatomyositis, but with no clinical evidence of myopathy. Association with malignancy has been suggested in a number of reports. We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a recent diagnosis of amyopathic dermatomyositis, who presented to the urology service with hematuria. Investigations revealed a 5.8-cm renal cell carcinoma and the patient underwent left radical nephrectomy without complication. To our knowledge, an association with renal cell carcinoma and amyopathic dermatomyositis has not been previously described. PMID:26029312

  13. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Ryan M; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2016-03-01

    (90)Y radioembolization refers to the selective, transcatheter, and intra-arterial injection of micrometer-sized particles loaded with the radioisotope yttrium-90 for the treatment of primary and metastatic hepatic malignancies. In the treatment of intermediate- and advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, (90)Y radioembolization provides favorable outcomes with minimal side effects, offering an alternative treatment option to other transarterial therapies, such as bland embolization and chemoembolization. This review provides an overview of the use of (90)Y radioembolization in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, including patient selection criteria, dosimetry, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26897714

  14. Solitary rib metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Musio, Daniela; Magnante, Anna Lisa; Bulzonetti, Nadia; De Francesco, Irene; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 49-year-old man who developed solitary rib metastasis of nasopharyngeal cancer. Patient had been treated for primary carcinoma with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy. The bone metastasis presented as bulky, solid, painful mass in the posterior arch of 10th rib, within nine months the end of treatment. Biopsy of the solitary lesion presented the same histological characteristics as those of primary lesion. Although there are reported in literature series of nasopharyngeal cancer metastasizing to bone, we did not find previously published report of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasizing only to a rib. PMID:24826065

  15. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2 carcinomas. The reason for a radical cholecystectomy after simple CE in a formally R0 situation is either occult invasion or hepatic spread with unknown lymphogenic dissemination. Unfortunately, there are diverse interpretations and practices regarding stage-adjusted therapy for gallbladder carcinoma. The current data suggest that more radical therapy is warranted. PMID:26604631

  16. Familial small cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Borges, Anibal R; Petty, John K; Hurt, Gail; Stribling, Jennifer T; Press, Joshua Z; Castellino, Sharon M

    2009-12-15

    Ovarian tumors have a low incidence in childhood, accounting for 1% of malignancies within the ages of 0-17 years. Small cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare histology and historically has a poor prognosis. We report a case of an 11-year-old female diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the ovary and hypercalcemia (SCCOHT). There was a strong family history of the disease, a reduction in the age of onset in the proband, and the absence of BRCA mutations. This case suggests the phenomenon of genetic anticipation in an ovarian cancer. PMID:19621450

  17. Remote cutaneous breast carcinoma metastasis mimicking dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Navaratnam, Annakan V; Chandrasekharan, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases from primary internal malignancies are an uncommon presentation. Cutaneous metastases are more frequently seen in breast cancer than in any other visceral malignancy in women. Medical practitioners should be vigilant of the possibility of unusual presentations of metastatic disease in breast cancer patients with lobular carcinoma presenting as cutaneous lesions mimicking benign dermatological conditions. Herein, we present a case of a 75-year-old woman presenting with cutaneous lobular breast carcinoma metastases on her anterior right leg, which had previously been misdiagnosed as dermatitis for 9 years. PMID:25657439

  18. DNAJB1-PRKACA is specific for fibrolamellar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rondell P; Jin, Long; Knutson, Darlene L; Kloft-Nelson, Sara M; Greipp, Patricia T; Waldburger, Nina; Roessler, Stephanie; Longerich, Thomas; Roberts, Lewis R; Oliveira, Andre M; Halling, Kevin C; Schirmacher, Peter; Torbenson, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Fibrolamellar carcinoma is a distinct subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma that predominantly affects young patients without underlying cirrhosis. A recurrent DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion has recently been reported in fibrolamellar carcinomas. To determine the specificity of this fusion and to develop routinely available clinical methods of detection, we developed an RT-PCR assay for paraffin-embedded tissues and a FISH probe for detection of the rearrangements of the PRKACA locus. We also developed an RNA in situ hybridization assay to assess expression levels of the total chimeric transcript and wild-type transcripts. A total of 106 primary liver tumors were studied by RT-PCR, including 26 fibrolamellar carcinomas (4 of which were metastases to the abdominal wall or lymph nodes), 25 conventional hepatocellular carcinomas, 25 cholangiocarcinomas, 25 hepatic adenomas, and 5 hepatoblastomas. RT-PCR was successful in 92% of tested fibrolamellar carcinoma cases (24/26) and the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion transcript was found in all fibrolamellar carcinomas but not in other tumor types. FISH was tested in 19 fibrolamellar carcinomas and in 6 scirrhous hepatocellular carcinomas, which can closely mimic fibrolamellar carcinoma. Rearrangements of the PRKACA locus was seen in all 19 fibrolamellar carcinoma specimens, but in none of the scirrhous hepatocellular carcinomas. Finally, a RNA in situ hybridization strategy was positive in 7/7 successfully hybridized cases, and showed mRNA over-expression in all of the fibrolamellar carcinomas. In addition, the stromal cells embedded in the characteristic intratumoral fibrosis of fibrolamellar carcinomas and the background liver tissues were negative for the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion by all tested methods. In conclusion, detection of DNAJB1-PRKACA is a very sensitive and specific finding in support of the diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma. PMID:25698061

  19. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Thyroid: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Rahulkumar N.; Chikkala, Bhargav; Biswas, Cinjini; Biswas, Somak; Sarkar, Diptendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) of thyroid is an extremely rare malignancy of thyroid. Herewith, we describe a case report of female patient who presented with neck swelling; FNAC misdiagnosed it as papillary carcinoma of thyroid but, after resection, biopsy revealed it to be a case of squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid. After extensive investigations no possible primary focus of squamous cell carcinoma was found elsewhere, so diagnosis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid was made. Patient underwent chemoradiation but still patient succumbed to death within a year. PMID:26221558

  20. [Chondrosarcomatous metaplastic carcinoma of the breast, a rare tumor].

    PubMed

    Guillén-Paredes, P; Carrasco-González, L; Chaves-Benito, A; Martínez-Gálvez, M; Aguayo-Albasini, J L

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinomas of the breast are uncommon, accounting for less than 0.2% of all breast cancers. Clinically and radiologically, metaplastic carcinomas are indistinguishable from typical ductal carcinomas, and the diagnosis is made histologically by the finding of a mesenchymal component. We present a case of chondrosarcomatous metaplastic breast carcinoma whose definitive diagnosis required immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the malignant epithelial component of the tumor. Accurate diagnosis is important because this tumor behaves differently: it usually spreads through the blood (whereas typical epithelial carcinomas spread through the lymph vessels), metastases present during follow-up rather than before diagnosis, and the five-year survival rate is 35%. PMID:22595382

  1. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology. PMID:26813941

  2. Cutaneous metastasis from penile squamous cell carcinoma resembling carcinoma en cuirasse.

    PubMed

    Brady, Kimberly L; Scott, Glynis A; Gilmore, Elaine S

    2015-03-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy seen more frequently in developing nations. Metastasis occurs in a predictable manner, with superficial lymph node involvement occurring first, followed by deep lymph node involvement, and then distant spread. Brain, lung, liver, and bone are the typical sites of distant metastasis. We present the unusual case of an 81-year-old man with penile squamous cell carcinoma requiring total penectomy who developed a confluent red to violaceous, indurated suprapubic plaque with satellite papules and bulky inguinal lymphadenopathy. The shield-like clinical presentation and infiltrating strands and cords on histology resembled carcinoma en cuirasse, a rare form of cutaneous metastasis frequently associated with breast cancer but not reported with penile squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25780971

  3. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology. PMID:26813941

  4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Matute, Alonso Reyes; Bernal, Adriana Mendez; Lezama, José Ramírez; Guadalupe, Manzano Pech Linaloe; Antonio, Galicia Avalos Marco

    2014-09-01

    A sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. The second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. The purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. Although there is little information about diseases affecting this species, it is known that neoplastic disorders are fairly common in African hedgehogs. The mammary carcinoma is considered to be the most common neoplasm in these animals; however, the presentation of sebaceous carcinoma is rare. In hedgehogs, the simultaneous presence of two neoplasms is common, which is why special attention should be paid to the presentation of other tumors during the early detection of a neoplastic process as this will greatly facilitate the optimal treatment and improve the long-term prognosis of affected animals. PMID:25314843

  5. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-29

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  6. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, and Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma: Differentiation in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shirley Y.; Bell, Diana; Hanna, Ehab Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant sinonasal tumors comprise less than 1% of all neoplasms. A wide variety of tumors occurring primarily in this site can present with an undifferentiated or poorly differentiated morphology. Among them are esthesioneuroblastomas, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas, and neuroendocrine carcinomas. Objectives We will discuss diagnostic strategies, recent advances in immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnosis, and treatment strategies. Data Synthesis These lesions are diagnostically challenging, and up to 30% of sinonasal malignancies referred to the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center are given a different diagnosis on review of pathology. Correct classification is vital, as these tumors are significantly different in biological behavior and response to treatment. The past decade has witnessed advances in diagnosis and therapeutic modalities leading to improvements in survival. However, the optimal treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma remain debated. We discuss advances in immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnosis, diagnostic strategies, and treatment selection. Conclusions There are significant differences in prognosis and treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Recent advances have the potential to improve oncologic outcomes but further investigation in needed. PMID:25992139

  7. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Turajlic, Samra; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2015-12-01

    This SnapShot summarizes current knowledge about the key features in mutational landscape, major pathways, and tumor evolution and heterogeneity in renal cell carcinoma, as well as the most recent advances in therapeutic development. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26638079

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from trophic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Boopalraj, J M; Muthusami, T C

    1979-01-01

    This study presents two cases of Squamous Cell Carcinomas arising from trophic ulcers of leprosy attending Leprosy Department, Government General Hospital, Madras. The aim of this presentation is to analyse these cases in the light of the earlier reports and to draw attention to certain significant features of them. PMID:449288

  9. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chehab, Mahmoud; Caza, Tiffany; Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Mollapour, Mehdi; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-04-20

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  10. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  11. CARCINOMA OF THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight cases of acinar cell carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were diagnosed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from a pool of approximately 10,000 specimens used in a variety of carcinogenesis bioassays. hree cases occurred in specimens from control groups and one case in a sp...

  12. Thyroid Carcinomas Arising in Thyroglossal Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Page, Carey P.; Kemmerer, William T.; Haff, Roderick C.; Mazzaferri, Ernest L.

    1974-01-01

    Six cases of thyroid carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst are described and combined with previously reported cases to provide a total of 66 cases for retrospective analysis. Most presented as benign thyroglossal duct cyst, and the malignant nature of the lesion was not recognized until the permanent pathology sections were reviewed. Eight of 10 patients with metastatic disease in retrospect had preoperative indications of malignancy as manifest by clinically suspicious nodes or a thyroglossal cyst larger than the mean for the series. The primary cell type in all cases was papillary thyroid carcinoma. Local resection by the Sistrunk method and suppressive doses of thyroid are recommended for the patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst when there is no evidence of extension of the malignancy beyond the confines of the cyst. The patient presenting with metastatic carcinoma should, of course, be treated with appropriate local resection, hormonal manipulation, thyroid ablation, and lymphadenectomy as indicated by his age and sex, the cell type of the tumor, and the extent of local and metastatic disease. PMID:4422814

  13. Surgical resection of ruptured fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Minutolo, Vincenzo; Licciardello, Alessio; Arena, Manuel; Minutolo, Orazio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Arena, Goffredo

    2013-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLH) is a rare primary tumor of the liver, which typically arises from noncirrhotic livers and affects patients below the age of 35. We report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a ruptured FLH and was treated with surgical resection. Options for treatment and review of the management are described. PMID:23956918

  14. Surgical Resection of Ruptured Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Minutolo, Vincenzo; Licciardello, Alessio; Arena, Manuel; Minutolo, Orazio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Arena, Goffredo

    2013-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLH) is a rare primary tumor of the liver, which typically arises from noncirrhotic livers and affects patients below the age of 35. We report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a ruptured FLH and was treated with surgical resection. Options for treatment and review of the management are described. PMID:23956918

  15. Mohs surgery for squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Daniel; Carucci, John A

    2011-04-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common human cancer and can behave aggressively. Mohs micrographic surgery offers the highest cure rates for high-risk SCCs and is particularly useful for SCCs on challenging anatomic sites. PMID:21421142

  16. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumors and ~25% of high-grade endometrioid tumors have extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low ER/PR levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumors have few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A, KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumors we identified had a dramatically increased transversion mutation frequency, and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy number low, and copy number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may impact post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumors. PMID:23636398

  17. The Role of Anxiety in Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Bilir, Pinar; Han, Misop; Meltzer, David

    2010-01-01

    Although the impact of anxiety on patients with some types of cancer is well recognized, to the authors knowledge its impact on patients with prostate carcinoma has not been studied as thoroughly. The authors conducted a systematic review of the medical literature for high-quality articles that quantified anxiety levels in men with prostate carcinoma and identified 29 articles. Using the clinical timeline of prostate carcinoma to organize the articles, cross-sectional studies that reflected anxiety prevalence in populations and longitudinal studies that reflected changes in anxiety over time were identified. Anxiety appeared to fluctuate over the clinical timeline in response to stressors and uncertainty (such as at the time of screening and/or biopsy), rising before these times and falling afterward. Although anxiety levels in men age > 55 years who were at risk for prostate carcinoma were modest (10–15%), multiple studies found that these levels were substantially higher in men who presented for screening (> 50%), and “seeking peace of mind” was the motivation cited most frequently for pursuing screening. Most studies demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety levels after a normal screening or biopsy result, although the proportion of men who remained anxious afterward did not fall to baseline levels (20–36%). Men who presented for prostate-specific antigen monitoring after treatment had elevated anxiety levels at the time of testing (23–33%). Many years after therapy for localized disease, anxiety levels were lower after prostatectomy (23%) compared with the levels after watchful waiting (31%). PMID:15959911

  18. Internal ultraviolet luminescence--internal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Illingworth, J E

    1988-12-01

    The ultraviolet wavelengths in the sun's spectrum are known to be a basic cause of carcinomas of the skin. Since the skin as well as all body cavities, linings, and glands are composed of epithelial cells, it has been suggested that the ultraviolet bioluminescence and chemiluminescence which are emitted by bodily functions may be just as basic a cause of carcinomas within the body. Ninety percent of all human cancers are carcinomas. Bodily functions which emit a "normal" background of ultra-violet emission can be caused to emit higher, more dangerous levels and bursts of radiation by synergistic combinations of foods and chemicals. Damaging effects can also be increased by the sensitization of the epithelia to radiation by foods, dyes, drugs, medications, and prior irradiation. Certain foods and chemicals also produce serious damage at specific sites within the body. If the role of ultraviolet suggested here proves to be correct, an entirely new approach to the knowledge, prevention, and treatment of carcinomas becomes available. PMID:3226362

  19. Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Schiumerini, Ramona; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Taddia, Martina; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2014-05-28

    The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, represents an important clinical problem, since it may occur after both surgical and medical treatment. The recurrence rate involves 2 phases: an early phase and a late phase. The early phase usually occurs within 2 years after resection; it is mainly related to local invasion and intrahepatic metastases and, therefore, to the intrinsic biology of the tumor. On the other hand, the late phase occurs more than 2 years after surgery and is mainly related to de novo tumor formation as a consequence of the carcinogenic cirrhotic environment. Since recent studies have reported that early and late recurrences may have different risk factors, it is clinically important to recognize these factors in the individual patient as soon as possible. The aim of this review was, therefore, to identify predicting factors for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, by means of invasive and non-invasive methods, according to the different therapeutic strategies available. In particular the role of emerging techniques (e.g., transient elastography) and biological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in predicting recurrence have been discussed. In particular, invasive methods were differentiated from non-invasive ones for research purposes, taking into consideration the emerging role of the genetic signature of hepatocellular carcinoma in order to better allocate treatment strategies and surveillance follow-up in patients with this type of tumor. PMID:24876717

  20. Sino nasal undifferentiated carcinoma: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Richa; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Ramani, Pratibha; Chandrasekar, Thiruvengadam

    2012-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity are rare, comprising only 3% of all head and neck malignancies. This includes both primary sinonasal neoplasms and metastatic disease. We present the case of a patient with a maxillary soft tissue swelling, which proved to be a rare malignant tumor of maxillary sinus origin, a sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma PMID:22690063

  1. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

  2. Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Colecchia, Antonio; Schiumerini, Ramona; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Taddia, Martina; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, represents an important clinical problem, since it may occur after both surgical and medical treatment. The recurrence rate involves 2 phases: an early phase and a late phase. The early phase usually occurs within 2 years after resection; it is mainly related to local invasion and intrahepatic metastases and, therefore, to the intrinsic biology of the tumor. On the other hand, the late phase occurs more than 2 years after surgery and is mainly related to de novo tumor formation as a consequence of the carcinogenic cirrhotic environment. Since recent studies have reported that early and late recurrences may have different risk factors, it is clinically important to recognize these factors in the individual patient as soon as possible. The aim of this review was, therefore, to identify predicting factors for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, by means of invasive and non-invasive methods, according to the different therapeutic strategies available. In particular the role of emerging techniques (e.g., transient elastography) and biological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in predicting recurrence have been discussed. In particular, invasive methods were differentiated from non-invasive ones for research purposes, taking into consideration the emerging role of the genetic signature of hepatocellular carcinoma in order to better allocate treatment strategies and surveillance follow-up in patients with this type of tumor. PMID:24876717

  3. Rare synchronous metastases of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rajarubendra, Nieroshan; Pook, David; Frydenberg, Mark; Appu, Sree

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma can metastasize to any region of the body. We review a patient who presents fourteen years after initial resection of the primary tumor with distant metastatic disease. This included spread to the bladder and penis that manifested as frank haematuria and malignant priapism respectively. We discuss the mechanism of spread and the management options available. PMID:24833831

  4. Bilateral ovarian carcinoma with bilateral uveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, J; Mooney, D; O'Connor, M; McDonald, G S

    1984-01-01

    A case of bilateral uveal melanoma in a 60-year-old woman in association with primary bilateral ovarian carcinoma is described. This is the first case in which ultrastructural studies have been performed on the ocular tumours. Seven previously described cases are summarised, and the extreme rarity of such reports would suggest that this may indeed be a new syndrome. Images PMID:6704361

  5. Familial Follicular Cell-Derived Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Son, Eun Ju; Nosé, Vânia

    2012-01-01

    Follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancer, papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas comprise 95% of all thyroid malignancies. Familial follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancers contribute 5% of cases. Such familial follicular cell-derived carcinomas or non-medullary thyroid carcinomas (NMTC) are divided into two clinical–pathological groups. The syndromic-associated group is composed of predominately non-thyroidal tumors and includes Pendred syndrome, Warner syndrome, Carney complex (CNC) type 1, PTEN-hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS; Cowden disease), and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)/Gardner syndrome. Other conditions with less established links to the development of follicular cell-derived tumors include ataxia–telangiectasia syndrome, McCune Albright syndrome, and Peutz–Jeghers syndrome. The final group encompasses syndromes typified by NMTC, as well as pure familial (f) PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with multinodular goiter, and fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma. This heterogeneous group of diseases does not have the established genotype–phenotype correlations known as in the familial C-cell-derived tumors or medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). Clinicians should have the knowledge to identify the likelihood of a patient presenting with thyroid cancer having an additional underlying familial syndrome stemming from characteristics by examining morphological findings that would alert pathologists to recommend that patients undergo molecular genetic evaluation. This review discusses the clinical and pathological findings of patients with familial PTC, such as FAP, CNC, Werner syndrome, and Pendred syndrome, and the heterogeneous group of familial PTC. PMID:22654876

  6. Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  7. DNM3 Attenuates Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth by Activating P53

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengdong; Chen, Chun; Guo, Weike; Zheng, Shengbao; Sun, Zhenghua; Geng, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in China and its mortality rate shows no sign at present of ceasing to rise. In our previous study, we found that the mRNA level of Dynamin3 (DNM3), a member of the Dynamin family, is significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than in non-tumor tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern and potential function of DNM3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Material/Methods First, we determined the expression ofDNM3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cell lines. We then studied the biological function of DNM3 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells by proliferation assay and colony formation assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the effect of DNM3 on cell cycle and apoptosis. Results Expression of DNM3 was significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and was associated with vein invasion and tumor metastasis. In addition, upregulation of DNM3 reduced hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and colony formation, induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell G0/G1 phase arrest, and stimulated hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis. We also found that DNM3 may exert its anti-proliferative effect through upregulating p53. Conclusions Our findings suggest that DNM3 attenuates the proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Modulation of DNM3 may prove to be an efficient method of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID:26784388

  8. Cutaneous and mammary apocrine carcinomas have different immunoprofiles.

    PubMed

    Piris, Adriano; Peng, Yan; Boussahmain, Chakib; Essary, Lydia R; Gudewicz, Thomas M; Hoang, Mai P

    2014-02-01

    Often the distinction of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma from metastatic mammary apocrine carcinoma to the skin can be a diagnostic dilemma because both tumors share similar histologic features and have overlapping immunohistochemical profile. We compared the expression of adipophilin, cytokeratin 5/6, p63, GATA3, mammaglobin, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 by immunohistochemistry in 14 cutaneous apocrine carcinomas (11 primary tumors, 3 metastases) and 26 primary apocrine carcinomas of the breast. Whereas focal adipophilin staining was seen in 36% (5/14) of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma, strong and diffuse adipophilin staining was seen in 88% (22/25) of mammary apocrine carcinoma (P = .0013). Differences in estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression were also statistically significant (P = .018 and .043). Androgen receptor was strongly positive in all cutaneous and mammary cases. Although there was no significant difference in the frequency of expression of cytokeratin 5/6, p63, HER2, GATA3, and mammaglobin in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma versus mammary apocrine carcinoma, strong and diffuse cytokeratin 5/6 and/or mammaglobin expression were seen only in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma. In conclusion, cutaneous apocrine carcinoma is likely adipophilin- ER+ PR+/- HER2- and can exhibit strong and diffuse cytokeratin 5/6 and/or mammaglobin expression. On the contrary, a mammary apocrine carcinoma is likely adipophilin+ ER- PR- and often exhibit 3+ HER2 with corresponding HER2 gene amplification. A panel of adipophilin, ER, PR, HER2, cytokeratin 5/6, and mammaglobin may be helpful in distinguishing cutaneous apocrine carcinoma from mammary apocrine carcinoma. PMID:24342430

  9. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26089205

  10. Multiple hamartoma syndrome (Cowden's disease) associated with renal cell carcinoma and primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma).

