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1

Carcinoma primario mucinoso vulvar en estadio avanzado, asociado con enfermedad de Paget Primary advanced stage mucinous vulvar carcinoma associated with Paget's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction: Vulvar Pagets disease (VPD) is infre- quent (less than 1% of vulvary tumours) and corresponds to a mucous intraepithelial adenocarcinoma. The association of VPD with an infiltrating tumour of the same lineage requires investigation of the relationship between the two neoplasias. Primary VPD is less common than the «page- toid» involvement of metastatic vulvar carcinomas arising in the

Youssef Bouhajeb; María Teresa; Miguel Salas; Alicia Cazorla Jiménez; Ernesto Crespo Azanza

2

Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Lenguaje Java Avanzado  

E-print Network

Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Lenguaje Java Avanzado Sesión 2: Colecciones de datos © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA #12;Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Lenguaje Java Avanzado Java Enterprise Lenguaje Java Avanzado © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA Colecciones

Escolano, Francisco

3

POSGRADO EN PROJECT MANAGEMENT AVANZADO  

E-print Network

POSGRADO EN PROJECT MANAGEMENT AVANZADO 15A eDICI�N 2013/14 #12;PRESENTACI�N El control y la intervienen en un proyecto: planifica- ción, calidad, costes y otros aspectos económicos, subcontratación y múltiple objetivo de desarrollar proyectos con la calidad necesaria, ajustándose a las es- pecificaciones

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

4

Lenguaje Java Avanzado 1 Presentacin..................................................................................................................2  

E-print Network

Lenguaje Java Avanzado Índice 1 Presentación herramientas útiles para probar y depurar aplicaciones Java y Java EE. Por último, se estudiará el acceso de sesión Materiales 1. Introducción al lenguaje Java apuntes traspas ejercicios 2. Marco de

Escolano, Francisco

5

Lenguaje Java Avanzado 1 Introduccin al lenguaje Java.......................................................................................4  

E-print Network

Lenguaje Java Avanzado Índice 1 Introducción al lenguaje Java.......................................................................................4 1.1 Java......................................................................................5 1.3 Componentes de un programa Java

Escolano, Francisco

6

Preguntas para el doctor si tiene un cáncer avanzado  

Cancer.gov

Serie de preguntas que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacerle al médico sobre las opciones de tratamiento si el cáncer es avanzado, las formas de controlar los síntomas y cómo prepararse para la etapa final de la vida.

7

Cuestionario avanzado sobre Open Access y repositorios institucionales [Jos Luis Chiara, Instituto de Qumica Orgnica General (IQOG-CSIC)  

E-print Network

en marcha del repositorio institucional Digital.CSIC es una buena noticia para la comunidadCuestionario avanzado sobre Open Access y repositorios institucionales [José Luis Chiara, Instituto del NIH y otros organismos públicos, fundaciones e instituciones de hacer libremente accesibles los

8

Planificación de la transición a la atención en la etapa final de la vida para los pacientes con cáncer en estadio avanzado (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la etapa final de la vida en los casos de cáncer en estadio avanzado.

9

Planificación de la transición a la atención en la etapa final de la vida para los pacientes de cáncer en estadio avanzado (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la etapa final de la vida en los casos de cáncer en estadio avanzado.

10

Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments M - P Merkel cell carcinoma Merkel cell carcinoma Merkel cell carcinoma : This rare skin cancer ... 1) or firm bump (2). What is Merkel cell carcinoma? Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare ...

11

Basal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments A - D Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer often ... skin tissue and bone. Learn more about basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Basal ...

12

Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments Q - T Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma : This man's skin has ... SCC is highly curable. Learn more about squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma: Signs and symptoms Squamous ...

13

Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

In the U.S., an estimated 300 people are diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma each year.1 If detected at an early stage, this type of cancer can often be successfully treated. However, almost 70 percent of people are diagnosed with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.2 For patients at the latest stage of this cancer, less than 20 percent survive five years after diagnosis.

14

Adrenocortical carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... this tumor. Adrenocortical carcinoma can produce the hormones cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, or testosterone, as well as other ... Symptoms that suggest increased cortisol or other adrenal gland ... high on the back just below the neck ( buffalo hump ) Flushed ...

15

Sebaceous Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... dermatologist What is a dermatopathologist What is a Mohs surgeon What is a pediatric dermatologist What is ... al. “Sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid treated with Mohs micrographic surgery.” J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44: ...

16

Carcinoma multiplex.  

PubMed

Multiple primaries in a single patient are uncommon, though not very rare. The existence of such cancers in two un-related, non-paired organs is even more un-common. Here, we present a case of 55 years old male who presented to us with a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland and was operated. Later on, he presented with a large cystic swelling in the pelvis which turned out to be pseudomyxoma peritonei. A review of slides and immunohistochemistry indicated it to be adenocarcinoma colon. He presented again with recurrent mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid which was operated successfully with the use of myocutaneous flap for wound closure. He is currently undergoing chemotherapy. In order to establish a separate mono-clonal etiology of both tumours, immunohistochemistry was performed. To the best of our knowledge, carcinoma multiplex in the colon and the parotid has never been reported before. PMID:23552543

Shah, Syed Aslam; Riaz, Umbreen; Zahoor, Imran; Jalil, Ana; Zubair, Muhammad

2013-04-01

17

Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Last Updated: May 14, 2013 What is liver cancer?Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer in the United States, making up more than

18

Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)  

MedlinePLUS

... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

19

Medullary carcinoma of thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

20

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

In this editorial comment, the author presents a review of recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx. The value of the use of CT scans for differentiating between cranial nerve involvement by recurring tumors and irradiation neuropathy, and between temporal lobe irradiation encephalopathy and other nonneoplastic neurologic disorders and meningeal metastasis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging is said to be superior to CT for finding soft tissue involvement or abnormalities in the brain. 13 references.

Ho, J.H.C.

1985-07-01

21

Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

22

Hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the 10 most common tumours, and the most common primary liver malignancy, in the world. In the majority of cases, it occurs against a background of hepatitis B or C viral infection and/or liver cirrhosis, and is associated with a dismal prognosis of a few months. Current treatments in routine clinical practice are surgical resection and liver transplantation, but these therapies are applicable to only a small proportion of patients and prolongation of survival is restricted. Other treatment options include intra-arterial chemotherapy, transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation, percutaneous ethanol injection, cryotherapy, thermotherapy, proton therapy, or a wide range of their possible combinations. The current lack of definitive data, however, limits the use of these therapies. Another option is gene therapy, which although in its infancy at the present time, may have a significant role to play in the future management of hepatocellular carcinoma.???Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; hepatic resection; liver transplantation; transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation PMID:10622772

Badvie, S.

2000-01-01

23

Hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

2015-02-01

24

Liver cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually seen in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

25

Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Last Updated: April 01, 2013 What is urothelial bladder cancer? Urothelial bladder cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer.  The bladder is a hollow

26

Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

What is squamous cell lung carcinoma? Squamous cell lung carcinoma is a type of non-small cell lung cancer formed from reserve cells–round ... age 30. Who is most likely to have squamous cell lung carcinoma? This type of cancer is almost always caused ...

27

Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma Key Points for This Section After Merkel cell carcinoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out ... Stage IIIA Stage IIIB Stage IV After Merkel cell carcinoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

28

Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour and dentinogenic ghost cell tumour. This is the case of a middle-aged male who presented with a slow-growing maxillary tumour. He was asymptomatic until pain symptoms developed prior to initial presentation. The excised tumour was diagnosed as a ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma. More case reports are

S. P. Nazaretian; M. E. Schenberg; I. Simpson; P. J. Slootweg

2007-01-01

29

Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Last Updated: May 08, 2013 What is lung cancer? Lung cancer accounts for more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women, about 28 percent of all cancer

30

Fibrolamellar Carcinoma: 2012 Update  

PubMed Central

Fibrolamellar carcinomas are a unique type of primary liver cancer. They occur most commonly in children and young adults. Their etiology remains a mystery, as they are not associated with chronic liver disease. Fibrolamellar carcinomas are not indolent tumors, but have an overall better prognosis than typical hepatocellular carcinomas, in part because of the younger age at presentation and the lack of cirrhosis. The most important prognostic feature is whether the tumor is resectable. Histologically, the tumor is made up of large cells that contain abundant mitochondria. The nuclei of the tumor cells have prominent nucleoli. The tumor cells induce the formation of extensive intratumoral fibrosis, which often grows in parallel, or lamellar bands. The tumor cells clearly show hepatocellular features but are also unique in showing both biliary and neuroendocrine differentiation. The uniqueness of fibrolamellar carcinoma extends to their molecular findings. While the genetic abnormalities that lead to fibrolamellar carcinomas are not yet known, studies have shown that they lack mutations in the genes most commonly mutated in typical hepatocellular carcinoma (TP53 and CTNNB1). In this paper, the clinical, pathological, and basic science literature on fibrolamellar carcinoma is comprehensively reviewed. Key areas of needed research are also discussed. PMID:24278737

Torbenson, Michael

2012-01-01

31

Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-W?klar, Daria; Da?czak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

2013-01-01

32

Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare type of kidney cancer. This type of cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney. These small tubules help filter waste from the blood, making urine.

33

Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... increased vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. (continued on next page) Cervical Cancer Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Copyright © 2011. College of American Pathologists. For use and reproduction by patients and CAP members only. Normal cervical ...

34

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... nodes in the chest. (continued on next page) Lung Cancer Small Cell Carcinoma Copyright © 2011. College of American Pathologists. For use and reproduction by patients and CAP members only. Normal lung cells. Small ...

35

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)  

MedlinePLUS

... it is completely removed. This technique is particularly useful for high-risk squamous cell carcinomas and for ... hands. Radiation treatment – X-ray therapy is often useful for patients who are not good surgical candidates ...

36

Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects  

PubMed Central

Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

2012-01-01

37

Metronomics for thymic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Although thymomas are the most frequent primary tumours of the anterior mediastinum, thymic carcinoma is very infrequent and more aggressive. Combination chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for the advanced stages, but because of the lack of evidence from randomised trials, the management of the successive lines is a challenging field. We report a partial radiological response in the seventh line of a thymic carcinoma stage IV with an oral regimen. PMID:25624875

del Toro, Jacobo Muñoz; Castedo, Patricia Cortez; Salgado, Alfonso Cortés; García, M Eugenia Olmedo; López, Pilar Garrido

2014-01-01

38

Conditions associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The most important condition associated with hepatocellular carcinoma is chronic hepatitis B virus infection. This article summarizes the information linking hepatocellular carcinoma with conditions other than hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:2542707

Lisker-Melman, M; Martin, P; Hoofnagle, J H

1989-07-01

39

General Information about Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma include pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by adrenocortical carcinoma: A lump in the abdomen . Pain the abdomen or back. A feeling of ...

40

Pancreatic carcinoma in a cockatiel.  

PubMed

A female cockatiel was examined because of abdominal distention, decreased appetite, and weight loss. Although abdominocentesis, bacteriologic culture, radiography, and ultrasonography were performed, the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma was obtained only after exploratory laparotomy and histologic examination. The resected abdominal mass was pancreatic carcinoma. The bird survived for 56 days after surgery. Necropsy confirmed abdominal metastatic pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:3654323

Swartout, M S; Wyman, M

1987-08-15

41

MULTILOCULAR CYSTIC RENAL CELL CARCINOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma appears to be uncommon subtype of renal cell carcinoma with characteristic gross and microscopic features. This study reports the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, which is a rare entity and its true incidence and biologic behavior are not well known in Jordan. Methods: We have identified two cases of

Khalaf M. Al-Jader

42

Thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' goiter is still obscure and the methods for preoperative diagnosis of such carcinomas is not well established. We studied the incidence, clinical features, and pathological findings of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' goiter. From October, 1983 to September, 1985, a total of 739 patients with Graves' disease underwent subtotal thyroidectomy at Ito Hospital, Tokyo.

Osamu Ozaki; Kunihiko Ito; Kaoru Kobayashi; Koji Toshima; Hiroyuki Iwasaki; Tohru Yashiro

1990-01-01

43

Pathobiology of ovarian carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct tumor pathology and oncogenic potentiel. These tumors are subdivided into three main categories: epithelial, germ cell, and sex-cord stromal tumors. We report herein the newly described molecular abnormalities in epithelial ovarian cancers (carcinomas). Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease. Our better understanding of the molecular basis of ovarian carcinomas represents the first step in the development of targeted therapies in the near future. PMID:25556618

Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Genestie, Catherine

2015-01-01

44

Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas are extremely rare tumors presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Patients succumb to metastases within a couple of months. As a result, very few cases are reported in the literature until now. We present a case of a 62-year old female with non-functional sarcomatoid carcinoma of the right adrenal gland. There was no radiological evidence of locoregional metastases. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Follow up after 3 months showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy and similar left adrenal mass on computed tomography. Patient refused further treatment and succumbed to the disease. A brief case report with review of literature is presented. PMID:24847428

Shaikh, Aftab S; Bakhshi, Girish D; Khan, Arshad S; Jamadar, Nilofar M; Nirmala, Aravind Kotresh; Raza, Arif Ahmed

2014-03-27

45

Primary Adrenal Sarcomatoid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas are extremely rare tumors presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Patients succumb to metastases within a couple of months. As a result, very few cases are reported in the literature until now. We present a case of a 62-year old female with non-functional sarcomatoid carcinoma of the right adrenal gland. There was no radiological evidence of locoregional metastases. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Follow up after 3 months showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy and similar left adrenal mass on computed tomography. Patient refused further treatment and succumbed to the disease. A brief case report with review of literature is presented. PMID:24847428

Shaikh, Aftab S.; Bakhshi, Girish D.; Khan, Arshad S.; Jamadar, Nilofar M.; Nirmala, Aravind Kotresh; Raza, Arif Ahmed

2014-01-01

46

Allelotype of Colorectal Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the extent and variation of allelic loss in a common adult tumor, polymorphic DNA markers were studied from every nonacrocentric autosomal arm in 56 paired colorectal carcinoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa specimens. This analysis was termed an allelotype, in analogy with a karyotype. Three major conclusions were drawn from this analysis: (i) Allelic deletions were remarkably common;

Bert Vogelstein; Eric R. Fearon; Scott E. Kern; Ann C. Preisinger; Yusuke Nakamura; Ray White

1989-01-01

47

Carcinoma of the Prostate  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of the prostate is a common cancer, and its incidence is rising. A digital rectal examination should be routine to allow early diagnosis. Several screening and investigative techniques are available. Choice of treatment depends on the age and health of the patient and whether the cancer has spread. Treatments include observation, prostatectomy, radiation, and surgical or medical castration. PMID:21229074

Donnelly, Bryan J.

1991-01-01

48

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... the tumor invaded blood or lymphatic vessels. These factors help pathologists determine the likelihood of the cancer remaining in or returning to the affected area. (continued on next page) Breast Cancer Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Definitions Invasive, Infiltrating: Capable of spreading to other ...

49

Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly

Marci E. Schaner; Douglas T. Ross; Giuseppe Ciaravino; Therese Sørlie; Olga Troyanskaya; Maximilian Diehn; Yan C. Wang; George E. Duran; Thomas L. Sikic; Sandra Caldeira; Hanne Skomedal; I-Ping Tu; Tina Hernandez-Boussard; Steven W. Johnson; Peter J. O'Dwyer; Michael J. Fero; Gunnar B. Kristensen; Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale; Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani; Matt van de Rijn; Nelson N. Teng; Teri A. Longacre; David Botstein; Patrick O. Brown; Branimir I. Sikic

2003-01-01

50

Multiple simultaneous gastric carcinomas.  

PubMed Central

A total of 1664 patients with gastric cancer were examined to evaluate the rate of multiple synchronous primary tumours. In cases of multiple synchronous cancer (MSC), the tumours were analysed immunohistochemically for their expression pattern of p53, c-erbB2, ras, E-cadherin and proliferative activity. Multiple synchronous gastric carcinomas (MSCs) were observed in 61 out of 1664 patients (3.7%), with a total of 134 carcinomas. In our series, early carcinoma was observed more frequently in MSC than in solitary cancers. The comparison of tumour stage in MSC and solitary tumours revealed that multiple early gastric cancers were significantly more often of type I (protruded type) and IIa (superficial elevated type) than solitary early cancer. Multiple advanced carcinomas were more often of a lower pT category than solitary advanced gastric cancer. Performing immunohistochemistry for p53, c-erbB2 and ras in 134 tumours with MSCs, we observed positivity rates of 33%, 59% and 87% respectively. In 43 patients, the multiple tumours in each individual patient demonstrated an identical status of p53 and c-erbB2, and in 42 patients a similar pattern of E-cadherin expression was observed. The proliferative index, determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunolabelling, did not differ significantly between the MSC in each patient. Ras immunostaining was detected in 53 out of 61 patients, but also in metaplasia and regenerative hyperplasia in the specimens. In survival analysis, no difference was observed between patients with solitary or multiple early or advanced carcinomas. Our results suggest that in at least a high proportion of patients with gastric cancer multiple primary tumours arise from precancerous conditions leading to similar genetic alterations. PMID:9413949

Wittekind, C.; Klimpfinger, M.; Hermanek, P.; Tannapfel, A.

1997-01-01

51

Dermoscopy of actinic keratosis, intraepidermal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

In the realm of keratinocyte skin cancer, specific dermoscopic patterns that are associated with different stages of progression have been identified, which allows for an improved clinical diagnosis and differentiation actinic keratosis, intraepidermal carcinoma (also commonly named Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma in situ or intraepidermal carcinoma) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, in times of increasing availability of topical treatment options for actinic keratoses, the knowledge of specific patterns associated with different grades and subtypes aids in the treatment choice and monitoring of the treatment response. PMID:25561209

Zalaudek, Iris; Argenziano, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

52

Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

2013-06-03

53

What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?  

MedlinePLUS

... blood much like a real kidney would. Renal cell carcinoma Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also known as ... be due to an inherited genetic syndrome. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma This is the most common ...

54

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Database.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer which is common in Asia. We report the establishment and early results of a multi-institutional prospective study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which seeks to systematically collect data as well as blood and tumour tissue samples from patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer at six centres in Malaysia. A total of 484 confirmed NPC cases were reported from the six participating centres between 1st July 2007 and 29th February 2008. Of these, 225 were newly diagnosed cases, 53 were recurrent cases and 206 were in remission at the time of reporting. Amongst the newly diagnosed cases, the most common presenting symptom was the presence of neck lumps (42%). Ophthalmo-neurologic symptoms were the presenting symptoms of 11% of the new cases. The majority of cases (75%) presented at stage III/IV. PMID:19230249

Pua, K C; Khoo, A S B; Yap, Y Y; Subramaniam, S K; Ong, C A; Gopala Krishnan, G; Shahid, H

2008-09-01

55

Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors.

Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

2015-01-01

56

Transitional Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitional cell carcinoma is a common urological malignancy and in up to 5% of cases occurs in the kidney. The multicentric\\u000a nature of TCC makes assessment of the entire urothelium essential prior to treatment. Vigilant urological and radiological\\u000a follow-up is also warranted post-treatment to assess for metachronous lesions and recurrence. Conventional imaging modalities,\\u000a such as IVU, RP, and US, still

Ronan F. Browne; William C. Torreggiani

57

Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 5–8% of all thyroid cancers. MTC is mainly sporadic in nature, but an hereditary pattern [multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2)] is present in 20–30% of cases, transmitted as an autosomal-dominant trait due to germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. About 98% of patients with MEN 2 have germline mutations in exons 5,

F. Pacini; M. G. Castagna; C. Cipri; M. Schlumberger

2010-01-01

58

Renal Cell Carcinoma: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3% of all adult cancers. The incidence rates for kidney cancer are highest in European\\u000a and Scandinavian countries and North America (1). It is estimated that 36,160 new cases of kidney and renal pelvis cancer were diagnosed in 2005, with an estimated 12,660\\u000a resulting deaths in the United States (2). There has been a

Ziya Kirkali; Cag Cal

59

Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited.  

PubMed

Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and cytophotometry, and discuss histogenesis and characteristic gene translocations. We additionally consider possible diagnostic difficulties, problems related to histological grading and accuracy of existing literature, and areas of controversy or uncertainty which may benefit from further investigations. PMID:24771140

Coca-Pelaz, Andrés; Rodrigo, Juan P; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Hunt, Jennifer L; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Strojan, Primož; Haigentz, Missak; Mendenhall, William M; Takes, Robert P; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Ferlito, Alfio

2015-04-01

60

Papillary thyroid carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Multiple prognostic factors for outcome in papillary thyroid carcinoma are identified. For a cohort of 1500 consecutive patients followed an average of 16 years, survival rates for tumor recurrence and cause-specific mortality are described. Risk groups derived from novel prognostic scoring or staging systems and the role of DNA ploidy testing are discussed specifically. Lastly, controversies are reviewed regarding the extent of primary surgical resection and the efficacy of postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation in papillary thyroid cancer.

Hay, I.D. (Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN (USA))

1990-09-01

61

Familial Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Familial nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is defined as NPC occurring in two or more first-degree relatives. The rate of familial\\u000a NPC is likely to be about 8% in any cohort of NPC patients in a high-risk region. The risk of a first-degree relative of an\\u000a NPC patient being diagnosed with NPC is 2–15 times that of the general population in the

Kwok Seng Loh

62

Brain Metastases from Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

2012-01-01

63

Epigenetics of urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Urothelial carcinoma is the most frequent type of bladder cancer. Improvements in diagnostics and therapy of this common tumor are urgently required and need to be based on a better understanding of its biology. Epigenetic aberrations are crucial to urothelial carcinoma development and progression. They affect DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, long noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Compared to other cancers, DNA hypomethylation, especially at LINE-1 retrotransposons, and mutations in enzymes establishing or removing histone acetylation or methylation are particularly prominent. Accumulating evidence suggests that disturbances in DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs may contribute especially to altered differentiation and metastatic potential. With proper selection, histone-modifying enzymes may constitute good targets for therapy. For diagnostics, DNA methylation and miRNA biomarkers are well suited because of their relatively high stability. There are indeed excellent biomarker candidates for DNA-methylation-based diagnostics of urothelial carcinoma, whereas miRNAs are well investigated, but there are still many discrepancies between studies published to date. PMID:25421661

Schulz, Wolfgang A; Koutsogiannouli, Evangelia A; Niegisch, Günter; Hoffmann, Michèle J

2015-01-01

64

Parathyroid carcinoma in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old female patient with parathyroid carcinoma, the rarest endocrine malignancy, had two pregnancies. In the first pregnancy, she had severe nausea and fatigue. Hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism were diagnosed in the postpartum period. Hyperemesis gravidarum masked a diagnosis of hypercalcemia. Neck ultrasound and Tc-99m sestamibi found an enlarged lower right parathyroid gland. The gland was surgically removed, and an initial pathology report described atypical adenoma. Shortly afterward, she became pregnant again. During the second pregnancy, her calcium level was frequently controlled but was always in the normal range. Normocalcemia is explained by the specific physiology of pregnancy accompanied by hemodilution, hypoalbuminemia and maternal hypercalciuria (mediated by increased glomerular filtration). During lactation, calcium levels rose, and a new neck ultrasound showed a solitary mass in the area of prior surgery and an enlarged pretracheal lymph node. Fine needle aspiration of the solitary mass and node showed parathyroid carcinoma cells. The tumor mass was resected en bloc with the contiguous tissues and surrounding lymph nodes (pathology report; parathyroid carcinoma with metastases). Over the next five years, four consecutive surgeries were performed to remove malignant parathyroid tissue, lymph nodes and local metastases. Following the surgical procedures, no hypocalcemia was observed. More serious hypercalcemia recurred; the calcium level was difficult to control with a combination of pamidronate, cinacalcet and loop diuretic. No elements of multiple endocrine neoplasia were present. PMID:24868516

Bareti?, Maja; Tomi? Brzac, Hrvojka; Dobreni?, Margareta; Jakov?evi?, Antonia

2014-01-01

65

Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*  

PubMed Central

The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

2013-01-01

66

[Pleural metastases of renal carcinoma].  

PubMed

Metastases in renal carcinoma are diagnosed at initial diagnosis in 25% examinees. Traditional renal carcinoma has higher metastatic potential, is associated with worse survival of the patients compared to papillary cancer. We studied cytological characteristics of renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in comparison with histological studies of the primary lesion using immunohistochemical findings. We examined cytologically pleural liquid in renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in 6 patients (2.3% of carcinomatous pleuricies). High efficacy was shown by a cytocentrifuge CYTOSPIN-4. In 3 cases initial cancer was renal cell carcinoma, pleural exudation developed 2 years later, clear cell carcinoma appeared 6 years later and papillary cancer--10 years later. In the other 3 cases malignant cells were detected in new-onset cases. Renal carcinoma was diagnosed in one case. Cytological preparations were studied with identification of cytological signs typical for classic clear cell, granulocell and papillary renal cancer. Immunohistochemical examination of primary tumor lesion in the kidney discovered high proliferative activity of tumor cells by Ki-67 index to 5.28%. The tumors had solitary Bcl-2 positive cells. Expression of mutant p-53 took place in 0.93%. Her-2/neu hyperexpression was not found in the tumors of the above patients. Such immunohistochemical parameters point to poor prognosis. This is confirmed by renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura. PMID:17578198

Giigoruk, O G; Lazarev, A F; Doroshenko, V S

2007-01-01

67

Highly aggressive extraocular sebaceous carcinoma.  

PubMed

Extraocular sebaceous carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm usually localized on the head and neck. We report a case of sebaceous carcinoma of the axillary skin with a highly aggressive behavior. The patient was a 43-year-old black man who developed multiple cutaneous and lymph node metastases shortly after the excision of primary sebaceous carcinoma of the axillary skin. Many neoplastic aggregations were identified within the lumina of the dermal lymphatic vessels in the excised specimen of the primary neoplasm. Although extraocular sebaceous carcinoma has been traditionally considered a less aggressive neoplasm than its ocular counterpart, a review of the literature and this case demonstrate that extraocular sebaceous carcinoma may also lead to disseminated metastatic disease. PMID:11801779

Moreno, C; Jacyk, W K; Judd, M J; Requena, L

2001-10-01

68

Papillary Kidney Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

69

Clear Cell Kidney Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

70

Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

2014-01-01

71

The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Documentation of the wide geographical variation in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has led to the clear identification of several risk factors. These include chronic infection with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C and exposure to aflotoxin. All these agents may cause hepatocellular carcinoma but how they interact and how they are related to cirrhosis, which underlies most cases, remains an area of active research. Intervention programmes, most notably immunization against hepatitis B, are now under way and a marked decrease in incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma can be anticipated in the early part of the next century. PMID:8889448

Johnson, P J

1996-09-01

72

Papillary carcinoma thyroid: FNAC diagnosis.  

PubMed

Thyroid carcinoma in children is currently assuming greater importance due to increase incidence in the recent times. In carcinoma thyroid, the age at the time of diagnosis is an important prognostic factor and children in particular are considered to have an excellent prognosis. We came across 3 cases of papillary carcinoma thyroid involving both the lobes and having lymph node metastasis in children, the youngest being 4 years of age at the time of diagnosis. All these cases were diagnosed on aspiration cytology. PMID:15630334

Kumar, Sanjay; Arora, B; Rattan, K N; Rattan, Simmi

2004-12-01

73

Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18350603

Martin, Juliette; Dufour, Jean-François

2008-01-01

74

[Carcinoma of the biliary tract].  

PubMed

Six problems were pointed out in General Rules for Surgical Studies on Cancer of Biliary Tract; division of extrahepatic bile duct and papilla of Vater, definition of carcinoma of the bile duct, gallbladder and papilla of Vater, classification of the lymphnodes, macroscopic classification of cancer of the biliary tract, tumor size and staging, pathological rules. Furthermore, in 15 cases of the gallbladder carcinoma and 21 cases of the bile duct carcinoma, the correlation between the prognosis and the histological findings of cancer invasion to the wall or of lymphnode metastasis was evaluated. PMID:3783969

Miyazaki, I; Konishi, I; Nagakawa, T

1986-08-01

75

Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) continues to present major challenges in management, which is further complicated by the presence of associated chronic liver disease. Key issues in surgical resection of HCC include the site, size, and number of lesions, the severity of the chronic liver disease, and the size of the functional liver remnant. De novo HCC in the absence of chronic liver disease can be treated by major liver resection with little risk of postoperative liver failure. Liver resection can also be used a bridge to liver transplantation as it affords the possibility of determining the pathologic grade of the tumortumor and its invasiveness, and thereby the prognosis. This review summarizes the current treatment approaches to surgical resection for HCC. PMID:25755617

Ramesh, Hariharan

2014-01-01

76

Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine neoplasm with a high mortality rate. Though the etiology is not precisely known, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) DNA has been found recently in a large percentage of MCC tumors. Other suggested risk factors include sun-exposure, immunosuppression and a history of prior malignancy. Work-up of patients with MCC most notably includes nodal staging via clinical exam or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The prognosis for most patients with MCC is poor, and the rarity of MCC precludes the prospective, randomized clinical trials necessary to elucidate optimum treatment protocols. Most published data support the use of a multimodality approach centered around surgical excision with negative margins, SNLB to establish the presence or absence of nodal metastases, adjuvant radiothearpy (RT) to decrease the risk of recurrence, and systemic chemotherapy in the case of widespread disease. PMID:21422993

Ramahi, Emma; Choi, Jehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Eng, Tony Y.

2011-01-01

77

Resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) continues to present major challenges in management, which is further complicated by the presence of associated chronic liver disease. Key issues in surgical resection of HCC include the site, size, and number of lesions, the severity of the chronic liver disease, and the size of the functional liver remnant. De novo HCC in the absence of chronic liver disease can be treated by major liver resection with little risk of postoperative liver failure. Liver resection can also be used a bridge to liver transplantation as it affords the possibility of determining the pathologic grade of the tumortumor and its invasiveness, and thereby the prognosis. This review summarizes the current treatment approaches to surgical resection for HCC. PMID:25755617

Ramesh, Hariharan

2014-08-01

78

Hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology.  

PubMed

Primary liver cancer (namely hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) is worldwide the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh one in women, and it represents the third most frequent cause of cancer death. HCC rates are particularly high in eastern/south-eastern Asia and in Africa, intermediate in Southern Europe, and low in most high-income countries. Persistent infections by HBV or HCV are the main recognized risk factors for HCC. Aflatoxin exposure is also an important risk factor for HCC development in Africa and eastern Asia. In high-income countries heavy alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, overweight, diabetes, familial/genetic factors, and selected dietary aspects, have a relevant role. Updated geographic patterns and time trends in mortality from HCC in Europe, USA, Japan, and Australia are provided in the present review, together with an overview of relevant etiologic factors for HCC and main measures for the prevention of this neoplasm. PMID:25260306

Bosetti, Cristina; Turati, Federica; La Vecchia, Carlo

2014-10-01

79

Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

80

Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

1983-12-01

81

[Merkel cell carcinoma].  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma) is a rare form of tumor of unclear histogenesis which predominantly occurs in elderly patients on areas exposed to the sun. A higher incidence and occurrence in younger people is predominantly found in immunosuppressed persons which is why a pathogenetic role is also attributed to immunosuppression in addition to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Additionally, in 80% of cases clonally integrated polyomavirus (Merkel cell polyomavirus, MCPyV) could be detected. Clinically MCC represents an uncharacteristic tumor. Histopathologically, monomorphic dermal and/or subcutaneous nodes are found consisting of round or oval medium sized cells with a vesicular nucleus and sparse cytoplasm. The neoplastic cells of MCC express cytokeratin (CK) 20 with a dot-like perinuclear accentuation. In addition, pan-CK, neuroendocrine markers (e.g. chromogranin A and synaptophysin), neurofilament proteins, CD56, CD57, Bcl-2, TdT and PAX-5 are immunohistochemically positive. In most cases CM2B4, an antibody against MCPyV is also positive. Expression of p63 has been observed in some of the cases and in some studies was associated with a favorable prognosis. The markers thyroid transcription factor 1, mammalian achaete scute complex like 1, vimentin, S-100 and CK7 are not normally expressed by MCC. The prognosis is primarily dependent on tumor size and the lymph node status. The presence of intralymphatic tumor complexes is associated with a higher rate of local recurrence and lymph node metastasis. A larger number of intratumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocytes is accompanied by a favorable prognosis and the presence of > 50% of K-67+ neoplastic cells with an unfavorable prognosis. Further morphological, phenotypical and genetic factors have not yet been validated in larger cohorts with respect to the prognostic relevance. PMID:25074367

Fried, I; Cerroni, L

2014-09-01

82

Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

1984-01-01

83

Prostatic carcinoma bilateral iris metastases  

PubMed Central

We described a patient with bilateral iris metastases resulted from prostatic cancer. Slit lamp and ultrasonography examination of the both eye demonstrated tumor of the iris, as an amelanotic vascular mass located on the superior temporal quadrant. On open biopsy revealed undifferentiated tissue that stained strongly positive for prostate carcinoma, confirming the diagnosis of metastasis prostate adenocarcinoma. Early diagnostic procedures are essential for the causal therapy of prostate carcinoma as the primary neoplasm. PMID:22642599

Sarenac, Tatjana S.; Janicijevic-Petrovic, Mirjana A.; Sreckovic, Suncica B.; Radovanovic, Milan R.; Vulovic, Dejan D.; Janicijevic, Katarina M.

2012-01-01

84

Radiological Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Present article is a review of radiological features of hepatocellular carcinoma on various imaging modalities. With the advancement in imaging techniques, biopsy is rarely needed for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), unlike other malignancies. Imaging is useful not only for diagnosis but also for surveillance, therapy and assessing response to treatment. The classical and the atypical radiological features of HCC have been described. PMID:25755613

Shah, Samir; Shukla, Akash; Paunipagar, Bhawan

2014-01-01

85

Genomic profile of ovarian carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background It is known that all tumors studied in sufficient number to draw conclusions show characteristic/specific chromosomal rearrangements, and the identification of these chromosomes and the genes rearranged behind the aberrations may ultimately lead to a tailor-made therapy for each cancer patient. Knowledge about the acquired genomic aberrations of ovarian carcinomas is still unsatisfactory. Methods We cytogenetically analyzed 110 new cases of ovarian carcinoma of different histological subtypes using karyotyping of G-banded chromosomes and high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization. We first compared the aberration patterns identified by the two genomic screening techniques using the so-called “classical” pathological classification in which the carcinomas are grouped as tumors of types I and II. We also broke down our findings according to the more “modern” classification which groups the carcinomas in five different categories. Results The chromosomal breakpoints identified by karyotyping tended to cluster to 19p/q and to 11q, but no unquestionably recurrent rearrangement could be seen. Common imbalances were scored as gains from 1q, 3q, 7q, and 8q and losses from 17p, 19q, and 22q. Gain of material from 8q23 and losses from 19q and 22q have previously been described at high frequencies in bilateral and borderline ovarian carcinomas. The fact that they were present both in “precursor” lesions, i.e., borderline tumors, as well as in tumors of more advanced stages, i.e., carcinomas, highlights the possibility of an adenoma-carcinoma sequence in ovarian carcinogenesis. Conclusion Based on the relatively simple genomic changes we identified in the low-grade serous carcinomas examined (n?=?7) and which largely corresponded to the aberration pattern formerly identified in borderline tumors, one can interpret the cytogenetic data as supporting the view that the low-grade carcinomas represent a phenotypically more advanced stage of borderline tumors. Whether transition from low-grade to high-grade carcinoma also occurs, is a question about which the genomic data is still inconclusive. PMID:24886194

2014-01-01

86

General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

87

Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options by Stage Stage I and Stage II Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment of stage I and stage II ...

88

Cytokeratin-negative small cell lung carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cytokeratins (CK) are good markers of epithelial tumors, and most of carcinomas including small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) expresses CK. Herein reported is a case of SCLC without CK expression. PMID:22355493

Terada, Tadashi

2011-01-01

89

Staging of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is different from other malignancies because the prognosis in HCC is not only dependent upon the tumor stage but also on the liver function impairment due to accompanying cirrhosis liver. Various other staging systems used in HCC include the European systems [French staging system, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and the cancer of the liver Italian program (CLIP)] and Asian systems [Okuda staging system, Japan integrated Staging (JIS), Tokyo score and Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI)]. Out of all the staging systems used in HCC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is probably the best because it takes in to account the tumor status (defined by tumor size and number, presence of vascular invasion and extrahepatic spread), liver function (defined either by the Child-Pugh's class) and general health status of the patient (defined by the ECOG classification and the presence of symptoms). Since most of the extrahepatic spread in HCC occurs to lymph nodes, lungs and bones, the assessment can be done with either PET/CT or a combination of CT (Chest and abdomen) and a bone scan. This article describes the various staging systems used in HCC, guides choosing a staging system particularly in the Indian context and the assessment of extra-hepatic spread in HCC. PMID:25755615

Duseja, Ajay

2014-08-01

90

Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dreaded complication of cirrhosis as it is the commonest cause of mortality in these patients. The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement in the management of this tumor as nearly 50–70% of selected patients with early HCC survive for a median period of up to 5 years after liver transplantation, resection or local ablation. Surveillance has been found to be an effective tool to detect early tumors and expand the applicability of these curative treatment options. Semiannual ultrasonogram is recommended for surveillance by the American, European and Asia Pacific liver societies and is the standard of care in many countries. There is increasing evidence that this practice improves survival too. Since the only way to improve the outlook of HCC is its diagnosis prior to commencement of symptoms, providing surveillance becomes a major responsibility of physicians caring for patients with chronic liver disease. This review attempts to discuss the population at risk of HCC, modalities and frequency of surveillance tests, cost effectiveness and also the logistics of its delivery in the Indian context. PMID:25755611

Ramachandran, Jeyamani

2014-01-01

91

Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is different from other malignancies because the prognosis in HCC is not only dependent upon the tumor stage but also on the liver function impairment due to accompanying cirrhosis liver. Various other staging systems used in HCC include the European systems [French staging system, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and the cancer of the liver Italian program (CLIP)] and Asian systems [Okuda staging system, Japan integrated Staging (JIS), Tokyo score and Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI)]. Out of all the staging systems used in HCC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is probably the best because it takes in to account the tumor status (defined by tumor size and number, presence of vascular invasion and extrahepatic spread), liver function (defined either by the Child-Pugh’s class) and general health status of the patient (defined by the ECOG classification and the presence of symptoms). Since most of the extrahepatic spread in HCC occurs to lymph nodes, lungs and bones, the assessment can be done with either PET/CT or a combination of CT (Chest and abdomen) and a bone scan. This article describes the various staging systems used in HCC, guides choosing a staging system particularly in the Indian context and the assessment of extra-hepatic spread in HCC. PMID:25755615

Duseja, Ajay

2014-01-01

92

Cytokeratin expression profiles in thyroid carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The aim of this study was to establish the cytokeratin expression profile of different types of thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) 1, 4, 6, 7, 10\\/13, 18, 19 and 20 in 153 thyroid carcinomas were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results: All papillary carcinomas (n=86) and follicular carcinomas (n=19) showed expression of CK7 and CK18. The

K. Y Lam; M. C Lui; C. Y Lo

2001-01-01

93

[Disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma: case report].  

