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1

Preguntas para el doctor si tiene un cáncer avanzado  

Cancer.gov

Serie de preguntas que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacerle al médico sobre las opciones de tratamiento si el cáncer es avanzado, las formas de controlar los síntomas y cómo prepararse para la etapa final de la vida.

2

Cirugía transoral LASER CO 2 en tumores avanzados de faringe y laringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and objectivesThere are several types of treatment for advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx and larynx. However, both open surgery and chemoradiation protocols have failed to improve control and survival. There is a tendency toward conservative treatment without worsening oncological outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness of organ-preserving CO2 laser microsurgery for treating

Fernando López-Álvarez; Juan P. Rodrigo; José L. Llorente-Pendás; Carlos Suárez-Nieto

2011-01-01

3

Planificación de la transición a la atención en la etapa final de la vida para los pacientes de cáncer en estadio avanzado (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la etapa final de la vida en los casos de cáncer en estadio avanzado.

4

Planificación de la transición a la atención en la etapa final de la vida para los pacientes con cáncer en estadio avanzado (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la etapa final de la vida en los casos de cáncer en estadio avanzado.

5

Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments Q - T Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma : This man's skin has ... SCC is highly curable. Learn more about squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Squamous ...

6

Basal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments A - D Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer often ... skin tissue and bone. Learn more about basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Basal ...

7

Adrenocortical carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... this tumor. Adrenocortical carcinoma can produce the hormones cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, or testosterone, as well as other ... Symptoms that suggest increased cortisol or other adrenal gland ... high on the back just below the neck ( buffalo hump ) Flushed ...

8

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Salivary gland tumours comprise almost 5% of head and neck malignancies. Minor salivary gland tumours account for 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms and are usually malignant. The second most common minor salivary gland tumour (12-40% globally) is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is more frequent in females, occurs in the fifth decade of life and is usually found in the parotid gland. However, the palate is a frequent site when it occurs in the minor glands. We report a case of a high-grade variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the right retromolar trigone of a 21-year man which was treated with wide excision of the tumour with a 1.5?cm margin. Reconstruction was done with a buccal fat pad posteriorly with a pedicled lateral tongue flap. Temporal stripping and right coronoidectomy was carried out in case of post-surgical wound contraction. The patient is currently under periodic review. PMID:25085946

Devaraju, Ramaraju; Gantala, Ramlal; Aitha, Harisha; Gotoor, Srikanth Goud

2014-01-01

9

Carcinoma penis.  

PubMed

In the present study 90 cases of carcinoma penis were studied. The disease is more common after the age of 40 years; phimosis was found to be most important predisposing factor. Most common presentation was proliferative lesion with commonest involvement of glans penis. All the cases were of squamous cell carcinoma except one case of malignant melanoma. Clinical determination of lymph node metastasis is falacious as there was discrepancy between clinical and histopathological stage of the disease in 26.67% of cases. Therefore lymph node biopsy at the time of primary surgery is advocated. The result of total amputation is better than other mode of treatment. PMID:1748775

Singhal, V K; Razdan, J L; Gupta, S N; Khare, I C; Singh, P K; Singh, S

1991-05-01

10

Medullary carcinoma of thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

11

Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Last Updated: May 14, 2013 What is liver cancer?Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer in the United States, making up more than

12

Vulvar carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Carcinoma of the vulva is an uncommon gynecologic malignancy primarily affecting postmenopausal women. The lesion is most\\u000a commonly associated with HPV DNA, although, for many, a defined preinvasive to invasive connection is not readily apparent.\\u000a Most patients experience symptoms of pruritus, irritation, and even pain for weeks or months before the diagnostic biopsy\\u000a is performed. Patient embarrassment and unfamiliarity

Robert L. Coleman; Joseph T. Santoso

2000-01-01

13

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

In this editorial comment, the author presents a review of recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx. The value of the use of CT scans for differentiating between cranial nerve involvement by recurring tumors and irradiation neuropathy, and between temporal lobe irradiation encephalopathy and other nonneoplastic neurologic disorders and meningeal metastasis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging is said to be superior to CT for finding soft tissue involvement or abnormalities in the brain. 13 references.

Ho, J.H.C.

1985-07-01

14

Vulvar carcinoma.  

PubMed

Carcinoma of the vulva is an uncommon gynecologic malignancy primarily affecting postmenopausal women. The lesion is most commonly associated with HPV DNA, although, for many, a defined preinvasive to invasive connection is not readily apparent. Most patients experience symptoms of pruritus, irritation, and even pain for weeks or months before the diagnostic biopsy is performed. Patient embarrassment and unfamiliarity and reluctance on the part of the physician to fully evaluate these symptoms add to the delay. Vulvar carcinoma is staged surgically following resection. A concerted effort to conserve as much normal tissue as possible has been the focus of recent investigation. Separate incision resection of the vulvar mass and groin has improved wound healing and quality of life for many patients. The effect these conservative procedures have on long-term survival is currently being evaluated. Increased use of radiation therapy or chemoradiation has allowed organ preservation in many otherwise exenterative cases. In some instances, this neoadjuvant therapy has provided an opportunity to surgically clear otherwise unresectable lesions. Current radiotherapy techniques might also be as effective as groin dissection in certain low-risk patients. Adjuvant radiation and chemoradiation improve local control and reduce groin recurrence risk. In addition, patients with histologically positive groins enjoy longer survival when the pelvis is also treated. Selected use of multimodality therapy will likely extend the lives of women with vulvar cancer. PMID:12057056

Coleman, R L; Santoso, J T

2000-06-01

15

Parathyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy. The reported incidence is from 0.5 to 5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases in various series. The cause is unknown, but clinical correlations with different genetic syndromes exist. Mutations in the HPRT2 gene seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Men and women are equally affected, usually in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Most patients will present with signs and symptoms of hypercalcaemia. Cases of non-functioning carcinoma are exceedingly rare. Surgical resection is the most effective method of treatment and palliation. A significant proportion of patients will experience recurrence, and will need further surgical and, eventually, medical management of hypercalcaemia. The disease is progressive but slow growing. Most patients will require multiple operations to resect recurrent disease. The main cause of morbidity and mortality is the sequela of uncontrolled chronic hypercalcaemia rather than tumour burden. The current paper will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnostic work-up of this disease. Surgical management in different scenarios is reviewed in detail, followed by other types of treatment and management of incurable disease. PMID:20510594

Givi, B.; Shah, J.P.

2013-01-01

16

Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Download PDF Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome This section has been reviewed and ... Editorial Board , 11/2013 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) ...

17

Hereditary Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Carcinoma Request Permissions Download PDF Hereditary Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma This section has been reviewed and approved ... Board , 10/2013 What is hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma? Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma (HPRCC) is ...

18

Liver cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually seen in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

19

Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

What is squamous cell lung carcinoma? Squamous cell lung carcinoma is a type of non-small cell lung cancer formed from reserve cells–round ... age 30. Who is most likely to have squamous cell lung carcinoma? This type of cancer is almost always caused ...

20

Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) Information for adults A A A The nodular form of basal cell carcinoma is usually skin-colored with ... the general health of the patient. Nodular basal cell carcinomas: Freezing (cryosurgery) with liquid nitrogen – Very cold ...

21

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... small cell carcinoma accounts for about 10 to 15 percent of all lung cancer cases. Small cell lung cancer usually starts in or ... cells. Small cell lung carcinoma accounts for about 15 percent of all lung cancer cases. Definitions Small cell carcinoma: A type of cancerous ...

22

Epigenetics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

E-print Network

??Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) shows a remarkably distinctive ethnic and geographic distribution among the world suggesting that genetic susceptibility backgrounds cooperate with the environmental risk factors… (more)

Sun, Di

2006-01-01

23

Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an unusual type of mucoepidermoid carcinoma with special histological features which differ from those of the classic type of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. We report the case of a 32-year-old male, who reported to the Vydehi Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore, India, with an asymptomatic swelling over the right parotid region which had been present for the previous two and a half years. Histopathological sections of the tumour mass showed mucous and epidermoid cell nests in a dense, hyalinised, sclerotic stroma. A diagnosis of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma was made. A superficial parotidectomy was performed on the patient and he has remained disease free to date. PMID:24790751

Bhat, Keshava; Pandey, Bhavna; Shetty, Pushparaja; Manohar, Vidya; Shruthilaxmi, M. K.; Patidar, Madhvika

2014-01-01

24

Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Last Updated: May 08, 2013 What is lung cancer? Lung cancer accounts for more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women, about 28 percent of all cancer

25

Fibrolamellar Carcinoma: 2012 Update  

PubMed Central

Fibrolamellar carcinomas are a unique type of primary liver cancer. They occur most commonly in children and young adults. Their etiology remains a mystery, as they are not associated with chronic liver disease. Fibrolamellar carcinomas are not indolent tumors, but have an overall better prognosis than typical hepatocellular carcinomas, in part because of the younger age at presentation and the lack of cirrhosis. The most important prognostic feature is whether the tumor is resectable. Histologically, the tumor is made up of large cells that contain abundant mitochondria. The nuclei of the tumor cells have prominent nucleoli. The tumor cells induce the formation of extensive intratumoral fibrosis, which often grows in parallel, or lamellar bands. The tumor cells clearly show hepatocellular features but are also unique in showing both biliary and neuroendocrine differentiation. The uniqueness of fibrolamellar carcinoma extends to their molecular findings. While the genetic abnormalities that lead to fibrolamellar carcinomas are not yet known, studies have shown that they lack mutations in the genes most commonly mutated in typical hepatocellular carcinoma (TP53 and CTNNB1). In this paper, the clinical, pathological, and basic science literature on fibrolamellar carcinoma is comprehensively reviewed. Key areas of needed research are also discussed. PMID:24278737

Torbenson, Michael

2012-01-01

26

Basal cell carcinoma - diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Weklar, Daria; Danczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

2013-01-01

27

Verrucous carcinoma of vulva.  

PubMed

Vulval carcinoma is an uncommon disease of old women and may manifest as verrucous carcinoma. Intraepithelial cancer of the vulna of women in their twenties and thirties is increasing. Invasive carcinoma of vulva usually appears long time after intraepithelial neoplasia or chronic irritation. We are presenting one young lady of 21 years who noticed whitening of vulva since her childhood and irregular vulval itching in that area. After nine to ten years she further noticed swelling in that area which used to discharge off an on along with itching. As she got married and had disturbed sexual life, on consulting with a specialist doctor, the lesion was diagnosed as an ulcerated malignant growth. Further investigation revealed the lesion to be as verrucous carcinoma of vulva. This is the first report of such case in our country. Any persistent complaints of vulva like itching, discharge, even ulcer should be taken care of for detection of intraepithelial vulvar cancer. PMID:17917632

Kabir, N; Ara, I; Ahmed, A; Muhsin, A U

2007-07-01

28

Cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Findings on cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma are described in five patients. Four patients presenting with acute cholecystitis had nonvisualization of the gallbladder with normal hepatoenteric transit time. One of these had a large portal mass and two had liver metastasis as additional findings. The fifth patient was jaundiced, and showed absence of bowel activity compatible with total biliary obstruction. Both the clinical and scintigraphic findings in gallbladder carcinoma are difficult to separate from findings in cholelithiasis and cholecystitis.

Colletti, P.M.; Ralls, P.W.; Siegel, M.E.; Halls, J.M.

1986-04-01

29

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of palate.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare tumor arising from the minor salivary glands;, the palate being the commonest site. Distant metastasis and perineural invasion areis common in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma is made usually with the help of clinical features, radiographic features and histologic features. We reported a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of palate involving left maxillary sinus. The diagnosis of the case and brief review of literature of adenoid cystic carcinoma is discussed. The aim here is to highlight the importance of diagnosis, treatment and long-term follow-up of the patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma. PMID:23633876

Mehta, Dhaval N; Parikh, Shilpa J

2013-01-01

30

What Is Merkel Cell Carcinoma?  

MedlinePLUS

... it is most treatable. Signs and Symptoms of Merkel Cell Carcinoma Until recently, common signs and symptoms of ... 2007. These common characteristics emerged: The AEIOUs of Merkel Cell Carcinoma The Lesion A symptomatic . Growth does not ...

31

Carcinoma of the penis.  

PubMed

Thirty-five patients with carcinoma of the penis were treated at the teaching hospitals of West Virginia University Medical Center during the last 15 years. All cases were epidermoid carcinoma except for one case of melanoma. Factors adversely affecting prognosis were (1) the presence of clinically palpable lymph nodes, (2) age over 65 at diagnosis, (3) location of the lesion on the shaft of the penis, (4) high stage and poor differentiation of the lesion, (5) primary lesions requiring total penectomy, and (6) proven metastases to lymph nodes. PMID:7394599

Cricco, R P; Lindert, D J; Belis, J A

1980-06-01

32

Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas are extremely rare tumors presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Patients succumb to metastases within a couple of months. As a result, very few cases are reported in the literature until now. We present a case of a 62-year old female with non-functional sarcomatoid carcinoma of the right adrenal gland. There was no radiological evidence of locoregional metastases. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Follow up after 3 months showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy and similar left adrenal mass on computed tomography. Patient refused further treatment and succumbed to the disease. A brief case report with review of literature is presented. PMID:24847428

Shaikh, Aftab S; Bakhshi, Girish D; Khan, Arshad S; Jamadar, Nilofar M; Nirmala, Aravind Kotresh; Raza, Arif Ahmed

2014-03-27

33

Primary renal adenosquamous carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A case of renal adenosquamous carcinoma is presented. The fact that the urothelium has no glandular or squamous structures makes the pathogenesis of this tumor unique. The process is assumed to begin with urothelial metaplasia resulting from chronic irritation leading to dysplasia and subsequently squamous and glandular differentiation. PMID:20981201

Zainuddin, Mohammad Ashik; Hong, Tan Yeh

2010-01-01

34

Vulvar basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Although the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy of skin, it is rarely seen in vulva and constitutes 2% to 4% of all vulvar cancers. The cause is unknown but, chronic vulvar irritation is the most important underlying factor. The patients over 60 years are affected more frequently than younger ones. PMID:23455815

Kara, Mustafa; Colgecen, E; Yildirim, Erdogan Nilsen

2012-01-01

35

Carcinoma of the Prostate  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of the prostate is a common cancer, and its incidence is rising. A digital rectal examination should be routine to allow early diagnosis. Several screening and investigative techniques are available. Choice of treatment depends on the age and health of the patient and whether the cancer has spread. Treatments include observation, prostatectomy, radiation, and surgical or medical castration. PMID:21229074

Donnelly, Bryan J.

1991-01-01

36

Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy in most parts of the world, with an incidence well under 1 per 100000 person-years. Exceptions are the Chinese, especially the Cantonese living in the central region of Guangdong Province in Southern China. Other populations with elevated rates include the natives of Southeast Asia, the natives of the Artic region, and the Arabs

Mimi C. Yu; Jian-Min Yuan

2002-01-01

37

Allelotype of Colorectal Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the extent and variation of allelic loss in a common adult tumor, polymorphic DNA markers were studied from every nonacrocentric autosomal arm in 56 paired colorectal carcinoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa specimens. This analysis was termed an allelotype, in analogy with a karyotype. Three major conclusions were drawn from this analysis: (i) Allelic deletions were remarkably common;

Bert Vogelstein; Eric R. Fearon; Scott E. Kern; Ann C. Preisinger; Yusuke Nakamura; Ray White

1989-01-01

38

Gaba and hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data derived from models of hepatic regeneration indicate that transient, recipricol changes in polyamines, potent growth promoters, and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an amino acid neurotransmitter with growth inhibitory properties, play important roles in enhancing and inhibiting respectively regulated hepatocyte proliferation. Based on these findings and supportive data derived from studies of human carcinoma tissues and malignant cell lines we

G. Y. Minuk

2000-01-01

39

Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly

Marci E. Schaner; Douglas T. Ross; Giuseppe Ciaravino; Therese Sørlie; Olga Troyanskaya; Maximilian Diehn; Yan C. Wang; George E. Duran; Thomas L. Sikic; Sandra Caldeira; Hanne Skomedal; I-Ping Tu; Tina Hernandez-Boussard; Steven W. Johnson; Peter J. O'Dwyer; Michael J. Fero; Gunnar B. Kristensen; Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale; Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani; Matt van de Rijn; Nelson N. Teng; Teri A. Longacre; David Botstein; Patrick O. Brown; Branimir I. Sikic

2003-01-01

40

What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?  

MedlinePLUS

... blood much like a real kidney would. Renal cell carcinoma Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also known as ... be due to an inherited genetic syndrome. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma This is the most common ...

41

Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

2013-06-03

42

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Database.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer which is common in Asia. We report the establishment and early results of a multi-institutional prospective study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which seeks to systematically collect data as well as blood and tumour tissue samples from patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer at six centres in Malaysia. A total of 484 confirmed NPC cases were reported from the six participating centres between 1st July 2007 and 29th February 2008. Of these, 225 were newly diagnosed cases, 53 were recurrent cases and 206 were in remission at the time of reporting. Amongst the newly diagnosed cases, the most common presenting symptom was the presence of neck lumps (42%). Ophthalmo-neurologic symptoms were the presenting symptoms of 11% of the new cases. The majority of cases (75%) presented at stage III/IV. PMID:19230249

Pua, K C; Khoo, A S B; Yap, Y Y; Subramaniam, S K; Ong, C A; Gopala Krishnan, G; Shahid, H

2008-09-01

43

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma - larynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma, Larynx has been an uncommon site of this tumour\\u000a which is said to have aggressive biological behaviour with high incidence of cervical and distant metastasis along with second\\u000a primary. Two cases of laryngeal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma are reported with relevant review of literature. The submucosal\\u000a spread of

Surinder K. Singhal; Naresh K. Panda; S. B. S. Mann; Ashim Dass

1997-01-01

44

Ameloblastic carcinoma: A case series  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting not only features of ameloblastoma, but also features of carcinoma. Clinical dissemination of this lesion is more aggressive and rapid than that of ameloblastoma and it can metastasize to the lung or regional lymph node. Histologically, there are features of both ameloblastoma and carcinoma. <50 cases have been reported until 2011. We report a series of six cases with our treatment modalities.

Kumaran, P. Satish; Anuradha, V.; Gokkulakrishnan, S.; Thambiah, Lalita; Jagadish, Ajay Kumar; Satheesh, G.

2014-01-01

45

Renal Cell Carcinoma: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3% of all adult cancers. The incidence rates for kidney cancer are highest in European\\u000a and Scandinavian countries and North America (1). It is estimated that 36,160 new cases of kidney and renal pelvis cancer were diagnosed in 2005, with an estimated 12,660\\u000a resulting deaths in the United States (2). There has been a

Ziya Kirkali; Cag Cal

46

Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth leading cause of cancer worldwide and its incidence is increasing. Surveillance programs\\u000a allow doctors to identify patients at early stages of the disease, when the tumor may be curable by radical treatments such\\u000a as resection, liver transplantation, or local ablation. In the West, these treatments can be applied to 30% to 40% of patients.

Josep M. Llovet

2004-01-01

47

Carcinoma of the penis.  

PubMed

Most premalignant penile lesions should be completely locally excised. Giant condyloma frequently cannot be distinguished from fungating carcinoma and usually requires limited penectomy. Cancers other than epidermoid carcinomas are very rare and, except for basal cell carcinoma, have a generally poor prognosis. Prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma, however, depends on the stage of disease as determined by both local invasion and by involvement of inguinal nodes. The three-year survival rates for 55 patients were: stage I, 95 percent; stage II, 67 percent; stage III, 29 percent; and stage IV, zero percent. Most primary lesions were treated by partial penectomy, and no patient developed local recurrence. There is a significant discrepancy between initial clinical and histologic staging, due to the difficulty of determining lymph node metastases. Current methods of radiation therapy indicate that it has a role for management of primary penile cancer, especially in young men with small lesions. The management of inguinal lymph nodes is still debated. Although the reliability of the sentinel node biopsy has not been established, it may be appropriate in patients with noninvasive primary lesions and no detectable inguinal metastases. The need for immediate or prophylactic lymph node dissection in patients with invasive primary tumors is controversial. Successful management depends on careful and frequent follow-up examinations, with early intervention for suspicious adenopathy. In view of the poor prognosis for advanced lymph node metastases, we prefer to use early lymph node dissection when the primary lesion is deeply invasive. Limited bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection is associated with minimal morbidity and seems to be an appropriate prelude to groin dissection. Extensive pelvic metastases are a sign of incurability and abrogate the need for groin dissection. We prefer to perform the inguinal dissection at the time of lymph node dissection through a separate curve groin incision. PMID:3093013

Persky, L; deKernion, J

1986-01-01

48

Transitional Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitional cell carcinoma is a common urological malignancy and in up to 5% of cases occurs in the kidney. The multicentric\\u000a nature of TCC makes assessment of the entire urothelium essential prior to treatment. Vigilant urological and radiological\\u000a follow-up is also warranted post-treatment to assess for metachronous lesions and recurrence. Conventional imaging modalities,\\u000a such as IVU, RP, and US, still

Ronan F. Browne; William C. Torreggiani

49

Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) affects more than half a million individuals per year worldwide. It is a largely preventable\\u000a disease. Most cases are related to hepatitis B virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Asia (except Japan). Hepatitis\\u000a C virus has emerged as an important cause of HCC particularly in North America and some parts of Europe, where a recent sharp

Donna L. White; Amir Firozi; Hashem B. El-Serag

50

Primary biliary carcinoma: CT evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-three patients with documented primary biliary carcinoma were studied with computed tomography. Twenty-six patients had gallbladder carcinoma and 27 patients had carcinoma of the biliary ductal system. Ninety percent of patients with gallbladder cancer had an intraluminal mass. Local invasion into the liver was common. The majority of patients with biliary ductal carcinoma had dilated bile ducts, while only 50% of patients with gallbladder cancer had biliary ductal dilatation. The most common location of tumor involving the extrahepatic biliary ductal system was the distal common bile duct. This occurred in eight patients out of 27, or 30% of the cases.

Thorsen, M.K.; Quiroz, F.; Lawson, T.L.; Smith, D.F.; Foley, W.D.; Steward, E.T.

1984-08-01

51

Carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo em cães.  

E-print Network

??Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária O Carcinoma Espinocelular (CEC) é uma neoplasia com origem nos queratinócitos e representa aproximadamente 5% das neoplasias cutâneas… (more)

Moura, Inês da Costa

2012-01-01

52

Parathyroid carcinoma in pregnancy.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old female patient with parathyroid carcinoma, the rarest endocrine malignancy, had two pregnancies. In the first pregnancy, she had severe nausea and fatigue. Hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism were diagnosed in the postpartum period. Hyperemesis gravidarum masked a diagnosis of hypercalcemia. Neck ultrasound and Tc-99m sestamibi found an enlarged lower right parathyroid gland. The gland was surgically removed, and an initial pathology report described atypical adenoma. Shortly afterward, she became pregnant again. During the second pregnancy, her calcium level was frequently controlled but was always in the normal range. Normocalcemia is explained by the specific physiology of pregnancy accompanied by hemodilution, hypoalbuminemia and maternal hypercalciuria (mediated by increased glomerular filtration). During lactation, calcium levels rose, and a new neck ultrasound showed a solitary mass in the area of prior surgery and an enlarged pretracheal lymph node. Fine needle aspiration of the solitary mass and node showed parathyroid carcinoma cells. The tumor mass was resected en bloc with the contiguous tissues and surrounding lymph nodes (pathology report; parathyroid carcinoma with metastases). Over the next five years, four consecutive surgeries were performed to remove malignant parathyroid tissue, lymph nodes and local metastases. Following the surgical procedures, no hypocalcemia was observed. More serious hypercalcemia recurred; the calcium level was difficult to control with a combination of pamidronate, cinacalcet and loop diuretic. No elements of multiple endocrine neoplasia were present. PMID:24868516

Bareti?, Maja; Tomi? Brzac, Hrvojka; Dobreni?, Margareta; Jakov?evi?, Antonia

2014-05-16

53

Merkel cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

Koljonen, Virve

2006-01-01

54

Solid carcinoma revisited: a possible variant of microcystic adnexal carcinoma.  

PubMed

: Primary malignant apocrine and eccrine skin neoplasms are rare and their nosology is still evolving. First described in 1997, solid carcinoma is now considered a discrete entity by some, although this remains controversial. Apocrine differentiation was postulated. A single case since then was the first to include immunohistochemistry findings. The authors report an additional case of solid carcinoma, together with its immunohistochemical profile. A 63-year-old man presented with a firm nodule 3 cm in diameter on the posterior scalp. On punch biopsy, the lesion was interpreted as an adnexal neoplasm of indeterminate malignant potential. The subsequently excised tumor was initially interpreted as microcystic adnexal carcinoma with perineural invasion involving the surgical margins. Re-excision yielded clear surgical margins. After review of all the histologic material, a final diagnosis of solid carcinoma was rendered. Histologically, innumerable solid aggregations of neoplastic epithelial cells filled the dermis and extended into the subcutis. The aggregations varied in size and ranged from round or ovoid nests to elongated columns or cords embedded within a fibrotic stroma. The neoplastic cells were round and uniform in size with small nuclei and pale or clear cytoplasm. Tubular structures and mitoses were absent. Solid carcinoma is a rare skin neoplasm. Histologically, it closely resembles and may be indistinguishable from the solid areas of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Biologically, solid carcinoma, like microcystic adnexal carcinoma, is an indolent but relentless locally destructive neoplasm that must be removed completely. The clinical, histologic, and biologic similarities suggest that solid carcinoma may be a variant of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. PMID:25343214

Lai, Jonathan H; Limacher, James J; Richards, Robert N

2014-11-01

55

Giant adenoid basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The giant adenoid basal cell carcinoma is an unusual skin tumor that has aggressive biological behavior and has been reported to exhibit geometric growth, deep invasion, and metastasis. A case of giant adenoid basal cell carcinoma is presented, with recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:8060083

Herring, S M

1994-05-01

56

[Ossifying adrenocortical carcinoma with myelolipoma].  

PubMed

In a 25-year-old female in adrenocortical carcinoma with a myelolipoma and areas of ossification was removed by operation. The carcinoma did not penetrate the myeloadipose structure. The finding of an actively growing bone within the stroma of the adenocarcinoma can be explained by the local action of androgens produced by the tumour tissue. PMID:413632

Krpenský, A; Strmiska, M; Cerný, E

1977-05-01

57

Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*  

PubMed Central

The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Monica; Talhari, Sinesio; Talhari, Carolina

2013-01-01

58

Carcinoma erysipeloides of laryngeal origin.  

PubMed

The term "carcinoma erysipeloides" (CE) designates an uncommon form of cutaneous metastasis. CE is most often associated with carcinoma of the breast. However, there have been reports of CE from carcinoma of the uterus, prostate, lung, ovary, stomach, tonsils, thyroid, pancreas, rectum, parotid glands and melanoma. To our knowledge, CE of laryngeal origin has not been previously reported. We describe a patient diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection who developed a supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and erythematous cutaneous lesions. A skin biopsy demonstrated invasion of dilated dermal lymphatics by clusters of atypical squamous cells with polymorphic nuclei and extensive infiltration of the dermis by tumor cells. The histology of the metastatic cells was similar to that of the laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:22668578

Álvarez, María Á; Casas, Enrique; Ruano, Juan; Vélez, Antonio; Salvatierra, Juan; Moreno, Jose C

2012-10-01

59

Pancreaticoduodenectomy of ampullary carcinoma.  

PubMed

Thirty-two consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater who had curative resection by pancreaticoduodenectomy were analyzed to determine the accuracy of preoperative investigations and factors that influenced survival. Obstructive jaundice was present in 31 patients, and most patients had pain and weight loss. Ultrasound was more useful than CT in identifying biliary obstruction, whereas CT was more accurate in demonstrating pancreatic duct dilatation and an ampullary mass. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with biopsy and brush cytology was the most accurate investigation and proved or was suspicious of carcinoma in all patients. Nineteen patients had postoperative complications, three of whom died (9.4%)-two of sepsis and one from aspiration following hematemesis. Actuarial 5-year survival was 46 per cent. Stage of disease was the strongest predictor of survival. All patients with T1 lesions are alive more than 5 years after resection. Patients with lymph node metastases had a significantly shorter survival than node-negative patients (P = 0.00087). Pancreaticoduodenectomy is advocated for ampullary carcinoma in good-risk patients, with the anticipation of prolonged survival in those with early (T1) lesions and node-negative disease. PMID:10551754

Roberts, R H; Krige, J E; Bornman, P C; Terblanche, J

1999-11-01

60

[Multimodal treatment of esophageal carcinoma].  

PubMed

Despite major progress in clinical diagnostics and therapy, esophageal carcinoma represents a tumor entity with limited prognosis. In case of carcinoma restricted to mucosa endoscopic resection has developed into an important therapeutic method. Surgical resection represents the standard procedure for patients with locally limited (cT1/T2, N0) and advanced carcinoma (cT3, T4, Nx). In multimodal therapy neoadjuvant treatment concepts with chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy for patients with locally advanced tumors are well established. In case of metastatic disease palliative radio- and chemotherapy represent a treatment concept, however therapy efficiency is very limited. This review reflects the current status of multimodal therapy. PMID:25289924

Graf, D; Vallböhmer, D; Knoefel, W T; Budach, W; Häussinger, D

2014-10-01

61

[Management of hepatocellular carcinoma].  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent malignant tumors worldwide and its incidence has increased over the last years in most developed countries. The majority of HCCs occur in the context of liver cirrhosis. Therefore, patients with cirrhosis and those with hepatitis B virus infection should enter a surveillance program. Detection of a focal liver lesion by ultrasound should be followed by further investigations to confirm the diagnosis and to permit staging. A number of curative and palliative treatment options are available today. The choice of treatment will depend on the tumor stage, liver function and the presence of portal hypertension as well as the general condition of the patient. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to offer to each patient the best treatment. PMID:20214192

Pache, I; Bize, P; Halkic, N; Montemurro, M; Giostra, E; Majno, P; Moradpour, D

2010-01-27

62

Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine neoplasm with a high mortality rate. Though the etiology is not precisely known, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) DNA has been found recently in a large percentage of MCC tumors. Other suggested risk factors include sun-exposure, immunosuppression and a history of prior malignancy. Work-up of patients with MCC most notably includes nodal staging via clinical exam or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The prognosis for most patients with MCC is poor, and the rarity of MCC precludes the prospective, randomized clinical trials necessary to elucidate optimum treatment protocols. Most published data support the use of a multimodality approach centered around surgical excision with negative margins, SNLB to establish the presence or absence of nodal metastases, adjuvant radiothearpy (RT) to decrease the risk of recurrence, and systemic chemotherapy in the case of widespread disease. PMID:21422993

Ramahi, Emma; Choi, Jehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Eng, Tony Y.

2011-01-01

63

Immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Current therapies for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are marginally effective and exacerbate underlying liver disease. The ability of immunotherapy to elicit nontoxic, systemic, long-lived anti-tumor activity makes it particularly well-suited for use in the setting of HCC. While therapeutic benefit has been achieved in early clinical trials, the efficacy of immune-based therapies is limited by several unique properties of HCC, most notably the inherently tolerogenic character of the liver in both healthy and diseased (chronically-infected or tumor-bearing) states. Therapeutic regimens that both counteract these immunosuppressive mechanisms and amplify tumor-specific immunity are expected to profoundly improve clinical outcomes for HCC patients. PMID:22720211

Pardee, Angela D.; Butterfield, Lisa H.

2012-01-01

64

[Merkel cell carcinoma].  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive malignant neuroendocrine skin tumor, which can metastasize to lymph nodes early and often shows local recurrence. The prognosis depends on tumor size and disease stage. The majority of recurrences appear during the first 2 years after the primary diagnosis. The 5-year survival rate for primary tumor ?2 cm is 50-60?%. With lymph node metastases the 5-year survival rate is 42-52?%, while with distant metastases it drops to 17-18?%. Extensive staging inclusive sentinel lymph node biopsy is essential to assess the risk for distant metastasis and to allow the best recommendations for therapy. After surgical treatment with adequate safety margin, subsequent adjuvant radiation therapy of the tumor region and lymphatic draining basin is recommended to reduce the risk of local recurrence and lymphatic spread. PMID:25234632

Kleffner, F; Schürholz, J; Burckhardt, S; Mauch, C; Schlaak, M

2014-09-01

65

Genetics of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The completely assembled human genome has made it possible for modern medicine to step into an era rich in genetic information and high-throughput genomic analysis. These novel and readily available genetic resources and analytical tools may be the key to unravel the molecular basis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, since an efficient treatment for this disease is lacking, further understanding of the genetic background of HCC will be crucial in order to develop new therapies aimed at selected targets. We report on the current status and recent developments in HCC genetics. Special emphasis is given to the genetics and regulation of major signalling pathways involved in HCC such as p53, Wnt-signalling, TGF?, Ras, and Rb pathways. Furthermore, we describe the influence of chromosomal aberrations as well as of DNA methylation. Finally, we report on the rapidly developing field of genomic expression profiling in HCC, mainly by microarray analysis. PMID:17511024

Teufel, Andreas; Staib, Frank; Kanzler, Stephan; Weinmann, Arndt; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Galle, Peter R

2007-01-01

66

[Merkel cell carcinoma].  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma) is a rare form of tumor of unclear histogenesis which predominantly occurs in elderly patients on areas exposed to the sun. A higher incidence and occurrence in younger people is predominantly found in immunosuppressed persons which is why a pathogenetic role is also attributed to immunosuppression in addition to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Additionally, in 80% of cases clonally integrated polyomavirus (Merkel cell polyomavirus, MCPyV) could be detected. Clinically MCC represents an uncharacteristic tumor. Histopathologically, monomorphic dermal and/or subcutaneous nodes are found consisting of round or oval medium sized cells with a vesicular nucleus and sparse cytoplasm. The neoplastic cells of MCC express cytokeratin (CK) 20 with a dot-like perinuclear accentuation. In addition, pan-CK, neuroendocrine markers (e.g. chromogranin A and synaptophysin), neurofilament proteins, CD56, CD57, Bcl-2, TdT and PAX-5 are immunohistochemically positive. In most cases CM2B4, an antibody against MCPyV is also positive. Expression of p63 has been observed in some of the cases and in some studies was associated with a favorable prognosis. The markers thyroid transcription factor 1, mammalian achaete scute complex like 1, vimentin, S-100 and CK7 are not normally expressed by MCC. The prognosis is primarily dependent on tumor size and the lymph node status. The presence of intralymphatic tumor complexes is associated with a higher rate of local recurrence and lymph node metastasis. A larger number of intratumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocytes is accompanied by a favorable prognosis and the presence of >?50?% of K-67+ neoplastic cells with an unfavorable prognosis. Further morphological, phenotypical and genetic factors have not yet been validated in larger cohorts with respect to the prognostic relevance. PMID:25074367

Fried, I; Cerroni, L

2014-09-01

67

Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

68

Oral contraceptives and hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 26 white women aged under 50 who developed hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic liver were studied for the possible role of oral contraceptives. Eighteen of the women had used the \\

J Neuberger; D Forman; R Doll; R Williams

1986-01-01

69

Merkel Cell Carcinoma Workshop, 2009  

Cancer.gov

January 09, 2009 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM National Institutes of Health Neurosciences Center Rockville MD + Add to Outlook Calendar Workshop on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Basic, Epidemiologic, Translational and Clinical Research January 9th, 2009 National Institutes

70

Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

1983-12-01

71

Radiation-induced esophageal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation-induced carcinoma of the esophagus is rare and only 8 cases have been reported since 1957. This article presents 2 additional patients in whom esophageal carcinoma developed in segments previously exposed to large therapeutic doses of irradiation. The first patient had received 5,000 rads to her mediastinum and the second patient 3,200 rads to her neck region. The latent intervals

Elizabeth W. O'Connell; William B. Seaman; Gary G. Ghahremani

1984-01-01

72

Genomic profile of ovarian carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background It is known that all tumors studied in sufficient number to draw conclusions show characteristic/specific chromosomal rearrangements, and the identification of these chromosomes and the genes rearranged behind the aberrations may ultimately lead to a tailor-made therapy for each cancer patient. Knowledge about the acquired genomic aberrations of ovarian carcinomas is still unsatisfactory. Methods We cytogenetically analyzed 110 new cases of ovarian carcinoma of different histological subtypes using karyotyping of G-banded chromosomes and high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization. We first compared the aberration patterns identified by the two genomic screening techniques using the so-called “classical” pathological classification in which the carcinomas are grouped as tumors of types I and II. We also broke down our findings according to the more “modern” classification which groups the carcinomas in five different categories. Results The chromosomal breakpoints identified by karyotyping tended to cluster to 19p/q and to 11q, but no unquestionably recurrent rearrangement could be seen. Common imbalances were scored as gains from 1q, 3q, 7q, and 8q and losses from 17p, 19q, and 22q. Gain of material from 8q23 and losses from 19q and 22q have previously been described at high frequencies in bilateral and borderline ovarian carcinomas. The fact that they were present both in “precursor” lesions, i.e., borderline tumors, as well as in tumors of more advanced stages, i.e., carcinomas, highlights the possibility of an adenoma-carcinoma sequence in ovarian carcinogenesis. Conclusion Based on the relatively simple genomic changes we identified in the low-grade serous carcinomas examined (n?=?7) and which largely corresponded to the aberration pattern formerly identified in borderline tumors, one can interpret the cytogenetic data as supporting the view that the low-grade carcinomas represent a phenotypically more advanced stage of borderline tumors. Whether transition from low-grade to high-grade carcinoma also occurs, is a question about which the genomic data is still inconclusive. PMID:24886194

2014-01-01

73

Merkel Cell Carcinoma: What It Looks Like  

MedlinePLUS

... States each year. Where Occurs | Diagnosed Cases of Merkel Cell Carcinoma MCC can appear anywhere on the skin. ... N, Lemos B et al. “Clinical characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma at diagnosis in 195 patients: the AEIOU ...

74

Home treatment of basal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The sap of the plant Euphorbia peplus is not uncommonly used as a home treatment for warts and basal cell carcinomas. This report documents its successful use on a biopsy-proven basal cell carcinoma. PMID:979751

Weedon, D; Chick, J

1976-06-12

75

Renal cell carcinoma biomarkers  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed herein is a method of identifying a tumor biomarker. In one example, a tumor biomarker is identified by obtaining a peripheral biological fluid sample from a subject with a tumor as well as a tumor sample and an adjacent non-tumor sample from such subject. A protein expression profile is detected in the peripheral biological fluid sample, tumor sample and adjacent non-tumor sample. The protein expression profiles of the peripheral biological fluid sample, tumor sample and adjacent non-tumor sample are then compared, wherein an increase in expression of a specific protein in the tumor sample and peripheral biological fluid sample but not in the adjacent non-tumor sample indicates that the specific protein is a biomarker of the tumor. Also disclosed herein is a gene profiling signature that can be used to diagnosis a subject with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or to identify agents with therapeutic potential to treat RCC. Thus, methods of diagnosing a subject with RCC are disclosed. Methods are also provided for identifying agents that alter an activity of a RCC biomarker.