    PubMed

    Haibach, H; Burns, T W; Carlson, H E; Burman, K D; Deftos, L J

    1992-05-01

    A case of multiple hamartoma syndrome (Cowden's disease) associated with renal cell adenocarcinoma and primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is described. Neither of these neoplasms has been documented previously in association with this genodermatosis. A search for epidermal growth factor receptor (c-erb-B protooncogene) gene abnormalities in the kidney, liver, and thyroid, as well as in tissue of the primary neuroendocrine carcinoma, was negative. Serum obtained from the patient before his death contained elevated levels of both chromogranin A (2641 ng/mL; normal level, less than 20 ng/mL) and calcitonin (517 pg/mL; normal level, less than 200 pg/mL), suggesting that the patient's principal tumor was neuroendocrine in origin. PMID:1575215

  11. Squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder: clinicopathological analysis of 34 cases identified in 606 carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan C; Tapia, Oscar; Cakir, Asli; Basturk, Olca; Dursun, Nevra; Akdemir, Deniz; Saka, Burcu; Losada, Hector; Bagci, Pelin; Adsay, N Volkan

    2011-08-01

    The information in the literature on squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder is highly limited. In this study, 606 resected invasive gallbladder carcinoma cases were analyzed. Squamous differentiation was identified in 41 cases (7%). Those without any identifiable glandular-type invasive component were classified as pure squamous cell carcinomas (8 cases) and those with the squamous component constituting 25-99% of the tumors were classified as adenosquamous carcinomas (26 cases) and included into the analysis. The remaining 7 that had <25% squamous component were classified as adenocarcinoma with focal squamous change and excluded. The clinicopathological characteristics of adenosquamous carcinoma/squamous cell carcinomas were documented and contrasted with that of ordinary gallbladder adenocarcinomas. The average patient age was 65 years (range 26-81); female/male ratio, 3.8. In only 13%, there was a preoperative clinical suspicion of malignancy. Grossly, 58% presented as thickening and hardening of the wall and 6% were polypoid. In 12%, mucosa adjacent to the tumor revealed squamous metaplasia. All pure squamous cell carcinomas had prominent keratinization. Giant cells and tumor-infiltrating eosinophils were observed in 29 and 51% of the squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas versus 10% (P=0.02) and 6% (P=0.001) in gallbladder adenocarcinomas, respectively. All but three cases had 'advanced' (pT2 and above) carcinomas. Follow-up was available in 31 patients: 25 died of disease (median=5 months, range 0-20), and 6 were alive (median=64 months, range 5-112.5). The survival of patients with squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas was significantly worse than that of gallbladder adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and this adverse prognosis persisted when compared with stage-matched advanced gallbladder adenocarcinoma cases (median=11.4 months, P=0.01). In conclusion, squamous differentiation was noted in 7% of gallbladder carcinomas. The incidence of adenosquamous carcinoma (defined as 25-99% of the tumor being squamous) was 4%, and that of pure squamous cell carcinoma (without any documented invasive glandular component) was 1%. Pure squamous cell carcinomas often showed prominent keratinization. The overall prognosis of adenosquamous carcinoma/squamous cell carcinoma appears to be even worse than that of ordinary adenocarcinomas. Most patients died within a few months; however, those few who were alive beyond 2 years in this cohort experienced long-term survival. PMID:21532545

  12. Coexistent familial nonmultiple endocrine neoplasia medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with RET polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Gul, Kamile; Ozdemir, Didem; Ugras, Serdar; Inancli, Serap S; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2010-07-01

    Familial nonmultiple endocrine neoplasia medullary thyroid cancer accounts for 10% to 15% of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma and is characterized by lack of accompanying endocrine or nonendocrine diseases. Simultaneous occurrence of medullary and papillary thyroid carcinoma in the same patient is rare and known as collision tumor. Here, the authors present familial nonmultiple endocrine neoplasia medullary thyroid cancer in 4 sisters, all having RET proto-oncogene polymorphism in exon 15 at codon 904 and 2 having additional polymorphism in exon 13 at codon 769. The index case had concomitant medullary and papillary thyroid carcinomas, which are suggested to be completely different tumors in terms of incidence, cell origin, histopathologic features and prognosis. Histopathologically, she also had Hashimoto thyroiditis in the remaining thyroid tissue and medullary thyroid carcinoma metastasis in 3 cervical lymph nodes. This case is the first in the literature to report coexistent familial nonmultiple endocrine neoplasia medullary thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid carcinoma related with a RET polymorphism (S904S in exon 15). PMID:20463576

  13. Serum protein biomarkers relevant to hepatocellular carcinoma and their detection.

    PubMed

    Waidely, Eric; Al-Yuobi, Abdul-Rahman Obaid; Bashammakh, A S; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S; Leblanc, Roger M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most recurrent and lethal cancers worldwide. The low survival rate of this particular strain of carcinoma is largely due to the late stages at which it is diagnosed. Tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma is most frequently detected through ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scans, however, these methods are poor for detection of early tumor development. This review presents alternative hepatocellular carcinoma detection techniques through the use of protein and enzyme/isozyme biomarkers. The detection methods used to determine the serum levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP), glypican-3 (GPC3), Golgi protein 73 (GP73), α-l-fucosidase (AFU), des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are presented and each marker's respective validity in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is evaluated. PMID:26606739

  14. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-12

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  15. [Transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Bassi, P F; Falabella, R; Sacco, E; Raccioppi, M

    2007-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate (TCCP) has become a well recognized entity, showing an increasing incidence due to the growing research awareness. TCCP is part of the well known pan-urothelial disease: the urologist, therefore, is strongly recommended to consider the prostate at any time in the management of superficial and invasive bladder cancer. Several cases are diagnosed in association with bladder cancer (secondary TCCP): primary prostatic transitional cell carcinoma arises 'de novo' as first tumour of the prostate urothelium and is rare. Prognosis depends on the prostate invasion degree. No reliable staging systems are presently available. Non-invasive TCCP can be successfully treated with conservative means (TUR +/- BCG), whereas stromal invasive TCCP must be aggressively treated with radical cystectomy. TCCP can interphere with surgeon's decisions about urinary diversion in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for urothelial cancer. PMID:21086413

  16. Laryngeal acinic cell carcinoma following thyroid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, J.F.; McLean, W.C.; Cantrell, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Only three examples of acinic cell carcinoma of the larynx or trachea are found in the recent literature. A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the subglottic larynx and trachea was diagnosed and treated at the University of Virginia Medical Center. To our knowledge this is the first such case with a prior history of radiation to the neck. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who was irradiated for hyperthyroidism 46 years ago. When seen she also had parathyroid hyperplasia and multiple thyroid adenomas, conditions that frequently follow irradiation of the thyroid in children. These findings in this case support the concept that radiation may be responsible for inducing this tumor, which otherwise rarely occurs in this location. The use of electron microscopy was extremely useful in the diagnosis of this tumor. She was treated with total laryngectomy and right neck dissection and is now free of disease one year after surgery.

  17. A Foreigner in Squamous Cell Carcinoma!

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, B S

    2013-01-01

    Giant cells are the soldiers of defensive system of our body. They differ based on the stimuli that provoked their formation. On the other hand, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common oral cancer, presents with varied histopathological features based on the degree of differentiation. Keratinizing islands of dysplastic squamous epithelial cells & a dense inflammatory response form the major component of well differentiated SCC. This keratin component may sometimes trigger foreign body giant cell (FBGC) reaction in the stroma, which may mislead the pathologist to aggressive forms of SCC containing pleomorphic giant cells. We encountered such an interesting case of foreign body giant cell reaction in oral SCC. Thus, the present article aims to provide a thorough knowledge on FBGC including their appearance, pathogenesis & significance in oral SCC. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Ganavi BS. A Foreigner in Squamous Cell Carcinoma!. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):147-50. PMID:24324320

  18. Transcriptomic characterization of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Simon, Elana P; Freije, Catherine A; Farber, Benjamin A; Lalazar, Gadi; Darcy, David G; Honeyman, Joshua N; Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel; Dill, Brian D; Molina, Henrik; Bhanot, Umesh K; La Quaglia, Michael P; Rosenberg, Brad R; Simon, Sanford M

    2015-11-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) tumors all carry a deletion of ∼ 400 kb in chromosome 19, resulting in a fusion of the genes for the heat shock protein, DNAJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1, DNAJB1, and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, PRKACA. The resulting chimeric transcript produces a fusion protein that retains kinase activity. No other recurrent genomic alterations have been identified. Here we characterize the molecular pathogenesis of FLHCC with transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing). Differential expression (tumor vs. adjacent normal tissue) was detected for more than 3,500 genes (log2 fold change ≥ 1, false discovery rate ≤ 0.01), many of which were distinct from those found in hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of several known oncogenes, such as ErbB2 and Aurora Kinase A, was increased in tumor samples. These and other dysregulated genes may serve as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26489647

  19. Paraneoplastic pemphigus associated with uterine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Yayoi; Kawana, Seiji; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kusunoki, Toshio

    2003-05-01

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by severe mucous membrane involvement, polymorphous skin eruptions, and underlying neoplasms, usually those of lymphoreticular system. Cases of PNP associated with solid cancer are extremely rare. A 46-year-old woman presented with severe stomatitis, pseudomembranous conjunctivitis, and polymorphous skin eruptions. Histologic, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot analyses confirmed the diagnosis of PNP. Whole-body examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, but no hematologic tumors. Complete removal of the uterine tumor in addition to administration of betamethasone induced considerable improvement of cutaneous and mucous membrane lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PNP associated with uterine carcinoma. PMID:12734481

  20. Computed tomographic appearance of resectable pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Tasaka, A.; Maruyama, M.

    1982-06-01

    Thirteen patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma were examined by computed tomography (CT). Nine had a mass, 2 had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, 1 appeared to have ductal dilatation, and 1 had no sign of abnormality. Resectable carcinoma was diagnosed retrospectively in 8 cases, based on the following criteria: a mass with a distinct contour, frequently containing a tiny or irregular low-density area and accompanied by dilatation of the caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct without involvement of the large vessels, liver, or lymph nodes. Including unresectable cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and obstructive jaundice from causes other than cancer, the false-positive rate was less than 6%. However, a small cancer without change in pancreatic contour is difficult to detect with CT.

  1. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Jigna; Patel, Shilpa; Iyer, Janaki Subramanian; Mohanty, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a distinctive aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. We present a case of a 60-year-old man with tender swelling in the right cheek region for 6?months and continuous unilateral nasal discharge for 2?months. Extraoral examination revealed an ovoid, well-defined swelling from the right infraorbital rim to the angle of the mouth superoinferiorly and the right lateral wall of the nose to preauricular region anteroposteriorly. Intraorally, an ulceroproliferative growth from right upper gingivobuccal sulcus to mid palatine raphe with bicortical expansion was evident. CT revealed a hypodense mass obliterating the right maxillary sinus. Histopathology showed closely packed basaloid cells, with hyperchromatic palisading nuclei, arranged in a solid pattern with a lobular configuration. Prominent areas of comedo necrosis and keratin pearl formation were seen. These features suggested BSCC. The patient underwent surgical excision with adjuvant radiation but was lost to follow-up after 6?months of radiation therapy. PMID:26055591

  2. [Transitional cell carcinoma involvement of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Bassi, P; De Lisa, A; Usai, P; Pinto, F; Sacco, E

    2005-11-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate (PTCC) has become a well recognized entity and is increasing in incidence due to the growing awareness of and search for. PTCC is part of the well known pan-urothelial disease: particularly the urologist must always consider the prostate in the management of superficial and invasive bladder cancer. Most cases are diagnosed in association with bladder cancer (secondary PTCC): primary prostatic transitional cell carcinoma arises "de novo" as the first tumor of the prostate urothelium and is rare. Prognosis depends on the prostate invasion degree. No reliable staging system is presently available. Non-invasive PTCC can be successfully treated with conservative means (TUR +/- BCG) whereas stromal invasive PTCC must be aggressively treated with radical cystectomy. PTCC can interphere with surgeon's decisions about urinary diversion in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for urothelial cancer. PMID:16425728

  3. Transcriptomic characterization of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Elana P.; Freije, Catherine A.; Farber, Benjamin A.; Lalazar, Gadi; Darcy, David G.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel; Dill, Brian D.; Molina, Henrik; Bhanot, Umesh K.; La Quaglia, Michael P.; Rosenberg, Brad R.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) tumors all carry a deletion of ∼400 kb in chromosome 19, resulting in a fusion of the genes for the heat shock protein, DNAJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1, DNAJB1, and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, PRKACA. The resulting chimeric transcript produces a fusion protein that retains kinase activity. No other recurrent genomic alterations have been identified. Here we characterize the molecular pathogenesis of FLHCC with transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing). Differential expression (tumor vs. adjacent normal tissue) was detected for more than 3,500 genes (log2 fold change ≥1, false discovery rate ≤0.01), many of which were distinct from those found in hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of several known oncogenes, such as ErbB2 and Aurora Kinase A, was increased in tumor samples. These and other dysregulated genes may serve as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26489647

  4. Role of Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    This review evaluates the available evidence to establish the role of liver transplantation in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma in India. Most liver transplants in India are living donor transplants due to the paucity of brain dead organ donors. There is sufficient evidence to permit allocation of organs to patients with tumors within the Milan criteria. If the waiting list time is more than 6 months, a down-staging locoregional treatment modality such a trans-arterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, resection or percutaneous ethanol injection may be used to prevent disease progression. Allocating scarce livers to patients with more advanced tumors may not be justifiable. However, living donor liver transplantation may be offered to medically fit patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis, offering a guarded prognosis to patients beyond the Milan or UCSF criteria. Vascular invasion and extra-hepatic disease should be absolute contraindications to liver transplantation. PMID:25755618

  5. [Risk factors in carcinoma of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Kohout, J; Ouda, Z; Hora, M

    1995-11-01

    The authors review risk factors of prostate carcinoma. Generally accepted factors include advanced age; some work confirms a familial incidence of the condition. When the incidence is evaluated by race, the highest prevalence is described in American negroes and the lowest prevalence in the Japanese. The higher prevalence in northern areas and lower prevalence in southern areas is explained by the effect of ultraviolet radiation. It is generally accepted that prostate carcinoma depends on androgens; the dependence on sexual activity is evaluated in relation to the higher androgen concentration and the higher risk of infection. As to dietary factors the condition is promoted by fats; the higher prevalence in smokers can be explained by the cadmium and nickel content of cigarettes. With regard to occupation, brain workers are affected more frequently; as to occupational carcinogens cadmium and nickel are quoted most frequently. PMID:8556758

  6. Carcinoma of unknown primary and paraneoplastic dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Sonnenblick, Amir

    2015-12-10

    Dermatomyositis is known to be associated with neoplastic disorders, however the presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary as dermatomyositis is rare. We describe a case index of 50-year-old female who presented with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes accompanied with symmetric proximal muscle weakness and erythematous plaques. Conventional basic work-up did not reveal the diagnosis, however, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and re-staining of the pathology specimen suggested the ovaries as the primary site. Chemotherapy including carboplatin paclitaxel and bevacizumab led to complete response of disease and improvement in the dermatomyositis. The present case emphasizes the importance of a thorough directed evaluation for the underlying cancer in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary presenting as dermatomyositis. We further provide an up-to-date detailed review of published data describing these clinical entities. PMID:26677443

  7. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shrimati; Sharma, Nitika; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of increasing mortality in elderly hemophilia population. Majority of the patients treated with virus non-inactivated factor concentrates prepared from large plasma pools prior to 1985 have been found to be infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major risk factor for HCC. A PubMed search of articles published until February 2015 was performed utilizing the keywords hemophilia, malignancy, neoplasm, cancer, mortality, ageing hemophilia, epidemiology, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cancer and the relevant articles were included. Contradictory reports are available in literature on the incidence of cancers in general in hemophilia population. Almost all the studies where the incidence of HCC or mortality due to HCC have been analyzed in hemophilia population show that a vast majority of these patients are HCV infected. The incidence of HCC though higher in hemophilic population is related to the higher incidence of HCV infection and not due to the hemophilia phenotype. PMID:26754251

  8. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D J; To, T; Gran, L; Wong, D; Lane, P R

    1989-11-01

    Completed questionnaires regarding suspected risk factors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were completed by 538 basal cell carcinoma patients and 738 age-, sex-, and location-matched controls in Saskatchewan. Significant risk factors were identified using chi2 analyses. Relative risks were subsequently computed. The following relative risks were identified: occupation of farming, 1.29; prominent freckles in childhood, 1.23; family history of skin cancer, 1.22; sunburn, 1.19; Irish, Scottish, Welsh mother, 1.19; light skin color, 1.18; red/blond hair color, 1.16; and working outdoors more than 3 hours/day in winter, 1.13: The average age of cases of BCC with a family history of skin cancer was significantly lower than cases of BCC with no family history of skin cancer (63.86 vs. 67.02 years, p = 0.018). No association was noted between BCC and psoriasis. PMID:2583903

  9. Carcinoma of unknown primary and paraneoplastic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenblick, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is known to be associated with neoplastic disorders, however the presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary as dermatomyositis is rare. We describe a case index of 50-year-old female who presented with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes accompanied with symmetric proximal muscle weakness and erythematous plaques. Conventional basic work-up did not reveal the diagnosis, however, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and re-staining of the pathology specimen suggested the ovaries as the primary site. Chemotherapy including carboplatin paclitaxel and bevacizumab led to complete response of disease and improvement in the dermatomyositis. The present case emphasizes the importance of a thorough directed evaluation for the underlying cancer in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary presenting as dermatomyositis. We further provide an up-to-date detailed review of published data describing these clinical entities. PMID:26677443

  10. Markers of metastatic carcinoma of breast origin.

    PubMed

    Gown, Allen M; Fulton, Regan S; Kandalaft, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the three major breast-associated markers that can be of assistance in evaluating metastatic carcinomas for which a breast primary diagnosis is entertained. These markers include gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), mammaglobin, and GATA3. The first two are cytoplasmic markers that show comparable sensitivities for breast cancer, although relatively few of the published studies have employed the same antibodies against the target molecule, making direct comparisons challenging. GATA3 is a nuclear transcription factor that shows superior sensitivity to GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. However, the specificity of GATA3 can pose challenges, inasmuch as carcinomas of the bladder and other sites can show significant levels of positivity. Determination of the optimal panel of antibodies employed in a given clinical setting will thus depend on the non-breast tumours included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26768031

  11. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-31

    Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma,; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  12. Rapid onset of cutaneous angiosarcoma after radiotherapy for breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, C.N.; Peschel, R.; McKhann, C.; Merino, M.J.; Duray, P.H.

    1986-06-01

    Malignant neoplasms known to develop following external beam radiation include squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, mixed mullerian tumors, malignant schwannoma, myelogenous leukemia and angiosarcoma. Latency periods of many years characterize the onset of these tumors following the exposure. Cutaneous angiosarcoma following radiotherapy for breast carcinoma has been rarely documented, occurring up to 13 years postirradiation. Two cases of this entity are reported occurring 37 months postradiotherapy at the site of mastectomy performed for mammary duct carcinoma.

  13. Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    V, Pavithra; Shalini, C.N. Sai; Priya, Shanmuga; Rani, Usha; Rajendiran, S; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and a very aggressive tumour. Once being considered to be a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, evidence has proven that most of the tumours express one or more markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. The behaviour of this rare malignancy is different from that of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high propensity for nodal and distant metastases. Hence, there is a need to highlight this histopathological entity. PMID:24701511

  14. Expression of immune checkpoint molecules in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIA; LIU, YULING; WANG, WULIANG; WANG, CHENYANG; CHE, YANHONG

    2015-01-01

    The main obstacle in the development of an effective tumor vaccine is the inherent ability of tumors to evade immune responses. Tumors often use common immune mechanisms and regulators to evade the immune system. The present study aimed to analyze the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), programmed death-ligand (PD-L) 1, PD-L2, B7-H4, galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tissue samples from patients with endometrial carcinoma, in order to detect the immunosuppressive environment of endometrial carcinomas. The levels of IDO, PD-L1, PD-L2 and B7-H4 were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tumor lysates were determined using ELISA. PD-L2 was expressed at low levels in the majority of tumor samples. IDO expression was detected in 38, 63 and 43% of primary endometrial carcinoma, recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens, respectively. Positive expression rates for PD-L1 were 83% in primary endometrial carcinoma, 68% in recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and 100% in metastatic endometrial carcinoma, whereas B7-H4 expression was detected in 100% of both primary endometrial carcinoma and recurrent endometrial carcinoma samples, and in 96% of metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens. The expression levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 were not significantly different between the normal and tumor specimens. The results of the present study suggest that the interaction between PD-1/PD-L1 and B7-H4 may be a potential target for immune intervention in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. Furthermore, the results may provide the basis for immunosuppressant therapy in the treatment of patients with uterine cancer. PMID:26640578

  15. Aggressive Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast with Osteoclastic Giant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Kathleen; Zhang, Yanhong; Tomic, Mary; Lindfors, Karen; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon type of malignancy that is aggressive but can mimic other benign breast neoplastic processes on imaging. We present a case of a young female patient who presented with a rapidly progressing metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells subtype. There have been only very rare published reports of this pathologic subtype of metaplastic carcinoma containing osteoclastic giant cells. PMID:26629304

  16. Mathematical modeling of nasopharynx carcinoma on cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyanto, Adi-Kusumo, F.; Aryati, L.; Hardianti, M. S.

    2014-02-01

    Mathematical modeling of Ebsteins-Barr Virus (EBV) infection on nasopharynx cancer could predict theoretically the changes of healthy cell into invasive carcinoma. It would be very useful, especially for determining the right strategy to suppress the mortality rate due to nasopharynx cancer. Mathematical modeling use Tumorigenesis Model for EBV-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. In this study, if there is no rate of field cancerization then at equilibrium is not going on invasion carcinoma.

  17. Postirradiation optic neuropathy in antral carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.; Vashist, S.

    1984-06-01

    A case is described of a patient who developed radiation-induced optic neuropathy 18 months following cobalt-60 irradiation for carcinoma of the left maxillary antrum and ethmoid sinus. This case is unusual because of the early onset of the optic nerve damage following radiation therapy and the ultimate emergence of the eye involved by tumor compression as the better eye in terms of visual acuity.

  18. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    PubMed

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:22502759

  19. Foot and Ankle Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Kalind; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Bone is the third most common site of metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the first two being the lung and lymph nodes, respectively. Metastatic HCC has been reported in the vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, and femur, which are more common sites of bone metastases. We present a case of HCC with metastasis to the distal tibia, fibula, and small bones of the feet as the only sites of bone metastasis, along with a brief literature review. PMID:26447372

  20. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jim A.; Lee, Maris S.; Nicholson, Matthew E.; Justin, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25183891

  1. Mycoplasma infections and different human carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Su; Li, Ji-You; Wu, Jan; Meng, Lin; Shou, Cheng-Chao

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To explore relationships between human carcinomas and mycoplasma infection. METHODS: Monoclonal antibody PD4, which specifically recognizes a distinct protein from mycoplasma hyorhinis, was used to detect mycoplasma infection in different paraffin embedded carcinoma tissues with immunohistochemistry. PCR was applied to amplify the mycoplasma DNA from the positive samples for confirming immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Fifty of 90 cases (56%) of gastric carcinoma were positive for mycoplasma hyorhinis. In other gastric diseases, the mycoplasma infection ratio was 28% (18/49) in chronic superficial gastritis, 30% (14/46) in gastric ulcer and 37% (18/49) in intestinal metaplasia. The difference is significant with gastric cancer (?2 = 12.06, P < 0.05). In colon carcinoma, the mycoplasma infection ratio was 55.1% (32/58),but it was 20.9% (10/ 49) in adenomarous polyp (?2 = 13.46, P < 0.005). Gastric and colon cancers with high differentiation had a higher mycoplasma infection ratio than those with low differentiation (P < 0.05). Mycoplasma infection in esophageal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer and glioma was 50.9% (27/53), 52.6% (31/ 59), 39.7% (25/63)and 41% (38/91), respectively. The mycoplasma DNA was successfully amplified with the DNA extracted from the cancer tissues that were positive for mycoplasma infection (detected with antibody PD4). CONCLUSION: There was high correlation between mycoplasma infection and different cancers, which suggests the possibility of an association between the two. The mechanism involved in oncogenesis by mycoplasma remains unknown. PMID:11819772

  2. [Cardiac metastasis of bronchial squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Herrak, L; Bouchikh, M; Maidi, M; Fennane, H; Ouchen, F; Benosmane, A

    2012-08-01

    Secondary location of lung cancer are frequent but the location heart is rare and often diagnosed postmortem. We report a case of a patient of 67 years without disease history, individuals smoking outside a chronic carrier of bronchial squamous cell carcinoma and the staging of which finds a secondary location within the left atrial. Through this observation, the authors propose an update on this rare and exceptional location. PMID:22503297

  3. [Cystic adenoidal carcinoma of the external ear].