PubMed

Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm occurring with a frequency of 1-2 cases per million. It is characterized by significant malignancy with mean survival of about 28 months, and in the presence of documented metastases survival is shorter up to 8 months. This type of a tumor is slightly more frequent in women (58.6%) than in men (41.4%). Etiology of adrenocortical carcinoma is still unclear, but a role of genetic and environmental factors has been largely considered. Most of the carcinomas (60%) are functional and usually the first manifestation is Cushing's syndrome with virilization. The tumor size is still the best single predictor of prognosis. Histopathology specimen from biopsy or obtained during operation should be stained for Melan A, which can confirm the adrenal origin of the tumor. The only method of treatment is a complete surgical excision of the carcinoma. However, because of its dynamics, metastases cannot be reliably excluded. We presented the case of functioning adrenocortical cancer in 37-year-old patient who at time of diagnosis had 12 cm in diameter tumor of the left adrenal gland and metastases to the liver and lung. In the article the symptoms associated with hormones produced by the carcinoma, diagnostics and treatment with regard to the progression of the disease have also been discussed. PMID:17966598

Gil, Justyna; Kalembkiewicz, Marta; Polak, Edyta; Kostecka-Matyja, Marta

2007-07-01

94

Eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma that accounts for 5% of all renal tumors. This subtype is further subdivided into two variants, classic and eosinophilic, with the latter variant being less frequent. We report two cases of the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma diagnosed at our institution between January 2008 and December 2012. PMID:25552800

Yourshaw, Charles J.; Zhang, Haiying

2015-01-01

95

Pure Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Duodenum  

PubMed Central

Primary carcinomas of the small intestine are extremely rare neoplasms. Most of these are adenocarcinomas. Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of small intestine is exceptionally rare with only occasional case reports in the literature. We report here a surgically treated patient with squamous cell carcinoma arising from duodenal diverticula in the third part of the duodenum. PMID:25785220

Battal, Muharrem; Bostanc?, Ozgur; Basak, Tulay; Kartal, Kinyas; Ekiz, Feza

2015-01-01

96

Alterationof Hexosaminidase Isozymesin HumanRenalCarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity and isozyme patterns of hexosaminidase in human renal carcinoma were studied in comparisonwith those of normal kidney. Hexosaminidase in extracts from normal kidney and renal carcinoma tissue could be separated into two major forms (hexosaminidase A (Hex A) and hexosaminidase B (Hex B)) by Ceilogel electrophoresis or by diethylaminoethyl cellulose column chromatography. All of i 0 renal carcinoma

Toshikazu Okochi; Hiromasa Seike; Kazuya Higashino; Toshikazu Hada; Shinichiro Watanabe; Yuichi Yamamura; Masao Osafune; Takao Sonoda

97

Molecular pathology of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different genetic abnormalities may occur in endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the endometrium (mircosatellite instability and mutations in the PTEN, k-RAS and ?-catenin genes), whereas nonendometrioid carcinomas of the endometrium often have p53 mutations and loss of heterozygosity on several chromosomes. Occasionally, a nonendometrioid carcinoma may develop as a result of dedifferentiation of a preexisting endometrioid carcinoma; in such a case,

Xavier Matias-guiu; Lluis Catasus; Elena Bussaglia; Helena Lagarda; Arnald Garcia; Cristina Pons; Josefina Muñoz; Rosmary Argüelles; Pilar Machin; Jaime Prat

2001-01-01

98

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx  

MedlinePLUS

What is squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx? Squamous cell carcinoma represents more than 90 percent of all head and neck cancers. In ... 80 percent. Who is most likely to have squamous cell carcinoma? Males have this type of cancer about twice ...

99

CORRESPONDENCE Unusual Features of Thyroid Carcinomas in  

E-print Network

CORRESPONDENCE Unusual Features of Thyroid Carcinomas in Japanese Patients with Werner Syndrome genetic instability, and an elevated risk of se- lected neoplasms including thyroid carcinoma.1) in Japanese WS patients may confer a higher risk of thyroid carcinoma, and that N­ and C-terminal WRN

Monnat, Ray

100

Thymic Carcinoma Presenting as Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation  

PubMed Central

Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare tumors, which originate from the epithelial cells of the thymus. We present a case of thymic carcinoma, which presented with DIC as an initial manifestation. DIC improved with corticosteroid treatment and thymic carcinoma was amendable to chemoradiation. PMID:25478263

Memon, Jawairia; Avery, Robert

2014-01-01

101

Current management of pancreatic carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The author seeks to provide an update on the current management of pancreatic carcinoma, including diagnosis and staging, surgical resection and adjuvant therapy for curative intent, and palliation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: During the 1960s and 1970s, the operative mortality and long-term survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic carcinoma was so poor that some authors advocated abandoning the procedure. Several recent series have reported a marked improvement in perioperative results with 5-year survival in excess of 20%. Significant advances also have been made in areas of preoperative evaluation and palliation for advanced disease. CONCLUSION: Although carcinoma of the pancreas remains a disease with a poor prognosis, advances in the last decade have led to improvements in the overall management of this disease. Resection for curative intent currently should be accomplished with minimal perioperative mortality. Surgical palliation also may provide the optimal management of selected patients. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 7. PMID:7531966

Lillemoe, K D

1995-01-01

102

Aflibercept in epithelial ovarian carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant transformation. With improved understanding of angiogenic signaling in both the normal and malignant state, there have been a number of agents developed that target VEGF signaling. These targeted agents can affect downstream VEGF signal transduction via unique mechanisms at different cellular and extracellular locations. The aflibercept, or VEGF-Trap, molecule is the subject of this article. Its molecular structure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, and preclinical and early clinical data in epithelial ovarian carcinoma is reviewed. For comparison, other anti-angiogenic agents that have been or are currently being studied in epithelial ovarian carcinoma are also summarized. Finally, the anticipated role of aflibercept in the treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma is also discussed. PMID:19519199

Moroney, John W; Sood, Anil K; Coleman, Robert L

2009-01-01

103

[Barrett's esophagus carcinoma].  

PubMed

The incidence of Barrett's esophagus, long segment as well as short segment, has increased over the last few years. One major reason for this was the increasing number of endoscopies. However there is a simultaneous increase of Barrett's adenocarcinoma in the Western world, while the number of squamous epithelium cancer decreases. Besides improved endoscopic diagnosis other exogenous factors such as nutrition, reflux or adipositas play an important role. Due to available data it is clear that the risk of Barrett's esophagus has been overestimated, mainly because of a publication bias. The risk of a Barrett's esophagus carcinoma has been published with 0.5%/year. The U.S. and German guidelines do not recommend screening endoscopies for the general population, however for those with a long-lasting reflux disease for several years. The diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus is made endoscopically and histologically, this means 4 quadrant biopsies every 1-2 cm are gold standard. Staining with methylene blue or acetic acid in combination with zoom endoscopy may improve the diagnosis. In patients with proven Barrett's esophagus regular surveillance endoscopies depending on the presence of intraepithelial neoplasia are recommended. While patients with Barrett's esophagus and no or with low grade intraepithelial neoplasia need only surveillance, those with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia should be treated. EMR is a promising treatment of visible lesions, which is similar effective as surgery but with a lower morbidity and mortality. Non visible lesions can be treated promisingly by PDT. Similar to high grade intraepithelial neoplasia mucosal cancer can also be treated endoscopically. However, submucosal cancer needs surgery. PMID:16836063

Messmann, H

2006-06-21

104

Duodenal carcinoma from a duodenal diverticulum mimicking pancreatic carcinoma.  

PubMed

An 81-year-old man was found to have a pancreatic head tumor on abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed during a follow-up visit for sigmoid colon cancer. The tumor had a diameter of 35mm on the CT scan and was diagnosed as pancreatic head carcinoma T3N0M0. The patient was treated with pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had grown within a hollow structure, was contiguous with a duodenal diverticulum, and had partially invaded the pancreas. Immunohistochemistry results were as follows:CK7 negative, CK20 positive, CD10 negative, CDX2 positive, MUC1 negative, MUC2 positive, MUC5AC negative, and MUC6 negative. The tumor was diagnosed as duodenal carcinoma from the duodenal diverticulum. Preoperative imaging showed that the tumor was located in the head of the pancreas and was compressing the common bile duct, thus making it appear like pancreatic cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of a case of duodenal carcinoma from a duodenal diverticulum mimicking pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:23093061

Furukawa, Masashi; Izumi, Sadanobu; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Tokumo, Masaki; Sakurai, Jun; Mano, Shohey

2012-01-01

105

Thyroid metastasis from breast carcinoma accompanied by papillary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy. PMID:25232322

Yang, Song-I; Park, Kwang-Kuk; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

2014-05-01

106

Xenotransplanted human prostate carcinoma (DU145) cells develop into carcinomas and cribriform carcinomas: ultrastructural aspects.  

PubMed

Androgen-independent, human prostate carcinoma cells (DU145) develop into solid, carcinomatous xenotransplants on the diaphragm of nu/nu mice. Tumors encompass at least two poorly differentiated cell types: a rapidly dividing, eosinophilic cell comprises the main cell population and a few, but large basophilic cells able to invade the peritoneal stroma, the muscular tissue, lymph vessels. Poor cell contacts, intracytoplasmic lumina, and signet cells are noted. Lysosomal activities are reflected by entoses and programmed cell deaths forming cribriform carcinomas. In large tumors, degraded cells may align with others to facilitate formation of blood supply routes. Malignant cells would spread via ascites and through lymphatics. PMID:23025648

Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M; Neal, Deborah R; Summers, Jack L; Taper, Henryk S

2012-10-01

107

Mitochondriome and Cholangiocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA) of the liver was the target of more interest, recently, due mainly to its increased incidence and possible association to new environmental factors. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in several cancers. Some of these malignancies contain changes of mtDNA, which are not or, very rarely, found in the mtDNA databases. In terms of evolutionary genetics and oncology, these data are extremely interesting and may be considered a sign of poor fitness, which may conduct in some way to different cellular processes, including carcinogenesis. MitoChip analysis is a strong tool for investigations in experimental oncology and was carried out on three CCA cell lines (HuCCT1, Huh-28 and OZ) with different outcome in human and a Papova-immortalized normal hepatocyte cell line (THLE-3). Real time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and metabolic assays including L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were meticulously used to identify mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) content, ultrastructural morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), and differential composition of metabolites, respectively. Among 102 mtDNA changes observed in the CCA cell lines, 28 were non-synonymous coding region alterations resulting in an amino acid change. Thirty-eight were synonymous and 30 involved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) regions. We found three new heteroplasmic mutations in two CCA cell lines (HuCCT1 and Huh-28). Interestingly, mtDNA copy number was decreased in all three CCA cell lines, while complexes I and III were decreased with depolarization of mitochondria. L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were increased in all three CCA cell lines. MtDNA alterations seem to be a common event in CCA. This is the first study using MitoChip analysis with comprehensive metabolic studies in CCA cell lines potentially creating a platform for future studies on the interactions between normal and neoplastic cells. PMID:25137133

Bahitham, Wesam; Liao, Xiaoping; Peng, Fred; Bamforth, Fiona; Chan, Alicia; Mason, Andrew; Stone, Bradley; Stothard, Paul; Sergi, Consolato

2014-01-01

108

Targeted therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. The major etiologies and risk factors for development of HCC are well defined and some steps of hepatocellular carcinogenesis have been elucidated. Despite these scientific advances and the implementation of measures for early detection of HCC in patients who are at risk of this disease, survival of patients

Hans Christian Spangenberg; Robert Thimme; Hubert E. Blum

2009-01-01

109

Gallbladder carcinoma and surgical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallbladder carcinoma shows an unusual geographic and demographic distribution. It is relatively uncommon in Europe, but more frequent in Israel, Chile, Bolivia and in Southwestern Native Americans in the United States. Chronic cholecystitis, choledochal cysts, high body mass index, female gender, age, nicotine and industrial exposure to carcinogens are associated risk factors. The frequency of gallbladder cancer in all operations

K. Orth; H. G. Beger

2000-01-01

110

Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background No effective systemic therapy exists for patients with advanced hepatocellular carci- noma. A preliminary study suggested that sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, the platelet-derivedgrowth factor receptor, and Raf may be effective in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods

Josep M. Llovet; Sergio Ricci; Vincenzo Mazzaferro; Philip Hilgard; Edward Gane; Jean-Frédéric Blanc; Andre Cosme de Oliveira; Armando Santoro; Jean-Luc Raoul; Alejandro Forner; Myron Schwartz; Camillo Porta; Stefan Zeuzem; Luigi Bolondi; Tim F. Greten; Peter R. Galle; Jean-François Seitz; Ivan Borbath; Dieter Häussinger; Tom Giannaris; Minghua Shan; Marius Moscovici; Dimitris Voliotis; Jordi Bruix

2008-01-01

111

Molecular classification of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent tumour derived from the malignant transformation of hepatocytes. It is well established that cancer is a disease of the genome and, as in other types of solid tumours, a large number of genetic and epigenetic alterations are accumulated during the hepatocarcinogenesis process. Recent developments using comprehensive genomic tools have enabled the identification of

Jessica Zucman-Rossi

2010-01-01

112

Interventional therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer-related death. In the past few years, staging systems have been developed that enable patients to be stratified into treatment algorithms in a multidisciplinary setting. Several of these treatments involve minimally invasive image-guided therapy that can be performed by radiologists. PMID:22487698

Francis, Isaac R.; Novelli, Paula M.; Vellody, Ranjith; Pandya, Amit; Krishnamurthy, V.N.

2012-01-01

113

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death, particularly in Asia where the major eti- ology, chronic hepatitis B virus infection, is endemic. The tumor frequently develops in a background of cir- rhosis, and liver transplantation offers a chance to cure both the tumor and the underlying cirrhosis. The Milan criteria based on tumor size and number as

VANESSA DE VILLA; S.-T. Fan

2004-01-01

114

Comparative study of conventional urothelial carcinoma, squamous differentiation carcinoma and pure squamous carcinoma in patients with invasive bladder tumors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose: Treatment results evaluation (radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemo/radiotherapy) in patients with urothelial carcinoma, squamous differentiation carcinoma and pure squamous bladder carcinoma. Material and methods: The study included 361 patients with invasive bladder carcinoma treated between 1990-2013. Histology showed 296 cases of urothelial carcinoma (82% - group A), 52 cases of urothelial divergent differentiation (squamous and urothelial carcinoma 14.4% - group B) and 13 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (3.6% - group C). All patients benefited from radical cystectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was undergone in 68 patients. Results: Group A - urothelial carcinoma - had a 44% rate of patients alive with a mean survival period of 73 months. About 56% of the patients died, the mean survival period being 4 years. Group B – urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation – had a mean survival period of 36 months (between 1-156 months). 17 patients (33%) are alive at 50 months postoperatively. Group C – squamous carcinoma – had a mean survival period of 9.4 months. Discussions: Locally advanced disease was diagnosed in 50% of the patients in group A, while in group B the rate was 84.6% and 70% in group C, respectively. Conclusions: Squamous pattern detected in the histopathological specimen represents a negative prognostic factor. It seems that the squamous component influences the outcome of the disease due to its biological characteristics in the evolution of squamous carcinoma, with advanced local stage disease at diagnosis – late onset of symptoms and lack of response to adjuvant treatment. Abbreviations: SCC = squamous cell carcinoma; MSK = Memorial Sloan Ketering PMID:25408727

Gluck, G; Hortopan, M; St?nculeanu, D; Chiri??, M; Stoica, R; Sinescu, I

2014-01-01

115

Genetics Home Reference: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... January 2015 What is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that ...

116

Proyecto final Metodos avanzados en aprendizaje automatico  

E-print Network

´isticamente significativos o no. Algoritmos de selecci´on de atributos: existen algoritmos espec´ificos (PCA, algoritmos gen´eticos algoritmo de clasificaci´on bagging con M5 . 2. M´etodos utilizados En esta secci´on se describir´an con aconsejable para muchos algoritmos de clasificaci´on (y para muchos otros es obligado) reducir el n´umero de

Bellogin, Alejandro

117

Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic malignancies can be subdivided into endocrine and non-endocrine processes. Of the non-endocrine tumours, ductal carcinoma is the most common, and the ductal carcinomas can be further subdivided into adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The adenocarcinomas constitute most of the non-endocrine pancreatic malignancies, and the treatment options for these, although limited in efficacy, are relatively well established. The squamous cell carcinoma pathology is a rare entity, and few reports of it are found in the literature. As a result, treatment options for squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas are poorly understood. Here, we report the presentation of a 48-year-old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas. The subsequent investigations, treatment, and outcome are described. PMID:19079631

Al-Shehri, A.; Silverman, S.; King, K.M.

2008-01-01

118

Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

2013-01-01

119

Lobular Carcinoma in Situ and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma: Frequent Presence of DCIS as a Precursor Lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) occurs frequently in patients with lobular carcinoma in-situ (LCIS). LCIS is not thought to be the direct precursor of the invasive component. The authors analyzed 15 cases of coexisting LCIS and IDC and found ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in 12. The DCIS and IDC were of similar grade and located in the same area. Selected

Horacio Maluf; Frederick Koerner

2001-01-01

120

E-cadherin expression in pleomorphic lobular carcinoma: An aid to differentiation from ductal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma is a recently described entity separated from classical lobular carcinoma by cytologic pleomorphism. It can have an aggressive clinical course with a higher frequency of recurrence. Histologic differentiation with ductal carcinoma may be difficult, but it is important for this differentiation to be made. E-cadherin is a transmembrane glycoprotein, and complete loss of E-cadherin expression has been

Amer Wahed; John Connelly; Tommy Reese

2002-01-01

121

Allelic loss in colorectal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Clinical and pathological associations with molecular genetic alterations were studied in colorectal carcinomas from 83 patients. Fractional allelic loss, a measure of allelic deletions throughout the genome, and allelic deletions of specific chromosomal arms (the short arm of 17 and long arm of 18) each provided independent prognostic information by multivariate analysis when considered individually with Dukes' classification. Distant metastasis was significantly associated with high fractional allelic loss and with deletions of 17p and 18q. Mutations of ras proto-oncogenes and deletions of 5q had no prognostic importance. Statistically significant associations were also found between allelic losses and a family history of cancer, left-sided tumor location, and absence of extracellular tumor mucin. Allelic deletion analysis thus identified subsets of colorectal carcinoma with increased predilection for distant metastasis and cancer-related death. Further studies may define a subset of genetic alterations that can be used clinically to help assess prognosis.

Kern, S.E.; Fearon, E.R.; Tersmette, K.W.F.; Enterline, J.P.; Vogelstein, B.; Hamilton, S.R. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA)); Leppert, M.; Nakamura, Yusuke; White, R. (Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City (USA))

1989-06-02

122

Apocrine differentiation in invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma with in situ ductal and lobular apocrine carcinoma: Case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (PLC) is a distinctive aggressive subtype of invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC). We\\u000a report one case of PLC with in situ PLC and ductal carcinoma in situ with apocrine features.

Handan Kaya; Erkin Aribal; Cumhur Yegen

2002-01-01

123

Primary carcinoma of the vagina.  

PubMed

In this paper we reviewed the risk factors for primary carcinoma of the vagina (PCV), diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, and principles leading to rational decision-making in the individualized management of vaginal carcinoma patients. The review was based on the recent literature and our own years- long experience with the disease. PCV is a rare gynecologic malignancy accounting for about 2% of all neoplasms of the female genitals. Most of the affected women are over 60 years of age, peaking between 70 and 80 years. Only 10-15% of patients are below 50 years. Histopathologically, most common are squamous cell carcinoma (80-90%) and adenocarcinoma (4-10%). The leading risk factor for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) and subsequent squamous cell vaginal carcinoma is long-lasting infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. Prognosis of the disease depends on several factors, the most important of which are age, histologic type, and tumor stage. Survival depends on the disease stage. Five -year survival rates are about 95% for stage 0, 75% for stage I, 60% for stage II, 35% for stage III, 20% for stage IVa, and 0% for IVb stage. Due to its being a rare entity, there are still controversies as to the most optimal treatment. Individualized treatment approaches have been increasingly used. In most centres, standard treatment for this cancer is radiotherapy. Some reports have shown that surgery might also be an option, while in some centres radiation is supplemented by cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The supposed advantage of radiotherapy is the preservation of the anatomy and function of the vagina. We believe that there are certain psychologic benefits with the preservation of the vagina, regardless of its function. However, preservation of the vaginal function after treatment of invasive vaginal cancer is a rare phenomenon, both in the literature and from our own experience. PMID:20658716

Lilic, V; Lilic, G; Filipovic, S; Visnjic, M; Zivadinovic, R

2010-01-01

124

Hepatic Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common tumors worldwide, with an estimated incidence of new cases ranging\\u000a between 500,000 and 1 million annually. Historically, hepatic resection, either partial or total, has been considered to be\\u000a the mainstay of surgical therapy. Liver transplantation, although known to have superior outcomes in patients with advanced\\u000a concomitant cirrhosis, often is not feasible

Katsuhiko Yanaga; Sadayuki Okudaira; Takashi Kanematsu; J. Wallis Marsh

125

MRI in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the MRI features of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in 72 patients who\\u000a underwent MRI before and after gadolinium injection. Recurrent NPC exhibited a high degree of regional spread and a variety\\u000a of signal intensities and contours. MRI showed a nasopharyngeal mass in 50 patients (69.4 %); other sites of involvement included\\u000a the parapharyngeal space

S. H. Ng; J. T. C. Chang; S. F. Ko; Y. L. Wan; L. M. Tang; W. C. Chen

1999-01-01

126

Rare metastases of carcinoma of uterine cervix.  

PubMed

This paper describes a case of cancer of the uterine cervix metastasizing in the spleen two years after the primary carcinoma was diagnosed and treated. After detailed diagnostics, the patient was subjected to surgery. Histopathological examination after splenectomy confirmed a very rare case - presence of metastases of planocellular carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Over the last ten years, references cite isolated cases of metastases of adenocarcinoma of the colon, stomach and breast in the spleen as well as lung carcinoma and malignant skin melanoma. Until now cases of uterine cervix carcinoma metastasizing to the spleen have been published as micrometastases detected in autopsy material. PMID:22053687

Zamurovic, M; Pesic-Stevanovic, I; Perisic, Z

2011-01-01

127

Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

2014-01-01

128

Microcystic Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i) Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii) The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii) The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2?mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv) Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour. PMID:24363668

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2013-01-01

129

Nested Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background. Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma was added to the WHO's classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. Results. About 200 cases of the tumour have been reported so far and it has the ensuing morphological features: large numbers of small confluent irregular nests of bland-appearing, closely packed, haphazardly arranged, and poorly defined urothelial cells infiltrating the lamina propria and the muscularis propria. The tumour has a bland histomorphologic appearance, has an aggressive biological behaviour, and has at times been misdiagnosed as a benign lesion which had led to a significant delay in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and contributing to the advanced stage of the disease. Immunohistochemically, the tumour shares some characteristic features with high-risk conventional urothelial carcinomas such as high proliferation index and loss of p27 expression. However, p53, bcl-2, or EGF-r immunoreactivity is not frequently seen. The tumour must be differentiated from a number of proliferative lesions of the urothelium. Conclusions. Correct and early diagnosis of this tumour is essential to provide early curative treatment to avoid diagnosis at an advanced stage. A multicentre trial is required to identify treatment options that would improve the outcome of this tumour. PMID:24587796

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2014-01-01

130

HER2-Positive Metaplastic Spindle Cell Carcinoma Associated with Synchronous Bilateral Apocrine Carcinoma of the Breast  

PubMed Central

Apocrine carcinoma, which is strictly defined as over 90% of tumor cells showing apocrine differentiation, is a rare variant of breast cancer. Here we report an uncommon case in which apocrine carcinomas developed concurrently in both breasts; in addition, a sarcomatoid spindle cell lesion was coincident in the right breast. Both apocrine carcinomas were immunohistochemically negative for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR), but diffusely positive for androgen receptor (AR), GCDFP-15, and HER2. The presence of intraductal components in bilateral carcinomas and the absence of lymph node metastasis suggested that they were more likely to be individual primary lesions rather than metastatic disease. The spindle cell lesion showed a relatively well-circumscribed nodule contiguous with the apocrine carcinoma. HER2 oncoprotein overexpression was observed not only in the apocrine carcinoma, but also in the spindle cell lesion. Since the spindle cell component was intimately admixed with apocrine carcinoma and had focal cytokeratin expression, we diagnosed it as metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma, which was originated from the apocrine carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with synchronous bilateral apocrine carcinomas coinciding with metaplastic carcinoma. PMID:25309767

Kito, Katsumi; Maeda, Toshiharu; Ninomiya, Keiko; Sugita, Atsuro; Sagawa, Teiri; Matsuoka, Kinya; Kinoshita, Kousei; Hyodo, Naoki; Morita, Nagisa; Furuya, Keizo

2014-01-01

131

Laminin 332 Expression in Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Laminin 332 (LN332) is a basally expressed extracellular matrix protein that enhances the migration and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. The goal of this study was to examine LN332 expression breast carcinoma. Triple negative breast carcinomas lack estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) expression and HER2 positivity. Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, HER2, and dual silver in situ hybridization for the HER2 gene were used to define the phenotype of 243 breast cancers in biopsies or arrays. Immunohistochemistry for LN332 revealed that 70 % of triple negative carcinomas stained for LN332. Cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p63 alone stained fewer triple negative breast carcinomas each, but the combination of LN332 and CK 5/6 or EGFR identified 92% of triple negative breast carcinoma.. Of the 163 non- triple negative cases, LN332 was expressed in only 15%. The identification of LN332 in triple negative breast carcinomas is consistent with gene profiling studies showing its expression among breast carcinomas with a basal phenotype. The observation that a pro-invasive protein such as LN332 is expressed in breast cancer suggests another mechanism by which the triple negative phenotype could be aggressive. PMID:22427740

Kwon, Soon-Young; Chae, Seoung W.; Wilczynski, Sharon P.; Arain, Ahmad; Carpenter, Philip M.

2011-01-01

132

Integrin Function in Breast Carcinoma Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differentiation and function of mammaryepithelial cells is dependent upon the combined actionof growth factor\\/hormone receptors and integrinreceptors, which act in concert to control the signals required for normal cell function. It is nowbecoming clear that integrin receptors also contributeto carcinoma cell behavior and that alterations inexpression and function during transformation have a large impact on breast carcinoma progression.The focus

Leslie M. Shaw

1999-01-01

133

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinically apparent renal cell carcinoma that has metastasized to the prostate is a rare finding. When identified, it has been associated with widespread metastatic disease and short-term survival. We present a case of metachronous renal cell carcinoma found only in the prostate with the longest reported interval of 9 years between radical nephrectomy and clinically apparent disease.

Graham F. Greene; Neriman Gokden; Laura F. Hutchins; Robert C. Williams

2005-01-01

134

Histogenesis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one dog thyroid tumours and 28 spontaneous rat thyroid tumours were studied histologically and the findings compared with those of a study of 67 cases of medullary carcinoma of the human thyroid.Five of the dog tumours and 24 of the rat tumours were considered to belong to the same group of tumours as medullary carcinoma, a group characterized by solid

E. D. Williams

1966-01-01

135

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and carcinoma has rarely been reported and its relevance is debated. Thirty three consecutive patients with probable or definite CIDP (idiopathic or associated with M protein) were investigated. Three patients with definite CIDP had a concomitant carcinoma. One had an IgM paraprotein. Steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins were effective.

J C Antoine; J F Mosnier; J Lapras; P Convers; L Absi; B Laurent; D Michel

1996-01-01

136

Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The experiences on the treatment of seven consecutive patients with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) were studied, observed over 6 years from 1992. Since LCNEC was recognized as a separate histological entity, only very few series have been reported. Together with the carcinoids (atypical and typical) and the small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), it forms the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors. Methods:

René Hage; Kees Seldenrijk; Peter de Bruin; Henry van Swieten; Jules van den Bosch

2003-01-01

137

Thyroid carcinoma, version 2.2014.  

PubMed

These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the major updates to the 2014 NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma. Kinase inhibitor therapy may be used to treat thyroid carcinoma that is symptomatic and/or progressive and not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Sorafenib may be considered for select patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, whereas vandetanib or cabozantinib may be recommended for select patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Other kinase inhibitors may be considered for select patients with either type of thyroid carcinoma. A new section on "Principles of Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Cancer" was added to the NCCN Guidelines to assist with using these novel targeted agents. PMID:25505208

Tuttle, R Michael; Haddad, Robert I; Ball, Douglas W; Byrd, David; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M; Lydiatt, William M; McCaffrey, Judith; Moley, Jeffrey F; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D; Ridge, John A; Ringel, Matthew D; Scheri, Randall P; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Steven I; Sturgeon, Cord; Waguespack, Steven G; Wang, Thomas N; Wirth, Lori J; Hoffmann, Karin G; Hughes, Miranda

2014-12-01

138

Metaplastic breast carcinoma with melanocytic differentiation.  

PubMed

Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is a rare heterogeneous malignancy, accounting for <1% of all invasive breast carcinomas, in which adenocarcinoma is found to coexist with an admixture of spindle, squamous, chondroid or bone-forming neoplastic cells. Metaplastic breast carcinoma composed of both epithelial and melanocytic elements is rare, and only seven cases have been reported so far. Reported herein is the case of a 38-year-old woman with a nodular mass in her left breast suspicious of malignancy, discovered during routine ultrasound examination. After histological and immunohistochemical examination of the resected tumor mass, initial diagnosis was collision tumor: ductal invasive carcinoma and metastatic melanoma. The patient underwent quadrantectomy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At 6 years follow up the patient was alive and healthy, without local recurrence or metastases. After revising slides and the literature, in addition to patient follow up, it was concluded that this case represents metaplastic carcinoma with melanocytic differentiation. PMID:19712138

Bendic, Antonia; Bozic, Maja; Durdov, Merica G

2009-09-01

139

[Clinical review of mucoepidermoid carcinomas].  

PubMed

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a rare head and neck cancer tumor, composed of both mucous and epidermoid cells. We retrospectively reviewed the case of 36 such patients hospitalized in the last 24 years (between 1978 and 2002) at Kurume University Hospital, focusing on origin, treatment, and treatment outcome. In this study, 33 patients undergoing currative treatment were studied in detail. Tumors originated in major salivary glands in 24 and in the oral cavity, paranasal cavity, and oropharynx in 3 each. Salivary gland carcinomas were graded, clinically and histopathologically based on the criteria of Goode et al. as follows: low (n = 3), intermediate (n = 3), and high (n = 18). All patients underwent radical surgery. Lymphnode metastasis was detected in 9, distant metastasis in 6 (lung: 4; liver: 1; bone: 1), and local recurrence in 5 patients. Lymphnode recurrence was detected in 3. Survival was calculated with Kaplan-Meier's methods. Five-year overall survival was 64%, i.e., 56% in salivary gland malignancy, 67% in oral cavity malignancy, 100% in paranasal cavity malignancy and 100% in oropharynx malignancy. Five-year survival was 76% in T2, 75% in T3, 51% in T4. Five-year survival in NO was 80% and 22% in N+ cases, with a statictically significant difference (p < 0.05). Five-year survival was 71% in stage I, 83% in stage II, and 54% in stage IV. Five-year survival in low and intermediate grade was 100%, whereas that in high grade was 43%. The 21 patients undergoing modified neck dissection has a 5-year survival of 52%. In 20 patients undergoing postoperative radiotherapy, 4 died of local recurrence. In 31 patients not undergoing chemotherapy, 6 died of distant metastasis. These results emphasize the necessity of radiotherapy and chemotherapy after surgical treatment for head and neck mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:15765727

Sakamoto, Kikuo; Izumaru, Shinsuke; Kurita, Tomoyuki; Miyajima, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Tadashi

2005-02-01

140

Multifocal carcinoma of the larynx presenting as subglottic carcinoma.  

PubMed

The results of treating primary subglottic carcinoma (PSC) with radiation or surgery are disappointing, and recurrent disease is common. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to present our experience of treating two multifocal patients with PSC and second, to report our treatment results using two different clinical treatment sequences. Between September 1991 and June 2002, we treated five patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the subglottis at the Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. It constitutes 5.2% of all 96 laryngeal cancers. Two patients were treated with primary surgery and planned postoperative radiation, and two patients were treated with primary radiation and salvage surgery. The fifth patient was treated with radiation alone. At the time of follow-up, four patients were alive without evidence of disease at 58 months, 28 months, 20 months and 11 months, respectively. One patient (T2N0) died of mediastinal lymph node and liver metastasis 2.5 years after being treated with primary surgery and postoperative radiation. In conclusion, our findings revealed that primary radiation in combination with salvage surgery resulted in a better survival rate than primary surgery with planned postoperative radiation. Primary surgery with postoperative radiation was unable to control the multifocal characteristics and occult mediastinal lymphatic drainage. It is important to point out that due to the small sample size and variation in cancer stages, analyses and conclusions regarding two different treatment sequences were not statistically feasible. PMID:12709805

Su, Wan-Fu; Jen, Yee-Min; Nieh, Shin

2003-04-01

141

Molecular characterization of undifferentiated carcinoma associated with endometrioid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Uterine and ovarian undifferentiated carcinomas (UCs) are often associated with low-grade endometrioid carcinomas (EMCs) and are characterized by a solid growth pattern and a lack of appreciable features of differentiation. As compared with pure EMC, UC is highly malignant, and the molecular pathogenesis that leads to disease aggressiveness remains largely unknown. This study interrogates the molecular pathogenesis of UCs by comparing the molecular alterations between the UC and the EMC components. A total of 20 UCs were studied, 12 of which contained both UC and EMC components. Mutation analysis was performed for the genes commonly mutated in EMC, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression pattern of ?-catenin and PTEN. Sequencing analysis revealed that UCs harbored somatic mutations in PIK3CA (50%), CTNNB1 (30%), TP53 (30%), FBXW7 (20%), and PPP2R1A (20%). All somatic mutations detected in EMCs were also present in concurrent UCs. Moreover, additional somatic mutations were detected in the UC component in 5 (42%) cases with concurrent EMC and UC. Concordance of immunostaining pattern for ?-catenin and PTEN was recorded in all 12 matched EMCs and UCs, except 4 cases in which nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin staining was detected in one of the components but not in the other. Our findings support a clonal relationship between EMCs and their associated UCs. Additional molecular genetics alteration, including mutations of CTNNB1, PPP2R1A, and TP53, may contribute to tumor progression from EMC to UC. PMID:24451280

Kuhn, Elisabetta; Ayhan, Ayse; Bahadirli-Talbott, Asli; Zhao, Chengquan; Shih, Ie-Ming

2014-05-01

142

Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

2014-01-01

143

How grim is hepatocellular carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex disease and a major cause of death in high endemic areas of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCC has gone from being a universal death sentence to a cancer that can be prevented, detected at an early stage and effectively treated. Liver resection or tumour ablation techniques may be effective bridge to liver transplantation if they fulfill the Milan criteria. The areas of progress in HCC are in the control of HBV or HCV and the development of adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapies. PMID:25568791

Weledji, Elroy P.; Enow Orock, George; Ngowe, Marcelin N.; Nsagha, Dickson Shey

2014-01-01

144

Primary Epithelial Myoepithelial Lung Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Primary epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of the lung is an extremely rare neoplasm that originates from submucosal bronchial glands and has been found in the salivary glands, breast tissue, and sweat glands. However, only a few cases in the respiratory tract have been identified. In the literature, most pulmonary EMCs have been reported to have developed endobronchially although a few EMC cases have been presented as intraparenchymatous tumors. We have identified a case of primary EMC that developed in the peripheral lung parenchyma. PMID:24570870

Cho, Seong Ho; Ko, Taek Yong; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Jong In

2014-01-01

145

Personal Experience in Surgical Management of Pulmonary Pleomorphic Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPleomorphic carcinoma is a rare epithelial malignant tumor. Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma was introduced by the 1999 World Health Organization classification as a new peculiar type of lung carcinoma showing concurrent malignant epithelial and sarcomatoid spindle cell elements. Few reports describe its clinical behavior. My colleagues and I report a series of patients surgically treated for pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma to describe

Federico Raveglia; Maurizio Mezzetti; Tiziana Panigalli; Simone Furia; Luigi Giuliani; Serena Conforti; Stefano Meda

2004-01-01

146

Recurrent endocrine mucin–producing sweat gland carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine mucin–producing sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor that most commonly involves the eyelid of elderly women. Morphologically and immunohistochemically, it is analogous to endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and mammary solid papillary carcinoma; also, like the analogous breast lesion, there is an often associated invasive mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. We describe the case

Patrick O. Emanuel; David de Vinck; Heidi A. Waldorf; Robert G. Phelps

2007-01-01

147

Chemotherapy Is More Active against Proximal than Distal Gastric Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Patients with localized proximal gastric carcinoma (PGC) have a poorer outcome than those with distal gastric carcinoma (DGC) following curative resection. However, it remains uncertain whether the location of the primary tumor influences the effect of chemotherapy in advanced gastric carcinoma. Methods: We assessed 270 eligible patients with unresectable, advanced gastric carcinoma who had received first-line chemotherapy between 1989

Katsuhiko Higuchi; Wasaburo Koizumi; Satoshi Tanabe; Katsunori Saigenji; Jaffer A. Ajani

2004-01-01

148

Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

2014-12-22

149

Surgical Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an epithelial tumor derived from hepatocytes; it accounts for 80% of all primary liver cancers and ranks globally as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. HCC treatment is a multidisciplinary and a multimodal task, with surgery in the form of liver resection and liver transplantation (LT) representing the only potentially curative modality. However, there are variable opinions and discussions about applying these surgical options and using other supporting treatments. This article is a narrative review that includes articles published from 1984 to 2013 located by searching scientific databases such as PubMed, SCOPUS, and Elsevier, with the main keyword of hepatocellular carcinoma in addition to other keywords such as liver transplantation, liver resection, transarterial chemoembolization, portal vein embolization, bridging therapy, and downstaging. In this review, we focus mainly on the surgical treatment options offered for HCC, in order to illustrate the current relevant data available in the literature to help in applying these surgical options and to use other supporting treatment modalities when appropriate. PMID:25672233

Madkhali, Ahmad A.; Fadel, Zahir T.; Aljiffry, Murad M.; Hassanain, Mazen M.