2014-07-29

76

Occult Carcinoma of the Bronchus  

PubMed Central

The term “occult carcinoma” is applied to those patients with carcinoma of the bronchus at an in situ or early invasive stage who have carcinoma cells in their sputum but have no recognizable evidence of tumour in the chest radiograph. In eight such patients at the Toronto General Hospital, the lesion was localized and treatment instituted. Our experience with these eight patients can be compared with that of 27 patients described in two similar studies. The lesions were commonly symptomatic. Localization, although sometimes difficult, was accomplished using information obtained during bronchoscopy and bronchography. The prognosis following adequate resection appeared excellent. No patient died of carcinoma during the post-treatment follow-up period, which was continued for a minimum of 18 months. Pathological evidence indicates that bronchial carcinoma at this occult stage can be diagnosed cytologically, is rarely multifocal and, as a localized neoplasm, is amenable to curative therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:5929532

Pearson, F. G.; Thompson, D. W.

1966-01-01

77

CORRESPONDENCE Unusual Features of Thyroid Carcinomas in  

E-print Network

CORRESPONDENCE Unusual Features of Thyroid Carcinomas in Japanese Patients with Werner Syndrome genetic instability, and an elevated risk of se- lected neoplasms including thyroid carcinoma.1) in Japanese WS patients may confer a higher risk of thyroid carcinoma, and that N­ and C-terminal WRN

Monnat, Ray

78

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx  

MedlinePLUS

What is squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx? Squamous cell carcinoma represents more than 90 percent of all head and neck cancers. In ... 80 percent. Who is most likely to have squamous cell carcinoma? Males have this type of cancer about twice ...

79

Sinonasal carcinoma - a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Sinonasal carcinomas are rare and account for 3% of all malignant tumours of head and neck. Squamous cell carcinoma is the commonest histological variant. We present a case of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma in a 52-years-male and another rare case of intestinal type sinonasal adenocarcinoma in 50-years-male. PMID:24701512

R, Kalyani; Narshimhan, Aparna; Prakash, Shiva

2014-02-01

80

Sinonasal Carcinoma - A Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Sinonasal carcinomas are rare and account for 3% of all malignant tumours of head and neck. Squamous cell carcinoma is the commonest histological variant. We present a case of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma in a 52-years-male and another rare case of intestinal type sinonasal adenocarcinoma in 50-years-male. PMID:24701512

R, Kalyani; Narshimhan, Aparna; Prakash, Shiva

2014-01-01

81

Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.

Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-07-01

82

Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

We studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 45% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-type of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function. PMID:8290606

Unsal, H; Yakicier, C; Marcais, C; Kew, M; Volkmann, M; Zentgraf, H; Isselbacher, K J; Ozturk, M

1994-01-01

83

Sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Cancer is among most important causes of death in recent decades. Whoever the renal cell carcinoma incidence is low but it seems it is more complicated than the other cancers in terms of pathophysiology and treatments. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview and also deeper insight to renal cell carcinoma and the steps which have been taken to reach more specific treatment and target therapy, in this type of cancer by developing most effective agents such as Sorafenib. To achieve this goal hundreds of research paper and published work has been overviewed and due to limitation of space in a paper just focus in most important points on renal cell carcinoma, treatment of RCC and clinical development of Sorafenib. The information presented this paper shows the advanced of human knowledge to provide more efficient drug in treatment of some complicated cancer such as RCC in promising much better future to fight killing disease. PMID:24374450

Davoudi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; bin-Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Kadivar, Ali; Sabeti, Bahare

2014-01-01

84

Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx  

SciTech Connect

Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

1985-07-01

85

Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth leading cause of cancer worldwide and its incidence is increasing. Surveillance programs allow doctors to identify patients at early stages of the disease, when the tumor may be curable by radical treatments such as resection, liver transplantation, or local ablation. In the West, these treatments can be applied to 30% to 40% of patients. Resection yields favorable results in patients with single tumors and a well-preserved liver function (5-year survival rate is 60%). Recurrence complicates two thirds of the cases, and there is no effective adjuvant treatment. Liver transplantation is the best treatment for patients with single tumors that are less than 5 cm in diameter and liver failure, or in those presenting with three nodules less than 3 cm, but organ shortage greatly limits its applicability. Long-term survival is expected to be around 50% to 70% at 5 years depending upon the drop-out rate of patients on the waiting list. Chemoembolization and local ablation are the neo-adjuvant treatments applied to patients on the waiting list to prevent tumor progression; no controlled study proving their efficacy has yet been published. In nonsurgical candidates, percutaneous treatments (ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation) are the best therapeutic approach and improve survival in Child-Pugh A class patients with small tumors that achieve initial complete response (5-year survival rate is 40% to 50%). At more advanced stages, chemoembolization, a technique combining intra-arterial chemotherapy and selected ischemia, has shown to slightly improve survival in a meta-analysis of randomized trials. No survival advantages have been demonstrated with intra-arterial or systemic chemotherapy, hormonal compounds, or radiation. New agents, such as inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase receptors of growth factors and antiangiogenic agents, are currently being tested in phase II/III trials. PMID:15527709

Llovet, Josep M

2004-12-01

86

Thrombosis and Pancreatic Carcinoma Revisited  

PubMed Central

A case of recurrent pulmonary embolism from thrombophlebitis associated with pancreatic carcinoma is reported. There is an increased incidence of thrombophlebitis with all tumors, but carcinoma of the pancreas is statistically more frequently responsible. The higher incidence of thrombophlebitis with tumors of the body and tail of the pancreas is probably due to the low trypsin levels associated with these tumors. Trypsin levels are directly related to plasma antithrombin levels and mucinous adenocarcinomas are more commonly associated with thrombus formation. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7120446

Verghese, Abraham; Haws, Claude C.; Thomas, Eapen

1982-01-01

87

Temas Avanzados en Ingenieria Informatica (I) -Logica  

E-print Network

siguientes restricciones: 1. En cada columna no puede haber d´igitos repetidos. 2. En cada fila no puede-esima reina se asocia a dos variables, Fila8 y Col8 , que corresponden a la fila y 2 #12;columna donde se

Camacho, David

88

Sarcomatoid lung carcinomas: a case series  

PubMed Central

We report on three Caucasian Greeks 2 males and 1 female (67, 54 and 62 years old) that were operated with sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung, an uncommon tumor that sometimes is referred as pleomorphic carcinoma (spindle and giant cell carcinomas). These tumors are encountered in the thorax far more often than true sarcomas. There are many erroneous reports of pulmonary sarcomas made before the advent of adjunctive pathologic screening, including immunohistochemical studies. Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinomas represent 0.2-1% of all lung cancers in different series and they are considered that they are not significantly aggressive than ordinary lung carcinoma. PMID:19830024

Moraitis, Sotirios; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Ikonomidis, Polychronis; Douzinas, Mattheos

2009-01-01

89

Surgical Management of Esophageal Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical management of esophageal carcinoma is reviewed. The anatomy and biology are briefly mentioned, since these factors mitigate against the success of surgery. Staging, the key to proper treatment allocation and prog- nosis, is discussed, including the use of endoscopic ultra- sonography, positron emission tomography, and thoracoscopy\\/laparoscopy. Patient selection and preparation for surgery are important considerations. Surgical tech- niques are

CAROLYN E. REED

90

Advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx  

SciTech Connect

A total of 274 patients with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was treated in eight Veterans Administration Hospitals over a period of 22 years. Of the 274 patients, 256 (93%) had squamous-cell carcinoma, while 18 (7%) had other tumors. Most of the squamous-cell carcinoma patients (82%) had Stage IV disease; cervical lymph node metastases were found in 193 (75%) and distant metastases were present in 22 (9%). The actuarial 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates for the 256 squamous-cell carcinoma patients were 15%, 10%, and 7%, while they were 49%, 42%, and 35% for the 18 patients with other tumors (p=0.006). There was a progressive decrease in 5-year survival with the increase in the stage of tumor. The survival of the 63 patients without metastases was better than the survival of the 193 patients with cervical metastases (24% vs. 12% at 5 years, p=0.03). The presence of T4 disease or Initial Performance Status of less than 80 on the Karnofsky Scale indicated a poor prognosis (p=0.0001). Treatment failure occurred in 83% of the patients by 2 years after therapy and was due to the lack of tumor control at the primary site. Advanced (N3) cervical lymph node metastases indicated that systemic tumor dissemination of the nasopharynx is an uncommon malignancy.

Petrovich, Z.; Cox, J.D.; Roswit, B.; MacKintosh, R.; Middleton, R.; Ohanian, M.; Rao, Y.; Byhardt, R.W.; Paig, C.; del Regato, J.A.

1982-09-01

91

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) is a rare tumor which, since its identification by Hazard et al. [2] in 1959, has attracted interest for 2 reasons. First, the secretion of the tumor marker, thyrocalcitonin, provides a means of making the diagnosis of MCT before the tumor is clinically evident. Second, MCT may be associated with pheochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia

John Lynn; Orestis I. Gamvros; Selwyn Taylor

1981-01-01

92

Carcinoma of the nasal vestibule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal vestibule are essentially skin cancers that require special therapeutic considerations because of the regional anatomy. They have sometimes been considered poorly suited for treatment by irradiation because of potential or actual cartilage and\\/or bone invasion and therefore have been treated by surgical resection, sometimes producing defects that are difficult to reconstruct satisfactorily. From 1966

Nancy P. Mendenhall; James T. Parsons; Nicholas J. Cassisi; Rodney R. Million

1984-01-01

93

Targeted therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. The major etiologies and risk factors for development of HCC are well defined and some steps of hepatocellular carcinogenesis have been elucidated. Despite these scientific advances and the implementation of measures for early detection of HCC in patients who are at risk of this disease, survival of patients

Hans Christian Spangenberg; Robert Thimme; Hubert E. Blum

2009-01-01

94

Systemic Therapies in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal malignant tumors worldwide in the human population. Due to late diagnosis and\\/or advanced underlying liver cirrhosis, only limited treatment options with marginal clinical benefit are available in up to 70% of patients. During the last decades, no effective conventional cytotoxic systemic therapy was available contributing to the dismal prognosis

Marcus Alexander Wörns; Arndt Weinmann; Marcus Schuchmann; Peter Robert Galle

2009-01-01

95

[Hereditary thyroid carcinoma and its molecular diagnostics].  

PubMed

Thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system and its incidence is still growing. The majority of thyroid tumors occur in sporadic form, however, some are inherited in families. The carcinomas can be divided into two groups according to the types of thyroid cells. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is derived from parafollicular C-cells. 20 - 25% of medullary thyroid carcinomas are inherited in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndromes. Genetic causes are activated by germ-line mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, which are transmitted autosomal, dominantly. At present the routine genetic screening and presymptomatic treatment (i.e. prophylactic total thyreoidectomy) on the basis of genotype-phenotype correlation has already been developed. The second group consists of carcinomas derived from follicular cells of thyroid that can be divided into differentiated (papillary and follicular) and nondifferentiated (anaplastic and poorly differentiated) ones. Also in this group 5-15% of carcinomas are cases of different familial syndromes (Gardner, Cowden, Werner syndromes and Carney complex) or only simple familial papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the genetic basis of inherited cancer syndromes are mostly known (APC, PTEN, PRKAR1? and WRN genes), the cause of nonsyndromic familial papillary thyroid carcinoma is still under investigation, several predisposition genetic loci are recognized. Keywords: Medullary thyroid carcinoma - MEN2 syndrome - thyroid carcinoma - genetics - RET-proto-oncogene. PMID:24758503

Dvo?áková, Sárka; Václavíková, Eliška; Sýkorová, Vlasta; Hálková, Tereza; Bendlová, B?la

2014-04-01

96

Comparative study of conventional urothelial carcinoma, squamous differentiation carcinoma and pure squamous carcinoma in patients with invasive bladder tumors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose: Treatment results evaluation (radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemo/radiotherapy) in patients with urothelial carcinoma, squamous differentiation carcinoma and pure squamous bladder carcinoma. Material and methods: The study included 361 patients with invasive bladder carcinoma treated between 1990-2013. Histology showed 296 cases of urothelial carcinoma (82% - group A), 52 cases of urothelial divergent differentiation (squamous and urothelial carcinoma 14.4% - group B) and 13 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (3.6% - group C). All patients benefited from radical cystectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was undergone in 68 patients. Results: Group A - urothelial carcinoma - had a 44% rate of patients alive with a mean survival period of 73 months. About 56% of the patients died, the mean survival period being 4 years. Group B – urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation – had a mean survival period of 36 months (between 1-156 months). 17 patients (33%) are alive at 50 months postoperatively. Group C – squamous carcinoma – had a mean survival period of 9.4 months. Discussions: Locally advanced disease was diagnosed in 50% of the patients in group A, while in group B the rate was 84.6% and 70% in group C, respectively. Conclusions: Squamous pattern detected in the histopathological specimen represents a negative prognostic factor. It seems that the squamous component influences the outcome of the disease due to its biological characteristics in the evolution of squamous carcinoma, with advanced local stage disease at diagnosis – late onset of symptoms and lack of response to adjuvant treatment. Abbreviations: SCC = squamous cell carcinoma; MSK = Memorial Sloan Ketering

Gluck, G; Hortopan, M; St?nculeanu, D; Chiri??, M; Stoica, R; Sinescu, I

2014-01-01

97

Intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with ductal carcinoma in situ in a male breast: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intracystic papillary carcinoma represents a small distinctive subgroup of noninvasive breast cancer, accounts for <0.5% of breast malignancies and is extremely rare in men, it was originally reported as a localized non-invasive carcinoma, but is usually associated with ductal carcinoma in situ around the main tumor or invasive carcinoma. Case presentation We report a case of 50-year-old man with intracystic papillary carcinoma in man with ductal carcinoma in situ who underwent a tumorectomy following by a radical Patey intervention (Halsted). Conclusion Nowadays, there is still no clear consensus regarding optimal treatment of intracystic papillary carcinoma. Most papers reinforce the importance of an adequate surgical margin in conservative treatment. Surgeons must pay much attention to the potential for ductal carcinoma in situ around the tumor when selecting the operative procedure. PMID:19829939

El M'rabet, Fatema Zahra; Akesbi, Yusra; Benbrahim, Zineb; El Hind, fatemi; Znati, Kawtar; Benlemlih, Amal; Tbaili, Naima; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham; Amarti, Afaf; El Mesbahi, Omar

2009-01-01

98

Approach to Carcinoma Cervix with Pelvic Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the management of carcinoma cervix when the patient has an associated pelvic kidney. The simultaneous occurrence\\u000a of carcinoma cervix and pelvic kidney is rare. It is an interesting scenario where surgery is technically challenging and\\u000a radiation is difficult since the pelvic kidney lies within the field of radiation. In our department, we treated three cases\\u000a of cervical carcinoma

Rajaraman Ramamurthy; Vimalakannan Muthusamy; Syed Afroze Hussain

2010-01-01

99

Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B e antigen.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B e antigen serum persistence in an individual chronically infected with the Hepatitis B virus may be associated with a greatly increased risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This article presents an overview of the Hepatitis B e antigen and discusses the findings of a recent study evaluating its associated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A gross photographic image of hepatocellular carcinoma is provided. PMID:14694826

Kane, Loren S

2003-01-01

100

Mixed Merkel cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four mixed Merkel cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin are described. The patients ranged in age from 74 to 90 years and demonstrated or had a history of previous ultraviolet or infrared damage to the skin, manifested by basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses, solar elastosis, and erythema ab igne. Light microscopic examination of all 4

Mary V. Iacocca; John L. Abernethy; Catherine M. Stefanato; Anne E. Allan; Jag Bhawan

1998-01-01

101

Targeted therapies in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a subtype of adenocarcinoma with unique epidemiology, pathology, clinical features,\\u000a radiographic presentation, and natural history compared with other non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtypes. According\\u000a to criteria of the revised 2004 World Health Organization classification it accounts for only 5% of all cases of NSCLC. BAC\\u000a cases are mostly represented by females and non-smokers and are

Giorgio Vittorio Scagliotti; Giovanni Selvaggi

2008-01-01

102

Sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma is resistant to conventional treatment with chemotherapy. Recently the use of molecular-targeted therapies with multikinase inhibitors has been recommended as first-choice therapy because they inhibit cell proliferation and tumour angiogenesis. Sorafenib is a well tolerated tyrosine kinase inhibitor that initially demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of patients with metastatic RCC who progressed after immunotherapy. Expanded-access studies

José Ángel Arranz; Miguel Ángel Climent; José Luis González-Larriba; Luis León; José Pablo Maroto

2011-01-01

103

Renal cell carcinoma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor in childhood, however, rare tumors must be kept in mind if tumor therapy protocols like the SIOP-9 or SIOP 93-01 Wilms' tumor trial include preoperative chemotherapy based on clinical and radiologic findings without further histologic tumor confirmation. We present a 12-year-old boy initially believed to have a stage IV Wilms' tumor with pulmonary

G. Zöller; E. Kunze; A. Pekrun; R.-H. Ringert

1995-01-01

104

Retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study reports the incidence, numer, size and distribution of enlarged lateral retropharyngeal (LRP) nodes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and methods: One-hundred and fourteen patients with histopathologically proven NPC were staged prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). T1-weighted, gadolinium-DTPA enhanced, T2-weighted images and CT were obtained. Results: Ninety-one (80%) patients showed enlargement

V. F. H. Chong; Y. F. Fan; J. B. K. Khoo

1995-01-01

105

Cardiac metastasis from gallbladder carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Primary gallbladder carcinoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm of elderly with poor prognosis. The tumour is often unresectable at the time of diagnosis. Metastasis to heart is rare and only 6 cases have been reported in the indexed literature. We herein report a case of gallbladder carcinoma metastasizing to heart. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 54 year old female presented with dyspnoea and chest pain with past history of radical cholecystectomy and palliative chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma of gallbladder. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly and 2-D ECHO revealed features of tumour deposits on the surface of myocardium and malignant pericardial effusion. Mini-thoracotomy and pericardial window procedure was done to relieve distressing symptoms and biopsy of pericardial tissue revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. In spite of intensive care, patient succumbed to disease in the post-operative period. DISCUSSION Primary adenocarcinoma of gallbladder is the most common malignancy of biliary tract and fifth most common malignancy of gastro-intestinal system with dismal prognosis. It most commonly spreads to liver and regional lymph nodes, very rarely distant metastasis occurs to kidney, adrenal, thyroid and bones as reported in the literature. Metastasis to heart presents with symptoms of cardiac failure due to pericardial effusion. Even with intensive care patients will invariably succumb to the disease. CONCLUSION Metastatic spread to heart from carcinoma of gallbladder is very rare. Should a patient be suspected of or an operated case of gallbladder carcinoma present with symptoms of congestive heart failure and massive pericardial effusion, cardiac metastasis should be considered. PMID:24291682

Gunjiganvi, Mallikarjun; Singh, Ksh Kala; Harsha, H.S.; Bipin, Th

2013-01-01

106

Pathogenesis of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neoplasm derived from the calcitonin producing or C cells of the thyroid gland. The\\u000a C cell is a neuroendocrine cell that is distributed throughout the thyroid gland in mammalian species with the greatest concentration\\u000a of cells located centrally at the junction of the upper one-third and lower two-thirds of each lobe. In birds and

Robert F. Gagel; Gilbert J. Cote

107

Basis for reclassification of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

E-print Network

??Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) shows broad differences in racial and geographical distribution, radiosensitivity, and a multifactorial etiology. This thesis aims to identify molecular biomarkers with potentially… (more)

Shao, Jian-Yong

2012-01-01

108

HER2-Positive Metaplastic Spindle Cell Carcinoma Associated with Synchronous Bilateral Apocrine Carcinoma of the Breast  

PubMed Central

Apocrine carcinoma, which is strictly defined as over 90% of tumor cells showing apocrine differentiation, is a rare variant of breast cancer. Here we report an uncommon case in which apocrine carcinomas developed concurrently in both breasts; in addition, a sarcomatoid spindle cell lesion was coincident in the right breast. Both apocrine carcinomas were immunohistochemically negative for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR), but diffusely positive for androgen receptor (AR), GCDFP-15, and HER2. The presence of intraductal components in bilateral carcinomas and the absence of lymph node metastasis suggested that they were more likely to be individual primary lesions rather than metastatic disease. The spindle cell lesion showed a relatively well-circumscribed nodule contiguous with the apocrine carcinoma. HER2 oncoprotein overexpression was observed not only in the apocrine carcinoma, but also in the spindle cell lesion. Since the spindle cell component was intimately admixed with apocrine carcinoma and had focal cytokeratin expression, we diagnosed it as metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma, which was originated from the apocrine carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with synchronous bilateral apocrine carcinomas coinciding with metaplastic carcinoma.

Kito, Katsumi; Maeda, Toshiharu; Ninomiya, Keiko; Sugita, Atsuro; Sagawa, Teiri; Matsuoka, Kinya; Kinoshita, Kousei; Hyodo, Naoki; Morita, Nagisa; Furuya, Keizo

2014-01-01

109

Invasive lobular carcinoma with extracellular mucin as a distinct variant of lobular carcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

The differences between invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas affect the diagnostic and therapeutic management for patients with breast cancer. In most cases, this can be accomplished because of distinct histomorphologic features. However, occasionally, this task may become quite difficult, in particular when dealing with the variants of infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma has been considered a variant of mucin-secreting carcinoma with only intracytoplasmic mucin. The presence of extracellular mucin is a feature of ductal carcinoma. Herein is presented a case of lobular carcinoma with extracellular and intracellular mucin in a 43-year-old female patient, and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Up to the present, infiltrating lobular carcinoma displaying extracellular mucin has not been described in the literature except two case. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1839906067716744 PMID:22867429

2012-01-01

110

Histogenesis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one dog thyroid tumours and 28 spontaneous rat thyroid tumours were studied histologically and the findings compared with those of a study of 67 cases of medullary carcinoma of the human thyroid.Five of the dog tumours and 24 of the rat tumours were considered to belong to the same group of tumours as medullary carcinoma, a group characterized by solid

E. D. Williams

1966-01-01

111

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer that frequently imitates serous carcinoma of the ovary in its clinical presentation and histologic appearance. Unlike the ovarian lesion, however, it is known to be particularly resistant to chemotherapy. A patient with a putative diagnosis of unresectable Stage IV ovarian cancer was treated with three cycles of neoadjuvant

Edward Resnik; Jerome B. Taxy

1996-01-01

112

Pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

The pseudoangiosarcomatous pattern has been described mostly in cutaneous and some visceral squamous cell carcinomas and is unique for its striking morphologic resemblance to angiosarcoma. Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic features of 7 pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas that occurred in the urinary bladder. The patients included 6 men and 1 woman ranging in age from 47 to 87 years (median 70 y). The pseudoangiosarcomatous morphology was observed in 7 urothelial carcinomas including 3 with squamous differentiation and comprised 35% to 85% of the invasive tumor. Histologically, the pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinomas were characterized by tumor cell discohesion and lysis that created pseudolumina formations surrounded by attached residual tumor cells. Detached degenerating tumor cells variably admixed with inflammatory cells were common in the false lumina. Partly intact urothelial carcinoma nests contained irregular or cleft-like spaces and disintegrating tumor cells with stretched intercellular bridges. The tumor was commonly associated with a dense collagenous matrix, often surrounding the lytic nests. Similar tumor cell discohesion and breakdown were observed in 3 tumors with foci of squamous cell differentiation, distinguished by the presence of dyskeratosis and keratin formation. All 7 tumors contained other nonpseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma components such as conventional urothelial carcinoma (5), squamous differentiation (4), sarcomatoid spindle cell carcinoma (2), small cell carcinoma (1), micropapillary carcinoma (1), and glandular differentiation (1). The pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas were all (7/7) diffusely CK7 positive, most (6/7) were GATA3 positive, and none (0/7) expressed vascular-associated markers. There was no evidence to suggest that apoptosis (by TUNEL assay and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining) or loss of the adhesion molecules CD138 and e-cadherin were possible causes for the tumor cell discohesion and breakdown. All 7 tumors were high stage at cystectomy and included 1 pT3a, 2 pT3b, and 4 pT4a tumors, and 3 had pelvic lymph node involvement. Follow-up data available in 6 cases revealed a poor outcome with an overall median survival of 8.5 months. In conclusion, we present an unusual morphology of bladder carcinoma that has a striking resemblance to a malignant vasoformative tumor. Our series showed that bladder pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma morphology is associated with a higher tumor stage at cystectomy, commonly admixed with other aggressive carcinoma variant morphologies, and portend a poorer outcome. Knowledge of this pattern is also important to avoid misdiagnosis, particularly in limited tissue samples. PMID:25133708

Paner, Gladell P; Cox, Roni Michelle; Richards, Kyle; Akki, Ashwin; Gokden, Neriman; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Krausz, Thomas; McKenney, Jesse K; Steinberg, Gary D

2014-09-01

113

Scalp Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Xeroderma Pigmentosum  

PubMed Central

Context: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Case Report: Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. Conclusion: In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving. PMID:24695441

Awan, Basim A.; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A.; Ammar, Hossam

2014-01-01

114

Metastatic esophageal carcinoma masquerading as inflammatory breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of esophageal adenocarcinoma presented with a 3-week history of right breast swelling and progressive erythema. Twenty-two months prior to presentation, she had been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (T3,N1,M1a) and underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection. On physical examination, the right breast was red, swollen (40% larger than the contralateral breast), tender to palpation, and warm to the touch (Fig. 1). No mass was palpable. On the basis of the clinical findings, inflammatory breast carcinoma was suspected. A punch biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with extensive involvement of dermal lymphatics (Fig. 2). The clinical and histologic differential diagnosis included inflammatory breast carcinoma vs. metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma to the skin of the breast. To resolve this question, immunohistochemical stains for estrogen and progesterone receptors and CDX-2 (BioGenex, San Ramon, CA, USA) were performed. CDX-2 is an intestinal homeobox gene expressed in gastrointestinal epithelium and gastrointestinal tumors. The tumor nuclei were positive for CDX-2 but negative for both steroid receptors (Fig. 3), confirming the diagnosis of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:17343591

Nebesio, Christy L; Goulet, Robert J; Helft, Paul R; Billings, Steven D

2007-03-01

115

[Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: rare form carcinoma].  

PubMed

Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Incidence is reported to be 0.1-3.6%. We report a case of a young woman, 37-year-old, with history of a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast with ulceration of the skin surface. Menarche occurred at age of 12. The patient was married, had two deliveries and had her first child at age of 26. She did not use contraceptive pills. Diagnosis of the tumour of the breast was made at the Department of surgery in General Hospital in Bijeljina in September 2007. Clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography were performed. Physical examination revealed a circumscribed and firm mass measuring 60 x 60 x 80 mm. Mammogram showed a round, high-density mass with almost regular but partially irregular margin. Ultrasonogram of the left breast tumor identified an irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesion. After clinical staging of the disease, we performed incision biopsy of the skin and tumour of the left breast with histopathology examination (standard hematoxylin and eosin). Patient had estrogen and progesteron receptors negative and was HER2/neu negative. After histopathology, patient's case was presented to the working group for breast tumors which decided to start with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum. After six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regression of breast tumor was confirmed. Working group decided that radical mastectomy of left breast should be performed. PMID:19537673

Maksimovi?, Sinisa

2009-01-01

116

Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

2014-01-01

117

Parathyroid carcinoma: a silent presentation  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperparathyroidism is most commonly diagnosed in the setting of benign parathyroid adenoma(s). However, it can also rarely be caused by parathyroid malignancy and when it is, the clinical manifestations far supercede the presentation of benign parathyroid adenoma. We report a case of suspected benign parathyroid adenoma induced primary hyperparathyroidism in which pathologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was made. Due to the lack of signs and symptoms, this indicates parathyroid malignancy can be masked clinically as benign adenomas, until a histologic diagnosis can be ascertained.

Lal, Karan; Chang, Robert; Mandava, Nageswara

2014-01-01

118

Mucoepidermoid lung carcinoma in child.  

PubMed

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare malignant tumor arising from the bronchial gland. A case of 6-year-old male child who presented with fever, hemoptysis and wheezing since 1month is reported. Chest X-ray showed features suggestive of foreign body with post-obstructive pneumonia and was treated for the same with medication without much improvement. Subsequently computerized tomography scan chest was carried out, which showed oval mass with speculated margin in right hilar region with distal segmental atelectasis. Bronchoscopy showed small growth with nodularity in the apical segmental bronchus of the right lower lobe with mucosal erosion and hence carried out broncho-alveolar lavage showed few atypical squamous cells. Patient underwent right lower lobectomy, which showed a grey white oval mass with solid and cystic areas in the right hilar region with extension in to the lung parenchyma. Histology of the tumor showed mixed solid and cystic areas with sheets of epidermoid cells and mucus-filled cysts of irregular size. Areas of solid growth were composed of squamoid and intermediate cells. Hence, the final diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) intermediate grade of the lung was made. Early diagnosis can be accomplished if the clinician is alert to persistent pneumonia, coughing and tumor obstruction on image studies. MEC is a comparatively rare low-grade tumor, which reportedly carries a good prognosis with early surgical intervention. PMID:24761253

Jayaprakash, Ks; Kishanprasad, Hl; Ismail, M; Raju, M; Dasguptha, A

2014-03-01

119

Rhabdoid Carcinoma of the Rectum  

PubMed Central

Rhabdoid colonic tumors are very rare lesions with just a few publications describing such neoplasms. Even more unusual for these lesions are their primary rectal locations, with only two brief case reports having been published on that subject to date. We present a case of a composite rhabdoid rectal carcinoma in a 49-year-old male. The tumor behaved very aggressively, with rapid patient demise despite radical surgery and intensive postoperative chemotherapy (FOLFIRI [folinic acid {leucovorin}, fluorouracil {5-fluorouracil}, and irinotecan] and FOLFOX4 [folinic acid {leucovorin}, fluorouraci {5-fluorouracil}, and oxaliplatin]). Pathologic examination was supportive of a rhabdoid carcinoma, with a compatible immunohistochemical profile, demonstrating synchronous expression of vimentin and epithelial markers in the tumor cells. In addition, BRAF V600E gene mutation, together with a wild-type KRAS gene, was identified, and no evidence of microsatellite instability based on MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 immunophenotypes, i.e., no loss of expression for all 4 markers, was observed. Our reported case confirms previously published observations of the clinical aggressiveness and the poor therapeutic response for rhabdoid tumors. PMID:24466541

Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Gasilionis, Valdas; Baltruskeviciene, Edita; Aleknavicius, Eduardas; Mickys, Ugnius

2013-01-01

120

Carcinoma arising in pilonidal sinuses.  

PubMed Central

Pilonidal carcinoma is an infrequent complication of pilonidal disease. The surgeon's suspicion should be raised in cases of longstanding pilonidal inflammation. The disease occurs most frequently in men. The lesion is often a well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Wide excisions at the initial procedure following a brief period of local wound care, is the optimum treatment and increases the chances for a five-year survival. Definitive closure of the defect is delayed and accomplished by rotational flaps or skin grafts. It palpable nodes are present in the inguinal region they should be biopsied even though this does not necessarily connote metastasis. When inguinal node metastasis is present, this is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence of occult node metastasis is not known because no prophylactic groin dissections were performed. Staged groin dissections were not associated with any long-term survivals. The series was too small to determine its palliative potential. Radiation therapy may palliate local bone or soft tissue recurrences. Re-excisions of local soft tissue recurrences can provide, in some instances, long disease-free intervals. Both topical and systemic chemotherapy were administered in more recent cases with poor results, but this series is not large enough to form conclusions for this modality of treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7212813

Pilipshen, S J; Gray, G; Goldsmith, E; Dineen, P

1981-01-01

121

[Adjuvant therapy of colon carcinoma].  

PubMed

In patients with stage III carcinoma of the colon, adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated after R0 resection. No age limitations exist. Combination chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 or (if oxaliplatin is contraindicated) monotherapy with a fluoropyrimidine, preferably capecitabine, can be regarded as the standard treatment. Because of its unfavorable toxicity profile, the 5-FU/folic acid bolus scheme (the Mayo scheme) should no longer be used, and combinations including irinotecan also do not play a part in colon carcinoma. The combination XELOX (oxaliplatin + capecitabine) is currently being studied in phase III trials. Data on the efficacy of the targeted drugs bevacizumab and cetuximab cannot be expected until at least 2010/2011. It is important that adjuvant treatment be started in a timely manner, within 8 weeks of surgery. As far as stage II disease is concerned, adjuvant chemotherapy analogous to that for stage III should be considered in high-risk patients (T4, emergency surgery, tumor perforation/tear, < 12 lymph nodes examined). The evidence for this recommendation is, however, based mainly on unplanned subgroup analyses of randomized trials. That low-risk stage II patients can also profit from adjuvant treatment was shown in the QUASAR trial(significant survival benefit of 3.6%), so this group of patients can be offered chemotherapy containing 5-FU. For treatments involving oxaliplatin in low-risk patients there is currently insufficient evidence. PMID:19033700

Trarbach, Tanja; Kubicka, Stefan; Hacker, Ulrich; Ridwelski, Karsten; Reinacher-Schick, Anke

2008-01-01

122

Alcohol and oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Alcohol is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. It enhances the permeability of the oral epithelium, acts as a solvent for tobacco carcinogens, induces basal-cell proliferation, and generates free radicals and acetaldehyde, which have the capacity to cause DNA damage. Alcohol-associated malnutrition and immune suppression may further promote carcinogenesis. However, acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is the critical agent by which prolonged and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol also acts synergistically with the products of tobacco combustion in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23971298

Feller, L; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2013-05-01

123

Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma which is presented as subcutaneous swelling with sinus formation. PMID:23133761

Patil, Vijayraj S.; Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Natikar, Neelamma

2012-01-01

124

Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie; Krag, Christen

2014-01-01

125

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the penis: Clinicopathologic features  

PubMed Central

Sarcomatoid carcinomas are biphasic tumors, which can occur at any site in the human body. Very few cases have been reported in the literature as arising from the penis. A few studies consider these tumors as a variant of squamous cell carcinoma or a metaplastic differentiation of the mesenchyme. Their clinical behavior is aggressive with both blood borne and lymphatic metastases. Treatment is by surgical excision, and dissected lymph nodes have shown both epithelial and sarcomatous components. We report a 50-year-old gentleman, with a sarcomatoid carcinoma of the penis, which was confirmed immunopathologically. The rarity of this entity makes it a clinicopathologic curiosity. PMID:19468412

Ranganath, R.; Singh, Shirley Sunder; Sateeshan, B.

2008-01-01

126

Myoepithelial carcinoma of palate: case report.  

PubMed

Myoepithelial carcinoma is an uncommon malignant salivary gland neoplasm with a predilection for parotid gland. However, its occurrence in minor salivary glands is considerably less with only 28 cases being reported in the literature. We report a case of myoepithelial carcinoma of palate in a 50-year-old woman. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive lesion in the palate. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited a wide spectrum of cytomorphologic features that overlap with other salivary gland tumors. Immunohistochemistry served as an adjunct in the diagnosis of the lesion. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic correlation along with immunohistochemical profile enabled to arrive at a diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma. PMID:24739839

Thayumanavan, Balakrishnan; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata

2014-01-01

127

Metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: A case report.  

PubMed

Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 4% of thyroid carcinoma and originates from parafollicular cells, secreting calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Conventional radiographic modalities such as Computerized Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Ultrasonography (U/S), are used for detecting recurrences following total thyroidectomy. However, metastatic disease frequently escapes detection by the above modalities, even when its presence is suggested by persistently elevated serum calcitonin levels. In this paper, we report a case of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 40 year-old woman who had whole body octreotide scintigraphy to evaluate and detect the origin of calcitonin and CEA secretion. PMID:22091276

Niafar, Mitra; Dabiri, Shahram; Bozorgi, Farshid; Niafar, Farid; Gholami, Nasrin

2011-04-01

128

Metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 4% of thyroid carcinoma and originates from parafollicular cells, secreting calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Conventional radiographic modalities such as Computerized Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Ultrasonography (U/S), are used for detecting recurrences following total thyroidectomy. However, metastatic disease frequently escapes detection by the above modalities, even when its presence is suggested by persistently elevated serum calcitonin levels. In this paper, we report a case of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 40 year-old woman who had whole body octreotide scintigraphy to evaluate and detect the origin of calcitonin and CEA secretion. PMID:22091276

Niafar, Mitra; Dabiri, Shahram; Bozorgi, Farshid; Niafar, Farid; Gholami, Nasrin

2011-01-01

129

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of the liver and is considered an aggressive tumor with mean survival estimated between 6 and 20 months. Hepatitis B and C are the most common etiologies. Pathological, laboratory and radiologic imaging all aid in diagnosis but much controversy exists in the utilization of any given modality. Many treatment options exist for management of HCC, each has its own limitation. Liver transplantation offers the most reasonable expectation for curative treatment while simultaneously removing the burden of the diseased liver. Still, advancements in the field have thus far not yet matched its potential, although new immunosuppressive and chemotherapy regimen may allow transplantation to push the envelope once again. PMID:24570911

Byam, Jerome; Renz, John

2013-01-01

130

[Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma].  

PubMed

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its curative potential, it is the method of choice for non resectable BCLC (Barcelona Liver Clinic) 0 and A. RFA challenges surgical resection for small HCC and is the method of choice in bridging for transplantation and recurrence after resection or transplantation. The technical feasibility of RFA depends on the size and location of the HCC and the availability of ablation techniques (one needle techniques, multi-needle techniques). More recently, stereotactic multi-needle techniques with 3D trajectory planning and guided needle placement substantially improve the spectrum of treatable lesions including large volume tumors. Treatment success depends on the realization of ablations with large intentional margins of tumor free tissue (A0 ablation in analogy to R0 resection), which has to be documented by fusion of post- with pre-ablation images, and confirmed during follow-up imaging. PMID:23515886

Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Bale, Reto

2013-03-01

131

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the “Milan criteria” were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

2009-01-01

132

Retreatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Thirty patients with recurrent primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma were reirradiated between 1949 and 1976. Twenty eventually demonstrated recurrence at or near the primary site, involving the nasopharynx in 4 and the central nervous system in 16. Long-term palliation was often achieved, and there were no severe complications except for one patient who died of necrosis of the base of the skull. The most frequent problems were hearing loss and trismus; necrosis of the nasopharynx was seen in only 2 patients. With therapy in the range of 18-25 MeV, significant palliation and an occational cure can be achieved without excessive risk. Recurrent disease involving the skull may be controlled for several years using current techniques.

McNeese, M.D.; Fletcher, G.H.