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, A; Fernández-Nogueras Jiménez, F; Moreno León, J; Fernández Sánchez, A

    1994-01-01

    Tumors of the ceruminous glands can affect the auricula and periauricular skin and should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions of these regions. Correct management of these tumors depends on precise histopathologic classification and diagnosis of their extension. We report a case of cystic adenoid carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Signs and symptoms, histopathology, and treatment of these lesions as reported in the literature are reviewed. PMID:8086202

  4. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

  5. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-06-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

  6. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Ching-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare condition comprising at least 30%percnt; of each component of exocrine and endocrine tumors. The denominations were defined in the 2000 WHO classification of endocrine tumors. We report an 83-year-old male with a polypoid gastric tumor in the gastric high body who received total gastrectomy and died 8 months after the diagnosis from local recurrence and distal metastases. A review of the literature for this infrequent condition is presented. PMID:26351411

  7. Follicular thyroid carcinoma with skull metastases.

    PubMed

    Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Fulciniti, Franco; Catapano, Giuseppe; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Sandomenico, Fabio; Catalano, Orlando; Pezzullo, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases at initial presentation, is uncommon. Skull metastases occur very rarely, with a reported incidence of 2.5-5.8%. Here we report two cases of follicular thyroid cancer with skull involvement, and describe the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to metastatic thyroid cancer. We present the cases of a 70-year-old female and a 74-year-old female who presented with painless, large slow-growing masses of the skull. The patients underwent surgical excision of the skull masses, which were histologically diagnosed as metastatic follicular thyroid cancer, and total thyroidectomy, which confirmed the diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. They were treated with radioiodine and suppressive levothyroxine, which achieved local control of the disease. Management of metastatic thyroid cancer, requires a multidisciplinary approach and multimodality treatment. Distant metastases should be surgically removed whenever possible. Initial aggressive treatment is crucial in the management of metastatic thyroid carcinoma, providing the best chance to prolong patient survival. PMID:25797278

  8. Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.A. III; Robbins, K.T.; Stephens, J.; Dimery, I.W.; Batsakis, J.G.

    1987-02-01

    The aggressiveness of small (oat) cell carcinoma of the larynx presents a therapeutic challenge to the oncologist. Since the first description of this type of carcinoma in 1972, 52 patients have been reported in the literature and a variety of treatment regimens have been used. The purpose of this study was to report two new cases and review all previous reports to determine the disease's biological behavior, clinical manifestations, and optimum treatment. Thirty-five percent of the tumors were transglottic, and 27% were supraglottic. Fifty-four percent of patients had regional metastases at initial presentation and 17.6% had distant metastases. The median survival was 10 months for all patients. Patients who were treated with chemotherapy with or without other modalities had the best 2-year survival rates (52.2%). Forty-one percent of patients had regional recurrence only, 12.5% had regional recurrence and distant metastases, and 2% developed distant metastases only. We conclude that patients with oat cell carcinoma of the larynx should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is best reserved for persistent and recurrent disease at the primary site and neck.

  9. Effect of histone deacetylase on prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanfeng; Xu, Qingchun; Liu, Guoyuan; Huang, Hong; Lin, Weiqiang; Huang, Yueying; Chi, Zepai; Chen, Shaochuan; Lan, Kaijian; Lin, Jiahua; Zhang, Yonghai

    2015-01-01

    Commonly occurred in aged males, the incidence of prostate carcinoma is increasing by years. Histone deacetylase (HDACs) as one key enzyme in regulating gene transcription has been found to be related with cancer occurrence. Trichostatin A (TSA) is one HDAC inhibitor for suppressing tumor growth. This study thus treated prostate carcinoma cell line PC3 with TSA, to analyze the effect of HDAC on the occurrence and progression of HDAC. PC3 cells were treated with gradient concentrations of TSA. MTT assay was employed to detect the proliferation of PC3 cells, while flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2 were further quantified by Western blotting. MTT assays showed a dose- and time-dependent manner of TSA in inhibiting PC3 cell proliferation. Most of PC3 cells were arrested at G1 phase after treating with TSA. The apoptotic ratio of cells was also elevated by higher concentrations of drugs. Apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2 were all up-regulated by TSA. HDAC inhibitor can effectively suppress the proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells, which can be arrested at G1 phase. The elevated apoptotic ratio was caused by up-regulation of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2, in both dose- and time-dependent manners. PMID:26823840

  10. Radiation therapy in adenoid-cystic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, B.; Strong, E.W.; Shah, J.P.; Spiro, R.H.

    1984-02-01

    Between 1949-1977, 74 patients with adenoid-cystic carcinoma of various head and neck sites were treated by radiation therapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Radiation therapy alone was employed in 49 patients for recurrent, unresectable disease, and in 25 patients it was given as an adjunct to surgical resection. Among the 49 patients treated with radiation therapy alone, tumor regression was seen in 47 (96%). However, 44 of the 47 (93.5%) subsequently relapsed locally. Relapse occurred within 18 months in one-half of the patients and within 5 years in all of them. Of the 25 patients who received adjunctive radiation therapy about one-half relapsed locally within five years. There were 9 patients in this group, however, whose field size exceeded 8x8 cm and the dose of radiation also exceeded 4500 rad: 88% of these patients remained relapse-free at 5 years, compared with only 22% of the other 16 whose dose, or field size, or both, were inadequate by comparison. These data suggest that when irradiation is employed for advanced, inoperable adenoid-cystic carcinoma, it offers useful palliation but is rarely, if ever, curative. Postoperative irradiation, on the other hand, might improve the local control and the survival in patients with operable adenoid-cystic carcinoma who are at high risk for relapse, but only if the field size and the dose are adequate.

  11. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  12. Urothelial carcinoma: Stem cells on the edge

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, William D.; Matsui, William; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; He, Xiaobing; Ling, Shizhang; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    Tumors are heterogeneous collections of cells with highly variable abilities to survive, grow, and metastasize. This variability likely stems from epigenetic and genetic influences, either stochastic or hardwired by cell type-specific lineage programs. That differentiation underlies tumor cell heterogeneity was elegantly demonstrated in hematopoietic tumors, in which rare primitive cells (cancer stem cells (CSCs)) resembling normal hematopoietic stem cells are ultimately responsible for tumor growth and viability. Because of the compelling clinical implications CSCs pose—across the entire spectrum of cancers—investigators applied the CSC model to cancers arising in tissues with crudely understood differentiation programs. Instead of relying on differentiation, these studies used empirically selected markers and statistical arguments to identify CSCs. The empirical approach has stimulated important questions about “stemness” in cancer cells as well as the validity and stoichiometry of CSC assays. The recent identification of urothelial differentiation programs in urothelial carcinomas (UroCas) supports the idea that solid epithelial cancers (carcinomas) develop and differentiate analogously to normal epithelia and provides new insights about the spatial localization and molecular makeup of carcinoma CSCs. Importantly, CSCs from invasive UroCas (UroCSCs) appear well situated to exchange important signals with adjacent stroma, to escape immune surveillance, and to survive cytotoxic therapy. These signals have potential roles in treatment resistance and many participate in druggable cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss the implications of these findings in understanding CSCs and in better understanding how UroCas form, progress, and should be treated. PMID:20012172

  13. [Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma - case report].

    PubMed

    Krawiec, Kamil; Marks, Piotr; Ró?a?ski, Waldemar; Lipi?ski, Marek

    2015-02-01

    Malignant tumors of the kidney, which the most common is renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is diagnosed in Poland in more than 5,000 patients each year. Most cases of kidney cancer occurs after the age of 55 years. In men, the risk is 2 times higher than in women. Among the various histological subtypes of RCC, 5% of cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC). The 1% is in combination with oncocytoma, creating a hybrid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. The paper presents a case report of a patient operated on because of a kidney tumor - eosinophilic type of chromophobe cancer. During subsequent care of patients experienced a rare complication of this type of tumor, ie. metastasized to the paraaortic lymph nodes. Another surgery and radiotherapy were later stages of treatment. Discussed in the paper example of a patient with type eosinophilic chRCC indicate the variable nature and mileage as compared with typical of the tumor, thus requiring increased surveillance oncology. This requires a careful approach clinicians at the stage of diagnosis and then treatment and aftercare. PMID:25771519

  14. Ocular Metastatic Renal Carcinoma Presenting With Proptosis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ruju; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Fay, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic renal carcinoma is the third most common source of ocular and second most common source of orbital metastases. This is the first published case of von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease that developed renal cell carcinoma metastatic to an eye with a retinal hemangioblastoma. A 73-year-old woman had a history of vHL disease that included prior retinal hemangioblastomas, 2 cerebellar hemangioblastomas, and bilateral renal cell carcinomas with sacral metastasis. After presenting with progressive, painful proptosis secondary to a large mass observable by ocular CT, an enucleation-orbitotomy was performed, and the surgical specimen was sent for histopathological analysis. The ophthalmic renal metastatic tumor, like the primary tumor, was a clear cell variant that involved both the eyeball and orbit in continuity. The intraocular component was larger than the extraocular portion, which was interpreted as an outward extension of an initial retinal metastasis that probably first settled within a hemangioblastoma. Clusters of ectatic ghost vessels with thickened walls produced by periodic acid Schiff-positive, redundant basement membrane material were partially infiltrated by tumor cells at their periphery, thereby lending some support for this hypothesis. Immunohistochemical positivity for the biomarkers cytokeratin 18, vimentin, carbonic anhydrase IX, PAX2, and PAX 8 confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has refused further treatment. Her anophthalmic socket has comfortably retained a porous polyethylene implant without clinical evidence of local recurrence during 5 months of follow up. PMID:24828963

  15. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  16. Targeted molecular therapies in thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Serena; Moretti, Sonia; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio

    2009-12-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has significantly increased in the last three decades and many patients seek medical attention for its treatment every year. Among follicular cell-derived tumors, the majority are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC), whose prognosis is very good with only 15% of the cases presenting disease persistence or recurrence after initial treatment. Medullary thyroid carcinoma has a worse prognosis, especially in patients with diffused cancers at the time of initial surgery. Traditional treatment options for persistent or recurrent disease include additional surgery, radioiodine treatment and TSH-suppression in DTC patients; external beam radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy, often have low efficacy and many patients with advanced disease ultimately die. In the last two decades many of the molecular events involved in cancer formation have been uncovered. This knowledge has prompted the development of novel therapeutic strategies mainly based on the inhibition of key molecular mediators of the tumorigenic process. In particular the class of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors was enriched by many compounds that have reached clinical trials and in some cases have had approval for clinical use in specific cancers. Many of these compounds entered clinical trials also for locally advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas showing very promising results. PMID:20126863

  17. [Tumor markers of urinary tract carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Haruhito

    2004-04-01

    The tumor markers for malignant tumors arisen from urinary system including prostate cancer were reviewed. As for renal cell carcinoma there was no good marker used in routine test level at present. In the diagnosis of urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma, mainly bladder cancer, 3 methods (urinary BTA, NMP22 and BFP) are used now in Japan. They all seem to be not fully sufficient in respect of the specificity. In foreign countries, new tests such as urinary telomerase and BLCA-4 are used and have been evaluated. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, serum total PSA is well established and used. Various PSA relation markers have been advocated for the differentiation between benign prostate hypertrophy and carcinoma in so called "gray zone" level of total PSA. In methods based on the molecular forms of PSA, the ratio of free PSA to total PSA (f/T) is widely use, and proPSA is a test that is expected. Other approaches such as volume of index PSA, age specific PSA reference range and PSA velocity are also in practical application. Human glandular kallikrein 2, which belong to the human kallikrein family as well as PSA, is expected as a tumor specific marker. PMID:15164607

  18. Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-03-20

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  19. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  20. Pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sahni, Sonu; Iftikhar, Asma; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for majority of all primary renal neoplasms. Classic manifestations of RCC include the triad of flank pain, hematuria and a palpable renal mass. Patients with RCC can develop various extra renal manifestations including involvements of the lungs, inferior vena cava, liver and the bones. The pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma include metastatic disease including endobronchial, pleural, parenchymal or lymph node metastasis, pleural effusion or hemothorax. Pulmonary embolism and tumor embolism is another common manifestation of renal cell carcinoma. RCC is a highly vascular tumor and can cause pulmonary arterio-venous fistulas leading to high output failure. Rarely, RCC can also present with paraneoplastic presentations including cough or bilateral diaphragm paralysis. Drugs used to treat RCC have been associated with drug related pneumonitis and form an important differential diagnosis in patients with RCC on therapy presenting with shortness of breath. In this review we discuss the various pulmonary manifestations of RCC. A high index of suspicion with these presentations can lead to an early diagnosis and assist in instituting an appropriate intervention. PMID:26525375

  1. Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Unusual Variant Masquerading as Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Akhavein, Arash; Han, Julia; Carter, Christopher; Al-Quran, Samer Z.; Su, Li-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located at the Xp11.2 locus. Initial cases were more common in children, but cases in older adults have begun to accrue and suggest a relatively more aggressive course. We report a case of Xp11 TRCC in a 63-year-old female patient with initial presentation mimicking upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma, with biopsy proving TRCC. She underwent a radical nephrectomy and paracaval lymph node dissection and is followed up with the intent to initiate vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy in case of recurrence. PMID:26955551

  2. Early hepatocellular carcinoma macroscopically resembling adenomatous hyperplasia: pathological resemblance to carcinoma-in-situ.

    PubMed

    Wakasa, K; Haba, T; Hamada, T; Sasaki, M; Sakurai, M

    1997-01-01

    The pathological features of 11 nodules of early hepatocellular carcinoma (EHCC) were studied. Their macroscopic features resembled those of adenomatous hyperplasia and differed from those of advanced hepatocellular carcinomas (AHCC). The EHCC extended along the hepatic lobular structure and lacked expansive growth. The endothelial cells in the sinusoids of EHCC did not react to Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA1) like adenomatous hyperplasia or other liver parenchyma, whereas the endothelial cells in the AHCC did react to UEA1. Immunohistochemically, CD68-positive Kupffer cells were noted in the sinusoids of EHCC, whereas in the AHCC Kupffer cells were not seen. Tumor emboli in the portal vein and intrahepatic metastases were not identified in EHCC, which seemed to be carcinoma-in-situ or a microinvasive stage of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:9051692

  3. The role of GATA3 in breast carcinomas: a review.

    PubMed

    Asch-Kendrick, Rebecca; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    GATA3 is a zinc-binding transcription factor that regulates the differentiation of many human tissue types, including the mammary gland. In surgical pathology, immunohistochemistry for GATA3 is largely used to support urothelial or breast origin in a carcinoma of unknown origin. GATA3 is sensitive but not entirely specific in this setting. Although GATA3 labeling is highest in estrogen receptor-positive carcinomas, it also labels estrogen receptor-negative carcinomas and thus has particular diagnostic utility in the setting of triple-negative breast carcinomas, which are typically negative for other mammary-specific markers. PMID:26772397

  4. Specific Antigen in Serum of Patients with Colon Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Herlyn, Meenhard; Steplewski, Zenon; Sears, Henry F.

    1981-04-01

    The binding of monoclonal antibody specific for colon carcinoma was inhibited by serum from patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon but not by serum from patients with other bowel diseases or from healthy volunteers. Of other malignancies studied, serum from two patients with gastric carcinoma and two patients with pancreatic carcinoma also inhibited the specific binding of monoclonal antibody. The levels of carcinoembryonic antigen in these serum samples were not correlated with their levels of binding inhibition. Such monoclonal antibodies may prove useful for the detection of colorectal carcinoma.

  5. Pulmonary Metastasectomy 31 Years After Surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yui; Harada, Aya; Aoki, Masaya; Kamimura, Go; Wakida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Yokomakura, Naoya; Kariatsumari, Kota; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami

    2015-06-01

    An 82-year-old man underwent a left upper lobectomy for a solitary tumor on suspicion of lung cancer. Histopathologic findings of the resected specimen showed clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which was diagnosed as a metastasis from kidney cancer concealed for 31 years after nephrectomy. The Ki-67 labeling index of the metastatic tumor was high (36.1%). A few cases of recurrent renal cell carcinoma after a long interval from initial diagnosis have been seen. However, pulmonary metastasectomy more than 30 years after radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma has not been reported. This remarkable case provides new and valuable clinical insights into metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26046874

  6. Giant tricholemmal squamous cell carcinoma with cranial infiltration.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Bayyoud, Yousef; Kittner, Thomas; Dürig, Eberhard

    2011-04-01

    Tricholemmal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma thought to follow a more benign course. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with a giant tricholemmal squamous cell carcinoma on his scalp. Further investigations demonstrated a skull destruction and cranial invasion. Curative treatment was impossible, but tumor mass reduction and wound closure by sandwich split-thickness skin mesh graft transplantation using a dermal template was performed. Problems of advanced squamous cell carcinoma on the scalp are discussed. PMID:21532876

  7. Cystic echinococcosis accompanied by hepatocellular carcinoma in a female herdsman

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haitao; Song, Tao; Shao, Yingmei; Wen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common types of cancer in the whole world including China. A few reports about cystic echinococcosis concurrent with hepatocellular carcinoma were noted until now. In addition, the association between these two diseases is still not well defined as the case with cystic echinococcosis with hepatocellular carcinoma is rare. In this case report, we presented a female herdsman living in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, China, which may raise the possibility that echinococcosis may play a role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25932268

  8. Lung carcinoma by histologic type in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Vallyathan, V.; Green, F.H.; Rodman, N.F.; Boyd, C.B.; Althouse, R.

    1985-05-01

    Histologic types of lung carcinoma were studied in 171 coal miners in the National Coal Workers Autopsy Study. These miners had an average underground mining tenure of 29 +/- 14 years and an average smoking history of 31 +/- 23 pack-years. The proportion of carcinomas by cell type were: squamous cell carcinoma, 30%; adenocarcinoma, 27%; small-cell undifferentiated carcinoma, 26%; large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma, 9%; and other carcinomas, 8%. More tumors were observed in the right lung and in the upper lobes of both lungs than in the left lung and in the lower lobes of both lungs, respectively. The majority of the tumors were centered on cartilaginous airways (81%) as compared with the peripheral regions of the lung (19%). Squamous cell carcinomas predominated in the older miners and in larger airways. Adenocarcinomas were more common in the peripheral lung. No significant interaction was demonstrated between cell type and years of underground mining. The data indicate that lung carcinoma in coal miners differs little in its pathologic features from men in the general population who smoke cigarettes. No effect of coal mine dust exposure on lung carcinoma histogenesis was demonstrated.

  9. Molecular profiling of lung adenosquamous carcinoma: hybrid or genuine type?

    PubMed Central

    Vassella, Erik; Langsch, Stephanie; Dettmer, Matthias S.; Schlup, Cornelia; Neuenschwander, Maja; Frattini, Milo; Gugger, Mathias; Schäfer, Stephan C.

    2015-01-01

    Lung adenosquamous carcinoma is a particular subtype of non-small cell lung carcinoma that is defined by the coexistence of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components. The aim of this study was to assess the mutational profile in each component of 16 adenosquamous carcinoma samples from a Caucasian population by a combination of next generation sequencing using the cancer hotspot panel as well as the colon and lung cancer panel and FISH. Identified mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing of DNA from cancer cells of each component collected by Laser Capture microdissection. Mutations typical for adenocarcinoma as well as squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Driver mutations were predominantly in the trunk suggesting a monoclonal origin of adenosquamous carcinoma. Most remarkably, EGFR mutations and mutations in the PI3K signaling pathway, which accounted for 30% and 25% of tumors respectively, were more prevalent while KRAS mutations were less prevalent than expected for a Caucasian population. Surprisingly, expression of classifier miR-205 was intermediate between that of classical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggesting that adenosquamous carcinoma is a transitional stage between these tumor types. The high prevalence of therapy-relevant targets opens new options of therapeutic intervention for adenosquamous carcinoma patients. PMID:26068980

  10. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  11. Gynecomastia With Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Associated With Invasive Breast Carcinoma in a Male Patient on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Coyne, John D

    2016-04-01

    Breast carcinoma in males is rare although a 4-fold increased incidence is reported in HIV-infected men. Herein we report a case of invasive breast carcinoma in a HIV-positive man on antiretroviral therapy. The carcinoma was associated with features of florid gynecomastia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, and columnar cell change. This combination of morphological changes has not previously been reported in the context of male breast carcinoma and their etiopathological associations are discussed. PMID:26612847

  12. Primary peritoneal carcinoma: regional cancer institute experience.

    PubMed

    Ifthikar, Anjum Mariam; Rathod, Praveen S; Shruthi, S; Pallavi, V R; Shobha, K; Shankaranand, B; Umadevi, K; Bafna, Uttam D

    2014-09-01

    Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma (PPSC) is a rare malignancy that arises primarily from peritoneal surface epithelium. However there are limited studies on these tumors even in world literature. To study the clinical, pathologic profile, outcome and prognostic features of PPSC. A 5 year retrospective study of PPSC diagnosed and treated at our centre was conducted. The pathological specimen of PPSC diagnosed from January 2008 to December 2012 were reviewed by gynaeconcopathologists. The diagnosis was based on GOG criteria, complemented with IHC. Majority of the patients underwent upfront de-bulking surgery. Postoperatively, six cycles of combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (AUC 6) was administered every 3 weekly. These patients were analysed for progression free survival (PFS), this was correlated with stage and surgical adequacy. The median age of presentation was 56 years. The total number of ovarian cancers treated during study period was 374. The 30 cases were clinically suspected to have primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) on pre- and intra-operatve gross findings, but further evaluation with histopathological examination, IHC and GOG criteria revealed only 10 cases were genuine PPSC. The remaing 20 cases; 13 were found to poorly differentiated ovarian carcinomas, six were primary fallopian tube carcinoma and one was appendicular carcinoma. The 10 (2.7 %) cases of the 374 were eligible for the PPSC analysis. The two (20 %) of the 10 cases had family history of breast and ovarian cancers, two (20 %) cases were diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis (TB) prior referral to our centre. Radiological presentation includes gross ascites, with omental caking and normal adenexa. The eight (80 %) of 10 cases presented with stage IIIC and other two cases (20 %) with stage IV disease. The eight (80 %) of 10 cases underwent upfront surgery; six (75 %) of these eight cases had optimal cytoreduction, i.e. residual disease (RD) <1 cm or no visible disease (R0) and other two (25 %) suboptimal cytoreduction. The two (20 %) of 10 cases with stage IV disease received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval cytoreduction. After debulking surgery the most useful IHC marker include CK7+, CK20-, CA125+, WT-1+, and GCDFP- . At median follow up of 24 months (range 3-60 months), the median progression free survival (PFS) was 22 months, while the estimated 5 year PFS was 18 %. Stage IV disease and suboptimal surgery had poor outcome. The PPSC presents with advanced stage disease and are observed to be misdiagnosed abdominal TB in tropical countries. The GOG criteria and IHC complement the diagnosis. These have poor outcome despite optimal care, highlighting need for larger studies on this disease. PMID:25419074

  13. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-13

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  14. Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-04

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  15. Metastatic metaplastic breast carcinoma mimicking pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doreen N; Kawamoto, Satomi; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Illei, Peter B; Rosenthal, Dorothy L; VandenBussche, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is a rare type of breast cancer. Metastases to the lung, which can be a major site of second primary tumor development among breast cancer patients, are difficult to distinguish from primary SCC of the lung and present a unique challenge for pathologists. There are few available discriminating immunohistochemical markers as squamous differentiation typically leads to loss of expression of characteristic primary epithelial cell markers of both breast and lung origin. GATA protein binding 3 (GATA-3) is a useful marker of breast origin in metastatic ductal and lobular carcinomas including poorly differentiated triple-negative carcinomas and some metaplastic carcinomas. Here, we present a case of metastatic SCC presenting as a solitary lung mass with regional lymph node metastases and a single satellite lesion in a patient with a history of metaplastic SCC of the breast. In addition to the routine markers of squamous differentiation, the metastases were also positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and GATA-3 on cytologic material obtained by transbronchial FNA. This suggests that immunoreactivity for ER and GATA-3 may support a diagnosis of metastatic SCC in the context of a prior metaplastic SCC of the breast. PMID:26238413

  16. Salivary duct carcinoma cytologically diagnosed distinctly from salivary gland carcinomas with squamous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akihiko; Harada, Hiroshi; Akiba, Jun; Kage, Masayoshi

    2008-07-01

    It has been difficult cytologically to distinguish salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) from high-grade carcinoma. We investigated the microscopic cytological findings, morphometric image analyses, and immunohistochemical features of SDC, focusing on how we achieved an accurate differential diagnosis distinguishing SDC from salivary gland carcinomas with squamous differentiation. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for androgen receptor (AR), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP15), mammaglobin, human gastric mucin, MUC1, MUC2, p63, and cytokeratin high molecular weight. Of the 13 cases of SDC, 9 cases showed typical cytological findings of sheet clusters with polygonal granular cytoplasm with fine chromatin. The other 4 cases showed unusual cytological findings of a pseudo-papillary cluster or scattered cells only, and the tumor cells showed coarse chromatin. Morphometric image analysis showed that the nucleus area was statistically different between SDC and salivary gland carcinomas with squamous differentiation. AR-positive expression (P = 0.008), GCDFP15-positive expression (P = 0.005) and p63-negative expression (P = 0.001) were effective as SDC-specific markers in immunohistochemistry. An accurate cytological diagnosis of SDC can be determined by immunostaining with AR, GCDFP15, and p63, based on the nuclear findings. PMID:18528886

  17. Mammary carcinoma developing after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Janjan, N.A.; Wilson, J.F.; Gillin, M.; Anderson, T.; Greenberg, M.; Schewe, K.; Cox, J.D.