2015-01-01

150

Clinical features of actinic keratoses and early squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Clinically, there is a continuum between actinic keratosis, intraepidermal carcinoma (also known as squamous cell carcinoma in situ) and early squamous cell carcinoma that makes a reliable distinction between these entities extremely difficult. Each of the lesions in this continuum can be quite variable in clinical appearance, and there are often no clear distinguishing features, making it difficult to determine whether an individual actinic keratosis has evolved into intraepidermal carcinoma or invasive squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25561207

Wheller, Laura; Soyer, H Peter

2015-01-01

151

Human urinary bladder-carcinoma cells are non-osteoinductive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small pieces (ca. 2–3×3–5 mm) of the urinary-tract mucosa from noninvasive papillary transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder (ca. urotheliale papillare, n=33), invasive transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder (ca. urotheliale papillare infiltrans, n=6, papillary transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder with squamous metaplasia (ca. urotheliale papillare cum metaplasia planoepitheliale, n=4), transitional-cell carcinomas in situ (ca. urotheliale in situ, n=2), and squamous-cell carcinomas

K. H. W?odarski; B. Kuzaka; P. W?odarski

1996-01-01

152

Clear cell carcinoma of ovary and uterus.  

PubMed

Clear cell carcinomas of the female genital tract are rare tumours with a fearsome reputation for having poor responses to conventional platinum-based chemotherapy and poor prognosis. However, it is now clear that early-stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma has an excellent prognosis and may not require any adjuvant therapy. In addition, radiotherapy may also have a key role to play in adjuvant management of clear cell tumours. Identification of patients who truly do not need adjuvant chemotherapy is important. The past 3 years has seen a significant improvement in our understanding of clear cell carcinoma biology-in particular, the role of mutations in the chromatin remodelling gene ARID1A as key drivers that are common to clear cell carcinomas of ovarian and endometrial origin. Moreover, gynaecological clear cell carcinomas appear to share many features with renal clear cell tumours, suggesting a common pathogenesis. This raises the possibility of clinical trials that include patients with clear cell tumours from different organs of origin. Dissecting the role of disordered chromatin organisation in clear cell carcinoma pathogenesis is a key priority. Finally, the role of endometriosis and the attendant chronic inflammation are recognised. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 appears to play a key role in clear cell carcinoma biology and is an excellent potential therapeutic target. PMID:24114188

Glasspool, Rosalind M; McNeish, Iain A

2013-12-01

153

Basosquamous carcinoma: Is it an aggressive tumor?  

PubMed

Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumour that is considered an aggressive type of basal cell carcinoma with an increased risk of recurrence and metastases. This impression has been perpetuated in the literature, despite limited scientific data and conflicting results of some authors. This present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical-pathological features of this tumour and follow-up of a series of basosquamous carcinoma. Basosquamous carcinoma patients who underwent surgical excision between January 2000 and February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Their medical files were reviewed and the corresponding routinely stained sections (with hematoxylin-eosin) were re-evaluated by two pathologists. Thirty-five patients with basosquamous carcinoma were operated on in this period. Most tumurs were located in the head and neck area (94%), and the mean age of the patients was 69.8 years. Margin involvements were seen in 11 patients (31.4%) and all of them underwent re-excision. There was only one local recurrence. There was neither regional lymph node nor distant metastasis in this series. The recurrence rate of basosquamous carcinoma is found as 4%, lower than that of most other similar studies. Further pathologic studies are needed to better classify basosquamous carcinoma and to increase consistency between the results of studies. Surgical excision and regular follow-up are considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:25139415

Kececi, Yavuz; Argon, Asuman; Kebat, Tulug; Sir, Emin; Gungor, Melike; Vardar, Enver

2015-04-01

154

Differential Gene Expression in Ovarian Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer remains the fifth leading cause of cancer death for women in the United States. In this study, the gene expression of 20 ovarian carcinomas, 17 ovarian carcinomas metastatic to the omentum, and 50 normal ovaries was determined by Gene Logic Inc. using Affymetrix GeneChip HU_95 arrays containing ?12,000 known genes. Differences in gene expression were quantified as fold changes in gene expression in ovarian carcinomas compared to normal ovaries and ovarian carcinoma metastases. Genes up-regulated in ovarian carcinoma tissue samples compared to more than 300 other normal and diseased tissue samples were identified. Seven genes were selected for further screening by immunohistochemistry to determine the presence and localization of the proteins. These seven genes were: the ?8 integrin subunit, bone morphogenetic protein-7, claudin-4, collagen type IX ?2, cellular retinoic acid binding protein-1, forkhead box J1, and S100 calcium-binding protein A1. Statistical analyses showed that the ?8 integrin subunit, claudin-4, and S100A1 provided the best distinction between ovarian carcinoma and normal ovary tissues, and may serve as the best candidate tumor markers among the seven genes studied. These results suggest that further exploration into other up-regulated genes may identify novel diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or prognostic biomarkers in ovarian carcinoma. PMID:15277215

Hibbs, Kathleen; Skubitz, Keith M.; Pambuccian, Stefan E.; Casey, Rachael C.; Burleson, Kathryn M.; Oegema, Theodore R.; Thiele, Jeannine J.; Grindle, Suzanne M.; Bliss, Robin L.; Skubitz, Amy P.N.

2004-01-01

155

[Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis. PMID:25746660

Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

2015-04-01

156

Intraglomerular micrometastasis of squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Intraglomerular metastasis is a rare manifestation of disseminated malignancies. We present here a case of intraglomerular metastatic carcinoma diagnosed as an incidental finding on a kidney biopsy in a 62-year-old male presenting with acute renal failure and metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. A proliferative lesion composed of highly atypical epithelial cells was found within a capillary loop and adjacent urinary space of an isolated glomerulus, which was immunoreactive for markers of squamous cell carcinoma. This case is a reminder that circulating cancer cells can occasionally lodge in glomeruli and appear as micrometastasis in kidney biopsies performed for the evaluation of renal dysfunction.

Sasaki, Kotaro; Kumar, Sajal; Chenal, Mario E.; Nicosia, Roberto F.

2012-01-01

157

[Palliative endoscopic therapy of esophageal carcinoma].  

PubMed

Endoscopic insertion of esophageal bridging tubes provides palliative therapy in patients with inoperable esophageal carcinoma. Indications are tumor stenoses and esophago-bronchial fistulae. In 138 patients endoscopical application of bridging tubes was performed: 51 esophageal, 42 cardiac and 24 gastric carcinoma, six tumor stenoses caused by bronchial carcinoma and 15 esophago-bronchial fistulae. Letality rate was 8,5%, which is significantly less compared to operative methods. Average survival time of 120 days after implantation seems not to be prolonged despite marked improvement of symptoms, especially of dysphagia. PMID:6201422

Lux, G; Riemann, J F; Groitl, H

1984-03-22

158

Metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 4% of thyroid carcinoma and originates from parafollicular cells, secreting calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Conventional radiographic modalities such as Computerized Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Ultrasonography (U/S), are used for detecting recurrences following total thyroidectomy. However, metastatic disease frequently escapes detection by the above modalities, even when its presence is suggested by persistently elevated serum calcitonin levels. In this paper, we report a case of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 40 year-old woman who had whole body octreotide scintigraphy to evaluate and detect the origin of calcitonin and CEA secretion. PMID:22091276

Niafar, Mitra; Dabiri, Shahram; Bozorgi, Farshid; Niafar, Farid; Gholami, Nasrin

2011-01-01

159

Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma which is presented as subcutaneous swelling with sinus formation. PMID:23133761

Patil, Vijayraj S.; Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Natikar, Neelamma

2012-01-01

160

Cholecystocolic fistula caused by gallbladder carcinoma: Preoperatively misdiagnosed as hepatic colon carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cholecystocolic fistula secondary to gallbladder carcinoma is extremely rare and has been reported in very few studies. Most cholecystocolic fistulae are late complications of gallstone disease, but can also develop following carcinoma of the gallbladder when the necrotic tumor penetrates into the adjacent colon. Although no currently available imaging technique has shown great accuracy in recognizing cholecystocolic fistula, abdominopelvic computed tomography may show fistulous communication and anatomical details. Herein we report an unusual case of cholecystocolic fistula caused by gallbladder carcinoma, which was preoperatively misdiagnosed as hepatic flexure colon carcinoma.

Ha, Gi Won; Lee, Min Ro; Kim, Jong Hun

2015-01-01

161

The Florid Subtype of Lobular Carcinoma In Situ: Marker or Precursor for Invasive Lobular Carcinoma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is considered a risk factor—not a precursor—for both invasive lobular and ductal carcinoma.\\u000a Florid LCIS (F-LCIS) is an architectural subtype of LCIS that does not express E-cadherin, yet has the histologic and often\\u000a radiographic appearance of solid-type ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Since DCIS is considered a precursor to invasive ductal\\u000a carcinoma, should F-LCIS be

Sanjay P. Bagaria; Jaime Shamonki; Michelle Kinnaird; Partha S. Ray; Armando E. Giuliano

2011-01-01

162

Targeted Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers worldwide, as well as a common cause of cancer-related death. HCC frequently occurs in the setting of a diseased cirrhotic liver and many patients present at an advanced stage of disease. Together with a poor functional status, this often precludes the use of systemic therapy, especially conventional cytotoxic drugs. Moreover, HCC is known to be a relatively chemo-refractory tumor. There have been many targeted drugs that have shown potential in the treatment of HCC. Many clinical trials have been carried out with many more in progress. They include trials evaluating a single targeted therapy alone, two or more targeted therapy in tandem or a combination of targeted therapy and conventional chemotherapy. In this article, we seek to review some of the more important trials examining the use of targeted therapy in HCC and to look into what the future holds in terms of targeted treatment of HCC. PMID:21994852

Chua, Clarinda W. L.; Choo, Su Pin

2011-01-01

163

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the “Milan criteria” were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

2009-01-01

164

Signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of vater  

PubMed Central

Signet ring carcinoma is a common type of adenocarcinoma of stomach but its occurrence in ampulla of Vater is extremely rare. There are only a few previous reported cases of signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of Vater. Here we reported a 61-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT scan) examination showed intra- and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Endoscopic examination with biopsies revealed a small-size mass in ampulla of Vater with diagnosis of signet ring carcinoma. On consequent pancreatoduodenectomy the tumor was diagnosed as T2N0M0, stage IB. Because of the specific site of signet ring carcinoma of ampulla of Vater, the tumor seems to present itself at an early stage of disease. We review in the literature to suggest our idea. PMID:24592377

Talebi, Ardeshir; Mohammadizadeh, Fareshteh; Hani, Mohsen; Bagheri, Marzie; Bagheri, Azam

2014-01-01

165

[Carcinoma of the oral cavity: integrated treatment].  

PubMed

An integrated chemoradio-surgical technique for treating carcinoma of the oral cavity is described. The results obtained are particularly promising. Longer-term follow-ups are needed for final assessment. PMID:2682178

Vercellino, V; Pomatto, E; Solazzo, L; Vallino, S

1989-08-01

166

Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma  

E-print Network

We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and ~25% of high-grade endometrioid ...

Lander, Eric S.

167

Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: A diagnostic impediment  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. More than 90% of oral cancer occurs in people older than 45 years Lesions of gingiva account for approximately 10% of the oral squamous cell carcinomas and may present clinically as an area of ulceration, exophytic mass, or red/white speckled patches. The proximity to the underlying periosteum may invite early bone invasion. Carcinoma of gingiva constitutes an extremely important group of neoplasms as the lesion frequently mimics the reactive and inflammatory conditions affecting the periodontium, delaying the diagnosis and making the prognosis of the patient poorer. A rare case of gingival squamous cell carcinoma has been reported here, in a 40 Year old male patient. Careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, radiographic, and laboratory investigations, along with a critical review of similar conditions led to the diagnosis, and treatment was initiated. PMID:22628973

Koduganti, Rekha Rani; Sehrawat, Sangeeta; Reddy, P. Veerendra Nath

2012-01-01

168

[Synchronous carcinomas of the colon and rectum].  

PubMed

The authors base their observations on 3 cases of synchronous carcinoma of the large intestine and 1 case of association of cancer on polyps and synchronous colorectal carcinoma. After a short review of the etiopathogenetic and diagnostic aspects, they focus attention in particular on the various types on surgical approach which synchronous carcinoma of the large intestine offer to surgeons. The authors underline that numerous forms of surgery exist which are often complex and difficult, especially if multiple neoplasia involve separate colic segments and above all if they affect the distal rectal section. In conclusion, they affirm that the association of cancer on polyps and synchronous colorectal carcinoma is not rare and should be treated using combined endoscopic and surgical therapy. To the precise colic exeresis should be followed by endoscopic resection in the case of a scissil, villous polyps with high non-differentiated neoplastic tissue laying close on the endoscopic plane of section. PMID:8725069

Mandarano, R; Ciccone, A

1995-12-01

169

Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered. PMID:22584717

Schlumberger, Martin; Massicotte, Marie-Hélène; Nascimento, Camila L; Chougnet, Cécile; Baudin, Eric; Leboulleux, Sophie

2012-01-01

170

Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

2012-09-07

171

Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Inguinal Lymph Node  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-seven percent of neuroendocrine carcinomas are located in the gastrointestinal tract or in the bronchopulmonary tree. Inguinal lymph nodes as the primary tumor site for neuroendocrine carcinoma represent a very unusual location, and have only been described in 2 patient series in the literature. A 64-year-old, previously healthy, Caucasian female presented with a 2-month history of an enlarged inguinal lymph

H. Biering; J. Bauditz; N. Brenner; H. Stein; H. Lochs; C. J. Strasburger

2005-01-01

172

Urinary NMP22 and renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To demonstrate the incidence of positive urinary nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) values associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of the kidney. Currently, urinary NMP22 is used to detect recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.Methods. From May 1997 to March 1998, urinary NMP22 values were obtained from 65 patients who had undergone either computed tomography scanning of the

Samuel Huang; Eugene Rhee; Hetal Patel; Eunhee Park; Jon Kaswick

2000-01-01

173

[Hypopharyngeal carcinoma and red ear drum].  

PubMed

A 46-year-old male patient with an unresectable hypopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with primary radio-chemotherapy. At follow-up, the patient presented with a red ear drum and combined hearing loss. Because of radiotherapy-induced tubal dysfunction, paracentesis was performed. Biopsy of the polypoid middle ear mucosa revealed petrous bone infiltration of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI studies revealed paracarotideal tumor infiltration to the petrous bone and the middle ear arising from a cervical retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis. PMID:20963385

Bender, B; Widmann, G; Riechelmann, H; Schmutzhard, J

2011-04-01

174

p63 Immunohistochemistry in the distinction of adenoid cystic carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Morphologic distinction of high-grade adenoid cystic carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma can be difficult. Equivocal diagnoses can mislead treatment. We have investigated the possibility that immunohistochemical staining for the presence of p63, a novel epithelial stem-cell regulatory protein, could be a useful means of distinguishing these two neoplasms. Archival, routinely processed slides were subjected to citrate-based antigen retrieval, exposure to anti-p63 monoclonal 4A4, and developed with a streptavidin-biotin kit and diaminobenzidine as chromogen. p63 was detected in 100% of the adenoid cystic carcinomas (n=14) and 100% of basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (n=16). Basaloid squamous cell carcinomas consistently displayed diffuse p63 positivity, with staining of nearly 100% of tumor cells. In contrast, adenoid cystic carcinoma displayed a consistently compartmentalized pattern within tumor nests. Compartmentalization was manifested in two patterns: (1) selective staining of a single peripheral layer of p63-positive cells surrounding centrally located tumor cells that were p63-negative and (2) tumor nests consisting of multiple contiguous glandular/cribriform-like units of p63-positive cells surrounding or interspersed with p63-negative cells. p63 immunostaining constitutes a specific and accurate means of distinguishing adenoid cystic carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. p63 positivity in adenoid cystic carcinoma appears to be homologous to that seen in the basal and/or myoepithelial compartments of salivary gland and other epithelia, and may signify a stem-cell-like role for these peripheral cells. Diffuse p63 positivity in basaloid squamous cell carcinoma suggests dysregulation of p63-positive stem cells in poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma. PMID:15529180

Emanuel, Patrick; Wang, Beverly; Wu, Maoxin; Burstein, David E

2005-05-01

175

GATA3 expression in breast carcinoma: utility in triple-negative, sarcomatoid, and metastatic carcinomas?, ??  

PubMed Central

Summary GATA3 plays an integral role in breast luminal cell differentiation and is implicated in breast cancer progression. GATA3 immunohistochemistry is a useful marker of breast cancer; however, its use in specific subtypes is unclear. Here, we evaluate GATA3 expression in 86 invasive ductal carcinomas including triple-negative, Her-2, and luminal subtypes, in addition to 13 metaplastic carcinomas and in 34 fibroepithelial neoplasms. In addition, we report GATA3 expression in matched primary and metastatic breast carcinomas in 30 patients with known estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her-2 status, including 5 with ER and/or PR loss from primary to metastasis. Tissue microarrays containing 5 to 10 cores per tumor were stained for GATA3, scored as follows: 0 (0–5%), 1+ (6%–25%), 2+ (26%–50%), 3+ (51%–75%), and 4+ (>75%). GATA3 labeling was seen in 67% (66/99) of primary ductal carcinomas including 43% of triple-negative and 54% of metaplastic carcinomas. In contrast, stromal GATA3 labeling was seen in only 1 fibroepithelial neoplasm. GATA3 labeling was seen in 90% (27/30) of primary breast carcinomas in the paired cohort, including 67% of triple-negative carcinomas. GATA3 labeling was overwhelmingly maintained in paired metastases. Notably, GATA3 was maintained in all “luminal loss” metastases, which showed ER and/or PR loss. In conclusion, GATA3 expression is maintained between matched primary and metastatic carcinomas including ER-negative cases. GATA3 can be particularly useful as a marker for metastatic breast carcinoma, especially triple-negative and metaplastic carcinomas, which lack specific markers of mammary origin. Finally, GATA3 labeling may help distinguish metaplastic carcinoma from malignant phyllodes tumors. PMID:23375642

Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Subhawong, Andrea P.; Illei, Peter B.; Sharma, Rajni; Halushka, Marc K.; Vang, Russell; Fetting, John H.; Park, Ben Ho; Argani, Pedram

2014-01-01

176

Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is responsible for 10–15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS4–7 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole genome sequencing of 14 tumor-normal pairs. Novel somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%) TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observed somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas had higher frequencies of somatic mutations in the Tp*C dinucleotide context than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were significantly higher in tumors with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumors without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest novel strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A.; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L.; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K.; Hoivik, Erling A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D.; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L.; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P.; Neuberg, Donna S.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B.; Meyerson, Matthew

2014-01-01

177

Landscape of genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is responsible for 10-15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The aetiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in cervical carcinomas is well established. Previous studies have also implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS as well as several copy-number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas. Here we report whole-exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole-genome sequencing of 14 tumour-normal pairs. Previously unknown somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%), TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observe somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas have higher frequencies of somatic nucleotide substitutions occurring at cytosines preceded by thymines (Tp*C sites) than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were statistically significantly higher in tumours with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumours without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest new strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J; Cherniack, Andrew D; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A; Rosenberg, Mara W; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M; Lawrence, Michael S; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K; Hoivik, Erling A; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P; Neuberg, Donna S; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A; Carey, Thomas E; Vintermyr, Olav K; Gabriel, Stacey B; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B; Meyerson, Matthew

2014-02-20

178

Immunohistochemical study of 158 lung carcinomas.  

PubMed

Lung carcinomas were studied immunohistochemically and the results were related to type of tissue sample (bronchoscopic biopsies, surgical specimens, autopsies). All cytokeratins (CAM 5.2, PKK-1, AE1/AE3) reacted with virtually all adenocarcinomas, most squamous, and 65% of the large cell carcinomas, while CAM 5.2 was most efficient with the small cell carcinomas. CEA stained 33% and 60% of the small and large cell carcinomas, respectively, most adenocarcinomas, and 84% of the squamous cell carcinomas, among which staining decreased with dedifferentiation and was often focal. EMA reacted with 90%, and NSE with 20% of all histological types. There was no staining for NF. All antibodies, except EMA, were more efficient with surgical specimens. Our study implies that the cytokeratins we used work better with surgical material, but are generally comparable to monospecific cytokeratin antibodies. Also, EMA is a reliable marker for epithelial differentiation with all types of tissue samples. Moreover, CEA negativity in several poorly differentiated lung carcinomas might have implications in the differential diagnosis against pleural mesothelioma. PMID:1280149

Johansson, L; Andersson, C; Albin, M

1992-10-01

179

[Squamous cell carcinoma--case report].  

PubMed

Carcinoma that develops in chronic ulcers, wounds, burn scars and fistulas is known as Marjolin's ulcer. It occurs primarily as a squamous cell carcinoma and rarely as basal cell carcinoma. Marjolin's ulcer represents 2% to 5% of all squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. We present a 60-year-old male patient with chronic ulceration on the right leg. The ulceration appeared 15 years before at the localization of the burn scar following an injury and was treated for years as a chronic venous ulcer. After sudden enlargement of the ulcer, biopsy confirmed it to be invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in the inguinal lymph node. After complete excision of the tumor and inguinal lymph node dissection, the patient was under supervision of the surgeon and oncologist because of tumor relapse on the skin and lymph node. This case should serve as a reminder to practitioners to perform biopsy of every ulcer that fails to heal or when other risk factors for venous ulcers are missing, in order to avoid delay in diagnosis and complications. PMID:23193834

Poduje, Sanja; Huljev, Dubravko; Cubrilovi?, Zeljkica; Bosnjak, Josipa

2012-10-01

180

Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

2014-01-01

181

Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.  

PubMed

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

2014-01-01

182

Topical Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinomas in Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome with a Smoothened Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a distinctive manifestation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients. Both inherited and acquired mutations of patched 1 (PTCH1), a tumor-suppressor gene controlling the activity of Smoothened (SMO), are the primary cause of the constitutive activation of the Hedgehog (HH) pathway, leading to the emergence of BCCs in NBCCS. LDE225, a distinct, selective antagonist

Hans Skvara; Frank Kalthoff; Josef G Meingassner; Barbara Wolff-Winiski; Heinrich Aschauer; Joseph F Kelleher; Xu Wu; Shifeng Pan; Lesanka Mickel; Christopher Schuster; Georg Stary; Ahmad Jalili; Olivier J David; Corinne Emotte; Ana Monica Costa Antunes; Kristine Rose; Jeremy Decker; Ilene Carlson; Humphrey Gardner; Anton Stuetz; Arthur P Bertolino; Georg Stingl; Menno A De Rie

2011-01-01

183

Lobular carcinoma of the breast: a special variant of mucin-secreting carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently much speculation over the precise nature of lobular carcinoma in-situ of the breast and its significance. Histochemical study shows that it is rich in sialomucin. This has a characteristic intracellular distribution which distinghishes lobular carcinoma in-situ from cancerization of lobules. The same histochemical features are seen in the infiltrative phase of the tumour. These findings invalidate the

A Gad; J G Azzopardi

1975-01-01

184

Quality-of-Life Outcomes of Treatments for Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life is an important treatment outcome for conditions that are rarely fatal, such as cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (typically called nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC)). The purpose of this study was to compare quality-of-life outcomes of treatments for NMSC. We performed a prospective cohort study of 633 consecutive patients with NMSC diagnosed in 1999 and

Mary-Margaret Chren; Anju P Sahay; Daniel S Bertenthal; Saunak Sen; C Seth Landefeld

2007-01-01

185

Ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma in a patient with suspected Gardner syndrome.  

PubMed

Ameloblastic carcinoma and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma are rare malignancies arising in odontogenic epithelium within the jaws. Gardner syndrome is a multifaceted autosomal dominant condition, which results in multiple dentofacial anomalies along with premalignant colon polyp formation and tumor formation in the skin and other organs. We report a case of ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma and extensive clear cell change and melanin pigmentation in a patient with clinical features of Gardner syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, odontogenic carcinoma arising in a patient with features of Gardner syndrome has not been reported previously. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the case are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25434693

Fitzpatrick, S G; Hirsch, S A; Listinsky, C M; Lyu, D J-H; Baur, D A

2015-04-01

186

Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2015-03-05

187

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Analysis - Thomas Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Analysis - Thomas Giordano Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Analysis - Thomas Giordano, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later and JavaScript

188

Solitary skeletal metastasis in carcinoma gallbladder: two case reports.  

PubMed

We report 2 cases of carcinoma gallbladder with only solitary skeletal metastasis. To the best of our knowledge there are only 3 case reports of carcinoma gallbladder with skeletal metastasis in the English literature. PMID:20529758

Prakash, Mahesh; Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Sreenivasan, Radhika; Yadav, T D; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2010-01-01

189

Localized peribronchial thickening: a CT sign of occult bronchogenic carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a case with repeated positive sputum cytologies in which CT proved complementary to nonlocalizing endoscopies by identifying bronchogenic carcinoma as focal specimen provided precise pathologic correlation of the CT findings with a small squamous cell carcinoma.

Foster, W.L. Jr.; Roberts, L. Jr.; McLendon, R.E.; Hill, R.C.

1985-05-01

190

Multimodal treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most common liver cancer with an increasing incidence and it accounts for the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Even though the clinical diagnosis and management of HCC improved significantly in the last decades, this malignant disease is still associated with a poor prognosis. It has to be distinguished between patients with HCCs, which developed from liver cirrhosis, and patients without underlying liver cirrhosis as classification systems, prognosis estimation and therapy recommendations differ in-between. In case of HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis in Europe, treatment allocation and prognosis estimation are mainly based on the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system. Based on this staging system different surgical, interventional radiological/sonographical and non-interventional procedures have been established for the multimodal treatment of HCC. The BCLC classification system represents a decision guidance; however because of its limitations in selected patients treatment allocation should be determined on an individualized rather than a guideline-based medicine by a multidisciplinary board in order to offer the best treatment option for each patient. This review summarizes the current management of HCC and illustrates controversial areas of therapeutic strategies. PMID:24666568

Graf, Dirk; Vallböhmer, Daniel; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Kröpil, Patric; Antoch, Gerald; Sagir, Abdurrahaman; Häussinger, Dieter

2014-06-01

191

Fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare but benign disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction in the mediastinum which can result in compromise of airways, great vessels, and other mediastinal structures. In this paper we presented a patient with fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma. The patient was a 32-year-old diabetic male admitting with cough and hemoptysis. There was a right hilar mass and multiple mediastinal conglomerated lymph nodes on chest computed tomography. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) scan demonstrated increased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at the right hilar mass lesion and mediastinal lymph nodes. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed mucosal distortion of right upper lobe. Pathologic examination of the mucosal biopsy revealed inflammation. Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle and cervical mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsies were undiagnostic. Diagnostic thoracotomy confirmed the diagnosis fibrosing mediastinitis. Administration of six months of systemic corticosteroid and antituberculous therapy was not beneficial. In conclusion, despite being a rare clinical entity, fibrosing mediastinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass lesions of unknown etiology. The diagnosis is exceptionally difficult in the presence of atypical radiological findings. The treatment is particularly challenging without any proven effective therapy. PMID:23372962

Bayiz, Hulya; Mutluay, Neslihan; Koyuncu, Adem; Demirag, Funda; Dagli, Gulfidan; Berktas, Bahadir; Berkoglu, Mine

2013-01-01

192

Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective circular shape single stranded HDV RNA virus with two types of viral proteins, small and large hepatitis D antigens, surrounded by hepatitis B surface antigen. Superinfection with HDV in chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more threatening form of liver disease leading to rapid progression to cirrhosis. In spite of some controversy in the epidemiological studies, HDV infection does increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Hepatic decompensation, rather than development of HCC, is the first usual clinical endpoint during the course of HDV infection. Oxidative stress as a result of severe necroinflammation may progress to HCC. The large hepatitis D antigen is a regulator of various cellular functions and an activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Another proposed epigenetic mechanism by which HCC may form is the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes by DNA Methyltransferases. HDV antigens have also been associated with increased histone H3 acetylation of the clusterin promoter. This enhances the expression of clusterin in infected cells, increasing cell survival potential. Any contribution of HBV DNA integration with chromosomes of infected hepatocytes is not clear at this stage. The targeted inhibition of STAT3 and cyclophilin, and augmentation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? have a potential therapeutic role in HCC.

Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam; Abbas, Sarim; Shazi, Lubna

2015-01-01

193

Proton therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Proton radiotherapy has seen an increasing role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Historically, external beam radiotherapy has played a very limited role in HCC due to a high incidence of toxicity to surrounding normal structures. The ability to deliver a high dose of radiation to the tumor is a key factor in improving outcomes in HCC. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformity and allowed dose escalation to the tumor. However, despite these advances there is still a large volume of normal liver that receives a considerable radiation dose during treatment. Proton beams do not have an exit dose along the beam path once they enter the body. The inherent physical attributes of proton radiotherapy offer a way to maximize tumor control via dose escalation while avoiding excessive radiation to the remaining liver, thus increasing biological effectiveness. In this review we discuss the physical attributes and rationale for proton radiotherapy in HCC. We also review recent literature regarding clinical outcomes of using proton radiotherapy for the treatment of HCC. PMID:23359779

Ling, Ted C.; Kang, Joseph I.; Bush, David A.; Slater, Jerry D.

2012-01-01

194

Tissue Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guideline provides strategies for achieving the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the size of liver nodules seen on surveillance imaging. For lesions less than 1 cm in size, follow-up surveillance imaging is recommended. Lesions larger than 2 cm require typical radiological hallmark on dynamic imaging. Lesions of 1–2 cm in size require typical imaging features including intense uptake of contrast during arterial phases followed by decreased enhancement during portal venous phases on at least 2 imaging modalities. In cases of atypical radiological features of the suspected lesion, tissue diagnosis either by fine needle aspiration or biopsy should be obtained. Although fine needle aspiration could give a smaller risk of seeding than biopsy, biopsy has been preferred over cytology. Percutaneous biopsy of HCC carries a potential risk of tumor seeding along the needle tract. However the risk is low and there is no clear evidence of post transplant recurrence due to needle tract seeding. Histopathologic assessment can differentiate between premalignant lesions such as dysplastic nodules and early HCC. Atypical variants of HCC can be recognized morphologically which may have associated prognostic value. PMID:25755614

Jain, Deepali

2014-01-01

195

Surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Standard potentially curative treatments are either resection or transplantation. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical management of HCC, as well as highlight current issues in hepatic resection and transplantation. In summary, due to the relationship between HCC and chronic liver disease, the management of HCC depends both on tumour-related and hepatic function-related considerations. As such, HCC is currently managed largely through non-surgical means as the criteria, in relation to the above considerations, for surgical management is still largely restrictive. For early stage tumours, both resection and transplantation offer fairly good survival outcomes (5 years overall survival of around 50%). Selection therefore would depend on the level of hepatic function derangement, organ availability and local expertise. Patients with intermediate stage cancers have limited options, with resection being the only potential for cure. Otherwise, locoregional therapy with transarterial chemoembolization or radiofrequency ablation are viable options. Current issues in resection and transplantation are also briefly discussed such as laparoscopic resection, ablation vs resection, anatomical vs non-anatomical resection, transplantation vs resection, living donor liver transplantation and salvage liver transplantation. PMID:25729479

Pang, Tony CY; Lam, Vincent WT

2015-01-01

196

Future perspectives for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Five facets of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are identified that impact on future directions in the management of the disease: epidemiology, prevention, screening, diagnosis and therapy. Recent papers on HCC have been reviewed, and predictions have been made on developments in HCC over the next decade. Discussion It is predicted that hepatitis B-related HCC will decrease with vaccination, while hepatitis C-related HCC will become an increasing problem. Antiviral treatment and chemopreventive agents will prevent HCC development. Whole-population screening will not be an option, but screening is justified for individuals who can pay for it. There will be more emphasis on the use of tumour markers. Transabdominal ultrasound and triphasic spiral computed tomography will remain important radiological imaging techniques. The results of liver resection will not improve unless neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy is proven to be effective. More patients with initially unresect-able HCC will be down-staged to become resectable with improvements in local, regional and systemic therapies. Liver transplantation will be increasingly used. Local ablative therapy will improve the quality of survival but will have no impact on overall survival compared with surgical resection. The author hopes to review the accuracy of these predictions in 2013. PMID:18332989

2003-01-01

197

Chemopreventive strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of death from cancer. The incidence and mortality of HCC are increasing in most Western countries as a result of an ageing cohort infected with chronic hepatitis C, and are expected to continue to rise as a consequence of the obesity epidemic. Chemopreventive strategies aimed at decreasing the risk or delaying the onset of HCC are needed. Universal immunization against HBV and antiviral therapy against HBV and HCV in patients with established disease has consistently been associated with reduced HCC risk, especially in patients who achieve sustained virologic response. However, the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for primary HCC prevention is not known. Several commonly prescribed medications seem promising as chemopreventive agents against HCC, including statins, antidiabetic medications and aspirin. Dietary agents such as coffee, vitamin E and fish oil as well as phytochemicals might also be associated with reduced risk of HCC. Though randomized controlled trials are ideally needed to firmly establish efficacy, such chemoprevention trials are logistically and ethically challenging. Well-designed, prospective, population-based cohort studies might provide the best evidence for chemopreventive efficacy of these agents. PMID:23938452

Singh, Siddharth; Singh, Preet Paul; Roberts, Lewis R.; Sanchez, William

2015-01-01

198

Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

Mendenhall, William M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)], E-mail: mendewil@shands.ufl.edu; Mancuso, Anthony A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Werning, John W. [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Amdur, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Villaret, Douglas B. [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)

2007-10-01

199

Localization of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with Ga-67  

SciTech Connect

Data are limited on the localization of Ga-67 in primary or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma. We report the localization of Ga-67 to pathologically confirmed adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the lung. A review of the literature revealed four patients have previously been reported to have metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma detected on Ga-67 scan. Gallium imaging may be useful in the evaluation of patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma. SPECT imaging should further improve lesion resolution and localization.

Ward, F.T.; Anderson, J.H.; Jelinek, J.; Anderson, D.W. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-02-01

200

Squamous-cell carcinoma of the upper lip.  