1981-01-01

133

Subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma mistaken for asthma  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma rarely occurs within the subglottic larynx. In this study, a case of subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma was reported. A 54 year-old Chinese woman developed a sudden onset of chest distress and cough worsening after physical exertion, and was diagnosed with, and treated as, bronchial asthma. Regular anti-asthmatic therapy did not improve the symptoms. Until a sudden dyspnea, a cervicothoracic computerized tomography (CT) revealed that her upper airway was obstructed by a laryngeal tumor. The patient was diagnosed with a subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma and treated with complete surgical excision and adjuvant radiation therapy. Follow-up endoscopy and laryngeal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at six months showed no recurrence of the tumor. The diagnosis of subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma should be considered in patients who are characterized by dyspnea, cough, and stridor, but do not respond to regular anti-asthmatic therapy. PMID:19735105

Wang, Hua-lin; Xu, Lin; Li, Fu-jun

2009-01-01

134

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare tumor, making up 0.5% to 1% of all prostate carcinomas. It is typically described as an aggressive cancer, with a median postdiagnosis survival of 14 months. Presented here is a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate, with a complicated presentation of metastatic disease. Due to the extent of the patient’s disease, he was treated with palliative radiation therapy using a four-field technique (AP/PA and left and right lateral fields) with 18 mV photons prescribed to the 100% isodose line. The prescription dose was 4000 cGy in 16 fractions of 250 cGy per fraction. No definitive treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate exists but varying approaches including surgical intervention, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy have been implemented without durable response. However, multimodal treatments appear to be the most promising with longer durations of survival. PMID:21826130

Malik, Rena D; Dakwar, George; Hardee, Matthew E; Sanfilippo, Nicholas J; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Taneja, Samir S

2011-01-01

135

Signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of vater  

PubMed Central

Signet ring carcinoma is a common type of adenocarcinoma of stomach but its occurrence in ampulla of Vater is extremely rare. There are only a few previous reported cases of signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of Vater. Here we reported a 61-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT scan) examination showed intra- and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Endoscopic examination with biopsies revealed a small-size mass in ampulla of Vater with diagnosis of signet ring carcinoma. On consequent pancreatoduodenectomy the tumor was diagnosed as T2N0M0, stage IB. Because of the specific site of signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of Vater, the tumor seems to present itself at an early stage of disease. We review in the literature to suggest our idea. PMID:24592377

Talebi, Ardeshir; Mohammadizadeh, Fareshteh; Hani, Mohsen; Bagheri, Marzie; Bagheri, Azam

2014-01-01

136

Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma  

E-print Network

We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and ~25% of high-grade endometrioid ...

Lander, Eric S.

137

Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin  

PubMed Central

Sunlight induced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is common and produces low incidence of metastases. Non-actinic squamous cell carcinoma, however, possesses a metastatic potential even when well differentiated. A representative case of keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma arising in a lower extremity with development of widespread metastases is discussed. The prognostic factors associated with metastasizing de novo squamous cell carcinoma of the extremity include: site of origin, duration of lesion, degree of differentiation, sex of patient, and size of the primary lesion. Organs prone to metastasis include: regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and bone. As skin cancers of this variety metastasize, the clinician must recognize this potential when considering therapeutic strategy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:7310907

Lazarus, Hillard M.; Herzig, Roger H.; Bornstein, Richard; Laipply, Thomas C.

1980-01-01

138

Pancreatic carcinoma: results with fast neutron therapy  

SciTech Connect

Results of therapy in 31 of 50 patients who were treated for advanced pancreatic carcinoma at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented here. To date, six patients are alive and four are free of disease. Since the main reason for failure was lack of control of primary tumor, the tumor dose has been increased by 15%. Based on our results, a nationwide study has been launched to assess the effectiveness of neutrons vs photons in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma.

Kaul, R.; Cohen, L.; Hendrickson, F.; Awschalom, M.; Hrejsa, A.F.; Rosenberg, I.

1981-02-01

139

Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma with rapid progression.  

PubMed

We describe a case of pleomorphic carcinoma showing a recurrent tumor with massive hemorrhage and myxoid change in the chest wall 2 months after complete resection. Whereas specimens from the initial surgery revealed both adenosquamous carcinoma and sarcomatous elements, the recurrent tumor predominantly consisted of a sarcomatous element. The recurrent tumor had stronger immunoreactivity for mesenchymal markers than the primary tumor, indicating that the sarcomatous element had more malignant potential than the epithelial element. PMID:24532631

Shintani, Yasushi; Ohta, Mitsunori; Iwasaki, Teruo; Ikeda, Naoki; Tomita, Emiko; Kawahara, Kunimitsu

2013-04-01

140

[Hypopharyngeal carcinoma and red ear drum].  

PubMed

A 46-year-old male patient with an unresectable hypopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with primary radio-chemotherapy. At follow-up, the patient presented with a red ear drum and combined hearing loss. Because of radiotherapy-induced tubal dysfunction, paracentesis was performed. Biopsy of the polypoid middle ear mucosa revealed petrous bone infiltration of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI studies revealed paracarotideal tumor infiltration to the petrous bone and the middle ear arising from a cervical retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis. PMID:20963385

Bender, B; Widmann, G; Riechelmann, H; Schmutzhard, J

2011-04-01

141

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasal septum.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant tumour frequently described arising from seromucinous salivary tissue in the major and minor salivary glands. Within the nasal cavity, it is uncommon and usually involves the lateral wall. A rare case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasal septum is presented along with a review of the literature. The presentation and management of this uncommon condition is discussed. PMID:14750355

Sivaji, N; Basavaraj, S; Stewart, W; Dempster, J

2003-12-01

142

Giant verrucous carcinoma in a giraffe.  

PubMed

An 18-year-old male giraffe developed a verrucous lesion, 50 cm in diameter, on a flank. Some areas of the lesion were histologically typical of a viral verruca with papillomatosis, prominent hypergranulosis, and inclusion bodies. The bulk of the mass was a well-differentiated verrucous type of squamous cell carcinoma. It may be that the virus of the verruca also caused the verrucous carcinoma. PMID:6703261

Burgdorf, W H; Sullivan, M S; Jensen, J; Jordon, F B

1984-02-01

143

Islet Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Islet cell carcinoma (ICC) of the pancreas is a rare, indolent malignancy associated with higher resectability rate\\u000a and better survival than ductal carcinoma. This retrospective study presents results of surgical treatment from a single institution.\\u000a From 1985 through 1993 a total of 64 patients (36 men, 28 women) were surgically treated for ICC. Ages ranged from 22 to 80

Chung Yau Lo; Jon A. van Heerden; Geoffrey B. Thompson; Clive S. Grant; Jon Arne Söreide; William S. Harmsen

1996-01-01

144

Hereditary and Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon neuroendocrine tumor that arises from the parafollicular cells of the thyroid\\u000a gland. These cells ­produce calcitonin, a peptide that is a useful marker of disease. MTC accounts for approximately 5% of\\u000a all thyroid carcinomas. Most of the cases are sporadic; 25–30% is hereditary and associated with the multiple endocrine neoplasia\\u000a type 2 syndrome

Ana O. Hoff; Cleber Camacho; Rui M. B. Maciel

145

Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.  

PubMed

Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial neoplasm of lacrimal gland. A clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the background of pleomorphic adenoma is common in the salivary glands but very rare in the lacrimal glands. We report the case of a 27 year old man whose lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma recurred several times over a period of four years and ultimately evolved into a clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25118745

Rabade, Nikhil R; Goel, Naina A

2014-01-01

146

Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

2012-09-07

147

Microinvasive lobular carcinoma arising in a fibroadenoma.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old woman had a 35 mm circumscribed calcified lesion identified on screening mammography, designated R4. Excision showed a fibroadenoma with multiple foci of lobular neoplasia (atypical lobular hyperplasia and classical lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS]). A focus of microinvasive lobular carcinoma (MILC) was also present, confirmed on immunohistochemistry. The MILC cells were ER positive, Her-2-negative, and e-cadherin negative. Microinvasive carcinoma, defined as "invasive carcinoma with no focus measuring >1 mm" (TNM UICC 7th edition) is usually encountered in ductal carcinoma in situ but may occur with classical, florid, or pleomorphic LCIS. In one series MILC constituted 0.4% of all invasive lobular carcinomas and was present in 0.4% of all LCIS. MILC is a histologically subtle lesion, the identification of which lends further weight to the concept of lobular neoplasia as a precursor lesion. MILC has been observed in hamartoma but, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported in fibroadenoma. PMID:23349469

Hayes, Brian D; Quinn, Cecily M

2013-08-01

148

Controversies in the Management of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common type of female genital tract malignancy. Although endometrial carcinoma is a low grade curable malignancy, the condition of the disease can range from excellent prognosis with high curability to aggressive disease with poor outcome. During the last 10 years many researches have provided some new valuable data of optimal treatments for endometrial carcinoma. Progression in diagnostic imaging, radiation delivery systems, and systemic therapies potentially can improve outcomes while minimizing morbidity. Firstly, total hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy is the primary operative procedure. Pelvic lymhadenectomy is performed in most centers on therapeutic and prognostic grounds and to individualize adjuvant treatment. Women with endometrial carcinoma can be readily segregated intraoperatively into “low-risk” and “high-risk” groups to better identify those women who will most likely benefit from thorough lymphadenectomy. Secondly, adjuvant therapies have been proposed for women with endometrial carcinoma postoperatively. Postoperative irradiation is used to reduce pelvic and vaginal recurrences in high risk cases. Chemotherapy is emerging as an important treatment modality in advanced endometrial carcinoma. Meanwhile the availability of new hormonal and biological agents presents new opportunities for therapy. PMID:20613958

Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian

2010-01-01

149

Human ovarian carcinomas detected by specific odor.  

PubMed

The high mortality rate associated with ovarian carcinoma is mainly owing to late diagnosis. It is thus essential to develop inexpensive and simple methods for early diagnosis. Papers on canine scent detection of malignancies such as melanoma and bladder, lung, and breast cancer have recently been published in peer-reviewed journals, indicating a new diagnostic tool for malignancies. However, in these studies the dogs may have responded to odors associated with cancer, such as inflammation or metabolic products, rather than specifically to cancer itself. Therefore, it is important to ascertain whether or not human cancers are characterized by specific odors. We hypothesized that if ovarian carcinoma emits a specific odor, dogs may be trained to detect it. Using our training method, we taught a dog to distinguish different histopathological types and grades of ovarian carcinomas, including borderline tumors, from healthy control samples. Double-blind tests showed 100% sensitivity and 97.5% specificity. Moreover, the odor of ovarian carcinomas seems to differ from those of other gynecological malignances such cervical, endometrial, and vulvar carcinomas. Our study strongly suggests that the most common ovarian carcinomas are characterized by a single specific odor. PMID:18505901

Horvath, György; Järverud, Gunvor Af Klinteberg; Järverud, Sven; Horváth, István

2008-06-01

150

Clinicopathologic analysis of matched primary and recurrent endometrial carcinoma.  

PubMed

It is unknown whether the type and grade of a primary endometrial carcinoma is reliably maintained in recurrence. All matched primary and recurrent endometrial carcinomas diagnosed from 2000 to 2010 at our institution were identified; 34 cases had available slides. Histologic classification was performed using modifications to the World Health Organization criteria. Immunohistochemical analysis for p53, p16, progesterone receptor (PR), and DNA mismatch-repair proteins (MMR) (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) was performed. Endometrioid carcinoma recurrences were mostly local, whereas serous carcinoma recurrences were mostly peritoneal. Compared with endometrioid carcinoma patients, serous carcinoma patients were older, presented at high stage, and had shorter survival. Serous carcinomas were the most common recurrent endometrial carcinoma (18/34 cases). Overall, 21 cases (62%) displayed similar morphology when comparing primary and recurrent carcinomas, whereas 13 displayed discordant morphology. Seven of 13 endometrioid carcinomas (54%) had a morphologically discordant recurrence, compared with 3 of 14 serous carcinomas (21%), 1 of 4 morphologically ambiguous carcinomas (25%), and both mixed epithelial carcinomas. Serous and morphologically ambiguous carcinomas therefore demonstrated relative morphologic fidelity compared with endometrioid carcinomas. Four morphologically discordant cases demonstrated either pure clear cell carcinoma or clear cell features at recurrence. Seven of 23 matched pairs displayed discordant PR results, with 5 cases, including both endometrioid and serous carcinomas, showing diminished PR expression at recurrence. p53, p16, and DNA MMR staining results were generally concordant when evaluating matched pairs, with only occasional exceptions. Sixty-four percent of all pure endometrioid carcinomas and mixed epithelial carcinomas with an endometrioid component showed loss of expression of MLH1 and/or PMS2; no serous carcinoma demonstrated this abnormality. Clinical and immunohistochemical data supported the use of modifications to the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. More importantly, the data suggest that when confronted with recurrent endometrial carcinoma, particularly a serous carcinoma, it is reasonable to base therapeutic decisions on the type of the primary tumor, especially if sampling or excising the recurrent tumor is problematic. However, in light of the PR results, sampling a recurrent endometrioid carcinoma may be worthwhile if hormonal therapy is planned. Recurrent endometrioid carcinoma may be enriched for tumors with DNA MMR abnormalities. PMID:23154767

Soslow, Robert A; Wethington, Stephanie L; Cesari, Matthew; Chiappetta, Daniel; Olvera, Narciso; Shia, Jinru; Levine, Douglas A

2012-12-01

151

Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The incidence of HCC varies considerably with the geographic area because of differences in the major causative factors. Chronic hepatitis B and C, mostly in the cirrhotic stage, are responsible for the great majority of cases of HCC worldwide. The geographic areas at the highest risk are South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, here hepatitis B is highly endemic and is the main cause of HCC. In areas with an intermediate rate of HCC such as Southern Europe and Japan, hepatitis C is the predominant cause, whereas in low rate areas such as Northern Europe and the USA, HCC is often related to other factors as alcoholic liver disease. There is a rising incidence in HCC in developed countries during the last two decades, due to the increasing rate of hepatitis C infection and improvement of the clinical management of cirrhosis. Methods This article reviews the literature on hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Medline search was carried out using these key words and articles were selected on epidemiology, risk factors, screening, and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results Screening of patients with advanced chronic hepatitis B and C with hepatic ultrasound and determination of serum alfa-fetoprotein may improve the detection of HCC, but further studies are needed whether screening improves clinical outcome. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) can be implicated in the development of HCC in an indirect way, through induction of chronic inflammation, or directly by means of viral proteins or, in the case of HBV, by creation of mutations by integration into the genome of the hepatocyte. Conclusion The most effective tool to prevent HCC is avoidance of the risk factors such as viral infection. For HBV, a very effective vaccine is available. Preliminary data from Taiwan indicate a protective effect of universal vaccination on the development of HCC. Vaccination against HBV should therefore be a health priority. In patients with chronic hepatitis B or C, interferon-alfa treatment in a noncirrhotic stage is protective for HCC development in responders, probably by prevention of cirrhosis development. When cirrhosis is already present, the protective effect is less clear. For cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, a protective effect was demonstrated in Oriental, but not in European patients. For cirrhosis due to hepatitis C, interferon-alfa treatment showed to be protective in some studies, especially in Japan with a high incidence of HCC in untreated patients. Virological, but also merely biochemical response, seems to be associated with a lower risk of development of HCC. As most studies are not randomized controlled trials, no definitive conclusions on the long-term effects of interferon-alfa in HBV or HCV cirrhosis can be established. Especially in hepatitis C, prospective studies should be performed using the more potent reference treatments for cirrhotics, namely the combination of peginterferon and ribavirin. PMID:15907199

Michielsen, Peter P; Francque, Sven M; van Dongen, Jurgen L

2005-01-01

152

ERG gene rearrangements are common in prostatic small cell carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Small cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare subtype with an aggressive clinical course. Despite the frequent occurrence of ERG gene rearrangements in acinar carcinoma, the incidence of these rearrangements in prostatic small cell carcinoma is unclear. In addition, molecular markers to distinguish prostatic small cell carcinomas from lung and bladder small cell carcinomas may be clinically useful. We examined the occurrence of ERG gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization in prostatic, bladder and lung small cell carcinomas. We also examined the expression of ERG, androgen receptor (AR) and NKX3-1 by immunohistochemistry in prostatic cases. Overall, 45% (10/22) of prostatic small cell carcinoma cases harbored ERG rearrangements, whereas no cases of bladder or lung small cell carcinomas showed ERG rearrangement (0/12 and 0/13, respectively). Of prostatic small cell carcinoma cases, 80% (8/10) showed ERG deletion and 20% (2/10) showed ERG translocation. In 83% (5/6) of prostatic small cell carcinoma cases in which a concurrent conventional prostatic acinar carcinoma component was available for analysis, there was concordance for the presence/absence of ERG gene rearrangement between the different subtypes. ERG, AR and NKX3-1 protein expression was detected in a minority of prostatic small cell carcinoma cases (23, 27 and 18%, respectively), while these markers were positive in the majority of concurrent acinar carcinoma cases (66, 83 and 83%, respectively). The presence of ERG rearrangements in nearly half of the prostatic small cell carcinomas is a similar rate of rearrangement to that found in prostatic acinar carcinomas. Furthermore, the high concordance rate of ERG rearrangement between the small cell and acinar components in a given patient supports a common origin for these two subtypes of prostate cancer. Finally, the absence of ERG rearrangement in bladder or lung small cell carcinomas highlights the utility of detecting ERG rearrangement in small cell carcinomas of unknown primary for establishing prostatic origin. PMID:21336263

Lotan, Tamara L; Gupta, Nilesh S; Wang, Wenle; Toubaji, Antoun; Haffner, Michael C; Chaux, Alcides; Hicks, Jessica L; Meeker, Alan K; Bieberich, Charles J; De Marzo, Angelo M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

2012-01-01

153

Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.  

PubMed

Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23821212

Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

2013-07-01

154

Familial pancreatic carcinoma in Jews.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most fatal of all gastrointestinal cancers, wherein its mortality compares strikingly with its incidence. Unfortunately, 80-90% of PCs are diagnosed in the nonresectable stage. While the lifetime risk of PC in developed countries is approximately 1-3%, it is the fifth most common cause of cancer deaths among both males and females in Western countries. It occurs in excess in Jews. Approximately 5-10% of PC shows familial clustering. Examination of such familial clusters must take into consideration cancers of diverse anatomic sites, such as malignant melanoma in the familial atypical multiple melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome due to the CDKN2A (p16) germline mutation, and combinations of colorectal and endometrial carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and several other cancers in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), which are due to mismatch repair germline mutations, the most common of which are MSH2 and MLH1 . Other hereditary disorders predisposing to PC include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, due to the STK11 mutation, familial pancreatitis due to the cationic trypsinogen gene, site-specific familial pancreatic cancer which may be due to the 4q32-34 mutation, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome that is due to BRCA2 and possibly some families with HBOC that is due to BRCA1 , familial adenomatous polyposis due to the ATP gene, and ataxia telangiectasia due to the ATM germline mutation. This extant heterogeneity mandates that the physician be knowledgeable about these PC-prone syndromes which play such an important role when considering the differential diagnosis of hereditary PC. Unfortunately, there are no PC screening programs with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. However, the gold standard for screening at this time is endoscopic ultrasound. Clearly, there is a great need for the development of novel screening approaches with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Further research is needed to elucidate those etiologic factors that contribute to the apparent excess of PC in Ashkenazi Jews. Attention should also be given to the search for mutations predisposing to PC in Jews so that opportunities to learn more about the disease's pathogenesis, as well as screening and control, may take place. PMID:15516847

Lynch, Henry T; Deters, Carolyn A; Lynch, Jane F; Brand, Randall E

2004-01-01

155

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Analysis - Thomas Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Analysis - Thomas Giordano Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Analysis - Thomas Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later and JavaScript

156

Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Request Permissions Download PDF Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma This section has been reviewed and approved ... 09/2014 What is familial non-VHL clear cell renal cell carcinoma? Familial non-VHL clear cell ...

157

Diagnostic utility of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinomas: lack of specificity for endometrial clear cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1?) has recently emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of this marker for endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 75 endometrial tissues using a goat polyclonal antibody raised against a peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human HNF1? protein. The 75 cases included 15 clear cell carcinomas, 20 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 endometrial serous carcinomas/uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 20 cases of normal endometrium, 2 cases of clear cell metaplasia, and 3 cases of Arias Stella reaction. Staining interpretations were based on a semiquantitative scoring system, a 0 to 12+ continuous numerical scale that was derived by multiplying the extent of staining (0 to 4+ scale) by the intensity of staining (0 to 3+ scale) for each case. HNF1? expression was found to be present in a wide spectrum of tissues. Twenty-seven (54%) of the 50 carcinomas displayed at least focal nuclear HNF1? expression, including 11 (73%) of 15, 9 (60%) of 15, and 7 (35%) of 20 clear cell, serous, and endometrioid carcinomas, respectively. The average nuclear staining scores for clear cell carcinomas, endometrioid carcinomas, and serous carcinomas were 5.2, 1.4, and 4.1, respectively. Clear cell carcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas displayed statistically significant differences regarding their nuclear staining scores (P = 0.0027), but clear cell carcinomas and endometrial serous carcinomas did not (P = 0.45). The calculated sensitivity of any nuclear HNF1? expression in classifying a carcinoma as being of the clear cell histotype was 73%, whereas the specificity was 54%. Nineteen of 20 normal endometrium samples displayed at least focal nuclear expression of HNF1?, and this expression was often diffuse. The 5 cases of benign histologic mimics of clear cell carcinomas (Arias Stella reaction and clear cell metaplasia) displayed some degree of HNF1? immunoreactivity, with an average nuclear staining score of 7.3. We conclude that although HNF1? is frequently expressed in clear cell carcinomas, it should be used with caution as a diagnostic marker because of its lack of specificity. It neither distinguishes endometrial serous carcinomas from clear cell carcinomas nor clear cell carcinomas from its benign mimics. The greatest diagnostic utility of HNF1? expression may be in a supportive evidentiary role favoring clear cell carcinoma when the principal differential diagnostic consideration is endometrioid carcinoma. PMID:22495362

Fadare, Oluwole; Liang, Sharon X

2012-12-01

158

Interventional radiology for hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent primary malignant tumors in the world. Hepatic resection and liver transplantation are considered optimal for potential treatment of HCC. However, only 20% of HCCs can be surgically treated. And most of surgically-noneligible patients have to receive locoregional image-guided interventional managements including intra-arterial and percutaneous ablative therapies. In this paper, we review these interventional approaches. Catheter-based therapies include embolotherapy/chemotherapy-based treatments (such as transarterial chemoembolization, bland embolization, transcatheter arterial chemoinfusion, and chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads), and radiotherapy-based treatments (such as radioembolization with yttrium-90 and injection of iodine-131-labeled lipiodol). Ablative therapeutic approaches include chemical therapies (such as ethanol or acetic acid injection), and thermal therapies (such as radiofrequency ablation, laser induced thermotherapy, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation). Each method has its advantages and drawbacks. As a result of the technical development of locoregional approaches for HCC during the recent decades, the range of combined interventional therapies has been continuously extended. In this article, an evidence-based approach is used to review the current role of interventional radiology in the management of unresectable HCC. PMID:21769079

Loffroy, R

2011-09-01

159

Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the best available option for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its application is limited by stringent selection criteria, costs, and deceased donor graft shortage, particularly in Asia, where living donor liver transplant (LDLT) has been developed. Methods This article reviews the present standards for patient selection represented by size-and-number criteria with particular references to Milan Criteria and novel prediction models based on results achieved in patients exceeding those limits, with consideration of the expanded indication represented by the UCSF Criteria. Results The expected outcomes after deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) or LDLT are favorable if predetermined selection criteria are applied. However, selection bias, difference in waiting time, and ischemia-regeneration injuries of the graft among DDLT vs LDLT may influence long-term results. In the article, the differences between East and West in first-line treatments for HCC (resection vs transplantation), indications, and ethics for the donor, are summarized as well as possible novel predictors of tumor biology (especially DNA mutation and fractional allelic loss, FAI) to be considered for better outcome prediction. Conclusions Liver transplantation remains the most promising product of modern surgery and represents a cornerstone in the management of patients with HCC. PMID:18236119

Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Chun, Yun Shin; Poon, Ronnie T. P.; Schwartz, Myron E.; Yao, Francis Y.; Marsh, J. Wallis; Bhoori, Sherrie

2008-01-01

160

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Penile Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Penile carcinoma (PeCa) represents an important public health problem in poor and developing countries. Despite its unpredictable behavior and aggressive treatment, there have only been a few reports regarding its molecular data, especially epigenetic mechanisms. The functional diversity in different cell types is acquired by chromatin modifications, which are established by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and miRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that the dysregulation in these processes can result in the development of several diseases, including cancer. Epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation of CpGs islands, may reveal candidates for the development of specific markers for cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. There are a few reports on the epigenetic alterations in PeCa, and most of these studies have only focused on alterations in specific genes in a limited number of cases. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the epigenetic alterations in PeCa and the promising results in this field. The identification of epigenetically altered genes in PeCa is an important step in understanding the mechanisms involved in this unexplored disease. PMID:23702847

Kuasne, Hellen; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; de Syllos Colus, Ilce Mara

2013-01-01

161

Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases. PMID:24882877

Herr, D.; Juhasz-Boess, I.; Solomayer, E. F.

2014-01-01

162

Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma with expression of KIT and PDGFRA and showing diverse differentiations into plasmacytoid, clear cell, acantholytic, nested, and spindle variants, and into adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and pleomorphic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Various tumors can arise in the urinary bladder (UB); most common is urothelial carcinoma (UC). UC of the UB have many variants. Other types of carcinomas such as adenocarcinoma (AC) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) can occur in UB carcinomas. Expression of KIT and PDGFRA has not been reported. A 66-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed papillary invasive tumor and a transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. The TUR-BT showed UC, AC, SmCC, large cell carcinoma (LCC), and pleomorphic carcinoma (PC). The UC component showed plasmacytoid, spindle, nested, clear cell, acantholytic variants. The AC element showed tubular adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma (Sig). Immunohistochemically, all of these subtypes were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, CEA, p63, CA19-9, p53 (positive 45%), MUC1, NSE, NCAM, KIT, PDGFRA, and Ki-67 (87%). They were negative for vimentin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, S100 protein, CD34, CD14, ?-smooth muscle actin, CD31, caldesmon, CD138, CD45, ?-chain, ?-chain, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. Mucin histochemistry revealed mucins in AC element including Sig. A molecular genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. The carcinoma was highly aggressive and invaded into muscular layer. The nuclear grade was very high, and there were numerous lymphovascular permeations were seen. The surface showed carcinoma in situ involving von-Brunn's nests. This case shows that carcinoma of UB can show diverse differentiations into numerous histological types and variants, and can express KIT and PDGFRA. The both genes showed no mutations in the present case. PMID:23696935

Terada, Tadashi

2013-01-01

163

Epstein-barr virus in gastric carcinoma.  

PubMed

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation. PMID:25386788

Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

2014-01-01

164

Nutrition and metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common human cancer worldwide, with an overall 5-year survival in the range of 10%. In addition to the very substantial role of chronic viral hepatitis in causing hepatocellular carcinoma, nutritional status and specific nutritional factors appear to influence disease risk. This is apparent in the increased risk associated with non-alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis occurring in the context of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Specific nutrients and ingested toxins, including ethanol, aflatoxin, microcystins, iron, and possibly components of red meat, also are associated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Other dietary components, including omega-3 fatty acids and branched chain amino acids, may have protective effects. Recent data further suggest that several metabolic regulatory drugs, including metformin, pioglitazone, and statins, may have the potential to decrease the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The available data on these nutritional and metabolic factors in causing hepatocellular carcinoma are reviewed with the goal of identifying the strength of current knowledge and directions for future investigation. PMID:24570922

2013-01-01

165

Fluorescence spectroscopy characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic characteristics of autofluorescence for the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE cells) were investigated, respectively. The characteristics of fluorescence agree with the results that deduced from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vivo, and the optimal excitation-emission wavelength was found at 350-500 nm. Secondly, the selectivity and optimal time for optical diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by using the new photosensitizer of Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether (HMME) has been demonstrated and determined by incubated CNE cells with HMME. The fluorescence emission peaks of 615 and 675 nm characterized the selective accumulation of HMME in CNE cells, and the optimal time for optical diagnostics with HMME was about 140 mins after clinic intravenous administration. Moreover, when the concentration of HMME in CNE cells below 32 ?g/mL, the fluorescence intensity versus HMME concentration reveals an obvious linearity. Finally, the fluorescence intensity of CNE cells increases linearly with concentration over the entire range up to 9.0E+05 cells/mL. These results can be used to helpfully improve the accuracy of optical diagnosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Li, Buhong; Zhang, Zhenxi; Xie, Shusen; Lin, Huiyun

2005-01-01

166

Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61 years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity. PMID:25409850

Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

2014-12-01

167

Allelic imbalance of 14q32 in esophageal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that the accumulation of alterations in several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes plays a role in the initiation and progression of esophageal carcinoma. However, to our knowledge, very few studies have described the molecular genetic changes of chromosome arm 14q in esophageal carcinoma. In this study, we examined 35 primary esophageal carcinomas for allelic imbalance on

Yuji Ihara; Yuji Kato; Tadashi Bando; Fuminori Yamagishi; Tetsuji Minamimura; Takashi Sakamoto; Kazuhiro Tsukada; Masaharu Isobe

2002-01-01

168

Bilateral acrometastasis in a case renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

We present a unique case of bilateral skeletal metastasis below the knee in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. In this rarest of rare cases, bony metastases were the first presentation of a primary tumour. Incidentally, the primary tumour (renal cell carcinoma) involved the solitary kidney of the patient and the same patient also had coexisting carcinoma of the prostate. PMID:25368128

Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Vaish, Abhishek

2014-01-01

169

Acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change arising from the pancreas  

PubMed Central

Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare malignant tumour developing from acinar cells, accounting for approximately 1% of pancreatic exocrine tumours. We experienced a case of an acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change in the clinical literature. PMID:22101587

Chung, W-S; Park, M-S; Kim, D W; Kim, K W

2011-01-01

170

Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a tumour with aggressive behaviour. It is a form of dedifferentiated carcinoma with high incidence of metastases to the lungs. We report a case of 55-year-old male who presented with complaints of loin pain and hematuria. The biopsy confirmed sarcomatoid variant of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25177568

Bukelo, Maryann Margaret; Rai, Sharada

2014-01-01

171

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater: a clinicopathologic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS: The patients were 3 men and 2 women, ranging in age from 39 to 47 years (mean 44 years). Operative procedures included Whipple's procedure in 4 patients and palliative bypass in 1 patient. Histopathological examination revealed large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in 2 patients, small cell carcinoma in 2, and carcinoid in 1. Three patients with high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma who had

Eswaran Selvakumar; Shanmugasundaram Rajendran; Tirupporur Govindaswamy Balachandar; Devy Gounder Kannan; Satyanesan Jeswanth; Palaniappan Ravichandran; Rajagopal Surendran

2008-01-01

172

Bronchial carcinoma presenting with non-metastatic bilateral papillitis.  

PubMed

Bronchial carcinoma is associated with a variety of non-metastatic neurological effects (Posner 1982). I report on a patient in whom bilateral papillitis was the presenting feature of squamous carcinoma of lung. Investigations revealed no evidence of cerebral secondary tumour and resolution of the papillitis followed dexamethasone therapy and resection of the carcinoma. PMID:3730266

Bennet, W M

1986-04-01

173

Problems in the Diagnosis of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ  

Cancer.gov

The diagnosis of DCIS is not always straightforward. Many studies have illustrated the central problem in diagnosing DCIS, which is that the heterogeneity of the disease allows it to be easily confused with a variety of other diseases, such as atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), microinvasive carcinoma, invasive carcinoma, lymphatic invasion, lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), and other intraductal lesions.

174

Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma of vulva.  

PubMed

Eleven cases of basal cell carcinoma of the vulvar skin are reported. There was fairly close correlation between the histologic type and the gross appearance of the lesion. The average age of the patients was 59 years, and the presenting complaint was usually that of a nodule with associated irritation or pruritus. All patients were treated surgically and none have had recurrent or metastatic disease; six patients have been followed for 12 to 25 years. The treatment of choice is wide local excision. One tumor was of particular interest in that it represented a carcinomatous change in a pre-existing premalignant fibroepithelial tumor. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin must be distinguished from adenoid cystic (basal cell) carcinoma of vestibular glands, which is a more aggressive neoplasm and which metastasizes by the lymphatic and blood vascular systems. PMID:1192371

Cruz-Jimenez, P R; Abell, M R

1975-11-01

175

[Urinary retention caused by vulvar carcinoma].  

PubMed

Epidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent neoplasia of the vulva. It usually appears in aged post-menopausal women (51-70 years). The signs and symptoms are unremarkable: vulvar bulk or protuberance, pruritus, painful ulcer, flow, vulvar irritation, dysuria or haemorrhage, all of which motivate that this condition may be ignored, overlooked, or be the cause of self-treatment. At other times a dangerous shyness causes considerable delays by postponing the visit to the specialist. Many patients refuse to go to see a physician. The existence of urinary signs and symptoms in a patient with vulvar neoplasia are indicative of urethral invasion and the advanced stage of the condition. A case is presented here of an advanced vulva carcinoma in an 82 year-old woman who come with urinary retention by urethral infiltration and perineal destruction. We review the most relevant aspects of vulvar carcinomas associated with obstructive uropathy. PMID:7717162

Romero Pérez, P

1995-01-01

176

Invasive mucinous carcinoma of the breast.  

PubMed

Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is one of the rarer forms of intramammary cancer, often presenting as a lobulated, fairly well circumscribed mass on mammography, sonography, and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. It accounts for 1% to 7% of all breast cancers and generally carries a better prognosis than other types of malignant breast cancers. Metastatic disease occurs at a lower frequency than in other types of invasive carcinoma. We present an atypical case of mucinous carcinoma in a woman who presented with a palpable intramammary lymph node metastasis from an unknown breast primary. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging and percutaneous biopsy demonstrated histologic findings consistent with a mixed mucinous neoplasm with a micropapillary pattern. PMID:23814397

Ha, Kelli Y; Deleon, Patricia; Deleon, William

2013-07-01

177

Invasive mucinous carcinoma of the breast  

PubMed Central

Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is one of the rarer forms of intramammary cancer, often presenting as a lobulated, fairly well circumscribed mass on mammography, sonography, and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. It accounts for 1% to 7% of all breast cancers and generally carries a better prognosis than other types of malignant breast cancers. Metastatic disease occurs at a lower frequency than in other types of invasive carcinoma. We present an atypical case of mucinous carcinoma in a woman who presented with a palpable intramammary lymph node metastasis from an unknown breast primary. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging and percutaneous biopsy demonstrated histologic findings consistent with a mixed mucinous neoplasm with a micropapillary pattern. PMID:23814397

DeLeon, Patricia; DeLeon, William

2013-01-01

178

Gene expression profiles in thyroid carcinomas  

PubMed Central

The gene expression profiles of human thyroid carcinomas were analysed by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) which allows quantitative and simultaneous analysis of a large number of transcripts. More than 29 000 transcripts derived from a normal thyroid tissue and four thyroid tumours were analysed. While extensive similarity was noted between the expression profiles of the normal thyroid tissue and three differentiated thyroid tumours, many transcripts, such as osteonectin, a-tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, and thyroglobulin, were expressed at extremely different levels in differentiated and undifferentiated carcinomas. These data provide new information that might be used to identify genes useful for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinomas. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11076659

Takano, T; Hasegawa, Y; Matsuzuka, F; Miyauchi, A; Yoshida, H; Higashiyama, T; Kuma, K; Amino, N

2000-01-01

179

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.  

PubMed

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment. PMID:23924557

Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

2013-01-01

180

Ameloblastic carcinoma: Report of a rare case  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting histological evidence of malignancy in the primary or recurrent tumor. It is characterized by rapid, painful expansion of the jaw, unlike conventional ameloblastomas. The tumor most frequently involves the mandible. The expanding lesion causes perforation of the buccal and lingual plates of the jaw and invades the surrounding soft tissue. Rapidly growing large tumor mass may cause tooth mobility. A mandibular tumor involving the mental nerve leads to paresthesia of the nerve. A maxillary tumor can produce a fistula in the palate and paresthesia of the infraorbital nerve. Most ameloblastic carcinomas are presumed to have arisen de novo with a few cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastomas. Although rare, these lesions have been known to metastasize, mostly to the regional lymph nodes or lungs. A case of ameloblastic carcinoma in a 60-year-old man is reported here and its clinical, radiological and histological features are discussed. PMID:24579073

Srikanth, Mandadi Dakshinamurthy; Radhika, Besta; Metta, Kiran; Renuka, Nukala Valli

2014-01-01

181

Gefitinib Trial in a Fanconi's Anemia Patient with Multiple Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

FA (Fanconi's Anemia) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by pancytopenia with bone marrow hypoplasia, diverse congenital abnormalities and an increased predisposition towards malignancy. The mainstay of the treatment for these cancers has been surgery, because of the hypersensitive reactions of FA patients to DNA cross- linking agents or radiation. Therefore, there has been no effective therapy for advanced squa mous cell carcinoma. We report here on a patient suffering from advanced multiple squamous cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma along with an FA, and this patient was treated with gefitinib. PMID:19956375

Jung, Hae Sun; Byun, Gun-Woo; Lee, Kyoung-Eun; Mun, Yeung Chul; Nam, Seung Hyun; Kwon, Jung Mi; Lee, Shi Nae; Im, Seock-Ah; Seong, Chu-Myong

2005-01-01

182

Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. Despite efforts for prevention and screening as well as development of new technologies for diagnosis and treatment, the incidence of HCC has doubled, and mortality rates have increased in recent decades. A variety of important risk factors are associated with the development of HCC, with any type of cirrhosis, regardless of etiology, being the major contributor. Hepatitis C virus infection with bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis and hepatitis B virus infection are independent risk factors. The diagnosis of HCC is made without liver biopsy in over 90% of cases. Screening with ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 6-month intervals is advised; however, it is not adequate for patients on the orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) list. Triple-phase computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging are used in combination with the detection of AFP, AFP-L3%, and/or des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin due to their superior sensitivities and specificities. Several treatment modalities are available, but only surgical resection and OLT are curative. OLT is available only for patients who meet or are downstaged into Milan or University of California, San Francisco criteria. Other treatment options include radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, transarterial chemoembolization, radioembolization, cryoablation, radiation therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. The management of HCC is based on tumor size and location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. Given the complexity of the disease, patients are often best served in centers with experience in HCC management, where a multi-disciplinary approach can take place. PMID:24829542

Crissien, Ana Maria; Frenette, Catherine

2014-03-01

183

Hepadnaviruses and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).  

PubMed

Members of the hepadnavirus family share properties of virion structure, genome structure and replication, epidemiologic behavior, and pathogenic effects. Persistent infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in man, woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) in Marmota monax, ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV) in Spermophilus beecheyi, and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in domestic ducks of China are associated with development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epidemiological evidence implicating hepadnavirus infection in HCC includes the observation that the geographic distributions of HBV infection and HCC are similar, that the incidence of HCC is much higher in hepadnavirus-infected than uninfected hosts, and that viral DNA sequences are integrated in the cellular DNA of most (e.g., 80 to 90%), but not all, hepadnavirus-associated HCC. Cirrhosis further increases the risk of HCC in HBV-infected humans. The precise role of hepadnaviruses in development of most HCC is unclear, although the finding of viral integrations within or near protooncogenes in a few cases suggests the possibility that these integrations may play a direct role in these HCC. However, in the great majority of HCC, viral integrations are in different cellular DNA sites in different HCC, integrations are not within domains of known protooncogenes, and integrations are not found in some 10 to 15% hepadnavirus-associated HCC, suggesting that persisting viral sequences are not directly involved in the development of these HCC as viral sequences are for tumors caused by viruses with oncogenes or viruses that act by a "promoter-insertion" mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2559799

Robinson, W S

1989-01-01

184

Post-Chernobyl Thyroid Carcinoma in Belarus Children and Adolescents: Comparison with Naturally Occurring Thyroid Carcinoma in Italy and France  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Chernobyl nuclear accident (April 26, 1986), childhood thyroid carcinoma had a great increase in Belarus and Ukraine, as a consequence of the exposure to iodine radioactive fallout. The epidemiological and clinical features of the disease were stud- ied in 472 patients less than 21 yr old at diagnosis, with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, representing 97.7% of all thyroid carcinomas

FURIO PACINI; TATIANA VORONTSOVA; EUGENI P. DEMIDCHIK; ELEONORA MOLINARO; LAURA AGATE; CRISTINA ROMEI; ELENA SHAVROVA; EUGENY D. CHERSTVOY; YURIY IVASHKEVITCH; ELVIRA KUCHINSKAYA; MARTIN SCHLUMBERGER; GIUSEPPE RONGA; MAURO FILESI; ALDO PINCHERA

2010-01-01

185

Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5th and 6th decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed.

Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

2014-01-01

186

Carbon ion therapy for ameloblastic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastic carcinomas are rare odontogenic tumors. Treatment usually consists of surgical resection and sometimes adjuvant radiation. We report the case of a 71 year-old male patient undergoing carbon ion therapy for extensive local relapse of ameloblastic carcinoma. Treatment outcome was favourable with a complete remission at 6 weeks post completion of radiotherapy while RT-treatment itself was tolerated well with only mild side effects. High dose radiation hence is a potential alternative for patients unfit or unwilling to undergo extensive surgery or in cases when only a subtotal resection is planned or the resection is mutilating. PMID:21294917

2011-01-01

187

When a thymic carcinoma "becomes" a GIST.  

PubMed

Thymic carcinoma (TC) is a rare intrathoracic malignancy that it can be invasive and refractory to conventional treatment. Comprehensive genomic analysis evidenced a molecularly distinct subset of thymic carcinoma with high prevalence of c-kit mutation, which may behave as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Here, we present a case report of TC with c-Kit mutation, who has relapsed after exposure to multiple lines of combination chemotherapy, but he has shown an impressive and long lasting response to sunitinib after imatinib failure. PMID:23375402

Rossi, Valentina; Donini, Maddalena; Sergio, Pietro; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Rossi, Giulio; Buti, Sebastiano

2013-04-01

188

Endometrial carcinoma arising in a bicornuate uterus  

PubMed Central

Endometrial carcinomas arising in a bicornuate uterus are rare, only five case of which have been previously reported. We present a case of endometrial cancer arising in a bicornuate uterus, occurring in a 65-year-old woman. Unlike previously reported cases, our case showed mixed endometrial adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in one horn and focal adenocarcinoma in the other. Adequate tissue sampling of both horns is necessary for accurate diagnosis of malignancy in patients with a bicornuate uterus. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this abnormality in cases when endometrial cancer is suspected but histology fails to confirm. PMID:25264532

Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cha, Dong Soo

2014-01-01

189

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-01-01

190

Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9?cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma.

Simoes, Jorge; Goncalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

2014-01-01

191

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting with epistaxis.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma is a slow growing malignancy of the kidney that has a high propensity for metastasis. It is the most common metastasis reported in the paranasal sinuses. A fifty six year old male patient, an operated case of left renal cell carcinoma presented seven years later with epistaxis. Computerized tomography of the paranasal sinuses and of the abdomen showed a metastatic lesion involving the left nasosinus region and a lesion involving the right kidney with lung metastasis, respectively. Due to the poor prognosis palliative radiotherapy was given. PMID:23120368

Nayak, D R; Pujary, K; Ramnani, S; Shetty, C; Parul, P

2006-10-01

192

Secretion of immunoreactive calcitonin by human breast carcinomas.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three out of 28 patients with metastatic breast carcinoma and one out of 13 patients with localised disease had raised levels of plasma immunoreactive calcitonin. Monolayer cultures of breast carcinomas maintained for up to 10 weeks released immunoreactive calcitonin, and a primary breast carcinoma passaged in "nude" mice for over a year contained material immunologically and chromatographically resembling the monomeric form of human calcitonin. These studies indicate that breast carcinomas can produce calcitonin and that plasma calcitonin measurements may be useful in staging patients with breast carcinomas. PMID:1191996

Coombes, R C; Easty, G C; Detre, S I; Hillyard, C J; Stevens, U; Girgis, S I; Galante, L S; Heywood, L; Macintyre, I; Neville, A M

1975-01-01

193

Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with giant cell carcinoma of the lungs: a case report  

PubMed Central

Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lungs (combined LCNEC) with giant cell carcinoma is extremely rare. A 65-year-old man was found to have an abnormal shadow in his left lung field. Computed tomography revealed a solid, round mass measuring 2.8 × 2.2 cm that was located in the left S9. The patient underwent left lower lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed an LCNEC, combined with giant cell carcinoma. The patient received by S-1 (TS-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine) chemotherapy, and he has been disease-free for over 8 months. Combined LCNEC with giant cell carcinoma is an extremely rare tumor with high malignant potential, and thus, multidisciplinary therapy and close follow-up are advised. PMID:23957954

2013-01-01

194

Mixed adenocarcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate: A case report  

PubMed Central

Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) of the prostate are rare, but highly aggressive tumors. The occurrence of mixed carcinomas in the prostate is even more rarely reported. The present study reports the case of a 62-year-old male who was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma accompanied by multiple bone metastases, as shown by a needle biopsy and skeletal computed tomography scan. The patient was treated with hormonal therapy, but thereafter, specimens from a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) were found to be composed of three histologically distinct elements: ASC, SC and adenocarcinoma. The level of p53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in detail, and it was found that this was significantly increased in the TURP samples compared with the needle biopsy samples. The abnormal level of p53 was likely associated with the prognosis of the patient; the patient succumbed to prostate carcinoma two months after the confirmation of the diagnosis. PMID:25295118

ZHANG, ZHONGFU; WANG, YADONG; ZHAO, QING; LI, GANHONG; ZHAO, XINGQI; LI, JUN; LI, XIANXIN

2014-01-01

195

Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

2014-08-06

196

Extraocular Sebaceous Carcinoma on the Chest Wall - A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare aggressive skin cancer derived from the epithelium of sebaceous glands. Sebaceous carcinomas are generally divided as ocular or extraocular locations. Very few cases of extra ocular sebaceous carcinomas have been reported till date. Among them only six cases were reported which were on the chest wall. We are hereby reporting the seventh case of sebaceous carcinoma on the chest wall. The disease exhibits diverse clinical presentations and histologic patterns, often resulting in a delay in an accurate diagnosis as it may mimic many other cutaneous malignancies like Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberance Basal Cell Carcinoma or Squamous Cell Carcinoma. High degree of suspicion is required and sebaceous carcinoma should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for an ulceroproliferative growth on the skin. PMID:25121026

SR, Diwakar; Thulasi, Vasudevaiah; Shenoy, K Manjunath

2014-01-01

197

Classification, Staging and Radiotherapy of Bronchial Carcinoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis reports a study performed to evaluate the stage classification of bronchial carcinoma published by Thomas in 1963. The study was done in the radiotherapy department of a teaching hospital, and had three parts: a comparative analysis of the cla...

E. M. Noordijk

1983-01-01

198

Molecular pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. However, the viral-chemical etiology as well as molecular mechanisms of HCC pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Recent studies in our laboratory have identified several potential factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation have been linked to an increased risk of liver cancer.

Xin W Wang; S. Perwez Hussain; Teh-Ia Huo; Chuan-Ging Wu; Marshonna Forgues; Lorne J Hofseth; Christian Brechot; Curtis C Harris

2002-01-01

199

Squamous cell carcinoma arising from pilonidal sinus.  

PubMed

Pilonidal sinus is usually present in the sacrococcygeal region. The common presentations are cellulitis, abscess or sinus. Rarely malignant change may be seen in chronic pilonidal sinus. We report a case of chronic pilonidal sinus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23050944

Pandey, Mithilesh K; Gupta, Puneet; Khanna, Ajay K

2014-08-01

200

Carcinoma of the Exocrine Pancreas in Medaka.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight cases of acinar cell carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were diagnosed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from a pool of approximately 10,000 specimens used in a variety of carcinogenesis bioassays. Three cases occurred in specimens from control g...

J. W. Fournie, W. E. Hawkins, M. S. J. Battalora, W. W. Walker

1991-01-01

201

Extended cholecystectomy for carcinoma of the gallbladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated extended cholecystectomy, wedge resection of the gallbladder bed, and regional lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the gallbladder. Between 1971 and 1993 we treated 227 patients, 59 of whom were treated with simple cholecystectomy and 66 with extended cholecystectomy. The tumors were classified according to the stages proposed by the Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery. For Stage I and II

Hirohiko Onoyama; Masahiro Yamamoto; Anthony Tseng; Tetsuo Ajiki; Yoich Saitoh

1995-01-01

202

Rare synchronous metastases of renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Renal cell carcinoma can metastasize to any region of the body. We review a patient who presents fourteen years after initial resection of the primary tumor with distant metastatic disease. This included spread to the bladder and penis that manifested as frank haematuria and malignant priapism respectively. We discuss the mechanism of spread and the management options available. PMID:24833831

Rajarubendra, Nieroshan; Pook, David; Frydenberg, Mark; Appu, Sree

2014-01-01

203

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Intratumoural hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a transcription factor activated by hypoxia that regulates the expression of genes that promote tumour cell survival, progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. In addition to hypoxia, HIF-1 can be activated by growth factor-signalling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases- (MAPK-) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases- (PI3K-) signalling cascades. Mutations in these pathways are common in thyroid carcinoma and lead to enhanced HIF-1 expression and activity. Here, we summarise current data that highlights the potential role of both hypoxia and MAPK/PI3K-induced HIF-1 signalling in thyroid carcinoma progression, metastatic characteristics, and the potential role of HIF-1 in thyroid carcinoma response to radiotherapy. Direct or indirect targeting of HIF-1 using an MAPK or PI3K inhibitor in combination with radiotherapy may be a new potential therapeutic target to improve the therapeutic response of thyroid carcinoma to radiotherapy and reduce metastatic burden. PMID:21765994

Burrows, Natalie; Babur, Muhammad; Resch, Julia; Williams, Kaye J.; Brabant, Georg

2011-01-01

204

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

205

Targeted Antibody Therapy for Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, 20 patients with recurrent, metastatic, or otherwise unresectable adrenocortical carcinoma who have not been previously treated with systemic therapies will receive IMC-A12 and mitotane to determine the safety of the combined therapy. If the combination is safe, an additional 102 patients will be randomly assigned to receive the combined treatment or mitotane alone.

206

CARCINOMA OF THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN MEDAKA  

EPA Science Inventory

Eight cases of acinar cell carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were diagnosed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from a pool of approximately 10,000 specimens used in a variety of carcinogenesis bioassays. hree cases occurred in specimens from control groups and one case in a sp...

207

Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the clinical features and treatment protocol of squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid (SCCT). Method: Clinical records of four SCCT patients treated during 1985–99 were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated. Results: Two patients who underwent surgical excision plus radiotherapy died of local tumour recurrence, 6 and 13 months, respectively, post-operatively. One who accepted surgery only died 4 months

Xiao-Hong Zhou

2002-01-01

208

Pituitary Carcinoma: Difficult Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Context: Although pituitary tumors are common, pituitary carcinoma is very rare and is only diagnosed when pituitary tumor noncontiguous with the sellar region is demonstrated. Diagnosis is difficult, resulting in delays that may adversely effect outcome that is traditionally poor. Barriers to earlier diagnosis and management strategies for pituitary carcinoma are discussed. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was employed to identify relevant studies, a review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated from the author's perspective. Evidence Synthesis: The available data highlight the difficulties in diagnosis and management and practical challenges in conducting clinical trials in this rare condition. They suggest that earlier diagnosis with aggressive multimodal therapy may be advantageous in some cases. Conclusions: Although pituitary carcinoma remains difficult to diagnose and treat, recent developments have led to improved outcomes in selected cases. With broader use of molecular markers, efforts to modify current histopathological criteria for pituitary carcinoma diagnosis may now be possible. This would assist earlier diagnosis and, in combination with targeted therapies, potentially improve long-term survival. PMID:21956419

2011-01-01

209

CONCURRENT CHEMORADIATION FOR ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMA: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite all advances, treatment of esophageal carcinoma is still unsatisfactory. Currently the standard non-surgical treatment of esophageal cancer is concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemoradiation), with results comparable to best surgical series. A few years ago, we started a chemoradiation protocol for the cancer of esophagus as a curative treatment, of which we present the preliminary results here. Files of all

P. Haddad; F. Amouzgar-Hashemi

210

Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma.  

PubMed

We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and ?25% of high-grade endometrioid tumours had extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low oestrogen receptor/progesterone receptor levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumours had few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations, but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A and KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumours that we identified had a markedly increased transversion mutation frequency and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy-number low, and copy-number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may affect post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumours. PMID:23636398

Kandoth, Cyriac; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cherniack, Andrew D; Akbani, Rehan; Liu, Yuexin; Shen, Hui; Robertson, A Gordon; Pashtan, Itai; Shen, Ronglai; Benz, Christopher C; Yau, Christina; Laird, Peter W; Ding, Li; Zhang, Wei; Mills, Gordon B; Kucherlapati, Raju; Mardis, Elaine R; Levine, Douglas A

2013-05-01

211

Post 131I carcinoma of the thyroid.  

PubMed Central

A case of post-radioiodine follicular carcinoma of the thyroid is presented. Current evidence suggests no causal relationship. The evidence for this assertion is reviewed with the conclusion that a note of caution is still required. Images Figure 1 PMID:2062779

Adamson, A. S.; Gardham, J. R.

1991-01-01

212

High-Dose Therapy for Ovarian Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial ovarian carcinomas are successfully treated but seldom cured with standard platinum-based chemotherapy regimens. Investigation continues on the role of high-dose chemotherapy as part of salvage, consol- idation and primary induction treatment strategies. Currently, the majority of available clinical studies suggest that modest increases in the dose of platinum in primary induction therapy does not translate into increased sur- vival

THOMAS MAKATSORIS; MICHAEL V. S EIDEN

213

Squamous cell carcinoma in a horseshoe kidney.  

PubMed

Malignancy in a horseshoe kidney is uncommon. First case of malignancy in a horseshoe kidney was described by Hildebrand in 1895. Here a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a horseshoe kidney in a 62-year-old male is reported for its rarity. PMID:2754266

Nagar, R C; Sanwal, B L

1989-01-01

214

Coexistent gallbladder carcinoma in Mirizzi syndrome.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman presented with right upper quadrant pain and obstructive jaundice. Computed tomographic scan showed Mirizzi syndrome type 1 and a thickened and calcified gallbladder wall, raising the possibility of coexistent gallbladder carcinoma that was later confirmed on histology post-cholecystectomy. PMID:12581056

Chiam, Quee Li; Lau, Kenneth

2003-03-01

215

Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Dialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of our study was to determine whether there is an increased incidence of urothelial cancer, especially transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), in uremic patients on dialysis.Methods: Retrospective chart analyses were completed for 1,910 uremic patients undergoing maintenance dialysis between January 1987 and December 1997. The incidence of urinary tract cancer was assessed. Only the patients with cancers diagnosed

2000-01-01

216

Misdiagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents the most common histological subtype of malignant kidney tumors. Based on symptoms alone, clear cell RCC is indistinguishable from other histological classes of RCC unless the tumor is present in the context of an RCC syndrome. Histopathological examination is, therefore, important to accurately identify clear cell RCC. Clear cell RCCs have characteristic morphological

Vladimir A. Valera; Maria J. Merino

2011-01-01

217

Sebaceous carcinoma of the nasal vestibule.  

PubMed

Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare disease arising from holocrine adnexal components of the skin. Fewer than 400 cases have been reported worldwide and only about 19 are from the nose. We present a sebaceous cancer of the nasal vestibule in a patient who, with adequate excision, is disease-free after two years. PMID:11779335

Dasgupta, S; Scott, A; Skinner, D W; Prichard, A J; Green, N J

2001-12-01

218

Autoantibody Responses in Chinese Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world and is particularly prevalent in Henan, China. The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency and specificity of autoantibodies associated with HCC in Henan. In the present study, 137 sera from HCC patients, 77 sera from other liver diseases, and 30 sera from normal human

Jian-Ying Zhang; Xiao Wang; Xuan-Xian Peng; Edward K. L. Chan

2002-01-01

219

Hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis: from genes to environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the molecular, cellular and environmental mechanisms that drive disease pathogenesis, and there are only limited therapeutic options, many with negligible clinical benefit. This Review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this, the most common and

Paraskevi A. Farazi; Ronald A. DePinho

2006-01-01

220

Distinguishing pancreatic carcinoma from other periampullary carcinomas by analysis of mutations in the Kirsten-ras oncogene.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of Kirsten (Ki)-ras gene mutations was studied in 105 paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from 40 patients with pancreatic cancer, 48 with bile duct carcinoma (19 distal, 6 middle, and 23 proximal), 16 with ampullary carcinoma and 1 with duodenal cancer, by in vitro amplification of target sequences by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). With regard to pancreatic cancers, the authors' data confirm the very high frequency (88.6%) of Ki-ras gene mutations occurring at codon 12. Five pancreatic carcinomas did not contain the Ki-ras mutation and included rare types of histopathology. By histologic review after the examination of Ki-ras mutations through PCR, the diagnosis of four patients could be legitimately revised from other periampullary carcinoma to pancreatic carcinoma. In the ampullary carcinoma, the prevalence of mutations in Ki-ras codon 12 was 13.3%. Although there was a large difference in incidence of mutations between distal and middle or proximal bile duct carcinoma, the prevalence of mutations in bile duct carcinoma was limited to 19.6%. Unlike other approaches to diagnose periampullary carcinoma, detection of a mutation in Ki-ras codon 12 by PCR may distinguish pancreatic carcinoma from other periampullary carcinomas that have better prognoses. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1741644

Motojima, K; Tsunoda, T; Kanematsu, T; Nagata, Y; Urano, T; Shiku, H

1991-01-01

221

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of mammary neuroendocrine carcinoma.  

PubMed

Primary mammary neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is an uncommon entity that accounts for 2% to 5% of breast carcinomas. Recent reports have shown that NEC of the breast is an aggressive subtype of mammary carcinoma that is distinct from invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified, and have suggested that these tumors have a poorer prognosis than invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified. In this study, we provide the first cytogenetic characterization of mammary NEC using both conventional G-banding and spectral karyotype on a group of 7 tumors. We identified clonal chromosomal aberrations in 5 (71.4%) cases, with 4 of them showing complex karyotypes. Of these, recurrent numerical aberrations included gain of chromosome 7 (n = 2) and loss of chromosome 15 (n = 2). Recurrent clonal structural chromosomal aberrations involved chromosomes 1 (n = 3), 3 (n = 2), 6q (n = 3), and 17q (n = 3). Of the 4 (57.1%) cases with complex karyotypes, 2 showed evidence of chromothripsis, a phenomenon in which tens to hundreds of genomic rearrangements occur in a one-off cellular crisis. One of these had evidence of chromothripsis involving chromosomes 1, 6, 8, and 15. The other also had evidence of chromosome 8 chromothripsis, making this a recurrent finding shared by both cases. We also found that mammary NEC shared some cytogenetic abnormalities--such as trisomy 7 and 12--with other neuroendocrine tumors in the lung and gastrointestinal tract, suggesting trisomy 7 and 12 as potential common molecular aberrations in neuroendocrine tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first report on molecular cytogenetic characterization of mammary NEC. PMID:25074542

Xiang, De-Bing; Wei, Bing; Abraham, Susan C; Huo, Lei; Albarracin, Constance T; Zhang, Hong; Babiera, Gildy; Caudle, Abigail S; Akay, Catherine L; Rao, Pulivarthi; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Lu, Xinyan; Wu, Yun

2014-09-01

222

Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2014-10-02

223

Esophageal combined carcinomas: Immunohoistochemical and molecular genetic studies  

PubMed Central

Primary esophageal combined carcinoma is very rare. The authors herein report 2 cases. Case 1 was a combined squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma, and case 2 was a combined squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Case 1 was a 67-year-old man with complaints of dysphagia. Endoscopic examination revealed an ulcerated tumor in the middle esophagus, and 6 biopsies were obtained. All 6 biopsies revealed a mixture of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Both elements were positive for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and p53 protein, and had high Ki-67 labeling. The small cell carcinoma element was positive for synaptophysin, CD56, KIT, and platelet-derived growth factor-? (PDGFRA), while the squamous cell carcinoma element was not. Genetically, no mutations of KIT and PDGFRA were recognized. The patient died of systemic carcinomatosis 15 mo after presentation. Case 2 was a 74-year-old man presenting with dysplasia. Endoscopy revealed a polypoid tumor in the distal esophagus. Seven biopsies were taken, and 6 showed a mixture of squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. The 3 elements were positive for cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, and p53 protein, and had high Ki-67 labeling. The adenocarcinoma element was positive for mucins. The small cell carcinoma element was positive for CD56, synaptophysin, KIT, and PDGFRA, but the other elements were not. Mutations of KIT and PDGFRA were not recognized. The patient died of systemic carcinomatosis 7 mo after presentation. These combined carcinomas may arise from enterochromaffin cells or totipotential stem cell in the esophagus or transdifferentiation of one element to another. A review of the literature was performed. PMID:22509088

Terada, Tadashi; Maruo, Hirotoshi

2012-01-01

224

Unusual mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by intraoperative histological examination  

PubMed Central

As rare condition, mucoepidermoid carcinoma may occur in liver although its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. We report here a case of intrahepatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma misdiagnosed as cholangiocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma by preoperative radiologic and intraoperative histological examinations, respectively. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of progressive jaundice, epigastric discomfort, and weight loss with slightly increased carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Computed tomography (CT) showed a large tumor, 8.0 cm in diameter, in the left lobe of the liver. A preliminary diagnosis of a cholangiocarcinoma of the liver was made. In the intraoperative histological examination, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made based on predominantly invasive epidermoid cells with abundant keratinization and absence of mucin-producing cell component. However, postoperative histological diagnosis of the lesion was mucoepidermiod carcinoma of liver by thoroughly microscopical inspection and the presence of mucin-producing cells confirmed by Alcian blue staining. Despite surgical excision and chemotherapy, the tumor showed very aggressive malignancy with tumor recurrence. The patient died shortly afterward, surviving 6 months after surgery. Due to its rarity and distinct morphological features, mucoepidermoid carcinoma might be erroneously interpreted as squamous cell carcinoma by those who were not familiar with this condition in unusual locations. Therefore, removal of sufficient tissue from different portions of the lesion is essential for the surgeons and pathologists to make a precise diagnosis in the intraoperative histological examination. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4956311271136060 PMID:24475740

2014-01-01

225

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to skeletal muscle: Single center experience  

PubMed Central

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to the skeletal muscle are rare, but the incidence may be increasing because of better diagnosis resulting from widespread use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A cohort of 205 patients with esophageal carcinoma treated at our center who had PET/CT between 2006 and 2010 was retrospectively evaluated for the presence of skeletal muscle metastases. Four patients had skeletal muscle metastases of esophageal carcinoma, including two patients with squamous cell carcinoma. In another patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and synchronous skeletal muscle metastases, muscle metastases were subsequently shown to be related to second primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In all cases, skeletal muscle metastases were the first manifestation of systemic disease. In three patients palliation was obtained with the combination of external beam radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy or surgical resection. Skeletal muscle metastases are a rare complication of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:23002370

Cincibuch, Jan; Myslivecek, Miroslav; Melichar, Bohuslav; Neoral, Cestmir; Metelkova, Iva; Zezulova, Michaela; Prochazkova-Studentova, Hana; Flodr, Patrik; Zlevorova, Miloslava; Aujesky, Rene; Cwiertka, Karel

2012-01-01

226

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to skeletal muscle: single center experience.  

PubMed

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to the skeletal muscle are rare, but the incidence may be increasing because of better diagnosis resulting from widespread use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A cohort of 205 patients with esophageal carcinoma treated at our center who had PET/CT between 2006 and 2010 was retrospectively evaluated for the presence of skeletal muscle metastases. Four patients had skeletal muscle metastases of esophageal carcinoma, including two patients with squamous cell carcinoma. In another patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and synchronous skeletal muscle metastases, muscle metastases were subsequently shown to be related to second primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In all cases, skeletal muscle metastases were the first manifestation of systemic disease. In three patients palliation was obtained with the combination of external beam radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy or surgical resection. Skeletal muscle metastases are a rare complication of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:23002370

Cincibuch, Jan; Myslive?ek, Miroslav; Melichar, Bohuslav; Neoral, Cestmír; Metelková, Iva; Zezulová, Michaela; Procházková-Študentová, Hana; Flodr, Patrik; Zlevorová, Miloslava; Aujeský, René; Cwiertka, Karel

2012-09-21

227

Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma,; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

2014-07-28

228

Etiologic factors in carcinoma of the prostate.  

PubMed

A staining method is presented by which azocarmine combines with spermine to form a poorly soluble red precipitate highlighted against the yellow cytoplasm of positive cells achieved by counterstaining with metanil yellow. In the prostate, the spermine-dye complex was abundant in normal acinar epithelial cells, moderate in the epithelial cells of hyperplastic glands, and moderate to absent in carcinoma cells. Spermine is evidently concerned with stabilizing the structure of desoxyribose nucleic acid and probably of proteins, notably several zinc metalloenzymes. Diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma of the prostate should include an adequate basic diet, retention of testes, hormonal treatment oriented toward testicular, pituitary and hypothalamic hormones; zinc--ordinary and radioactive; and utilization of spermine and precursors. PMID:47735

Mulligan, R M

1975-01-01

229

Early esophageal carcinoma treated with intracavitary irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Five patients with early esophageal carcinoma were treated by 6-12 Gy of intracavitary irradiation following 50-60 Gy of external irradiation as a boost therapy. Surgery was not performed in these cases. None of the patients had local recurrence after radiation therapy, as demonstrated by esophagography and endoscopy. Three patients have been alive for 1-3 years 10 months. Esophageal ulceration induced by intracavitary irradiation has occurred in three of the five patients; however, intracavitary irradiation is still a beneficial treatment because of its efficacy in controlling local lesions and because radiation ulceration can eventually be cured. Intracavitary irradiation is recommended to follow external irradiation as a boost therapy for the treatment of early esophageal carcinoma.

Hishikawa, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Miura, T.

1985-08-01

230

Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary gland  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMEC) is extremely rare variant of the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, which is the most common primary malignancy of the salivary glands. As its name suggests, SMEC is characterized by an intense central sclerosis that occupies the entirety of an otherwise typical tumor, frequently with an inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells, eosinophils, and/or lymphocytes at its peripheral regions, but its uncompanionship with inflammatory cell infiltration might explain its progressive stage of the sclerosis. The sclerosis associated with these tumors may obscure their typical morphologic features and result in diagnostic difficulties. Tumor infarction and extravasation of mucin eventuating in reactive fibrosis are two mechanisms of formation that have been suggested as underlying this morphologic variant. Morphologic evidence in support of the mucin extravasation hypothesis was identified, as small pools of mucin were present throughout the tumor.

Lohiya, Pooja G.; Chaudhary, Minal S.; Patil, Swati; Agrawal, Swati A.

2014-01-01

231

Squamous carcinoma of the external ear.  

PubMed

The medical records of 486 patients with pathologically proved squamous carcinoma of the skin of the external ear were analyzed. It is a disease of elderly white men, and the helix is the most common site of origin. Well-differentiated squamous carcinoma is the most frequent histologic variant. Ninety-five percent of our patients were treated surgically with above-clavical control in 87 percent and 28 percent survival. The low survival rate was related to the old age of the patients who frequently died of intercurrent disease and second cancers. A 12 percent incidence of nodal metastases is comparable with the incidence reported in other series. Aggressive surgical ablation and the selected use of adjunctive postoperative irradiation appear justified in those patients with locally invasive tumors, multiple nodal metastases, and extracapsular invasion. PMID:6625089

Byers, R; Kesler, K; Redmon, B; Medina, J; Schwarz, B

1983-10-01

232

Atypical 'benign behaviour' of eyelid sebaceous carcinoma.  

PubMed

Eyelid sebaceous carcinoma is a rare tumour with slow growth and it is one of the most aggressive malignancies of the eyelid. Death rate can reach 6%. The diagnosis is often delayed because it is confused with other periocular lesions. The authors describe a case with atypical presentation, regarding rapid growth rate and exophytic aspect. Female, 78 years, presenting lower eyelid tumour with 4 months of evolution. Ophthalmological examination showed a tarsal exophytic tumour (22 mm), non-adherent to bulbar conjunctiva. She was medicated topically for 3 months, with the diagnosis of chalazio. Total excision was performed for histological diagnosis. After diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma with specific immunohistochemical markers, and without free tumour surgical limits, a second surgery was performed with a pentagon entire thickness excision. Being a rare tumour but with a considerable morbidity and mortality; early diagnosis and treatment is essential for a good prognosis and preservation of visual function. PMID:23125295

Alves, Samuel; Silva, Filipe; Ferreira, Mara; Cabral, João

2012-01-01

233

Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule is a rare disease. Most advocate radiotherapy as a primary treatment for early tumours, with surgery reserved for salvage. For advanced disease, combined therapy with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy is generally recommended. Fourteen patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule were reviewed. A classification of early versus late lesions was used. We achieved a 78% local regional control rate (minimum follow-up 3 years) in patients with early disease, with either radiotherapy or surgery as a primary modality of treatment. All patients with late disease recurred, requiring further surgical and/or radiation treatment. Only 20% of these patients were disease free at 2 years. Recurrent disease in either group, whether local or regional, carried a grave prognosis, with a 25% disease-free survival at 3 years. PMID:10819108

Samaha, M; Yoskovitch, A; Hier, M P; Black, M J

2000-04-01

234

New targeted therapies in pituitary carcinoma resistant to temozolomide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the antitumoral efficacy of everolimus in pituitary carcinoma resistant to temozolomide, the correlation with\\u000a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the tumor and to present recent advances and future treatments of pituitary\\u000a carcinomas. Pituitary carcinomas are rare and largely unresponsive to current treatment options. Recent reports on the antitumoral\\u000a efficacy of temozolomide in some such patients are

Emmanuel Jouanneau; Anne Wierinckx; François Ducray; Véronique Favrel; Françoise Borson-Chazot; Jérôme Honnorat; Jacqueline Trouillas; Gérald Raverot

235

Aberrant E-cadherin staining patterns in invasive mammary carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: E-cadherin, a cell surface protein involved in cell adhesion, is present in normal breast epithelium, benign breast lesions, and in breast carcinoma. Alterations in the gene CDH1 on chromosome 16q22 are associated with changes in E-cadherin protein expression and function. Inactivation of E-cadherin in lobular carcinomas and certain diffuse gastric carcinomas may play a role in the dispersed, discohesive

Malini Harigopal; Sandra J Shin; Melissa P Murray; Satish K Tickoo; Edi Brogi; Paul Peter Rosen

2005-01-01

236

Association of esophageal candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Chronic esophageal candidiasis is an infection that is mostly seen in immunocompromised conditions, among which is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Recently an association between CMC and esophageal carcinoma has been reported. Here we present two patients with chronic esophageal candidiasis who developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and we discuss the etiologic role of Candida-induced nitrosamine production, the loss of STAT1 function and impaired tumor surveillance and T-lymphocyte function in the development of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:24371724

Delsing, C.E.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; van de Veerdonk, F.L.; Tol, J.; van der Meer, J.W.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

2012-01-01

237

Mathematical modeling of nasopharynx carcinoma on cell level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical modeling of Ebsteins-Barr Virus (EBV) infection on nasopharynx cancer could predict theoretically the changes of healthy cell into invasive carcinoma. It would be very useful, especially for determining the right strategy to suppress the mortality rate due to nasopharynx cancer. Mathematical modeling use Tumorigenesis Model for EBV-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. In this study, if there is no rate of field cancerization then at equilibrium is not going on invasion carcinoma.

Sugiyanto, Adi-Kusumo, F.; Aryati, L.; Hardianti, M. S.

2014-02-01

238

CDX-2 immunostaining in primary and secondary ovarian carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess the value of homeobox protein CDX-2 expression in the distinction between primary ovarian carcinomas and carcinomas metastatic to the ovary.Methods: CDX-2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 120 serous, 68 endometrioid, 24 clear cell, and 16 mucinous carcinomas of the ovary. In addition, CDX-2 immunoreactivity was investigated in 20 metastases from adenocarcinomas to the ovary (15 of

L Tornillo; H Moch; P-A Diener; A Lugli; G Singer

2004-01-01

239

Surgical treatment of hilar bile duct carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

From June, 1986 to June 1989, 24 cases of hilar bile duct carcinoma were explored in the Surgical Department of General Hospital\\u000a of PLA, 16\\/24 cases were resected, a resectability rate of 66%. The increase of resectability rate was due to earlier recognition\\u000a of this condition and the extension of surgery, including major resection of liver as well as radical

Zhiqiang Huang

1990-01-01

240

THE ROLE OF PLATELETS IN OVARIAN CARCINOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelets represent one of the largest storage pools of angiogenic and oncogenic growth factors in the human body. The observation that thrombocytosis (platelet count >450,000\\/uL) occurs in patients with solid malignancies was made over 100 years ago. However, the clinical and biological implications as well as the underlying mechanism of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis associated with ovarian carcinoma remains unknown and were

Rebecca L Stone

2010-01-01

241

Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog.  

PubMed

An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

2012-06-01

242

Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical and pathological study was undertaken to define the prevalence, clinical presentation and outcome of thyroid carcinoma\\u000a in children and adolescents. Clinical records from 48 patients under 20 years of age at diagnosis, out of 372 patients with\\u000a thyroid cancer examined between 1980 and 1994, were retrospectively reviewed. Female\\/male ratio was 3.8\\/1. None had a previous\\u000a positive history of

D. Danese; A. Gardini; A. Farsetti; S. Sciacchitano; M. Andreoli; A. Pontecorvi

1997-01-01

243

Renal Cell Carcinoma Following Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesity, hypertension, smoking, and amphetamine diet pills increase the risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Obesity\\u000a causes a four-fold increase. We report our 11-year experience with RCC after bariatric operations. Methods: 5 patients with\\u000a RCC were identified out of 2,287 bariatric surgical patients since 1993 on retrospective chart review. Results: 4 of the 5\\u000a patients were females. At time

Myur S. Srikanth; S. Ross Fox; Ki H. Oh; Kevin Ward; Howard Sun; Thomas Keskey; Earl R. Fox; Katherine M. Fox

2005-01-01

244

Role of SERPINB3 in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

SERPINB3 (formerly known as squamous cell carcinoma antigen-1 or SCCA1) is a member of the family of serine-protease inhibitors. SERPINB3 protects cells from oxidative stress conditions, but in chronic liver damage this serpin may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma through different strategies, including inhibition of apoptosis, induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and decrease of desmosomal junctions, cell proliferation and invasiveness. SERPINB3 may also contribute to tumor cell resistance to anti-neoplastic drugs through its binding to the respiratory Complex I, protecting cells from the pro-oxidant action of chemotherapeutic agents. Mechanisms of tumor growth promotion induced by SERPINB3 include the inhibition of intratumor infiltration of natural killer cells, up-regulation of Myc oncogene and the recent identification of this serpin as a Ras-responsive factor. In the liver SERPINB3 and SERPINBB4 isoforms (known as squamous cell carcinoma antigen or SCCA) are undetectable in normal hepatocytes, but their expression progressively increases in chronic liver diseases, dysplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinoma. High SERPINB3 levels have been recently detected in HCC tissue of patients with early tumor recurrence after surgical resection. In serum SERPINB3/4 isoforms (or SCCA) are detectable bound to IgMs (SCCA-IgM) in the majority of HCV infected patients with HCC and in patients with cirrhosis their levels and/or the progressive increase have been found correlated to the risk of HCC development. Preliminary findings in patients with HCC revealed that SCCA-IgM was predictive of HCC prognosis, since low levels of this biomarker were able to identify HCC patients with long overall and progression-free survival. PMID:25332258

Pontisso, Patrizia

2014-01-01

245

Postirradiation optic neuropathy in antral carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

A case is described of a patient who developed radiation-induced optic neuropathy 18 months following cobalt-60 irradiation for carcinoma of the left maxillary antrum and ethmoid sinus. This case is unusual because of the early onset of the optic nerve damage following radiation therapy and the ultimate emergence of the eye involved by tumor compression as the better eye in terms of visual acuity.

Singh, J.; Vashist, S.

1984-06-01

246

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: MRI and CT assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise assessment of the extent of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) represents the basic step towards optimal treatment. We\\u000a compared the capacity of CT and MRI in assessing the extent of NPC in 67 patients. MRI was superior to CT in demonstrating\\u000a lesions in the retropharyngeal node, skull base, intracranial area, carotid space, longus colli muscle and levator palatini\\u000a muscle. Of 25

S. H. Ng; T. C. Chang; S. F. Ko; P. S. Yen; Y. L. Wan; L. M. Tang; M. H. Tsai

1997-01-01

247

Immunosuppression in murine renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In our companion paper we have reported that cell-mediated immunity of mice bearing renal cell carcinoma is profoundly suppressed. The non-responsiveness of such animals was found to be attributable to Renca cells themselves and to splenic lymphoid cells that down-regulate other fully capable lymphoid cells. In this communication the lymphoid cell source of suppression within Rencabearing mice has been

Shahik K. Gregorian; Jack R. Battisto

1990-01-01

248

Lymphatic drainage and CTV in pancreatic carcinoma.  