    1988-01-15

    Two patients developed breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Both had received mediastinal irradiation 13 to 15 years, respectively, before the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. One patient had synchronous bilateral breast cancer when the diagnosis was made. Discussed is the risk of mammary carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease.

  18. Microcytic hypochromic anemia associated with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kroll, M H; Jiji, V; Jiji, R

    1984-05-01

    Anemia, frequently hypochromic and microcytic, occurs in approximately one third of patients with renal cell carcinoma. We have described a patient with classic iron deficiency anemia and renal cell carcinoma whose blood picture reverted to normal after removal of the tumor. Abundant hemosiderin in the tumor cells is evidence that tumor cells removed iron from the circulation, causing the iron deficiency anemia. PMID:6719167

  19. Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Permissions Print to PDF Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 09/2014 What is familial non-VHL clear cell renal cell carcinoma? Familial non-VHL clear cell ...

  20. Meningeal carcinomatosis in small cell carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, M.W.; Fetell, M.

    1982-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the lung is extremely sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We describe the case of a patient who had a complete response to such treatment but relapsed with meningeal carcinomatosis. We propose that prophylactic therapy to the spinal cord as well as the brain should be considered in the treatment of patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung.

  1. [Central adenoid cystic carcinoma of the mandible: a case report].

    PubMed

    Li, You; Li, Chunjie; Wu, Fanglong; Li, Tang; Gao, Ning; Li, Longjiang

    2015-10-01

    Central malignant salivary gland tumor of the mandible is rarely observed with adenoid cystic carcinoma, which only comprises a small proportion of cancer patients. In this study, a patient with central adenoid cystic carcinoma of the mandible is presented, and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:26688954

  2. Small cell carcinoma of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gnepp, D R; Corio, R L; Brannon, R B

    1986-08-01

    Small cell carcinoma is primarily a pulmonary neoplasm that rarely arises in extrapulmonic sites including salivary glands of the head and neck. Twelve cases of small cell carcinoma of salivary gland origin were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology files. Six tumors occurred in the parotid gland and six in the submandibular gland. Tumors were classified into two categories: those with areas of histologically typical small cell carcinoma (7 cases) and those with areas of typical small cell carcinoma with foci of ductal differentiation (5 cases). Follow-up information was available in all 12 cases. Electron microscopy was done on eight tumors; only one demonstrated round electron dense intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules. These observations further support evidence in the literature suggesting most of the small cell carcinomas of salivary gland origin are not true neuroendocrine ("oat cell") carcinomas, but actually are small cell ductal carcinomas. These tumors appear to have a better prognosis than small cell carcinoma of the lung or nonsalivary gland sites in the head and neck region, with an estimated 2- and 5-year survival of 70 and 46%, respectively. PMID:3015370

  3. [The translocation carcinoma : A pediatric renal tumor also in adults].

    PubMed

    Bruder, E; Moch, H

    2016-03-01

    The MiT family of translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas comprise approximately 40 % of renal cell carcinomas in young patients but only up to 4 % of renal cell carcinomas in adult patients. The Xp11.2 translocation-associated tumors are the most frequent and were included in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. They contain a fusion of the TFE3 gene with ASPSCR1, PRCC, NONO, SPFQ or CLTC resulting in an immunohistochemically detectable nuclear overexpression of TFE3. The Xp11.2 translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas are characterized by ample clear cytoplasm, papillary architecture and abundant psammoma bodies. The TFEB translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas are much rarer and show a biphasic architecture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization permits the detection of a translocation by means of a break apart probe for the TFE3 and TFEB genes and is recommended for the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas in patients under 30 years of age. The TFE3 and TFEB translocation-associated tumors are classified as MiT family translocation carcinomas in the new WHO classification.The rare renal cell carcinomas harboring an ALK rearrangement with fusion to VCL in young patients with sickle cell trait show a characteristic morphology and are listed in the new WHO classification as a provisional entity. PMID:26972595

  4. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Ranga Reddy, S V; Janaki, M; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2004-04-01

    Malignant tumors of the submandibular salivary glands are rare in occurrence, among which primary squamous cell carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland is unusual and the documented evidence is 2 to 5% among malignant tumors A case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of submandibular salivary gland is being presented for its rarity. PMID:23120050

  5. Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Victoria D.; Souza, Carlos; Vanderhart, Daniel; Boston, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female dog diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma and hypertrophic osteopathy was negative for additional lesions on computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen. Resection of the affected liver lobe resulted in resolution of clinical signs. This is the first case of hypertrophic osteopathy secondary to hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26130837

  6. Eyelid and ocular surface carcinoma: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Yin, Vivian T; Merritt, Helen A; Sniegowski, Matt; Esmaeli, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Eyelid cancers account for 5% to 10% of all cutaneous malignancies. The incidence of eyelid cancer is approximately 15 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. Basal cell carcinoma is by far the most common cutaneous malignancy in the periocular area; other cutaneous malignancies that occur in this area include, in decreasing order of frequency, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. The most common treatment for eyelid carcinomas is surgical resection with frozen section examination for margin control, but exenteration may be needed when there is orbital invasion. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be needed in patients at high risk for local recurrence; sentinel lymph node biopsy may be considered in patients at high risk for lymph node metastasis. Primary or residual in situ disease of the conjunctiva can be treated with topical chemotherapy, such as mitomycin C, 5-fluorouracil, or interferon alpha-2 b. For patients with metastatic or locally advanced basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma not amenable to surgical excision or radiotherapy, targeted therapy against the hedgehog pathway (for basal cell carcinoma) or epidermal growth factor receptor (for squamous cell carcinoma) has been shown to be effective in preventing disease progression. Patients with eyelid and ocular surface malignancies need to be monitored with careful clinical examination for at least 5years after surgical treatment, and additional investigations may be warranted in some cases. PMID:25704936

  7. Bilateral femur metastases in low-grade endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Pierre; Vidal, Fabien; Accadbled, Franck; Leguevaque, Pierre; Soule-Tholy, Marc; Beauval, Jean Baptiste; Motton, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Lower-limb bone metastases are uncommon in low-grade endometrial carcinoma, and are mostly located on the axial skeleton. Here, we present a rare case of bilateral femur metastases in low-grade endometrial carcinoma and performed a review of the current literature. PMID:26273447

  8. [Management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin].

    PubMed

    Pinsolle, V; Robert, G; Sawaya, E; Sommier, B; Pélissier, P

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence, metastasis and mortality due to squamous cell carcinoma are all most often linked to late or inappropriate management and/or aggressive histological types. In consequence, clear guidelines for management are necessary. The aim of this article is to detail clinical management of squamous cell carcinomas based on the official guidelines. PMID:22463987

  9. Diffuse radioiodine lung uptake in miliary thyroid carcinoma metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Manier, S.M.; Eggli, D.; Blue, P.W.; Van Nostrand, D.

    1985-12-01

    A diffuse pattern of homogeneous tracer uptake is seen by I-131 scintigraphy in a patient with widespread miliary lung metastases due to papillary thyroid carcinoma. This case report emphasizes the need to include metastatic thyroid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of miliary lung nodules.

  10. Sarcomatous change in a teratoma after treatment of testicular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, D.M.; Johnson, F.E.; Janney, C.G. )

    1991-07-15

    Treatment can transform the metastases of nonseminomatous germ cell carcinoma into histologically mature teratoma. These lesions typically have a benign clinical course. The authors present a case of leiomyosarcoma occurring within such a lesion. It arose 18 years after therapy for metastatic embryonal carcinoma of the testis and appears to have been radiation induced.

  11. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, we report a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-beta-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol.

  12. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol is reported.

  13. SMARCB1 (INI-1) Deficient Carcinomas of the Sinonasal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Justin A.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Westra, William H.

    2014-01-01

    SMARCB1 (INI-1) is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q11.2. Its gene product is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of all normal tissues. SMARCB1 gene inactivation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a diverse group of malignant neoplasms that tend to share “rhabdoid” cytomorphology. This group of SMARCB1-deficient tumors is now further expanded by a subset of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. SMARCB1 immunostaining was performed on 142 sinonasal carcinomas. Tumors that showed loss of expression were further characterized for SMARCB1 deletions by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Nine of 142 (6%) primary sinonasal carcinomas showed loss of SMARCB1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Five patients were women, and patients ranged in age from 33–78 years (mean 59). The SMARCB1 deficient tumors were characterized by nests, sheets, and cords of cells without any histologic evidence of specific (e.g. squamous or glandular) differentiation. The tumors were comprised of varying proportions of basaloid and rhabdoid cells. The SMARCB1 deficient carcinomas had been diagnosed as non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (n=3), sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (n=2), myoepithelial carcinoma (n=2), non-intestinal adenocarcinoma (n=1) and carcinoma, not otherwise specified (n=1). FISH analysis revealed SMARCB1 deletions in 6 of 8 (75%) carcinomas. The SMARCB1 deficient carcinomas did not harbor human papillomavirus or NUT-1 alterations. Six patients presented with T4 disease, 5 patients developed local recurrences and/or distant metastases, and four died of their disease. Inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of a subset of sinonasal carcinomas, further expanding the family of SMARCB1 deficient neoplasms and further delineating a bewildering group of poorly/undifferentiated, aggressive carcinomas arising at this site. The ability to detect SMARCB1 loss by immunohistochemistry, particularly when dealing with poorly differentiated carcinomas with basaloid or rhabdoid features, should facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of these sinonasal carcinomas including clinical behavior and response to targeted therapies. PMID:25007146

  14. SMARCB1 (INI-1)-deficient carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Antonescu, Cristina R; Westra, William H

    2014-09-01

    SMARCB1 (INI-1) is a tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q11.2. Its gene product is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of all normal tissues. SMARCB1 gene inactivation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a diverse group of malignant neoplasms that tend to share "rhabdoid" cytomorphology. This group of SMARCB1-deficient tumors is now further expanded by a subset of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. SMARCB1 immunostaining was performed on 142 sinonasal carcinomas. Tumors that showed loss of expression were further characterized for SMARCB1 deletions by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Nine of 142 (6%) primary sinonasal carcinomas showed loss of SMARCB1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Five patients were women, and patients ranged in age from 33 to 78 years (mean 59 y). The SMARCB1-deficient tumors were characterized by nests, sheets, and cords of cells without any histologic evidence of specific (eg, squamous or glandular) differentiation. The tumors comprised varying proportions of basaloid and rhabdoid cells. The SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas had been diagnosed as nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (n=3), sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (n=2), myoepithelial carcinoma (n=2), nonintestinal adenocarcinoma (n=1), and carcinoma, not otherwise specified (n=1). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed SMARCB1 deletions in 6 of 8 (75%) carcinomas. The SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas did not harbor human papillomavirus or NUT-1 alterations. Six patients presented with T4 disease, 5 patients developed local recurrences and/or distant metastases, and 4 died of their disease. Inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumor-suppressor gene appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of a subset of sinonasal carcinomas, further expanding the family of SMARCB1-deficient neoplasms and further delineating a bewildering group of poorly/undifferentiated, aggressive carcinomas arising at this site. The ability to detect SMARCB1 loss by immunohistochemistry, particularly when dealing with poorly differentiated carcinomas with basaloid or rhabdoid features, should facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of these sinonasal carcinomas including clinical behavior and response to targeted therapies. PMID:25007146

  15. Characterization of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase from human exocrine pancreatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawai, K

    1985-06-30

    Two different types of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GTP) have been found in normal human pancreas following bromelain treatment. On the other hand, three human pancreatic ductal cell carcinomas have only a single type of gamma-GTP upon analysis with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, anion-exchange column chromatography and isoelectric focusing. Carcinoma gamma-GTPs were almost identical to one of the two types of normal pancreatic gamma-GTPs. The gamma-GTP from pancreatic carcinomas bound to anion-exchange column and was eluted at the same NaCl fractions as normal pancreatic gamma-GTP. The properties of pancreatic carcinoma-gamma-GTP, as assessed by binding to concanavalin A and lentil lectin affinity columns, were also similar to one of the two enzymes of normal pancreas. No apparent difference in isoelectric points was found between the carcinoma gamma-GTPs and one of the two normal pancreatic gamma-GTPs. PMID:2863014

  16. [Verrucous carcinoma of the penis. Report of 8 cases].

    PubMed

    Ricós Torrent, J V; Casanova Ramón-Borja, J; Iborra Juan, I; Monros Lliso, J L; Dumont Martínez, R; Solsona Nárbon, E

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a retrospective study of the incidence and evolution of Penis Verruciform Carcinoma, covering a series of 101 cases of primitive penis carcinomas. Incidence reaches 7.9% of all cases. Analysis of tumour evolution is made and compared with Epidermoid Carcinoma. The findings are that there is neither loco-regional nor distant gangliar dissemination and that no patient dies due to this tumour as apposed to 38% deaths in epidermoid cases. Similarly, the survival likelihood at 5 years is 100% for verruciform carcinomas against 54% for epidermoid ones. All the above confirms the benignancy of Penis Verruciform Carcinoma, which makes it recommendable for conservative therapy, whenever volume and location would allow it. Thus, performance of lymphadenectomies is not generally justified since there is no tumoral dissemination, and adoption of an expectant attitude in presence of inguinal ganglia should be advisable. PMID:2080728

  17. [Research progress of Lgr4 in gastrointestinal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yibin; Chen, Lin

    2015-11-25

    Gastrointestinal carcinomas, whose incidence increases in recent years, are among the malignancies with highest morbidity and mortality. Many patients are always advanced stages when having diagnosis. So far, there are no any reliable tumor biomarkers which are able to screen people with high risk of developing cancer. Studies have shown that the expression level of Lgr4 is high in gastrointestinal carcinomas and Lgr4 is useful in diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis judgment of these carcinomas. Lgr4 belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptors family. Its function is to potentiate Wnt signaling and plays an important role in the development of multiple organs. Recent studies find that Lgr4 has close relationship with the development of many gastrointestinal carcinomas, such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer(CRC). In this article we review recent progress in understanding the relationship between Lgr4 and gastrointestinal carcinomas. PMID:26616818

  18. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the forehead: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rudi?, Milan; Kranjcec, Zoran; Lisica-Siki?, Natasa; Kovaci?, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6 cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carcinomas are rare tumors and are usually result of a long duration and patient neglect. In comparison to the ordinary basal cell carcinoma these tumors have a higher metastatic potential. Surgical resection with negative surgical margin is the best possible treatment option. PMID:22816239

  19. Cutaneous invasion from sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma: clinical and dermatopathologic features*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; de Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves; Pires, Andréa Rodriguez Cordovil; Lupi, Omar; Neves, Daniel Gama das; da Cruz, Margareth Fernandes; Kac, Bernard Kawa

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, without considering the non-melanoma skin tumors, bladder cancer in men is the eighth most common, and the urothelial carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma is the most common among these. Cutaneous metastases from urothelial neoplasms appear as single or multiple erythematous, infiltrated nodules or plaques, and like other cases of distant disease, it is indicative of poor prognosis. The invasive urothelial carcinoma is recognized for its ability to present divergent differentiation and morphological variants. The sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma is a rare cancer that consists of two different components: one composed of epithelial tissue and the other with sarcomatoid features of mesenchymal origin. The authors describe a case of cutaneous metastasis of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma in a 63-year-old male patient. PMID:26982782

  20. Lung cancer masquerading as breast cancer with carcinoma en cuirasse.

    PubMed

    Harrett, Emma; Davies, Rhian Sian; Attanoos, Richard; Lester, Jason Francis

    2014-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from lung cancer are rare. Carcinoma en cuirasse is an unusual form of metastatic cutaneous carcinoma, almost exclusively described as deposits secondary to breast carcinoma. A 63-year-old woman presented with dyspnoea. A CT scan demonstrated a pleural effusion, large pericardial effusion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and right basal consolidation. Pleural fluid cytology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with a diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with pemetrexed and carboplatin, resulting in stable disease. A year later, she developed bilateral breast masses and multiple painful erythematous subcutaneous nodules over her torso, clinically indistinguishable from carcinoma en cuirasse. A biopsy demonstrated these were deposits from metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung. The patient received docetaxel and carboplatin with initial good response. The painful lesions were subsequently treated with radiotherapy, which provided symptomatic relief. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only case of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma mimicking carcinoma en cuirasse. PMID:25395467

  1. Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor. PMID:24078988

  2. Post-traumatic squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lifeso, R M; Rooney, R J; el-Shaker, M

    1990-01-01

    Between January 1, 1976, and January 1, 1986, we treated sixty-three patients who had histologically proved squamous-cell carcinoma that originated in a pre-existing scar or sinus of an extremity. In 49 per cent of the patients, metastases to regional lymph nodes either were present when the patient was first seen or subsequently developed. The age and sex of the patient, the etiology of the original scar, and the duration of illness bore no relationship to the result. The most significant factor in predicting the outcome was the grade of the tumor: for grade-I (low-grade) lesions, the incidence of metastasis was 10 per cent; for grade-II (moderately well differentiated) lesions, 59 per cent; and for grade-III (poorly differentiated) lesions, 86 per cent. Eleven patients had wide local excision of the lesion, which resulted in local recurrence in four patients and metastasis in three. Thirty patients had therapeutic amputation: one patient had recurrent disease and five patients had metastasis. Radical resection of lymph nodes after metastasis was uniformly unsuccessful in preventing additional metastasis. Ten patients who had a grade-II or grade-III tumor had prophylactic irradiation of the regional lymph nodes after the definitive operative treatment. At an average of thirty-seven months of follow-up, only one of them had metastasis. We recommend that well differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma be considered a low-grade tumor, according to the staging system for musculoskeletal neoplasms, and that more poorly differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma (grades II and III) be considered a high-grade lesion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2295659

  3. Management of advanced primary urethral carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dayyani, Farshid; Hoffman, Karen; Eifel, Patricia; Guo, Charles; Vikram, Raghu; Pagliaro, Lance C; Pettaway, Curtis

    2014-07-01

    Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare malignancy accounting for <1% of genitourinary cancers, with a predilection for men and African-Americans. The sites and histology of urethral carcinoma vary by gender and anatomical location. Squamous cell carcinoma is most common among both genders but adenocarcinomas are noted in 15-35% of cases among women. Obstructive or irritative symptoms and haematuria are common modes of presentation. Clinical evaluation includes cystourethroscopy with biopsy and examination under anaesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a highly effective method to image the primary tumour while defıning the potential involvement of surrounding structures. Most tumours are localised, with regional metastases to nodal sites seen in up to 30% of cases in both genders, while distant metastases at presentation are rare (0-6%), but occur in up to 40% of cases with recurrent disease. Among men, the two most important prognostic factors are disease location and stage. Low-stage tumours (T1-2) and tumours involving the fossa navicularis or the penile urethra have a better prognosis than higher stage tumours (>T2 or N+) and lesions involving the bulbomembranous urethra. In women, in addition to stage and location, the size of the tumour has also prognostic implications. While surgery and radiation therapy (RT) are of benefit in early stage disease, advanced stage PUC requires multimodal treatment strategies to optimise local control and survival. These include induction chemotherapy followed by surgery or RT and concurrent chemoradiation with or without surgery. The latter strategy has been used successfully to treat other human papillomavirus-related cancers of the vagina, cervix and anus and may be of value in achieving organ preservation. Given the rarity of PUC, prospective multi-institutional studies are needed to better define the optimal treatment approach for this disease entity. PMID:24447439

  4. Penile Carcinoma in Northern Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Ramdass, MJ; Naraynsingh, V; Young-Sing, Q; Mooteeram, J; Barrow, S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the current incidence as well as general and ethnic trends of penile carcinoma in northern Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases of penile carcinoma presenting in north and east Trinidad, as well as Tobago over an eight-year period. Results: There were 19 cases from October 2003 to February 2012 with an age range of 42–96 years, mean of 59 years; peak age of presentation was 41–50 years and the number of cases presenting per year varied from one to four, with an average of three new cases yearly. Of 19 cases, 63% (12) originated from Port-of-Spain General Hospital (POSGH), 26% (5) from Sangre Grande (SGH) and 11% (2) from Tobago (TRH). There were 14 (74%) patients of African descent, three mixed and two of East Indian descent. There were four associated inflammatory lesions, five with ulcers, five verrucous lesions and two (10.5%) with human papillomavirus (HPV). One case presented with metastatic disease to the groin with erosion into the common femoral artery resulting in a blow-out of the vessel. The patient had the vessel oversewn and an extra-anatomic bypass done. He later had an above-knee amputation due to graft infection and failure. Conclusion: The incidence of penile carcinoma in north Trinidad and in Tobago is low and has halved in the past two decades. It stands at 0.6 cases per 100 000 males with the peak age group being 41–50 years, and with 95% of cases occurring between 41 and 80 years. There is a statistically significant association with active infection and being Afro-Caribbean. The decreasing incidence may be attributed to better hygiene, a higher rate of circumcision and low HPV rates in our population. PMID:25803395

  5. Prognostic factors and biomarkers of penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ademar

    2008-08-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare malignancy with highest incidence in underdeveloped and developing countries. Oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA, mainly types 16 and 18, are found in ? 100% of patients with uterine cervix carcinoma. The incidence of this virus in SCC and its variations range from 30.5 to 80%. Despite controversies, contrary to the cervical carcinoma, in the carcinogenesis and disease progression of SCC, HPV-dependent and HPV-independent tumors need to be considered. Lymphadenectomies continue to be the gold standard treatment of lymph node metastases. Undesirable accuracy on staging system methods and high rates of lymphadenectomy complications are the principal objections to these surgical procedures; therefore, the main issue in patients with SCC is to know who should or should not undergo lymphadenectomy. The search for primary tumor anatomopathological and biomarker risk factors for lymph node metastases, such as has occurred in other tumors, may be an important tool to select lymphadenectomies candidates better. Histological subtypes, tumor grade, growth pattern, tumor thickness, lymphatic embolization by neoplasic cells and depth of infiltration have been reported as important prognostic factors for lymph node metastases. In our series, lymphatic vascular permeation, palpable lymph node after primary tumor control (cN stage), pattern of invasion, p53 and PCNA immunoreactivity are independent lymph node metastases risk factors in the multivariate model. It is strongly recommended that patients be concentrated in specialized centers or cancer hospitals and multi-centric prospective studies carried out on tumor markers in this rare disease, in order to stage better lymph node disease and avoid unnecessary surgeries with high morbidity rates. PMID:23495866

  6. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Palatine Tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Teixeira, Luiz Carlos Santana; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary salivary gland malignancy in both adults and children. It has a slight female predilection and usually presents as a painless, rubber-like or soft mass, which may be fixed or mobile. Histologically, MEC is comprised of a mixture of cell types including mucous, epidermoid, and intermediate cells that can be arranged in solid nests or cystic structures. In the oral cavity, it most frequently occurs at the palate or buccal mucosa. The present paper aimed to describe an unusual case of MEC arising in the palatine tonsil. PMID:26550506

  7. [Hepatocellular carcinoma and vitamin K2].