PubMed

Squamous-cell carcinoma involving the upper lip grows more rapidly and is more difficult to control than squamous-cell carcinoma of the lower lip. The lesion usually is histologically more undifferentiated than squamous-cell carcinoma of the lower lip and metastases develop earlier. A case report of a patient with a squamous-cell carcinoma in an upper lip with regional metastases is presented and illustrated. PMID:7096774

Knabel, M R; Koranda, F C; Panje, W R; Grande, D J

1982-06-01

201

MET Expression in Sporadic Renal Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Although germline mutations of met proto-oncogene on human chromosome 7q31-34 have been known as useful molecular markers of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the expression of MET, a product of met proto-oncogene, has not been fully studied in sporadic RCC, along with its clinical significance. We investigated the expression of MET by immunohistochemistry in 182 cases of renal neoplasm encompassing 145 RCC, 25 urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis, and 12 oncocytomas. MET was diffusely and strongly expressed in 90% of papillary RCC, all collecting duct carcinomas, and 92% of urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis. On the contrary, clear cell RCC, chromophobe RCC, and oncocytomas were negative or focally positive for MET expression. In clear cell RCC, MET expression was positively correlated with high nuclear grade, presence of infiltrative growth, tumoral necrosis, papillary architecture, sarcomatoid component, tumoral involvement of the renal pelvis or ureter, involvement of the calyx, and lymphatic invasion. In conclusion, diffuse and strong expression of MET in papillary RCC and collecting duct carcinoma might be helpful in discriminating from the other subtypes of RCC with tubular or papillary growth. In case of MET expression observed in clear cell RCC, it might correlate with those clinicopathological parameters implying aggressive behavior. PMID:16891811

Choi, Jong Sun; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Seo, Jin Won; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Dong Hoon; Chun, Yi Kyeong

2006-01-01

202

Diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Penile verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare disease that, at present, has not been well characterized. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this carcinoma remain poorly understood, particularly in the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to discuss the methods of diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma in the Chinese population. The clinical and pathological data of 10 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma were analyzed alongside a literature review. All the tumors were exophytic papillary lesions, ranging between 0.4 and 4 cm in diameter and all 10 patients underwent partial penectomy with tumor-negative surgical margins. None of the 10 patients underwent ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy. All patients were regularly followed up for 0.7–9 years, which revealed that no patients developed recurrence, and only one case resulted in mortality due to unassociated causes. It was found that penile verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated disease with low malignant potential and locally aggressive features, which seldom metastasizes to regional lymph nodes or distant regions. However, misdiagnosis may occur due to an incorrect biopsy. Favorable outcomes can be achieved by surgery, even without any adjuvant therapy, but patients should be carefully followed up. PMID:25789024

LI, FANGYIN; XU, YIPENG; WANG, HUA; CHEN, BO; WANG, ZONGPING; ZHAO, YANG; ZHU, SHAOXING; CHEN, GUIPING

2015-01-01

203

Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation. PMID:25386788

Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

2014-01-01

204

Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To assess changes in incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma over a 22 year period in Tanzania and to analyse possible reasons for change.?METHODS—Retrospective analysis of records from a Tanzanian pathology department serving north and central Tanzania from 1976 to 1997; medical record analysis of cases of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma presenting in the last 2 years of the study.?RESULTS—There was a sharp rise in the incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in the last 3 years of the study (1995-7). The mean age of patients presenting with the condition over the full period was 44.7 years (95% confidence interval 42.4-46.9 years). In the final 2 years of the study the mean length of history on presentation was 3.1 months (2.1-4.0 months). Several patients had a previous history of chronic conjunctival disease such as allergic conjunctivitis and trachoma; one had had a conjunctival papilloma excised previously. Only five patients had been tested for HIV status, but of these four were positive.?CONCLUSION—Tanzania is experiencing an epidemic of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma similar to that seen in other African countries. Often the tumours are aggressive and occur in patients of relatively young age. The epidemic appears to be related to HIV infection, on a background of ultraviolet light exposure. Previous chronic conjunctival disease and exposure to human papillomavirus may also have a role.?? Keywords: conjunctiva; squamous cell carcinoma; HIV PMID:10396194

Poole, T

1999-01-01

205

Obesity as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

During recent years the incidence of obesity has increased significantly, and in some instances rapidly, in many resource-rich countries. Paralleling this increase has been an increase in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been estimated that as many as 90% of obese adults will develop the metabolic syndrome. The worldwide incidence of this syndrome in adults at this time ranges from 9 to 34%. Furthermore, obesity in childhood increases the risk of obesity in adulthood, and hence the development of the metabolic syndrome and hepatocellular carcinoma. Ten to 20% of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and 8.3% of the latter develop cirrhosis. Up to 50% of these patients with cirrhosis, and a significant proportion of those without cirrhosis, progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Much remains to be learnt about the mechanisms by which obesity and the metabolic syndrome cause hepatocellular carcinoma, although insulin resistance, increased tissue necrosis factor activity, alterations in serum lipids, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatosis play important roles. There is also increasing evidence that gut microbiota play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome and hence of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25864208

Kew, Michael C

2015-01-01

206

Low-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary associated with undifferentiated carcinoma: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The association of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma with undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) was first reported in endometrium carcinoma, termed with dedifferentiated carcinoma (DC). However, the coexistence of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma (LGEC) or serous carcinoma (LGSC) with UC has received minimal attention in ovary, and the behavior of this kind of neoplasm remains at further discussion. In this study, we reported a case of low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinoma associated with UC and reviewed another four cases previously reported. We found a histological continuity between the LGEC and UC components in H&E section, which suggested a dedifferentiation from LGEC to UC components. In summary, this kind of pathological type has aggressive behavior and these patients have very poor prognosis regardless of the amount of undifferentiated carcinoma. PMID:25120828

Chen, Ling; Pang, Shujie; Shen, Yan; Liu, Zaiping; Luan, Jing; Shi, Yiquan; Liu, Yixin

2014-01-01

207

Loss of chromosome 16q in lobular carcinoma in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and infiltrating lobular carcinoma may represent different forms of the same disease based on their frequent clinical association and similar histologic features. Patients with LCIS are at increased risk of multicentric and bilateral disease. Thus, LCIS may represent both a precursor to infiltrating lobular carcinoma and a marker of risk for breast cancer. To identify

Joan E Etzell; Sandy Devries; K Chew; C Florendo; A Molinaro; B. M Ljung; Frederic M Waldman

2001-01-01

208

Late Focal Pancreatic Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastatic carcinoma to the pancreas is uncommon. Pancreatic metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma is exceptional, but may occur many years after the initial diagnosis and treatment of the primary tumor. Presentation of our patient mimicked a head of the pancreas carcinoma so well that it was only after the resectional phase of a Whipple operation that the diagnosis of

Mustafa Sahin; Alan A. K. Foulis; Fat Wui Poon; Clement W. Imrie

1998-01-01

209

Proximal Versus Distal Gastric Carcinoma—What Are the Differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of proximal gastric third carcinoma (PGC) has been rising in recent years. Classification and surgical therapy remain controversial. Methods: Between May 1986 and October 1997, 532 patients were operated for primary gastric carcinoma. All patient data were analyzed retrospectively comparing findings in patients with PGC and those with distal gastric carcinoma (DGC). Results: Two hundred fifty patients

Pompiliu Piso; Uwe Werner; Hauke Lang; Petrit Mirena; Jürgen Klempnauer

2000-01-01

210

Early squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus: the Japanese viewpoint.  

PubMed

In Japan, more than 90% of oesophageal malignancies are squamous cell carcinomas, and superficial and early carcinomas now account for about 40% and 20%, respectively, of all oesophageal carcinomas. Definition of early carcinoma has changed on the basis of new data. As of 2007, early carcinoma is defined as intramucosal carcinoma with or without metastasis. In the subclassification based on depth of cancer invasion, m1 and m2 carcinomas have no metastasis and are considered curable by endoscopic mucosal resection alone, whereas < 10% of m3 carcinomas and about 20% of sm1 carcinomas have lymph node metastasis. The relationship between various pathological findings and the incidence of lymph node metastasis has been reviewed. High-grade squamous dysplasia (squamous cell carcinoma in situ in Japan) requires surgical or endoscopic removal. Very minute carcinomas have recently been detected by magnifying endoscopy and/or narrowband imaging. Endocytoscopy could replace biopsy histopathological examination for diagnosis of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and endocytoscopic diagnosis and endoscopic therapy may be performed simultaneously. As a result of advances in the development of endoscopes, pathologists are now expected to diagnose very minute lesions, < 1 mm in size, in the oesophagus. PMID:17617215

Takubo, K; Aida, J; Sawabe, M; Kurosumi, M; Arima, M; Fujishiro, M; Arai, T

2007-12-01

211

Gene expression signatures differentiate ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities. With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies, as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3, PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery. PMID:20132413

Davidson, Ben; Stavnes, Helene Tuft; Holth, Arild; Chen, Xu; Yang, Yanqin; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

2011-01-01

212

Expression of survivin in squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A comparative immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the expression of survivin and its association with clinicopathological criteria in major types of urinary bladder carcinoma, specifically, transitional cell carcinoma with and without squamous differentiation and squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods Immunohistochemical staining for survivin and Ki67 was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of 104 carcinomas: 52 transitional cell carcinoma, 20 transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation, and 32 squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of survivin in >10% of tumor cells was described as altered survivin status. Ki67 staining in >20% of tumor cells was described as a high proliferation index. Results Altered survivin expression was detected in 60/104 specimens (58%) and was significantly more frequent in transitional cell carcinoma (78%) than in squamous cell carcinoma (38%) or transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation (40%) (p<0.0001). In transitional cell carcinoma but not in squamous cell carcinoma, altered survivin status was associated with higher tumor grade, higher proliferation index, and recurrence. In the whole specimens, altered survivin expression was significantly associated with advanced stage (p<0.001), recurrence (p=0.005), distant metastasis (p<0.001), and death (p=0.001). In the multivariate analysis, altered survivin was an independent poor prognostic factor for recurrence. Conclusions Unlike in transitional cell carcinoma, alteration of survivin expression in squamous cell carcinoma occurs less frequently and is not associated with features of tumor aggression or patient outcome. These findings raise a question: are urinary bladder carcinoma patients with squamous cell carcinoma type suitable candidates for survivin vaccine? This is an important question to be answered before approving the vaccine in management. PMID:25598934

Refaiy, Abeer EL-Refaiy M.; Badary, Fatma Ahmed Mahmoud; Abdelkawi, Islam F.; Merseburger, Axel S.; Mohammed, Rabab Ahmed Ahmed

2015-01-01

213

Cetuximab and Recombinant Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck That is Recurrent, Metastatic, or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

2015-03-23

214

A rare case of a synchronous anaplastic carcinoma thyroid with ductal carcinoma breast.  

PubMed

Dual malignancy was first reported by Billroth in 1889. Incidence of second malignancy in cancer patients is as high as 10%, but synchronous anaplastic thyroid cancer along with breast tumor is a rare entity. We present a case of a 61-year-old female with a synchronous anaplastic carcinoma thyroid with ductal carcinoma breast. The plausible association of breast cancers with thyroid carcinomas should thus be evaluated in larger cohort studies. More importantly, this report is to highlight the unusual synchronous occurrence of anaplastic thyroid cancer with ductal breast cancer and the therapeutic challenges involved in such cases. PMID:24822141

Ghosh, Saptarshi; Rao, P B Ananda; Sarkar, Shreyasee; Kotne, Sivasankar; Turlapati, S P V; Mishra, Anindita

2014-01-01

215

A Rare Case of a Synchronous Anaplastic Carcinoma Thyroid with Ductal Carcinoma Breast  

PubMed Central

Dual malignancy was first reported by Billroth in 1889. Incidence of second malignancy in cancer patients is as high as 10%, but synchronous anaplastic thyroid cancer along with breast tumor is a rare entity. We present a case of a 61-year-old female with a synchronous anaplastic carcinoma thyroid with ductal carcinoma breast. The plausible association of breast cancers with thyroid carcinomas should thus be evaluated in larger cohort studies. More importantly, this report is to highlight the unusual synchronous occurrence of anaplastic thyroid cancer with ductal breast cancer and the therapeutic challenges involved in such cases. PMID:24822141

Ghosh, Saptarshi; Rao, P. B. Ananda; Sarkar, Shreyasee; Kotne, Sivasankar; Turlapati, S. P. V.; Mishra, Anindita

2014-01-01

216

Treatment options for Merkel cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) or neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is uncommon, often aggressive, and has a poor prognosis. Complete surgical excision with histologic documentation of clear resection margins is recommended for the primary cancer. Retrospective analysis of clinical data strongly suggests that adjuvant radiotherapy improves local control of MCC, but no evidence has been published that it prolongs survival. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a useful method of determining the need for regional lymph node dissection in stage I patients. Chemotherapy regimens similar to those employed for small cell carcinoma of the lung have been recommended for advanced MCC. Patients often show an initial response to therapy, but it is usually short-lived. The three-year overall survival for patients with MCC is 31%. Before an improvement in long-term survival can be realized, early detection, appropriate use of surgery and radiation therapy, and the development of effective systemic chemotherapy are required. PMID:19777699

Beenken, Samuel W; Urist, Marshall M

2004-01-01

217

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.  

PubMed

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment. PMID:23924557

Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

2013-01-01

218

Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma in child†.  

PubMed

Papillary thyroid carcinoma occurring in a thyroglossal cyst is a rare condition especially in children, and there is no consensus regarding management. There are only 10 other documented cases in the English literature for children under the age of 12. We discuss one such case. A 10-year-old female child with an 8-month history of a midline neck cyst underwent Sistrunk's procedure as surgical treatment after clinical and ultrasound scan confirmation. An incidental 9-mm papillary carcinoma was seen on histology within the thyroglossal cyst. Following multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion, the child underwent total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. There is no consensus regarding the ideal management for thyroglossal duct carcinoma in the paediatric literature. We discuss the treatment options and the importance of MDT involvement. PMID:25877826

Tahir, Asil; Sankar, Velayutham; Makura, Zvoru

2015-01-01

219

Ovarian undifferentiated carcinoma with voluminous mesenteric presentation  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION About 5% of ovarian cancers are so poorly differentiated and difficult to classify that they are called undifferentiated carcinomas and usually have disseminated disease at presentation. Extra pelvic debulking it is difficult to complete. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a rare ovarian tumor presented as a large mesenteric tumor of 14 cm diameter in a 73 years old woman. DISCUSSION Undifferentiated carcinomas are usually large, solid with hemorrhage and necrosis, bilateral and most are difficult to classify histologically. Rarely are pure, generally identified through the extensive sampling of lesions, some other components of surface epithelial carcinoma and usually the predominant element is the latter. Cases with predominantly undifferentiated component are rare. CONCLUSION The treatment and diagnostic approach is the same as for other high-grade epithelial tumors of the ovary, but in this particular case the differential diagnosis and diagnostic approach is that of a mesenteric tumor. PMID:22922357

Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa Angélica; Lino-Silva, Leonardo Saúl; Cantú de León, David; Pérez-Montiel, María Delia; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama

2012-01-01

220

Ameloblastic carcinoma: Report of a rare case  

PubMed Central

Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting histological evidence of malignancy in the primary or recurrent tumor. It is characterized by rapid, painful expansion of the jaw, unlike conventional ameloblastomas. The tumor most frequently involves the mandible. The expanding lesion causes perforation of the buccal and lingual plates of the jaw and invades the surrounding soft tissue. Rapidly growing large tumor mass may cause tooth mobility. A mandibular tumor involving the mental nerve leads to paresthesia of the nerve. A maxillary tumor can produce a fistula in the palate and paresthesia of the infraorbital nerve. Most ameloblastic carcinomas are presumed to have arisen de novo with a few cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastomas. Although rare, these lesions have been known to metastasize, mostly to the regional lymph nodes or lungs. A case of ameloblastic carcinoma in a 60-year-old man is reported here and its clinical, radiological and histological features are discussed. PMID:24579073

Srikanth, Mandadi Dakshinamurthy; Radhika, Besta; Metta, Kiran; Renuka, Nukala Valli

2014-01-01

221

Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma in child†  

PubMed Central

Papillary thyroid carcinoma occurring in a thyroglossal cyst is a rare condition especially in children, and there is no consensus regarding management. There are only 10 other documented cases in the English literature for children under the age of 12. We discuss one such case. A 10-year-old female child with an 8-month history of a midline neck cyst underwent Sistrunk's procedure as surgical treatment after clinical and ultrasound scan confirmation. An incidental 9-mm papillary carcinoma was seen on histology within the thyroglossal cyst. Following multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion, the child underwent total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. There is no consensus regarding the ideal management for thyroglossal duct carcinoma in the paediatric literature. We discuss the treatment options and the importance of MDT involvement. PMID:25877826

Tahir, Asil; Sankar, Velayutham; Makura, Zvoru

2015-01-01

222

Post-Chernobyl Thyroid Carcinoma in Belarus Children and Adolescents: Comparison with Naturally Occurring Thyroid Carcinoma in Italy and France  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Chernobyl nuclear accident (April 26, 1986), childhood thyroid carcinoma had a great increase in Belarus and Ukraine, as a consequence of the exposure to iodine radioactive fallout. The epidemiological and clinical features of the disease were stud- ied in 472 patients less than 21 yr old at diagnosis, with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, representing 97.7% of all thyroid carcinomas

FURIO PACINI; TATIANA VORONTSOVA; EUGENI P. DEMIDCHIK; ELEONORA MOLINARO; LAURA AGATE; CRISTINA ROMEI; ELENA SHAVROVA; EUGENY D. CHERSTVOY; YURIY IVASHKEVITCH; ELVIRA KUCHINSKAYA; MARTIN SCHLUMBERGER; GIUSEPPE RONGA; MAURO FILESI; ALDO PINCHERA

2010-01-01

223

Thyroid carcinoma in patients with graves' disease: an institutional experience.  

PubMed

Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by diffuse hyperplasia and excessive production of thyroid hormone. The association between thyroid carcinoma and GD is controversial. The prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was investigated in patients with GD who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid nodular lesions or GD from 1994 to 2013 at our institution. Three hundred and forty-seven patients were placed into two groups: Graves' disease with nodular lesions group (group GN) included 85 patients who had thyroidectomy for nodular lesion, and Graves' disease group (group G) included 262 patients who had thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism. There were 59 patients with thyroid carcinomas in the 85 patients (69 %) of group GN, including 3 follicular carcinomas (5 %), 1 poorly differentiated carcinoma (2 %), and 55 papillary thyroid carcinomas (93 %). Among the 55 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 19 cases were papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (34 %); and 5 cases of tall cell variant (9 %) were identified. There were 8 cases with lymph node metastasis (14 %), 6 cases with lymphovascular invasion (10 %), and 12 cases with extrathyroidal invasion (20 %). In addition, 24 carcinomas showed multiple foci of tumor (41 %). In contrast, 51 patients (19 %) of 262 patients in group G had carcinoma, including 2 follicular carcinomas (4 %) and 49 papillary thyroid carcinomas (96 %). In the 49 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas, 47 cases were microcarcinomas (96 %); and 2 cases of tall cell variant (4 %) were found. There were no lymph node metastasis or lymphovascular and extrathyroidal invasion, but 11 cases (22 %) demonstrated multiple carcinoma foci. In conclusion, thyroid nodular lesions in patients with GD should raise a high suspicion of carcinoma, and these lesions are frequently clinically significant tumors. Incidental thyroid carcinomas in patients with GD are not uncommon, but most of them are low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma without lymph node metastasis or lymphovascular and extrathyroidal invasion. PMID:25332114

Wei, Shuanzeng; Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

2015-03-01

224

Current Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. Despite efforts for prevention and screening as well as development of new technologies for diagnosis and treatment, the incidence of HCC has doubled, and mortality rates have increased in recent decades. A variety of important risk factors are associated with the development of HCC, with any type of cirrhosis, regardless of etiology, being the major contributor. Hepatitis C virus infection with bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis and hepatitis B virus infection are independent risk factors. The diagnosis of HCC is made without liver biopsy in over 90% of cases. Screening with ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 6-month intervals is advised; however, it is not adequate for patients on the orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) list. Triple-phase computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging are used in combination with the detection of AFP, AFP-L3%, and/or des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin due to their superior sensitivities and specificities. Several treatment modalities are available, but only surgical resection and OLT are curative. OLT is available only for patients who meet or are downstaged into Milan or University of California, San Francisco criteria. Other treatment options include radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, transarterial chemoembolization, radioembolization, cryoablation, radiation therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. The management of HCC is based on tumor size and location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. Given the complexity of the disease, patients are often best served in centers with experience in HCC management, where a multi-disciplinary approach can take place. PMID:24829542

Crissien, Ana Maria

2014-01-01

225

Targeted therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Unlike most solid tumors, the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have increased in the United States and Europe in the past decade. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages, so there is an urgent need for new systemic therapies. Sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has shown clinical efficacy in patients with HCC. Studies in patients with lung, breast, or colorectal cancers have indicated that the genetic heterogeneity of cancer cells within a tumor affect its response to therapeutics designed to target specific molecules. When tumor progression requires alterations in specific oncogenes (oncogene addiction), drugs that selectively block their products might slow tumor growth. However, no specific oncogene addictions are yet known to be implicated in HCC progression, so it is important to improve our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis. There are currently many clinical trials evaluating TKIs for HCC, including those tested in combination with (eg, erlotinib) or compared with (eg, linifanib) sorafenib as a first-line therapy. For patients who do not respond or are intolerant to sorafenib, TKIs such as brivanib, everolimus, and monoclonal antibodies (eg, ramucirumab) are being tested as second-line therapies. There are early stage trials investigating the efficacy for up to 60 reagents for HCC. Together, these studies might change the management strategy for HCC, and combination therapies might be developed for patients with advanced HCC. Identification of oncogenes that mediate tumor progression, and trials that monitor their products as biomarkers, might lead to personalized therapy; reagents that interfere with signaling pathways required for HCC progression might be used to treat selected populations, and thereby maximize the efficacy and cost benefit. PMID:21406195

Villanueva, Augusto; Llovet, Josep M

2011-05-01

226

Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid  

PubMed Central

A 63-year-old man consulted for a non-toxic thyroid nodule of 2 years’ duration. Fine needle aspiration revealed cell findings consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. He eventually underwent total thyroidectomy. Microscopic examination revealed histologic features of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. He received radioactive iodine therapy and suppressive levothyroxine treatment. Post-therapy whole body iodine-131 scan revealed thyroid tissue remnants limited to the anterior neck. Four months after radioactive iodine therapy, thyroglobulin level is low and the patient remains to have no evidence of disease. PMID:22715205

Sandoval, Mark Anthony S; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

227

Endometrial carcinoma arising in a bicornuate uterus  

PubMed Central

Endometrial carcinomas arising in a bicornuate uterus are rare, only five case of which have been previously reported. We present a case of endometrial cancer arising in a bicornuate uterus, occurring in a 65-year-old woman. Unlike previously reported cases, our case showed mixed endometrial adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in one horn and focal adenocarcinoma in the other. Adequate tissue sampling of both horns is necessary for accurate diagnosis of malignancy in patients with a bicornuate uterus. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this abnormality in cases when endometrial cancer is suspected but histology fails to confirm. PMID:25264532

Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cha, Dong Soo

2014-01-01

228

Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

1983-11-01

229

Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation.  

PubMed

The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5(th) and 6(th) decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed. PMID:25328314

Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

2014-05-01

230

[Merkel cell carcinoma: (r)evolution].  

PubMed

Merkel Cell Carcinoma (CCM) is an aggressive cutaneous tumor of the elderly, which has become the second cause of mortality linked to skin cancer. This has led clinicians and scientists to devote more time to the study of this rare tumor, announcing to a revolution in our understanding, diagnosis and therapy of this cancer. We present here these recent advances, which illustrate the exponential growth of knowledge in the medical field, drawing comparisons with more frequent cancers such as melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23621042

Feldmeyer, Laurence; Gaide, Olivier

2013-04-01

231

Modeling anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in the mouse.  

PubMed

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the least common form of thyroid cancer; however, it accounts for the majority of deaths associated with this family of malignancies. A number of genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse models recapitulating the genetic and histological features of anaplastic thyroid cancer have been very recently generated and represent an invaluable tool to dissect the mechanisms involved in the progression from indolent, well-differentiated tumors to aggressive, undifferentiated carcinomas and to identify novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the relevant characteristics associated with these models and on what we have learned in terms of anaplastic thyroid cancer biology, genetics, and response to targeted therapy. PMID:25420535

Champa, Devora; Di Cristofano, Antonio

2015-02-01

232

Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland  

SciTech Connect

Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

1986-09-01

233

Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4?cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10?mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family. PMID:21188232

Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Gücin, Zuhal; Keklik, Bar??; Özyalvaçl?, Gülzade; Ba?aran, Karaca

2011-01-01

234

Undifferentiated carcinoma of the large intestine.  

PubMed

Eight cases of the rare undifferented carcinoma of the large intestine are described. The histological distinction between undifferentiated and poorly differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma and malignant carcinoid is discussed. It is concluded that undifferented carcinoma is a variant of adenocarcinoma which tends to grow to a large size before symptoms are produced but which nevertheless has a good prognosis when locally resectable. Five patients survived between 6 and 28 years, one is well 6 months after operation and two cases where local removal could not be achieved, died within a year. PMID:615835

Gibbs, N M

1977-01-01

235

Elevated Alpha Fetoprotein, No Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Alpha fetoprotein is a fetal specific glycoprotein which falls rapidly after birth. High level of alpha fetoprotein is suspicious of hepatocellular carcinoma but may be elevated in chronic viral hepatitis. A 35-year-old presented to us with jaundice for 7 days. He had chronic hepatitis B infection for last 12 months and was taking medicines irregularly for same. He had high alpha fetoprotein levels (740.9 ng/ml) without evidence of hepatocellular carcinoma which reduced with antiviral therapy. Such elevation can be explained due to hepatic inflammation and viral replication.

Patil, Mallikarjun; Sheth, Keyur A.; Adarsh, Channagiri K.

2013-01-01

236

[Chondrosarcomatous metaplastic carcinoma of the breast, a rare tumor].  

PubMed

Metaplastic carcinomas of the breast are uncommon, accounting for less than 0.2% of all breast cancers. Clinically and radiologically, metaplastic carcinomas are indistinguishable from typical ductal carcinomas, and the diagnosis is made histologically by the finding of a mesenchymal component. We present a case of chondrosarcomatous metaplastic breast carcinoma whose definitive diagnosis required immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the malignant epithelial component of the tumor. Accurate diagnosis is important because this tumor behaves differently: it usually spreads through the blood (whereas typical epithelial carcinomas spread through the lymph vessels), metastases present during follow-up rather than before diagnosis, and the five-year survival rate is 35%. PMID:22595382

Guillén-Paredes, P; Carrasco-González, L; Chaves-Benito, A; Martínez-Gálvez, M; Aguayo-Albasini, J L

2014-01-01

237

Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

2015-03-05

238

Sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris).  

PubMed

A sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. The second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. The purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. Although there is little information about diseases affecting this species, it is known that neoplastic disorders are fairly common in African hedgehogs. The mammary carcinoma is considered to be the most common neoplasm in these animals; however, the presentation of sebaceous carcinoma is rare. In hedgehogs, the simultaneous presence of two neoplasms is common, which is why special attention should be paid to the presentation of other tumors during the early detection of a neoplastic process as this will greatly facilitate the optimal treatment and improve the long-term prognosis of affected animals. PMID:25314843

Matute, Alonso Reyes; Bernal, Adriana Mendez; Lezama, José Ramírez; Guadalupe, Manzano Pech Linaloe; Antonio, Galicia Avalos Marco

2014-09-01

239

[A prostatic duct carcinoma difficult to distinguish from transitional cell carcinoma: a case report].  

PubMed

A 77-year-old male with a complaint of dysuria and gross hematuria for 3 months visited our hospital. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a prominent tumor from the bladder neck. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level was high (1,130 ng/ml) suggesting prostate cancer, but transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was detected by transurethral biopsy. Bone scintigraphy revealed multiple bone metastasis. Since gross hematuria requiring bladder tamponade continued, simple cystoprostatectomy and cutaneous ureterostomy were performed. Pathological findings showed prostatic acinar carcinoma and prostatic duct carcinoma mimicking TCC, and PSA immunohistochemically weak positive. The final diagnosis was prostate cancer consisting of acinar and ductal component. Adjuvant hormonal therapy was performed, but was ineffective. The patient died 2.5 months after operation. We reviewed and discussed 66 cases of prostatic duct carcinoma, including our case, in the Japanese literature. PMID:15471072

Ushida, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Shuichi; Okada, Yusaku

2004-08-01

240

[A case of renal cell carcinoma and bladder carcinoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease].  

PubMed

A case of renal cell carcinoma and bladder carcinoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease is reported. A 31-year-old female was referred to the Department of Urology for further examination of right renal mass which was incidentally found on abdominal computed tomography (CT). The patient was operated on spinal hemangioma in May 19 and July 8, 1975, on cerebellar hemangioblastoma in July, 1976 and June 10, 1981 and on cerebellar cyst in June 20, 1988. Angiography revealed three hypervascular renal tumors in the right kidney. Cystoscopy revealed a papillary bladder tumor (TCC Grade 1). Transurethral resection of bladder carcinoma was performed on July 28, 1988. Right radical nephrectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed on August 2, 1988. Histopathologically, the tumor was renal cell carcinoma of clear cell type (Grade 1). Postoperative course was uneventful and the residual kidney is being followed up in the outpatient clinic. PMID:2239580

Kinbara, H; Suzuki, S; Nakano, S; Yamakawa, K; Hioki, T; Okabe, S; Sugimura, Y; Tajima, K; Tochigi, H; Kawamura, J

1990-07-01

241

Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in a male breast: a rare occurrence.  

PubMed

Carcinoma of male breast is uncommon as it accounts for 0.7% of total breast cancer. The pathology of male breast cancer is remarkably similar to that of cancers seen in women. The same histological subtypes of invasive cancer are present, although papillary carcinomas (both invasive and in situ) are more common and lobular carcinomas are less common. The predominant histological type, in males, as in females, reported in large series has been infiltrating ductal carcinoma with scattered reports of infiltrating lobular carcinoma, all of them of classical type except for a single case of pleomorphic infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Herein, we describe a case of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma occurring in male breast. PMID:21151643

Rohini, Bhatia; Singh, P A; Vatsala, Misra; Vishal, Dhingra; Mitali, Singhal; Nishant, Sharma

2010-01-01

242

Role of surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma based on Japanese clinical guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In the Algorithm for Diagnosis and Treatment in the Japanese Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Hepatocellular Carcinoma, the treatment strategy is determined by three major factors: liver function and the number and size of tumors. The algorithm is quite simple, consisting of fewer components than the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. In this article, we describe the roles of the treatment algorithm in hepatectomy and perioperative management of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25729481

Nakayama, Hisashi; Takayama, Tadatoshi

2015-01-01

243

Pretreatment Concentrations of Breast Carcinoma Antigen (CA 15.3) and Mucin-Like Carcinoma-Associated Antigen in Patients with Carcinoma of the Breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment serum concentrations of breast Carcinoma antigen (CA 15.3) and mucin-like carcinoma-associated antigen (MCA) were determined in 129 patients with breast Carcinoma. Concentrations of both markers were within the normal ränge in patients with Stage I disease. Concentrations of CA 15.3 were elevated (> 40 U\\/ml) in 3, 11 and 48%, those of MCA(> 17 U\\/ml) in 11, 18 and

Wojciech Korejba; Jerzy Bukowski; Hussain Al-Jazzaf; Janusz J. Szymendera

1989-01-01

244

Multiple verrucous carcinomas of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

The author herein reports a case of multiple verrucous carcinomas (VCs) of the left lower gingiva. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of gingival tumor. A biopsy revealed severe dysplasia. Surgical resection was performed. Grossly, there were three verrucous lesions (25, 20, 10 mm) in the left lower gingiva. Histologically, 2 tumors (4, 2 mm) were found in addition to the grossly visible 3 tumors. All the 5 tumors were VCs. The tumors showed verrucous and papillary proliferation of squamous epithelium with little cellular atypia. No invasive features were recognized. The dermis showed lymphocytic infiltration. The surrounding mucosa showed many broad foci of squamous cell carcinoma in situ and severe dysplasia (high grade intraepithelial neoplasm). Gradual merges between the VCs and squamous cell carcinoma in situ or severe dysplasia were frequently recognized. Immunohistochemically, the VC tumor cells and squamous lesions were negative for human papilloma virus antigens. P53 protein was expressed in all the VCs and squamous epithelial lesions: it was accentuated in the basal and suprabasal cells of VC. Ki-67 antigen was also expressed in the 5 VCs and in the squamous lesion, and Ki-67 labeling index ranged from 8 to 16 % in VC and from 37 to 62 % in the squamous lesions. These data support the multicentric nature of VC and that the severe dysplasia-carcinoma in situ sequence have been proposed in the etiology of VC. PMID:25848148

Terada, Tadashi

2015-03-01

245

Metastatic ocular deposits due to bronchial carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Three case reports of patients with bronchial carcinoma who presented with visual disturbances due to ocular metastases are described. The reasons for the rarity of this syndrome are discussed and its frequent association with cerebral metastases is explained. Cytotoxic drugs provide short-term effective therapy. Images PMID:5565795

Evans, C. C.; Mearns, A. J.; Delaney, J.; Littler, W. A.

1971-01-01

246

[Report on 114 primary vaginal carcinomas].  

PubMed

114 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated in our hospital from 1958 to 1978. It accounted for 0.83% of all gynecological malignant tumors in the same period. The youngest was 26 years of age, the oldest 75. Patients 40-59 years comprised 61.4%. 33% of patients had wedding age under 17. 63.4% had more than 4 pregnancies and 58.4% gave more than 4 births. 89.69% was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 7.2% as adenocarcinoma, 2.06% as undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 as embryonic carcinoma. The tumor occurred frequently in the upper third and posterior wall of the vagina (60% and 68%). In this series, there were 21 stage I, 29 stage II, 61 stage III and 3 stage IV lesions. 110 patients were treated by radiotherapy in different schemes. Intracavitary radium or caesium plus 60Co external irradiation by four fields gave better result with a 5 year survival rate of 66.1%. Only 2 out of 12 patients were cured by 60Co rotation alone but if supplemented by intracavitary radium or caesium, the cure rate was increased. The 5 year survival rate was 71.4% for stage I, 62.1% for stage II, 42.6% for stage III and O for stage IV. After the radiotherapy, rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient, vesicovaginal fistula in 1. 14% was complicated with rectal bleeding and 8.18% with hematuria. PMID:3452544

Sun, J H; Zhang, W H; Li, A L; Wu, A R

1987-11-01

247

Case report of the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a form of adenocarcinoma. Its clinical presentation spans the entire spectrum from asymptomatic solitary pulmonary nodule to full presentation with cough, hemoptysis and dyspnea. Clinical symptoms usually are in correlation with the extent of disease. The case we present here is a patient in late stage of disease with few symptoms regarding to the extent of disease involvement. PMID:25709995

Emami, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham

2015-01-01

248

Metachronous Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) typically presents as an isolated cutaneous lesion with a measurable risk of regional lymph node involvement. Uncommonly, synchronous or metachronous lesions have been described to be attributed to a field effect. This case report describes a patient presenting with metachronous lesions, separated by several years, which cannot be attributed to a field effect given the tumor distribution. PMID:22110433

Pollock, Jondavid; Caranosos, Thomas; Polack, E.P.

2011-01-01

249

Current treatment for lobular carcinoma in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We thought that observation for patients with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) had been generally accepted by the mid-1980s. A questionnaire mailed to oncologic surgeons in 1988 revealed that 33% of the respondents still advised unilateral mastectomy, although a slim majority (54%) advised observation. New studies have been published in the intervening 8 years, and we decided it would

Frank E. Gump; David Kinne; Gordon F. Schwartz

1998-01-01

250

Squamous cell carcinoma arising in CHILD syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform naevus and limb defects (CHILD) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant disorder. The first case of squamous cell carcinoma arising within the affected ichthyosiform skin in a 33-year-old woman is reported. PMID:16503894

Jacyk, W K; La Cock, A

2006-03-01

251

Misdiagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents the most common histological subtype of malignant kidney tumors. Based on symptoms alone, clear cell RCC is indistinguishable from other histological classes of RCC unless the tumor is present in the context of an RCC syndrome. Histopathological examination is, therefore, important to accurately identify clear cell RCC. Clear cell RCCs have characteristic morphological

Vladimir A. Valera; Maria J. Merino

2011-01-01

252

Genetic Instability in Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the incidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MI) in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and to determine a possible activation of H-ras oncogene in these tumours via implication of its polymorphic regions within the first intron and 3? ends. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the incidence of MI and LOH in 22

E. Diakoumis; G. Sourvinos; H. Kiaris; D. Delakas; A. Cranidis; D. A. Spandidos

1998-01-01

253

Anterior commissure carcinoma: I-histopathologic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study the behavior of anterior commissure carcinoma regarding its tendency for cartilage invasion. Methods: Histopathological examination of the region of the anterior commissure (AC) was done with whole organ section in 30 randomly selected specimens. Serial sections were prepared and examined histopathologically for evidence of microscopic cartilage invasion in the region of the AC. Results: Microscopic involvement of

Mohamed Rifai; Hany Khattab

2000-01-01

254

Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Summary We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumors and ~25% of high-grade endometrioid tumors have extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low ER/PR levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumors have few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A, KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumors we identified had a dramatically increased transversion mutation frequency, and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy number low, and copy number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may impact post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumors. PMID:23636398

2013-01-01

255

Glassy Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Glassy cell carcinoma (GCC) of the cervix has traditionally been characterized as an aggressive histologic subtype with poor outcomes. An earlier series from our institution supported a grim prognostic outlook, demonstrating a survival rate of only 55% in women with stage I disease. We present a comparison of a contemporary series of patients with GCC.Methods. All cases of GCC

Heidi J. Gray; Rochelle Garcia; Hisham K. Tamimi; Wui-Jin Koh; Barbara A. Goff; Benjamin E. Greer; Pamela J. Paley

2002-01-01

256

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a five-decade journey.  