PubMed

CTV definition in exclusive or adjuvant radiation therapy of pancreatic carcinoma is essentially based on the opinion of "expert" authors and on the knowledge of lymphatic pathways. The subject has been widely debated. Radiotherapy treatments of the entire upper abdomen (liver and pancreatic region), pancreas and lymph node stations, to volumes focused on macroscopic tumor only, have been proposed. Carcinoma of exocrine pancreas is characterized by the frequent, early appearance of metastasis via the lymphatic route. Most commonly involved lymph node stations include those of the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric, peripancreatic, lumboaortic lymph nodes, those of the hepatic portal (the latter in particular for pancreatic head tumors) and of the hilum of spleen (the latter in particular for pancreatic tail tumors). The possible multicentricity of pancreatic carcinoma, most likely due to intraductal spread, should lead to the inclusion in the CTV of the entire pancreatic parenchyma. This should be considered also for the frequent perineural intra- or extrapancreatic spread of pancreatic carcinoma present also in small tumors (T1). In extrapancreatic spread the retropancreatic adipose tissue should be included in the CTV at least at the GTV level. At the present state of knowledge, in the absence of pattern of failure analysis and of comparison of different treatment approaches, in terms of the definition of volumes of interest, CTV definitions which include lymphatic drainage stations, most part of pancreatic parenchyma and retropancreatic adipose tissue seem justified especially in treatments for cure. In palliation, the CTV may be limited to the GTV and the adipose tissue behind it. PMID:15018319

Morganti, Alessio G; Cellini, Numa; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Macchia, Gabriella; Smaniotto, Daniela; Luzi, Stefano; Balducci, Mario; Deodato, Francesco; Valentini, Vincenzo; Trodella, Lucio

2003-01-01

249

Hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis: from genes to environment.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the molecular, cellular and environmental mechanisms that drive disease pathogenesis, and there are only limited therapeutic options, many with negligible clinical benefit. This Review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this, the most common and dreaded liver neoplasm, and highlights the principal challenges and scientific opportunities that are relevant to controlling this accelerating global health crisis. PMID:16929323

Farazi, Paraskevi A; DePinho, Ronald A

2006-09-01

250

Urethral malignant melanoma closely mimicking urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant melanoma of the urethra is very rare. In the male, the distal urethra is the most common site. The histopathology does not usually differ from that of melanoma at other body sites. This report describes a case of urethral malignant melanoma which closely resembled urethral carcinoma. It showed both papillary and solid growth, and the diagnosis only became apparent from special stains. Pathologists should be aware of this rare occurrence. Images PMID:9155678

Radhi, J M

1997-01-01

251

Changing Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trend in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japan was studied from the data of the Osaka Cancer Registry (population, 8,512,351 in 1981) for the period of 1963-1983, the Vital Statistics of Japan, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Japan Autopsy Registry which contained 594,132 individually filed cases in the 26-year period from 1958 to 1983. Both

Kunio Okuda; Isaburo Fujimoto; Aya Hanai; Yoshinori Urano

1987-01-01

252

Columnar-cell carcinoma of the thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of columnar-cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring in a 77-year-old female is described. Tracheal deviation and calcified anterior neck lesion were showed in X-ray examination. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a soft tissue density mass with calcification of the right thyroid lobe and isthmus. A 99mTc scintiscan showed a ‘cold’ nodule, whereas a 201Tl scintiscan showed

Kazumasa Watanabe; Hiroshi Tsubota; Tetsuo Himi; Yasunori Fujisawa

2001-01-01

253

Rectal carcinoma in a renal transplant patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of a rectal adenocarcinoma in a 48-year-old man 11 years after he received a cadaveric renal transplant is\\u000a reported. Since his operation, the patient had been receiving prednisone and azathioprine for immunosuppression. The occurrence\\u000a of rectal carcinoma in this patient at an early age, after a decade of immunosuppression, suggests an association between\\u000a the malignancy and his altered

G. Letsou; G. H. Ballantyne; I. M. Zdon; R. M. Cambria; I. M. Modlin

1986-01-01

254

Etiology and Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of worldwide cancer mortality, with an estimated 1 million deaths\\u000a annually and a 5-year survival rate of less than 5% (1). Cirrhosis of the liver is the main risk factor for the development of HCC, but the incidence of HCC varies considerably\\u000a depending on, among other factors, geographical location and the

Jawad Ahmad; Mordechai Rabinovitz

255

Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Epidemiological Trends and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with about 600,000 patients dying from the disease annually. In 70–90%, HCC develops on the background of chronic liver cirrhosis or inflammation. Risk factors and etiologies vary among geographical regions. In regions with a high incidence the majority of cases are related to HBV and HCV hepatitis.

Kerstin Schütte; Jan Bornschein; Peter Malfertheiner

2009-01-01

256

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), T1 shortening occurs due to internal protein, fat, copper, iron, hypercellularity, or a combination thereof. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is obtained with a non-fat-suppressed phase shift [in- (4 ms) and opposed- (2 ms) phase] gradient-echo sequence. Internal fat deposition is often (36%) seen in well-differentiated HCCs between 1.1 and 1.5 cm in size. T2-weighted MRI

Masayuki Kanematsu; Hiroshi Kondo; Satoshi Goshima; Yusuke Tsuge; Haruo Watanabe

2008-01-01

257

Human hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis by multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy  

E-print Network

Conventionally, the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is performed by qualitative examination of histopathological specimens, which takes times for sample preparation in fixation, section and stain. Our objective ...

So, Peter T. C.

258

Carcinoma of the anal canal: radiation or radiation plus chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

An editorial is presented which discusses the treatment of carcinoma of the anal canal. Following the initial report of the successful preoperative use of combined chemotherapy and radiation by Nigro in 1974, several centers have confirmed the effectiveness of such combinations either as preoperative or as definitive treatment of anal carcinomas, and many patients are now being referred for radiation therapy. The article by Cantril in this issue describe the successful treatment of anal carcinomas by radiation alone, and raises the important issue of whether radiation plus chemotherapy is more effective treatment than radiation alone for squamous or cloacogenic carcinomas arising in the anal canal or perianal area. Several studies are cited.

Cummings, B.J.

1983-09-01

259

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the tonsil: a very rare presentation.  

PubMed

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant salivary gland tumour. However, short series or individual case reports have identified this tumour in the maxilla, mandible, breast tissue and thymus. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma originates from minor salivary glands, and it is therefore surprising that it is not more commonly seen in the tonsil. To date, we believe there has been only one previously reported case in the world literature of mucoepidermoid carcinoma occurring in the tonsil 1. We present a very rare case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from within the structure of the palatine tonsil, rather from the adjacent pharyngeal wall, together with a short review of the literature. PMID:24043918

Jarvis, S J; Giangrande, V; Brennan, P A

2013-08-01

260

Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the presacral region  

PubMed Central

A 7 cm diameter presacral tumour, not related to the intrapelvic organs, was found in a 51 year old woman. The needle biopsy showed a poorly differentiated large cell carcinoma. The patient died of urosepsis after chemotherapy. Postmortem examination revealed no other primary or metastatic tumour. Histological examination of the presacral tumour showed a large cell carcinoma with a trabecular pattern and strong immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers. The tumour was finally classified as a primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the presacral region. Key Words: neuroendocrine carcinoma • presacral region PMID:11684726

Theunissen, P; Fickers, M; Goei, R

2001-01-01

261

Small cell carcinoma of the anus in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ  

PubMed Central

Small cell carcinoma of the anus is a rare tumor that has been infrequently described in the literature. In contrast to squamous cell carcinoma, which is known to be associated with high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiology of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal is not established. We present a case of a patient with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. In conjunction with recently published data demonstrating the presence of HPV in tumor specimens from patients with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal, our patient’s clinical course suggests a possible link between HPV and this rare malignancy. PMID:23730521

Edgar, Mark A.; Hawk, Natalyn N.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Stapleford, Liza J.

2013-01-01

262

Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.  

PubMed

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

2014-03-20

263

Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

Sabolch, Aaron [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent [Department of Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hammer, Gary [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Doherty, Gerard [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2011-08-01

264

CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

1984-11-01

265

Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

2014-01-01

266

Metastatic mucinous carcinoma of the eyelid.  

PubMed

Metastatic eyelid tumours are rare and account for less than 2% of all eyelid neoplasms. We report a case of metastatic breast carcinoma to the eyelid in a 60-year-old Chinese lady presenting with a 2-year history of enlarging, painless nodular lower eyelid swelling. The 1 cm diameter lesion was provisionally diagnosed as a sebaceous cyst. However the excision biopsy revealed a mucinous carcinoma expressing oestrogen receptor protein. She had a past history of mastectomy one year previously and histology showed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (oestrogen receptor status negative) without evidence of axillary lymph node metastasis. She had completed adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy. Further treatment of the current lesion involved a wide excision which did not show any residual malignancy. She had no other evidence of metastasis and was treated with letrozol. We highlight this case to create awareness among clinicians and opthalmologists on the possibility of metastatic disease as a cause of eyelid swelling, especially in patients with a history of cancer. It may also be the first sign of metastatic disease of an internal malignancy. A review of the literature is also presented. PMID:17191395

Kaur, Gurjeet; Ismail, Rosli; Harun, Hairulhasliza

2005-12-01

267

A Mouse Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Most mouse models of hepatocellular carcinoma have expressed growth factors and oncogenes under the control of a liver-specific promoter. In contrast, we describe here the formation of liver tumors in transgenic mice overexpressing human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) in skeletal muscle. FGF19 transgenic mice had elevated hepatic ?-fetoprotein mRNA as early as 2 months of age, and hepatocellular carcinomas were evident by 10 months of age. Increased proliferation of pericentral hepatocytes was demonstrated by 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine incorporation in the FGF19 transgenic mice before tumor formation and in nontransgenic mice injected with recombinant FGF19 protein. Areas of small cell dysplasia were initially evident pericentrally, and dysplastic/neoplastic foci throughout the hepatic lobule were glutamine synthetase-positive, suggestive of a pericentral origin. Consistent with chronic activation of the Wingless/Wnt pathway, 44% of the hepatocellular tumors from FGF19 transgenic mice had nuclear staining for ?-catenin. Sequencing of the tumor DNA encoding ?-catenin revealed point mutations that resulted in amino acid substitutions. These findings suggest a previously unknown role for FGF19 in hepatocellular carcinomas. PMID:12057932

Nicholes, Katrina; Guillet, Susan; Tomlinson, Elizabeth; Hillan, Kenneth; Wright, Barbara; Frantz, Gretchen D.; Pham, Thinh A.; Dillard-Telm, Lisa; Tsai, Siao Ping; Stephan, Jean-Philippe; Stinson, Jeremy; Stewart, Timothy; French, Dorothy M.

2002-01-01

268

[Update on Barrett esophagus and Barrett carcinoma].  

PubMed

The definition of Barrett esophagus is currently under discussion. It is now suggested that a distal esophagus coated with cylinder epithelium with cardia-fundus mucosa should also be classified as Barrett esophagus because the risk of cancer is significantly increased even without histological evidence of intestinal metaplasia with goblet cells. The results of recent epidemiological investigations imply that the cancer risk of cylinder cell metaplasia and low grade intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett esophagus has previously been overestimated. The histological detection of dysplasia still remains the best biomarker for estimation of the risk of cancer of Barrett esophagus. Exact determination of invasion depth in the mucosa, respective submucosa is now established as prognostic marker for overall survival in Patients with early carcinomas and this classification is useful for therapy decisions (endoscopic versus surgical removal). In advanced Barrett carcinoma following neoadjuvant therapy the lymph node status (ypN) is a better prognostic factor than the ypT category. In metastasized tumors therapies targeting HER2/new, EGFR or c-Met have been investigated explicitly in Barrett carcinoma only in phase I/II studies, whereby the predictive value of appropriate molecular pathology investigations is not yet reliably established. PMID:23011020

Werner, M; Laßmann, S

2012-11-01

269

Targeted molecular therapies in thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer incidence has significantly increased in the last three decades and many patients seek medical attention for its treatment every year. Among follicular cell-derived tumors, the majority are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC), whose prognosis is very good with only 15% of the cases presenting disease persistence or recurrence after initial treatment. Medullary thyroid carcinoma has a worse prognosis, especially in patients with diffused cancers at the time of initial surgery. Traditional treatment options for persistent or recurrent disease include additional surgery, radioiodine treatment and TSH-suppression in DTC patients; external beam radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy, often have low efficacy and many patients with advanced disease ultimately die. In the last two decades many of the molecular events involved in cancer formation have been uncovered. This knowledge has prompted the development of novel therapeutic strategies mainly based on the inhibition of key molecular mediators of the tumorigenic process. In particular the class of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors was enriched by many compounds that have reached clinical trials and in some cases have had approval for clinical use in specific cancers. Many of these compounds entered clinical trials also for locally advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas showing very promising results. PMID:20126863

Romagnoli, Serena; Moretti, Sonia; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio

2009-12-01

270

Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx  

SciTech Connect

The aggressiveness of small (oat) cell carcinoma of the larynx presents a therapeutic challenge to the oncologist. Since the first description of this type of carcinoma in 1972, 52 patients have been reported in the literature and a variety of treatment regimens have been used. The purpose of this study was to report two new cases and review all previous reports to determine the disease's biological behavior, clinical manifestations, and optimum treatment. Thirty-five percent of the tumors were transglottic, and 27% were supraglottic. Fifty-four percent of patients had regional metastases at initial presentation and 17.6% had distant metastases. The median survival was 10 months for all patients. Patients who were treated with chemotherapy with or without other modalities had the best 2-year survival rates (52.2%). Forty-one percent of patients had regional recurrence only, 12.5% had regional recurrence and distant metastases, and 2% developed distant metastases only. We conclude that patients with oat cell carcinoma of the larynx should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is best reserved for persistent and recurrent disease at the primary site and neck.

Aguilar, E.A. III; Robbins, K.T.; Stephens, J.; Dimery, I.W.; Batsakis, J.G.

1987-02-01

271

Axillary Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma with Ipsilateral Pectoral Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: An Unusual Presentation  

PubMed Central

We report a case of axillary metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) with triple negative (ER?/PR?/Her2?) phenotype, concurrent with multifocal invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of ipsilateral pectoral breast (ER+/PR+/Her2?) in a 60-year-old woman. The two tumors demonstrate different morphology, immunophenotype, and opposite response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of paclitaxol, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide. Methylation analysis of human androgen receptor (HUMARA) on X-chromosome identified monoclonal pattern of X-chromosome inactivation in MBC and mosaic pattern in the IDC. Stem cell origin of MBC is suggested in this case. Clinicopathological features, imaging findings, biological markers, chemoradiation management, and prognosis of MBC are reviewed in comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma. Our case and literature review suggest that traditional chemotherapy applicable to IDC is less effective towards MBC. However, new chemotherapy protocols targeting stem cell and multimodality management of MBC are promising. Recognition of unusual presentation of MBC will help tailor therapy towards tumor with worse prognosis.

Zhang, Lei; Comertpay, Sabahattin; Shimizu, David; DeMay, Richard M.; Carbone, Michele; Honda, Stacey A.; Eaves, Jodi M. Matsuura

2014-01-01

272

Endometrial carcinomas: a review emphasizing overlapping and distinctive morphological and immunohistochemical features.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the most common diagnostic pitfalls and helpful morphologic and immunohistochemical markers in the differential diagnosis between the different subtypes of endometrial carcinomas, including: (1) endometrioid versus serous glandular carcinoma, (2) papillary endometrioid (not otherwise specified, villoglandular and nonvillous variants) versus serous carcinoma, (3) endometrioid carcinoma with spindle cells, hyalinization, and heterologous components versus malignant mixed müllerian tumor, (4) high-grade endometrioid versus serous carcinoma, (5) high-grade endometrioid carcinoma versus dedifferentiated or undifferentiated carcinoma, (6) endometrioid carcinoma with clear cells versus clear cell carcinoma, (7) clear cell versus serous carcinoma, (8) undifferentiated versus neuroendocrine carcinoma, (9) carcinoma of mixed cell types versus carcinoma with ambiguous features or variant morphology, (10) Lynch syndrome-related endometrial carcinomas, (11) high-grade or undifferentiated carcinoma versus nonepithelial uterine tumors. As carcinomas in the endometrium are not always primary, this review also discusses the differential diagnosis between endometrial carcinomas and other gynecological malignancies such as endocervical (glandular) and ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma, as well as with extra-gynecologic metastases (mainly breast and colon). PMID:21993268

Bartosch, Carla; Manuel Lopes, José; Oliva, Esther

2011-11-01

273

Invasive carcinoma derived from intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of eight cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinomas (IPMCs) of the pancreas are resectable and curable, but some develop into frankly invasive carcinomas. We studied the clinicopathologic features of eight cases of invasive carcinoma derived from IPMC (IC-IPMC) of the pancreas. The patients were aged 54-75 years (mean, 66.6 years); six were male and two were female. The mean tumor size was 7.7 cm

Noriyoshi Fukushima; Kiyoshi Mukai; Michiie Sakamoto; Takahiro Hasebe; Kazuaki Shimada; Tomoo Kosuge; Taira Kinoshita; Setsuo Hirohashi

2001-01-01

274

Gastric and Hepatocellular Carcinomas Do Not Overexpress the Same Ribosomal Protein Messenger RNAs as Colonie Carcinoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of a number of ribosomal protein mRNAs are reported to be increased in human colon cancer. We have assessed whether selected ribosomal protein mRNAs are overexpressed in other gastrointestinal malignancies, namely gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas. Subtracted complementary DNA libraries were generated from paired samples of human (a) coloréela! carcinoma minus adjacent normal colonie mucosa and (hi hepatocellular carcinoma

Graham F. Barnard; Raymond J. Staniunas; Masaki Mori; Mark Puder; Milburn J. Jessup; Glenn D. Steele; Lan Bo Chen

275

Individual karyotypes at the origins of cervical carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background In 1952 Papanicolaou et al. first diagnosed and graded cervical carcinomas based on individual “abnormal DNA contents” and cellular phenotypes. Surprisingly current papilloma virus and mutation theories of carcinomas do not mention these individualities. The viral theory holds that randomly integrated, defective genomes of papilloma viruses, which are often untranscribed, cause cervical carcinomas with unknown cofactors 20–50 years after infection. Virus-free carcinomas are attributed to mutations of a few tumor-suppressor genes, especially the p53 gene. But the paradox of how a few mutations or latent defective viral DNAs would generate carcinomas with endless individual DNA contents, degrees of malignancies and cellular phenotypes is unsolved. Since speciation predicts individuality, we test here the theory that cancers are autonomous species with individual clonal karyotypes and phenotypes. This theory postulates that carcinogens induce aneuploidy. By unbalancing mitosis genes aneuploidy catalyzes chain reactions of karyotypic evolutions. Most such evolutions end with non-viable karyotypes but a few become new cancer karyotypes. Despite congenitally unbalanced mitosis genes cancer karyotypes are stabilized by clonal selections for cancer-specific autonomy. Results To test the prediction of the speciation theory that individual carcinomas have individual clonal karyotypes and phenotypes, we have analyzed here the phenotypes and karyotypes of nine cervical carcinomas. Seven of these contained papilloma virus sequences and two did not. We determined phenotypic individuality and clonality based on the morphology and sociology of carcinoma cells in vitro. Karyotypic individuality and clonality were determined by comparing all chromosomes of 20 karyotypes of carcinomas in three-dimensional arrays. Such arrays list chromosome numbers on the x-axis, chromosome copy numbers on the y-axis and the number of karyotypes arrayed on the z-axis. We found (1) individual clonal karyotypes and phenotypes in all nine carcinomas, but no virus-specific markers, (2) 1-to-1 variations between carcinoma-specific karyotypes and phenotypes, e.g. drug-resistance and cell morphology, (3) proportionality between the copy numbers of chromosomes and the copy numbers of hundreds of over- and under-expressed mRNAs, (4) evidence that tobacco-carcinogens induce cervical carcinomas via aneuploidy, consistent with the speciation theory. Conclusions Since the individual clonal karyotypes of nine carcinomas correlated and co-varied 1-to-1 with complex individual transcriptomes and phenotypes, we have classical genetic and functional transcriptomic evidence to conclude that these karyotypes encode carcinomas - much like the clonal karyotypes that encode conventional species. These individual karyotypes explain the individual “DNA contents”, the endless grades of malignancies and the complex individual transcriptomes and phenotypes of carcinomas. PMID:24134916

2013-01-01

276

Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

2014-09-12

277

Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

2014-05-12

278

Advances in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma: correlation with high grade serous carcinoma and ovarian carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Early serous carcinoma in fallopian tube or serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), an early lesion limited to the epithelium of the fallopian tube and firstly identified from specimen obtained by prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, has provided insight into pelvic high grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). Increasing evidence indicates that STIC is a likely precursor for HGSC and several studies have focused on this lesion and its clinical significance. This review addresses recent advances in recognizing STIC and its correlation with HGSC and ovarian carcinogenesis. It also describes evidence regarding the fallopian tube as a source of some HGSCs, the protocol for optimizing histological evaluation of the tubes, the spectrum of tubal lesions from benign to noninvasive carcinoma, changes in diagnostic criteria from purely morphologic characteristics to a combination of morphologic features and molecular biomarkers, and new studies about potential biomarkers. However, the direct evidence regarding STIC as the precursor of HGSC is still tantalizing due to other possibilities that may also explain the origin of pelvic HGSC. Further molecular genetic studies are required to address this important question. PMID:24696706

Li, Hong-Xia; Lu, Zhao-Hui; Shen, Keng; Cheng, Wen-Jun; Malpica, Anais; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Jinsong

2014-01-01

279

Papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma. A 58-year-old man underwent a physical examination that revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation on B ultrasound. Intrahepatic bile duct dilatation could be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the head of the pancreas and distal bile duct showed no tumor signals, which led to a diagnosis of periampullary carcinoma and right renal carcinoma. Considering the trauma of pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with renal resection operation is greater, we carried out the laparoscopic right renal radical resection first, and then a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. However, postoperative intra-abdominal infections and bleeding occurred; our patient improved after vascular interventional microcoil embolization for the treatment of hemostasis. The second operation for celiac necrotic tissue elimination, jejunal fistulization and peritoneal lavage and drainage was performed 14 days latter. Our patient improved gradually and was discharged on the 58th postoperative day. There has been no tumor recurrence after a follow-up of 26 months. PMID:23375073

2013-01-01

280

Papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma. A 58-year-old man underwent a physical examination that revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation on B ultrasound. Intrahepatic bile duct dilatation could be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the head of the pancreas and distal bile duct showed no tumor signals, which led to a diagnosis of periampullary carcinoma and right renal carcinoma. Considering the trauma of pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with renal resection operation is greater, we carried out the laparoscopic right renal radical resection first, and then a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. However, postoperative intra-abdominal infections and bleeding occurred; our patient improved after vascular interventional microcoil embolization for the treatment of hemostasis. The second operation for celiac necrotic tissue elimination, jejunal fistulization and peritoneal lavage and drainage was performed 14 days latter. Our patient improved gradually and was discharged on the 58th postoperative day. There has been no tumor recurrence after a follow-up of 26 months. PMID:23375073

Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Zhen-hong; Cai, Shou-wang; Dong, Jia-hong

2013-01-01

281

Primary hepatocellular carcinoma ("hepatoid" carcinoma) of the pancreas: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message We present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma located within the pancreas. These tumors occur in the body and tail of the pancreas, with a male predominance, and at a younger age. Tumors with pure hepatocellular histopathology have better survival and recurrence rates and should be offered surgical therapy if possible. PMID:25356215

Steen, Shawn; Wolin, Edward; Geller, Stephen A; Colquhoun, Steven

2013-01-01

282

BCL-2 and P53 expression in endometrial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Our aim was to compare the results of bcl-2 expression in endometrial carcinoma with clinicopathological prognostic factors along with p53 accumulation. In addition, p53 expression was compared to different subtypes of endometrial carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections by using Bcl-2 Supersensitive Mouse Anti-Bcl-2 Oncoprotein (Biogenex AM287-5M) for bcl-2 immunostaining and Supersensitive Mouse Anti-p53 Suppressor Gene Product (1801) (Biogenex AM 240-5M) for p53 immunostaining. 9 out of 9 cases of proliferative endometrium, 5/5 cases of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia, 5/5 cases with atypia, and 21/35 cases of endometrial carcinoma showed bcl-2 protein expression. Bcl-2 expression was not related to age, surgical stage, or histopathological features, nor was there an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and p53 expression in endometrial carcinoma. p53 expression was detected in 3/4 cases of serous papillary carcinoma, whereas only 5/31 cases of endometrioid carcinoma showed p53 expression. Bcl-2 expression decreased in endometrial carcinomas, and mechanisms other than p53 may play a role in the regulation of bcl-2 expression in endometrial carcinoma. Abnormal p53 protein expression is an important event in the development of serous tumors, which may explain partly why they are more aggressive than their endometrioid counterparts where p53 expression does not play a major role. PMID:15149157

Erkanli, S; Eren, F; Pekin, S; Bagis, T

2004-03-01

283

Galectin-1 and Its Involvement in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Aggressiveness  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite several efforts to elucidate hepatocellular carcinoma molecular pathogenesis, it is still not fully understood. To acquire further insights into the molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma, we performed a systematic functional genomic approach on human HuH-7 and JHH-6 cells. The subsequent analysis of the differentially expressed genes in human specimens revealed a molecular signature of 11 genes from which we selected the LGALS1 gene, which was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma. The expression analysis in humans of Galectin-1 (Gal-1), the protein encoded by LGALS1, showed a Gal-1 preferential accumulation in the stromal tissue around hepatocellular carcinoma tumors. Moreover, a significant association between increased expression of Gal-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma and the presence of metastasis was observed. Interestingly, Gal-1 overexpression resulted in an increase of cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, this study provides a portfolio of targets useful for future investigations into molecular marker–discovery studies on a large number of patients and functional assays. In addition, our data provide evidence that Gal-1 plays a role in hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion, and we suggest that further studies should be conducted to fully establish the role of Gal-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis and evaluate Gal-1 as a potential molecular therapeutic target. PMID:20200618

Spano, Daniela; Russo, Roberta; Di Maso, Vittorio; Rosso, Natalia; Terracciano, Luigi M; Roncalli, Massimo; Tornillo, Luigi; Capasso, Mario; Tiribelli, Claudio; Iolascon, Achille

2010-01-01

284

Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and microinvasive carcinoma of the vulva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological, cytological, and clinical features of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) are described. The rate of progression of VIN III to an invasive carcinoma is very low and spontaneous regression can occur. These features prevent the drawing of a direct analogy between vulvar and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The concept of microinvasive carcinoma of the vulva is discussed, and it is

C H Buckley; E B Butler; H Fox

1984-01-01

285

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: Pathologic analysis of 73 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologic factors of predictive value for carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), an aggressive salivary gland malignancy, are poorly defined. Because residual mixed tumor may be relatively inconspicuous and various carcinoma subtypes are encountered, misdiagnosis is common. To describe the pathologic features and identify potential prognostic factors, we retrospectively examined 73 cases of CXPA of the major salivary glands treated at

Jean E Lewis; Kerry D Olsen; Thomas J Sebo

2001-01-01

286

Microvessel density in renal cell carcinoma: Lack of prognostic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMicrovessel density (MVD) is a significant prognostic factor in many cancers, but its importance has not been evaluated in renal cell carcinoma. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the relationship of MVD in renal cell carcinoma to clinical stage, pathologic stage, histologic type, and tumor grade, and (2) to evaluate the role of MVD as a predictor

Gregory T. MacLennan; David G. Bostwick

1995-01-01

287

Interobserver reproducibility of Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma: Urologic pathologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gleason grading is now the most widely used grading system for prostatic carcinoma in the United States. However, there are only a few studies of the interobserver reproducibility of this system, and no extensive study of interobserver reproducibility among a large number of experienced urologic pathologists exists. Forty-six needle biopsies containing prostatic carcinoma were assigned Gleason scores by 10 urologic

William C Allsbrook; Kathy A Mangold; Maribeth H Johnson; Mahul B Amin; David G Bostwick; Peter A Humphrey; Edward C Jones; Victor E Reuter; Wael Sakr; Isabell A Sesterhenn; Patricia Troncoso; Thomas M Wheeler; Jonathan I Epstein

2001-01-01

288

Asymptomatic Pelvic Metastasis from Thymic Carcinoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Thymic epithelial tumors are rare and often occur somewhere local. Metastatic sites of thymic carcinomas (Masaoka-Koga stage IVb) are mostly seen in the lung, liver and brain. We report a 64-year-old female with an initial diagnosis of thymoma B3 who first showed thoracic recurrences and then an asymptomatic isolated pelvic metastasis from her thymic carcinoma. PMID:25126071

Surmei-Pintilie, Ecaterina; Narducci, Fabrice; Farre, Isabelle; Kolesnikov-Gauthier, Helene; Boulanger, Thomas; Petit, Stephanie; Porte, Henri; Dansin, Eric

2014-01-01

289

Primary oral squamous cell carcinoma: A review of 92 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This is a retrospective review of 92 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma treated by one department of oral and maxillofacial surgery.Patients and Methods The medical records of 92 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed, and standard epidemiologic data were obtained. In addition, cases were identified as to site, stage, risk behavior, histologic classification, primary and secondary

A. J Oliver; John F Helfrick; Don Gard

1996-01-01

290

Multifocal follicular carcinoma of thyroid following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease  

PubMed Central

A 21-year-old white male developed multifocal follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland 17 years after receiving neck irradiation (3000 rad) for Hodgkin's disease. The tumour was unique in that follicular carcinoma has not previously been reported as having a multifocal origin, even after high dose radiotherapy. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7100046

Nicol, Fiona; McLaren, Kathryn M.; Toft, Anthony D.

1982-01-01

291

[Sebaceous breast carcinoma: report of a rare histological special subtype].  

PubMed

We report on a case of sebaceous carcinoma of the breast as a rare histological special subtype of breast cancer. Because these tumors are uncommon, differential diagnostic considerations and the exclusion of Muir-Torre syndrome are emphasized. Finally possible mechanisms of development and therapeutic strategies for this carcinoma are discussed. PMID:24414613

Wachter, D L; Rauh, C; Wenkel, E; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Hartmann, A

2014-02-01

292

Carcinoma of the rectum in a pre-teen girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoperable carcinoma of the rectum was diagnosed in a 12-year-old girl during work-up for “dysentery and fever”. Clinical details, investigations, and the course of the disease are described. The literature on rectal carcinoma in childhood is reviewed.

N. V. Doraiswamy I; M. Jameel Ahmed

1987-01-01

293

Antiangiogenic and Antitumor Effects of Src Inhibition in Ovarian Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Src, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is a key mediator for multiple signaling pathways that regulate critical cellular functions and is often aberrantly activated in a number of solid tumors, including ovarian carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of activated Src inhibition on tumor growth in an orthotopic murine model of ovarian carcinoma. In vitro studies

Liz Y. Han; Charles N. Landen; Jose G. Trevino; Jyotsnabaran Halder; Yvonne G. Lin; Aparna A. Kamat; Tae-Jin Kim; William M. Merritt; Robert L. Coleman; David M. Gershenson; William C. Shakespeare; Yihan Wang; Raji Sundaramoorth; Chester A. Metcalf; David C. Dalgarno; Tomi K. Sawyer; Gary E. Gallick; Anil K. Sood

294

Clinicopathological and molecular analysis of endometrial carcinoma associated with tamoxifen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of tamoxifen for treatment and prevention of breast cancer is becoming increasingly common. Tamoxifen has been associated with increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, although the exact mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of our study was to seek a possible correlation between endometrial carcinoma, tamoxifen exposure and MSI, PTEN, ?-catenin and K-ras abnormalities. A group of 18 patients

Julia Turbiner; Gema Moreno-Bueno; Sonika Dahiya; Carolina Sánchez-Estevez; David Hardisson; Jaime Prat; Esther Oliva; José Palacios

2008-01-01

295

Male breast carcinoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization study.  

PubMed

Male breast carcinoma is a relatively rare disease. This study retrospectively investigated the clinicopathological features of 73 cases of male breast carcinoma in Chinese population, and classified the molecular subtype based on surrogate immunohistochemical definitions. The expression of GCDFP15, MGB, AR and FOXP1 were evaluated. Invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in the study group (71.2%, 52/73). The luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma (60.9%, 34.8% respectively). AR and FOXP1 are expressed in 84.2% (48/57) and 71.9% (41/57) of the studied cases. Carcinoma of the luminal A subtype expressed GCDFP15 (73.5%, 25/34) and MGB (58.8%, 20/34) more frequently than cases of the luminal B subtypes (34.8%, 8/23 and 43.5%, 10/23, respectively; P = 0.004, P = 0.255, respectively). In conclusion, invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in male breast carcinoma among Chinese population. Our study revealed that the luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma. AR and FOXP1 are highly expressed in male breast cancer. The luminal A subtype tends to express GCDFP15 and MGB more frequently than the luminal B subtype. PMID:25400768

Zhou, Ruoji; Yu, Lin; Zhou, Shuling; Bi, Rui; Shui, Ruohong; Yu, Baohua; Lu, Hongfen; Cai, Xu; Yang, Wentao

2014-01-01

296

Male breast carcinoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization study  

PubMed Central

Male breast carcinoma is a relatively rare disease. This study retrospectively investigated the clinicopathological features of 73 cases of male breast carcinoma in Chinese population, and classified the molecular subtype based on surrogate immunohistochemical definitions. The expression of GCDFP15, MGB, AR and FOXP1 were evaluated. Invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in the study group (71.2%, 52/73). The luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma (60.9%, 34.8% respectively). AR and FOXP1 are expressed in 84.2% (48/57) and 71.9% (41/57) of the studied cases. Carcinoma of the luminal A subtype expressed GCDFP15 (73.5%, 25/34) and MGB (58.8%, 20/34) more frequently than cases of the luminal B subtypes (34.8%, 8/23 and 43.5%, 10/23, respectively; P = 0.004, P = 0.255, respectively). In conclusion, invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in male breast carcinoma among Chinese population. Our study revealed that the luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma. AR and FOXP1 are highly expressed in male breast cancer. The luminal A subtype tends to express GCDFP15 and MGB more frequently than the luminal B subtype. PMID:25400768

Zhou, Ruoji; Yu, Lin; Zhou, Shuling; Bi, Rui; Shui, Ruohong; Yu, Baohua; Lu, Hongfen; Cai, Xu; Yang, Wentao

2014-01-01

297

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast: evolving perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is an early, localized stage of carcinoma in the process of multistep breast carcinogenesis. The incidence of DCIS is increasing, mainly due to screening mammography, which results in diagnosing the disease in an increasing proportion of asymptomatic patients. Consequently, clinicians are being confronted with growing numbers of women who present with DCIS

G. H. Sakorafas; A. G. H. Tsiotou

2000-01-01

298

Thymostimulin in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A phase II trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Thymostimulin is a thymic peptide fraction with immune-mediated cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro. In a phase II trial, we investigated safety and efficacy including selection criteria for best response in advanced or metastasised hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: 44 patients (84 % male, median age 69 years) not suitable or refractory to conventional therapy received thymostimulin 75 mg subcutaneously five

Matthias M Dollinger; Christa M Behrens; Joachim Lesske; Susanne Behl; Curd Behrmann; Wolfgang E Fleig

2008-01-01

299

Mammary carcinoma developing after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Two patients developed breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Both had received mediastinal irradiation 13 to 15 years, respectively, before the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. One patient had synchronous bilateral breast cancer when the diagnosis was made. Discussed is the risk of mammary carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease.

Janjan, N.A.; Wilson, J.F.; Gillin, M.; Anderson, T.; Greenberg, M.; Schewe, K.; Cox, J.D.

1988-01-15

300

Application of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Cutaneous Basosquamous Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Basosquamous carcinoma of the skin is a relatively rare cutaneous neoplasm that has significant metastatic potential and a metastatic rate greater than that of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. We describe the use of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in a 63-year-old man after identification of basosquamous carcinoma. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, which is a standard tool to detect regional lymphatic metastasis in cutaneous melanoma, has been rarely employed to detect lymphatic metastasis of basosquamous carcinoma. The approach was successful in detecting a regional lymphatic metastasis of two nodal basins with minor morbidity. Sentinel lymph node biopsy may be useful for certain high-risk lesions of basosquamous carcinoma. PMID:22028558

Kovacevic, Predrag; Visnjic, Milan; Jankovic, Dimitrije; Binic, Ivana; Jankovic, Aleksandar; Ilic, Ivan

2011-01-01

301

Appraisal and cytomorphologic analysis of common carcinomas of the breast.  

PubMed

This work is based on 15 years experience with more than 9000 needle aspiration biopsies from the breast performed by a number of clinicians without syringe guns. From 1981 through 1983, 329 carcinomas were detected with a sensitivity of 90%. A positive or suspicious report was issued in 17 of the 32 minimal carcinomas. There were no false-positive diagnoses. A retrospective comparative study was made on the aspiration biopsy cytology specimens from 65 histologically verified carcinomas: 30 infiltrating ductal, 16 infiltrating lobular, 10 medullary, and 10 colloid carcinomas. Parameters included the pattern, major malignant criteria, and cell measurements by calibrated ocular micrometry. The classic features of each carcinoma and the differential cytomorphology are described. PMID:3013532

Kline, T S; Kannan, V; Kline, I K

1985-01-01

302

[Rhinophyma and skin carcinoma: a case report and literature review].  

PubMed

Rhinophyma, final stage of rosacea is considered as benign pathology. We present the case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma diagnosed on rhinophyma. The removal of all cutaneous nasal unit and its analysis has diagnosed the presence of three basal cell carcinomas and two in situ squamous cell carcinomas. Reconstruction was performed by full-thickness skin graft. The literature reports a few cases of association between rhinophyma and skin cancers but none ever reported the simultaneous presence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas. The low number of articles does not reveal statistically significant relationship between rhinophyma and skin cancer, which would consider the rhinophyma as a risk factor. Monitoring of these patients should be as rigorous as possible and surgical care requires histologic analysis not to omit the presence of cancerous lesions. PMID:22209650

Qassemyar, A; Corbisier, N; Poiret, G; Mortier, L; Martinot-Duquennoy, V; Guerreschi, P

2012-04-01

303

Synchronous bilateral neuroendocrine ductal carcinoma in situ.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (NE-DCIS) is a breast malignancy that has characteristic clinicopathological features and can, therefore, be regarded as a distinct variant of DCIS. The patient was a 54-year-old premenopausal woman with hemorrhagic nipple discharge in her left breast. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (US) images of the left breast showed mass-like lesions, while concurrent images of the right breast showed non-mass-like lesions. These findings suggested the presence of both benign and malignant tumors. Pathological findings from US-guided core-needle biopsy of the left mass were highly suspicious of a malignant tumor. Excisional biopsy of both breasts was performed. We could define the diagnosis of breast cancer by the second opinion on pathological diagnosis. The tumor cells showed histological characteristics of NE-DCIS. Bilateral breast lesions had histopathological similarities and were composed of predominantly solid growth of carcinoma cells, frequently with well-developed vascular structures, in mammary ducts and ductules. Carcinoma cells were polygonal or occasionally spindle shaped and had fine-granular, relatively eosinophilic cytoplasm. The nuclei of these cells showed round to ovoid in shape and fine-granular chromatin pattern. There was not any invasive component, as confirmed by careful histological examination. Thus, additional immunohistochemical stainings for NE markers (chromogranin A and synaptophysin) were performed. Staining statuses of these markers were positive in almost all tumor cells from both breasts. Both tumors were therefore diagnosed as NE-DCIS. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of NE-DCIS diagnosed synchronously in both breasts. PMID:21735237

Honami, Hisae; Sotome, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Goi; Iri, Hisami; Tanaka, Yoichi; Fukamachi, Shigeru; Morozumi, Kyoei

2014-07-01

304

Characteristics of brain metastases from esophageal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a major malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although esophageal cancers rarely metastasize to the brain, the number of patients diagnosed with brain metastases (BM) from EC is steadily increasing. Therefore, the risk factors for BM from EC should be known. Here we reviewed our experiences and the previous literature regarding BM from EC. Methods: Between 2000 and 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and neurological findings of 19 patients diagnosed with and treated for BM from EC to determine the clinical risk factors and features. Results: In all patients, the lesions were partially or completed located in the thoracic esophagus, and the average size of the EC lesion at diagnosis was 5.8 ± 2.9 cm, which was smaller than the previously reported size of EC lesions accompanied by BM. Patients without lung metastases were more common than those with lung metastases. The lesions in the 13 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in 9 (69.2%) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) in 3 (23.0%). Six patients were not examined. Although there was no trend toward a higher incidence of BM in patients with adenocarcinoma and SqCC, this trend was observed in patients with SmCC. Excluding a single patient with SmCC, all patients had beyond stage III disease at EC diagnosis. Conclusions: Our study suggests that BM can occur in patients with EC lesions smaller than those previously reported; moreover, SmCC may be a risk factor for BM from EC.