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Iwata

    2015-11-01

    Despite recent progress in diagnosis and therapy, hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)remains among the cancers with the poorest prognoses. Vitamin Ks(VKs)have been shown to suppress the growth of HCC cells. Long-term administration of VK2 has established its clinical safety, but it does not appear to exhibit marked anti-tumor effects when administered alone. For more effective use of VK2 against HCC, co-administration of VK2 with other proven anticancer agents or development of a new VK preparation with a modified side-chain should be investigated in the future. PMID:26503869

  8. Renal cell carcinoma with solitary toe metastasis.

    PubMed

    Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Gallo, Luigi; DE Sio, Marco; Marra, Luigi; Claudio, Luigi; Caracò, Corrado; Franco, Renato; Fazzioli, Flavio; Gallo, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Solitary metastases to the small bones and/or to the soft tissue of the hands and feet (acrometastases) are rare. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with big toe metastasis revealed before the primary tumor became apparent. The best treatment for a single metastasis is always surgical excision, regardless of the lesion being synchronous or metachronous. The biological behavior of metastatic RCC is unpredictable and only early diagnosis and treatment may favorably affect patient survival. Thus, metastatic RCC should be included in the differential diagnosis of all enlarging cutaneous nodules, wherever they develop. PMID:15948730

  9. Ganglion affection in the invasive vulvar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    López García, N; Recio Sánchez, S; Sánchez Clemente, C; García Gallego, A

    1987-01-01

    This is a study of 150 cases of epidermal carcinoma of the vulva, treated in the Service of Gynecology of the National Institute on Oncology, of which inguinal lymphoadenectomy was practised in 126 cases. The histopathological study of the ganglions removed shows an incidence of 42% of total metastasis. Ganglionic metastasis was analyzed side by side with the clinical state and that of the localization of the tumor. The results of the metastasis of the "Cloquet ganglions" are also presented plus the invasion of the regional pelvic-ganglions with the existence or non-existence in the above mentioned ganglions. PMID:3569318

  10. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of the metastasizing prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Steffens, J; Friedmann, W; Lobeck, H

    1985-01-01

    Metastases of 47 known prostatic carcinomas were subjected to the unlabeled immunoperoxidase procedure to localize prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). PAP was found in 64% and PSA in 78% of bone marrow, lymph node, lung and liver metastases investigated. There was no significant difference between the intensity of staining in primary and metastatic neoplasms. Staining of PAP and PSA was found to be less intense in poorly differentiated metastases of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The data suggest that the demonstration of PAP and PSA is a practical and sensitive test for determining the prostatic origin of a clinically and histologically unclassifiable metastasis. PMID:2408895

  11. Evaluation and management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Laura M; Chokechanachaisakul, Attasit

    2015-02-01

    The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma is rising and anticipated to escalate and while the best chance for long term cure remains transplantation, however the shortage of available organs remains a limitation. Liver directed therapy can serve the role of bridge/downstaging to transplant or as palliative care. Despite an improved overall survival among patients with HCC, due to advancements in surgical techniques, liver directed and systemic therapy, the 5 year overall survival remains low at 18% high-lightening the need for novel therapies. Surveillance for HCC is key to detect disease at an early stage to increase the chances for a potentially curative option. PMID:25454295

  12. Basal cell carcinomas: attack of the hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ervin H.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were essentially a molecular ‘black box’ until some 12 years ago, when identification of a genetic flaw in a rare subset of patients who have a great propensity to develop BCCs pointed to aberrant Hedgehog signalling as the pivotal defect leading to formation of these tumours. This discovery has facilitated a remarkable increase in our understanding of BCC carcinogenesis and has highlighted the carcinogenic role of this developmental pathway when aberrantly activated in adulthood. Importantly, a phase 1 first-in-human trial of a Hedgehog inhibitor has shown real progress in halting and even reversing the growth of these tumours. PMID:18813320

  13. Occult carcinoma in an adult choledochal cyst.

    PubMed Central

    Dowsett, J. F.; Rode, J.; Chandiramani, V. A.; Russell, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The complications of choledochal cyst are avoidable if diagnosed early, and adequate resection undertaken. This case report describes the long history of right subcostal pain in a young man of 26 who had a squamous carcinoma in a choledochal cyst diagnosed after serial section of the excised cyst. Subsequent resection of the head of the pancreas showed histological residual tumour from which he died 4 months later. This case illustrates the need for complete early excision of a choledochal cyst to prevent this complication. Images Figure 1 p203-b p203-c Figure 2 PMID:2041856

  14. Percutaneous ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: current status.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Justin P; Yamamoto, Shota; Raman, Steven S; Loh, Christopher T; Lee, Edward W; Liu, David M; Kee, Stephen T

    2010-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasingly common disease with dismal long-term survival. Percutaneous ablation has gained popularity as a minimally invasive, potentially curative therapy for HCC in nonoperative candidates. The seminal technique of percutaneous ethanol injection has been largely supplanted by newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation. A review of these modalities, including technical success, survival rates, and complications, will be presented, as well as considerations for treatment planning and follow-up. PMID:20656230

  15. Hyperfunctional parathyroid carcinoma with mediastinal extension.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Emanuele; Armato, Enrico; García Purriños, Francisco José; Manconi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an extremely rare malignancy, 0.005% of all tumours and between 0.5% and 5% of all parathyroid neoplasms. Preoperative diagnosis is often difficult and is almost always obtained only after post-surgical histopathology. The prognosis is related to the local extent of disease and to complete surgical resection of the tumour. We report an uncommon case of hyperfunctional PC with mediastinal extension, emphasising the diagnostic difficulties, histopathological features and treatment strategies. The most recent data in the literature is analysed as well. PMID:21296306

  16. Esophageal recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dworzynska, Agnieszka; Lorente-Poch, Leyre; Sancho, Juan Jose; Sitges-Serra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) metastasizes to the regional lymph nodes and to the lungs, liver and bones. Only one case of recurrence of MTC involving the upper gastrointestinal tract has been reported so far. We describe the case of a 38-year-old woman with MTC, who developed an upper esophageal submucosal recurrence after two previous local recurrences treated surgically and one ethanol injection. After resection of the right lateral esophageal wall, calcitonin dropped by 60% and showed a doubling time >1 year. We cannot rule out the role of deep ethanol injection in the involvement of the cervical esophagus wall. PMID:26645011

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma and African iron overload.

    PubMed Central

    Gangaidzo, I T; Gordeuk, V R

    1995-01-01

    Both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and iron overload are important health problems in Africa. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is recognised as a major risk factor for HCC, but iron overload in Africans has not been considered in pathogenesis. Up to half the patients with HCC in Africa do not have any recognised risk factors such as preceding chronic HBV infection, and other risk factors remain unidentified. HCC is an important complication of HLA-linked haemochromatosis, an iron loading disorder found in Europeans. It is proposed that African iron overload might also be a risk factor for HCC. PMID:8549953

  18. The Role of Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy is crucial for normal liver physiology and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. During the last decade, the function of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated extensively. Currently, autophagy is thought to play a dual role in HCC, i.e., autophagy is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. Recent investigations of autophagy have suggested that autophagy biomarkers can facilitate HCC prognosis and the establishment of therapeutic approaches. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of autophagy and discuss recent evidence for its role in HCC. PMID:26561802

  19. Spontaneous Regression of Primitive Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin tumor that mainly occurs in the elderly with a generally poor prognosis. Like all skin cancers, its incidence is rising. Despite the poor prognosis, a few reports of spontaneous regression have been published. We describe the case of a 89-year-old male patient who presented two MCC lesions of the scalp. Following biopsy the lesions underwent complete regression with no clinical evidence of residual tumor up to 24 months. The current knowledge of MCC and the other cases of spontaneous regression described in the literature are reviewed. PMID:26788270

  20. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Livraghi, T; Lazzaroni, S; Meloni, F

    2001-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation resulted in a higher complete necrosis than percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), above all in infiltrating lesions, and requires fewer treatment sessions in the treatment of small size tumors. We achieved 90% of complete necrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)<3 cm, 71% in medium (3-5 cm) and 45% in large (5.1-9 cm) HCC. However, near complete necrosis was obtained in the majority of the remaining tumors. PEI is preferable in lesions at risk with RF, i.e. adjacent to main biliary ducts or to intestinal loops. Our current 3-yr survival in child A patient with single HCC<5 cm is 85%. PMID:11369527

  1. Cellular prognostic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Luigi; Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Damiano, Elvira; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Buonaguro, Franco M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the five big killers worldwide and is frequently associated with chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections. Tumor microenvironment consists of a complex network of cells and factors that plays a key role in the tumor progression and prognosis. This is true also for HCC. Several studies have shown strikingly strong correlation between HCC clinical prognosis and intratumoral infiltration of cells affecting tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. None of such cells is yet validated for routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment. The present review aims at providing a state-of-the-art of such studies. PMID:26043213

  2. Subungual Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, Ana; Feal, Carlos; Rosón, Elena; Posada, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Subungual tumors are rare in general. Of all tumors, subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) is the most frequent one. Protean clinical presentations and the lack of awareness of the disease are responsible for an incorrect or delayed diagnosis and subsequent delayed treatment. We have reported here four patients with SSCC who were previously wrongly diagnosed with a benign process and treated unsuccessfully for years. We would like to highlight the need of a biopsy in chronic or recurrent nail lesions that fail to respond to a previous conservative treatment in order to rule out SSCC. PMID:25071252

  3. Pathological and biological features of mammographically detected invasive breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Rajakariar, R.; Walker, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The pathological and biological features of a consecutive series of impalpable invasive breast carcinoma, detected by mammography in the prevalent round of the breast screening programme, have been compared with a clinically presenting group of carcinomas in age-matched patients. There was a significantly higher prevalence of tubular carcinomas as well-differentiated infiltrating ductal carcinomas in the mammographically detected group, and a lower prevalence of poorly differentiated infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Lymph node metastasis was found in 6.5% of the impalpable group compared with 53% of the clinical group. The prevalence of oestrogen receptor was much higher in the impalpable group (96%) than in the control group (67%), although there were no significant differences for progesterone receptor. The prevalence of pS2 was also much higher in the impalpable group, as was cathepsin D. This finding is surprising in view of the reported relationship between cathepsin D and poorer survival. p53 and c-erb-2 proteins were detectable in fewer impalpable carcinomas. The mean MIBI (Ki-67) index was lower in the impalpable group (11.6) than in the clinical group (15.25). Within the mammographically detected group there was a significant difference in the MIBI index between tubular carcinomas and the different grades of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, with a wide range in each category but no association with size. The impalpable carcinomas detected by mammography differ from clinically presenting carcinomas in many ways, raising the question of whether a proportion or all would progress (dedifferentiate) with time. PMID:7819032

  4. Detection and location of Helicobacter pylori in human gastric carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yun-Lian; Gan, Run-Liang; Dong, Bi-Hua; Jiang, Ri-Chen; Tang, Rong-Jun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To define the infection status of Helicobacter pylori in 109 patients with gastric cancers and H pylori localization in gastric carcinoma tissues in South China. METHODS: The incidence of H pylori infection in gastric carcinomas was estimated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), simultaneously; both morphological features and the localization of H pylori in gastric carcinomas were demonstrated by Warthin-Starry (WS) staining. The relationships between H pylori infection and the clinical-pathologic factors of gastric carcinomas were analyzed by software SPSS10.0. RESULTS: H pylori was found in 42 (39.03%) and 58 (53.21%) cases of 109 patients with gastric carcinomas by PCR and WS, respectively. H pylori infection rate detected in gastric carcinomas by WS was higher than that by PCR (?2 = 9.735, P<0.005<0.01). WS stain showed that H pylori existed in the gastric antrum mucus, mucosal gland of normal tissues adjacent to gastric carcinomas and the gland, mucus pool of cancer tissues. The positive rate of H pylori in normal tissues adjacent to carcinomas was higher than that in cancer tissues (?2 = 15.750, P<0.005<0.01). No significant differences in age, sex, site, histological types and lymph node metastasis were found between H pylori-positive gastric carcinomas and H pylori-negative cases by both methods, but there were statistically significant differences of H pylori positive rate between early and advanced stage of gastric carcinomas (?2 = 4.548 or 5.922, P = 0.033 or 0.015<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggested that H pylori infection might play a certain role in the early stage of carcinogenesis of human gastric mucosa epithelia. PMID:15761982

  5. Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Mimic of Conventional Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma on Core Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Liddell, Heath; Mare, Anton; Heywood, Sean; Bennett, Genevieve; Chan, Hin Fan

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) is a recently described, relatively uncommon variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a reported incidence of 4.1%. Thought to only arise in those with end stage renal disease, CCP-RCC is increasingly identified in those without renal impairment. CCP-RCCs have unique morphologic, genetic, and immunohistochemical features distinguishing them from both conventional clear cell renal cell carcinomas and papillary renal cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, these tumors are positive for CK7 and negative for CD10 and racemase. This is in contrast to conventional cell renal cell carcinomas (CK7 negative, CD10 positive) and papillary cell carcinomas (CK7, CD10, and racemase positive). These tumours appear to be indolent in nature, with no current documented cases of metastatic spread. We present the case of a 42-year-old female who presented with an incidental finding of a renal mass that on a core biopsy was reported as clear cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. She subsequently underwent a radical nephrectomy and further histological examination revealed the tumor to be a clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. PMID:25709850

  6. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast with Clinical Features of Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Hyung; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Ki Yeol; Cha, Sang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB) is a very rare type of invasive breast carcinoma. Most NECBs appear on breast imaging as solid masses of varied shapes and margins, and have worse clinical outcomes than does invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified. However, there have been no reports to date regarding NECB with features of inflammatory breast carcinoma. Here, we describe the clinical, radiol-ogic, and pathologic findings of the first reported case of primary NECB presenting as inflammatory breast carcinoma. The patient complained of diffuse right breast enlargement and erythema. Mammography identified severe breast edema and axillary lymphadenopathy. Ultrasound detected an irregular, angular, hypoechoic mass with dermal lymphatic dilatation. On magnetic resonance imaging, the mass had rim enhancement and the entire right breast showed heterogeneous enhancement with malignant kinetic features. Pathology identified the mass as a primary NECB with positive for synaptophysin, CD56, estrogen and progesterone receptors. PMID:26770249

  7. Missed breast carcinoma; why and how to avoid?

    PubMed

    Kamal, Rasha M; Abdel Razek, Naglaa M; Hassan, Mohamed A; Shaalan, Mohamed A

    2007-09-01

    Introduction : Despite the advances in mammography techniques, it still has a number of limitations. It is estimated that about 10 to 25% of lesions are overlooked in mammograms out of which about two thirds are detected retrospectively by radiologists and oncologists. Causes of missed breast cancer on mammography can be secondary to many factors including those related to the patient (whether inherent or acquired), the nature of the malignant mass itself, poor mammographic techniques, provider factors or interpretive skills of radiologists and oncologists (including perception and interpretation errors). Aim of Work : The aim of this study is to investigate the aforementioned factors hindering early breast cancer detection and in turn lowering mammographic sensitivity and to outline the major guidelines to overcome these factors aiming to an optimum mammographic examination and interpretation by radiologists and oncologists. Subject and Methods : We conducted this multicenter study over a two-year interval. We included 152 histopathologicaly proven breast carcinomas that were initially missed on mammography. The cases were subjected to mammography, complementary US, MRI and digital mammography in some cases and all cases were histopathologically proven either by FNAB, CNB or open biopsy. Results : Revision of the pathological specimens of these 152 cases revealed 121 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 2 lobular, 4 mucinous, 14 inflammatory carcinomas, 6 carcinomas in situ (3 of which were intracystic), 2 intraductal papillary carcinomas and 3 cases with Paget's disease of the nipple. In analyzing the causes responsible for misdiagnosis of these carcinomas we classified them into 4 causative factors; patient, tumor, technical or provider factors. Tumor factors were the most commonly encountered, accounting for 44.1%, while provider factors were the least commonly encountered in 14.5 %. Carcinomas were detected using several individual or combined complementary techniques. These techniques mainly included double reading, additional mammography views, ultrasound and MRI examinations. Forty four carcinomas were detected on double and re-reading by more experienced radiologists. Additional mammographic views were recommended in 35 (23%) cases. Complementary ultrasound examination was performed for all 152 cases (100%) and showed a higher sensitivity than mammography in carcinoma detection. It was diagnostic in 138 (90.8%) cases only. In the remaining 14 cases, further MRI and biopsy were performed. Conclusion : Why can breast carcinoma be missed? Four main factors are responsible for missing a carcinoma: (1) Patient factors (Inherently dense breasts or acquired dense breasts). (2) Tumor factors (subtle carcinoma, masked carcinoma, multifocal carcinoma and multicentric carcinoma). (3) Technical factors (bad exposure factors, malpositioned breasts and bad processing quality). (4) Provider factors (bad perception and misinterpretation). How to avoid missing a breast carcinoma? Review clinical data and use US and other adjunct techniques as MRI and biopsy to assess a palpable or mammographically detected mass. Be strict about positioning and technical factors. Try to optimize image quality. Be alert to subtle features of breast cancers. Always consider the well defined carcinoma. Compare current images with multiple prior studies to look for subtle increases in lesion size. Look for other lesions when one abnormality is seen. Judge a lesion by its most malignant features. Double reading and the use of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) and finally FFDM (Full Field Digital Mammography). Close cooperation between the oncologist, radiologist and pathologist is essential to avoid missing any case of breast carcinoma. Key Words : Missed breast carcinoma -Mammography - Ultrasonography -MRI. PMID:19190691

  8. Unclassified Renal Cell Carcinoma With Medullary Phenotype Versus Renal Medullary Carcinoma: Lessons From Diagnosis in an Italian Man Found to Harbor Sickle Cell Trait

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Smith, Steven C.; Massa, Simona; Renne, Salvatore L.; Brambilla, Simona; Peschechera, Roberto; Graziotti, Pierpaolo; Roncalli, Massimo; Amin, Mahul B.

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the kidney. It affects individuals of African descent and all cases reported show evidence of sickle cell trait. We reviewed an unusual carcinoma arising in a white man, the ninth in the literature. The tumor demonstrated features associated with renal medullary carcinoma, or unclassified renal cell carcinoma, medullary phenotype as recently described; the presence of sickle cell trait confirmed the diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. This case is helpful in the differential diagnosis with non-sickle cell associated “renal cell carcinoma, unclassified with medullary phenotype,” and study of this spectrum of tumors is ongoing. PMID:26793557

  9. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-02

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in adenoma: similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features in adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of the tumor

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Valerie; Pote, Nicolas; Jakate, Shriram; Ferrell, Linda D

    2016-01-01

    Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver can show morphological features similar to hepatocellular adenoma. In rare instances, hepatocellular carcinoma can arise in the setting of hepatocellular adenoma. This study compares the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features of the hepatocellular adenoma-like and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of these tumors. Immunohistochemistry for β-catenin, glutamine synthetase, serum amyloid A protein, glypican-3, and heat-shock protein 70 was done in 11 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma in non-cirrhotic liver. Tumors with nuclear β-catenin and/or diffuse glutamine synthetase were considered β-catenin activated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was done in nine cases for gains of chromosomes 1, 8 and MYC. There were seven men (33–75 years) and four women (29–65 years). Focal atypical morphological features were seen in hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in 7 (64%) cases. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas showed features of inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma in 7 (64%) cases; 4 of these were also serum amyloid A-positive in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion. β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 positivity, and chromosomal gains on FISH were seen in the hepatocellular adenoma portion in 55%, 40%, and 56% of cases, and 73%, 60%, and 78% of cases in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion, respectively. In conclusion, the hepatocellular adenoma-like portion of most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma shows features typically seen in hepatocellular carcinoma such as focal morphological abnormalities, β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 expression, and chromosomal gains. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in these tumors, especially in men and older women, may represent an extremely well-differentiated variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas the morphologically recognizable hepatocellular carcinoma portion represents a relatively higher grade component of the tumor. PMID:24743216

  11. [Risk factors and prevention of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Lupoli, G; Cascone, E; Vitale, G; Arlotta, F; Nuzzo, V; Lupoli, G; Cassese, B

    1996-09-01

    Thyroid carcinoma represents the most frequent endocrine tumor. Recent reports have documented an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer. Its incidence varies geographically around the world from 0.9/ 100,000 men and 2.4/100,000 women in Great Britain to 8.8/100,000 men and 18.2/ 100,000 women in Hawaii. Radiation exposure has been strongly implicated as an aetiological factor. The greatest risk occurs with acute exposure to X and/or gamma rays, with a linear dose response curve, while the risk is inversely related to age at exposure with a latent period of 5-20 years. Together with irradiation, other factors (iodine, alcohol and calcium diet intake, hyperthyroidism, Hashi-moto's thyroiditis, Gardner syndrome, Cowden syndrome, pharmaceutical agents, hormonal factors, occupational exposure, activation of cellular oncogenes) have been associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. In prevention a policy should include regulations and methods for avoiding radiation exposure of the thyroid and for preventing nutritional deficiency and excess of iodine. Besides, early and continuous suppressive therapy of all patients affected by non-toxic goiter or treated previously with thyroidectomy, and a screening of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) using pentagastrin stimulation test and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, in subjects with a familial history of MTC, are of paramount importance to prevent thyroid cancer. PMID:9072669

  12. Combined treatment in carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Souhami, L.; Rabinowits, M.

    1988-08-01

    From October 1982 to August 1984, 30 previously untreated patients with biopsy-proven carcinoma of the nasopharynx, stage III (26.5%) and stage IV (73.5%), received combined radiotherapy (6,000 to 7,000 cGy over a period of 7 to 7.5 weeks) and chemotherapy (mitomycin-C 10 mg/M2, IV; 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/M2, IV; and methotrexate 30 mg/M2, IV) concomitantly. There were 20 males and 10 females, with a median age of 40 years. Minimal follow-up duration was 24 months. Actuarial overall survival rate at 48 months was 49%. Complete local response was achieved in 75% of the patients, with 31% of the cases failing distantly. The complication rate was high and included severe mucositis, xerostomia, and septicemia (fatal in two cases). Despite high local disease control, survival rate did not increase. A randomized trial is urgently needed to establish whether or not combined treatment is of value in advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx.