PubMed

Several decades after a comprehensive description of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), there is no uniformly accepted grading system. The most recent debate regarding the histologic grading of MECs, centers on the wide range of reported prevalence of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC1-MAML2) rearrangement in high-grade (HG) MECs. We hypothesize that difficulties in morphologic classification may partially explain problems in grading MECs. We believe that HG MECs, as diagnosed over the last several decades, represent a blend of true MECs with unrelated clinicopathologic entities. To examine the historic aspects of this problem, and to identify neoplasms that most commonly mimic "high-grade" MEC, we reviewed 46 cases of alleged MEC diagnosed in our department from 1956 to 1974. The diagnosis of MEC was confirmed in 22 cases and was changed in 24 cases. Compared to cases of confirmed MEC, cases with changed diagnoses had higher incidence of lymph node metastases, perineural invasion, and shorter overall survival. Adenosquamous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and salivary duct carcinoma emerged as the most common mimics of HG MEC. The single most common diagnostic issue in these cases is the level of keratinization acceptable for MEC. Twenty cases of confirmed MEC were tested for CRTC1-MAML2 rearrangement and 5 low-grade MECs, 7 intermediate grade MECs, and 2 cases of HG MEC were translocation-positive. PMID:21243374

Chenevert, Jacinthe; Barnes, Leon E; Chiosea, Simion I

2011-02-01

257

Surgical Resection of Ruptured Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLH) is a rare primary tumor of the liver, which typically arises from noncirrhotic livers and affects patients below the age of 35. We report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a ruptured FLH and was treated with surgical resection. Options for treatment and review of the management are described. PMID:23956918

Minutolo, Vincenzo; Licciardello, Alessio; Arena, Manuel; Minutolo, Orazio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Arena, Goffredo

2013-01-01

258

Transarterial VSV oncolytic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma  

E-print Network

. The challenge for a successful and safe antifibrotic therapy is specific targeting of the responsible cell typesTransarterial VSV oncolytic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma Reference Number B70098 Background management of cirrhosis has fallen behind, and the success of available therapies has yet to be demonstrated

259

Current clinical trials in renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of renal cell carcinoma remains primarily surgical. Consequently, it is not surprising that urologists have been active in the design and operation of clinical trials for patients with kidney cancer. Currently, clinical trial efforts of the urologic community are focused on the adjuvant setting in patients undergoing nephrectomy at high risk for recurrence or metastasis. As newer agents

Mitchell H. Sokoloff; Siamak Daneshmand; Christopher W. Ryan

2005-01-01

260

Clinical Aspects of Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents a heterogeneous group of tumors, the most common of which is clear cell adenocarcinoma. RCC accounts for 3% of adult tumors. The incidence has increased more than 30% over the past two decades. It is generally postulated that the increased incidence rates reflect earlier diagnosis at an earlier stage, largely due to more liberal use

Ziya Kirkali; Can Öbek

2003-01-01

261

Stensen's Duct Carcinoma with a Papillary Architecture.  

PubMed

Primary carcinoma of the parotid duct (Stensen's duct carcinoma) is a rare entity, first described in 1927 and with approximately thirty-one cases reported in the English literature. Criteria for diagnosis are primarily demonstration of an origin from the Stensen's duct lining and exclusion of parotid gland, accessory parotid, oral mucosal and adjacent minor salivary gland origin. The carcinoma is usually of a specific type, and most have been described as squamous, mucoepidermoid, or undifferentiated adenocarcinomas. We report an unusual case of Stensen's duct carcinoma showing a primarily basaloid phenotype with focal squamous differentiation and a partial papillary architecture raising the possibility of malignant transformation in a ductal papilloma. Wide local excision was performed with postoperative radiotherapy and the patient is free of complications one and a half years postoperatively. Due to the small number of cases reported, the overall prognosis is not well defined, but seems to depend on the tumour size. Regional metastasis confers a 14 % mortality rate but there appears to be no relationship between histological type and prognosis. PMID:25480329

Nissanka-Jayasuriya, Eranga H; Odell, Edward W; Falconer, Denis T

2014-12-01

262

Simple atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric carcinoma was detected nine, 10, 18, and 21 years after the biopsy diagnosis of atrophic gastritis in four patients of a group of 40. The gastritis was presumed to be of the simple type. Tests of vitamin B12 absorption in three patients gave normal results, no gastric autoantibodies were detected in the two patients tested, in all patients histological

I. R. Walker; R. G. Strickland; B. Ungar; I. R. Mackay

1971-01-01

263

Systemic Chemotherapy for Advanced Bladder Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The influence of systemic chemotherapy on advanced bladder carcinoma is limited. Apparently patients do not benefit from cytostatic treatment prior to surgical removal of the bladder (neoadjuvant chemotherapy). Combination chemotherapy subsequent to radical cystectomy is currently being investigated in several clinical trials, at present, however, adjuvant chemotherapy cannot be regarded as standard treatment. In metastatic disease responses following application

A. Bex; T. Otto; M. Goepel; H. Rübben

1996-01-01

264

Primary Mucinous Carcinoma of the Scalp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma (MC) is a rare epithelial neoplasm derived from the sweat glands. Herein, we report a case of MC located on the head. A 66-year-old woman underwent excision of a nodular tumor with a reddish brown surface on the left parietal region. Histopathology revealed a neoplasm extending from the reticular dermis into the subcutaneous fat. The tumor

Friedrich Breier; Markus Clabian; Wolfgang Pokieser; Robert Feldmann; Marianne Pelzl; Dieter Kosak; Beatrix Volc-Platzer; Heinrich Kolbabek; Friedrich Gschnait

2000-01-01

265

[Small-cell carcinoma of the vulva].  

PubMed

Small-cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy; this tumor is lethal due to the propensity to metastasize early in the course of the disease. It occurs most frequently in the lung. Small-cell cancer also rarely may occur in the female genital tract, usually in the cervix. This article concerns the fifth reported case of small-cell carcinoma of the vulva in a 34-year-old women who had developed a vulvar mass3 months earlier. The physical examination revealed bilateral inguinal lymph nodes. The mass was excised and the histological finding was a small-cell carcinoma. Postoperative search for metastasis included computed tomography scan of the abdomen, pelvis, chest and brain that showed right iliac lymph nodes. The osteo medullar biopsy was positive. The patient was treated with 6 cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatinum (80mg/m2 d1) and etoposide (100mg/m2 d1 d2 d3). Adjuvant radiotherapy (50Gy) was administered but the disease progressed and the patient died after 7 months. Small-cell carcinoma of the vulva is a very rare tumor. Similarly to small-cell cancers arising in other sites, it appears that regional therapy is not a sufficient treatment for this tumor. Chemotherapy should be used to improve outcome. PMID:17151543

Mharrech, A; Benchakroun, N; Tawfiq, N; Jouhadi, H; Acharki, A; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

2006-12-01

266

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

267

Hepatocellular carcinoma: insight from animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks as the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Although major risk factors for the development of HCC have been defined, many aspects of the evolution of hepatocellular carcinogenesis and metastasis are still unknown. Suitable animal models are, therefore, essential to promote our understanding of the molecular, cellular and pathophysiological mechanisms of HCC and

Yan Li; Jin-Xuan Hou; Zhao-You Tang

2011-01-01

268

Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a meningomyelocele.  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the meningomyelocele of a 25-year-old man. This is the third such case reported. The possibility of malignant disease arising in this congenital defect must be taken into account when treatment is being considered. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:709475

Saksun, J. M.; Fisher, B. K.

1978-01-01

269

Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland.  

PubMed

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the parotid gland. Its clinical behavior is determined by the relative ratio of mucous and epidermoid cells with pathologic high-grade tumors containing a greater proportion of epidermoid cells. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a rarely reported variant with unclear long-term clinical behavior. A 23-year-old female was found to have a deep lobe parotid mass on imaging studies. Preoperative evaluation was non-diagnostic. Intraoperatively, the tumor was found to be adherent to the lower division of the facial nerve and portions of the posterior digastric muscle. Frozen section specimens showed only squamous metaplasia with background inflammatory fibrosis. Final pathological analysis demonstrated multiple solid and cystic nests and glands within a background of dense, sclerotic, collagenized stroma and inflammatory infiltrate consistent with low-grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a very rare salivary gland tumor with uncertain behavior. Complete surgical excision with tumor-free margins with preservation of the facial nerve (in the absence of clinical invasion) is recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy is suggested for positive or close margins given the adherent nature of the tumor and the risk of recurrence and distant disease found in some case reports. Patients should be followed closely with serial MRI imaging studies of the tumor bed with complete clinical evaluation of the regional lymphatics and chest to evaluate for evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:16858577

Heavner, S Brett; Shah, Rajal B; Moyer, Jeffrey S

2006-10-01

270

Cytogenetic studies on human breast carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic studies were performed on cell material obtained from surgical specimens of 50 human breast carcinomas and from 61 cancerous effusions of 46 patients. Classical cytogenetic analyses of numerical chromosome changes and marker chromosomes revealed the non-random involvement of chromosomes #X and #22 as monosomics, of chromosomes #3, #7, and #19 as trisomics, and chromosome #1 (particularly p 13 to

Erich Gebhart; Silke Brtiderlein; Meena Augustus; Erwin Siebert; Joachim Feldner; Wilfried Schmidt

1986-01-01

271

Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2015-01-13

272

Cytopathologic Features of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland neoplasm that is defined by ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, only rare case reports of the cytopathologic features of MASC have been published to date. METHODS A wide variety of archival salivary gland tumors were tested for ETV6 translocation by break-apart fluorescent in situ hybridization. Positive cases with preoperative fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens or intraoperative touch preparations were retrieved from the archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital. All smears were reviewed and the cytologic characteristics were described. RESULTS Five cases of MASC with cytopathologic material (4 FNA specimens and 1 touch preparation) were identified. The cases occurred in 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 21 years to 78 years (mean, 52 years). On the cytologic smears, the MASCs were variably cellular and exhibited 2 different architectural patterns: 1) intact tissue fragments with isomorphic cells arranged in a sheet-like or papillary configuration; and 2) dispersed and dissociated cells with a mostly “histiocyte-like” appearance with large cells containing abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. No matrix tissue or stromal spindled cells were present. The cells did not display acinic differentiation in the form of cytoplasmic zymogen granules. In each case, the preoperative FNA correctly identified a neoplasm, and the most frequent diagnostic considerations were acinic cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and pleomorphic adenoma. CONCLUSIONS MASC is a newly described salivary gland tumor that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of low-grade salivary gland neoplasms. Its cytologic features overlap considerably with those of other tumors, especially acinic cell carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:23042752

Bishop, Justin A.; Yonescu, Raluca; Batista, Denise A. S.; Westra, William H.; Ali, Syed Z.

2013-01-01

273

Intracystic papillary carcinoma of breast: interrelationship with in situ and invasive carcinoma and a proposal of pathogenesis: array comparative genomic hybridization study of 14 cases  

PubMed Central

Classifying intracystic papillary carcinoma under invasive or in situ ductal carcinoma is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study is to explore the genomic relationship of this tumor to its concurrent invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ using array comparative genomic hybridization. Intracystic papillary carcinoma cases were classified into three categories: pure, with concurrent ductal carcinoma in situ, or with concurrent invasive ductal carcinoma. Each component was dissected using laser capture microdissection. DNA was extracted and array comparative genomic hybridization was performed. The test of difference in copy number changes among the three tumors was carried out using CGHMultiArray. Intracystic papillary carcinoma clustered with 4 of 5 concurrent ductal carcinoma in situ cases and with 2 of 2 invasive ductal carcinoma cases. Intracystic papillary carcinoma showed the highest proportions of genome copy number aberration, followed by ductal carcinoma in situ then by invasive ductal carcinoma (p=0.06). Comparing intracystic papillary carcinoma with invasive ductal carcinoma vs. without invasive ductal carcinoma, the former had 11q22.1 to 11q23.3 loss (p=0.031) and chr5 gain (p=0.085) and enriched with matrix metalloproteinase genes. Comparing intracystic papillary carcinoma with ductal carcinoma in situ vs. without ductal carcinoma in situ, the former had gain in 5q35.3 (p=0.041), 8q24.3 (p=0.041), and 21q13.2 to 21q13.31 (p=0.011). Comparing intracystic papillary carcinoma with ductal carcinoma in situ, the latter acquired a group of genes involved in cell adhesion and motility, while intracystic papillary carcinoma differentially expressed genes that are involved in papillary carcinomas of other organs (thyroid and kidney). We conclude that the overall molecular change in intracystic papillary carcinoma is closer to ductal carcinoma in situ than to invasive ductal carcinoma, which may explain the indolent behavior of this tumor. We offer herein a proposal of intracystic papillary carcinoma pathogenesis through its relation to invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ. PMID:23907150

Khoury, Thaer; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin

2015-01-01

274

Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

2015-03-25

275

Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma,; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

2014-07-28

276

Clinical Features and Differential Diagnoses in Laryngeal Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of salivary glands. However, it is a rare entity in larynx. Laryngeal cases are frequently misdiagnosed with other malignancies and they are under-reported. So, recognizing the clinical and histological features of this tumor is essential. Laryngeal mucoepidermoid carcinoma can arise in supraglottis, glottis and subglottis. Generally, it presents as a submucosal mass; therefore, progressive symptoms without any identifiable lesion in laryngoscopy must be well considered. The prognosis is somehow dependent on the histological features. In high-grade tumors, recurrence is more common and radical surgery with radiotherapy is recommended. In this paper, we provide a thorough literature review on mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the larynx. The most important distinguishing features of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and its two major differential diagnoses (squamous cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma) are clearly stated and pitfalls in true diagnosis of this tumor are discussed. PMID:22262946

Mokhtari, Sepideh; Mokhtari, Saeedeh

2012-01-01

277

Invasive Breast Carcinoma Arising in Microglandular Adenosis: Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a rare benign disease that shows an infiltrative growth pattern of small glands, and it may progress to include atypia and carcinoma. Here we report two cases of breast carcinoma arising in MGA. Case 1 was a 44-year-old woman with a previous history of ductal carcinoma in situ in her right breast. During a follow-up, a 1.8 cm mass-like lesion was found in her left breast. An excisional biopsy suggested that the lesion was breast carcinoma. Case 2 was a 57-year-old woman with a 2.9 cm mass in her right breast. A core needle biopsy of the lesion suggested invasive carcinoma. Both patients underwent modified radical mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. Both tumors lacked a myoepithelial cell layer and stained positively for S-100, lysozyme, and ?1-antitrypsin, which is typical of MGA. Both cases showed invasive carcinoma arising in MGA. PMID:24454466

Choi, Jung Eun

2013-01-01

278

Sclerotic bone metastases from sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with multiple sclerotic skeletal metastatic lesions. Renal cell carcinoma\\u000a is frequently metastatic at presentation, with a high incidence of skeletal involvement, classically described as osteolytic.\\u000a However, sclerotic or osteoblastic metastatic skeletal lesions from renal cell carcinoma are rare, with only two previous\\u000a reports identified in the literature, neither of which involved

Patrick T. Liu; Christopher R. Conley; Matthew R. Callstrom

1999-01-01

279

Magnetic resonance imaging of papillary renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report magnetic resonance (MR) studies in a case of papillary renal cell carcinoma. The preoperative ultrasound\\u000a and computed tomographic scans suggested either a hemorrhagic cyst or a carcinoma, but the angiogram demonstrated avascularity.\\u000a The magnetic resonance scan was more consistent with carcinoma than complicated cyst. We report the MR findings with pathologic\\u000a correlation.

Steven D. Herman; Arnold C. Friedman; Marc Siegelbaum; Parvati Ramchandani; Paul D. Radecki

1985-01-01

280

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.  

PubMed

Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass. PMID:25208811

Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

2014-09-11

281

Papillary carcinoma thyroid with metastasis to ectopic cervical thymus  

PubMed Central

Papillary carcinoma of thyroid is the most common type of thyroid neoplasm which is usually confined to the thyroid and tends to metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Distant metastasis occur in up to 15% of cases. Thymic metastasis from any malignant carcinoma is extremely rare with only four cases reported in medical literature. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid metastasizing to ectopic cervical thymus which has not been previously reported. PMID:21332990

2011-01-01

282

Down-regulation of Dicer in hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dicer, the key enzyme in the RNAi pathway, is misregulated in tumor tissues. The altered expression of Dicer is associated\\u000a with clinical characteristics in patients with cancer. Liver carcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were obtained from\\u000a 36 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing surgery. Expressions of Dicer mRNA were evaluated using the Real-time\\u000a reverse transcription-PCR in 36 liver carcinoma tissues

Jin-Feng WuWei; Wei Shen; Nian-Zhou Liu; Gui-Li Zeng; Mei Yang; Guo-Qing Zuo; Xiu-Ni Gan; Hong Ren; Kai-Fu Tang

283

Colorectal carcinoma in patients less than 40 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean incidence of colorectal carcinoma in persons under age 40 in Sweden is 1.74\\/100,000\\/year. Over a 30-year period,\\u000a 1950 through 1979, 1061 patients with colorectal carcinoma were seen, 48 of whom were under age 40 (21 to 39 years) and in\\u000a this study were compared with older patients. Carcinoma was superimposed upon ulcerative colitis in 18 patients. All patients

Ulf Öhman

1982-01-01

284

Familial Non-Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial thyroid cancer can arise from follicular cells (familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC)) or from the calcitonin-producing\\u000a C-cell (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma). This is usually a component of multiple endocrine neoplasias (MEN) IIA or IIB,\\u000a or as pure familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome. The genetic events in the familial C-cell-derived tumors are known\\u000a and genotype–phenotype correlations are well established. In

Vânia Nosé

2008-01-01

285

Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the bladder.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon source of bladder metastases. Here we report a case of renal cell carcinoma that metastasized to the bladder. A 73-year-old woman complained of gross hematuria. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography showed a bladder mass and a heterogenous enhancing mass in the lower pole of the left kidney with left vein thrombosis. The pathological analysis of the resected bladder specimen revealed metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the clear cell type. PMID:23362452

Doo, Seung Whan; Kim, Woong Bin; Kim, Bong Ki; Yang, Won Jae; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Jin, So Young; Song, Yun Seob

2013-01-01

286

Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

2014-11-17

287

[Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma; report of 2 cases].  

PubMed

The 1st case was a 74-year-old male diagnosed as femoral neck fracture. Biopsy of the bone revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a mass lesion located in the right lower lobe. With a diagnosis of primary lung cancer (cT2N1M1), two-staged operation was performed. Pathological diagnosis was pleomorphic carcinoma [pT2N1M1 (OSS), stage IV]. He died 8 months after surgery due to metastasis to the thoracic spine. The 2nd case was a 80-year-old female who complained of lateral chest pain. Chest CT revealed a tumor in the right hilar region, which was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma by transbronchial lung biopsy. Only thoracic drainage was performed since metastases to the brain and the rib were demonstrated. She died 2 months after admission. Autopsy revealed pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung with metastasis to the brain, costa and mediastinal lymph nodes. PMID:16856536

Tamura, M; Dohhba, S; Funaki, K; Sasaki, S; Michiwa, Y; Kurosaka, Y; Takekawa, S; Kiriyama, M; Kojima, Y; Kita, T

2006-07-01

288

Histone deacetylase inhibitor for NUT midline carcinoma.  

PubMed

NUT Midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare and invariably fatal poorly differentiated carcinoma characterized by chromosomal rearrangement involving the nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) gene. Current approaches do not provide durable response. We report a case of widely metastatic NMC in a 17-year-old female who, following an initial response to combination chemotherapy developed rapid disease progression. Treatment with vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) resulted in an objective response, yet she died in less than one year from initial diagnosis. This report shows a potentially promising activity of HDACi in the treatment of NMC that needs further exploration. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:715-717. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25557064

Maher, Ossama M; Christensen, Anthony M; Yedururi, Sireesha; Bell, Diana; Tarek, Nidale

2015-04-01

289

Tuberculosis mimicking cervical carcinoma--case report.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial infection that primarily results in pulmonary disease. Although there are several reported cases of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, very few reports have described this disease in the female genital tract. We present a case involving a 67-year-old woman who presented with vaginal discharge, abdominal discomfort, and a pelvic mass in 2006. Clinically, cervical carcinoma was suspected, but pathologic diagnosis eventually revealed tuberculosis of the cervix. Tuberculosis is associated with a significant inflammatory reaction, which may mimic a gynecologic malignancy on exam or with diagnostic imaging. Despite the rare incidence, tuberculosis of the cervix should be considered in the differential diagnosis when cervical carcinoma is initially suspected. PMID:17713102

Micha, J P; Brown, J V; Birk, C; Van Horn, D; Rettenmaier, M A; Goldstein, B H

2007-01-01

290

Carcinoma of the lungs causing enlarged kidneys  

PubMed Central

Bilateral enlarged kidneys can be caused by a number of conditions. Renal metastasis is included in the differential diagnosis. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with a 6-month history of productive cough and unintentional weight loss. Cavitary pulmonary lesions and bilateral enlarged kidneys were noted on imaging studies. Hematuria, azotemia, and proteinuria were present. Renal biopsy showed squamous carcinoma cells invading normal-appearing glomeruli and atrophic tubules. The invasive squamous cells stained negative for CK7 and CK 20. Lung biopsy confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. Our case shows that in patients with renal enlargement, even with the absence of a focal mass, renal metastasis should be considered, especially in those with suspected or diagnosed malignancy elsewhere.

Mankongpaisarnrung, Charoen; Warraich, Irfan; Sotello, David; Yarbrough, Shannon; Laski, Melvin

2015-01-01

291

Marjolin ulcers: secondary carcinomas in chronic wounds.  

PubMed

Marjolin ulcers are malignant tumors arising in chronic wounds. Strictly defined, they include carcinomas that transform from the chronic open wounds of pressure sores or burn scars. They behave aggressively and have a propensity for local recurrence and lymph node metastases. A retrospective study was done at a single institution identifying six individuals who had chronic wound ulcers that underwent malignant transformation into a carcinoma. Sinus tract degeneration in osteomyelitis was not included. The average latency time between ulcer formation and documentation of a malignancy was 30 years. All wounds were about the pelvis or flank. Major oncologic surgical procedures were done in an attempt to eradicate the cancer. High-grade tumors had positive lymph node metastases, portending a grave prognosis. All four individuals with nodal metastases eventually died of systemic disease. Early recognition and proper staging offers the best chance for cure. PMID:12132863

Esther, R J; Lamps, L; Schwartz, H S

1999-01-01

292

Radiotherapy for Metastatic Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that commonly affects young individuals without a prior history of liver disease. FLHCC commonly results in a better prognosis than HCC; however, the risk of recurrence and metastatic disease is high. FLHCC is typically treated by primary resection of the tumor with 50-75% cure rates. The use of radiation therapy in FLHCC has not been assessed on its own, and may show some success in a very few reported combination therapy cases. We report on the successful use of radiation therapy in a case of metastatic FLHCC to the lung following primary and secondary resections. Our treatment of the large, metastatic, pulmonary FLHCC tumor with 40 Gy in 10 fractions resulted in an 85.9% tumor volume decrease over six months. This suggests FLHCC may be a radiosensitive tumor and radiotherapy may be valuable in unresectable or metastatic tumors. PMID:24179640

G. Peacock, Justin; A. Call, Jason; R. Olivier, Kenneth

2013-01-01

293

Carcinoma of the lungs causing enlarged kidneys.  

PubMed

Bilateral enlarged kidneys can be caused by a number of conditions. Renal metastasis is included in the differential diagnosis. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with a 6-month history of productive cough and unintentional weight loss. Cavitary pulmonary lesions and bilateral enlarged kidneys were noted on imaging studies. Hematuria, azotemia, and proteinuria were present. Renal biopsy showed squamous carcinoma cells invading normal-appearing glomeruli and atrophic tubules. The invasive squamous cells stained negative for CK7 and CK 20. Lung biopsy confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. Our case shows that in patients with renal enlargement, even with the absence of a focal mass, renal metastasis should be considered, especially in those with suspected or diagnosed malignancy elsewhere. PMID:25829660

Srisung, Weeraporn; Mankongpaisarnrung, Charoen; Warraich, Irfan; Sotello, David; Yarbrough, Shannon; Laski, Melvin

2015-04-01

294

Lung carcinoma signaling pathways activated by smoking  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and women worldwide, with over a million deaths annually. Tobacco smoke is the major etiologic risk factor for lung cancer in current or previous smokers and has been strongly related to certain types of lung cancer, such as small cell lung carcinoma and squamous cell lung carcinoma. In recent years, there has been an increased incidence of lung adenocarcinoma. This change is strongly associated with changes in smoking behavior and cigarette design. Carcinogens present in tobacco products and their intermediate metabolites can activate multiple signaling pathways that contribute to lung cancer Carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the smoking-activated signaling pathways involved in lung cancer. PMID:21801603

Wen, Jing; Fu, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Ming

2011-01-01

295

Hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV positive patients.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically changed the natural history of HIV-1-infected patients leading to increased survival and a better quality of life. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are common among HIV-1-infected subjects and represent the most important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether HIV plays a direct role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis remains to be established.HCC clinical course depends on stage of cancer disease, performance status and comorbidities. Therapeutic options include liver transplantation, local antiblastic chemotherapy and biological drugs. In the HIV setting few data are available about treatment options. The increased longevity of patients with HIV imposes new strategies for prevention and therapeutic management of patients. The aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of HIV-related HCC in the HAART era. PMID:23047511

Nunnari, G; Berretta, M; Pinzone, M R; Di Rosa, M; Berretta, S; Cunsolo, G; Malaguarnera, M; Cosentino, S; De Paoli, P; Schnell, J M; Cacopardo, B

2012-09-01

296

Role of Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

This review evaluates the available evidence to establish the role of liver transplantation in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma in India. Most liver transplants in India are living donor transplants due to the paucity of brain dead organ donors. There is sufficient evidence to permit allocation of organs to patients with tumors within the Milan criteria. If the waiting list time is more than 6 months, a down-staging locoregional treatment modality such a trans-arterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, resection or percutaneous ethanol injection may be used to prevent disease progression. Allocating scarce livers to patients with more advanced tumors may not be justifiable. However, living donor liver transplantation may be offered to medically fit patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis, offering a guarded prognosis to patients beyond the Milan or UCSF criteria. Vascular invasion and extra-hepatic disease should be absolute contraindications to liver transplantation. PMID:25755618

Kumaran, Vinay

2014-01-01

297

Bradshaw lecture, 1976. Thyroid medullary carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

The main characteristics of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid are its non-follicular histological appearance, resulting from its origin from the parafollicular C cells, its secretion of calcitonin, providing a relatively simple diagnostic test, and its equal sex incidence, in contrast to all other diseases of the thyroid. Sporadic cases are seen and it occurs in familial groups, with autosomal dominant inheritance, when it is associated with phaeochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia to form the second type of multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA2). These last features make it necessary in every case of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid to examine other members of the family and to investigate the possibility of concomitant adrenal and parathyroid disease. The priorities of treatment when these are present and the indications for total thyroidectomy are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:20027

Taylor, S.

1977-01-01

298

Computed tomographic appearance of resectable pancreatic carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma were examined by computed tomography (CT). Nine had a mass, 2 had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, 1 appeared to have ductal dilatation, and 1 had no sign of abnormality. Resectable carcinoma was diagnosed retrospectively in 8 cases, based on the following criteria: a mass with a distinct contour, frequently containing a tiny or irregular low-density area and accompanied by dilatation of the caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct without involvement of the large vessels, liver, or lymph nodes. Including unresectable cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and obstructive jaundice from causes other than cancer, the false-positive rate was less than 6%. However, a small cancer without change in pancreatic contour is difficult to detect with CT.

Itai, Y. (Univ. of Tokyo, Japan); Araki, T.; Tasaka, A.; Maruyama, M.

1982-06-01

299

Early esophageal carcinoma treated with intracavitary irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Five patients with early esophageal carcinoma were treated by 6-12 Gy of intracavitary irradiation following 50-60 Gy of external irradiation as a boost therapy. Surgery was not performed in these cases. None of the patients had local recurrence after radiation therapy, as demonstrated by esophagography and endoscopy. Three patients have been alive for 1-3 years 10 months. Esophageal ulceration induced by intracavitary irradiation has occurred in three of the five patients; however, intracavitary irradiation is still a beneficial treatment because of its efficacy in controlling local lesions and because radiation ulceration can eventually be cured. Intracavitary irradiation is recommended to follow external irradiation as a boost therapy for the treatment of early esophageal carcinoma.

Hishikawa, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Miura, T.

1985-08-01

300

Mucinous Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis  

PubMed Central

Urothelial carcinoma with abundant myxoid stroma is a newly-described and extremely rare entity. Since only very few cases have been reported, there is no consensus on its nomenclature. Microscopic examination revealed invasive urothelial carcinoma with widespread low-grade noninvasive areas. There were focal invasive areas in the neighborhood of the renal parenchyma. Malignant urothelial tumor/cell groups localized in the stroma had abundant myxoid/mucinous background in the invasive areas. The cytoplasm of the tumoral cells was more eosinophilic in these areas and the cells formed small groups and cords. Histochemically, PAS and Alcian Blue were positive in the cytoplasm of the tumoral cells and in the stroma while negative in the non-mucinous areas. Immunohistochemically, the tumoral cells of the mucinous invasive areas diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC2. We discuss the origin of the mucinous/myxoid stroma, the tumor’s nature and its nomenclature with histochemical and immunohistochemical features. PMID:25568745

Behzat?lu, Kemal; Boyaci, Ceren; Okçu, O?uzhan; Hacihasano?lu, Ezgi; Çakir, Yasemin; Darakçi, Seher

2014-01-01

301

Fatal sporadic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen cases of fatal sporadic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) that killed the patient within 1 year after diagnosis\\u000a were compared with 12 nonfatal MCTs with excellent prognosis. Males predominated in fatal cases whereas the reverse was true\\u000a in MCTs with good prognosis. The two groups of tumors showed generally similar cytoarchitectural features. Outstanding features\\u000a of fatal MCTs, as

H. Ruben Harach; Ulla Bergholm

1993-01-01

302

Paranasal Sinus Involvement in Metastatic Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Metastatic carcinoma involving the paranasal sinuses is uncommon. One hundred-sixty seven cases have been published in the literature since 1951. Symptoms, signs, and rhinoscopic and imaging findings are often nonspecific, and the diagnosis may be missed for considerable time. Therefore, a high level of suspicion is warranted in patients with known malignancies presenting with persistent or recurrent rhinosinusitis or facial complaints. PMID:23946928

Abi-Fadel, Francois; Smith, Peter R.; Ayaz, Asim; Sundaram, Krishnamurthi

2012-01-01

303

Postirradiation optic neuropathy in antral carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

A case is described of a patient who developed radiation-induced optic neuropathy 18 months following cobalt-60 irradiation for carcinoma of the left maxillary antrum and ethmoid sinus. This case is unusual because of the early onset of the optic nerve damage following radiation therapy and the ultimate emergence of the eye involved by tumor compression as the better eye in terms of visual acuity.

Singh, J.; Vashist, S.

1984-06-01

304

PET-CT of Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is a paucity of studies looking at the role of combined PET-CT in the evaluation of primary renal masses, staging and\\u000a restaging of patients with renal cell carcinomas. However, given the preliminary evidence from the individual modalities,\\u000a possible roles of PET-CT would include staging and restaging of selected patients with renal cell.

Todd M. Blodgett; Sanjay Paidisetty

305

Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Epidemiological Trends and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with about 600,000 patients dying from the disease annually. In 70–90%, HCC develops on the background of chronic liver cirrhosis or inflammation. Risk factors and etiologies vary among geographical regions. In regions with a high incidence the majority of cases are related to HBV and HCV hepatitis.

Kerstin Schütte; Jan Bornschein; Peter Malfertheiner

2009-01-01

306

Modern management of locally advanced cervical carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation was until recently the key and only modality for the routine treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma. However after years of studying multi-modality treatments as an alternative to radiation alone in randomized phase III trials, the standard treatment has changed to chemo-radiation based on cisplatin. Three recent meta-analyses have confirmed that cisplatin-based chemo-radiation adds an absolute 12% benefit in

Alfonso Dueñas-Gonzalez; Lucely Cetina; Ignacio Mariscal; Jaime de la Garza

2003-01-01

307

Molecular Pathogenesis of Basal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent cancer among the white population, representing 75% of all skin cancers [1].\\u000a The incidence of BCC cases is increasing, probably because of changes of leisure activities and migration to regions with\\u000a higher solar radiation. BCCs rarely metastasize (<0.1%), and mortality rates are low; however, some tumors grow aggressively\\u000a and may cause extensive

T. Meyer

308

Renal Cell Carcinoma Following Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesity, hypertension, smoking, and amphetamine diet pills increase the risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Obesity\\u000a causes a four-fold increase. We report our 11-year experience with RCC after bariatric operations. Methods: 5 patients with\\u000a RCC were identified out of 2,287 bariatric surgical patients since 1993 on retrospective chart review. Results: 4 of the 5\\u000a patients were females. At time

Myur S. Srikanth; S. Ross Fox; Ki H. Oh; Kevin Ward; Howard Sun; Thomas Keskey; Earl R. Fox; Katherine M. Fox

2005-01-01

309

Renal cell carcinoma with intramyocardial metastases  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma without vena caval involvement are extremely rare with a limited number of cases reported in the worldwide literature until now. Nevertheless, this rare location of metastasis may significantly influence patient treatment and prognosis. Cooperation between oncology, cardiology, and urology teams are indispensable in cases of patients suffering from intramyocardial tumors. For these individuals, treatment guidelines based on large-scale studies are unavailable and only case/case series analysis may provide clinicians with decision assistance. Case presentation In this paper, we report a case of a 50-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with a 10.2 × 10.3 × 10.0 cm lower pole left renal mass in January 2002. He was subsequently treated with immunochemotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and mTOR inhibitors (mTORIs) - that is sunitinib, everolimus, and sorafenib. In March 2012, contrast-enhancing tumors in the left myocardium (?22 mm) and in the interventricular septum (?26 mm) were seen on CT. Cardiology testing was conducted and the patient was treated with pazopanib with a profound response. Overall survival since the clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) diagnosis was 11 years 2 months and since diagnosis of multiple heart metastases was 1 year. Conclusions Cardiac metastases present a unique disease course in renal cell carcinoma. Cardiac metastases may remain asymptomatic, as in the case of this patient at the time of diagnosis. The most common cardiac presentation of renal cell carcinoma is hypertension, but other cardiac presentations include shortness of breath, cough, and arrhythmias. Targeted systemic therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be useful for this group of patients, but necrosis in the myocardium can result in tamponade and death. Regular cardiac magnetic resonance imaging scans are required for treatment monitoring. PMID:25193011

2014-01-01

310

Role of SERPINB3 in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

SERPINB3 (formerly known as squamous cell carcinoma antigen-1 or SCCA1) is a member of the family of serine-protease inhibitors. SERPINB3 protects cells from oxidative stress conditions, but in chronic liver damage this serpin may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma through different strategies, including inhibition of apoptosis, induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and decrease of desmosomal junctions, cell proliferation and invasiveness. SERPINB3 may also contribute to tumor cell resistance to anti-neoplastic drugs through its binding to the respiratory Complex I, protecting cells from the pro-oxidant action of chemotherapeutic agents. Mechanisms of tumor growth promotion induced by SERPINB3 include the inhibition of intratumor infiltration of natural killer cells, up-regulation of Myc oncogene and the recent identification of this serpin as a Ras-responsive factor. In the liver SERPINB3 and SERPINBB4 isoforms (known as squamous cell carcinoma antigen or SCCA) are undetectable in normal hepatocytes, but their expression progressively increases in chronic liver diseases, dysplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinoma. High SERPINB3 levels have been recently detected in HCC tissue of patients with early tumor recurrence after surgical resection. In serum SERPINB3/4 isoforms (or SCCA) are detectable bound to IgMs (SCCA-IgM) in the majority of HCV infected patients with HCC and in patients with cirrhosis their levels and/or the progressive increase have been found correlated to the risk of HCC development. Preliminary findings in patients with HCC revealed that SCCA-IgM was predictive of HCC prognosis, since low levels of this biomarker were able to identify HCC patients with long overall and progression-free survival. PMID:25332258

Pontisso, Patrizia

2014-01-01

311

Pathology of the hereditary colorectal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive familial history (first or second degree relative) for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) can be found in approximately 30%\\u000a of all newly diagnosed cases, but less than 5% will be due to a defined genetic category of hereditary CRC. Pathologic examination\\u000a of the biopsy or resection specimen can help in identification of unsuspected cases of certain forms of hereditary CRC due

Zoran Gatalica; Emina Torlakovic

2008-01-01

312

Insight on Renal Cell Carcinoma Proteome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several efforts are today focused on studying the most wide form of tumor affecting human kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC),\\u000a because of our inability to diagnose and treat this very aggressive neoplasia. Different complementary approaches based on\\u000a genomic and proteomic tools are used to highlight its altered molecular processes, and new developed methods and techniques\\u000a are implemented in the search

Cecilia Sarto; Vanessa Proserpio; Fulvio Magni; Paolo Mocarelli

313

Alpha-Fetoprotein-Producing Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal cell carcinoma with increased serum alpha-fetoprotein is rare; only 13 such cases have been reported. Our patient, a 51-year-old man, had an increased serum alpha-fetoprotein level and a tumor in the lower pole of the right kidney; which was discovered incidentally with sonography. Two weeks after a partial nephrectomy, his serum alpha-fetoprotein level declined to within the normal range.