Yamamoto, Takahiro; Kuroda, Jun-ichiro; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Shinojima, Naoki; Hide, Takuichiro; Makino, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideo; Yano, Shigetoshi; Nishi, Toru; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

2014-01-01

305

CAHECA: computer aided hepatocellular carcinoma therapy planning.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular Carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer having a strong relation with cirrhosis. Undoubtedly, cirrhosis may be caused by the virus infection of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HBC) or through alchoholism. However, even when cirrhosis has not been developed, patients with hepatitis viral infections are still at the risk of liver cancer. Apparently, among the numerous medical imaging techniques, Computed Tomography (CT) is the best in defining liver tumor borders. Unfortunately, these imaging techniques, including the CT procedures, usually rely on an appended application to reconstruct the generated 2-D slices to 3-D model. This may involve high performance computation, may be time-consuming or costly. Moreover, even with the outstanding performances of CT in defining the liver tumor boundaries, contrast between tumor tissues and the surrounding liver parenchyma is too low in CT slices. With such a close proxity in the tumor and the surrounding liver tissues, accurate characterization of liver tumor is a challenge. Previously, algorithms were developed to reveal abnormalities in brain's MRI datasets and CT abdominal pelvic, however, introducing a framework that could accurately characterize liver tumor and its surrounding tissues in CT datasets would go a long way in contributing to medical diagnosis and therapy planning of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. This paper proposes an Hepatocellular Carcinoma framework by extending the functionalities of SurLens Visualization System with an automatic liver tumor localization technique using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The study was evaluated with liver CT datasets from the Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center, the Georgetown University Medical Center. Significantly, visualization of liver CT datasets and the localization of the entangled tumor was achieved without prior datasets segmentation. Interestingly, the framework achieved remarkably good processing speed at a reasonably cheaper cost with an immediate reconstruction of the datasets and mapping of the tumor tissues within the surrounding liver parenchyma. PMID:25205500

Adeshina, A M; Hashim, R; Khalid, N E A

2014-09-01

306

Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions. PMID:25148280

Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

2014-08-01

307

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence is increasing worldwide in recent years. Most HCC cases develop in the presence of advanced chronic liver disease related to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection, and alcohol abuse. Approximately 15–50% of HCC cases are classified as idiopathic, suggesting that other risk factors are responsible for its rising incidence. Recent studies suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be associated with these “idiopathic” cases. NAFLD progresses slowly and can develop into liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and HCC. In the last few years, NAFLD has received more attention because of its high prevalence worldwide. PMID:24738043

Kikuchi, Luciana; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Carrilho, Flair J.

2014-01-01

308

Vasculogenic mimicry formation in hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To explore possibility of vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by constructing tumor cell three-dimensional\\u000a culture system and liver cancer tissues.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Based on three-dimensional cell culture system developed by matrigel, liver cancer cell lines HepG2 were tested for evidence\\u000a of VM. Fifteen HCC simples were collected. Potential formation of tumor channels and their characterization of network were\\u000a observed by

Jing Zhao; Chenyu Wang; Aijun Yang; Wei Liu; Min Li

2008-01-01

309

Nonsurgical treatment for localized hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The most common non-surgical approaches for the treatment of localized hepatocellular carcinoma remain hepatic artery-delivered particles laden with chemotherapy (TACE), or radioactive microparticles (TARE). External beam radiotherapy has been an effective option in many parts of the world for selected HCC patients, but now has an expanded role with stereotactic and proton beam technologies. This review focuses on existing evidence and current guidance for utilizing these modalities for localized, but unresectable, non-transplantable HCC patients.x. PMID:24488546

Kennedy, Andrew S; Sangro, Bruno

2014-03-01

310

Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed. PMID:21274437

Lien, Mary H.; Sondak, Vernon K.

2011-01-01

311

Advanced treatment for basal cell carcinomas.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

Atwood, Scott X; Whitson, Ramon J; Oro, Anthony E

2014-07-01

312

Papillary carcinoma thyroid with uveal metastases.  

PubMed

Ocular metastases secondary to thyroid cancer are extremely uncommon, typically affecting the orbit rather than the globe and uvea. Within the uveal structures, the choroid is more commonly involved than the iris and ciliary body. We present a 56-year-old male patient who underwent total thyroidectomy for metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), solid variant. Whole-body(131) I (WBI) scintigraphy was performed and the patient was treated twice with high-dose (131)I therapy. WBI after the second treatment demonstrated right orbital activity. The patient developed sudden onset of right eye diminished vision and was diagnosed with uveal (choroidal) metastases from PTC. PMID:23334130

Padma, S; Tiwari, Anshu; Borde, Chaitanya R; G S, Shagos; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

2013-02-01

313

Subungual Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Subungual tumors are rare in general. Of all tumors, subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) is the most frequent one. Protean clinical presentations and the lack of awareness of the disease are responsible for an incorrect or delayed diagnosis and subsequent delayed treatment. We have reported here four patients with SSCC who were previously wrongly diagnosed with a benign process and treated unsuccessfully for years. We would like to highlight the need of a biopsy in chronic or recurrent nail lesions that fail to respond to a previous conservative treatment in order to rule out SSCC. PMID:25071252

Batalla, Ana; Feal, Carlos; Roson, Elena; Posada, Celia

2014-01-01

314

Massive zosteriform cutaneous metastasis from rectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old man presented with a large and rapidly growing skin lesion approximately six months after resection of a rectal carcinoma. The lesion measured 40 cm in size, extended from the suprapubic area to the proximal half of the left groin, and showed a particular zosteriform aspect. Biopsy confirmed a metastatic skin adenocarcinoma. Cutaneous metastases from rectal cancer are very uncommon. Their gross appearance is not distinctive, although the skin tumors are usually solid, small (less than 5 cm) and painless nodules or papules. Early biopsies for suspicious skin lesions are needed in patients with a history of colorectal cancer. PMID:14605930

Damin, D C; Lazzaron, A R; Tarta, C; Cartel, A; Rosito, M A

2003-07-01

315

[Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule].  

PubMed

The case of a 31-year-old man (smoker) with a progressively enlarging swelling and reddening in the region of the nasal vestibule is discussed. Before he was seen by us, he had been repeatedly treated with antibiotics, but to no avail. A deep excisional biopsy was obtained, and the histopathological work-up revealed a squamous cell carcinoma. Thereupon, complete surgical ablation in healthy tissue was carried out. This case shows that in chronic inflammation of the nasal vestibule that fails to respond to antibiotic treatment differential diagnostic consideration must be given to the possibility of a malignancy. PMID:16886488

Klemens, C; Dellian, M; Berghaus, A

2006-07-01

316

CARCINOSARCOMA AND SARCOMATOID CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER: CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 41 CASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeCarcinosarcoma of the bladder is a rare neoplasm characterized by an intimate admixture of carcinoma and malignant soft tissue neoplasm. The clinical usefulness of separating carcinosarcoma (carcinoma with sarcomatous component) from sarcomatoid carcinoma (carcinoma with spindle cell carcinomatous component) is uncertain, and it comprises the subject of this report.

A. LOPEZ-BELTRAN; A. PACELLI; H. J. ROTHENBERG; P. C. WOLLAN; H. ZINCKE; M. L. BLUTE; D. G. BOSTWICK

1998-01-01

317

Radical operations for carcinoma of the gallbladder: Present status in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the overall poor prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma, it appears that, in resectable lesions, an aggressive surgical approach promises improvement in survival rates. Radical treatment of gallbladder carcinoma is based on a detailed knowledge of the lymphatic, venous, direct, and intraductal modes of spread of gallbladder carcinoma. Customized therapy of gallbladder carcinoma takes staging into consideration: if one is dealing

Franz Paul Gall; Ferdinand Köckerling; Johannes Scheele; Claus Schneider; Werner Hohenberger

1991-01-01

318

Imaging Differences in Metaplastic and Invasive Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare the imaging features of metaplas- tic breast carcinoma with those of invasive ductal carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Women diagnosed on preoperative mammography or sonography with metaplastic breast carcinoma and T-stage matched invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast from a single pathology database were included in the study. Clinical and patho- logic

Wei Tse Yang; Bryan Hennessy; Kristine Broglio; Chadwick Mills; Nour Sneige; W. Grant Davis; Vicente Valero; Kelly K. Hunt; Michael Z. Gilcrease

319

Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in adenoma: similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features in adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of the tumor.  

PubMed

Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver can show morphological features similar to hepatocellular adenoma. In rare instances, hepatocellular carcinoma can arise in the setting of hepatocellular adenoma. This study compares the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features of the hepatocellular adenoma-like and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of these tumors. Immunohistochemistry for ?-catenin, glutamine synthetase, serum amyloid A protein, glypican-3, and heat-shock protein 70 was done in 11 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma in non-cirrhotic liver. Tumors with nuclear ?-catenin and/or diffuse glutamine synthetase were considered ?-catenin activated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was done in nine cases for gains of chromosomes 1, 8 and MYC. There were seven men (33-75 years) and four women (29-65 years). Focal atypical morphological features were seen in hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in 7 (64%) cases. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas showed features of inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma in 7 (64%) cases; 4 of these were also serum amyloid A-positive in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion. ?-Catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 positivity, and chromosomal gains on FISH were seen in the hepatocellular adenoma portion in 55%, 40%, and 56% of cases, and 73%, 60%, and 78% of cases in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion, respectively. In conclusion, the hepatocellular adenoma-like portion of most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma shows features typically seen in hepatocellular carcinoma such as focal morphological abnormalities, ?-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 expression, and chromosomal gains. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in these tumors, especially in men and older women, may represent an extremely well-differentiated variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas the morphologically recognizable hepatocellular carcinoma portion represents a relatively higher grade component of the tumor. PMID:24743216

Kakar, Sanjay; Grenert, James P; Paradis, Valerie; Pote, Nicolas; Jakate, Shriram; Ferrell, Linda D

2014-11-01

320

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, with the majority of patients dying within 5?years of diagnosis. This poor survival of patients diagnosed with this malignancy is attributed to diagnosis at advanced stage, when the tumor has metastasized, and to chemotherapy resistance, either primary or developing along tumor progression. However, ovarian carcinomas, constituting the vast majority of ovarian cancers, additionally have unique biology, one aspect of which is the ability to co-express epithelial and mesenchymal determinants. epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a physiological process by which mesenchymal cells are formed and migrate to target organs during embryogenesis, is involved in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, these changes do not fully occur in ovarian carcinoma, and are even reversed in tumor cells present in malignant peritoneal and pleural effusions. This review summarizes current knowledge in this area, including the characteristics of EMT related to adhesion, transcriptional regulation and chemoresistance, and their clinical relevance, as well as the recently observed regulation of EMT by microRNA. PMID:22655269

Davidson, Ben; Trope, Claes G.; Reich, Reuven

2012-01-01

321

Breast carcinomas: variations in sonoelastographic appearance  

PubMed Central

Background This study assessed factors influencing the sonoelastographic presentation of breast carcinoma. Methods A prospective collaborative study was conducted by the Santa Casa de São Paulo and CTC-Center, on 540 breast lesions in women referred for percutaneous breast biopsy. Eighty-four carcinomas showing lesions on ultrasonography were included. These lesions were classified into four sonoelastographic scores, where scores of 1, 2, and 3 were considered false-negative, and a score of 4 was considered true-positive. Scores were compared against histopathologic results, which were divided into two groups, ie, soft lesions (group 1) and hard lesions (group 2). False-negative and true-positive results were also assessed for variation according to patient age and mean lesion diameter. Results Of the 84 lesions studied, nine yielded false-negative results on sonoelastography and 75 yielded true-positive results. In terms of histopathologic classification, eight were assigned to group 1 and 76 to group 2. The chi-squared test showed a correlation between sonoelastographic scores and histopathologic lesion type. No statistically significant differences were observed according to patient age or largest lesion diameter. Conclusion Our results revealed an association between sonoelastographic presentation of breast lesions and histology. False-negative results on sonoelastography were influenced by histologic type of lesion and not by lesion size or patient age.

Fleury, Eduardo de Faria Castro; Assuncao-Queiros, Maria do Carmo Guedes Alcoforado; Roveda, Decio

2014-01-01

322

Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ?5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (?7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness. PMID:24820071

Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S.; Tucci, S.; Muglia, V.F.; Reis, R.B. Dos; Silva, G.E.B.

2014-01-01

323

Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

2014-10-01

324

Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) is a rare primary malignant tumor in which both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements occur. It can occur in many different organs and anatomical locations, such as the skin, thyroid gland, bone, urinary tract, breast, pancreas, liver and other areas. Of them, pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a rare malignant cancer composed of sarcoma and sarcoma-like tumors with spindle or giant cell features. Here a case of a 75-year-old Chinese man with a six-month history of cough and hemoptysis is reported. Chest X-ray showed a tumor shadow in the left lung field. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed a lobulated mass in his left hilum and even the left pulmonary artery. Pleomorphic interstitial cells were found by bronchoscopic brushing. To establish a definitive diagnosis for PSC, a left pneumonectomy was performed. The pathological stage was IIB (pT2N1M0) based on the tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system. The tumor's pathology, histology, immunohistochemistry and treatment methods are discussed. PMID:23788993

Shen, Xiao-yong; Lin, Zhi-feng; Ruan, Zhen; Huang, Hai-long; Ju, Chao-qiang; Wang, Jin

2013-01-01

325

Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent was determined to be activated by both enzymes in vitro, with MMP-9 being more efficient in this regard. Both optical and photoacoustic imaging showed significantly higher signal in tumors of mice injected with the active agent than in tumors injected with the control, non-activatable, agent. Conclusions With the combination of high spatial resolution and signal specificity, targeted photoacoustic imaging holds great promise as a noninvasive method for early diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinomas. PMID:23349314

Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah; Yoon, Joon-Kee; Dragulescu-Andrasi, Anca; Nielsen, Carsten; Tisma, Aleksandra; Bodapati, Sunil; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Yan, Xinrui; Chan, Carmel; Starcevic, Daniela; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

2013-01-01

326

Primary Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma - A Rare Entity with Deviant Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare neoplasms. WHO classifies them under five categories of which, the moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma is synonymous with atypical or malignant carcinoid tumour. We report a rare case of primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma with an unusual and misleading clinical presentation. The initial cytological diagnosis of secondary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the cervical lymph node led to the suspicion of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the larynx. PMID:25386445

K, Anoosha; K, Amita; Shankar S, Vijay; Geeta K, Avadhani

2014-01-01

327

Genomic aberrations of BRCA1-mutated fallopian tube carcinomas.  

PubMed

Intraepithelial carcinomas of the fallopian tube are putative precursors to high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Molecular characterization of these early precursors is limited but could be the key to identifying tumor biomarkers for early detection. This study presents a genome-wide copy number analysis of occult fallopian tube carcinomas identified through risk-reducing prophylactic oophorectomy from three women with germline BRCA1 mutations, demonstrating that extensive genomic aberrations are already established at this early stage. We found no indication of a difference in the level of genomic aberration observed in fallopian tube carcinomas compared with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. These findings suggest that spread to the peritoneal cavity may require no or very little further tumor evolution, which raises the question of what is the real window of opportunity to detect high-grade serous peritoneal carcinoma arising from the fallopian tube before it spreads. Nonetheless, the similarity of the genomic aberrations to those observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas suggests that genetic biomarkers identified in late-stage disease may be relevant for early detection. PMID:24726640

Hunter, Sally M; Ryland, Georgina L; Moss, Phillip; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

2014-06-01

328

Nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinoma - a common entity at an uncommon location.  

PubMed

Mucoepidermoid carcinomas mostly occur in the major salivary glands, the minor salivary glands of oral cavity and in the lacrimal glands. These tumours rarely occur in the sino-nasal tract. When they occur in the sino-nasal tract, the most frequent site is the maxillary antrum, followed by the nasal cavity, the nasopharynx and the ethmoidal sinuses. As per review of literature, nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for 0.6% of salivary gland tumours and 4.8% of mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Extensive literature search revealed 21 cases of nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinomas reported till date. These cases showed an age incidence ranging from 20 to 60 years with a female preponderance. In contrast to nasopharyngeal carcinomas, these tumours show low positivity rates for Ebstein-Barr virus serological test. Histochemical positivity for mucin may be demonstrated in the glandular and mucinous components of these tumours. High grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of nasopharynx is treated with surgical excision combined with radiotherapy and is associated with poor survival. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are of utmost importance. This case report highlights the rare occurrence of a high grade nasopharyngeal muco-epidermoid carcinoma in a 70-year-old male and is presented for its unusual occurrence in the nasopharynx which is the most infrequent location for this lesion. PMID:24596757

Hemalatha, A L; Kumar H K, Sharath; S, Geetanjali; M, Giripunja; S D, Shashikumar

2014-01-01

329

Spindle cell carcinoma of the tongue: a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC), a rare, aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is characterised by proliferation of epithelial and mesenchymal components. It is important to diagnose this variant of SCC, because of its tendency to recur and early metastasis. It accounts for 1% of all tumours in the oral cavity. In this paper, we have reported a case of SpCC of the tongue in a 65-year-old male who presented with a polypoidal growth over the lateral border of his tongue with a short history of one month. Immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin was strongly positive in the epithelial component and focally in the spindle cell component. The spindle cell component showed a strong positivity for vimentin. PMID:25114719

Biradar, Manisha V; Dantkale, Sunita S; Abhange, Rahul S; Kamra, Hemlata T; Birla, Khushboo

2014-01-01

330

Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

2014-01-01

331

Histopathologic, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an uncommon but distinctive manifestation of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma occurs in adults and children and can cause diagnostic problems, especially in small biopsies. Few studies have characterized the histologic and immunophenotypic features of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. t(11;19)(q21;p13) is considered disease-defining for mucoepidermoid carcinoma; its significance in pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma warrants further study. Forty three pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinomas were re-reviewed and graded according to the Brandwein grading system for mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Four cases were excluded because of a split opinion between pathology report and re-review. These cases were negative for MAML2 rearrangement by FISH. TTF-1, napsin A, p40 and p63 immunostains were scored: 0 (negative), 1 (1-25% tumor cells), 2 (26-50%), 3 (51-75%) or 4 (>75%). FISH to detect MAML2 rearrangement used a MAML2-11q21 break-apart probe. Thirty nine pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (4 low, 30 intermediate, 5 high grade) contained mucous, epidermoid and intermediate cells and lacked keratinization and in situ carcinoma of the overlying epithelium. All cases with available gross description (n=22) had a central/endo- or peribronchial location. All 25 cases tested for immunohistochemistry were positive (scores 1-4) for p63; 23 also expressed p40. In six cases, the p63 score was higher than p40. TTF-1 and napsin were uniformly negative in all 25 cases. MAML2 rearrangement was identified by FISH in each of the 24 cases tested (3 low, 19 intermediate, 2 high grade). Clinical history was available in 29 patients (15 men) (median age, 48 years) with follow-up in 24 (median, 8.4 years). Five patients died of unrelated causes; one developed metastatic pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In conclusion, features helpful in distinguishing pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other lung cancers include its central/endo- or peribronchial location together with the presence of mucous cells, p63 expression, lack of keratinization and MAML2 rearrangement. TTF-1 and napsin are typically not expressed. PMID:24743219

Roden, Anja C; García, Joaquín J; Wehrs, Rebecca N; Colby, Thomas V; Khoor, Andras; Leslie, Kevin O; Chen, Longwen

2014-11-01

332

Epithelial-myoepithelial parotid carcinoma after kidney transplantation  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in patients who have been submitted to kidney transplantation is increasing and causes concern; parotid carcinoma is rarely reported after transplantation and may be related to long-term chemotherapy. Salivary gland carcinomas displaying exclusively myoepithelial differentiation—myoepithelial carcinomas (EMC) are rare, being less than 1% of all salivary gland tumours. EMC arises most commonly in the parotid gland and usually occurs in women. Their histopathologic features, immunohistochemical profile and clinical behaviour remain controversial. PMID:22275975

Horta, R; Barreto, F; Marques, M; Rebelo, M; Reis, JC; Lopes, JM; Amarante, JM

2008-01-01

333

Differentiation of complicated cholecystitis from gallbladder carcinoma by computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

Differentiation between complicated cholecystitis and advanced gallbladder carcinoma can be difficult when clinical findings are confusing. Computed tomographic (CT) scans were reviewed from 22 patients with a surgical diagnosis of complicated cholecystitis (11 cases) or advanced gallbladder carcinoma (11 cases). The presence of a curvilinear low-attenuation halo around the gallbladder wall was specific for complicated cholecystitis. Findings indicative of gallbladder carcinoma included a focal soft-invasion or metastases. Knowledge of these differential CT findings may result in a more accurate preoperative diagnosis.

Smathers, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Heiken, J.P.

1984-08-01

334

Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report  

PubMed Central

Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

2014-01-01

335

Mucinous carcinoma of breast: Cytodiagnosis of a case  

PubMed Central

Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a relatively rare, pure form accounting for 2% of all breast cancers. Pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast has a favorable prognosis. The common age is postmenopausal group. Here, we report a 30-year-old female patient diagnosed on cytology as mucinous carcinoma of the breast with lymph node metastasis and subsequently confirmed by histopathology. In 1 year follow-up, the patient did not show pulmonary or distant metastasis and received adjuvant chemotherapy at every 3 weeks interval. PMID:21552409

Sharma, Sangeeta; Bansal, Rani; Khare, Anjali; Agrawal, Nivesh

2011-01-01

336

Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).  

PubMed

A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

Hamano, Takahisa; Terasawa, Fumio; Tachikawa, Yoshiharu; Murai, Atsuko; Mori, Takashi; El-Dakhly, Khaled; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

2014-10-01

337

Primary rectal squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery and radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare malignancy, and the discrete dual lesions of rectum are even rarer. There is currently no effective and satisfactory treatment for this disease. Here we report a case of an elderly female with bi-primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum treated with radical resection and radiotherapy. The patient is still alive 43 mo after the initial curative resection of the tumor. We suggest that surgery as the primary treatment followed by concomitant radiotherapy may be an effective protocol for elderly patients with rectal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24744603

Wang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Xing; Xu, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Cui; Liu, Jian-Zhong

2014-01-01

338

Sebaceous carcinoma of the nose: multi-focal presentation?  

PubMed

Sebaceous carcinoma of the nose is rare. Here the authors present a case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a mass in the right nasal vestibule. This was removed and a nasolabial flap used to reconstruct the defect. Histology revealed a sebaceous carcinoma. At follow-up, three months later, a new lesion had appeared in the opposite nostril which when removed proved to be a second sebaceous carcinoma. This multi-focal presentation in the nose has not been described in the literature before. PMID:15165315

Murphy, J; Bleach, N R; Thyveetil, M

2004-05-01

339

Tuberculous Cervical Lymphadenitis Masquerding as Metastatis From Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Clinically apparent cervical lymphadenopathy has been found at the initial presentation in 23 to 56 % of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Here we report tuberculous lymphadenitis mimicking metastatic lymph nodes from papillary thyroid carcinoma and suggest that tuberculosis apart from metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma should also be considered in the etiology of enlarged lymph nodes in such patients, especially in those with risk factors for tuberculosis. Therefore, the importance of careful pre-operative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis cannot be overestimated, so that patients do not undergo unnecessary neck dissection for other benign conditions. PMID:23843822

Saif Andrabi, Syed Mushtaq; Bhat, Mohd Hayat; Farhana, Bagdadi; Saba, Sameena; Saif Andrabi, Riyaz; Ahmad Shah, Parvez

2012-01-01

340

Nonbilharzial squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation of the lower and upper urinary tract  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Urinary tract squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation are rare entities. To characterize tumour biology, prognosis, and therapy, we reviewed our data with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC/SCC). Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center analysis of 53 patients with SCC and TCC/SCC treated at our urology department from 30.05.1989 to 30.09.2004. Results: SCC was found in 2% (42/1573) of bladder carcinoma and 7% (11/130) of renal pelvis specimen. Stage pT3 was present in 55% of our patients, indicating a tendency to deep muscular invasion. Nodal and distant metastases appeared in 26%. The overall 5-year survival rate was 26% (tumor specific 46%), with a median survival of 10.5 months. We found that three of four patients with pT2N0 bladder carcinoma could be cured by cystectomy. Lymphnode status was identified as a significant prognostic parameter. For renal pelvis carcinoma, median survival was 7.35 months, with an overall 5-year-survival of 30%. Adjuvant therapy modalities were only performed in a minority of cases, although a therapeutic response was often noticed. Conclusions: SCC is characterized by poor prognosis and individual tumor biology. Survival is related to local tumor extension, indicating the necessity of an early radical surgery. To adequately discuss the role of adjuvant therapy on SCC and TCC/SCC further trials are needed. PMID:22346095

Rausch, Steffen; Hofmann, Rainer; von Knobloch, Rolf

2012-01-01

341

Mutations in DNA Mismatch Repair Genes Are Not Responsible for Microsatellite Instability in Most Sporadic Endometrial Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endometrial carcinoma is the second most common tumor type In women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma. Microsatellite instability (MI) has been observed in the inherited (hereditary nonpolypo sis colorectal carcinoma-associated) form of endometrial carcinoma as well as in approximately 20% of presumably sporadic cases. Recent studies suggest that MI in many cell lines or xenografts derived from sporadic colorectal carcinomas

Hidetaka Katabuchi; Bastiaan van Rees; Anouk R. Lambers; Brigitte M. Ronnett; Marian S. Blazes; Fred S. Leach; Kathleen R. Cho; Lora Hedrick

342

Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

2013-07-01

343

Mitochondrial proteomics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial proteomic alterations of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis remain unknown. Our purpose is to screen mitochondrial proteins for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis and the discovery of metastasis-related biomarkers. Methods Mitochondria were isolated from nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastatic (5-8F) and nonmetastatic (6-10B) cell lines, respectively. After characterization of isolated mitochondria, mitochondrial differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were quantified by two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and identified by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A functional enrichment analysis and a protein-protein interaction sub-network analysis for DEPs were carried out with bioinformatics. Furthermore, siRNAs transient transfections were used to suppress expressions of some up-regulated DEPs in metastatic cells (5-8F), followed by Transwell Migration assay. Results Sixteen mitochondrial DEPs including PRDX3 and SOD2 were identified. Those 5-8F cells with suppression of PRDX3 showed an increased mobility potential. The functional enrichment analyses of DEPs discovered five significant biological processes including cellular response to reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide metabolic process, regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell redox homeostasis and oxidation reduction, and five significant molecular functions including oxidoreductase activity, caspase inhibitor activity, peroxiredoxin activity, porin activity and antioxidant activity. A protein-protein interaction sub-network of DEPs was generated with literature data. Ten mitochondrial DEPs including PRDX3, PRDX6, SOD2, ECH1, SERPINB5, COX5A, PDIA5, EIF5A, IDH3B, and PSMC4 were rationalized in the tumor-stroma co-evolution model that mitochondrial oxidative stress directly contributes to tumor metastasis. Conclusions Sixteen mitochondrial DEPs were identified with mass spectrometry and ten of them were rationalized in the tumor-stroma co-evolution model. Those 5-8F cells with suppression of PRDX3 showed an increased mobility potential. These data suggest that those mitochondrial DEPs are potential biomarkers for NPC metastasis, and their dysregulation would play important roles in mitochondria oxidative stress-mediated NPC metastatic process. PMID:23217164

2012-01-01

344

Squamous cell carcinoma of the ear arising in patients after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced malignancies are a rare but serious complication arising in patients receiving radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). To characterize patients who develop post-irradiation squamous cell carcinoma (PISCC) of the ear after radiotherapy for NPC and to compare their outcomes with patients who have de novo squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the ear. Clinical and pathological characteristics and their outcomes were analysed and compared between post-irradiation and de novo SCC cases. From 2002 to 2011, 25 patients were treated at our institution for SCC of the ear, of which 8 (32%) occurred after prior irradiation. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regards to age, gender, race, smoking status, tumour size, grade, stage and differentiation. Patients in the PISCC group appeared to have inferior overall survival (median survival 71.2 vs. 85.6 months; p = 0.292) and disease-specific survival (mean 59.6 vs. 71.5 months; p = 0.441). PISSC of the ear in long-standing survivors of NPC has a poor prognosis despite advances in medical care. Surgical resection with clear margins seems to offer the best outcomes. PMID:23589159

Tay, Gerald; Tan, Hiang Khoon; Thiagarajan, Anuradha; Soo, Khee-Chee; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna

2014-01-01

345

Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

Lin, Charles, E-mail: Charles_Lin@health.qld.gov.au [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Poulsen, Michael [Mater Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jarad [St. Andrews Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

2012-01-01

346

MicroRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) provide insight into both the biology and clinical behavior of many human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The dysregulation of miRNAs in NPC results in a variety of tumor-promoting effects. Furthermore, several miRNAs are prognostic markers for NPC. In addition to cellular miRNAs, NPC samples also often contain miRNAs encoded by Epstein-Barr virus, and these miRNAs may impact NPC biology by targeting both cellular and viral genes. Given their numerous putative roles in NPC development and progression, a thorough understanding of the impact of miRNA dysregulation in NPC is expected to shed light on useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the clinical management of this disease. In this review, we describe the efforts to date to identify and characterize such miRNAs in the context of NPC. PMID:25367334

Bruce, Jeff P; Liu, Fei-Fei

2014-11-01

347

Clinical Trials in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Update  

PubMed Central

The success of sorafenib has spurred an explosive increase of clinical trials testing novel molecular targets and other agents in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The paradigm of the studies has been characterized by three noticeable changes. First, the molecular targets of interest have expanded from angiogenesis to cancer cell-directed oncogenic signaling pathways for advanced HCC treatment. Agents targeting EGFR, FGFR, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, TGF-?, c-Met, MEK, IGF signaling, and histone deacetylase have been actively explored. Second, the target indication has shifted from advanced stage to early or intermediate stages of disease. The feasibility of combining locoregional therapies and targeted agents, and the use of novel agents after curative treatments are currently under active investigation. Finally, the therapeutic strategy has shifted from monotherapy to combination targeted therapy. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of newly disclosed and ongoing clinical trials for the treatment of HCC. PMID:24400222

Shen, Ying-Chun; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Chiun; Shao, Yu-Yun; Cheng, Ann-Lii

2013-01-01

348

The genomic landscape of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has extremely skewed ethnic and geographic distributions, is poorly understood at the genetic level and is in need of effective therapeutic approaches. Here we determined the mutational landscape of 128 cases with NPC using whole-exome and targeted deep sequencing, as well as SNP array analysis. These approaches revealed a distinct mutational signature and nine significantly mutated genes, many of which have not been implicated previously in NPC. Notably, integrated analysis showed enrichment of genetic lesions affecting several important cellular processes and pathways, including chromatin modification, ERBB-PI3K signaling and autophagy machinery. Further functional studies suggested the biological relevance of these lesions to the NPC malignant phenotype. In addition, we uncovered a number of new druggable candidates because of their genomic alterations. Together our study provides a molecular basis for a comprehensive understanding of, and exploring new therapies for, NPC. PMID:24952746

Lin, De-Chen; Meng, Xuan; Hazawa, Masaharu; Nagata, Yasunobu; Varela, Ana Maria; Xu, Liang; Sato, Yusuke; Liu, Li-Zhen; Ding, Ling-Wen; Sharma, Arjun; Goh, Boon Cher; Lee, Soo Chin; Petersson, Bengt Fredrik; Yu, Feng Gang; Macary, Paul; Oo, Min Zin; Ha, Chan Soh; Yang, Henry; Ogawa, Seishi; Loh, Kwok Seng; Koeffler, H Phillip

2014-08-01

349

Genetic and epigenetic changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy with remarkable racial and geographic distribution. The development of this EBV-associated cancer likely involves cumulative genetic and epigenetic changes in a background of predisposed genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide studies have unravelled multiple chromosomal abnormalities with involvement of specific oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Alterations of genes such as Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), p16/INK4A, p14/ARF suggest that multiple cellular pathways were dysregulated in the NPC cells. Studies on the precancerous lesions revealed early genetic changes and a critical role of EBV latent infection in the development of this cancer. Based on the existing findings, a pathogenetic model for NPC is proposed. PMID:12450731

Lo, Kwok-Wai; Huang, Dolly P

2002-12-01

350

[Radical surgery in unseccessfully irradiated cervix carcinoma?].  

PubMed

When radiological treatment in carcinoma of the cervix has failed radical operation may still be technically feasible in certain cases. They are, however, always prone to complications resulting from tissue damage due both to radiation and surgery. Among the 6 cases described there was one double-sided necrotic fistula of the ureters and two vesical-colonic-vaginal fistulae. In two patients we observed extended necroses of the pelvic tissue 5 and 7 weeks respectively after the operation with preceding telecobalt therapy; in one case this resulted in bleeding to death. There was only one case without any complications. This had been treated before by contact therapy only without additional percutaneous radition. From this we would like to draw the conclusion that one should refrain from secondary radical operation after telecobalt therapy. The question remaine to be discussed whether in these cases ultra-radical exenteration can be successful. PMID:1220445

Helbing, W; Woraschk, A

1975-01-01

351

Squamous Cell Carcinoma Masquerading as Rhinophyma  

PubMed Central

A rhinophyma lesion can mask the existence of coexisting occult skin cancers, and many types of tumors can mimic a rhinophyma. Although several coexistent malignant tumors have been reported in patients with rhinophyma, few reports have described the coexistence of rhinophyma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Herein, we report on a case of SCC in a 45-year-old man who presented with 2-month-history of a painful, erythematous, globular plaque on the tip of his nose and this lesion mimicked a rhinophyma lesion. The histopathologic examination showed a proliferation of atypical squamous cells that extended into the dermis, which was consistent with SCC. He was treated with surgical excision, and there has been no evidence of recurrence during the follow-up period of 1 year. PMID:20548865

Kim, Min Joo; Kim, Hye Sung; Park, Young Min

2009-01-01

352

Basal Cell Carcinoma Masked in Rhinophyma  

PubMed Central

Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively. PMID:23841002

De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto

2013-01-01

353

Basal cell carcinoma masked in rhinophyma.  

PubMed

Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively. PMID:23841002

De Seta, Daniele; Russo, Francesca Yoshie; De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto

2013-01-01

354

The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

2014-01-01

355

Right atrial metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

A 65-year-old patient with a past medical history of hypertension, alcoholism, micronodular cirrhosis, and coronary artery bypass grafting 10 years ago developed a hepatocellular carcinoma, treated by chemoembolization. One month after treatment, thoracoabdominal CT scan showed no residual hepatic tumor, but tumoral aspect in the right atrium with extension into the inferior vena cava. The patient being asymptomatic, cardiac ultrasound confirmed the presence of a free, mobile, pediculated tumor in the right atrium. Surgical exploration found a well-circumscribed mass, attached to the atrial wall by a 1.5-cm diameter pedicle implanted near the inferior vena cava ostium, moving freely in the right atrial cavity. The tumor was easily resected by section of the pedicle and its surrounding parietal implantation zone. No complications occurred postoperatively, and the patient was discharged on the 10th postoperative day. Three years after, the patient is in good health and is asymptomatic; cardiac ultrasound showed no tumor recurrence. PMID:17488426

Mansour, Ziad; Gerelli, Sébastien; Kindo, Michel J; Billaud, Philippe J; Eisenmann, Bernard; Mazzucotelli, Jean-Philippe

2007-01-01

356

Histone modifications: implications in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In 2012, an estimated 64,770 men and women were diagnosed with malignancy of the kidney and renal pelvis, of which 13,570 succumbed to their disease. Common genetic aberrations in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) include loss of function of the VHL gene in clear-cell RCC, overexpression of the c-MET gene in papillary RCC type I, deficiency in the FH gene in papillary RCC type II and loss of heterozygozity of the BHD gene in chromophobe RCC. Recent studies illustrate epigenetic silencing of VHL, as well as alterations in histone modifications and their governing enzymes. The possibility of reversing these epigenetic marks has resulted in efforts to target these changes by utilizing inhibitors of HDACs, DNA methyltransferases and, recently, histone methyltransferases in preclinical and clinical studies. This article focuses on potential therapeutic interventions, and the implications of histone modifications and related enzyme alterations in RCC. PMID:23895657

Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ellis, Leigh; Pili, Roberto

2013-01-01

357

[Undifferentiated osteoclastic-type giant cell carcinoma].  

PubMed

Initially described 40 years ago (Rosai), the undifferentiated osteoclastic-type giant cell carcinoma (IOGCC) is a variant of ductal adenocarcinoma and accounts for less than 1% of exocrine pancreatic tumors. Its extreme rarity, with consequent existence of few reports and clinical experience, leads to the arousal of doubts with regard to its histogenesis, types of approach and therapeutical attitudes. It is important to note that in Portugal no similar case is registered in medical literature. A 61 year old patient admitted to the Internal Medicine Ward 3 at Coimbra University Hospital presents with a voluminous intra-abdominal mass in the left hypochondrium and microcytic anemia. During the investigation, a pancreatic neoplasm was identified, and the patient was submitted to surgical resection, the anatomo-pathological study of the tumor having revealed IOGCC. The particularities of the case, current available therapeutical options and its evolution are discussed, as well as a revision of the existing literature. PMID:21144337

Pimentel, Ana; Leitão, Sara; Dias, Nuno; Cipriano, Maria Augusta; Leite, Júlio; Santos, Rui Marques; Nascimento Costa, J M

2010-01-01

358

Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Changes in the time trends of HCC and most variations in its age-, sex-, and race-specific rates among different regions are likely to be related to differences in hepatitis viruses that are most prevalent in a population, the timing of their spread, and the ages of the individuals the viruses infect. Environmental, host genetic, and viral factors can affect the risk of HCC in individuals with HBV or HCV infection. This review summarizes the risk factors for HCC among HBV- or HCV-infected individuals, based on findings from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses, as well as determinants of patient outcome and the HCC disease burden, globally and in the US. PMID:22537432

El-Serag, Hashem B.

2012-01-01

359

Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin. PMID:20737034

Favier, L.; Ladoire, L.; Guiu, B.; Arnould, L.; Guiu, S.; Boichot, C.; Isambert, N.; Besancenot, J.F.; Muller, M.; Ghiringhelli, F.

2009-01-01

360

Radiation induced carcinoma of the larynx  

SciTech Connect

A squamous cell carcinoma presented in a 20 year old female nonsmoker three years after receiving a high dosage of radiation therapy to the base of the skull, face and entire neuroaxis and intense combination chemotherapy for a parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses is reported. The larynx received a dose of about 3,500 rads over an eight week period. This dosage in conjunction with the associated intense chemotherapy regimen given to the patient may explain the appearance of a radiation induced tumor in an unusually short latent period. This certainly represents a risk in young patients in whom an aggressive combined approach is taken and the physician should be aware of.

Amendola, B.E.; Amendola, M.A.; McClatchey, K.D.

1985-07-01

361

Embolotherapy in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks fifth in frequency of cancers worldwide. The incidence of HCC in the United States is rising, primarily due to the number of patients who were infected by hepatitis in the 1960s and 1970s coupled with the rising migrant population from Asia, where hepatitis is widely prevalent. Up to 80% of the patients present with multicentric HCC and advanced liver disease or comorbidities that restrict the option of resection or liver transplantation. The dual blood supply (arterial and portal) to the liver with predominantly arterial supply to the tumor has made embolotherapy a cornerstone in the management of inoperable HCC. The techniques have become refined not only due to the development of microcatheter angiographic capabilities, but also in the ability to deliver a wide variety of therapeutic agents to these tumors. This article reviews the fundamental principles of bland embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization in the management of HCC. PMID:21326513

Mojtahedi, Alireza; Yang, Xiaoming; Goswami, Gaurav K.