  13. Histopathological study of radionecrosis in laryngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, M.; Harwood, A.R.; Bryce, D.P.; van Nostrand, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    With modern radiotherapy techniques, clinical radionecrosis is uncommon following eradication of primary squamous cell carcinoma from the larynx. Histologic sections from 265 specimens, prepared by the technique of whole organ subserial step-sectioning were studied to determine the incidence and location of chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis in both irradiated and non-irradiated cases. Chondronecrosis occurred in only 1 of 41 early (pT1 - pT2) tumors but in 143 advanced tumors (pT - pT4) treated with radical radiotherapy and containing residual carcinoma, 27% had evidence of significant necrosis, compared with 24% of those not irradiated. Age, sex, tumor grade and previous laryngeal surgery did not appear to be significant factors in the development of necrosis in irradiated patients. The arytenoid cartilage was most frequently involved when chondronecrosis occurred in association with radiotherapy. Six total laryngectomy specimens (3%) were received from patients with symptoms of chondronecrosis and in whom no residual tumor was present. We conclude that although the incidence of clinical perichondritis is low, histologic chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis occurred in 26% of all the larynges studied. Radiotherapy appears to be a significant causative factor only in advanced supraglottic tumors.

  14. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nishant; Akbani, Rehan; Aksoy, B. Arman; Ally, Adrian; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auman, J. Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B.; Behera, Madhusmita; Bernard, Brady; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bishop, Justin A.; Black, Aaron D.; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A.; Brookens, Robin; Brooks, Denise; Bryant, Robert; Buda, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carling, Tobias; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Carty, Sally E.; Chan, Timothy A.; Chen, Amy Y.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cheung, Dorothy; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ciriello, Giovanni; Clarke, Amanda; Clayman, Gary L.; Cope, Leslie; Copland, John; Covington, Kyle; Danilova, Ludmila; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; DiCara, Daniel; Dhalla, Noreen; Dhir, Rajiv; Dookran, Sheliann S.; Dresdner, Gideon; Eldridge, Jonathan; Eley, Greg; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Eng, Stephanie; Fagin, James A.; Fennell, Timothy; Ferris, Robert L.; Fisher, Sheila; Frazer, Scott; Frick, Jessica; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ganly, Ian; Gao, Jianjiong; Garraway, Levi A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Getz, Gad; Gehlenborg, Nils; Ghossein, Ronald; Gibbs, Richard A.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Gomez-Hernandez, Karen; Grimsby, Jonna; Gross, Benjamin; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Harper, Hollie A.; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Herman, James G.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hofree, Matan; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Franklin W.; Huang, Mei; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ideker, Trey; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kim, Jaegil; Kramer, Roger; Kreisberg, Richard; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Ladanyi, Marc; Lai, Phillip H.; Laird, Peter W.; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lee, Darlene; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Semin; Lee, William; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; McFadden, David G.; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Miller, Michael; Mills, Gordon; Moore, Richard A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Noble, Michael S.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J.; Parker, Joel S.; Paull, Evan O.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Ren, Xiaojia; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ringel, Matthew D.; Rivera, Michael; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Rosenthall, Matthew; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Sander, Chris; Santoso, Netty; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Schumacher, Steven E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Seidman, Jonathan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Seth, Sahil; Sharpe, Samantha; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Shen, John P.; Shen, Ronglai; Sherman, Steven; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sica, Gabriel L.; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Song, Xingzhi; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Stojanov, Petar; Stuart, Joshua M.; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Taylor, Barry S.; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Tuttle, R. Michael; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vandin, Fabio; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Vinco, Michelle; Voet, Doug; Walter, Vonn; Wang, Zhining; Waring, Scot; Weinberger, Paul M.; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wheeler, David; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilson, Jocelyn; Williams, Michelle; Winer, Daniel A.; Wise, Lisa; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W.; Yang, Liming; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zeng, Dong; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Hailei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zmuda, Erik; Zou., Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  15. Tumor Budding in Upper Gastrointestinal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Koelzer, Viktor H.; Langer, Rupert; Zlobec, Inti; Lugli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB) at the tumor–host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon, and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal, and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction, and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: (1) validation of prognostic scoring systems for TB in large, multi-center studies, (2) consensus on the optimal assessment method, and (3) inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study. PMID:25177546

  16. Immunoscintigraphy of recurrences of gynecologic carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Chatal, J.F.; Fumoleau, P.; Saccavini, J.C.; Thedrez, P.; Curtet, C.; Bianco-Arco, A.; Chetanneau, A.; Peltier, P.; Kremer, M.; Guillard, Y.

    1987-12-01

    In a first, retrospective study, 15 patients with known ovarian carcinoma were injected with /sup 131/I-OC 125 F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody (MAb). The sensitivity of immunoscintigraphy based on the number of the tumor sites was 67% (12/18). In a second, prospective study, 29 patients with gynecologic carcinoma were injected with /sup 131/I-OC 125 F(ab')2 (24) or /sup 131/I-19-9 F(ab')2 (5) MAbs according to the histologic type. Based on the number of tested anatomic sites, sensitivity was 72% and specificity 86%. In two patients injected with both /sup 131/I-OC-125 F(ab')2 and /sup 125/I-NS F(ab')2 (nonspecific immunoglobulin) 1 and 4 days before tumor resection, tumor uptake of the specific antibody was 2.2 and 4.5 times greater than that of NS. Immunoscintigraphic results were complementary with those of ultrasonography and computed tomography. Finally, in one patient injected successively with /sup 131/I-OC 125 F(ab')2 and /sup 111/In-DTPA-OC 125 F(ab')2, the recurrent tumor was visualized with both radionuclides, with /sup 111/In providing better abdominal tumor contrast but causing much greater liver radioactivity than /sup 131/I.

  17. Developments in cancer vaccines for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for about 6 % of all new cancers diagnosed worldwide and represents one of the leading causes of cancer-related death globally in men and women, respectively. The overall prognosis for HCC patients is poor, especially in the majority of patients with more advanced stage of disease. Indeed, in such cases immunotherapeutic strategies may represent a novel and effective tool. A few immunotherapy trials conducted for HCC have provided divergent results, urging the scientific community to explore additional paths to improve efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches. The "Cancer Vaccine development for Hepatocellular Carcinoma"-HEPAVAC Consortium has been funded by the EU within the FP7 with the goal of developing a novel therapeutic peptide-based cancer vaccine strategy for HCC including both "off-the-shelf" and personalized antigens. This will be one of the very few vaccine trials for HCC and the first multi-epitope, multi-target and multi-HLA allele therapeutic cancer vaccine for such a frequent and aggressive disease with a hitherto high unmet medical need. Feasibility, safety and biological efficacy will be evaluated in a randomized, controlled European multicenter phase I/II clinical trial. PMID:26093657

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Lifeso, R.M.; Bull, C.A.

    1985-06-15

    Between January 1976 and January 1983, 37 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities have been treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre by the authors. Each case has arisen in an area of preexisting scar or sinus. Twenty-nine cases were treated by definitive amputation, with 2 local recurrences and 12 nodal metastases. Seven cases had local excision, with three local recurrences and two nodal metastases. Recurrence rate was highest in Grade II and Grade III lesions, and 11 of 15 cases with Grade II disease had metastases to the regional lymph nodes an average of 5 months after surgery. With Grade I disease patients, 4 of 15 had nodal metastases an average of 5 months after surgery. Prophylactic regional nodal irradiation or node dissection was performed in seven cases. None of these cases have shown nodal metastases at an average of 24 months following definitive surgery and radiation. Routine prophylactic regional node irradiation is recommended in all cases of peripheral squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ben; Tropé, Claes G.; Reich, Reuven

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, with the majority of patients dying within 5?years of diagnosis. This poor survival of patients diagnosed with this malignancy is attributed to diagnosis at advanced stage, when the tumor has metastasized, and to chemotherapy resistance, either primary or developing along tumor progression. However, ovarian carcinomas, constituting the vast majority of ovarian cancers, additionally have unique biology, one aspect of which is the ability to co-express epithelial and mesenchymal determinants. epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a physiological process by which mesenchymal cells are formed and migrate to target organs during embryogenesis, is involved in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, these changes do not fully occur in ovarian carcinoma, and are even reversed in tumor cells present in malignant peritoneal and pleural effusions. This review summarizes current knowledge in this area, including the characteristics of EMT related to adhesion, transcriptional regulation and chemoresistance, and their clinical relevance, as well as the recently observed regulation of EMT by microRNA. PMID:22655269

  20. [Strategy for molecular testing in pulmonary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Tixier, Lucie; Perrot, Loïc; Cayre, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of theranostic molecular markers is central in the management of lung cancer. As those tumors are diagnosed in two third of the cases at an advanced stage, molecular screening is frequently performed on "small samples". The screening strategy starts by an accurate histopathological characterization, including on biopsies or cytological specimens. WHO 2015 provided a new classification for small biopsy and cytology, defining categories such as non-small cell carcinoma (NSCC), favor adenocarcinoma (TTF1 positive), or favor squamous cell carcinoma (p40 positive). Only the NSCC tumors, non-squamous, are eligible to molecular testing. A strategy aiming at tissue sparing for the small biopsies has to be organized. Tests corresponding to available drugs are prioritized. Blank slides will be prepared for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization based tests such as ALK. DNA will then be extracted for the other tests, EGFR mutation screening first associated or not to KRAS. Then, the emerging biomarkers (HER2, ROS1, RET, BRAF…) as well as potentially other markers in case of clinical trials, can been tested. The spread of next generation sequencing technologies, with a very sensitive all-in-one approach will allow the identification of minority clones. Eventually, the development of liquid biopsies will provide the opportunity to monitor the apparition of resistance clones during treatment. This non-invasive approach allows patients with a contraindication to perform biopsy or with non-relevant biopsies to access to molecular screening. PMID:26778816

  1. Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah; Yoon, Joon-Kee; Dragulescu-Andrasi, Anca; Nielsen, Carsten; Tisma, Aleksandra; Bodapati, Sunil; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Yan, Xinrui; Chan, Carmel; Starcevic, Daniela; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent was determined to be activated by both enzymes in vitro, with MMP-9 being more efficient in this regard. Both optical and photoacoustic imaging showed significantly higher signal in tumors of mice injected with the active agent than in tumors injected with the control, non-activatable, agent. Conclusions With the combination of high spatial resolution and signal specificity, targeted photoacoustic imaging holds great promise as a noninvasive method for early diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinomas. PMID:23349314

  2. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R H; Clarke, T J; Sarsfield, P T; Gluckman, P G

    1991-01-01

    Four cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands arose as painless masses in patients over 60 years old, three in the parotid and one in the submandibular gland. Histologically, all the tumours were composed of small ducts with a double cell lining surrounded by a basement membrane. The inner cells were epithelial and the outer cells myoepithelial, the latter usually possessing clear cytoplasm. There was a variable degree of intervening hyalinised stroma. All the tumours were partly encapsulated, but also displayed local invasiveness. One of the tumours also showed areas of dedifferentiation when it later recurred and metastasised. The other three were apparently cured by initial excision, with adjuvant radiotherapy in one instance. In the past this tumour has been described as clear cell adenoma, and it was only recently that its true malignant nature, albeit low grade, was recognised. Reports of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma are still relatively few, with only one case described from Britain. It is recommended that this histologically distinct neoplasm deserves wider recognition. Images PMID:2045502

  3. The pathology of preclinical medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) occurs sporadically, or in familial forms in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B. In the familial forms it is associated with well-characterized, germline mutations in the RET protooncogene. The mutation sites differ in MEN2A and MEN2B, and MTC develops at an earlier age and is more aggressive in MEN2B. Screening of relatives of affected individuals for such mutations can identify those at risk of developing MTC and total thyroidectomy can be carried out in the first decade of life before the development of clinical disease. Analysis of such removed thyroid glands shows abnormalities of the parafollicular C-cells in almost all cases. The abnormalities range from C-cell hyperplasia, either diffuse or nodular, to microcarcinoma and occasionally frank MTC. The abnormalities are bilateral and affect the upper two thirds of the thyroid lobes. Microcarcinomas may be visible with the naked eye, but often they are identified only on microscopy. Histopathological examination of the entire gland is essential. PMID:15640548

  4. Gastroenteropancreatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Strosberg, Jonathan; Baudin, Eric; Klimstra, David S; Yao, James C

    2014-09-15

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms are classified as low-grade, intermediate-grade, and high-grade tumors based on morphologic criteria and the proliferation rate. Most studies have been conducted in patients with well differentiated (low-grade to intermediate-grade) neuroendocrine tumors. Data are substantially scarcer on poorly differentiated, high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which includes the entities of small cell carcinoma and large cell NEC. A literature search of GEP-NEC was performed. Long-term survival was poor even among patients who presented with localized disease. Several studies highlighted heterogeneity within the high-grade NEC category and a need for the further identification of discreet prognostic and predictive groups. Tumors with a Ki-67 proliferation index <55% were less responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy, and patients with such tumors or with well differentiated morphology had better survival than patients who had tumors with poorly differentiated morphology or a higher Ki-67 index. Treatment options beyond platinum-based chemotherapy are emerging. A revision of the World Health Organization high-grade NEC classification seems to be necessary based on recent data. Platinum-based chemotherapy may not be the optimal treatment for patients who have GEP-NEC with a moderately high proliferation rate. Adequate diagnostic and prognostic stratifications constitute the basis for future progress. PMID:24771552

  5. Hashimoto thyroiditis coexistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, Calogero; Sandonato, Luigi; Graceffa, Giuseppa; Fricano, Salvatore; Torcivia, Adriana; Vieni, Salvatore; Latteri, Stefania; Latteri, Mario Adelfio

    2005-10-01

    Several studies report a higher rate of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), indicating a possible correlation between the two diseases. We studied a group of 89 subjects undergoing surgery for thyroid carcinomas compared with a control group of 89 subjects operated on for normofunctioning goiter, and a second group of 47 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for HT. Association with HT was found in 19 of the 71 PTC subjects (26.7%) and in 8 goiter patients (8.9%), which was a significant difference (P < 0.02). Thirteen of the HT patients, mostly with the nodular form, showed coexistent PTC (27.6%). HT and PTC coexisted in several morphological, immunohistochemical, and biomolecular aspects; increased incidence of PTC in HT patients might therefore indicate that HT is a precursor of thyroid cancer. Further studies are required, however, in order to confirm this hypothesis; until then, HT patients should undergo careful clinical and technical follow-up. PMID:16468540

  6. Breast carcinomas: variations in sonoelastographic appearance

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Eduardo de Faria Castro; Assunção-Queiros, Maria do Carmo Guedes Alcoforado; Roveda, Decio

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed factors influencing the sonoelastographic presentation of breast carcinoma. Methods A prospective collaborative study was conducted by the Santa Casa de São Paulo and CTC-Center, on 540 breast lesions in women referred for percutaneous breast biopsy. Eighty-four carcinomas showing lesions on ultrasonography were included. These lesions were classified into four sonoelastographic scores, where scores of 1, 2, and 3 were considered false-negative, and a score of 4 was considered true-positive. Scores were compared against histopathologic results, which were divided into two groups, ie, soft lesions (group 1) and hard lesions (group 2). False-negative and true-positive results were also assessed for variation according to patient age and mean lesion diameter. Results Of the 84 lesions studied, nine yielded false-negative results on sonoelastography and 75 yielded true-positive results. In terms of histopathologic classification, eight were assigned to group 1 and 76 to group 2. The chi-squared test showed a correlation between sonoelastographic scores and histopathologic lesion type. No statistically significant differences were observed according to patient age or largest lesion diameter. Conclusion Our results revealed an association between sonoelastographic presentation of breast lesions and histology. False-negative results on sonoelastography were influenced by histologic type of lesion and not by lesion size or patient age. PMID:25177152

  7. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S.; Hassan, Mohammad J.; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up. PMID:26629388

  8. Gene expression profiling analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. However, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well-understood, and the prognosis for patients with HCC remains very poor. Methods To disclose detailed genetic mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a view toward development of novel therapeutic targets, we analyzed expression profiles HCCs and their corresponding noncancerous tissues by using bioinformatics method. Results In this paper, we report the identification of genes whose expression has been altered and the changed bio-pathways during hepatocarcinogenesis. Hepatoma cells infect intracellular and intercellular signal transduction through Focal adhesion and cause abnormal expression of important intracellular signaling pathway. In addition, it is worth mentioning that some small molecules still restored to the state similar to normal cells, such as bambuterol and lovastatin. This member gene set would serve as a pool of lead gene targets for the identification and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers to greatly improve the clinical management of HCC patients with different risks of recurrence after curative partial hepatectomy. Conclusions The study has great significance for gene therapy and pharmacotherapy and provides a new treatment entry point and a potential new clinical drug for HCC patients. PMID:24229431

  9. The Changing Landscape of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Erik S.; Gopal, Purva; Singal, Amit G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents one of the leading causes of cancer death and has proved to be highly refractory to treatment. Extensive analysis of the disease has demonstrated that it arises predominantly in response to high-risk etiological challenges, most notably hepatitis virus. However, with evolving vaccination and the obesity epidemic, progressively more cases are associated with underlying metabolic dysfunction. Pathologically diverse forms of HCC are observed, and recent sequencing analysis has defined common events that target well-known cancer pathways including β-catenin/Axin, TP53, and RB/CDKN2A, as well as frequent aberrations in chromatin remodeling factors. However, there are a myriad of low frequency genetic events that make each HCC case unique. Gene expression profiling approaches have successfully been deployed for prognostic assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma and to detect the earliest stages of disease. Despite more extensive research, systemic treatment for HCC is exceedingly limited, with only a handful of drugs providing benefit. Ongoing clinical trials are attempting to exploit specific biological dependencies of HCC to improve the dismal prognosis. Overall, the future of HCC treatment will rely on an understanding of the interplay between etiological factors, molecular features of disease, and rational therapeutic intervention. PMID:24388934

  10. Basal cell carcinoma: clinical and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Di Stefani, A; Chimenti, S

    2015-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing, locally invasive malignant epidermal skin neoplasm that represents the most common malignancy in Caucasians. The clinical presentation of BCC can be extremely variable: nodular, ulcerative, superficial, morpheiform, pigmented, and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus are the main clinical variants described. Clinical factors influencing negatively prognosis of BCC are: anatomic location, recurrence and/or persistance at site after treatment, and tumor size. A precise correlations between clinical and histopathological variants is not always possible, especially in biopsy samples. From a histopathological point of view various subtypes has been described: nodular, superficial, infiltrating, morpheiform, micronodular, fibroepithelial BCC and basosquamous carcinoma. A classification system based by growth pattern allows the identification of high-risk subtypes with potential tumor recurrence and aggressive biologic behavior such as infiltrating, morpheiform, micronodular and basosquamous subtypes. Further histopathological aspects determining high risk clinical morbidity are the level of invasion, perineural and lymphovascular invasion, involved surgical margins. The awareness of these clinicopathological features is helpful to better select the appropriate treatment management. PMID:26099353

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology, biology, diagnosis, and therapies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcos António; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves; Tralhão, José Guilherme; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women, as is diagnosed in more than half a million individuals worldwide every year. In Portugal, its incidence and mortality rates are low compared to other types of cancers. In Brazil, in the city of São Paulo, according to data released by the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS), the incidence of primary liver cancer was 2.07/100,000 inhabitants. Although the vast majority of cases (85%) mainly affect developing countries, especially where infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic, the incidence in developed countries is increasing. This pathology is associated with several risk factors, not only environmental but also genetic, generating an increasing interest in attaining a better understanding of this disease, which is still associated with very late diagnosis and poor prognosis. Of the available treatments, few patients benefit from their scanty advantages, increasingly stimulating research of new forms of treatment against this disease. This review aimed to briefly but fully identify risk factors, molecular and biochemical pathways, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and possible clinical approaches of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24041910

  12. Integrated genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-10-23

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D, and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors, and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  13. Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Thomas J.; Driedger, Albert A.; Garcia, Bertha M.; Van Uum, Stanislaus H. M.; Rachinsky, Irina; Chevendra, Vijaya; Breadner, Daniel; Feinn, Richard; Walsh, Stephen J.; Malchoff, Carl D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Whether or not the familial form of papillary thyroid carcinoma is more aggressive than the sporadic form of the disease remains controversial. Methods. To explore this question and whether or not increased aggressiveness is more apparent in families with multiple affected members, we performed a chi square by trend analysis on our patients clinical and pathologic data comparing: first degree families with three or more affected members versus first degree families with two affected members versus sporadic cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results. No statistically significant trends were seen for any presenting surgical pathology parameter, age at presentation, length of follow-up or gender distribution. The familial groups exhibited significant trends for higher rates of reoperation (P = 0.05) and/or requiring additional radioactive iodine therapy (P = 0.03), distant metastases (P = 0.003) and deaths (P = 0.01). These aggressive features were most apparent in certain families with three or more affected members. Conclusions. Using the chi square by trend analysis, a significant trend was seen for the familial form of papillary thyroid cancer to possess more aggressive features than the sporadic disease. Prompt recognition of the familial nature of the disease may provide earlier diagnosis and treatment in similarly affected family members. PMID:22131992

  14. Microinvasive laser surgery for laryngeal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Jinping; Tao, Zhengde; Xiao, Jianyun; Luo, Junli; Chen, Xianghui; Zhao, Suping; Betz, Christian

    2001-08-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of microinvasive Nd:YAG laser surgery in case of early stage laryngeal carcinoma as well as it's effect on the cellular immune function of the tumor-bearing hosts. Material and Method: Thirty-seven patients with glottic Tis or T1 SCC were treated by fiberoptic laryngoscopic Nd:YAG laser surgery. Both before and after therapy, serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (SIL-2R) and interleukin- 2(IL-2) as well as the NK activity were determined via double-antibody sandwich technique, tritiated thymidine- deoxyribonucleoside incorporation and iodine 125-uridine- deoxyribunocleoside release technique, respectively. Result: All 37 patients tolerated the procedure well. A 3-8 year follow up in a subgroup of 31 patients resulted in a estimated cure rate of 87.1% (27/31). The posttherapy serum levels of SIL-2R were significantly declined (p<0.001), while those of IL-2 and NK activity were significantly elevated (p<0.001) as compared with those detected pretherapeutically. Conclusion: Therapy with fiberoptic laryngoscopic Nd:YAG laser surgery is simple, safe, effective and microinvasive for the patients with early stage laryngeal carcinoma and has an immuno-enhancing effect on its host.