Chang-Min Lin; En Meng; Shang-Sen Lee; Sheng-Tang Wu; Ching-Jiunn Wu; Ann Chen; Dah-Shyong Yu; Sun-Yran Chang; Guang-Huan Sun

314

Emerging approaches to advanced bronchioloalveolar carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a subtype of non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma that has distinct epidemiologic, histologic,\\u000a radiographic, and clinical features. The strict pathologic definition requires an absence of any invasion through the basement\\u000a membrane into pulmonary parenchyma, but there is a growing consensus based on recent clinical studies that this diagnosis\\u000a should be considered to be based on the

Howard West

2006-01-01

315

Human hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis by multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy  

E-print Network

Conventionally, the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is performed by qualitative examination of histopathological specimens, which takes times for sample preparation in fixation, section and stain. Our objective ...

So, Peter T. C.

316

Recurrent apocrine carcinoma of the scrotum: A case report.  

PubMed

Apocrine carcinoma is a rare tumor of the skin that typically arises in areas rich in apocrine glands, such as axilla and perineum. The main differential diagnosis is a metastasis from a primary apocrine carcinoma of the breast. Several authors have attempted to define morphological and immunohistochemical parameters to differentiate metastasis from primary apocrine carcinoma of the skin, but none of these had been demonstrated to be reliable markers. Here, we report a case of primary apocrine carcinoma of the scrotum that relapsed three times within a few years, without any clinical or radiological evidence of any other tumor of breast or other sites. PMID:25596997

Campobasso, Davide; Thai, Elena; Barbieri, Antonio; Ziglioli, Francesco; Maestroni, Umberto; Fellegara, Giovanni; Ricci, Roberto

2015-03-01

317

PET/CT Imaging of Squamoid Eccrine Ductal Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an extremely uncommon type of eccrine carcinoma (EC). An important distinguishing feature of EC is potential for metastasis. Eccrine carcinoma has been reported to metastasize in up to 50% of cases. Despite tumor aggressivity, no recommendations for staging exist. We present the case of a 91-year-old woman with a lesion involving the left index finger confirmed to be squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma by dermatopathologic evaluation. F-FDG PET/CT images revealed widespread multifocal FDG-avid metastatic disease. Although rare, staging of EC with F-FDG PET/CT imaging of the entire body is indicated. PMID:25243946

Wang, Bin; Jarell, Abel D; Bingham, Jonathan L; Bonavia, Grant H

2015-04-01

318

Giant Tricholemmal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Cranial Infiltration  

PubMed Central

Tricholemmal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma thought to follow a more benign course. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with a giant tricholemmal squamous cell carcinoma on his scalp. Further investigations demonstrated a skull destruction and cranial invasion. Curative treatment was impossible, but tumor mass reduction and wound closure by sandwich split-thickness skin mesh graft transplantation using a dermal template was performed. Problems of advanced squamous cell carcinoma on the scalp are discussed. PMID:21532876

Bayyoud, Yousef; Kittner, Thomas; Dürig, Eberhard

2011-01-01

319

[Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: What's new in 2009].  

PubMed

Classical epidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent head and neck malignant neoplasm. Some particular variants are nevertheless of interest as they harbor a different prognosis, require specific care management and may arise from an alternate oncogenesis path. Best examples are verrucous carcinoma, basal-like or spindle cell carcinoma. Recent studies pointed out the critical role of infection with oncogenic HPV strains in the development of these carcinomas, especially in the oropharynx. In addition, HPV infection is changing the epidemiological profile of these cancers seems to have a prognostic value. New targeted therapies and prognostic markers will be discussed as they may dramatically improve the outcome of these tumors. PMID:19900632

Badoual, Cécile; Péré, Hélène; Cros, Jérôme; Roussel, Hélène

2009-09-01

320

CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

1984-11-01

321

[Hepatocellular carcinoma following intravenous thorium X therapy].  

PubMed

Twelve years after receiving radiation therapy with thorium X (280 microCi) for long-standing Bechterew's disease (ankylosing spondylitis) a 52-year-old man was found, by ultrasonography and computed tomography, to have a round mass, 11 x 12 cm, in the left lobe of the liver. Laparoscopy discovered coarse, discoloured nodes on the surface of the right and left lobes of the liver which histologically showed hepatocellular carcinoma. There were no known risk factor for liver carcinoma (like cirrhosis, positive hepatitis B serology, alcohol abuse, haemochromatosis or alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency). As exploratory laparotomy found the tumour to be inoperable, 15 chemotherapeutic embolizations were performed. An abdominal wall metastasis was resected after 17 months. At the time of this report, 20 months after the diagnosis was first made, the patient is in a poor general condition. Internal radiotherapy with thorium X was used, all else having failed, in the treatment of severe ankylosing spondylitis. Although it is not possible to prove a direct causal relationship between the thorium X radiation and development of a liver carcinoma, the coincidence is remarkable. PMID:8187611

Madeya, S; Labenz, J; Breining, H; Peitz, U; Korth, J; Börsch, G

1994-05-01

322

Epstein-Barr virus and nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery 50 years ago, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to the development of cancers originating from both lymphoid and epithelial cells. Approximately 95% of the world's population sustains an asymptomatic, life-long infection with EBV. The virus persists in the memory B-cell pool of normal healthy individuals, and any disruption of this interaction results in virus-associated B-cell tumors. The association of EBV with epithelial cell tumors, specifically nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and EBV-positive gastric carcinoma (EBV-GC), is less clear and is currently thought to be caused by the aberrant establishment of virus latency in epithelial cells that display premalignant genetic changes. Although the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic process is currently poorly understood, the presence of the virus in all tumor cells provides opportunities for developing novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. The study of EBV and its role in carcinomas continues to provide insight into the carcinogenic process that is relevant to a broader understanding of tumor pathogenesis and to the development of targeted cancer therapies. PMID:25418193

Young, Lawrence S.; Dawson, Christopher W.

2014-01-01

323

Ocular Metastatic Renal Carcinoma Presenting With Proptosis.  

PubMed

Metastatic renal carcinoma is the third most common source of ocular and second most common source of orbital metastases. This is the first published case of von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease that developed renal cell carcinoma metastatic to an eye with a retinal hemangioblastoma. A 73-year-old woman had a history of vHL disease that included prior retinal hemangioblastomas, 2 cerebellar hemangioblastomas, and bilateral renal cell carcinomas with sacral metastasis. After presenting with progressive, painful proptosis secondary to a large mass observable by ocular CT, an enucleation-orbitotomy was performed, and the surgical specimen was sent for histopathological analysis. The ophthalmic renal metastatic tumor, like the primary tumor, was a clear cell variant that involved both the eyeball and orbit in continuity. The intraocular component was larger than the extraocular portion, which was interpreted as an outward extension of an initial retinal metastasis that probably first settled within a hemangioblastoma. Clusters of ectatic ghost vessels with thickened walls produced by periodic acid Schiff-positive, redundant basement membrane material were partially infiltrated by tumor cells at their periphery, thereby lending some support for this hypothesis. Immunohistochemical positivity for the biomarkers cytokeratin 18, vimentin, carbonic anhydrase IX, PAX2, and PAX 8 confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has refused further treatment. Her anophthalmic socket has comfortably retained a porous polyethylene implant without clinical evidence of local recurrence during 5 months of follow up. PMID:24828963

Rai, Ruju; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Fay, Aaron

2014-05-13

324

Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

2014-01-01

325

Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.  

PubMed

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

2014-03-20

326

[Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma - case report].  

PubMed

Malignant tumors of the kidney, which the most common is renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is diagnosed in Poland in more than 5,000 patients each year. Most cases of kidney cancer occurs after the age of 55 years. In men, the risk is 2 times higher than in women. Among the various histological subtypes of RCC, 5% of cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC). The 1% is in combination with oncocytoma, creating a hybrid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. The paper presents a case report of a patient operated on because of a kidney tumor - eosinophilic type of chromophobe cancer. During subsequent care of patients experienced a rare complication of this type of tumor, ie. metastasized to the paraaortic lymph nodes. Another surgery and radiotherapy were later stages of treatment. Discussed in the paper example of a patient with type eosinophilic chRCC indicate the variable nature and mileage as compared with typical of the tumor, thus requiring increased surveillance oncology. This requires a careful approach clinicians at the stage of diagnosis and then treatment and aftercare. PMID:25771519

Krawiec, Kamil; Marks, Piotr; Ró?a?ski, Waldemar; Lipi?ski, Marek

2015-02-01

327

Urothelial carcinoma: Stem cells on the edge  

PubMed Central

Tumors are heterogeneous collections of cells with highly variable abilities to survive, grow, and metastasize. This variability likely stems from epigenetic and genetic influences, either stochastic or hardwired by cell type-specific lineage programs. That differentiation underlies tumor cell heterogeneity was elegantly demonstrated in hematopoietic tumors, in which rare primitive cells (cancer stem cells (CSCs)) resembling normal hematopoietic stem cells are ultimately responsible for tumor growth and viability. Because of the compelling clinical implications CSCs pose—across the entire spectrum of cancers—investigators applied the CSC model to cancers arising in tissues with crudely understood differentiation programs. Instead of relying on differentiation, these studies used empirically selected markers and statistical arguments to identify CSCs. The empirical approach has stimulated important questions about “stemness” in cancer cells as well as the validity and stoichiometry of CSC assays. The recent identification of urothelial differentiation programs in urothelial carcinomas (UroCas) supports the idea that solid epithelial cancers (carcinomas) develop and differentiate analogously to normal epithelia and provides new insights about the spatial localization and molecular makeup of carcinoma CSCs. Importantly, CSCs from invasive UroCas (UroCSCs) appear well situated to exchange important signals with adjacent stroma, to escape immune surveillance, and to survive cytotoxic therapy. These signals have potential roles in treatment resistance and many participate in druggable cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss the implications of these findings in understanding CSCs and in better understanding how UroCas form, progress, and should be treated. PMID:20012172

Brandt, William D.; Matsui, William; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; He, Xiaobing; Ling, Shizhang; Schaeffer, Edward M.

2010-01-01

328

Colorectal carcinoma that afflicted King Jehoram.  

PubMed

This research uses the tools of modern medical science to examine the ancient descriptions of the symptoms suffered by King Jehoram who was affected by some disease. The Biblical texts were examined, and passages relating to the disease that afflicted King Jehoram, who ruled in Jerusalem 843-851 B.C., were closely studied. We have not included any commentaries, but referred only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. The Passages ''...the Lord smote him in his bowels with an incurable disease in the process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell out by reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases'' indicate that the King suffered from some kind of disease which affected his bowels. Among the various diseases which may be associated with prolapse of the bowel, colorectal carcinoma is the most acceptable. It seems that the colorectal carcinoma was poorly differentiated, invaded perirectal adipose tissue, blood vessels, and/or lymphatic vessels, and/or perineural areas, was lymph node positive and reached the 4th stage with the spread of metastases to the distal organs. Viewed by a modern physician, the story of King Jehoram unfolds as possibly the earliest description of a patient afflicted by colorectal carcinoma. PMID:15785440

Liubov Louba, Ben-Noun

2004-12-01

329

Aberrant cell cycle regulation in cervical carcinoma.  

PubMed

Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is one of the most common malignancies among women worldwide. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been identified as the major etiological factor in cervical carcinogenesis. However, the time lag between HPV infection and the diagnosis of cancer indicates that multiple steps, as well as multiple factors, may be necessary for the development of cervical cancer. The development and progression of cervical carcinoma have been shown to be dependent on various genetic and epigenetic events, especially alterations in the cell cycle checkpoint machinery. In mammalian cells, control of the cell cycle is regulated by the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their essential activating coenzymes, the cyclins. Generally, CDKs, cyclins, and CDK inhibitors function within several pathways, including the p16(INK4A)-cyclin D1-CDK4/6-pRb-E2F, p21(WAF1)- p27(KIP1)-cyclinE-CDK2, and p14(ARF)-MDM2-p53 pathways. The results from several studies showed aberrant regulation of several cell cycle proteins, such as cyclin D, cyclin E, p16(INK4A), p21(WAF1), and p27(KIP1), as characteristic features of HPV- infected and HPV E6/E7 oncogene-expressing cervical carcinomas and their precursors. These data suggested further that interactions of viral proteins with host cellular proteins, particularly cell cycle proteins, are involved in the activation or repression of cell cycle progression in cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:16259056

Kim, Young Tae; Zhao, Min

2005-10-31

330

Targeted molecular therapies in thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer incidence has significantly increased in the last three decades and many patients seek medical attention for its treatment every year. Among follicular cell-derived tumors, the majority are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC), whose prognosis is very good with only 15% of the cases presenting disease persistence or recurrence after initial treatment. Medullary thyroid carcinoma has a worse prognosis, especially in patients with diffused cancers at the time of initial surgery. Traditional treatment options for persistent or recurrent disease include additional surgery, radioiodine treatment and TSH-suppression in DTC patients; external beam radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy, often have low efficacy and many patients with advanced disease ultimately die. In the last two decades many of the molecular events involved in cancer formation have been uncovered. This knowledge has prompted the development of novel therapeutic strategies mainly based on the inhibition of key molecular mediators of the tumorigenic process. In particular the class of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors was enriched by many compounds that have reached clinical trials and in some cases have had approval for clinical use in specific cancers. Many of these compounds entered clinical trials also for locally advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas showing very promising results. PMID:20126863

Romagnoli, Serena; Moretti, Sonia; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio

2009-12-01

331

RNA editome imbalance in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Adenosine-to-inosine conversion (A-to-I editing), a posttranscriptional modification on RNA, contributes to extensive transcriptome diversity. A-to-I editing is a hydrolytic deamination process, catalyzed by adenosine deAminase acting on double-stranded RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. ADARs are essential for normal mammalian development, and disturbance in RNA editing has been implicated in various pathologic disorders, including cancer. Thanks to next-generation sequencing, rich databases of transcriptome evolution for cancer development at the resolution of single nucleotide have been generated. Extensive bioinformatic analysis revealed a complex picture of RNA editing change during transformation. Cancer displayed global hypoediting of Alu-repetitive elements with gene-specific editing pattern. In particular, hepatocellular carcinoma editome is severely disrupted and characterized by hyper- and hypoediting of different genes, such as hyperedited AZIN1 (antizyme inhibitor 1) and FLNB (filamin B, ?) and hypoedited COPA (coatomer protein complex, subunit ?). In hepatocellular carcinoma, not only the recoding editing in exons, but also the editing in noncoding regions (e.g., Alu-repetitive elements and microRNA) displays such complex editing pattern with site-specific editing trend. In this review, we will discuss current research progress on the involvement of abnormal A-to-I editing in cancer development, more specifically on hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24556721

Qi, Lihua; Chan, Tim Hon Man; Tenen, Daniel G; Chen, Leilei

2014-03-01

332

Oncogene expression in a medullary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

We report the expression of Ha-ras, fos, c-myc and N-myc mRNA in a human medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, both in primary tumor and lymph node metastasis, as demonstrated by in situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis. A significant difference in the oncogene expression in the primary tumor and the metastasis was not observed. Tumor tissue revealed a significant overexpression of Ha-ras, c-myc and N-myc mRNA as compared to the normal thyroid gland. The amount of fos mRNA expression in non tumorous thyroid gland did not significantly differ from tumor tissue, sis, fms and abl mRNA expression was not detectable in tumor tissue and non tumorous thyroid gland. We conclude, that the (over)expression of the oncogenes Ha-ras, c-myc and N-myc may be associated with initiation and progression of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Similar studies on additional cases of human medullary thyroid carcinoma will be necessary to reveal further information. PMID:2895537

Klimpfinger, M; Ruhri, C; Pütz, B; Pfragner, R; Wirnsberger, G; Höfler, H

1988-01-01

333

Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

Sabolch, Aaron [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent [Department of Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hammer, Gary [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Doherty, Gerard [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2011-08-01

334

Nd:YAG laser therapy of carcinoma lip (stage I squamous cell carcinoma): a retrospective evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To asses the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser for stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. To the authors’ knowledge this is the\\u000a first reported study on this subject.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design  Retrospective study design involving treatment of 46 patients of either sex of stage I squamous cell carcinoma of lip over\\u000a a 10-year period in a single tertiary care university teaching

Gautam Bir Singh; Mallika Tiwari; H. S. Shukla; Manoj Pandey

2009-01-01

335

Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

2014-05-12

336

Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

2015-03-23

337

State of Human Papilloma Virus DNA in Cervical Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical carcinoma is etiologically associated with the human papilloma virus (HPV), HPV 16 and HPV 18 being the most common. Viral DNA is thought to persist mostly in the episomal form in early tumor development, and in the integrated form in carcinomas. This assumption was checked with a new method that discriminated between RNAs transcribed from episomal and integrated HPV

F. L. Kisseljov; N. P. Kisseljova; V. K. Kobzeva; T. M. Gritsko; L. A. Semenova; L. S. Pavlova; R. Klaes; M. von Knebel Doeberitz

2001-01-01

338

Mammary carcinoma developing after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Two patients developed breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Both had received mediastinal irradiation 13 to 15 years, respectively, before the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. One patient had synchronous bilateral breast cancer when the diagnosis was made. Discussed is the risk of mammary carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease.

Janjan, N.A.; Wilson, J.F.; Gillin, M.; Anderson, T.; Greenberg, M.; Schewe, K.; Cox, J.D.

1988-01-15

339

Galectin-1 and Its Involvement in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Aggressiveness  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite several efforts to elucidate hepatocellular carcinoma molecular pathogenesis, it is still not fully understood. To acquire further insights into the molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma, we performed a systematic functional genomic approach on human HuH-7 and JHH-6 cells. The subsequent analysis of the differentially expressed genes in human specimens revealed a molecular signature of 11 genes from which we selected the LGALS1 gene, which was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma. The expression analysis in humans of Galectin-1 (Gal-1), the protein encoded by LGALS1, showed a Gal-1 preferential accumulation in the stromal tissue around hepatocellular carcinoma tumors. Moreover, a significant association between increased expression of Gal-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma and the presence of metastasis was observed. Interestingly, Gal-1 overexpression resulted in an increase of cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, this study provides a portfolio of targets useful for future investigations into molecular marker–discovery studies on a large number of patients and functional assays. In addition, our data provide evidence that Gal-1 plays a role in hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion, and we suggest that further studies should be conducted to fully establish the role of Gal-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis and evaluate Gal-1 as a potential molecular therapeutic target. PMID:20200618

Spano, Daniela; Russo, Roberta; Di Maso, Vittorio; Rosso, Natalia; Terracciano, Luigi M; Roncalli, Massimo; Tornillo, Luigi; Capasso, Mario; Tiribelli, Claudio; Iolascon, Achille

2010-01-01

340

Sacral plexus injury after radiotherapy for carcinoma of cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 42-year-old woman developed lower extremity weakness and sensory loss 1 year after external and intracavitary radiotherapy for Stage IB carcinoma of cervix. She has been followed for 5 years posttreatment, and the neurologic abnormalities have persisted, but no evidence of recurrent carcinoma has been found. We believe this to be a rare case of sacral plexus radiculopathy developing as

John A. Stryker; Kenneth Sommerville; Ruben Perez; Donald E. Velkley

1990-01-01

341

Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Permissions Print to PDF Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 09/2014 What is familial non-VHL clear cell renal cell carcinoma? Familial non-VHL clear cell ...

342

Decoding hepatocellular carcinoma: the promise of microRNAs  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may play an important role in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Understanding the mechanism of specific miRNAs may provide opportunity for development of biomarkers and novel therapeutics in hepatocellular carcinoma which are desperately needed. PMID:24812602

Shaikh, Fyza

2014-01-01

343

Prostatic Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma Successfully Treated with Sunitinib  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastases of renal cell carcinoma to the prostate gland are very rare. We present a case of a metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in the prostate which occurred 10 years after nephrectomy. Treatment with sunitinib was initiated and a notable response achieved.

Ralf-Michael Fokt; Arnoud Templeton; Silke Gillessen; Christian Öhlschlegel; Hans-Peter Schmid

2009-01-01

344

Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula in a patient with renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arteriovenous (AV) fistulas are common in renal cell carcinoma. These are usually small and asymptomatic. Case reports have previously described symptomatic fistulas in primary renal cell tumour or, less commonly, bone metastases. The current study describes a patient with lung metastases from renal cell carcinoma who developed a symptomatic pulmonary AV fistula. The patient presented with debilitating progressive shortness of

S. Kopetz; C. Jimenez; S. M. Tu; P. Sharma

2007-01-01

345

Monarthritis: an unusual presentation of renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of acute monarthritis secondary to asymptomatic renal cell carcinoma are described. This association has not previously been reported. The patients were initially thought to have a septic arthritis, but hot spots were seen on isotope bone scans and biopsy samples showed secondary neoplasms, which were later confirmed to be a result of renal cell carcinomas. The value of

K K Chakravarty; M Webley

1992-01-01

346

Metastatic breast carcinoma to bone disguised by osteopoikilosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast in conjunction with osteopoikilosis is described. Widespread diffuse sclerotic bone lesions were identified on radiographs in a patient with breast carcinoma. In addition computed tomography demonstrated discrete spherical areas of increased density throughout the skeleton manifest typically by osteopoikilosis. No systemic symptoms were evident, blood parameters were normal and the lesions

J. G. Kennedy; J. R. Donahue; H. Aydin; B. H. Hoang; A. Huvos; C. Morris

2003-01-01

347

Eyelid Swelling: Think of Metastasis of Histiocytoid Breast Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastatic breast carcinoma may assume many clinicopathological patterns. We here describe a case of histiocytoid breast carcinoma metastasis in the eyelids of a 73-year-old woman. Clinically, the patient presented painless swelling and nodular infiltration of the lateral and medial portions of the eyelids recalling a xanthomatous process or cystic lesions. Physical examination revealed similar lesions on the neck and right

Carlo Tomasini; Elisabetta Soro; Mario Pippione

2002-01-01

348

[Calcification in metastatic cervical adenopathies from squamous cell carcinoma].  

PubMed

We report a case of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with multiple calcified metastatic cervical adenopathies, and we review the relevant literature. The finding of calcified metastatic adenopathies from squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck is very uncommon; only three cases have been reported to date. PMID:19395042

Garcia Figueredo, D; Cuadrado Blázquez, M; Medrano Martorell, S; Pineda Herrero, R

2009-01-01

349

Purification and Characterization of Hexosaminidase from Human Uterine Cervical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal human uterine cervical tissue and uterine cervical carcinoma tissue were collected and subjected to fractionation of hexosaminidase isoenzymes Hex A, Hex B, and Hex I using DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography. Hex A was found to be the major isoenzyme in control tissues, whereas Hex B was the major isoenzyme in carcinoma tissues. These two major isoenzyme fractions were first purified

V. Bhuvarahamurthy; S. Govindasamy

1996-01-01

350

Prognostic value of nuclear DNA content in papillary thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognostic value of nuclear DNA content in papillary thyroid carcinoma was studied retrospectively in 90 patients. Eighty survived for at least 10 years, and 10 died, of papillary thyroid carcinoma, between 6 months and 12 years after diagnosis. Clinical data as well as morphological tumor characteristics were examined. DNA measurements in morphologically identified single tumor cells were performed either

Kenneth Cohn; Martin Bfickdahl; Gun Forsslund; Gert Auer; Göran Lundell; Torsten Löwhagen; Eva Tallroth; Jan-Silvester Willems; Anders Zetterberg; Per-Ola Granberg

1984-01-01

351

Overexpression of the Retinoblastoma Gene in a Familial Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrad Tumors derived from a Li-Fraumeni syndrome cancer- susceptible family were examined for expression of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB). Whereas RB expression was normal in a primary breast carcinoma and its metastases from one member of this family, overexpression of RB was found in an adrenocortical carcinoma from another family member. This was in contrast to normal RB expression

Sally Warneford; Megan Townsend; Peter B. Rowe; Luciano Dalla-Pozza; Geoff Symonds

1991-01-01

352

The adverse effect of treatment prolongation in cervical carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Proliferation of surviving tumor clonogens during a course of protracted radiation therapy may be a cause of local failure in cervical carcinoma. The effect of total treatment time was analyzed retrospectively in relation to pelvic control and overall survival for squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix.Methods and Materials: Two hundred and nine patients (Stage IB-IIIB) treated with a

Daniel G. Petereit; Jann N. Sarkaria; Richard Chappell; John F. Fowler; Trudy J. Hartmann; Timothy J. Kinsella; Judith A. Stitt; Bruce R. Thomadsen; Dolores A. Buchler

1995-01-01

353

Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis  

SciTech Connect

Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, we report a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-beta-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol.

Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

1983-08-01

354

Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis  

SciTech Connect

Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol is reported.

Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

1983-08-01

355

Metachronous bilateral mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland.  

PubMed

We report a very rare case of bilateral muco-epidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland that underwent bilateral parotidectomy with neck dissections and radiotherapy. This case has done well for three years and suggests that metachronous bilateral mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland, if treated as per the merits of each side, has a reasonable survival. PMID:23120553

Muthusami, John C; Gaikwad, Pranay; Raj, John P; Abraham, Deepak T; Thomas, Meera; Cornerstone, Veracious

2008-09-01

356

Immunohistochemical expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin in gastrointestinal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Survivin is a protein that is highly expressed in many embryonic tissues, as well as most human tumors. Prior studies have reported both positive and negative correlations between survivin expression and cancer prognosis, but these associations remain controversial. In the present study, we assessed the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin in gastrointestinal carcinomas. Using these data, we determined the correlation between nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin and, further, investigated correlations between survivin expression and clinicopathological parameters. Seventy-two advanced gastric adenocarcinomas and 78 colorectal adenocarcinomas were analyzed for survivin expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression of both nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin was significantly higher in colorectal carcinomas than in gastric carcinomas (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of survivin (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). In gastric carcinomas, the level of survivin protein expression was associated with tumor differentiation, patient age, and lymphatic invasion (P < 0.05, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). In colorectal carcinomas, the level of nuclear survivin expression was significantly higher in females than in males (P < 0.05). There were no significant associations between survivin expression and most of the clinicopathological parameters. Nevertheless, there was a trend towards an inverse correlation between nuclear survivin expression and tumor aggressiveness in gastric carcinoma; there was a similar trend for cytoplasmic survivin expression. In summary, our results suggest that levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression differ between gastric carcinoma and colorectal carcinoma. PMID:24294379

Shintani, Michiko; Sangawa, Akiko; Yamao, Naoki; Kamoshida, Shingo

2013-01-01

357

Papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the duodenum combined with right renal carcinoma. A 58-year-old man underwent a physical examination that revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation on B ultrasound. Intrahepatic bile duct dilatation could be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the head of the pancreas and distal bile duct showed no tumor signals, which led to a diagnosis of periampullary carcinoma and right renal carcinoma. Considering the trauma of pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with renal resection operation is greater, we carried out the laparoscopic right renal radical resection first, and then a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. However, postoperative intra-abdominal infections and bleeding occurred; our patient improved after vascular interventional microcoil embolization for the treatment of hemostasis. The second operation for celiac necrotic tissue elimination, jejunal fistulization and peritoneal lavage and drainage was performed 14 days latter. Our patient improved gradually and was discharged on the 58th postoperative day. There has been no tumor recurrence after a follow-up of 26 months. PMID:23375073

2013-01-01

358

Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (“hepatoid” carcinoma) of the pancreas: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message We present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma located within the pancreas. These tumors occur in the body and tail of the pancreas, with a male predominance, and at a younger age. Tumors with pure hepatocellular histopathology have better survival and recurrence rates and should be offered surgical therapy if possible. PMID:25356215

Steen, Shawn; Wolin, Edward; Geller, Stephen A; Colquhoun, Steven

2013-01-01

359

Anaplastic carcinoma in submandibular region: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Thyroid carcinoma arising in an extrathyroid area is a rare entity. Presentation of case We report a case of anaplastic carcinoma in the submandibular region occurring in a 70-year-old woman. Discussion The location of the mass along with no evidence of primary tumor at the orthotopic thyroid gland posed a diagnostic dilemma: was this an ectopic thyroid carcinoma or rather a case of occult differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastasis that transformed to anaplastic carcinoma? Based on the histopathological findings we concluded that the tumor arised in ectopic thyroid tissue. Although the mass was completely resected, the patient died 10 months after diagnosis due to pulmonary metastases. Conclusion Conclusively, the possibility of ectopic thyroid tissue, with or without disease, should be considered in cases of a mass in the submandibular region. PMID:25697543

Koltsidopoulos, Petros; Sioka, Eleni; Fericean, Antzela; Zacharoulis, Dimitrios; Skoulakis, Charalambos

2015-01-01

360

Mammaglobin, a Valuable Diagnostic Marker for Metastatic Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Identification of metastasis and occult micrometastases of breast cancer demands sensitive and specific diagnostic markers. In this study, we assessed the utility of a mouse monoclonal antibody to human mammaglobin for one such purpose. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on paraffin-embedded sections from a total of 284 cases, which consisted of primary breast invasive carcinomas (41 cases) with matched metastases to ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes, metastatic breast carcinoma to liver (1 case) and kidney (1 case), non-breast neoplasms (161 cases), and normal human tissues (39 cases). The results showed 31 of the 41 cases of primary breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastases were positive for mammaglobin (76%). In the meantime, we documented expression of mammaglobin in occasional cases of endometrial carcinoma (17%). Our data further validated that mammaglobin is a valuable diagnostic marker for metastatic carcinoma of breast origin, although endometrial carcinoma should be considered as a major differential diagnosis. PMID:19158935

Wang, Zhiqiang; Spaulding, Betsy; Sienko, Anna; Liang, Yiaoming; Li, Hongbao; Nielsen, Gitte; Yub Gong, Gyung; Ro, Jae Y.; “Jim” Zhai, Qihui

2009-01-01

361

Genomic analysis identifies association of Fusobacterium with colorectal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The tumor microenvironment of colorectal carcinoma is a complex community of genomically altered cancer cells, nonneoplastic cells, and a diverse collection of microorganisms. Each of these components may contribute to carcinogenesis; however, the role of the microbiota is the least well understood. We have characterized the composition of the microbiota in colorectal carcinoma using whole genome sequences from nine tumor/normal pairs. Fusobacterium sequences were enriched in carcinomas, confirmed by quantitative PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of 95 carcinoma/normal DNA pairs, while the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla were depleted in tumors. Fusobacteria were also visualized within colorectal tumors using FISH. These findings reveal alterations in the colorectal cancer microbiota; however, the precise role of Fusobacteria in colorectal carcinoma pathogenesis requires further investigation. PMID:22009990

Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Gevers, Dirk; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Michaud, Monia; Duke, Fujiko; Earl, Ashlee M.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Jung, Joonil; Bass, Adam J.; Tabernero, Josep; Baselga, José; Liu, Chen; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Ogino, Shuji; Birren, Bruce W.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Garrett, Wendy S.; Meyerson, Matthew

2012-01-01

362

Genomic analysis identifies association of Fusobacterium with colorectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The tumor microenvironment of colorectal carcinoma is a complex community of genomically altered cancer cells, nonneoplastic cells, and a diverse collection of microorganisms. Each of these components may contribute to carcinogenesis; however, the role of the microbiota is the least well understood. We have characterized the composition of the microbiota in colorectal carcinoma using whole genome sequences from nine tumor/normal pairs. Fusobacterium sequences were enriched in carcinomas, confirmed by quantitative PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of 95 carcinoma/normal DNA pairs, while the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla were depleted in tumors. Fusobacteria were also visualized within colorectal tumors using FISH. These findings reveal alterations in the colorectal cancer microbiota; however, the precise role of Fusobacteria in colorectal carcinoma pathogenesis requires further investigation. PMID:22009990

Kostic, Aleksandar D; Gevers, Dirk; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Michaud, Monia; Duke, Fujiko; Earl, Ashlee M; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Jung, Joonil; Bass, Adam J; Tabernero, Josep; Baselga, José; Liu, Chen; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Ogino, Shuji; Birren, Bruce W; Huttenhower, Curtis; Garrett, Wendy S; Meyerson, Matthew

2012-02-01

363

Advances in the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common non-melanoma skin cancers worldwide. While most cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are easily managed, there is a high-risk subset of tumors that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Tumor characteristics as well as patient characteristics contribute to the classification of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas as low-risk vs. high-risk. Advances in the treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas largely relate to the management of this high-risk subset. Surgical and non-surgical management options, including newer targeted molecular therapies, will be discussed here. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to determine the exact significance of individual risk factors with respect to aggressive clinical behavior and the risks of metastasis and death, as well as the role of surgical and adjuvant therapies in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:25165569

Parikh, Sonal A.

2014-01-01

364

CAHECA: computer aided hepatocellular carcinoma therapy planning.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular Carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer having a strong relation with cirrhosis. Undoubtedly, cirrhosis may be caused by the virus infection of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HBC) or through alchoholism. However, even when cirrhosis has not been developed, patients with hepatitis viral infections are still at the risk of liver cancer. Apparently, among the numerous medical imaging techniques, Computed Tomography (CT) is the best in defining liver tumor borders. Unfortunately, these imaging techniques, including the CT procedures, usually rely on an appended application to reconstruct the generated 2-D slices to 3-D model. This may involve high performance computation, may be time-consuming or costly. Moreover, even with the outstanding performances of CT in defining the liver tumor boundaries, contrast between tumor tissues and the surrounding liver parenchyma is too low in CT slices. With such a close proxity in the tumor and the surrounding liver tissues, accurate characterization of liver tumor is a challenge. Previously, algorithms were developed to reveal abnormalities in brain's MRI datasets and CT abdominal pelvic, however, introducing a framework that could accurately characterize liver tumor and its surrounding tissues in CT datasets would go a long way in contributing to medical diagnosis and therapy planning of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. This paper proposes an Hepatocellular Carcinoma framework by extending the functionalities of SurLens Visualization System with an automatic liver tumor localization technique using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The study was evaluated with liver CT datasets from the Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center, the Georgetown University Medical Center. Significantly, visualization of liver CT datasets and the localization of the entangled tumor was achieved without prior datasets segmentation. Interestingly, the framework achieved remarkably good processing speed at a reasonably cheaper cost with an immediate reconstruction of the datasets and mapping of the tumor tissues within the surrounding liver parenchyma. PMID:25205500

Adeshina, A M; Hashim, R; Khalid, N E A

2014-09-01

365

Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Mimic of Conventional Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma on Core Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) is a recently described, relatively uncommon variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a reported incidence of 4.1%. Thought to only arise in those with end stage renal disease, CCP-RCC is increasingly identified in those without renal impairment. CCP-RCCs have unique morphologic, genetic, and immunohistochemical features distinguishing them from both conventional clear cell renal cell carcinomas and papillary renal cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, these tumors are positive for CK7 and negative for CD10 and racemase. This is in contrast to conventional cell renal cell carcinomas (CK7 negative, CD10 positive) and papillary cell carcinomas (CK7, CD10, and racemase positive). These tumours appear to be indolent in nature, with no current documented cases of metastatic spread. We present the case of a 42-year-old female who presented with an incidental finding of a renal mass that on a core biopsy was reported as clear cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. She subsequently underwent a radical nephrectomy and further histological examination revealed the tumor to be a clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. PMID:25709850

Liddell, Heath; Mare, Anton; Heywood, Sean; Bennett, Genevieve; Chan, Hin Fan

2015-01-01

366

Alpha-fetoprotein producing ovarian clear cell carcinoma with a neometaplasia to hepatoid carcinoma arising from endometriosis: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a rare case of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) producing ovarian clear cell carcinoma. This is the first report of a clear cell ovarian carcinoma with hepatoid carcinoma arising from endometriosis. A 54-year-old menopausal woman had a primary ovarian carcinoma of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIc. Serum level of AFP was 4195 ng/mL. Histological examination revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis with hepatoid carcinoma. Metastatic liver and lymph node tumors were found after 25 months from the first surgery. However, the patient's serum AFP was within normal limits. The recurrent and metastatic tumors disappeared in response to combined liposomal doxorubicin and carboplatin chemotherapy. She has had a disease-free survival of 4 years. In conclusion, the patient had a clear cell ovarian carcinoma with hepatoid carcinoma arising clearly from endometriosis. The recurrent tumors did not show a component of hepatoid carcinoma. Therefore, it is possible to expect better survival with good sensitivity to chemotherapy. PMID:21827573

Takahashi, Yoshiki; Mogami, Haruta; Hamada, Shinshichi; Urasaki, Koji; Konishi, Ikuo

2011-12-01

367

Mixed apocrine\\/endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast coexistent with lobular carcinoma in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual mixed form of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is described, which exhibits a biphenotypic morphology encompassing a range of differential diagnostic DCIS subtypes. In adddition, immunophenotypic and ultrastructural studies demonstrate neuroendocrine and apocrine differentiation, raising questions regarding appropriate classification and biological behaviour. In two cases, coexistence of this mixed form of DCIS with lobular carcinoma

J D Coyne; P A Dervan; L Barr; A D Baildam

2001-01-01

368

Low grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma pelvic recurrence masquerading as high grade invasive carcinoma, ten years after radical cystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tumor recurrence following radical cystectomy for a low-grade superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is exceedingly uncommon and has not been reported previously. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a young male presenting with anorexia, weight loss and a large, painful locally destructive pelvic recurrence, ten years after radical cystoprostatectomy. The pathology was consistent with a low-grade urothelial carcinoma.