2008-01-01

362

Hepatocellular carcinoma detected by iodized oil  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the diagnostic value of Lipiodol (iodized oil) and computed tomography (CT) in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty-four patients who were suspected of having HCC received injections of a small amount of Lipiodol, along with an antitumor agent, in the hepatic artery following routine celiac angiography. CT scans obtained 7-10 days after Lipiodol administration demonstrated HCC in distinct contrast to the surrounding noncancerous parenchyma. In particular, the CT-Lipiodol procedure disclosed many small HCC lesions that were not shown by celiac angiography, scintigraphy, CT with an without contrast medium enhancement, and ultrasonography. Although this procedure may miss very small or highly fibrotic lesions, it is recommended for patients suspected of having HCC and for patients for whom hepatic resection is being considered.

Yumoto, Y.; Jinno, K.; Tokuyama, K.; Araki, Y.; Ishimitsu, T.; Maeda, H.; Konno, T.; Iwamoto, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Okuda, K.

1985-01-01

363

Small cell carcinoma: combined approach to treatment.  

PubMed Central

Fifty-six patients with untreated small cell carcinoma of the bronchus were treated with three courses of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and procarbazine and methotrexate) and assessed for response. Thirty-one patients (55.4%) were classified as responders; they were given a course of radiotherapy and were then randomly allocated to continued cyclical chemotherapy or not further chemotherapy until relapse. Non-responders to chemotherapy were treated with radiotherapy or palliatively. The median survival was 10.5 months in responders and 6 months in non-responders (P less than 0.01). The one-year survival in responders was 42%. There was no statistical difference in survival between patients treated with continued chemotherapy and those treated at relapse. Sixty-nine per cent of patients experienced no side effects from chemotherapy. Three indicators of non-response to chemotherapy were identified--exercise tolerance at diagnosis, macroscopic liver metastases, and inappropriate ADH secretion. PMID:232314

Gregor, A; Morgan, P G; Morgan, R L; Scadding, F H; Turner-Warwick, M

1979-01-01

364

Hepatitis B virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Many factors are considered to contribute to hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including products of HBV, HBV integration and mutation, and host susceptibility. HBV X protein (HBx) can interfere with several signal pathways that associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the impact of HBx C-terminal truncation in the development of HCC has been implicated. Recent studies by advanced sequencing technologies have revealed recurrent HBV DNA integration sites in hepatoma cells and susceptible genes/SNPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Epigenetic changes, immune and inflammatory factors are also important contributing factors for liver cancer. This mini-review provides an overview on the recent development of HBV induced HCC. PMID:23981576

Xu, Cheng; Zhou, Wence; Wang, Yuming; Qiao, Liang

2014-04-10

365

[Basal cell carcinoma of the periocular region].  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the periocular region with local aggressive growth and extensive destruction. The histological subtypes of periocular basalioma, the recurrence rates and resection border relationships were analyzed and the results were compared with basaliomas from other body regions. The results of gender and age distribution, histological subtypes, recurrence rates and resection border relationships were evaluated using the ?(2)-test. The results showed a significantly higher recurrence rate (p?

Geszti, F; Hargitai, D; Lukáts, O; Gy?rffy, H; Tóth, J

2013-11-01

366

Treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma today.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. As over 90% of HCCs arise in cirrhotic livers preventive methods and surveillance policies have been adopted in most countries with high prevalence of hepatitis B or C infected people. Poor prognosis of HCC has shown some improvement during the last years. Targeted therapy with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), hepatic resection (HR), liver transplantation (LT), and transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) seems to have an influence on this development. The heterogeneity of cirrhotic patients with HCC is still a big challenge. A patient with a small tumour in a cirrhotic liver may have a worse prognosis than a patient with a large tumor in a relatively preserved liver after "curative" HR. The choice of the treatment modality depends on the size and the number of tumours, the stage and the cause of cirrhosis and finally on the availability of various modalities in each centre. PMID:21482502

Livraghi, T; Mäkisalo, H; Line, P-D

2011-01-01

367

Gene therapy for carcinoma of the breast  

PubMed Central

In view of the limited success of available treatment modalities for breast cancer, alternative and complementary strategies need to be developed. The delineation of the molecular basis of breast cancer provides the possibility of specific intervention by gene therapy through the introduction of genetic material for therapeutic purposes. In this regard, several gene therapy approaches for carcinoma of the breast have been developed. These approaches can be divided into six broad categories: (1) mutation compensation, (2) molecular chemotherapy, (3) proapoptotic gene therapy, (4) antiangiogenic gene therapy, (5) genetic immunopotentiation, and (6) genetic modulation of resistance/sensitivity. Clinical trials for breast cancer have been initiated to evaluate safety, toxicity, and efficacy. Combined modality therapy with gene therapy and chemotherapy or radiation therapy has shown promising results. It is expected that as new therapeutic targets and approaches are identified and advances in vector design are realized, gene therapy will play an increasing role in clinical breast cancer treatment. PMID:16410823

Stoff-Khalili, MA; Dall, P; Curiel, DT

2007-01-01

368

MicroRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) provide insight into both the biology and clinical behavior of many human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The dysregulation of miRNAs in NPC results in a variety of tumor-promoting effects. Furthermore, several miRNAs are prognostic markers for NPC. In addition to cellular miRNAs, NPC samples also often contain miRNAs encoded by Epstein-Barr virus, and these miRNAs may impact NPC biology by targeting both cellular and viral genes. Given their numerous putative roles in NPC development and progression, a thorough understanding of the impact of miRNA dysregulation in NPC is expected to shed light on useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the clinical management of this disease. In this review, we describe the efforts to date to identify and characterize such miRNAs in the context of NPC. PMID:25367334

Bruce, Jeff P.; Liu, Fei-Fei

2014-01-01

369

Radiation therapy for primary vaginal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy plays a significant role in the management of cervical cancer, but the clinical significance of brachytherapy in the management of vaginal cancer remains to be defined. Thus, a single institutional experience in the treatment of primary invasive vaginal carcinoma was reviewed to define the role of brachytherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 36 patients with primary vaginal carcinoma who received definitive radiotherapy between 1992 and 2010. The treatment modalities included high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy alone (HDR-ICBT; two patients), external beam radiation therapy alone (EBRT; 14 patients), a combination of EBRT and HDR-ICBT (10 patients), or high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT; 10 patients). The median follow-up was 35.2 months. The 2-year local control rate (LCR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 68.8%, 55.3% and 73.9%, respectively. The 2-year LCR for Stage I, II, III and IV was 100%, 87.5%, 51.5% and 0%, respectively (P = 0.007). In subgroup analysis consisting only of T2-T3 disease, the use of HDR-ISBT showed marginal significance for favorable 5-year LCR (88.9% vs 46.9%, P = 0.064). One patient each developed Grade 2 proctitis, Grade 2 cystitis, and a vaginal ulcer. We conclude that brachytherapy can play a central role in radiation therapy for primary vaginal cancer. Combining EBRT and HDR-ISBT for T2-T3 disease resulted in good local control. PMID:23559599

Murakami, N; Kasamatsu, T; Sumi, M; Yoshimura, R; Takahashi, K; Inaba, K; Morota, M; Mayahara, H; Ito, Y; Itami, J

2013-09-01

370

Metabolic phenotypes in primary unknown metastatic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate expression of metabolism-related proteins in primary unknown metastatic carcinoma (PUMC) and associated implications for treatment. Methods A tissue microarray containing 77 cases of PUMC was constructed and immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate expression of the following proteins: Glycolysis-related: Glut-1, carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX, and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 4; Glutaminolysis-related: glutaminase1 (GLS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and amino acid transporter-2 (ASCT2); and Mitochondrial-related: ATP synthase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)A, and SDHB. The association between immunohistochemical staining results and clinicopathologic parameters was evaluated. Results The expression of metabolism-related proteins was different depending on the histologic subtype. Compared to other subtypes, squamous cell carcinomas (SQ) expressed more Glut-1 (p?=?0.028), while adenocarcinomas (AD) expressed more SDHB in the stroma (p?=?0.025). The expression of metabolism-related proteins was also different depending on the clinical subtypes. Glut-1 was expressed most in the nodal type and the least in carcinomatosis type, when compared to other subtypes (p?=?0.021). The metabolic phenotypes also showed other trends: when the stroma showed no glutaminolysis, the tumor mostly invaded lymph node, bone, and brain, while the tumor invaded regions other than lymph node, bone, and brain when the stroma showed glutaminolysis (p?=?0.003). When the stroma showed the mitochondrial metabolic type, the histologic subtype was mainly AD, but the non-mitochondrial type was associated more with SQ (P?=?0.049). Conclusion For PUMC, the expression of metabolism-related proteins, such as Glut-1 and SDHB, differs in the tumor or stroma depending on the clinical and histologic tumor subtype. PMID:24387319

2014-01-01

371

Early Diagnosis of Gallbladder Carcinoma: An Algorithm Approach  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract cancer. Delayed presentation and early spread of tumor make it one of the lethal tumors with poor prognosis. Considering that simple cholecystectomy for T1 disease could offer a potential cure, it is increasingly needed to identify it at early stages. Identification of high-risk cases and offering prophylactic cholecystectomy can decrease the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma. With advances in diagnostic tools like contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound, elastography, multidetctor CT, MRI, and PET scan, we can potentially diagnose gallbladder carcinoma at early stages. This paper reviews the various diagnostic modalities available and an algorithmic approach to early diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:24959553

Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Vijayakumar, Avinash; Patil, Vijayraj; Mallikarjuna, M. N.; Shivaswamy, B. S.

2013-01-01

372

Overview of the current definition of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ  

Cancer.gov

Ductal Carinoma in Situ: Strategies for Integrating Tumor Biology and Population Sciences February 1-2, 2007, San Francisco, CA Overview of the current definition of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Donald L. Weaver, MD University of Vermont In the beginning… •

373

Virchow’s node: Rare presentation of childhood hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical (supra-clavicular) lymphadenopathy may not always be due to tuberculosis in children. Hepatocellular carcinoma in\\u000a children even may present as supra clavicular lymphadenopathy (Virchow’s node)

R. K. Mondal; A. Dutta; K. Basu; S. Chakraborti

2005-01-01

374

Cure of Xenografted Human Carcinomas by BR96-Doxorubicin Immunoconjugates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunoconjugates (BR96-DOX) were prepared between chimeric monoclonal antibody BR96 and the anticancer drug doxorubicin. The monoclonal antibody binds an antigen related to Lewis Y that is abundantly expressed at the surface of cells from many human carcinomas; it has a high degree of tumor selectivity and is internalized after binding. BR96-DOX induced complete regressions and cures of xenografted human lung, breast, and colon carcinomas growing subcutaneously in athymic mice and cured 70 percent of mice bearing extensive metastases of a human lung carcinoma. Also, BR96-DOX cured 94 percent of athymic rats with subcutaneous human lung carcinoma, even though the rats, like humans and in contrast to mice, expressed the BR96 target antigen in normal tissues.

Trail, P. A.; Willner, D.; Lasch, S. J.; Henderson, A. J.; Hofstead, S.; Casazza, A. M.; Firestone, R. A.; Hellstrom, I.; Hellstrom, K. E.

1993-07-01

375

Cure of xenografted human carcinomas by BR96-doxorubicin immunoconjugates.  

PubMed

Immunoconjugates (BR96-DOX) were prepared between chimeric monoclonal antibody BR96 and the anticancer drug doxorubicin. The monoclonal antibody binds an antigen related to Lewis Y that is abundantly expressed at the surface of cells from many human carcinomas; it has a high degree of tumor selectivity and is internalized after binding. BR96-DOX induced complete regressions and cures of xenografted human lung, breast, and colon carcinomas growing subcutaneously in athymic mice and cured 70 percent of mice bearing extensive metastases of a human lung carcinoma. Also, BR96-DOX cured 94 percent of athymic rats with subcutaneous human lung carcinoma, even though the rats, like humans and in contrast to mice, expressed the BR96 target antigen in normal tissues. PMID:8327892

Trail, P A; Willner, D; Lasch, S J; Henderson, A J; Hofstead, S; Casazza, A M; Firestone, R A; Hellström, I; Hellström, K E

1993-07-01

376

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland: A case report  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the second most common type of malignancy in Southern China. Metastatic sites are usually multifocal and involve the bones, lungs and distant lymph nodes. To date, there have been no studies with regard to nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland. In the current study, the case of a 56-year-old female with nasal obstruction, epitaxis and a bilateral neck mass is presented. Following a series of examinations, the patient was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (cT3N3M0). Subsequently, the patient received radical radiation therapy. After three months, a mass was identified in the left breast, together with enlargement of multiple lymph nodes in the left axilla. The patient underwent a mastectomy and pathological examination revealed that the breast mass and axillary lymph node tissues were derived from the nasopharynx. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma that metastasized to the mammary gland.

LI, SHUANG; YANG, JIYUAN

2015-01-01

377

Medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a supraglottic mass.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of medullary thyroid carcinoma that presented as a metastasis to the supraglottic larynx. A 92-year-old man with a 3-month history of voice change and airway obstruction was diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the supraglottis. Excision of the mass, total thyroidectomy, and elective neck dissection were recommended, but the patient declined because of his advanced age. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare neuroendocrine tumor with a poor prognosis when associated with a distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid presenting as a supraglottic mass. Total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, and surgical excision of the entire tumor comprise the treatment of choice. PMID:25397389

White, Jeremy; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Schwartz, Arnold; Bielamowicz, Steven

2014-01-01

378

Treatment Options for Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS)  

MedlinePLUS

... Childhood (for information about childhood breast cancer) Health history can affect the risk of developing breast cancer. ... birth or never having given birth. A personal history of invasive breast cancer , ductal carcinoma in situ ( ...

379

The Mutational Landscape of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

E-print Network

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common, morbid, and frequently lethal malignancy. To uncover its mutational spectrum, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 74 tumor-normal pairs. The majority ...

Lander, Eric S.

380

Gynecologic bleeding revealing vaginal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Vaginal metastases of renal cell carcinoma have been rarely described. We report a case of a 75-year old woman, who underwent radical right nephrectomy for a renal cell carcinoma. Tumour was classified pT3bN0M0 and grade III of Furhmann grading. One year later, scanner discovered mediastinal and lombo-aortic lymph nodes. She received 2 months of immunotherapy associated with bevacizumab, but stopped because of intolerance. She was readmitted in our institute for vaginal bleeding. Clinical investigations showed a vaginal mass and biopsy revealed a renal cell carcinoma metastasis. This case suggests that retrograde venous dissemination may be at the origin of vaginal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma and emphasized the preventive value of early ligature of renal vein. PMID:23565309

Benbrahim, Zineb; Chouaib, Ali; Mazeron, Renaud; Leger-Ravet, Marie Benedicte; Lefort, Catherine; Lhomme, Catherine; El Mesbahi, Omar; Escudier, Bernard

2013-01-01

381

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the renal pelvis: A case report  

PubMed Central

Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a high-grade malignant neoplasm which exhibits morphological and/or immunohistochemical evidence of bidirectional epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. Sarcomatoid carcinoma occurring in the upper urinary tract is rare. The present study reports a case of primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of the renal pelvis. A 49-year-old female patient was admitted to Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital for experiencing two weeks of intermittent hematuria. A computed tomography scan revealed a mass of 2 cm in diameter in the left renal pelvis. A retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy combined with a bladder cuff excision was performed, and the final pathological diagnosis was sarcomatoid carcinoma of the renal pelvis. The patient did not receive systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Regular follow-up was performed for 30 months, and there was no evidence of tumor local recurrence or distant metastasis. PMID:25120689

TIAN, XIQUAN; ZHAO, JIYU; WANG, YUE; XING, NIANZENG

2014-01-01

382

Myoepithelial carcinoma of the retromolar area with extensive mandibular involvement.  

PubMed

Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943, and account for less than 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al. in 1975 and represents a very rare entity, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. However, there have been few reports on myoepithelial carcinoma affecting intra-oral minor salivary glands, and its immunohistochemical features have been poorly illustrated. We herein describe a rare case of myoepithelial carcinoma affecting the retromolar region of a 52-year-old woman that caused extensive mandibular bone destruction. We also reviewed the English literature concerning the involvement of intra-oral minor salivary glands by myoepithelial carcinoma. PMID:23005699

Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Toral-Rizo, Victor; de Andrade, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

2012-12-01

383

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis of the pancreas versus pancreatic carcinoma.  

PubMed

We report one of few cases of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis of the pancreas, which is different from the classical retroperitoneal fibrosis that affects ureters and vessels that mimicking locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma at presentation. PMID:20699053

Baker, Bilal; Salameh, Habeeb; Daoud, Faiez

2010-10-01

384

Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus presenting as multiple pedunculated polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare case of polypoid, multifocal squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, which has not been previously reported, is described. The tumor consisted of multiple pedunculated polyps, one of which had a 5-cm-long stalk with an attached \\

Hagos Tekeste; Frantz Latour

1986-01-01

385

NF-?B in Carcinoma Therapy and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) includes a family of signal-activated transcription factors which normally regulate responses to injury and infection, but which are aberrantly activated in many carcinomas. Objective To review the activation and role of NF-?B in pathogenesis and as a target for treatment and prevention in carcinoma. Methods Evidence from experimental, epidemiologic, pre-clinical studies and clinical trials cited in the literature are reviewed. Results/conclusion Cumulative evidence implicates NF-?B in cell survival, inflammation, angiogenesis, spread and therapeutic resistance during tumor development, progression and metastasis of carcinomas. Non-specific natural and synthetic agents that inhibit NF-?B have demonstrated activity and safety in prevention or therapy. NF-?B activating kinases and the proteasome are under investigation for targeted prevention and therapy of carcinoma. PMID:18694378

Brown, Matthew; Cohen, Jonah; Arun, Pattatheyil; Chen, Zhong; Van Waes, Carter

2008-01-01

386

[Treatment of planocellular carcinoma of the nasal vestibule].  

PubMed

In the ICD-9 system, carcinomas of the nasal vestibule are classified together with carcinomas in the nasal cavity. As a rule, however, they are squamous cell carcinomas derived from the skin, and thus prognosis is better than in the case of squamous cell carcinomas derived from the mucosa of the nasal cavity. The article highlights essential features of brachytherapy. The authors present a critical assessment of the criteria for staging, and describe a specific patient material. Based on clinical experience and theoretical considerations, brachytherapy alone is recommended for T1-3 N0 tumours. In the case of T4 tumours external radiation therapy and brachytherapy combined is recommended for the primary tumour, with prophylactical irradiation towards regional lymph nodes. PMID:9411856

Evensen, J F; Jacobsen, A B; Tausjø, J; Bøhler, P

1997-09-20

387

DNA methylation in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast  

PubMed Central

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor lesion of invasive carcinoma of the breast. Current prognostic markers based on histopathological examination are unable to accurately predict which DCIS cases will progress to invasive carcinoma or recur after surgical excision. Epigenetic changes have been shown to be a significant driver of tumorigenesis, and DNA methylation of specific gene promoters provides predictive and prognostic markers in many types of cancer, including invasive breast cancer. In general, the spectrum of genes that are methylated in DCIS strongly resembles that seen in invasive ductal carcinoma. The identification of specific prognostic markers in DCIS remains elusive and awaits additional work investigating a large panel of methylatable genes by using sensitive and reproducible technologies. This review critically appraises the role of methylation in DCIS and its use as a biomarker. PMID:23826974

2013-01-01

388

Laparoscopic versus open cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo compare the outcomes of those patients who underwent laparoscopic versus open cytoreductive nephrectomy. Cytoreductive nephrectomy before systemic therapy has been shown to offer a survival advantage compared with systemic therapy alone for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

John C. Rabets; Jihad Kaouk; Amr Fergany; Antonio Finelli; Inderbir S. Gill; Andrew C. Novick

2004-01-01

389

Transformation of Merkel cell carcinoma to ganglioneuroblastoma in intracranial metastasis.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor occasionally demonstrating aberrant differentiation to other epithelial and nonepithelial cell lines. We describe a case of Merkel cell carcinoma displaying unique patterns of differentiation in the primary focus and brain metastasis. The skin primary was almost uniformly small cell carcinoma positive for epithelial and neuroendocrine markers, with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein- and cytokeratin 20-positive cells. The neoplasm contained giant cells immunoreactive for neurofilament and negative for epithelial markers. The neck lymph node metastasis was a typical neuroendocrine Merkel cell carcinoma positive for cytokeratin 20. A solitary dural intracranial metastasis displayed features of aggressive ganglioneuroblastoma, expressing many neuronal antigens with no evidence of glial or epithelial differentiation. After total gross resection, the tumor recurred within 3 months, and the patient developed skeletal metastases and died 6 months after craniotomy. PMID:24996688

Lach, Boleslaw; Joshi, Sangeeta S; Murty, Naresh; Huq, Nasimul

2014-09-01

390

Signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma: a distinct subset of mucin-poor microsatellite-stable signet ring cell carcinoma associated with dismal prognosis.  

PubMed

We evaluated a consecutive series of signet ring cell colorectal carcinomas in an attempt to correlate the histopathologic pattern of infiltration with molecular alterations and prognosis. Of the 4760 primary colorectal carcinomas surgically resected between the years 2002 and 2012, 53 (1%) were composed of >50% signet ring cells. Of the 53 signet ring cell carcinomas, 40 (75%) were composed of >50% extracellular mucin with signet ring cells floating within pools of mucin and were subclassified as mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinomas. Thirteen (25%) carcinomas were characterized by diffusely infiltrating carcinomas with minimal to no extracellular mucin and were subclassified as mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas. All 13 mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas were either stage III or IV, whereas many cases of mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinoma were stage I or II (17 cases) (P=0.005). Compared with mucin-rich tumors, mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas more frequently demonstrated adverse histologic features such as lymphatic invasion (13/13, 100% vs. 22/40, 55%; P=0.002), venous invasion (6/13, 46% vs. 3/40, 8%; P=0.004), and perineural invasion (11/13, 85% vs. 9/40, 23%; P=0.0001). Twenty-three of 53 (43%) signet ring cell carcinomas demonstrated high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Twenty-two of 23 (96%) MSI-H signet ring cell carcinomas were mucin rich; only 1 MSI-H signet ring carcinoma was mucin poor (P=0.0033). Mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma had significantly reduced overall and recurrence-free survival compared with mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinomas (P=0.0035 and 0.0001, respectively), even when adjusting for tumor stage. Mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma had a higher propensity for peritoneal dissemination (5/13, 38%) compared with mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinoma (5/40, 12.5%), although this was not statistically significant (P=0.052). Finally, MSI-H and microsatellite-stable signet ring cell carcinomas had similar overall and recurrence-free survival (P=0.2266 and 0.1055, respectively), even when adjusting for tumor stage. In conclusion, we identified a unique subset of signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma with diffuse infiltration and minimal to no extracellular mucin (mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma), which lacks MSI-H and has a dismal prognosis with an aggressive clinical course often with peritoneal dissemination. Further, our results confirm that MSI does not affect survival in colorectal signet ring cell carcinomas. PMID:23681075

Hartman, Douglas J; Nikiforova, Marina N; Chang, Daniel T; Chu, Edward; Bahary, Nathan; Brand, Randall E; Zureikat, Amer H; Zeh, Herbert J; Choudry, Haroon; Pai, Reetesh K

2013-07-01

391

Optimal management of a patient with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in western countries, accounting for less than 1% of all malignancies. Despite prognosis is satisfactory for newly diagnosed, non-metastatic disease, management of recurrent disease is challenging, with a survival expectancy of approximately 6 mo with the use of chemotherapy as the sole salvage treatment. We report a case of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery in the context of a multidisciplinary approach. A durable complete response was achieved. PMID:25032207

Perri, Francesco; Dell'Oca, Italo; Muto, Paolo; Schiavone, Concetta; Aversa, Corrado; Fulciniti, Franco; Solla, Raffaele; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Buonerba, Carlo; Lorenzo, Giuseppe Di; Caponigro, Francesco

2014-01-01

392

A cytologic method of diagnosis of carcinoma of the colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The problem of diagnosing carcinoma of the colon is presented and current diagnostic technics are reviewed. The desirability\\u000a of a screening test for colonic carcinoma is discussed. A method of recovering malignant cells from enema returns without\\u000a instrumentation is presented. Clinical evaluation suggests that this method is accurate in detecting malignant cells of neoplasms\\u000a of the colon and it appears

Alan B. Cameron

1960-01-01

393

Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ

K. Tsuhako; I. Nakazato; T. Hirayasu; H. Sunakawa; T. Iwamasa

1998-01-01

394

High prevalence of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) seems to play a role in the development and carcinogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Its incidence of expression and potential application as a tumor marker remain to be elucidated. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression was performed for 30 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 40 benign thyroid specimens. COX-2 mRNA expression was analyzed using a

Chung-Yau Lo; Kin-Yin Lam; Pauline P Leung; John M Luk

2005-01-01

395

Testicular function after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Radiotherapy can cause infertility in both men and women. However, few data are available concerning the effects of radioiodine\\u000a therapy for thyroid carcinoma on testicular function. We investigated 25 men (age 23–73 years) with differentiated thyroid\\u000a carcinoma in a longitudinal prospective trial. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), inhibin B, luteinising hormone (LH) and\\u000a testosterone were measured before (n=25) and 3 months

Maria Wichers; Elisabeth Benz; Holger Palmedo; Hans J. Biersack; Frank Grünwald; Dietrich Klingmüller

2000-01-01

396

Transnasal permanent interstitial implantation for carcinoma of the nasopharynx  

SciTech Connect

A technique for transnasal permanent interstitial implantation of the nasopharynx with /sup 125/I seeds is described. This technique allows the precise placement of radioactive sources into mucosal and submucosal tumors, without the need for palatal fenestration. Preliminary results in 10 patients treated by this technique for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma are presented. In the future the authors also hope to employ this technique for delivering ''boost'' irradiation to the primary site, in the initial definitive management of carcinoma of the nasopharynx.

Vikram, B.; Hilaris, B.

1984-01-01

397

Bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma with nodal metastases. An ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

A case of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma of the lung was studied by light and electron microscopy. Type II granular pneumocytes were seen in the lymph node metastases of the tumor, a finding not reported previously. We feel that the presence of these cells in metastatic foci indicates their neoplastic nature, and provides evidence that bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma arises from type II cells. PMID:231385

Morningstar, W A; Hassan, M O

1979-06-01

398

Feminizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Distant Metastases: Can Surgery be Considered?  

PubMed Central

Functioning adrenocortical carcinomas are rare diseases with dismal prognosis. A 41-year-old man presenting with gynecomastia had a giant feminizing adrenocortical carcinoma at stage IV. Although surgical resection was controversial, we removed the primary tumor to reduce the mass effects. He lived for 12 months with an acceptable quality of life. Gynecomastia may be the first sign of feminizing adrenal malignancies. Surgery may ameliorate the quality of life in selected patients with metastatic disease. PMID:25332762

Fancellu, Alessandro; Pinna, Antonio; Porcu, Alberto

2014-01-01

399

Clinical Characteristics of Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.Methods.Between 1986 and 1996, 45 patients with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary were identified by scanning the medical records department and the tumor registry at our institution.Results.Median age was 55 years (range 31–80 years). Tumors were 60% (27\\/45) stage I, 11% (5\\/45)

Kian Behbakht; Thomas C. Randall; Ivor Benjamin; Mark A. Morgan; Stephanie King; Stephen C. Rubin

1998-01-01

400

Afatinib After Chemoradiation and Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck at High-Risk of Recurrence  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

2014-09-16

401

A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-04-21

402

Intratumoral PV701 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

2013-01-23

403

Carcinoma of the middle ear and external auditory canal  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-one patients with malignant tumors of the middle ear and external auditory canal (EAC) were observed at the University of Virginia Hospital from 1956 through 1980. Of 27 patients with carcinoma, 21 had squamous cell carcinoma, 4 had basal cell carcinoma and 2 had adenoid cystic carcinoma. The 27 patients with carcinoma are reviewed with regard to clinical presentation, treatment modality, results and complications. The majority (67%) of patients had a history of chronic ear drainage, 22% had a previous mastoidectomy or polypectomy and 7% had an associated cholesteatoma. Eighty percent of patients with carcinoma limited to EAC were alive and well at 5 years, compared to 43% of patients with involvement of the middle ear. Fifty-six percent of patients without invasion of the petrous bone were alive at 5 years compared to only 20% of patients with petrous bone involvement. The data strongly suggest that survival depends on the extent of disease. The corrected disease free 5 year survival rates were 14% for patients who had surgery alone and 50% for those who had surgery and radiotherapy. Of the three patients with advanced disease who received radiotherapy alone, none survived five years.

Hahn, S.S.; Kim, J.A.; Goodchild, N.; Constable, W.C.

1983-07-01

404

The histone acetyltransferase hMOF suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth.  

PubMed

Males absent on the first (MOF) is a histone acetyltransferase belongs to the MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and TIP60) family. In mammals, MOF plays critical roles in transcription activation by acetylating histone H4K16, a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF can also acetylate transcription factor p53 on K120, which is important for activation of pro-apoptotic genes; and TIP5, the largest subunit of NoRC, on K633. However, the role of hMOF in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. Here we find that the expression of hMOF is significantly down-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma and cell lines. Furthermore, our survival analysis indicates that low hMOF expression predicts poor overall and disease-free survival. We demonstrate that hMOF knockdown promotes hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo, while hMOF overexpression reduces hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanically, we show that hMOF regulates the expression of SIRT6 and its downstream genes. In summary, our findings demonstrate that hMOF participates in human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting SIRT6, and hMOF activators may serve as potential drug candidates for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. PMID:25181338

Zhang, Jin; Liu, Hui; Pan, Hao; Yang, Yuan; Huang, Gang; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Pan, Ze-Ya

2014-09-26

405

Histiocytoid breast carcinoma: a case report showing immunohistochemical profiles  

PubMed Central

Histiocytoid breast carcinoma (HBC) is a rare type of breast cancer with a controversial histogenesis. Here we describe a case report of a 65-year old woman with HBC. The patient presented with two masses in the right breast. Histopathologically, the tumors consisted of a diffuse infiltration of large tumor cells and histological components of carcinoma in situ and atypical lobular hyperplasia were also observed. The infiltration pattern was similar to that of invasive lobular carcinoma with targetoid and Indian file arrangements. The invasive histiocytoid cells had finely granular, eosinophilic to vesicular cytoplasm and nuclei with a bland uniform appearance, a single small eosinophilic nucleolus and finely granular chromatin. We compared the immunohistochemical profiles of 17 breast cancer markers between invasive carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, atypical lobular hyperplasia and normal breast epithelium. Although they all shared the same reactivity for many of the proteins, they exhibited differences in GCDFP-15, E-cadherin, P120, CEA, HER-2, ER and PR expression, and these are discussed. This is the first case study of two HBC masses occurring in one breast simultaneously. By analyzing and comparing their morphologic characteristics and spectrum of immunohistochemical expression, our study supports the view that HBC is a variant of lobular carcinoma and our findings may assist in future diagnoses of HBC. PMID:24228128

Li, Peifeng; Zheng, Jinfeng; Zhang, Tingguo; Cao, Ruixue; Chen, Xin; Geng, Ming

2013-01-01

406

Solitary splenic metastasis of ovarian carcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Splenic metastasis from ovarian carcinoma generally presents as peritoneal spread with multiorgan involvement. Fewer than 30 cases of solitary parenchymal splenic metastasis from ovarian carcinoma have been published in the literature. The presentation is often asymptomatic. Case presentation An increase in tumor marker CA-125 from 18.1 to 132.6 units/ml (normal <35 units/ml) was measured in a 56-year-old Israeli Jewish woman who had undergone, six years previously, a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy due to right ovarian carcinoma. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a mass of 6×8cm at the anterior of the spleen, with close proximity to the wall of the stomach. A gastroscopy demonstrated exterior pressure on the stomach body. An open splenectomy was performed to exclude a peritoneal carcinomatosis. No intraoperative evidence of tumoral spreading in the abdominal cavity was observed, other than the spleen. The final histologic result demonstrated a high-grade carcinoma consistent with metastatic endometrioid-type ovarian carcinoma grade 3. Conclusions This case highlights the importance of cancer antigen 125 assessment and medical imaging in the follow-up of ovarian carcinoma. Open laparotomy, or laparoscopy, enables exclusion of a peritoneal carcinomatosis, which is more common than solitary parenchymal splenic metastasis, as was presented in the current case. PMID:24886423

2014-01-01

407

[Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma: report of two cases].  

PubMed

We report two cases of chromophobe cell renal carcinoma. Case 1 was in a 62-year-old man with the chief complaint of hematospermia. Ultrasound incidentally detected a left renal mass. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a relatively homogeneous, hypovascular tumor of the left kidney. We performed radical nephrectomy after making a clinical diagnosis of possible renal carcinoma. Case 2 was in a 66-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital after a left renal mass was incidentally found by ultrasonography during a health check. We performed laparoscopic radical nephrectomy after making a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma by CT and MRI. Both of the tumors were shown to be chromophobe cell carcinoma by microscopic examination after H & E staining and immunohistochemistry using Hale's colloidal iron stain. Chromophobe cell carcinoma is an uncommon type of renal cell carcinoma and the number of reported cases is limited in Japan. The clinical features and management of this rare tumor are discussed. PMID:14978963

Ito, Toshiki; Nagae, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Satoshi; Hadano, Shinsuke; Mugiya, Soichi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Ozono, Seiichiro

2003-12-01

408

FR901228 in Treating Patients With Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Cancer) of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

2013-06-11

409

Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and p53 helps distinguish endometrial Arias-Stella reaction from high-grade carcinoma, including clear cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The distinction of the Arias-Stella reaction from clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium is usually straightforward; however, this differential diagnosis can be difficult when the Arias-Stella reaction occurs outside the setting of pregnancy or in older patients. The differential diagnosis also is problematic when serous or clear cell carcinoma focally arises within an endometrial polyp, as part of "endometrial intra-epithelial carcinoma" (EIC), or in younger patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether immunohistochemical staining can distinguish the Arias-Stella reaction from endometrial high-grade carcinoma, particularly clear cell carcinoma. Cases of endometrial Arias-Stella reaction (n = 27), clear cell carcinoma (n = 11), serous carcinoma (n = 7), and EIC (n = 4) were assessed by immunohistochemical staining with antibodies for Ki-67, p53, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR). Composite immunohistochemical scores based on the percentage and intensity of stained cells were calculated, as was the overall positivity (percentage positive cases), using a cutoff value of >/=5% stained cells and at least weak intensity. Appropriate statistical tests were performed. Ki-67 and p53 immunostaining was significantly less in Arias-Stella reaction than in clear cell carcinoma (p < 0.0001 for both) or serous carcinoma/EIC (p < 0.0001 for both), measured by the composite immunohistochemical scores or overall positivity. ER showed a significant difference only between Arias-Stella reaction and clear cell carcinoma; PR showed a significant difference only between Arias-Stella reaction and serous carcinoma/EIC. When clinical or histologic features cannot facilitate the differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and p53 may help distinguish endometrial Arias-Stella reaction from clear cell carcinoma and other types of high-grade carcinoma. PMID:15213598

Vang, Russell; Barner, Ross; Wheeler, Darren T; Strauss, Brian L

2004-07-01

410

Correlation of cyclooxygenase-2 and aromatase immunohistochemical expression in invasive ductal carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ , and adjacent normal epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and aromatase immunohistochemical\\u000a expression in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) present in the same breast, as well as in adjacent stroma and normal epithelium,\\u000a we still correlated with nuclear grade, histologic grade, presence or absence of comedonecrosis, tumor size, and age at

Vilmar Marques Oliveira; Sebastião Piato; Maria Antonieta Longo Galvão Silva

2006-01-01

411

Gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with a trilineage cell differentiation: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Most gastric neuroendocrine tumours are well differentiated and considered as neuroendocrine neoplasms, whilst poorly differentiated lesions are considered as neuroendocrine carcinomas and account for only 6-16% of gastric neuroendocrine tumours. Gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas are rare malignancies usually composed of a neuroendocrine carcinoma and an adenocarcinoma with a variable grade of differentiation. Here, we report an unusual and rare gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with a trilineage cell differentiation including a neuroendocrine carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and a squamous cell carcinoma. A brief discussion of the histopathological features, biological behaviour and treatment of this rare tumour type is presented. PMID:22740822

Pericleous, Marinos; Toumpanakis, Christos; Lumgair, Heather; Caplin, Martyn E; Morgan-Rowe, Luke; Clark, Ian; Luong, Tu Vinh

2012-05-01

412

Gastric Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma with a Trilineage Cell Differentiation: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Most gastric neuroendocrine tumours are well differentiated and considered as neuroendocrine neoplasms, whilst poorly differentiated lesions are considered as neuroendocrine carcinomas and account for only 6–16% of gastric neuroendocrine tumours. Gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas are rare malignancies usually composed of a neuroendocrine carcinoma and an adenocarcinoma with a variable grade of differentiation. Here, we report an unusual and rare gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with a trilineage cell differentiation including a neuroendocrine carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma and a squamous cell carcinoma. A brief discussion of the histopathological features, biological behaviour and treatment of this rare tumour type is presented. PMID:22740822

Pericleous, Marinos; Toumpanakis, Christos; Lumgair, Heather; Caplin, Martyn E.; Morgan-Rowe, Luke; Clark, Ian; Luong, Tu Vinh

2012-01-01

413

Tumor-to-tumor metastasis with endometrial carcinoma metastatic to squamous cell carcinoma of vulva: the first reported case.  