  15. Ameloblastic carcinoma of the maxilla: A case report

    PubMed Central

    FRANÇA, DIURIANNE CAROLINE CAMPOS; MOREIRA, JOÃO MILANEZ; DE AGUIAR, SANDRA MARIA HERONDINA COELHO ÁVILA; DE CARVALHOS, ARTUR ABURAD; GOIATO, MARCELO COELHO

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to present the clinical features and treatment of a case of maxillary ameloblastic carcinoma. Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant odontogenic carcinoma that has metastatic potential. Due to its rare incidence, there are few studies focusing on its radiological characteristics. When ameloblastic carcinoma demonstrates an aggressive appearance, it may be diagnosed as a malignant tumor; however, in cases showing a non-aggressive appearance, it is difficult to distinguish ameloblastic carcinoma from ameloblastoma. We report a case of ameloblastic carcinoma of the maxilla in a 59-year-old male patient, including the clinical signs, radiological images and pathological features. A partial area was surgically excised under local anesthesia and the material was sent to the Laboratory of Oral Pathology. The histological sections revealed a fragmented odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin, consisting of solid parenchyma and also revealed basal cells resembling ameloblasts, occasionally arranged in palisades. Certain parts of the architecture resembled that of an ameloblastoma; however, the cytology of other areas confirmed the diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma of the maxilla. The patient was scheduled for definitive surgery, including a right maxillectomy and radiotherapy. The patient was followed up every 3 months. After 2 years follow-up, there were no clinical or radiological signs of recurrence. PMID:23205126

  16. Microsatellite instability is uncommon in uterine serous carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, H.; Lax, S. F.; Gaudin, P. B.; Isacson, C.; Cho, K. R.; Hedrick, L.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-four uterine serous carcinomas, a type of endometrial carcinoma with aggressive behavior and a high frequency (90%) of p53 gene mutations, were analyzed for microsatellite instability (MI). Genomic DNA isolated from paired normal and tumor tissue was analyzed at eight microsatellite loci (D2S119, D2S123, D2S147, D10S197, D13S175, D18S58, D18S69, and ATn) located on four different chromosomes. All 34 tumors failed to meet the criteria for MI, defined as an alteration in the size of at least two of the microsatellite loci in tumor DNA when compared with normal DNA. Only three tumors demonstrated a shift in the size of a single microsatellite locus. Previously we reported MI in 20% of uterine endometrioid carcinomas, the most common type of endometrial carcinoma. The observed difference in the MI frequency between endometrioid and serous carcinoma is statistically significant (P = 0.003). Our data demonstrate that MI is uncommon in uterine serous carcinoma and support that different pathogenetic mechanisms are involved in the development of the two most common types of endometrial carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9006324

  17. Thoracic roentgenologic manifestations in primary carcinoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Tsai, G L; Liu, J D; Siauw, C P; Chen, P H

    1984-09-01

    The most common extrahepatic metastasis of primary carcinoma of the liver is pulmonary metastasis. The discrepancy in the incidence of metastasis between clinical and postmortem series is quite obvious. The rapidly fatal course of hepatoma, the limitations of the chest x-ray film in detecting the small implantation, and incomplete follow-up of patients lead to the lower incidence in clinical series. From January 1974 to December 1982, there were 470 cases of primary carcinoma of the liver at Taipei Municipal Jen-Ai Hospital. Among them, we found 439 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 31 cases of cholangiocellular carcinoma. We also found 50 cases (11 percent) of hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis and ten cases (2 percent) of hepatocellular carcinoma with bone metastasis. Seven of the ten cases of bone metastasis were intrathoracic. Additionally, we found that it was rare to have pulmonary metastasis in cholangiocellular carcinoma; it only occurred once. Hematogenous and lymphatic spread and direct invasion are the principal ways for metastasis in primary hepatoma. Multiple nodulation and pleural effusion are the main manifestations in the chest x-ray film. Additionally, we saw lymphangitic carcinomatosis and miliary lesions in some of our patients. The common characteristic of these metastases is that most of the lesions arise from or are prominent in the right lower pulmonary field. Osteolysis appears in the patients with bone metastasis. Most of the metastases form a big protruding mass of tumor. PMID:6088178

  18. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA microsatellite instability in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dian-Chun; Fang, Li; Wang, Rong-Quan; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the nuclear microsatellite instability (nMSI) at BAT26 and mitochondral microsalellite instability (mtMSI) in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the relationship between nMSI and mtMSI. METHODS: nMSI was observed with PCR and mtMSI with PCR-SSCP in 52 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: mtMSI was detected in 11 out of the 52 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (21.2%). Among the 11 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma with mtMSI, 7 occured in one locus and 4 in 2 loci. The frequency of mtMSI in the 52 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma showed no correlation to sex, age, infection of hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis as well as positive AFP of the patients (P > 0.05). In addition, nMSI was detected in 3 out of 52 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (5.8%) and there was no correlation of the incidence of mtMSI to that of nMSI (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: mtMSI may be involved in the coccurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma and it is independent of nMSI. PMID:14760760

  19. Characterization of spontaneous mammary gland carcinomas in female baboons.

    PubMed

    Luth, Jennifer A; Hubbard, Gene B; Dick, Edward J; Frazier, Shellaine R; Barrier, Breton F

    2008-02-01

    Spontaneous mammary gland carcinomas occurred in five baboons during a 13-year period at Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research. The affected baboons ranged in age from 21 to 33 years. Menopause in the baboon occurs at approximately 26 years of age. All five animals had typical invasive ductal carcinoma. Morphologically, the tumors were characterized by neoplastic cells arranged from pseudopapillary and cribiform to more poorly differentiated solid cellular growth patterns. Additional features included lack of tubule formation (4/5), marked nuclear pleomorphism (5/5), a high mitotic rate (4/5) and tumor necrosis (4/5). Applying a grading system used for breast cancer in women, four tumors were graded as poorly differentiated carcinomas and one was graded as moderately differentiated. Co-existent ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was observed in three of the mammary tumors. Metastases to the regional lymph nodes were confirmed in two animals, both with histological evidence of lymphovascular invasion in the primary tumor. Distant metastases were observed in only one animal. Immunohistochemical staining for human therapeutic markers revealed 2/5 tumors strongly positive for estrogen receptor, 1/5 strongly positive for progesterone receptor and 4/4 negative for HER2 expression. Although the incidence appears to be low, these five cases of mammary carcinoma in female baboons suggest that when present baboon mammary carcinoma is usually of ductal origin and behaves similar to a human breast carcinoma. PMID:18199073

  20. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome: An update

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Rubayat; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased dramatically by 80% over the past two decades in the United States. Numerous basic science and clinical studies have documented a strong association between hepatocellular carcinoma and the metabolic syndrome. These studies have documented that, in most patients, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma through the cirrhotic process. However, minority of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis. This review summarizes the current literature of the link between hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome with special emphasis on various components of the metabolic syndrome including risk of association with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Current understanding of pathophysiology, clinical features, treatments, outcomes, and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in the background of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is reviewed. With the current epidemic of metabolic syndrome, the number of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing. Subsequently, it is expected that the incidence and prevalence of HCC will also increase. It is very important for the scientific community to shed more light on the pathogenesis of HCC with metabolic syndrome, both with and without cirrhosis. At the same time it is also important to quantify the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with the metabolic syndrome in a prospective setting and develop surveillance recommendations for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24069511

  1. Hypercalcitoninemia is not Pathognomonic of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Sergio PA; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; de Menezes Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (> 2–4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (~90%–100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, < 5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and consequent incorrect recommendation for thyroid surgery. PMID:19606248

  2. Invasive duct carcinoma of the forearm: a rare case of distant, isolated 'carcinoma en cuirasse'.

    PubMed

    Farahat, Ahmed; Mohamed, Samah; Vijay, Adarsh; Magdy, Nesreen; Elaffandi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis (carcinoma en cuirasse) is a condition that results from a tumor spreading via lymphatic or vascular embolization, direct implant during surgery or skin involvement by contiguity. Contralateral distant cutaneous breast cancer has never been reported before and hence, the nature and management of such rare cases remains challenging. We aim to present a case of left-sided 'distant' cutaneous metastatic invasive duct carcinoma affecting the distal upper extremity (contralateral side) two and half years (disease-free) following treatment for right breast cancer (right mastectomy + chemoradiation). A complete metastatic work-up excluded the presence of any underlying disease. Clinical examination revealed a fungating, irregular ulcer that bled easily on touch involving the left forearm. The ulcer was excised totally and the raw area reconstructed using a split thickness graft. The patient had uneventful postoperative course and now remains disease-free for almost 1 year with no evidence of local recurrence. PMID:26085655

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Manrai, Manish; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Alfadda, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important component in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma pancreas. With the advent of advanced imaging techniques and tissue acquisition methods the role of EUS is becoming increasingly important. Small pancreatic tumors can be reliably diagnosed with EUS. EUS guided fine needle aspiration establishes diagnosis in some cases. EUS plays an important role in staging of carcinoma pancreas and in some important therapeutic methods that include celiac plexus neurolysis, EUS guided biliary drainage and drug delivery. In this review we attempt to review the role of EUS in diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas. PMID:26839647

  4. Nevoid Basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Bala Subramanyam, S; Naga Sujata, D; Sridhar, K; Pushpanjali, M

    2015-03-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises of a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Diagnosis may be difficult because of the variability of expressivity and different ages of onset for different traits of this disorder. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cysts like radiolucencies are discovered on panoramic view. This article reports a case of Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and provides an overview on diagnosis and management. PMID:25838663

  5. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

  6. Presentation of renal cell carcinoma as cervical polyp metastasis.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Gwendolyn J; Moore, Grace; Alatassi, Houda

    2010-10-01

    Secondary cervical adenocarcinomas are most commonly seen owing to the extension of a primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Metastatic tumors from other sites are rather uncommon and, when seen, are most frequently from the ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, or breast. We report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell variant, to the cervix, which presented as a cervical polyp in a postmenopausal female. To our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the cervix. This case is only the third in which the cervical metastasis was the presenting sign of renal cell carcinoma and the first in which the clinical presentation was as a cervical polyp. PMID:20885169

  7. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Cutaneous Metastasis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Onak Kandemir, Nilufer; Barut, Figen; Y?lmaz, K?vanç; Tokgoz, Husnu; Hosnuter, Mubin; Ozdamar, Sukru Oguz

    2010-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney tumor in adults. Cutaneous metastasis is a rare first symptom of the disease. This paper describes the diagnosis of a renal cell carcinoma that was indicated by cutaneous metastasis in the head and neck region, and considers the etiopathogenesis of such cases. A careful skin examination is important to detect cutaneous metastasis associated with renal cell carcinomas. Metastatic skin lesions in the head and neck region must be taken into consideration during a differential diagnosis. PMID:20811607

  8. The synchronous primary carcinomas of the rectum and prostate.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Semin; Ozdamar, Arzu; Nese, Nalan; Aydede, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of synchronous prostatic and rectal carcinomas is uncommon. To make a correct diagnosis, biopsies of both sites are mandatory. Pathological slides should be compared and immunohistochemical staining should be taken into consideration. In this paper, an unexpected case of synchronous rectal and prostatic carcinomas arising in an 84-year-old male with hematemesis and pelvic pain is reported. These two tumoral components have a distinctive histological appearance. Immunohistochemical evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of these synchronous tumors. This case emphasizes that rectal and prostatic carcinomas can arise simultaneously. In this situation, providing clinicopathological correlation and deciding the necessity of intraoperative consultation in proper time are extremely important. PMID:22234115

  9. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the posterior tongue.

    PubMed

    Gumusay, Ozge; Yilmaz, Guldal; Aydil, Utku; Ozet, Ahmet; Tufan, Gulnihal; Erdem, Ozlem; Kizil, Yusuf; Benekli, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    In the head and neck mucosa, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the oral cavity is rare. Herein, we present the first report of a small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 54-year-old man on the right lateral posterior tongue. It is important to remember that although neuroendocrine small cell carcinomas (SCCs) are most commonly seen in the lung, they rarely may arise in the extrapulmonary sites, including salivary glands, as well. As there is not any standard therapeutic regimen already existing, it is important to be aware of and to know how to deal with such rare cases. PMID:26458628

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma review: current treatment, and evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Bulent; Battal, Bilal; Sari, Sebahattin; Verim, Samet

    2014-12-21

    We read with great interest the recent article entitled "Hepatocellular carcinoma review: Current treatment, and evidence-based medicine" by Raza et al, published in World Journal of Gastroenterology. Authors evaluated treatments for early and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma based on an extensive review of the relevant literature. They reported that radiofrequency ablation is the most effective local ablative therapy. They concluded that RF ablation is equivalent to surgical resection in well selected patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, we want to mention microwave ablation besides RF ablation. PMID:25548509

  11. Ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type, of the mandible: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yukio; Toratani, Shigeaki; Ogawa, Ikuko; Okamoto, Tetsuji

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare, odontogenic, malignant tumor that has features of ameloblastoma in addition to cytologic atypia with or without metastasis. It is classified as primary type; secondary type, intraosseous; and secondary type, peripheral according to the World Health Organization classification of 2005. Ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type, is extremely rare, and few cases have been reported in the English-language literature. The authors report a case of ameloblastic carcinoma, secondary type, arising at the mandible in a 17-year-old Japanese boy. PMID:23099227

  12. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat. PMID:27010306

  13. Radioimaging of human ovarian carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Manetta, A.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.; Hamilton, T.; Ozols, R.; Mortel, R.

    1987-11-01

    Human ovarian carcinomas in nude mice were radioimaged using a well-characterized antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (CA 125) and three transplantable human ovarian carcinoma tumor lines: NIH:OVCAR 3, NIH:OVCAR 5, and NIH:OVCAR 9. Radioiodinated monoclonal antibody OC125 was used in these studies. In order to establish the optimal conditions for imaging, tumor/blood ratios were determined. Gamma scintigraphy of nude mice bearing subcutaneous transplants of human ovarian carcinomas 3-4 days after /sup 131/I-OC125 administration demonstrated selective localization of the radiolabeled monoclonal antibody by these tumors without need for any background subtraction techniques.

  14. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the penis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Vilela, Maria Helena Tavares; da Silva Mendonça, Rodrigo Pastor; de Morais, Danilo Tavares Maranhão; Júnior, Paulo Cézar Ribeiro Gomes; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Barreira, Bernardo Monteiro Antunes

    2015-01-01

    We describe the fifth case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The patient had penile ulcer with bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and underwent total penectomy. After antibiotic therapy, the patient began outpatient chemotherapy, but the treatment was discontinued due to his intolerance. The patient died due to infectious complications of the inguinal lymphatic fistula 7 months after the histological diagnosis. Notably, the periurethral area was involved in the anatomopathological evaluation of the excised penis. The penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma was aggressive and the perimeatal region was involved. This case helps demystify the origins and prognosis of this rare case. More reports documenting patient characteristics and their evolution with penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma are needed. PMID:25624963

  15. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the penis: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Vilela, Maria Helena Tavares; da Silva Mendonça, Rodrigo Pastor; de Morais, Danilo Tavares Maranhão; Júnior, Paulo Cézar Ribeiro Gomes; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Barreira, Bernardo Monteiro Antunes

    2015-01-01

    We describe the fifth case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The patient had penile ulcer with bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and underwent total penectomy. After antibiotic therapy, the patient began outpatient chemotherapy, but the treatment was discontinued due to his intolerance. The patient died due to infectious complications of the inguinal lymphatic fistula 7 months after the histological diagnosis. Notably, the periurethral area was involved in the anatomopathological evaluation of the excised penis. The penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma was aggressive and the perimeatal region was involved. This case helps demystify the origins and prognosis of this rare case. More reports documenting patient characteristics and their evolution with penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma are needed. PMID:25624963

  16. Laryngeal carcinoma presenting as polymyositis: A paraneoplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ritesh; Rathaur, Bhanu Pratap; Chaudhari, Tejendra Sukdeo; Shukla, Rakesh; Malhotra, Kiran Preet

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma is rarely associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. Inflammatory myopathy presenting as paraneoplastic event is commonly associated with carcinomas of ovary, lung, pancreas, stomach, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of elderly male, who presented with proximal muscle weakness and found to be associated with laryngeal carcinoma. Diagnosis of polymyositis (PM) was confirmed based on clinical features, laboratory test, and muscle biopsy. Exclusion of other commonly associated malignancies was done. This patient improved gradually after 6 months of immunosuppressive therapy and management of underlying cancer. PMID:27011653

  17. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Floor of the Mouth - A Rarity.

    PubMed

    Maloth, Aruna Kumari; Nandan, S R K; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keerthi

    2015-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most commonly occurring malignant salivary gland neoplasm, and contributes 2.8%-15% of all salivary gland tumours. More than half of these cases involve the major salivary glands, primarily the parotid glands and minor salivary glands. Sublingual salivary glands neoplasms are very rare and constitute 0.5% and 1% of all epithelial salivary tumours and approximately 1.5% of the major salivary glands carcinomas. Here we describe a case report of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the floor of the mouth in a 70-year-old female patient that was mimicking like a ranula clinically. PMID:26813873

  18. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Floor of the Mouth – A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Nandan, S.R.K.; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keerthi

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most commonly occurring malignant salivary gland neoplasm, and contributes 2.8%–15% of all salivary gland tumours. More than half of these cases involve the major salivary glands, primarily the parotid glands and minor salivary glands. Sublingual salivary glands neoplasms are very rare and constitute 0.5% and 1% of all epithelial salivary tumours and approximately 1.5% of the major salivary glands carcinomas. Here we describe a case report of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the floor of the mouth in a 70-year-old female patient that was mimicking like a ranula clinically. PMID:26813873

  19. USP7 overexpression predicts a poor prognosis in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang-Yin; Lin, Zong-Wu; Lu, Chun-Lai; Gu, Jie; Yuan, Yun-Feng; Xu, Feng-Kai; Liu, Rong-Hua; Ge, Di; Ding, Jian-Yong

    2015-03-01

    In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both USP7 expression and p53 gene status were reported to be an indicator of poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma patients; however, its roles and mechanisms in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma need to be clarified. The USP7 expression was examined in NSCLC tumors (excluding adenocarcinoma), their corresponding non-tumorous tissues, and NSCLC cells. Then, the prognostic role of USP7 was analyzed in 110 NSCLC samples (excluding the adenocarcinoma). Finally, the roles and mechanisms of USP7 in the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of a NSCLC cell were assessed using a specific vshRNA. The USP7 expression was higher in NSCLC tissues compared to non-tumorous samples, accordingly, the high level of USP7 was detected in NSCLC cell lines compared with HBE cell. After the USP7 downregulation, the H460 cells exhibited decreased metastasis/invasion in vitro and in vivo. The preliminary mechanism study indicated overexpression of USP7 might regulate the p53-MDM2 pathway by inducing the MDM2 de-ubiquitination and subsequent stabilization, which resulted in the upregulation of the Bad phosphorylation. Additionally, we also found that USP7 might induce cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition to enhance the cell invasive ability. Clinically, USP7 overexpression significantly correlated with malignant phenotype. Furthermore, the 5-year overall survival in patients with USP7(low) was higher than that of USP7(high). Multivariate analysis showed USP7 overexpression was an independent prognostic marker for these cancers. USP7 overexpression may regulate the survival and invasive properties of squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma cells, and may serve as a molecular target. PMID:25519684

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens in different histological types of breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background On the past decade a plethora of investigations were directed on identification of molecules involved in breast tumorogenesis, which could represent a powerful tool for monitoring, diagnostics and treatment of this disease. In current study we analyzed six previously identified medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens including LGALS3BP, RAD50, FAM50A, RBPJ, PABPC4, LRRFIP1 with cancer restricted serological profile in different histological types of breast cancer. Methods Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 20 tissue samples including medullary breast carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma and non-cancerous tissues obtained from patients with fibrocystic disease (each of five) was performed using specifically generated polyclonal antibodies. Differences in expression patterns were evaluated considering percent of positively stained cells, insensitivity of staining and subcellular localization in cells of all tissue samples. Results All 6 antigens predominantly expressed in the most cells of all histological types of breast tumors and non-cancerous tissues with slight differences in intensity of staining and subcellular localization. The most significant differences in expression pattern were revealed for RAD50 and LGALS3BP in different histological types of breast cancer and for PABPC4 and FAM50A antigens in immune cells infiltrating breast tumors. Conclusions This pilot study made possible to select 4 antigens LGALS3BP, RAD50, PABPC4, and FAM50A as promising candidates for more comprehensive research as potential molecular markers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1860649350796892 PMID:23181716

  1. Auto-Penectomy: A Devastating Complication of Advanced, Neglected Penile Carcinoma: Autopenectomy due to penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Satya N

    2013-09-01

    Auto-penectomy is a rare consequence of penile carcinoma (PC). Two men, 65 and 74 years of age, presented with total penile loss secondary to PC. Due to poor hygiene and negligence, the ulcer was infected with maggots. The management was by local debridement and suprapubic cystostomy. No further treatment was done as the patients did not come for follow-up. PMID:24426749

  2. Cell survival curve for primary hepatic carcinoma cells and relationship between SF2 of hepatic carcinoma cells and radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Huang, Wen-Ying; Lin, Ju-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Sheng; Lan, Xiao; Cai, Xiao-Kun; Liang, Kuo-Huan; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the cell survival curve for primary hepatic carcinoma cells and to study the relationship between SF2 of primary hepatic carcinoma cells and radiosensitivity. METHODS: Hepatic carcinoma cells were cultured in vitro using 39 samples of hepatic carcinoma at stages II-IV. Twenty-nine samples were cultured successfully in the fifth generation cells. After these cells were radiated with different dosages, the cell survival ratio and SF2 were calculated by clonogenic assay and SF2 model respectively. The relationship between SF2 and the clinical pathological feature was analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine of thirty-nine samples were successfully cultured. After X-ray radiation of the fifth generation cells with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy, the cell survival rate was 41%, 36.5%, 31.0%, 26.8%, and 19%, respectively. There was a negative correlation between cell survival and irradiation dosage (r = -0.973, P<0.05). SF2 ranged 0.28-0.78 and correlated with the clinical stage and pathological grade of hepatic carcinoma (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between SF2 and D0.5 (r = 0.773, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: SF2 correlates with the clinical stage and pathological grade of hepatic carcinoma and is a marker for predicting the radiosensitivity of hepatic carcinomas. PMID:16437614