Pankaj P Dangle; Wenle Paul Wang; Joel Mayerson; Amir Mortazavi; Paul Monk

2008-01-01

369

Non-viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and represents an international public health concern as one of the most deadly cancers worldwide. The main etiology of HCC is chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. However, there are other important factors that contribute to the international burden of HCC. Among these are obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and dietary exposures. Emerging evidence suggests that the etiology of many cases of HCC is in fact multifactorial, encompassing infectious etiologies, comorbid conditions and environmental exposures. Clarification of relevant non-viral causes of HCC will aid in preventative efforts to curb the rising incidence of this disease. PMID:20677332

Blonski, Wojciech; Kotlyar, David S; Forde, Kimberly A

2010-08-01

370

Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presenting as Cellulitis  

PubMed Central

In general, skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) presents as papules or plaques with erythematous or pigmented appearance that may ulcerate the skin. Cellulitis caused by metastatic deposit from a known primary skin SCC has been reported once.1 We describe a patient who presented with cellulitis on the face that did not respond well to full course of antibiotics treatment, and turned out to be a newly diagnosed SCC after biopsy. Other differential diagnoses, such as malignancy, should be suspected in all unusual presentations and biopsy should be taken if patients do not show an optimal and desired improvement after receiving a full-course of antibiotic therapy for cellulitis. PMID:25635168

Zhao, Min; Sasikumar, Katamreddy; Kinoshita, Masanosuke; Abdullah, Mahdi; Alhusaini, Hiyard; Alaie, Dariush; Petrillo, Richard L

2015-01-01

371

Brain metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The brain is an exceedingly rare site of metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A 50-year-old female who had a history of micro-MTC 11 years prior developed a cerebellar metastasis which was incidentally discovered. Imaging revealed a right cerebellar hemispheric mass with contrast enhancement on CT scans. Histopathologic exam demonstrated a metastatic tumour composed of nodules and sheets of large tumour cells with abundant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the origin from a MTC. This case report highlights the unique features of an unusual metastatic brain tumour, which followed an indolent course for a long time despite multiple distant metastases. PMID:22802478

Börcek, P; Asa, S L; Gentili, F; Ezzat, S; Kiehl, T-R

2010-01-01

372

[Cystic adenoid carcinoma of the trachea].  

PubMed

Cystic adenoid carcinoma (CAC) of the trachea, also called cylindroma, is a rare malignant tumor accounting for 1 per thousand of all respiratory tract cancers. We report three cases of cylindroma in patients hospitalized for inspiratory dyspnea due to a tracheal tumor. Bronchoscopy using a rigid tube revealed a smooth tumor of the trachea. Pathology analysis of the biopsy specimen diagnosed CAC. The three patients underwent resection with end-to-end anastomosis. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given in one patient. The short-term outcome was good but one patient developed local recurrence and lung metastasis at six years. PMID:14699295

Soualhi, M; El Ouazani, H; Benamor, J; Chaibainou, A; El Ftouh, M; Mouline, S; Fassy Fihri, M T; Benosman, A

2003-09-01

373

p53, chemokines, and squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The genetic and epigenetic events underlying cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have been actively studied; however, no resulting preventative or therapeutic strategies have successfully targeted this lesion, apart from surgery. In this issue of the JCI, two novel regulators of SCC pathogenesis are introduced, gain-of-function mutations in the p53 gene, reported by Caulin et al., and chemokine sequestration by the D6 receptor, reported by Nibbs et al. (see the related articles beginning on pages 1884 and 1893, respectively). These studies provide new twists and insights into the development of this potentially lethal disease. PMID:17607351

Owens, David M.

2007-01-01

374

[Resection of bronchogenic carcinoma invading the diaphragm].  

PubMed

The prognosis for survival when small cell non-anaplastic bronchogenic carcinoma (SCN-ABC) invades the diaphragm has not been clearly established because the diagnosis is rare. We report a series of eight patients who underwent full resection of SCN-ABC with diaphragm invasion. One died during the postoperative period. Mean survival was eight months for the remaining seven and no patient lived five years. All died as a result of remote metastasis. Given these results, we question whether surgery is the most appropriate treatment for these patients. PMID:10410211

Padilla, J; Calvo, V; Morcillo, A; García Zarza, A; Blasco, E; Pastor, J

1999-06-01

375

Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance. PMID:18666317

Gomaa, Asmaa Ibrahim; Khan, Shahid A; Toledano, Mireille B; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

2008-01-01

376

Imaging of advanced renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To describe current radiological cross-sectional imaging in the detection and staging of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC),\\u000a defined here as RCC reaching beyond the renal capsule, whether by immediate extension or by metastasis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Review and summary of current radiological and urological literature, including original articles and reviews, retrieved from\\u000a the medical data base “PubMed”.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) shows a

Ullrich G. Mueller-Lisse; Ulrike L. Mueller-Lisse

2010-01-01

377

Venous spread of renal cell carcinoma: MDCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of our study was to present multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings in venous spread of renal cell carcinoma\\u000a (RCC), to determine the superior extent of tumor thrombus and to compare MDCT findings with surgical report.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The prospective MDCT study was performed on 31 patients diagnosed with RCC with venous spread (19 males and 12 females; age\\u000a range 39–80 years;

Ranka Stern Padovan; Drazen Perkov; Ranko Smiljanic; Bozidar Oberman; Kristina Potocki

2007-01-01

378

Papillary carcinoma thyroid with uveal metastases.  

PubMed

Ocular metastases secondary to thyroid cancer are extremely uncommon, typically affecting the orbit rather than the globe and uvea. Within the uveal structures, the choroid is more commonly involved than the iris and ciliary body. We present a 56-year-old male patient who underwent total thyroidectomy for metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), solid variant. Whole-body(131) I (WBI) scintigraphy was performed and the patient was treated twice with high-dose (131)I therapy. WBI after the second treatment demonstrated right orbital activity. The patient developed sudden onset of right eye diminished vision and was diagnosed with uveal (choroidal) metastases from PTC. PMID:23334130

Padma, S; Tiwari, Anshu; Borde, Chaitanya R; G S, Shagos; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

2013-02-01

379

Pilonidal Cyst of the Penis Mimicking Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Pilonidal sinus is a long-standing chronic inflammatory condition consisting of a sinus tract from the skin-lined orifice extending into subcutaneous tissue, with hairs attached to the wall of the tract and projecting outside of the opening. Penile location is rare, and differential diagnosis with severe balanoposthitis, epidermal cysts, and neoplasms can be difficult. We report a rare case of pilonidal cyst located between coronal sulcus and prepuce which, due to its ulcerated aspect and absence of a tract with projecting hairs, simulated a penile carcinoma. PMID:24159417

Cormio, Luigi; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Massenio, Paolo; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Carrieri, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

380

Hepatitis C virus replication in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is reported in both tumour and non-tumour tissue in a case of hepatocellular carcinoma. Viral replication was established by showing the presence of minus strand HCV RNA by PCR amplification, after excluding residual reverse transcriptase activity of Taq polymerase. No minus strand was found in serum derived virion RNA. PCR amplified products from both tumour and non-tumour parenchyma were sequenced in the 5' non-coding region and shown to be identical. The genotype of this Indonesian patient was found to be 1b (or II), the most prevalent type in the Far East. Images PMID:7490330

Niu, J; Kumar, U; Monjardino, J; Goldin, R; Rosin, D; Thomas, H C

1995-01-01

381

Epidemiology and Staging of Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Incidence and mortality trends attributed to kidney cancer exhibit marked regional variability, likely related to demographic, environmental, and genetic factors. Efforts to identify reversible factors, which lead to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), have led not only to a greater understanding of the etiology of RCC but also the genetic and histologic characteristics of renal tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing contemporary RCC incidence and mortality data, the risk factors for development of RCC, the histologic features, and anatomic and integrated staging systems that guide treatment. PMID:24596434

Ridge, Carole A.; Pua, Bradley B.; Madoff, David C.

2014-01-01

382

Skin squamous cell carcinoma presenting as cellulitis.  

PubMed

In general, skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) presents as papules or plaques with erythematous or pigmented appearance that may ulcerate the skin. Cellulitis caused by metastatic deposit from a known primary skin SCC has been reported once.1 We describe a patient who presented with cellulitis on the face that did not respond well to full course of antibiotics treatment, and turned out to be a newly diagnosed SCC after biopsy. Other differential diagnoses, such as malignancy, should be suspected in all unusual presentations and biopsy should be taken if patients do not show an optimal and desired improvement after receiving a full-course of antibiotic therapy for cellulitis. PMID:25635168

Zhao, Min; Sasikumar, Katamreddy; Kinoshita, Masanosuke; Abdullah, Mahdi; Alhusaini, Hiyard; Alaie, Dariush; Petrillo, Richard L

2015-01-01

383

Hepatocellular carcinoma and African iron overload.  

PubMed Central

Both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and iron overload are important health problems in Africa. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is recognised as a major risk factor for HCC, but iron overload in Africans has not been considered in pathogenesis. Up to half the patients with HCC in Africa do not have any recognised risk factors such as preceding chronic HBV infection, and other risk factors remain unidentified. HCC is an important complication of HLA-linked haemochromatosis, an iron loading disorder found in Europeans. It is proposed that African iron overload might also be a risk factor for HCC. PMID:8549953

Gangaidzo, I T; Gordeuk, V R

1995-01-01

384

MicroRNAs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major type of liver cancer. It is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide.\\u000a MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are aberrantly expressed in HCC. The genomic instability, transcriptionally\\u000a regulation, and epigenetic alteration have been identified to contribute to the abnormal expression of miRNAs in HCC. Moreover,\\u000a deregulation of miRNAs not only

Junfang Ji; Xin Wei Wang

385

Adrenocortical carcinoma in pregnancy: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease. Additionally, in the case of coexisting pregnancy, there are diagnostic difficulties due to associated physiological hormonal changes as well as imaging limitations. Cushing's syndrome and virilization during pregnancy is a rare entity with few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis is common as the syndrome may be easily confused with preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. We present the case of a 31-year-old pregnant woman with rapidly developing symptoms related to hormonally active adrenocortical cancer. PMID:25097324

Jairath, Ankush; Aulakh, Baldev S.

2014-01-01

386

Non-viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and represents an international public health concern as one of the most deadly cancers worldwide. The main etiology of HCC is chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. However, there are other important factors that contribute to the international burden of HCC. Among these are obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and dietary exposures. Emerging evidence suggests that the etiology of many cases of HCC is in fact multifactorial, encompassing infectious etiologies, comorbid conditions and environmental exposures. Clarification of relevant non-viral causes of HCC will aid in preventative efforts to curb the rising incidence of this disease. PMID:20677332

Blonski, Wojciech; Kotlyar, David S; Forde, Kimberly A

2010-01-01

387

Subungual Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Subungual tumors are rare in general. Of all tumors, subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) is the most frequent one. Protean clinical presentations and the lack of awareness of the disease are responsible for an incorrect or delayed diagnosis and subsequent delayed treatment. We have reported here four patients with SSCC who were previously wrongly diagnosed with a benign process and treated unsuccessfully for years. We would like to highlight the need of a biopsy in chronic or recurrent nail lesions that fail to respond to a previous conservative treatment in order to rule out SSCC. PMID:25071252

Batalla, Ana; Feal, Carlos; Rosón, Elena; Posada, Celia

2014-01-01

388

Subungual squamous cell carcinoma: a case series.  

PubMed

Subungual tumors are rare in general. Of all tumors, subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) is the most frequent one. Protean clinical presentations and the lack of awareness of the disease are responsible for an incorrect or delayed diagnosis and subsequent delayed treatment. We have reported here four patients with SSCC who were previously wrongly diagnosed with a benign process and treated unsuccessfully for years. We would like to highlight the need of a biopsy in chronic or recurrent nail lesions that fail to respond to a previous conservative treatment in order to rule out SSCC. PMID:25071252

Batalla, Ana; Feal, Carlos; Rosón, Elena; Posada, Celia

2014-07-01

389

Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

2014-01-01

390

Cutaneous metastasis of micropapillary urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man presented with persistent skin rash found to be cutaneous metastasis from micropapillary urothelial carcinoma status post right radical nephroureterectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The skin metastasis appeared 2 months after postchemotherapy imaging demonstrated complete radiographic response. Cutaneous metastases from primary genitourinary malignancies are very rare clinical entities associated with poor prognosis. Cutaneous metastases do not have distinctive gross appearance and are often misdiagnosed as common dermatologic disorders. It is imperative that urologists have high index of suspicion for metastasis in patients with persistent skin rash in the setting of advanced genitourinary malignancies. PMID:25559725

Truong, Hong; Parsons, Theodore M; Trabulsi, Edouard J

2015-02-01

391

An unusual case of Merkel cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin mainly found in elderly white patients.\\u000a Due to its poor prognosis with distant metastases in up to 33% and local recurrence in 25–33% and a 5 year disease-specific\\u000a survival of 64% (1–2) its early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study is an exceptional clinical case of

Eva-Susanne Strobel; Petra Feyer; Maria Steingräber; Annette Schmitt-Gräff; Peter Karl Kohl

2008-01-01

392

E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion prevents invasiveness of human carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of carcinomas to invade and to metastasize largely depends on the degree of epithelial differentiation within the tumors, i.e., poorly differen- tiated being more invasive than well-differentiated carcinomas. Here we confirmed this correlation by ex- amining various human cell lines derived from blad- der, breast, lung, and pancreas carcinomas. We found that carcinoma cell lines with an epithelioid

Uwe H. Frixen; Jfirgen Behrens; Martin Sachs; Gertrud Eberle; Beate Voss; Angelika Warda; Dorothea Ltehner; Walter Bircluneier

1991-01-01

393

Frequent Overexpression of the Cyclin DI Oncogene in Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive lobular carcinoma comprises approximately 10% of human mammary cancers, yet little is known about the molecular basis of this carcinoma. Because cyclin Dl plays a role in the pathogenesis of breast carcinomas of the ductal type, we hypothesized that this confirmed onco gene might also participate in the development of lobular carcinomas. We sought to determine the frequency of

Tetsunari Oyama; Kenji Kashiwabara; Katsuhiko Yoshimoto; Andrew Arnold; Frederick Koerner

1998-01-01

394

[Prospective study to assess the clinical efficacy of bone scintigraphy--comparative study of the efficacy in breast carcinoma and prostate carcinoma].  

PubMed

Prospective study of bone scintigraphy was performed on 414 patients with breast carcinoma and 88 patients with prostate carcinoma. In 468 of them, confirmative diagnoses of bone, whether metastasis was existent or not, were made after the observations over a year. Finally, the incidences of bone metastasis were 11 percent for breast carcinoma and 54 percent for prostate carcinoma respectively. The efficacy of preoperative bone scintigraphy in breast carcinoma was comparable to that in prostate carcinoma with regard to improvement of predictive probability of bone metastasis: raising up the probability in the positive cases and bringing down in the negative cases. PMID:3065834

Yui, N; Akiyama, Y; Matsumoto, T; Iinuma, T; Ishikawa, T; Nakajima, T; Machida, K; Nishikawa, J; Iio, M; Uno, K

1988-11-01

395

Clinical Characteristics of Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this study was to determine the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of women with a primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC). Materials and Methods A retrospective clinical study was conducted to evaluate 22 women diagnosed with a PPC from 1993 to 2007 at the Hospitals of The Catholic University of Korea. Diagnoses were based on the Gynecologic Oncology Group criteria and clinical data. We collected patient clinicopathological data including age, presenting symptoms, pretreatment CA-125 values (U/ml), clinical stage (based on the FIGO stage), performance status (using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale), whether cytoreductive surgery was optimal or not, types of chemotherapy and response to treatment. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and response to treatment, time to treatment failure and overall survival. Results The median overall survival of all patients was 23.1 months. The estimated 3-year survival rate was 29% (SE, 13%). The response rate to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy was 79% and the median time to treatment failure was 9.9 months (95% confidence interval, 1.38~18.4 months). By univariate and multivariate analysis, performance status was the only significant factor associated with overall survival (p<0.05). Conclusion We evaluated the clinical characteristics and treatment response of patients with a primary peritoneal carcinoma. Our results showed that it is possible to achieve long-term survival in patients with PPC. A further clinical study is to need to establish clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. PMID:19746214

Roh, Sang Young; Hong, Sook Hee; Ko, Yoon Ho; Kim, Tae Hee; Lee, Myung Ah; Shim, Byoung Yong; Woo, In Sook; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Hong, Young Seon; Lee, Kyung Shik

2007-01-01

396

Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease.

Samuel, A.M.; Sharma, S.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Parel, Bombay (India))

1991-04-15

397

Laminin receptor on human breast carcinoma cells.  

PubMed Central

Human MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells possess a receptor-like moiety on their surface that has a high binding affinity (Kd = 2 nM) for laminin, a glycoprotein localized in basement membranes. Laminin preferentially stimulates (8-fold) MCF-7 cells to attach to type IV (basement membrane) collagen, whereas fibronectin stimulates attachment only 2-fold for these cells on type I collagen. The attachment properties of two other human breast carcinoma cell lines to type IV collagen were also studied. The attachment of ZR-75-1 cells was stimulated 4-fold by laminin and 5-fold by fibronectin, whereas T47-D cell attachment was stimulated 2-fold by laminin and 7-fold by fibronectin. By employing protease-derived fragments of laminin, the major domains of the laminin molecule that participate in MCF-7 cell attachment to type IV collagen were identified. The whole laminin molecule has the configuration of a four-armed cross with three short arms and one long arm. A major cell-binding domain was found to reside near the intersection point of the short arms, and the type IV collagen-binding domain was associated with the globular end regions of the short arms. The receptor for laminin on the surface of these tumor cells may be involved in the initial interaction of tumor cells via laminin with the vascular basement membrane to facilitate invasion and subsequent promotion of metastasis. Images PMID:6300843

Terranova, V P; Rao, C N; Kalebic, T; Margulies, I M; Liotta, L A

1983-01-01

398

[Prognosis and radiotherapy of endometrial carcinoma].  

PubMed

The increase in the occurrence of corpus carcinoma and the influence that special problems (accompanying diseases, age, histology, radiation technique) have on the survival of the patient make it necessary to reconsider indication and technique in radiation. Even though 80% of the cases are in stage I which indicates a favourable prognosis for surgical treatment, many new therapeutical questions have presented themselves and should not, in the future, need to be answered by the experience in clinics or in medical centers alone. Patients with corpus carcinoma should therefore not be treated on the basis of a fixed program, rather, through a flexible program suited to the individual patient's needs. Aside from the demands for precise histological diagnosis (including grading) and better grouping of the stages (pelvic and paraaortic lymphnode involvement in stage I at least 10%, in stage II 40%!) future analysis should be improved, resulting in a decision for higher grading or an increase of the dose in radiation therapy of the tumor in the 2. and 3. stages. In order to accomplish this, better techniques in radiation therapy and communication with the gynecologists and pathologists is necessary, so that a mutual concept for therapy, improving the chances of cure can be developed. Proof that this is entirely possible can be seen in statistics of the last years (Annual Report 1981, results from Department of Gynecology, Freiburg i. Br.). PMID:6405447

Ladner, H A

1983-01-01

399

Emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is endemic in Asia and is etiologically associated with Epstein–Barr virus. Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality. The role of systemic therapy has become more prominent. Based on multiple phase III studies and meta-analyses, concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy is the current standard of care for locally advanced disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer manual [7th edition] stages II–IVb). The reported failure-free survival rates from phase II trials are encouraging for induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Data from ongoing phase III trials comparing induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy will validate the results of these phase II studies. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques are recommended if the resources are available. Locoregional control exceeding 90% and reduced xerostomia-related toxicities can now be achieved using intensity-modulated radiotherapy, although distant control remains the most pressing research problem. The promising results of targeted therapy and Epstein–Barr virus-specific immunotherapy from early clinical trials should be validated in phase III clinical trials. New technology, more effective and less toxic chemotherapy regimens, and targeted therapy offer new opportunities for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:23403548

Zhang, Lu; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Huai; Tang, Lin-Quan; Mai, Hai-Qiang

2013-01-01

400

Small cell carcinoma of the prostate  

PubMed Central

Pure small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate is a rare entity and one of the most aggressive malignancies of the prostate. Histologically, prostatic SCCs of the prostate are part of a spectrum of anaplastic tumours of the prostate and are similar to SCCs of the lungs. In most cases, SCC of the prostate is associated with conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma. Both components of these mixed tumours frequently share molecular alterations such as ERG gene rearrangements or AURKA and MYCN amplifications, suggesting a common clonal origin. The clinical behaviour of small-cell prostate carcinomas is characterized by extensive local disease, visceral disease, and low PSA levels despite large metastatic burden. Commonly, the emergence of the SCC occurs in patients with high-grade adenocarcinoma who are often treated with androgen deprivation treatment (ADT). However, SCCs do not usually benefit from ADT. A biopsy of accessible lesions is strongly recommended to identify those with SCC pathological features, as management is undoubtedly affected by this finding. Chemotherapy is the standard approach for treating patients with either localized or advanced prostatic SCC. Despite the emergence of more-aggressive treatment modalities, the prognosis of men with prostatic SCC remains dismal. PMID:24535589

Nadal, Rosa; Schweizer, Michael; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Eisenberger, Mario A.

2015-01-01

401

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands.  

PubMed Central

Four cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands arose as painless masses in patients over 60 years old, three in the parotid and one in the submandibular gland. Histologically, all the tumours were composed of small ducts with a double cell lining surrounded by a basement membrane. The inner cells were epithelial and the outer cells myoepithelial, the latter usually possessing clear cytoplasm. There was a variable degree of intervening hyalinised stroma. All the tumours were partly encapsulated, but also displayed local invasiveness. One of the tumours also showed areas of dedifferentiation when it later recurred and metastasised. The other three were apparently cured by initial excision, with adjuvant radiotherapy in one instance. In the past this tumour has been described as clear cell adenoma, and it was only recently that its true malignant nature, albeit low grade, was recognised. Reports of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma are still relatively few, with only one case described from Britain. It is recommended that this histologically distinct neoplasm deserves wider recognition. Images PMID:2045502

Simpson, R H; Clarke, T J; Sarsfield, P T; Gluckman, P G

1991-01-01

402

Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

2014-10-01

403

Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for colonic carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

One hundred thirty-three patients with Stage B2, B3, and C colonic carcinoma had resection for curative intent followed by adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy to the tumor bed. The 5-year actuarial local control and disease-free survival rates for these 133 patients were 82% and 61%, respectively. Stage for stage, the development of local regional failure was reduced for patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy compared with a historic control series. Local recurrence occurred in 8%, 21%, and 31% of patients with Stage B3, C2, and C3 tumors who had radiation therapy, respectively, whereas the local failure rates were 31%, 36%, and 53% in patients treated with surgery alone. There was a 13% and 12% improvement in the 5-year disease-free survival rate in the patients with Stage B3 and C3 lesions who had radiotherapy compared with the historic controls. For patients with Stage C disease, local control and disease-free survival rates decreased progressively with increasing nodal involvement; however, local control and disease-free survival rates were higher in the patients who had radiotherapy than in those who had surgery alone. Failure patterns in the patients who had radiotherapy did not show any notable changes compared with those for patients who had surgery alone. Postoperative radiation therapy for Stage B3, C2, and C3 colonic carcinoma is a promising treatment approach that deserves further investigation. PMID:3689006

Willett, C G; Tepper, J E; Skates, S J; Wood, W C; Orlow, E C; Duttenhaver, J R

1987-01-01

404

DNA methylation patterns in lung carcinomas.  

PubMed

The genome of epithelial tumors is characterized by numerous chromosomal aberrations, DNA base sequence changes, and epigenetic abnormalities. The epigenome of cancer cells has been most commonly studied at the level of DNA CpG methylation. In squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, CpG methylation patterns undergo substantial changes relative to normal lung epithelium. Using a genome-scale mapping technique for CpG methylation (MIRA-chip), we characterized CpG island methylation and methylation patterns of entire chromosome arms at a level of resolution of approximately 100 bp. In individual stage I lung carcinomas, several hundred and probably up to a thousand CpG islands become methylated. Interestingly, a large fraction (almost 80%) of the tumor-specifically methylated sequences are targets of the Polycomb complex in embryonic stem cells. Homeobox genes are particularly overrepresented and all four HOX gene loci on chromosomes 2, 7, 12, and 17 are hotspots for tumor-associated methylation because of the presence of multiple methylated CpG islands within these loci. DNA hypomethylation at CpGs in squamous cell tumors preferentially affects repetitive sequence classes including SINEs, LINEs, subtelomeric repeats, and segmental duplications. Since these epigenetic changes are found in early stage tumors, their contribution to tumor etiology as well as their potential usefulness as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of the disease should be considered. PMID:19429482

Pfeifer, Gerd P; Rauch, Tibor A

2009-06-01

405

Brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid carcinoma and has a relatively favorable prognosis. PTC brain metastases are rare, occurring in 0.1–5% of cases in previous studies. In the present study, we treated 5 cases of PTC brain metastasis in our institute and retrospectively evaluated these patients. A retrospective database was generated from the patient medical records of our institution for the years between 1976 and 2011. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 64.6 years and the average duration from PTC resection to the detection of a brain metastasis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) was 91.7 months. The patients were treated with various combinations of surgery and radiation therapy. All 5 patients died and the mean overall survival following the diagnosis of a brain metastasis was 9.0 months. One patient succumbed to an intratumoral hemorrhage of the metastatic brain tumor. The remaining patients died following metastasis to other organs. Our findings suggest that PTC brain metastases may occur at the end-stage of patient treatment and result in an unfavorable prognosis. Patients with brain metastases also succumbed to the development of metastases to the fetal organs rather than brain. PMID:24649252

TSUDA, KYOJI; TSURUSHIMA, HIDEO; TAKANO, SHINGO; TSUBOI, KOJI; MATSUMURA, AKIRA

2013-01-01

406

Organ-Preserving Surgery for Penile Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Penile carcinoma has traditionally been treated by either surgical amputation or radical radiotherapy, both associated with devastating anatomical, functional, and psychological impact on the patient's life. Innovative surgical techniques have focused on penile preservation in well-selected patients to minimize physical disfigurement and consequently maximize quality of life. The objective of this article is to define the current status of these organ-preserving surgical options for penile carcinoma. Materials and Methods. An extensive review of the Pubmed literature was performed to find articles discussing only reconstructive surgery which have contributed significantly to change traditional, frequently mutilating treatments, to develop less disfiguring surgery, and to improve patients' quality of life over the last two decades. Results. Several articles were included in this analysis in which a major contribution to the change in therapy was thought to have occurred and was documented as beneficial. Some articles reported novel techniques of less-mutilating surgery involving different forms of glans reconstruction with the use of flaps or grafts. The issue of safe surgical margins was also addressed. Conclusion. The development of less-disfiguring techniques allowing phallus preservation has reduced the negative impact on functional and cosmetic outcomes of amputation without sacrificing oncological objectives in appropriately selected patients based on stage, grade, and location of the tumour. Until more prospective studies are available and solid evidence is documented, organ preservation should be offered with caution. PMID:19009032

Martins, Francisco E.; Rodrigues, Raul N.; Lopes, Tomé M.

2008-01-01

407

Integrated genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D, and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors, and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

2014-10-23

408

Primary Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma – A Rare Entity with Deviant Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare neoplasms. WHO classifies them under five categories of which, the moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma is synonymous with atypical or malignant carcinoid tumour. We report a rare case of primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma with an unusual and misleading clinical presentation. The initial cytological diagnosis of secondary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the cervical lymph node led to the suspicion of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the larynx. PMID:25386445

K, Anoosha; K, Amita; Shankar S, Vijay; Geeta K, Avadhani

2014-01-01

409

Genomic aberrations of BRCA1-mutated fallopian tube carcinomas.  

PubMed

Intraepithelial carcinomas of the fallopian tube are putative precursors to high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Molecular characterization of these early precursors is limited but could be the key to identifying tumor biomarkers for early detection. This study presents a genome-wide copy number analysis of occult fallopian tube carcinomas identified through risk-reducing prophylactic oophorectomy from three women with germline BRCA1 mutations, demonstrating that extensive genomic aberrations are already established at this early stage. We found no indication of a difference in the level of genomic aberration observed in fallopian tube carcinomas compared with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. These findings suggest that spread to the peritoneal cavity may require no or very little further tumor evolution, which raises the question of what is the real window of opportunity to detect high-grade serous peritoneal carcinoma arising from the fallopian tube before it spreads. Nonetheless, the similarity of the genomic aberrations to those observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas suggests that genetic biomarkers identified in late-stage disease may be relevant for early detection. PMID:24726640

Hunter, Sally M; Ryland, Georgina L; Moss, Phillip; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

2014-06-01

410

PAX8-PPAR? fusion protein in thyroid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy, and the incidence of thyroid carcinoma has been progressively increasing. Most thyroid carcinomas contain one of a small number of mutually exclusive driver mutations, such as BRAFV600E, RAS mutations, RET gene fusions, or PAX8/PPARG gene fusions. The PAX8/PPARG gene fusion results in production of a PAX8-PPAR? fusion protein, denoted PPFP, and is found in ~30 – 35% of follicular thyroid carcinomas as well as a subset of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas. In vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that PPFP can act as an oncoprotein. Although the specific mechanism of PPFP action is yet to be defined, PPFP is considered to act as a dominant negative inhibitor of wild type PPAR? and/or as a unique transcriptional activator of subsets of PPAR? and PAX8 responsive genes. Detection of the fusion transcript in thyroid nodule biopsy specimens can aid clinical decision-making when cytological analyses are indeterminate. The PPAR? agonist pioglitazone is highly therapeutic in a transgenic mouse model of PPFP thyroid carcinoma, suggesting that PPAR? agonists may be therapeutic in patients with PPFP thyroid carcinomas. PMID:25069464

Raman, Priyadarshini; Koenig, Ronald J.

2014-01-01

411

Autocrine Human Growth Hormone Stimulates Oncogenicity of Endometrial Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Recent published data have demonstrated elevated levels of human GH (hGH) in endometriosis and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Herein, we demonstrate that autocrine production of hGH can enhance the in vitro and in vivo oncogenic potential of endometrial carcinoma cells. Forced expression of hGH in endometrial carcinoma cell lines RL95-2 and AN3 resulted in an increased total cell number through enhanced cell cycle progression and decreased apoptotic cell death. In addition, autocrine hGH expression in endometrial carcinoma cells promoted anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration/invasion in vitro. In a xenograft model of human endometrial carcinoma, autocrine hGH enhanced tumor size and progression. Changes in endometrial carcinoma cell gene expression stimulated by autocrine hGH was consistent with the altered in vitro and in vivo behavior. Functional antagonism of hGH in wild-type RL95-2 cells significantly reduced cell proliferation, cell survival, and anchorage-independent cell growth. These studies demonstrate a functional role for autocrine hGH in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma and indicate potential therapeutic relevance of hGH antagonism in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:18450952

Pandey, Vijay; Perry, Jo K.; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M.; Kong, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Shu-Min; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Mitchell, Murray D.; Zhu, Tao; Lobie, Peter E.

2008-01-01

412

Autocrine human growth hormone stimulates oncogenicity of endometrial carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Recent published data have demonstrated elevated levels of human GH (hGH) in endometriosis and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Herein, we demonstrate that autocrine production of hGH can enhance the in vitro and in vivo oncogenic potential of endometrial carcinoma cells. Forced expression of hGH in endometrial carcinoma cell lines RL95-2 and AN3 resulted in an increased total cell number through enhanced cell cycle progression and decreased apoptotic cell death. In addition, autocrine hGH expression in endometrial carcinoma cells promoted anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration/invasion in vitro. In a xenograft model of human endometrial carcinoma, autocrine hGH enhanced tumor size and progression. Changes in endometrial carcinoma cell gene expression stimulated by autocrine hGH was consistent with the altered in vitro and in vivo behavior. Functional antagonism of hGH in wild-type RL95-2 cells significantly reduced cell proliferation, cell survival, and anchorage-independent cell growth. These studies demonstrate a functional role for autocrine hGH in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma and indicate potential therapeutic relevance of hGH antagonism in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:18450952

Pandey, Vijay; Perry, Jo K; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Kong, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Shu-Min; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Mitchell, Murray D; Zhu, Tao; Lobie, Peter E

2008-08-01

413

Artemin is oncogenic for human mammary carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

We report that artemin, a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands, is oncogenic for human mammary carcinoma. Artemin is expressed in numerous human mammary carcinoma cell lines. Forced expression of artemin in mammary carcinoma cells results in increased anchorage-independent growth, increased colony formation in soft agar and in three-dimensional Matrigel, and also promotes a scattered cell phenotype with enhanced migration and invasion. Moreover, forced expression of artemin increases tumor size in xenograft models and leads to highly proliferative, poorly differentiated and invasive tumors. Expression data in Oncomine indicate that high artemin expression is significantly associated with residual disease after chemotherapy, metastasis, relapse and death. Artemin protein is detectable in 65% of mammary carcinoma and its expression correlates to decreased overall survival in the cohort of patients. Depletion of endogenous artemin with small interfering RNA, or antibody inhibition of artemin, decreases the oncogenicity and invasiveness of mammary carcinoma cells. Artemin is therefore oncogenic for human mammary carcinoma, and targeted therapeutic approaches to inhibit artemin function in mammary carcinoma warrant consideration. PMID:19363524

Kang, J; Perry, J K; Pandey, V; Fielder, G C; Mei, B; Qian, P X; Wu, Z S; Zhu, T; Liu, D X; Lobie, P E

2009-05-14

414

024. Synchronous bilateral lung carcinomas: a case presentation  

PubMed Central

Background Synchronous lung carcinomas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of two or more tumors of the same or different histological type, observed in different lobes or different segments of the same lobe. The characterization of these tumors as synchronous primary lung carcinomas is obtained after excluding either the case of intrapulmonary metastases of a primary lung carcinoma or pulmonary metastases originating from primary carcinomas in different organs. Objective The presentation of a case with two synchronous bilateral lung carcinomas indicating that diagnostic procedures are required to be separately performed with each lesion, in patients with more than one lesion, to avoid clinical misstating. Case presentation Two bilateral synchronous lung carcinomas of different histological types were diagnosed and immunohistochemically confirmed in a 59-year-old male. In biopsy specimens deriving from a mass in the lower lobe of the left lung a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was detected as confirmed immunohistochemically (p63+, Ck5/6+). In biopsy specimens from a mass in the upper lobe of the right lung a poorly differentiated large cell carcinoma was detected. The immunophenotype (Ck8/18+, Ck7+, Ck19+/-, CD10+, BerEP4-/+, CD56+, Ck5/6-, p63-, synaptophysin-, chromogranin-, EMA-/+, pCEA-, TTF-1-) was consistent with adenocarcinoma, focally with neuroendocrine differentiation. In the histological report of the second biopsy, careful screening of the patient was emphasized, in order to exclude a metastatic carcinoma. Conclusions The biopsy of each separate pulmonary lesion should be performed in early stages, because the correct staging is crucial for the evaluation and prognosis of the disease providing guidance for the most appropriate treatment strategy.