PubMed

Endometrial carcinoma metastasizing to the vulva is a rare occurrence, with only 15 reported cases in the literature. To our knowledge, no cases of tumor-to-tumor metastasis involving endometrial carcinoma as a donor tumor have ever been published. We report the first case of an endometrial carcinoma as a donor tumor metastasizing to a squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, a recipient tumor. A 79-year-old woman with a history of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus presented with a vulvar lesion. Pathologic examination of the excised lesion confirmed the presence of metastatic endometrioid adenocarcinoma; however, it was found within a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Surrounding the squamous cell carcinoma was a background of a high-grade vulvar intraepithelial lesion (vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 3), and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of 2 separate tumors involved in a tumor-to-tumor metastasis. This unique case highlights the importance of awareness of the phenomenon, and expands the current spectrum of tumor-to-tumor metastases. PMID:24283863

Wimmer, Jana L; Coffey, Donna M; Kaplan, Alan L; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

2013-12-01

414

Axillary Metastasis from an Occult Tubal Serous Carcinoma in a Patient with Ipsilateral Breast Carcinoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall  

PubMed Central

Axillary nodal metastasis from a nonmammary neoplasia is much rarer than diseases associated with a primary breast carcinoma. However, this has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodal disease in patients with a history of breast cancer. Here, we report the case of a 73-year-old female with a past medical history of breast cancer, presenting with an ipsilateral axillary metastatic carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profile of the metastatic lesion was consistent with a high grade serous carcinoma. After undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, thorough pathological examination revealed two microscopic foci of serous carcinoma in the right fallopian tube, not detectable by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. In this context, the poorly differentiated appearance of the metastatic tumor and positive staining for estrogen receptor, might lead to a misdiagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma. As the therapeutic implications differ, it is important for the pathologist to critically assess axillary lymph node metastases, even in patients with a past history of ipsilateral breast carcinoma and no other known primary tumors. PMID:25110596

Altinel, Gulbeyaz; Arseneau, Jocelyne; Omeroglu, Atilla

2014-01-01

415

Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

2014-05-07

416

Ultrasonographic Findings of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Comparison with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was designed to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) as compared to findings for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Materials and Methods The study included 21 cases of MTC that were surgically diagnosed between 2002 and 2007 and 114 cases of PTC that were diagnosed in 2007. Two radiologists reached a consensus in the evaluation of the US findings. The US findings were classified as recommended by the Thyroid Study Group of the Korean Society of Neuroradiology and Head and Neck Radiology (KSNHNR) and each nodule was identified as suspicious malignant, indeterminate or probably benign. The findings of medullary and papillary carcinomas were compared with use of the chi-squared test. Results The common US findings for MTCs were solid internal content (91%), an ovoid to round shape (57%), marked hypoechogenicity (52%) and calcifications (52%). Among the 21 cases of MTC nodules, 17 (81%) were classified as suspicious malignant nodules. The mean size (longest diameter) of MTC nodules was 19 ± 13.9 mm and the mean size (longest diameter) of PTC nodules was 11 ± 7.4 mm; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). An ovoid to round shape was more prevalent for MTC lesions than for PTC lesions (p < 0.05). Conclusion The US criteria for suspicious malignant nodules as recommended by the Thyroid Study Group of the KSNHNR correspond to most MTC cases. The US findings for MTC are not greatly different from PTC except for the prevalence of an ovoid to round shape. PMID:19270854

Kim, Sung-Hun; Jung, So-Lyung; Lee, Jung-Whee; Yang, Po-Sung; Kang, Bong-Joo; Lim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Jee-Young; Whang, In-Yong; Kwon, Heuk-Sang; Jung, Chan-Kwon

2009-01-01

417

Comparative diagnostic efficacy of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common liver malignancy in Nigeria. Hepatitis B and C viruses, alcohol and Aflatoxin B are among the various aetiologies. More work needs to be done in the search for markers that will aid early detection of this condition as it is uniformly fatal once advanced. Alphafetoprotein (AFP) remains the most widely used tumour marker of HCC detection in spite of its known shortcomings. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) , in comparison to alphafetoprotein in the detection of HCC. Method Sixty patients with HCC and thirty apparently healthy controls attending the Medical Outpatient Department(MOPD) of the University College Hospital Ibadan(UCH) Nigeria were selected for the study. Questionnaire was used to collect clinical data while AFP, SCCA levels, serum HBsAg and anti-HCV were determined using ELISA method- (Diagnostic Automation Inc. Canada). Abdominal ultrasound scan was also done. Result Thirty one (51.7%) out of 60 selected cases were positive for HBsAg while six (20%) out of 30 controls were positive for HBsAg(p?=?0.004). Out of the 60 cases selected for this study, only 2 (3.3.%) cases were positive for hepatitis C virus, while only 1(3.3%) out of 30 control was positive for hepatitis C virus(p?=?0.74). The mean AFP value for cases with HCC was 393.21 ng/ml ±386.97 compared to the control group which was 5.60?±?13.03 ng/ml (p value 0.001). The mean SCCA level was 0.64?±?0.56 ng/ml and 0.71?±?0.65 ng/ml for cases and controls respectively (p?=?0.631). Conclusion Alphafetoprotein remains a good tumour marker for the diagnosis of HCC. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen(SCCA) has no discriminatory power and may not be useful as a tumour marker for Nigerians with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22856336

2012-01-01

418

Downregulated Chibby in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with increased expression in laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells.  

PubMed

Chibby (Cby) inhibits Wnt/?-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation by competing with Lef-1 (the transcription factor and target of ?-catenin) to bind to ?-catenin. This suggests that Cby could be a tumor suppressor protein. In the present study, we examined Cby expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its function and mechanism in laryngeal carcinoma cell lines. Cby expression levels were investigated by immunohistochemistry in a panel of 36 LSCC patient cases. The expression of ?-catenin, c-myc and cyclin D1 in Hep-2 were determined through RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Activity of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway after overexpression of Cby was measured by TCF/LEF luciferase reporter gene assay. Proliferation, clone forming ability, cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis of Hep-2 cells were detected by MTT assay, plate colony forming assay, flow cytometry and TUNEL assay, respectively. This study showed that expression of Cby protein was strongly downregulated in LSCC tumor tissues in comparison to normal laryngeal mucosa samples. No significant correlation was found between the expression of Cby in tumor tissue and gender, age, clinical stage and tumor differentiation of laryngeal cancer patients. When Cby was overexpressed in Hep-2 cells, the expression of cyclin D1 was reduced and ?-catenin activity was inhibited. Proliferation and plate colony forming assays revealed a significant inhibitory effect of Cby on growth and colony formation ability of Hep-2 cells after Cby overexpression in comparison to control and mock-infected cells. In addition, we also found that upregulated expression of Cby resulted in accumulation of numbers of cells in G0/G1 phase with concomitant decrease in S phase by cell cycle assay. TUNEL staining demonstrated that, compared with the control group, the rate of apoptosis in the plv-cs2.0-Cby group was significantly increased. Taken together, downregulation of Cby was observed in LSCC, but with no significant correlation to the clinicopathological features of LSCC patients. Overexpression of Cby effectively suppressed laryngeal carcinoma cell growth and promoted its apoptosis. A better understanding of the mechanisms of Cby gene activation in LSCC could provide potential novel therapeutic targets for human laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:25175341

Xu, Jue; Ren, Gang; Zhao, De-An; Li, Bo-An; Cai, Cheng-Fu; Zhou, Yi; Luo, Xian-Yang

2014-11-01

419

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic therapy and topical chemotherapy. Radiotherapy should be avoided. Vitamin A analogs may play a preventive role against development of new BCCs. Life expectancy in NBCCS is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications can be substantial. Regular follow-up by a multi-specialist team (dermatologist, neurologist and odontologist) should be offered. Patients with NBCCS should strictly avoid an excessive sun exposure. PMID:19032739

Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

2008-01-01

420

Management options for vulvar carcinoma in a low resource setting  

PubMed Central

Background Vulvar carcinoma is a rare tumor of the female genital tract. In Nigeria, very few studies have looked at the management options for vulvar carcinoma. The objective of this study was therefore, to describe the management options available and the challenges in treating this malignancy in Nigeria. Methods A descriptive study of all vulvar cancer cases managed at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi over a 12 year period (1998-2009). The theatre, ward register, histo-pathologic records and case notes of all women who had surgery for vulvar carcinomas were retrieved and socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, type of surgery, histologic type and complications of treatment were retrieved and analyzed. Results There were 867 gynecological malignancies and vulval carcinoma accounted for 11 cases, giving a prevalence of 1.27%. The ages ranged from 54 to 79 years with a mean of 61.2 years. Parity was 2-14, with a mean of 6.7± 2.33. Most of the patients were of low socio-economic class. All the 11 patients had surgery as 1st line treatment. Radical vulvectomy was done for 6 cases since they presented in the advanced stage. The complications of surgery included hemorrhage (18.2%), chronic lymphedema, wound infection and anesthetic complications. There were no hospital mortalities. Late presentation, with stage III (45.4%) was the commonest stage at presentation while the majority of the vulvar carcinomas (72.7%) were of epithelial origin. Squamous cell carcinoma predominated (63.6%). Conclusion Carcinoma of the vulva is a rare gynecological malignancy in Nigeria. Surgery and radiotherapy remains the mainstay of this disease in Nigeria and can be highly successful if patients present early. PMID:21040577

2010-01-01

421

Brachytherapy in Lip Carcinoma: Long-Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose-rate brachytherapy for local control and relapse-free survival in squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the lips. We compared two groups: one with tumors on the skin and the other with tumors on the lip. Patients and methods: All patients had been treated at Claudius Regaud Cancer Centre from 1990 to 2008 for squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was performed with iridium 192 wires according to the Paris system rules. On average, the dose delivered was 65 Gy. Results: 172 consecutive patients were included in our study; 69 had skin carcinoma (squamous cell or basal cell), and 92 had squamous cell mucosal carcinoma. The average follow-up time was 5.4 years. In the skin cancer group, there were five local recurrences and one lymph node recurrence. In the mucosal cancer group, there were ten local recurrences and five lymph node recurrences. The 8-year relapse-free survival for the entire population was 80%. The 8-year relapse-free survival was 85% for skin carcinoma 75% for mucosal carcinoma, with no significant difference between groups. The functional results were satisfactory for 99% of patients, and the cosmetic results were satisfactory for 92%. Maximal toxicity observed was Grade 2. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate brachytherapy can be used to treat lip carcinomas at Stages T1 and T2 as the only treatment with excellent results for local control and relapse-free survival. The benefits of brachytherapy are also cosmetic and functional, with 91% of patients having no side effects.

Guibert, Mireille, E-mail: mireilleguib@voila.fr [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Larrey Hospital, Toulouse (France); David, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Claudius Regaud Institut, Toulouse (France); Vergez, Sebastien [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Larrey Hospital, Toulouse (France); Rives, Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Claudius Regaud Institut, Toulouse (France); Filleron, Thomas [Department of Epidemiology, Claudius Regaud Institut, Toulouse (France); Bonnet, Jacques; Delannes, Martine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Claudius Regaud Institut, Toulouse (France)

2011-12-01

422

Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma - Chad Creighton, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma - Chad Creighton Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma - Chad Creighton, TCGA Scientific

423

Comprehensive Molecular Profiling of Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Siyuan Zheng, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Comprehensive Molecular Profiling of Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Siyuan Zheng Comprehensive Molecular Profiling of Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Siyuan Zheng, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014 You will need

424

Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma - Douglas Levine Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma - Douglas Levine, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need

425

Deciphering Drug Action and Escape Pathways: An Example on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

E-print Network

Deciphering Drug Action and Escape Pathways: An Example on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Difeng Dong1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with CYC202. Results show that the identified RAS-ERK pathway and PI3K

Wong, Limsoon

426

[Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma occurring in the sublingual gland: a case report].  

PubMed

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma occurring in the sublingual gland is extremely rare. In this report, a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the sublingual gland was presented. PMID:25241550

Luo, Chunyuan; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Linlin; Wang, Yujiang; Tan, Weibing

2014-08-01

427

Sorafenib Combined With Transarterial Chemoembolization in Treating HBV-infected Patients With Intermediate Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

PHENYTOIN/SORAFENIB [VA Drug Interaction]; Liver Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Liver Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; DOXORUBICIN/TRASTUZUMAB [VA Drug Interaction]; HBV

2012-04-24

428

Liver Resection and Transplantation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Liver resection is the most available, efficient treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Better liver function assessment, increased understanding of segmental liver anatomy using more accurate imaging studies, and surgical technical progress are the most important factors that have led to reduced mortality, with an expected 5 year survival of 70%. Impairment of liver function and the risk of tumor recurrence lead to consideration of liver transplantation (LT) as the ideal treatment for removal of the existing tumor and the preneoplastic underlying liver tissue. However, LT, which is not available in many countries, is restricted to patients with minimum risk of tumor recurrence under immunosuppression. Limited availability of grafts as well as the risk and the cost of the LT procedure has led to considerable interest in combined treatment involving resection and LT. An increasing amount of evidence has shown that initial liver resection in transplantable patients with a single limited tumor and good liver function is a valid indication. Histological analysis of specimens allows identification of the subgroup of patients who could benefit from follow-up with LT in case of recurrence. PMID:24159575

Belghiti, J.; Fuks, D.

2012-01-01

429

Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients. PMID:24978436

Ma, Janice E.; Brewer, Jerry D.

2014-01-01

430

Laser Ablation for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and is increasingly detected at small size (<5?cm) owing to surveillance programmes in high-risk patients. For these cases, curative therapies such as resection, liver transplantation, or percutaneous ablation have been proposed. When surgical options are precluded, image-guided tumor ablation is recommended as the most appropriate therapeutic choice in terms of tumor local control, safety, and improvement in survival. Laser ablation (LA) represents one of currently available loco-ablative techniques: light is delivered via flexible quartz fibers of diameter from 300 to 600??m inserted into tumor lesion through either fine needles (21g Chiba needles) or large-bore catheters. The thermal destruction of tissue is achieved through conversion of absorbed light (usually infrared) into heat. A range of different imaging modalities have been used to guide percutaneous laser ablation, but ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are most widely employed, according to local experience and resource availability. Available clinical data suggest that LA is highly effective in terms of tumoricidal capability with an excellent safety profile; the best results in terms of long-term survival are obtained in early HCC so that LA can be proposed not only in unresectable cases but, not differently from radiofrequency ablation, also as the first-line treatment. PMID:22191028

Pacella, Claudio Maurizio; Francica, Giampiero; Di Costanzo, Giovanni Giuseppe

2011-01-01

431

Plasminogen receptors on rat colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Cells from rat carcinoma cell lines PROb (giving progressive tumours) and REGb (giving regressive tumours) have cell surface receptors which bind specifically rat plasminogen and plasmin. Affinity for Pg was found to be higher in PROb (Kd = 10(-7) M) than in REGb cells (Kd = 5.10(-7) M) but with a concomitant decrease in the number of binding sites, 0.9 x 10(6)/cell (range from 0.6 to 1.2 x 10(6)) in PROb vs 3.6 x 10(6)/cell (range 1.2 to 6 x 10(6)) in REGb cells. The number and the affinity of binding sites varied in an opposite way in PROb and REGb cells. The difference in affinity parameters was unrelated to the degree of invasiveness of tumour cells in syngenetic rats. Bound plasmin retained its enzymatic activity, which indicates that its binding does not involve the catalytic active site. In cell solubilisates plasminogen receptor appeared as one major band situated in the area of 50-60 kDa. PMID:1322156

Durliat, M; Komano, O; Correc, P; Bertrand, O; Cochet, S; Caignard, A; Martin, F; Burtin, P

1992-07-01

432

Plasminogen receptors on rat colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed Central

Cells from rat carcinoma cell lines PROb (giving progressive tumours) and REGb (giving regressive tumours) have cell surface receptors which bind specifically rat plasminogen and plasmin. Affinity for Pg was found to be higher in PROb (Kd = 10(-7) M) than in REGb cells (Kd = 5.10(-7) M) but with a concomitant decrease in the number of binding sites, 0.9 x 10(6)/cell (range from 0.6 to 1.2 x 10(6)) in PROb vs 3.6 x 10(6)/cell (range 1.2 to 6 x 10(6)) in REGb cells. The number and the affinity of binding sites varied in an opposite way in PROb and REGb cells. The difference in affinity parameters was unrelated to the degree of invasiveness of tumour cells in syngenetic rats. Bound plasmin retained its enzymatic activity, which indicates that its binding does not involve the catalytic active site. In cell solubilisates plasminogen receptor appeared as one major band situated in the area of 50-60 kDa. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:1322156

Durliat, M.; Komano, O.; Correc, P.; Bertrand, O.; Cochet, S.; Caignard, A.; Martin, F.; Burtin, P.

1992-01-01

433

Oncogene mutational profile in nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in Southern China, but the oncogene mutational status of NPC patients has not been clarified. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 238 mutation hotspots in 19 oncogenes were examined in 123 NPC patients. The relationships between mutational status and clinical data were assessed with a ?2 or Fisher’s exact test. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan–Meier method with the log-rank test. In 123 patients, 21 (17.1%) NPC tumors were positive for mutations in eight oncogenes: six patients had PIK3CA mutations (4.9%), five NRAS mutations (4.1%), four KIT mutations (3.3%), two PDGFRA mutations (1.6%), two ABL mutations (1.6%), and one with simultaneous mutations in HRAS, EGFR, and BRAF (1%). Patients with mutations were more likely to relapse or develop metastasis than those with wild-type alleles (P=0.019). No differences or correlations were found in other clinical characteristics or in patient survival. No mutations were detected in oncogenes AKT1, AKT2, CDK, ERBB2, FGFR1, FGFR3, FLT3, JAK2, KRAS, MET, and RET. These results demonstrate an association between NPC and mutations in NRAS, KIT, PIK3CA, PDGFRA, and ABL, which are associated with patient relapse and metastasis. PMID:24672248

Zhang, Zi-Chen; Fu, Sha; Wang, Fang; Wang, Hai-Yun; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Shao, Jian-Yong

2014-01-01

434

Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa  

PubMed Central

The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa.

Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary ME; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

2014-01-01

435

Isolated nasopharyngeal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, the incidence of which parallels that of areas with high prevalence of chronic hepatitis. HCC commonly metastasizes to the lungs, lymph nodes, adrenals and bones with the overall prognosis of metastatic HCC being dismal. PRESENTATION OF CASE We herein with present a case of a 70-year-old male who was referred to our institution with history of nasal obstruction and nasal bleeding which on further evaluation was diagnosed to have an isolated metastasis to nasopharynx from liver primary. DISCUSSION Extrahepatic metastasis in HCC occurs in about 30–50% of patients, the commonest site being the lung. Rare sites of extrahepatic metastasis from HCC to the ovaries, kidneys, skeletal and cardiac musculature and brain have been reported. Unusual sites of metastasis in the head and neck area like the mandible have also been documented. With the changing trends in the treatment modalities, these patients are often treated using target therapy. CONCLUSION This article presents an unusual isolated metastasis to nasopharynx from HCC in the absence of disseminated disease. This case report illustrates the distinctive pathological features of metastatic HCC. PMID:24509427

Kattepur, Abhay K.; Patil, Darshan B.; Krishnamoorthy, Naveen; Srinivas, K.G.; Swamy, Shivananda; Amarendra, S.; Gopinath, K.S.

2014-01-01

436

Slug promoted vasculogenic mimicry in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the unique capability of aggressive tumour cells to mimic the pattern of embryonic vasculogenic networks. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator slug have been implicated in the tumour invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between slug and VM formation is not clear. In the study, we demonstrated that slug expression was associated with EMT and cancer stem cell (CSCs) phenotype in HCC patients. Importantly, slug showed statistically correlation with VM formation. We consistently demonstrated that an overexpression of slug in HCC cells significantly increased CSCs subpopulation that was obvious by the increased clone forming efficiency in soft agar and by flowcytometry analysis. Meantime, the VM formation and VM mediator overexpression were also induced by slug induction. Finally, slug overexpression lead to the maintenance of CSCs phenotype and VM formation was demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that slug induced the increase and maintenance of CSCs subpopulation and contributed to VM formation eventually. The related molecular pathways may be used as novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of HCC angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:23815612

Sun, Dan; Sun, Baocun; Liu, Tieju; Zhao, Xiulan; Che, Na; Gu, Qiang; Dong, Xueyi; Yao, Zhi; Li, Rui; Li, Jing; Chi, Jiadong; Sun, Ran

2013-01-01

437

Slug promoted vasculogenic mimicry in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the unique capability of aggressive tumour cells to mimic the pattern of embryonic vasculogenic networks. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator slug have been implicated in the tumour invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between slug and VM formation is not clear. In the study, we demonstrated that slug expression was associated with EMT and cancer stem cell (CSCs) phenotype in HCC patients. Importantly, slug showed statistically correlation with VM formation. We consistently demonstrated that an overexpression of slug in HCC cells significantly increased CSCs subpopulation that was obvious by the increased clone forming efficiency in soft agar and by flowcytometry analysis. Meantime, the VM formation and VM mediator overexpression were also induced by slug induction. Finally, slug overexpression lead to the maintenance of CSCs phenotype and VM formation was demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that slug induced the increase and maintenance of CSCs subpopulation and contributed to VM formation eventually. The related molecular pathways may be used as novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of HCC angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:23815612

Sun, Dan; Sun, Baocun; Liu, Tieju; Zhao, Xiulan; Che, Na; Gu, Qiang; Dong, Xueyi; Yao, Zhi; Li, Rui; Li, Jing; Chi, Jiadong; Sun, Ran

2013-08-01

438

[Conventional and CT diagnostics of bronchial carcinoma].  

PubMed

A number of important technical advances made in recent years in the area of both digital radiography as well as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have improved detection and staging of bronchial carcinoma. The aim of elaborate processing such as temporal subtraction, rib suppression, dual energy subtraction or CAD is to aid the radiologist in detecting lung tumors at the earliest stage possible. For both CT and radiography techniques the differentiation between true and false positive lesions seems to be the biggest challenge. MDCT with multiplanar projections is the imaging method of choice for staging of the extent of local tumor spread (T staging), while N staging and M staging are the domain of positron emission tomography (PET) or even better of integrated PET/CT. Management rules for follow-up of solid and semi-solid lesions seen in CT consider the risks of the patient and are summarized in international guidelines. In 2009 a new 7th edition of the TNM classification was published, which, among other aspects, sub-classifies tumor size more specifically and the presence of a satellite nodule in the tumor lobe is down-staged to T3 and no longer determines tumor resectability. The N staging was not modified. One of the most important new features is the fact that the new classification no longer applies only to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but also to SCLC and carcinoid tumors. PMID:20628724

Schaefer-Prokop, C

2010-08-01

439

Obesity, insulin resistance, NASH and hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and clinical data have clearly demonstrated that non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) predisposes risk to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NASH is the liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which constellates obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Although the percentage of patients diagnosed annually with NASH-associated HCC is still relatively low, this number signifies a large population due to the rapidly increasing incidence of obesity and diabetes globally. Fundamental studies on lipid storage, regulation of adipose factors, inflammatory cytokine recruitments and oxidative stress have provided insights into NASH as well as metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence also indicates the significant role of genetic factors in contributing to the pathogenesis of NASH and induced hepatic malignancy. In this review, we attempt to collate current research on NASH biology that lead to our understandings on how metabolic disorders may intersect with cancer development. We also discuss study models that have supported discoveries of molecular and cellular defects, and offered a perspective on therapeutic developments. These studies have collectively increased our knowledge on the complex signaling pathways involved in NASH and cancer, and provided the foundation for improved clinical management of patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:23876851

Yu, Jun; Shen, Jiayun; Sun, Ting Ting; Zhang, Xiang; Wong, Nathalie

2013-12-01

440

Hepatocellular carcinoma: a systems biology perspective  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) have different etiology and heterogenic genomic alterations lead to high complexity. The molecular features of HCC have largely been studied by gene expression and proteome profiling focusing on the correlations between the expression of specific markers and clinical data. Integration of the increasing amounts of data in databases has facilitated the link of genomic and proteomic profiles of HCC to disease state and clinical outcome. Despite the current knowledge, specific molecular markers remain to be identified and new strategies are required to establish novel-targeted therapies. In the last years, mathematical models reconstructing gene and protein networks based on experimental data of HCC have been developed providing powerful tools to predict candidate interactions and potential targets for therapy. Furthermore, the combination of dynamic and logical mathematical models with quantitative data allows detailed mechanistic insights into system properties. To address effects at the organ level, mathematical models reconstructing the three-dimensional organization of liver lobules were developed. In the future, integration of different modeling approaches capturing the effects at the cellular up to the organ level is required to address the complex properties of HCC and to enable the discovery of new targets for HCC prevention or treatment. PMID:23444340

D'Alessandro, Lorenza A.; Meyer, Rene; Klingmuller, Ursula

2013-01-01

441

Emerging signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Signaling pathways have become a major source of targets for novel therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Survival benefits achieved with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, are unprecedented and underscore the importance of improving our understanding of how signaling networks interact in transformed cells. Numerous signaling modules are de-regulated in HCC, including some related to growth factor signaling (e.g., IGF, EGF, PDGF, FGF, HGF), cell differentiation (WNT, Hedgehog, Notch), and angiogenesis (VEGF). Intracellular mediators such as RAS and AKT/MTOR may also play a role in HCC development and progression. Different molecular mechanisms have been shown to induce aberrant pathway activation. These include point mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and epigenetically driven down-regulation. The use of novel molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing in HCC research has enabled the identification of novel pathways previously underexplored in the HCC field, such as chromatin remodeling and autophagy. Considering recent failures of molecular therapies in advanced clinical trials (e.g., sunitinib, brivanib), survey of these and other new pathways may provide alternative therapeutic targets. PMID:24159576

Moeini, Agrin; Cornellà, Helena; Villanueva, Augusto

2012-09-01

442

Emerging Signaling Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Signaling pathways have become a major source of targets for novel therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Survival benefits achieved with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, are unprecedented and underscore the importance of improving our understanding of how signaling networks interact in transformed cells. Numerous signaling modules are de-regulated in HCC, including some related to growth factor signaling (e.g., IGF, EGF, PDGF, FGF, HGF), cell differentiation (WNT, Hedgehog, Notch), and angiogenesis (VEGF). Intracellular mediators such as RAS and AKT/MTOR may also play a role in HCC development and progression. Different molecular mechanisms have been shown to induce aberrant pathway activation. These include point mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and epigenetically driven down-regulation. The use of novel molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing in HCC research has enabled the identification of novel pathways previously underexplored in the HCC field, such as chromatin remodeling and autophagy. Considering recent failures of molecular therapies in advanced clinical trials (e.g., sunitinib, brivanib), survey of these and other new pathways may provide alternative therapeutic targets. PMID:24159576

Moeini, Agrin; Cornella, Helena; Villanueva, Augusto

2012-01-01

443

Pancreatic carcinoma in perspective. A continuing challenge.  

PubMed

There are approximately 27,000 new cases of carcinoma of the pancreas each year and most afflicted patients will die of the disease. Although smoking is a common denominator, chronic pancreatitis is considered an important precursor lesion in a smaller number of cancers. Pancreatic cancer is primarily a disease of the pancreatic ducts. The molecular events are under intense study, but c-K-ras mutation is involved in approximately 80% of the cases and p53 to a slightly lesser degree (60-80%). Early manifestations are usually occult, but jaundice is a common manifestation in patients with cancers of the pancreatic head. Thin-slice computed tomography, portography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently the most sensitive detection techniques. The developing use of endoscopic ultrasound and laparoscopy appear to enhance detection and are under evaluation. In many patients with advanced disease, endoscopic bypass may eliminate the need for unnecessary surgery, although gastrointestinal bypass is still required in some patients (10-15%). Curative resection is possible in selected patients (perhaps 10-15%), with expectation of extended survival ranging from 6->20% in some series. The survival differences may be related to stage, patient selection, and the expertise of the operative team. Preoperative chemotherapy/radiation is under study and may improve outcome. Clinical trial participation is essential for improvement in treatment outcomes. PMID:8681296

Wanebo, H J; Vezeridis, M P

1996-08-01

444

Clinicopathological analysis of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a rare malignant neoplasm. We aimed to investigate clinicopathological features, therapies, and prognoses of eight MEC cases. Methods Eight patients underwent surgical treatment for pulmonary MEC between 2005 and 2012 at the Thoracic Surgical Department of West China Hospital, Sichuan, China. The clinical data, radiological manifestation, treatment strategy, pathological findings, and prognoses of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results Among the eight cases (four males and four females), the age of patients ranged from 35 to 71 years (mean age 50.67 years). Two tumors were located in the upper lobes and three masses were located in the lower lobes. The other three lumps were located in the left main bronchus, middle segmental bronchus of the right lobe, and trachea, respectively. The characteristics of the tumors were consistent with low grade MEC (n?=?6) and high grade MEC (n?=?2). All of the patients were sent for oncological evaluations, and three patients with N1 or N2 disease received chemotherapy. One of the patients died from brain metastasis at 15 months. Seven of the eight patients were alive at the time of evaluation. The median survival time was 40 (range 8 to 88) months. Conclusion Mucoepidermoid tumors have to be treated by radical surgery with lymph node sampling and dissection. Patients with low grade tumors can be expected to be cured following complete resection. Careful histological typing plays a key role in prediction of late results, and further studies are needed. PMID:24507476

2014-01-01

445

Cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma of lung  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old male with a history of smoking since 30 years presented with breathlessness, hemoptysis, multiple swellings all over the body, and weakness in September 2010 at our hospital. Clinically, a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with cutaneous lymphoma or soft tissue tumor was made. Chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a neoplastic lesion in the right lung with secondary cavitation. Biopsy of the cutaneous nodules showed metastatic deposits from squamous cell carcinoma. Metastatic skin cancer is a relatively rare complication of internal malignancy. The clinical features of metastatic skin disease vary enormously. They may present as erysipeloid, sclerodermoid, alopecia neoplastica or in an inflammatory or bullous form or as multiple nodules as in our case. A high index of suspicion for metastatic deposits is required in an elderly male patient who is a known case of lung cancer or even one who is a chronic smoker and presents with such cutaneous lesions. PMID:23984229

Pathak, Smita; Joshi, Sneha R.; Jaison, Janice; Kendre, Dipak

2013-01-01

446

Strategies for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) generally develops as a consequence of underlying liver disease, most commonly viral hepatitis. The development of HCC follows an orderly progression from cirrhosis to dysplastic nodules to early cancer development, which can be reliably cured if discovered before the development of vascular invasion (typically occurring at a tumor diameter of approximately 2 cm). The identifiable population at risk makes screening a realistic possibility, and liver imaging is recommended every 6 months for patients with cirrhosis. For patients with preserved liver function and no portal hypertension who develop HCC that is confined to one region of the liver, resection is the preferred treatment. If resection is not possible because of poor liver function, and the HCC is within the Milan criteria (1 nodule > or =5 cm, 2-3 nodules > or =3 cm), liver transplantation is the treatment of choice. To prevent tumor progression while waiting, nonsurgical treatments including percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization are employed, but drop-out from the waiting list remains a problem. Living donor transplantation is an alternative that can eliminate drop-out and enable liver transplantation for patients with HCC whose disease does not fall within the Milan criteria. There is a need for more effective adjuvant therapies after resection and liver transplantation; newer antiangiogenic agents offer hope for improved outcomes in the future. PMID:17597707

Schwartz, Myron; Roayaie, Sasan; Konstadoulakis, Manousos

2007-07-01

447

Prognostic factors in feline mammary carcinoma.  

PubMed

Feline mammary carcinoma and canine mammary cancer were evaluated as models for future experimental therapy. Those tumor characteristics known to be of special prognostic significance in human mammary cancers were tested for their prognostic significance in the cat and were compared with those in the dog. The statistical analysis presented is based on a prospective follow-up study of 202 cats treated surgically by mastectomy and by block dissection. Thirty-five factors (general, anamnestic, clinical and histologic data, and data on therapy) were analyzed for relationships with survival, with local recurrence, and with each other. Of the 17 significant relationships found between survival and the direct factors, only 7 remained significant after correction. The factors that related to survival independently of each other were age, diameter of the primary tumor, presence of tumor-positive lymph nodes as judged by microscopic examination, number of mitotic figures, necrosis of the primary tumor, and histologic verification of completeness of surgical treatment. The value of statistical analysis for use in prospective studies of human mammary cancer is discussed. PMID:6572759

Weijer, K; Hart, A A

1983-04-01

448

Nuclear cloning of embryonal carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells have served as a model to study the relationship between cancer and cellular differentiation given their potential to produce tumors and, to varying degrees, participate in embryonic development. Here, nuclear transplantation was used to assess the extent to which the tumorigenic and developmental potential of EC cells is governed by epigenetic as opposed to genetic alterations. Nuclei from three independent mouse EC cell lines (F9, P19, and METT-1) with differing developmental and tumorigenic potentials all were able to direct early embryo development, producing morphologically normal blastocysts that gave rise to nuclear transfer (NT)-derived embryonic stem (ES) cell lines at a high efficiency. However, when tested for tumor or chimera formation, the resulting NT ES cells displayed an identical potential as their respective donor EC cells, in stark contrast to previously reported NT ES cells derived from transfer of untransformed cells. Consistent with this finding, comparative genomic hybridization identified previously undescribed genetic lesions in the EC cell lines. Therefore, nonreprogrammable genetic modifications within EC nuclei define the developmental and tumorigenic potential of resulting NT ES cells. Our findings support the notion that cancer results from the deregulation of stem cells and further suggest that the genetics of ECs will reveal genes involved in stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency. PMID:15306687

Blelloch, Robert H.; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Brennan, Cameron; Kim, Minjung; Mintz, Beatrice; Chin, Lynda; Jaenisch, Rudolf

2004-01-01

449

Diagnostic dilemma in myoepithelial carcinoma of cheek.  

PubMed

Myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) is a rare neoplasm of the salivary gland generally occurring in the parotid gland and rarely in the minor salivary glands. It poses a diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology because it can show different cell types and lack clear features of malignancy. This can lead to a range of differential diagnosis on cytology. The diagnostic difficulty can be compounded if the lesion is present at an unusual site. A 41-year-old male presented with a recurrent swelling on the check since 2 years with a prior history of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) at the same site 8 years back. FNA was performed and a diagnosis of recurrent PA or myoepithelial cell neoplasm was given. Final diagnosis was made on histology and immunohistochemistry studies and reported as MC of minor salivary gland originating within PA. Pathologist should be aware of the occurrence of MC at the sites of the minor salivary glands in the oral cavity and its wide morphologic spectrum to make a confident diagnosis of MC preoperatively. PMID:25118748

Khatib, Yasmeen; Patel, Richa D; Kane, Shubhada; Khaire, Surekha

2014-01-01

450

The Mutational Landscape of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most enigmatic of human malignancies. These aggressive salivary cancers frequently recur and metastasize despite definitive treatment, with no known effective chemotherapy regimen. Here, we determined the ACC mutational landscape and report the exome or whole genome sequences of 60 ACC tumor/normal pairs. These analyses revealed a low exonic somatic mutation rate (0.31 non-silent events/megabase) and wide mutational diversity. Interestingly, mutations selectively involved chromatin state regulators, such as SMARCA2, CREBBP, and KDM6A, suggesting aberrant epigenetic regulation in ACC oncogenesis. Mutations in genes central to DNA damage and protein kinase A signaling also implicate these processes. We observed MYB-NFIB translocations and somatic mutations in MYB-associated genes, solidifying these aberrations as critical events. Lastly, we identified recurrent mutations in the FGF/IGF/PI3K pathway that may potentially offer new avenues for therapy (30%). Collectively, our observations establish a molecular foundation for understanding and exploring new treatments for ACC. PMID:23685749

Ho, Allen S.; Kannan, Kasthuri; Roy, David M.; Morris, Luc G.T.; Ganly, Ian; Katabi, Nora; Ramaswami, Deepa; Walsh, Logan A.; Eng, Stephanie; Huse, Jason T.; Zhang, Jianan; Dolgalev, Igor; Huberman, Kety; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; Drobnjak, Marija; Leversha, Margaret A.; Rice, Christine E.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Leemans, C. Rene; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Ferris, Robert L.; Seethala, Raja R.; Gross, Benjamin E.; Liang, Yupu; Sinha, Rileen; Peng, Luke; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Turcan, Sevin; Gong, Yongxing; Schultz, Nikolaus; Kim, Seungwon; Chiosea, Simion; Shah, Jatin P.; Sander, Chris; Lee, William; Chan, Timothy A.

2013-01-01

451

Expression Profiling in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Of all of the epithelial ovarian cancers, clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary has the worst prognosis. We applied the oligonucleotide array technique to identify genes generally involved in CCC. Of the ?12,600 genes that were analyzed, 28 were expressed significantly differently between four CCC and seven non-CCC cell lines. Among 16 up-regulated genes in CCC, we further investigated a transcription factor, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1? (HNF-1?). We validated up-regulation of HNF-1? in CCC in terms of both mRNA and protein level using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Immunohistochemical analysis of 83 surgically resected ovarian cancers showed that almost all CCC specimens (21 of 22 cases) had nuclear staining for HNF-1?, whereas most non-CCC specimens (60 of 61 cases) showed no immunostaining or only focal and faint staining in the nucleus. Furthermore, we investigated the significance of HNF-1? expression in CCC using RNA interference. The reduction of HNF-1? expression by RNA interference induced apoptotic cell death in ovarian CCC cells, which was confirmed by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling and fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analyses. Our results suggest that HNF-1? is not only an excellent CCC-specific molecular marker but also a molecular target for therapy of ovarian CCC. PMID:14633622

Tsuchiya, Akira; Sakamoto, Michiie; Yasuda, Jun; Chuma, Makoto; Ohta, Tsutomu; Ohki, Misao; Yasugi, Toshiharu; Taketani, Yuji; Hirohashi, Setsuo

2003-01-01

452

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.  

PubMed

One hundred thirty-nine surgically treated patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MTC) were seen in our institution between January, 1926 and December, 1973. The incidence of this tumor among all thyroid cancers was 8%. Twenty-nine patients had the familial form of MTC; they were subclassified, on the basis of the phenotype, into a group of 15 patients with Sipple syndrome (or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) Type 2A) and a group of 14 patients with mucosal-neuroma phenotype (or MEN type 2B). Better survivorship was seen in the younger patients, in those with bilateral tumors, in familial MTC, and in patients whose tumor was confined to the thyroid gland at the initial surgery. The incidence of tumor recurrence was 34%. However, in those with adequate surgical treatment, the recurrence was only 23%. The 5- and 10-year survivorships were 80% and 67%, respectively. The best chance of cure lies in early diagnosis through the use of immunoreactive calcitonin measurement in family members at risk, and an aggressive surgical attack on the primary tumor and any cervical metastases. PMID:1111937

Chong, G C; Beahrs, O H; Sizemore, G W; Woolner, L H

1975-03-01

453

HRAS mutations in epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

The molecular profile of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas (EMCa) has not been well studied, though a recent association with Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) mutations has been noted. To confirm and validate this, we surveyed fifteen EMCa for HRAS codon 61 mutations and correlated HRAS status with clinicopathologic parameters. There were 11 females and 4 males and mean patient age was 64 (range 49-90). Parotid gland was most commonly involved (n = 10) and the most common histologic appearance was that of a 'classic' EMCa (7/15). Four of fifteen (26.7 %) cases demonstrated local recurrence, while 2/15 (13.3 %) demonstrated distant metastases. Other variant morphologies included EMCa arising from pleomorphic adenoma (3/15), and high grade EMCa (2/15). HRAS exon 3, codon 61 mutations, p.Q61R (n = 3) and p.Q61 K (n = 1) were identified in 4 of 15 successfully tested EMCAs (14 patients). Two cases were classic type, while the other cases consisted of one oncocytic variant, and one tumor with myoepithelial overgrowth, the latter of which showed the same mutation in both the primary and recurrence. Of note, the high grade EMCa and EMCa ex pleomorphic adenoma were negative for mutations. Given the small number of cases, there were no significant differences between mutation positive and mutation negative cases in terms of age, gender and outcome. PMID:24277618

Chiosea, Simion I; Miller, Megan; Seethala, Raja R

2014-06-01

454

Natural history of recurrences in endometrial carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the natural history of endometrial cancer recurrences with regard to predictive and prognostic factors. Between 1990 and 1999, 100 patients were treated for recurrences of endometrial carcinoma (all FIGO stages). Overall, 90 tumors were of endometrioid type. A total of 82 patients were treated with surgery, 41 patients received adjuvant external irradiation and 91 patients received vaginal brachytherapy. The median time to recurrence (TTR) was 32 months. The recurrences were treated using a combination of high-dose-rate brachytherapy and external pelvic irradiation in 35 cases. In addition, 44 patients were treated with chemotherapy and 21 patients received other types of therapy. The complete remission rate was 29% and the overall response rate was 44%. Among patients treated with radiotherapy, the response rate was 88% and, for those treated with chemotherapy, the rate was 33%. The local control of vaginal recurrences treated with combined radiotherapy was 93%. In 45 patients (45%) a second recurrence was identified and a third recurrence occurred in 12 patients. The overall five-year survival rate was 44%. Age, FIGO grade, nuclear grade, TTR and response to treatment were found to be independent and significant prognostic factors for overall survival rate. Locoregional recurrences were associated with a generalized extra-pelvic disease in 63% of the cases. PMID:25202413

SORBE, BENGT; JURESTA, CHRISTIAN; AHLIN, CE