  3. Mitochondrial proteomics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial proteomic alterations of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis remain unknown. Our purpose is to screen mitochondrial proteins for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis and the discovery of metastasis-related biomarkers. Methods Mitochondria were isolated from nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastatic (5-8F) and nonmetastatic (6-10B) cell lines, respectively. After characterization of isolated mitochondria, mitochondrial differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were quantified by two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and identified by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A functional enrichment analysis and a protein-protein interaction sub-network analysis for DEPs were carried out with bioinformatics. Furthermore, siRNAs transient transfections were used to suppress expressions of some up-regulated DEPs in metastatic cells (5-8F), followed by Transwell Migration assay. Results Sixteen mitochondrial DEPs including PRDX3 and SOD2 were identified. Those 5-8F cells with suppression of PRDX3 showed an increased mobility potential. The functional enrichment analyses of DEPs discovered five significant biological processes including cellular response to reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide metabolic process, regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell redox homeostasis and oxidation reduction, and five significant molecular functions including oxidoreductase activity, caspase inhibitor activity, peroxiredoxin activity, porin activity and antioxidant activity. A protein-protein interaction sub-network of DEPs was generated with literature data. Ten mitochondrial DEPs including PRDX3, PRDX6, SOD2, ECH1, SERPINB5, COX5A, PDIA5, EIF5A, IDH3B, and PSMC4 were rationalized in the tumor-stroma co-evolution model that mitochondrial oxidative stress directly contributes to tumor metastasis. Conclusions Sixteen mitochondrial DEPs were identified with mass spectrometry and ten of them were rationalized in the tumor-stroma co-evolution model. Those 5-8F cells with suppression of PRDX3 showed an increased mobility potential. These data suggest that those mitochondrial DEPs are potential biomarkers for NPC metastasis, and their dysregulation would play important roles in mitochondria oxidative stress-mediated NPC metastatic process. PMID:23217164

  4. Synchronous unilateral triple breast cancers composed of invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Onoe, Shunsuke; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Hasebe, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Eriko; Hojo, Takashi; Kinoshita, Takayuki

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of synchronous unilateral triple breast cancers comprising invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), and Paget's disease. A 57-year-old woman with a left breast mass was referred to our hospital. Mammography revealed only an isodense area with foci of microcalcification in the lateral area of the left breast. Ultrasonography revealed 2 hypoechoic masses in the outer lower and inner upper areas, and these 2 lesions were diagnosed by core needle biopsy as ILC and IDC, respectively. Left total mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsies was performed. In addition to the ILC and IDC, histological examination also identified Paget's disease. Breast cancer often manifests as multiple unilateral lesions; however, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether these tumors have developed multicentrically or have multifocally invaded from an intraductal carcinoma. This case was clearly diagnosed to have occurred multicentrically because of the absence of continuity among the 3 tumors, the presence of a non-invasive component in all 3 tumors, and different histopathological findings. The synchronous unilateral development of ILCs is well known. Cases of synchronous unilateral triple or more breast cancers were reviewed, and their histopathological characteristics, including the incidence of Paget's disease, is discussed. PMID:21140247

  5. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Charles; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Poulsen, Michael; Martin, Jarad; Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  6. Differential senescence capacities in meibomian gland carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shengfang; Gilson, Eric; Jia, Renbing; Ye, Jing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-15

    Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells, and the expression levels of the telomere capping shelterin complex, P53, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Decreased protein levels of the shelterin subunits, shortened telomere length, over-expressed Ki-67, and Bcl2 as well as mutations in P53 were detected both in MGC and BCC. It suggests that the decreased protein levels of the shelterin complex and the shortened telomere length contribute to the tumorigenesis of MGC and BCC. However, several parameters distinguish MGC from BCC samples: (i) the mRNA level of the shelterin subunits decreased in MGC but it increased in BCC; (ii) P53 was more highly mutated in MGC; (iii) Siah1 mRNA was over-expressed in BCC; (iv) BCC samples contain a higher level of senescent cells; (v) Ki-67 and Bcl2 expression were lower in BCC. These results support a model where a preserved P53 checkpoint in BCC leads to cellular senescence and reduced tumor proliferation as compared to MGC. PMID:26437300

  7. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  8. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Masquerading as a Primary Ovarian Mass in a Post-Operative Case of Meningioma and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bohara, Sangita; Dey, Biswajit; Agarwal, Swapnil; Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Khurana, Nita; Sachdeva, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    The clinical presentation of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to ovary is extremely rare as well as confusing due to its close resemblance to primary ovarian tumors, especially clear cell carcinoma. We present a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma diagnosed in a 48-year-old female, who had renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney and right sphenoid wing meningioma of transitional type. PMID:26500727

  9. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Masquerading as a Primary Ovarian Mass in a Post-Operative Case of Meningioma and Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bohara, Sangita; Dey, Biswajit; Agarwal, Swapnil; Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Khurana, Nita; Sachdeva, Poonam

    2015-09-01

    The clinical presentation of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to ovary is extremely rare as well as confusing due to its close resemblance to primary ovarian tumors, especially clear cell carcinoma. We present a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma diagnosed in a 48-year-old female, who had renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney and right sphenoid wing meningioma of transitional type. PMID:26500727

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis.

    PubMed

    Bedir, Recep; Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-07-01

    Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

  11. Charged-particle therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Heath D; Hong, Theodore S; Krishnan, Sunil

    2011-10-01

    Historically, the use of external-beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been limited by toxicity to the uninvolved liver and surrounding structures. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformality to the tumor and facilitated dose escalation, a key contributor to improved HCC radiation treatment outcomes. However, despite these advances in photon radiotherapy, significant volumes of liver still receive low doses of radiation that can preclude dose escalation, particularly in patients with limited functional liver reserves. By capitalizing on the lack of exit dose along the beam path beyond the tumor and higher biological effectiveness, charged-particle therapy offers the promise of maximizing tumor control via dose escalation without excessive liver toxicity. In this review, we discuss the distinctive biophysical attributes of both proton and carbon ion radiotherapy, particularly as they pertain to treatment of HCC. We also review the available literature regarding clinical outcomes and the toxicity of using charged particles for the treatment of HCC. PMID:21939857

  12. Axitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Albiges, Laurence; Gizzi, Marco; Carton, Edith; Escudier, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Axitinib is the most recent targeted therapy approved by the US FDA and EMA in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). It is a second-generation, orally available, potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting selectively VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, -2 and -3, resulting in inhibition of angiogenesis, metastasis and tumor growth. Based on the results of a randomized pivotal Phase III clinical trial, axitinib stands as one of the two recommended agents for patients with mRCC who progressed after first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Its potent and selective inhibition of VEGFR was the rationale for its development in the second-line setting after failure of prior cytokines or sunitinib. Here we examine the preclinical and clinical data of axitinib for mRCC, and its use in the treatment algorithm. PMID:25907705

  13. Radiation induced carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; Amendola, M.A.; McClatchey, K.D.

    1985-07-01

    A squamous cell carcinoma presented in a 20 year old female nonsmoker three years after receiving a high dosage of radiation therapy to the base of the skull, face and entire neuroaxis and intense combination chemotherapy for a parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses is reported. The larynx received a dose of about 3,500 rads over an eight week period. This dosage in conjunction with the associated intense chemotherapy regimen given to the patient may explain the appearance of a radiation induced tumor in an unusually short latent period. This certainly represents a risk in young patients in whom an aggressive combined approach is taken and the physician should be aware of.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where there is unmet need.

    PubMed

    Bupathi, Manojkumar; Kaseb, Ahmed; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Naing, Aung

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex and heterogeneous tumor most commonly associated with underlying chronic liver disease, especially hepatitis. It is a growing problem in the United States and worldwide. There are two potential ways to prevent HCC. Primary prevention which is based on vaccination or secondary prevention involving agents that slow down carcinogenesis. Several pathways have been thought to play a role in the development of HCC; specifically, those involving vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis, WNT, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and c-MET. Currently, there are only a limited number of drugs which have been proven as effective treatment options for HCC and several clinical trials are testing drugs which target aberrations in the pathways mentioned above. In this review, we discuss currently approved therapies, monotherapies and combination therapy for the treatment of HCC. PMID:26160430

  15. The mutational landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex process, and HCC arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to changes in the genomic landscape. Current advances in genomic technologies have revolutionized the search for genetic alterations in cancer genomes. Recent studies in which all coding exons in HCC were sequenced have shed new light on the genomic landscape of this malignant disease. Catalogues of these somatic mutations and systematic analysis of catalogued mutations will lead us to uncover candidate HCC driver genes, although further functional validation is needed to determine whether these genes play a causal role in the development of HCC. This review provides an overview of previously known oncogenes and new oncogene candidates in HCC that were uncovered from recent exome or whole-genome sequencing studies. This knowledge provides direction for future personalized treatment approaches for patients with HCC. PMID:26523267

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma detected by iodized oil

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, Y.; Jinno, K.; Tokuyama, K.; Araki, Y.; Ishimitsu, T.; Maeda, H.; Konno, T.; Iwamoto, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Okuda, K.

    1985-01-01

    This study assesses the diagnostic value of Lipiodol (iodized oil) and computed tomography (CT) in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty-four patients who were suspected of having HCC received injections of a small amount of Lipiodol, along with an antitumor agent, in the hepatic artery following routine celiac angiography. CT scans obtained 7-10 days after Lipiodol administration demonstrated HCC in distinct contrast to the surrounding noncancerous parenchyma. In particular, the CT-Lipiodol procedure disclosed many small HCC lesions that were not shown by celiac angiography, scintigraphy, CT with an without contrast medium enhancement, and ultrasonography. Although this procedure may miss very small or highly fibrotic lesions, it is recommended for patients suspected of having HCC and for patients for whom hepatic resection is being considered.

  17. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  18. Lymphatic spreading and lymphadenectomy for esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Cai, Jie; Chen, Yao; Chen, Long-Qi

    2016-01-27

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a highly lethal malignancy with a poor prognosis. One of the most important prognostic factors in EC is lymph node status. Therefore, lymphadenectomy has been recognized as a key that influences the outcome of surgical treatment for EC. However, the lymphatic drainage system of the esophagus, including an abundant lymph-capillary network in the lamina propria and muscularis mucosa, is very complex with cervical, mediastinal and celiac node spreading. The extent of lymphadenectomy for EC has always been controversial because of the very complex pattern of lymph node spreading. In this article, published literature regarding lymphatic spreading was reviewed and the current lymphadenectomy trends for EC are discussed. PMID:26843917

  19. De novo Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saab, Sammy; Zhou, Kali; Chang, Edward K; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive therapy for patients with advanced liver disease and its complications. Patients who are transplanted with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are at risk of recurrent cancer, and these patients are monitored on a regular basis for recurrence. In contrast, de novo HCC following liver transplantation is a very rare complication, and recipients without HCC at the time of transplantation are not screened. We describe the clinical features of de novo HCC over a decade after achieving a sustained viral response with treatment of hepatitis C and two decades after liver transplantation. Our case highlights the necessity of screening for HCC in the post-transplant patient with advanced liver disease even after viral clearance. PMID:26807385

  20. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Changes in the time trends of HCC and most variations in its age-, sex-, and race-specific rates among different regions are likely to be related to differences in hepatitis viruses that are most prevalent in a population, the timing of their spread, and the ages of the individuals the viruses infect. Environmental, host genetic, and viral factors can affect the risk of HCC in individuals with HBV or HCV infection. This review summarizes the risk factors for HCC among HBV- or HCV-infected individuals, based on findings from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses, as well as determinants of patient outcome and the HCC disease burden, globally and in the US. PMID:22537432

  1. Hedgehog signaling in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Levesque, Mitchell P; Dummer, Reinhard; Kabashima, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer, is occasionally aggressive with deep invasion, destruction of adjacent structures, recurrence and, on very rare occasions, regional and distant metastases. Mutations that occur in BCC in hedgehog (Hh) pathway genes primarily involve the genes encoding patched homolog (PTCH) and smoothened homolog (SMO). Several animal models have demonstrated the functional relevance of genetic alterations in the Hh pathway during tumorigenesis. Recently, targeted therapy has become available both commercially and in the context of human clinical trials. Interestingly, Hh pathway inhibitors not only suppress BCC progression but also promote acquired immune responses. Since immune responses are crucial for long-term tumor control, new clinical trials, such as those involving a combination of Hh inhibitors with immune modifiers, are needed to supplement standard methods of tumor control. PMID:25766766

  2. Combinatorial immunotherapy strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malignancy. The prognosis for HCC patients greatly varies according to the stage at diagnosis. Overall it is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5-6%. Immunotherapeutic interventions represent a novel and effective therapeutic tool. However, only few immunotherapy trials for HCC have been conducted so far with contrasting results, suggesting that significant improvements are needed. Indeed, the liver is characterized by a strong intrinsic immune suppressive microenvironment which needs to be counterbalanced with immune stimulatory approaches. Therefore, the implementation of combinatorial protocols combining immune stimulatory strategies with specific immunotherapy approaches could result in a dramatic improvement of efficacy and clinical outcome in HCC patients. The present review aims at describing the state of the art in immunotherapy strategies for HCC and future perspectives. PMID:26851637

  3. Burden of basal cell carcinoma in USA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyuan; Elkin, Elena E; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy diagnosed in the USA and its incidence continues to increase. While BCC is still most prevalent in the older segments of the population, it is becoming ever more frequent in younger individuals. The costs of treatment and morbidity associated with BCCs place a heavy public health and economic burden on patients, their families and the American healthcare system and underscore the importance of efficient management and prevention efforts directed toward this malignancy. In this article, we address economic aspects of BCC using evidence from large-scale epidemiological studies. This information may help clinicians in developing better and more cost-effective methods for dealing with the most common cancer in America and in the world. PMID:26466906

  4. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  5. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their childhood. Multiple BCCs were seen in 79.3% and 10.3% of patients with history and without history of radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusions: X-ray radiation is still a major etiologic factor in developing BCC in northern Iran. Patients with positive history for radiotherapy have higher rate of recurrence. PMID:26114066

  6. Myiasis on squamous cell carcinoma of skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    Advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a challenge for treatment. It is also a risk factor for unintended infestation with diptera larvae (maggots) known as myiasis. We performed a retrospective investigation in our files from 2001 to 2014 and identified three patients with SCC-associated myiasis (three men). In all three cases, Lucilia spp. were found. A literature review using PUBMED revealed another 12 cases of SCC-associated myiasis due to different species. It is not only a disease of older age, as two of the patients were in their 20s. The male to female ratio was 2 to 1. Wound myiasis and cavity myiasis were seen in half of the cases each. Pain, bleeding, and infection were possible symptoms due to infestation but not all patients reported complaints. Treatment aims to completely remove all maggots and to prevent secondary tissue damage with blindness due to eye ball destruction as one of the worst. PMID:25387871

  7. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:26169313

  8. A Closer Look at Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent surge of thyroid cancer, especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), ignited a debate on over-diagnosis of cancer. Such increase in incidence is a worldwide phenomenon, but it has been the most prominent in Korea. Although increased detection might have played a major role, some evidences suggest that true increase in incidence have also contributed to such phenomenon. PTC is a very common disease being the most common cancer in human. As the mortality due to PTC is relatively low, understanding pathophysiology of the disease and risk prediction in individual patient have particular importance for optimal management, but little has been known. I suggest a reason for such a commonality of PTC, and would like to describe my view on some aspects of PTC including unresolved issue on management based on our recent observations. PMID:25827451

  9. Silica, pneumoconiosis, and carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Heppleston, A G

    1985-01-01

    The current argument about the carcinogenicity of inhaled silica is not clarified by reliance on morbidity and mortality experience divorced from or incompletely related to data on environmental exposure. Human evidence provides the ultimate basis for assessing such risks, and numerous studies of the effects of inhaling dusts rich or poor in silica content on the prevalence of pulmonary carcinoma have been performed on large series of cases from major mining areas of the world. When due allowance is made for substances inhaled concomitantly with exposure to silica and for personal pollution by cigarette smoking, the weight of evidence is against a carcinogenic role for uncombined silicon dioxide. Moreover, pneumoconiosis due to compact mineral particles does not appear to determine the onset of lung cancer. Cellular behaviour suggests reasons for the different responses to compact and fibrous particles acting alone. PMID:2986455

  10. [Progress in surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, K Y; Liu, L X; Yin, D L

    2016-02-01

    The surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma have advanced greatly in recent years: associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy can bring hope and relief to patients with advanced liver cancer and less future liver remnant; the application range of laparoscopic hepatectomy and robotic hepatectomy were amplified; hepatectomy following anatomic or non-anatomic direction should be decided by particular situations; the precise preoperative assessment of liver reserve function ensured the success of extended hepatectomy; the further discussion of United Network for Organ Sharing criteria for liver transplantation made the appearance of University of California at San Francisco, Up-to-seven and Hangzhou criteria; bridge therapy can decrease tumor progression and the dropout rate from the liver transplantation waiting list; downstaging treatment is used in selected patients with more advanced liver cancer who are beyond the accepted transplant criteria to acquire the chance of liver transplantation and increase survival rates. PMID:26876084

  11. Decoding multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma: an opportune pursuit

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy with major worldwide prevalence and a poor overall prognosis. About 75% of all HCC cases are initially diagnosed as multiple tumors, presenting a particular challenge for aggressive surgical therapy. Multiple HCC may result from multicentric occurrence (MO-HCC) or intrahepatic metastases (IM-HCC), corresponding to highly dissimilar clinical outcomes. Reliable distinction of these two mechanisms is therefore paramount in optimizing the management of multiple HCC. In a recent work, Miao et al. adopted a multi-omics approach to find key parameters of different clonality in MO-HCC vs. IM-HCC and link these data to tumor behavior and prognosis in a cohort of patients with HBV-related HCC. The mitotic checkpoint regulator TTK has emerged from this analysis as a novel biomarker that may predict aggressive behavior and early postoperative recurrence of HCC. PMID:26151061

  12. [Brachytherapy for cutaneous and lip carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Rio, E; Mirabel, X; Brun, T; Ducassou, A; David, I

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous basal or squamous cell carcinomas are frequent lesions, their prognosis being associated to local control. Surgery remains the standard of treatment, if a complete resection can be realized without impairment of cosmesis or function. Brachytherapy can be used in the other cases, and is especially well adapted to periorificial lesions of the face. It is mostly realized with low dose rate iridium wires, but can be done with high dose rate if outpatient treatment is preferred. It allows high local control rates with very few late complications. The indication has to be discussed as first line treatment, according to the patient's age and general condition, the characteristics of the lesion, and the risk of late cosmetic or functional side-effects of the different therapeutic options. PMID:23538040

  13. Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): An Update.

    PubMed

    Li, Dave; Satomura, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed increased use of biomarkers in disease management. A biomarker is any characteristic that can be objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological process, pathogenic process, or pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention. The clinical measurements of biomarkers can be carried out in vivo using imaging modalities like ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as in vitro utilizing serum or plasma or other body fluids as specimens. In contrast to the imaging modalities, a prominent value of serum biomarkers is that they could be biologically relevant and disease-specific to pathophysiologic or pathologic process of disease development. This article provides an update of serum biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in risk assessment for early detection through surveillance. PMID:26530367

  14. Charged Particle Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Heath D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the use of external beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been limited by toxicity to the uninvolved liver and surrounding structures. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformality to the tumor and facilitated dose escalation, a key contributor to improved HCC radiation treatment outcomes. However, despite these advances in photon radiotherapy, significant volumes of liver still receive low doses of radiation that can preclude dose escalation, particularly in patients with limited functional liver reserves. By capitalizing on the lack of exit dose along the beam path beyond the tumor and higher biological effectiveness, charged particle therapy offers the promise of maximizing tumor control via dose escalation without excessive liver toxicity. In this review we discuss the distinctive biophysical attributes of both proton and carbon ion radiotherapy, particularly as they pertain to treatment of HCC. We also review the available literature regarding clinical outcomes and toxicity of using charged particles for the treatment of HCC. PMID:21939857

  15. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Changfu

    2014-11-01

    We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 × 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future. PMID:25377985

  16. Lymphatic spreading and lymphadenectomy for esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiang; Cai, Jie; Chen, Yao; Chen, Long-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a highly lethal malignancy with a poor prognosis. One of the most important prognostic factors in EC is lymph node status. Therefore, lymphadenectomy has been recognized as a key that influences the outcome of surgical treatment for EC. However, the lymphatic drainage system of the esophagus, including an abundant lymph-capillary network in the lamina propria and muscularis mucosa, is very complex with cervical, mediastinal and celiac node spreading. The extent of lymphadenectomy for EC has always been controversial because of the very complex pattern of lymph node spreading. In this article, published literature regarding lymphatic spreading was reviewed and the current lymphadenectomy trends for EC are discussed. PMID:26843917

  17. Intraoperative photodynamic therapy for larynx carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukatch, Erwin V.; Latyshevska, Galina; Fekeshgazi, Ishtvan V.

    1995-05-01

    We made an experimental and clinical researches to examine Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy (IPT) as a method to prevent the recidives of tumors. In experimental researches on models with radio-inducated fibrosarcomas and Erlich carcinomas of mice the best method of IPT was worked out. The therapeutic effect was studied also on patients with laryngeal cancer. In researches on C3H mice the antirecidive effect of IPT established with local administration of methylene blue and Ar-laser. We found that IPT (He-Ne laser combined with methylene blue administration) was endured by patients with laryngeal cancers without problems. We got good results of treatment 42 patients with laryngeal cancers with middle localization during three years with using IPT method. This can show the perspectives of using this method in treatment of other ENT-oncological diseases.

  18. Current management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Haga, Yuki; Omata, Masao; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The current management therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are discussed in this review. Despite the development of new therapies, HCC remains a “difficult to treat” cancer because HCC typically occurs in advanced liver disease or hepatic cirrhosis. The progression of multistep and multicentric HCC hampers the prevention of the recurrence of HCC. Many HCC patients are treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), although these modalities should be considered in only selected cases with a certain HCC number and size. Although there is a shortage of grafts, liver transplantation has the highest survival rates for HCC. Several modalities are salvage treatments; however, intensive care in combination with other modalities or in combination with surgical resection or RFA might offer a better prognosis. Sorafenib is useful for patients with advanced HCC. In the near future, HCC treatment will include stronger molecular targeted drugs, which will have greater potency and fewer adverse events. Further studies will be ongoing. PMID:26244066

  19. Response to radiation in renal medullary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Alexandra M.; Fiveash, John B.; Reddy, Alyssa T.; Friedman, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy arising from the renal medulla and found mostly in patients with sickle cell trait. RMC usually presents with widely metastatic disease. We describe a young man diagnosed with metastatic RMC who sustained a complete response to systemic chemotherapy but developed brain metastases with leptomeningeal involvement and subsequently had a partial response to brain irradiation. The use of radiation in the management of RMC is reviewed. Due to the apparent propensity for RMC to spread to the central nervous system, prophylactic treatment such as craniospinal irradiation should be considered along with chemotherapy in patients with metastatic RMC to potentially improve the progression-free interval. PMID:22066039

  20. Undiagnosed Hepatocellular Carcinoma Presenting as Nasal Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Hassen; Sheikh, Rashid; Rahman, Waheed; Sheta, Sally; Dogan, Zeynel

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver with up to half of cases suffering from extrahepatic metastasis in the later stages of the disease. Commonly reported and encountered metastatic sites include the lymph nodes, lung, bone, and adrenal glands. This is an effort to throw a spotlight on a rare case of metastatic HCC which presented to us as two distinct lesions in the nose. It focuses on the presentation and the steps that were taken to reach this rare and unusual diagnosis. It sparks interest from a clinical and histopathology perspective. Our cynosure is the findings of the case coupled with a probe on the possible routes of spread of HCC to sinonasal region. PMID:26618018