Baliaka, Aggeliki; Cheva, Angeliki; Pastelli, Nikoleta; Papaemmanouil, Styliani; Sakkas, Leonidas

2015-01-01

415

Hypercalcitoninemia is not pathognomonic of medullary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (>2-4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (approximately 90%-100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, <5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma.In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and consequent incorrect recommendation for thyroid surgery. PMID:19606248

Toledo, Sergio P A; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie de Menezes

2009-01-01

416

Multidisciplinary Management of Lacrimal Sac/Nasolacrimal Duct Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine rates of globe-sparing treatment and useful final visual function in patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas treated with multidisciplinary therapy. Methods The medical records of 14 patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinoma treated at 1 institution were retrospectively reviewed. Results The patients were 9 men and 5 women; the median age at diagnosis was 58.5 years (range, 45–73 years). Seven patients presented with epiphora, 7 with a palpable mass in the inferomedial orbit, and 2 with dacryocystitis. In 3 patients, the diagnosis of cancer was not considered until during or after dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Seven patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 2 transitional cell carcinoma, 2 adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 1 each adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation. Nine patients underwent surgical resection of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct, resection of the medial upper and lower eyelids including canaliculi, partial ethmoidectomy, and medial maxillectomy. One patient underwent lacrimal sac biopsy only as another primary malignancy was discovered on the work-up for systemic disease. Four patients underwent orbital exenteration because of extensive involvement of the orbital soft tissue. Radiotherapy was recommended for 13 patients; in 1 patient, radiotherapy was not recommended because the patient had an inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation that was completely excised. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy. Eight patients received chemotherapy concurrent with radiation therapy (5 patients), as neoadjuvant treatment (1 patient), or for progressive or metastatic disease (3 patients). The median follow-up time was 27 months (range, 6–96 months). In 10 patients, the globe was spared. In 9 of these 10 patients, visual acuity was the same as at baseline or better than 20/40 at last follow-up. Conclusions With multidisciplinary therapy, the eye can be spared and reasonable visual function can be preserved in most patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas. PMID:24195987

El-Sawy, Tarek; Frank, Steven J.; Hanna, Ehab; Sniegowski, Matthew; Lai, Stephen Y.; Nasser, Qasiem J.; Myers, Jeffrey; Esmaeli, Bita

2013-01-01

417

Absence of microsatellite instability in mucinous carcinomas of the breast  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a form of genetic instability that results from defects in DNA mismatch repair. MSI is reported to be rare in unselected breast cancers, however it is a common feature in subsets of colorectal, ovarian and endometrial cancers. In these anatomical sites, MSI-high carcinomas often display a mucinous histology. The aim of this study was to determine whether mucinous carcinomas of the breast would more frequently display MSI-high than invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). The expression of four MSI markers (i.e. MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2) was immunohistochemically assessed in 35 mucinous breast carcinomas and 35 histological grade- and oestrogen receptor (ER) status-matched IDC-NSTs, and in a series of 245 invasive breast cancers. Cases were considered as potentially MSI-high if tumour cells lacked expression of at least two MSI markers and internal controls displayed nuclear staining. Nine mucinous carcinomas were microdissected and subjected to MSI analysis by PCR using the MSI markers BAT26 and BAT40. No immunohistochemical evidence of MSI-high was found in the 35 mucinous carcinomas and 35 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and in the cohort of 245 invasive breast cancers. In addition, no evidence of MSI-high was observed by PCR analysis using the BAT26 and BAT40 markers in the nine mucinous carcinomas tested. Our results demonstrate that MSI-high phenotype is remarkably rare in invasive breast cancer, and that, in contrast to mucinous carcinomas of other anatomical sites, MSI is not a common event in mucinous carcinomas of the breast. PMID:21228925

Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Lambros, Maryou B; Geyer, Felipe C; Suarez, Paula H; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

2011-01-01

418

Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report  

PubMed Central

Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

2014-01-01

419

Rare case of subcarinal thymic carcinoma in the middle mediastinum  

PubMed Central

We report an extremely rare case of a thymic carcinoma occurring in the subcarinal location of the middle mediastinum, masquerading as subcarinal adenopathy. A 6.2 × 5 cm mass was detected on computed tomography scan and found to be hypermetabolic on positron emission tomography scan. Transbronchial biopsy was performed and the mass was found to be suspicious for malignancy. A thoracoscopic resection of the mass was performed and found to be thymic carcinoma. The patient underwent a course of adjuvant radiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a thymic carcinoma resected from the middle mediastinum.

Vernon, Jordyn; Schieman, Colin; Schneider, Laura; Hanna, Waël C.

2015-01-01

420

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the penis: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

We describe the fifth case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The patient had penile ulcer with bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and underwent total penectomy. After antibiotic therapy, the patient began outpatient chemotherapy, but the treatment was discontinued due to his intolerance. The patient died due to infectious complications of the inguinal lymphatic fistula 7 months after the histological diagnosis. Notably, the periurethral area was involved in the anatomopathological evaluation of the excised penis. The penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma was aggressive and the perimeatal region was involved. This case helps demystify the origins and prognosis of this rare case. More reports documenting patient characteristics and their evolution with penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma are needed. PMID:25624963

Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Vilela, Maria Helena Tavares; da Silva Mendonça, Rodrigo Pastor; de Morais, Danilo Tavares Maranhão; Júnior, Paulo Cézar Ribeiro Gomes; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Barreira, Bernardo Monteiro Antunes

2015-01-01

421

Gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with a good prognosis.  

PubMed

A flat, elevated lesion measuring 5 mm in diameter was found in the gastric body of an 80-year-old man. A biopsy showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic mass located in the submucosa. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was subsequently performed, and a pathological examination revealed a tumor composed of adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma with submucosal infiltration. The pathological diagnosis was gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). An additional gastrectomy procedure was performed, and no recurrence was noted for at least three years. This case is interesting with respect to the carcinogenesis of endocrine cell carcinoma and MANEC. PMID:25400179

Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Yuki, Takafumi; Ishihara, Shunji; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Tada, Yasumasa; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Oka, Akihiko; Oshima, Naoki; Moriyama, Ichiro; Kawashima, Kousaku; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

2014-01-01

422

Solitary phalangeal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma on bone scintigram.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma is known to cause lytic metastasis at various sites including axial and appendicular skeleton. However, it is unusual to find an isolated metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in the distal extremity on bone scintigraphy. A 70-year-old woman with renal cell carcinoma was referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department for a bone scintigram to exclude metastasis. The whole-body planar images were unremarkable, but the local views of the hands demonstrated a solitary metastasis in the middle phalanx of the finger. This rare experience illustrates the need for including local views of extremities in a standard whole-body study. PMID:21285689

Sonoda, Luke I; Halim, Mohamed Y; Balan, Kottekkattu K

2011-03-01

423

An instance of gelatinous carcinoma of the duodenum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  1. A case history, with the pathological findings of gelatinous carcinoma of the duodenum is presented.\\u000a \\u000a 2. Gelatinous carcinoma of the duodenum rarely is reported, but its possibility occasionally is mentioned. The instance previously\\u000a described in the literature which the authors have discovered, is cited.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. In the patient here reported, as is usually the case when carcinoma involves the

J. Allen Wilson; John F. Noble

1934-01-01

424

Tibial Metastasis from Muscle Invasive Bladder Carcinoma: An Unusual Site  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 61-year-old gentleman who presented with frank hematuria with associated weight loss and on-going left knee pain. Subsequent investigation revealed a muscle invasive bladder carcinoma with a related unusual bone metastasis. Though bone metastases form bladder carcinoma are common, frequent deposition sites include the spinal column and pelvis. This case report is to the best of our knowledge the first reported case of a tibial metastasis for relevant bladder carcinoma. Furthermore, we reviewed the literature, relevant diagnostic and management surrounding such occurrences. PMID:24917780

Brennan, David; Kelly, Michael E.; Nason, Gregory J.; Collins-Smyth, Coilin; McGuire, Barry B.; Lennon, Gerald M.

2014-01-01

425

[Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland].  

PubMed

Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the parotid gland is a rare and recently described lesion. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with a tumor of the parotid gland which was carried to the diagnosis of MASC. Diagnostic was confirmed by highlighting the ETV6-NTRK3 gene translocation. However, some morphologic and immunohistochemical features are suggestive of this entity. This carcinoma should be distinguished from its main differential diagnoses: acinic cell carcinoma and low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:25439992

Guérin, Maxime; Diedhiou, Abdoulaye; Nallet, Emmanuel; Duflo, Suzy; Laé, Marick; Wassef, Michel

2014-10-01

426

Radioimaging of human ovarian carcinoma xenograft in nude mice  

SciTech Connect

Human ovarian carcinomas in nude mice were radioimaged using a well-characterized antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (CA 125) and three transplantable human ovarian carcinoma tumor lines: NIH:OVCAR 3, NIH:OVCAR 5, and NIH:OVCAR 9. Radioiodinated monoclonal antibody OC125 was used in these studies. In order to establish the optimal conditions for imaging, tumor/blood ratios were determined. Gamma scintigraphy of nude mice bearing subcutaneous transplants of human ovarian carcinomas 3-4 days after /sup 131/I-OC125 administration demonstrated selective localization of the radiolabeled monoclonal antibody by these tumors without need for any background subtraction techniques.

Manetta, A.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.; Hamilton, T.; Ozols, R.; Mortel, R.

1987-11-01

427

Delayed recurrence of renal cell carcinoma presenting as a haemorrhoid  

PubMed Central

Metastatic non-colorectal cancer of the anal canal is a rare entity. To date, only four cases have been described in the literature. We present a 76-year-old man who was referred with an unusual perianal lesion. He had a history of renal cell carcinoma 7 years previously. Histologically, the lesion revealed clear cell carcinoma in keeping with metastasis. To our knowledge, this is only the second time a renal carcinoma metastasis to the anal canal has been identified. PMID:25818654

Davies, James R.L.; Smith, Gavin; Cornaby, Andrew J.; Thomas, Teresa; Lamparelli, Michael J.

2015-01-01

428

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the penis: Case report and literature review.  

PubMed

We describe the fifth case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The patient had penile ulcer with bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and underwent total penectomy. After antibiotic therapy, the patient began outpatient chemotherapy, but the treatment was discontinued due to his intolerance. The patient died due to infectious complications of the inguinal lymphatic fistula 7 months after the histological diagnosis. Notably, the periurethral area was involved in the anatomopathological evaluation of the excised penis. The penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma was aggressive and the perimeatal region was involved. This case helps demystify the origins and prognosis of this rare case. More reports documenting patient characteristics and their evolution with penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma are needed. PMID:25624963

Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Vilela, Maria Helena Tavares; da Silva Mendonça, Rodrigo Pastor; de Morais, Danilo Tavares Maranhão; Júnior, Paulo Cézar Ribeiro Gomes; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Barreira, Bernardo Monteiro Antunes

2015-01-01

429

Rare renal tumor--mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of renal tumor--mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma in a 65-year-old man. The tumor, located in the right kidney, was well circumscribed. Microscopically, the tumoral proliferation was composed of cuboidal cells arranged in tubules, with abrupt transition to spindle cell morphology in a myxoid stroma. Because of the favorable prognosis with this type of tumor, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma must be differentiated from papillary renal cell carcinoma, especially the variant with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation. PMID:22395517

Grigore, Alina; Toma, Liana; Stoicea, M; Dinu, M; Ardeleanu, Carmen

2012-01-01

430

Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

2013-07-01

431

Mutations in DNA Mismatch Repair Genes Are Not Responsible for Microsatellite Instability in Most Sporadic Endometrial Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endometrial carcinoma is the second most common tumor type In women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma. Microsatellite instability (MI) has been observed in the inherited (hereditary nonpolypo sis colorectal carcinoma-associated) form of endometrial carcinoma as well as in approximately 20% of presumably sporadic cases. Recent studies suggest that MI in many cell lines or xenografts derived from sporadic colorectal carcinomas

Hidetaka Katabuchi; Bastiaan van Rees; Anouk R. Lambers; Brigitte M. Ronnett; Marian S. Blazes; Fred S. Leach; Kathleen R. Cho; Lora Hedrick

432

Molecular Genetic Evidence for a Common Clonal Origin of Urinary Bladder Small Cell Carcinoma and Coexisting Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In most cases, small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is admixed with other histological types of bladder carcinoma. To understand the pathogenetic relationship between the two tumor types, we analyzed histologically distinct tumor cell populations from the same patient for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and X chromosome inactivation (in female patients). We examined five polymorphic microsatellite markers located on chromosome 3p25-26 (D3S3050), chromosome 9p21 (IFNA and D9S171), chromosome 9q32-33 (D9S177), and chromosome 17p13 (TP53) in 20 patients with small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and concurrent urothelial carcinoma. DNA samples were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections using laser-assisted microdissection. A nearly identical pattern of allelic loss was observed in the two tumor types in all cases, with an overall frequency of allelic loss of 90% (18 of 20 cases). Three patients showed different allelic loss patterns in the two tumor types at a single locus; however, the LOH patterns at the remaining loci were identical. Similarly, the same pattern of nonrandom X chromosome inactivation was present in both carcinoma components in the four cases analyzed. Concordant genetic alterations and X chromosome inactivation between small-cell carcinoma and coexisting urothelial carcinoma suggest that both tumor components originate from the same cells in the urothelium. PMID:15855652

Cheng, Liang; Jones, Timothy D.; McCarthy, Ryan P.; Eble, John N.; Wang, Mingsheng; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Yang, Ximing J.; Koch, Michael O.; Zhang, Shaobo; Pan, Chong-Xian; Baldridge, Lee Ann

2005-01-01

433

Chromoendoscopy to detect early synchronous second primary esophageal carcinoma in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck?  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate the use of flexible esophagoscopy and chromoendoscopy with Lugol's solution in the detection of early esophageal carcinomas (second primary carcinomas) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Methods. All patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC underwent office-based Lugol's chromoendoscopy. After flexible esophagoscopy with white light, 3.0% Lugol's iodine solution was sprayed over the entire esophageal mucosa. Areas with less-intense staining (LVLs) were evaluated and biopsies taken. Results. 132 patients with HNSCC were enrolled in this study. The most frequent primary tumors were oropharyngeal (49/132), tumors of the oral cavity (36/132), and larynx (35/132). The majority of subjects (107/132 patients, 81.1%) had advanced HNSCC carcinomas (stages III and IV). Multiple LVLs were discovered in 24 subjects (18.2%) and no LVLs in 108 (81.8%) subjects. Fifty-five LVL biopsy specimens were obtained and assessed. Squamous cell carcinomas were detected in two patients, peptic esophagitis in 11 patients, gastric heterotopic mucosa in two patients, hyperplasia in two patients, and low- and high-grade dysplasia in three patients. Conclusion. Although only two patients with synchronous primary carcinomas were found among the patients, esophagoscopy should be recommended after detection of HNSCC to exclude secondary esophageal carcinoma or dysplasia. PMID:23573075

Komínek, Pavel; Vítek, Petr; Urban, Ond?ej; Zeleník, Karol; Halamka, Magdaléna; Feltl, David; Cvek, Jakub; Matoušek, Petr

2013-01-01

434

Clinicopathological features of prostate ductal carcinoma: matching analysis and comparison with prostate acinar carcinoma.  

PubMed

We evaluated the clinicopathological features and prognosis of 29 cases of prostate ductal carcinoma was considered to be an aggressive subtype of prostate acinar carcinoma. We selected 29 cases who were diagnosed prostate ductal carcinoma and had a radical prostatectomy (RP). The acinar group (n = 116) was selected among 3,980 patients who underwent a prostatectomy. The acinar group was matched to the ductal group for prostate specific antigen (PSA), clinical stage, Gleason score, and age. The mean (range) of the follow-up periods for the ductal and acinar group was 23.8 ± 20.6 and 58 ± 10.5 months, respectively. The mean age of the prostate ductal and acinar carcinoma patients was 67.3 and 67.0 yr and the mean PSA level was 14.7 and 16.2 ng/mL, respectively. No statistical differences were evident between groups in terms of the final pathologic stage or positive resection margin rate other than the postoperative Gleason score. A greater proportion of the ductal group demonstrated a postoperative Gleason score ? 8 in comparison with the acinar group (P = 0.024). Additionally, we observed significant prognostic difference in our patient series in biochemical recurrence. The ductal group showed a poorer prognosis than the acinar group (P = 0.016). There were no differences significantly in terms of final pathology and rate of positive resection margin, but a greater proportion of the ductal group demonstrated a Gleason score ? 8 than the acinar group after matching for PSA, Gleason score in biopsy and clinical stage. The ductal group also showed a poorer prognosis. PMID:25829805

Kim, Aram; Kwon, Taekmin; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Go, Heounjeong; Cho, Yong Mee; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

2015-04-01

435

Loss of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor SHP Is More Pronounced in Fibrolamellar Carcinoma than in Typical Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a major problem in oncology. The molecular mechanisms which underlie its pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP), an orphan nuclear receptor, was suggested to be involved as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma development. To date, there are no such studies regarding fibrolamellar carcinoma, a less common variant of HCC, which usually affects young people and displays distinct morphological features. The aim of our project was to evaluate the SHP levels in typical and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma with respect to the levels of one of the cell cycle regulators, cyclin D1. We assessed the immunoreactivity levels of SHP and cyclin D1 in 48 typical hepatocellular carcinomas, 9 tumors representing the fibrolamellar variant, 29 non malignant liver tissues and 7 macroregenerative nodules. We detected significantly lower SHP immunoreactivity in hepatocellular carcinoma when compared to non malignant liver tissue. Moreover, we found that SHP immunoreactivity is reduced in fibrolamellar carcinoma when compared to typical hepatocellular carcinoma. We also found that SHP is more commonly lost in HCC which arises in the liver with steatosis. The comparison between the cyclin D1 and SHP expression revealed the negative correlation between these proteins in the high grade HCC. Our results indicate that the impact of loss of SHP protein may be even more pronounced in fibrolamellar carcinoma than in a typical form of HCC. Further investigation of mechanisms through which the loss of SHP function may influence HCC formation may provide important information in order to design more effective HCC therapy. PMID:22292081

Wilczek, Ewa; Szparecki, Grzegorz; Lukasik, Dominika; Koperski, Lukasz; Winiarska, Magdalena; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Wasiutynski, Aleksander; Gornicka, Barbara

2012-01-01

436

Mammalian mastermind like 2 11q21 gene rearrangement in bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma.  

PubMed

The translocation t(11;19)(q21;p13) results in the gene fusion of mucoepidermoid carcinoma translocated 1-mammalian mastermind like 2 genes that is the major chromosomal abnormality observed in mucoepidermoid carcinomas of salivary glands but has not been studied in bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. To investigate the importance of the mammalian mastermind like 2 gene rearrangement and mucoepidermoid carcinoma translocated 1-mammalian mastermind like 2 fusion gene in bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma tumorigenesis and its differential diagnosis with primary pulmonary non-small-cell carcinomas, we evaluated the presence of the mammalian mastermind like 2 gene rearrangement and the mucoepidermoid carcinoma translocated 1-mammalian mastermind like 2 fusion in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 17 adult bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 16 adenosquamous carcinomas, 24 squamous cell carcinomas, and 41 primary adenocarcinomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We detected mammalian mastermind like 2 gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in 13 (77%) of 17 bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma cases (10 of 10 being low grade and 3 of 7 being high grade). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed positive fluorescence in situ hybridization results in 6 (43%) of 14 mucoepidermoid carcinoma cases. None of the squamous, adenosquamous, or adenocarcinoma cases revealed the mammalian mastermind like 2 gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the mucoepidermoid carcinoma translocated 1-mammalian mastermind like 2 fusion product by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was not identified specifically in our adenosquamous carcinoma cases. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that mammalian mastermind like 2 gene rearrangement and mucoepidermoid carcinoma translocated 1-mammalian mastermind like 2 fusion product can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis performed on low- and high-grade primary bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma and can be used to help discriminate low- and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma from adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma mimics in histologically challenging cases. PMID:19269006

Achcar, Rosane De Oliveira Duarte; Nikiforova, Marina N; Dacic, Sanja; Nicholson, Andrew G; Yousem, Samuel A

2009-06-01

437

Uterine superficial serous carcinomas and extensive serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas: clinicopathological analysis of 6 patients.  

PubMed

Uterine superficial serous carcinoma (SSC) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) are unique malignancies found primarily in postmenopausal women. SSC and SEIC lesions measuring 1 cm or less are categorized as minimal uterine serous carcinoma (MUSC). Less well understood, however, the clinical behavior of SSC and SEIC lesions measuring more than 1 cm. We investigated 6 postmenopausal patients, aged 69-83 years, with SSC or SEIC and without hyperestrogenism. All but 1 patient had tumors originating from the surface of polyps, including 3 patients who each had an enormous polyp occupying the entire uterine cavity. Two patients had extensive SEICs measuring more than 1 cm; the others had SSCs, including 1 MUSC. The mesenchymal cells of the cancer-bearing polyps lacked the morphologic characteristics of endometrial stroma, and the cancer glands often immunostained negatively for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Diffuse immunostaining for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was detected in 3 patients, and p53 was detected in all. Cyclin E, a downstream molecule of the F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7), was detected in all patients. Microdissected cancer glands showed p53 mutations in 2 patients and a FBXW7 mutation in 1 patient. These findings suggest that mutations of FBXW7 and p53 may contribute to the carcinogenesis of less invasive tumor subtypes. Pathologists and physicians should carefully evaluate SSC and SEIC lesions involving large polyps but lacking myometrial invasion. PMID:25550841

Ono, Kyoko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Reiko; Suzuki, Rie; Maruyama, Yasuyo; Miyagi, Yohei; Furuya, Mitsuko

2014-01-01

438

Uterine superficial serous carcinomas and extensive serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas: clinicopathological analysis of 6 patients  

PubMed Central

Uterine superficial serous carcinoma (SSC) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) are unique malignancies found primarily in postmenopausal women. SSC and SEIC lesions measuring 1 cm or less are categorized as minimal uterine serous carcinoma (MUSC). Less well understood, however, the clinical behavior of SSC and SEIC lesions measuring more than 1 cm. We investigated 6 postmenopausal patients, aged 69-83 years, with SSC or SEIC and without hyperestrogenism. All but 1 patient had tumors originating from the surface of polyps, including 3 patients who each had an enormous polyp occupying the entire uterine cavity. Two patients had extensive SEICs measuring more than 1 cm; the others had SSCs, including 1 MUSC. The mesenchymal cells of the cancer-bearing polyps lacked the morphologic characteristics of endometrial stroma, and the cancer glands often immunostained negatively for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Diffuse immunostaining for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was detected in 3 patients, and p53 was detected in all. Cyclin E, a downstream molecule of the F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7), was detected in all patients. Microdissected cancer glands showed p53 mutations in 2 patients and a FBXW7 mutation in 1 patient. These findings suggest that mutations of FBXW7 and p53 may contribute to the carcinogenesis of less invasive tumor subtypes. Pathologists and physicians should carefully evaluate SSC and SEIC lesions involving large polyps but lacking myometrial invasion. PMID:25550841

Ono, Kyoko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Reiko; Suzuki, Rie; Maruyama, Yasuyo; Miyagi, Yohei; Furuya, Mitsuko

2014-01-01

439

Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

Lin, Charles, E-mail: Charles_Lin@health.qld.gov.au [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Poulsen, Michael [Mater Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jarad [St. Andrews Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

2012-01-01

440

Armc8 expression was elevated during atypia-to-carcinoma progression and associated with cancer development of breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Armadillo repeat-containing protein 8 (Armc8) is a key factor to regulate cell membrane adhesion complex through promoting ?-catenin degradation. However, its expression and function in human malignant tumors are largely unknown. Here, we present our study investigating Armc8 expression in tumor and non-tumor breast tissues including 45 normal epithelia, 53 lesions of hyperplasia with or without dysplasia, 22 benign tumors, and 92 carcinomas including 28 carcinomas in situ and 64 infiltrating carcinomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting study. Armc8 expression was detected mainly in the cytoplasm with occasional membrane immunostaining. The positive rate of Armc8 expression in normal breast epithelia (8.9%, four out of 45) was very low. No significant difference was found between Armc8 expression in usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) (11.1%, two out of 18), benign breast tumors including intraductal papilloma (10.0%, one out of 10) and fibroadenoma (8.3%, one out of 12), and normal breast epithelia (p>0.05). Elevated expression of Armc8 was found in breast epithelia with dysplasia (24.0%, six out of 25) compared to that in normal breast epithelia, UDH, and benign breast tumors (p<0.05). Armc8 expression in breast carcinoma including breast carcinoma in situ (10/28, 35.7%), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (60.7%, 34/56), and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (50.0%, 4/8) was higher than that in normal breast epithelia, UDH, benign breast tumors, and breast epithelia with dysplasia (p<0.05). The highest expression of Armc8 was found in infiltrating breast carcinoma (59.4%, 38/64) compared to all the other breast tissues. Higher Armc8 expression was found to be linked to lymph node metastasis and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages (III+IV) in infiltrating breast carcinoma (p<0.05). We further confirmed Armc8 expression in breast epithelial cell line MCF10A and breast carcinoma cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and ZR751 using Western blotting and immunofluorescent study. These results indicate that the elevated expression of Armc8 may be involved in carcinogenesis including atypia-to-carcinoma progression and cancer development of breast carcinoma. PMID:25119601

Fan, Chuifeng; Zhao, Yang; Mao, Xiaoyun; Miao, Yuan; Lin, Xuyong; Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Xiupeng; Han, Qiang; Luan, Lan; Wang, Enhua

2014-11-01

441

Metastatic carcinoma of the long bones.  

PubMed

Breast, prostate, renal, thyroid, and lung carcinomas commonly metastasize to bone. Managing skeletal metastatic disease can be complex. Pain is the most common presenting symptom and requires thorough radiographic and laboratory evaluation. If plain-film radiography is not sufficient for diagnosis, a bone scan may detect occult lesions. Patients with lytic skeletal metastases may be at risk for impending fracture. Destructive lesions in the proximal femur and hip area are particularly worrisome. High-risk patients require immediate referral to an orthopedic surgeon. Patients who are not at risk for impending fracture can be treated with a combination of radiotherapy and adjuvant drug therapy. Bisphosphonates diminish pain and prolong the time to significant skeletal complications. PMID:18052014

Riccio, Anthony I; Wodajo, Felasfa M; Malawer, Martin

2007-11-15

442

Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: progress and challenges.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal cancer for both men and women and is caused by multiple risk factors. Most patients with HCC have an underlying liver disease caused by either chronic viral infection due to hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus or non-viral etiologic risk factors such as alcohol, fatty liver disease, dietary aflatoxin exposure, smoking and diabetes mellitus. While these risk factors are progressively and persistently damaging the liver, the majority of patients show very few symptoms of HCC. By the time symptoms appear the cancer is typically at a very advanced stage with limited options for treatment. In order to prevent death from HCC, it is therefore critically important to reduce the prevalence of the major risk factors, identify and treat those at high risk for development of HCC, and institute effective surveillance strategies for early diagnosis and treatment of HCC. This article reviews the recent progress and current challenges to the prevention of HCC. PMID:22419004

Shire, A M; Roberts, L R

2012-03-01

443

Mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Alcohol can also function synergistically with other risk factors to cause HCC. Hence, alcohol consumption is a major factor affecting hepatic carcinogenesis in millions and the cause of a substantial public health burden. Chronic alcohol consumption interferes with several host anti-tumor mechanisms, thereby facilitating hepatocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the major mechanisms of alcohol-induced HCC. These include pathways of ethanol metabolism, alcohol-induced oxidative stress and hypomethylation of DNA, and interplay of alcohol with iron elevation, retinoid metabolism, the immune system, inflammatory pathways, and neoangiogenesis. The relevance of each pathway in affecting HCC transformation is a topic of intense investigation. Ongoing research will enhance our insight into the alcohol-induced occurrence of HCC and offer hope in developing better therapeutics. PMID:25383134

Sidharthan, Sreetha; Kottilil, Shyam

2014-09-01

444

Genetic and epigenetic changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy with remarkable racial and geographic distribution. The development of this EBV-associated cancer likely involves cumulative genetic and epigenetic changes in a background of predisposed genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide studies have unravelled multiple chromosomal abnormalities with involvement of specific oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Alterations of genes such as Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), p16/INK4A, p14/ARF suggest that multiple cellular pathways were dysregulated in the NPC cells. Studies on the precancerous lesions revealed early genetic changes and a critical role of EBV latent infection in the development of this cancer. Based on the existing findings, a pathogenetic model for NPC is proposed. PMID:12450731

Lo, Kwok-Wai; Huang, Dolly P

2002-12-01

445

The Role of Aflatoxins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Context Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world but with a striking geographical variation in incidence; most of the burden is in developing countries. This geographic variation in HCC incidence might be due to geographic differences in the prevalence of various etiological factors. Evidence Acquisition Here, we review the epidemiological evidence linking dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and risk of HCC, possible interactions between AFB1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) or polymorphisms of genes involved in AFB1-related metabolism as well as DNA repair. Results Ecological, case-control and cohort studies that used various measures of aflatoxin exposure including dietary questionnaires, food surveys and biomarkers are summarized. Conclusions Taken together, the data suggest that dietary exposure to aflatoxins is an important contributor to the high incidence of HCC in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where almost 82% of the cases occur. PMID:23162603

Wu, Hui Chen; Santella, Regina

2012-01-01

446

Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis  

PubMed Central

Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

447

Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis.  

PubMed

Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

Bedir, Recep; Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

2014-07-01

448

Clinical Trials in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Update  

PubMed Central

The success of sorafenib has spurred an explosive increase of clinical trials testing novel molecular targets and other agents in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The paradigm of the studies has been characterized by three noticeable changes. First, the molecular targets of interest have expanded from angiogenesis to cancer cell-directed oncogenic signaling pathways for advanced HCC treatment. Agents targeting EGFR, FGFR, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, TGF-?, c-Met, MEK, IGF signaling, and histone deacetylase have been actively explored. Second, the target indication has shifted from advanced stage to early or intermediate stages of disease. The feasibility of combining locoregional therapies and targeted agents, and the use of novel agents after curative treatments are currently under active investigation. Finally, the therapeutic strategy has shifted from monotherapy to combination targeted therapy. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of newly disclosed and ongoing clinical trials for the treatment of HCC. PMID:24400222

Shen, Ying-Chun; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Chiun; Shao, Yu-Yun; Cheng, Ann-Lii

2013-01-01

449

A Closer Look at Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Recent surge of thyroid cancer, especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), ignited a debate on over-diagnosis of cancer. Such increase in incidence is a worldwide phenomenon, but it has been the most prominent in Korea. Although increased detection might have played a major role, some evidences suggest that true increase in incidence have also contributed to such phenomenon. PTC is a very common disease being the most common cancer in human. As the mortality due to PTC is relatively low, understanding pathophysiology of the disease and risk prediction in individual patient have particular importance for optimal management, but little has been known. I suggest a reason for such a commonality of PTC, and would like to describe my view on some aspects of PTC including unresolved issue on management based on our recent observations. PMID:25827451

2015-01-01

450

Anal carcinoma in patients with Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

Three patients with Crohn's disease and carcinoma of the anus are reported and compared to a group of patients with anal cancer and no inflammatory bowel disease. The three patients with Crohn's disease were relatively young women with significant perianal disease. There were two squamous cell lesions and one cloacogenic tumor in this group. The relative incidence of anal cancer as a proportion of all colorectal cancer, in patients with Crohn's disease (14%) was found to be significantly higher than the incidence of anal cancer in patients without inflammatory bowel disease (1.4%). Possible reasons for the increased incidence of anal cancer in Crohn's disease mentioned were: an overall increase in malignancies in inflammatory bowel disease, the high incidence of perianal disease, and the chronic long-standing perianal inflammation present. All patients with Crohn's disease, especially if they have active perianal disease, should be observed for the occurrence of anal cancer. PMID:6703795

Slater, G; Greenstein, A; Aufses, A H

1984-01-01

451

Sequential scintigraphic staging of small cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Thirty patients with small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung were sequentially staged following a history and physical exam with liver, bran, bone, and gallium-67 citrate scans. Scintigraphic evaluation disclosed 7 of 30 patients (23%) with advanced disease, stage IIIM1. When Gallium-67 scans were used as the sole criteria for staging, they proved to be accurate and identified six of the seven patients with occult metastatic disease. Gallium-67 scans proved to be accurate in detecting thoracic and extrathoracic metastases in the 30 patients with SCC, especially within the liver and lymph node-bearing area. The diagnostic accuracy of gallium-67 fell in regions such as bone or brain. Despite the limitations of gallium-67 scanning, the authors conclude that these scans are useful in staging patients with SCC and should be the initial scans used in staging such patients.

Bitran, J.D.; Bekerman, C.; Pinsky, S.

1981-04-15

452

Epigenetic and genetic dispositions of ovarian carcinomas.  

PubMed

Ovarian clear cell carcinoma has unique clinical characteristics with slow growth and a stress-resistant phenotype that is epigenetically induced during cancer progression in an inflammatory microenvironment. We refer to this as an epigenetic disposition, which is frequently associated with unique biomolecular features including prominent alterations in methylation, microsatellite instability and ARID1A mutations. This characteristic methylation profile also affects glucose metabolism, commonly known as the Warburg effect. In contrast, high-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinoma has a genetic disposition that is accompanied by rapid growth, TP53 mutations and chromosomal instability. The concept of epigenetic and genetic dispositions is applicable to various malignancies, including gastric and colorectal cancers. These disposition classifications are based on fundamental characteristics of malignancies and may provide a new vantage point for development of individualized therapies. PMID:25594067

Yamaguchi, Ken; Matsumura, Noriomi; Mandai, Masaki; Baba, Tsukasa; Konishi, Ikuo; Murphy, Susan K

2014-01-01

453

Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the mandible.  

PubMed

Metastatic tumors are of great significance since few cases may represent the only symptom of an undiscovered underlying malignancy. Metastatic tumors rarely metastasize to the oral region despite the fact that many common primary neoplasms frequently metastasize to bone. The true incidence of metastatic tumors in the bones of the jaw is unknown, as jaws are not always included in radiographic skeletal surveys for metastasis. Sometimes oral metastasis may be the first evidence of metastasis from its primary site. A case of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the mandible is presented here, along with the discussion of clinical and histological features. The present case not only emphasizes the importance of considering metastasis in the differential diagnosis of a radiolucent lesion in the mandible, but also emphasizes in the improvement of the overall survival rate and treatment results by an early detection of metastatic disease. PMID:23649086

Pasupula, Ajay Prakash; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Thokala, Madhusudan Rao; Kumar, M Praveen

2012-01-01

454

A flowgraph model for bladder carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Superficial bladder cancer has been the subject of numerous studies for many years, but the evolution of the disease still remains not well understood. After the tumor has been surgically removed, it may reappear at a similar level of malignancy or progress to a higher level. The process may be reasonably modeled by means of a Markov process. However, in order to more completely model the evolution of the disease, this approach is insufficient. The semi-Markov framework allows a more realistic approach, but calculations become frequently intractable. In this context, flowgraph models provide an efficient approach to successfully manage the evolution of superficial bladder carcinoma. Our aim is to test this methodology in this particular case. Results We have built a successful model for a simple but representative case. Conclusion The flowgraph approach is suitable for modeling of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:25080066

2014-01-01

455

Imaging in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with a mortality rate of approximately 25% (Peloschek et al., 2010). Accurate assessment of nodal involvement in patients with MCC predicts significantly overall outcome (Smith et al., 2012 and Ortin-Perez et al., 2007). Due to the rarity of this highly aggressive disease, only a few imaging reports on MCC were published, and subsequently still to date no accepted imaging algorithm for MCC is available. For primary staging of MCC, general recommendations have included ultrasonography, chest X-ray CT, and MRI, but recent articles show that the use of sentinel node and FDG-PET/PET-CT is gaining more and more importance. PMID:23476783

Enzenhofer, Elisabeth; Ubl, Philipp; Czerny, Christian; Erovic, Boban M.

2013-01-01

456

Hepatocellular carcinoma from an immunological perspective  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the 3rd most common cancer worldwide. It is an inflammation-associated cancer. Multiple investigators have demonstrated that analysis of the tumor microenvironment may be used to predict patient outcome indicating the importance of local immune responses in this disease. In contrast to other types of cancer, in which surgery, radiation and systemic cytotoxic chemotherapies dominate the treatment options, in HCC loco-regional treatments are widely applied. Such treatments induce rapid tumor cell death and anti-tumor immune responses, which may favor or impair patients’ outcome. Recent immunotherapy studies demonstrating promising results include trials evaluating intra-tumoral injection of an oncolytic virus expressing GM-CSF, glypican-3 targeting treatments and anti-CTLA4 treatment. While some of these novel approaches may provide benefit as single agents, there is a clear opportunity in HCC to evaluate these in combination with the standard modalities to more effectively harness the immune response. PMID:24030702

Greten, Tim F.; Duffy, Austin G.; Korangy, Firouzeh

2013-01-01

457

MicroRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) provide insight into both the biology and clinical behavior of many human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The dysregulation of miRNAs in NPC results in a variety of tumor-promoting effects. Furthermore, several miRNAs are prognostic markers for NPC. In addition to cellular miRNAs, NPC samples also often contain miRNAs encoded by Epstein-Barr virus, and these miRNAs may impact NPC biology by targeting both cellular and viral genes. Given their numerous putative roles in NPC development and progression, a thorough understanding of the impact of miRNA dysregulation in NPC is expected to shed light on useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the clinical management of this disease. In this review, we describe the efforts to date to identify and characterize such miRNAs in the context of NPC. PMID:25367334

Bruce, Jeff P.; Liu, Fei-Fei

2014-01-01

458

Basal Cell Carcinoma Masked in Rhinophyma  

PubMed Central

Rhinophyma, the advanced stage of rosacea, is a lesion characterized by progressive hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sebaceous glandular tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels. Rhinophyma can lead to a significant facial disfigurement and severe emotional distress, but it is not only an aesthetic problem, since rare cases of simultaneous presence of malignant tissue are described in the literature. The case of an 84-year-old farmer affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and diagnosed in the context of rhinophyma is presented. The anatomical distortion produced by the chronic inflammation and fibrous scarring makes the BCC diagnosis difficult and uncertain. The histological examination of the entire mass and its margins is fundamental. A partial biopsy can lead to a false negative result, and the histological examination must be repeated intra- or postoperatively. PMID:23841002

De Seta, Elio; Filipo, Roberto

2013-01-01

459

Role of laser therapy in bladder carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is most common genitourinary tract cancer and its treatment comprises a large number of surgical procedures in urological oncology. Seventy-five percent (75%) of cases recur within two years and the recurrence rate is correlated with the grade of the initial tumor. While Transurethral Resection of the Bladder (TURB) is the current standard of care, the use of laser offers a proven alternative. Sufficient evidence is available that laser treatment of superficial bladder cancer is as effective as TURB. Laser treatment offers several advantages such as decreased incidence of bladder perforation, a near bloodless procedure, catheter-free procedure, and the possibility of outpatient therapy. It has been reported that laser treatment may reduce the recurrence rate of TCC as compared to electrocautery resection. Furthermore, some studies suggest seeding can be avoided with laser resection; however, both items remain highly controversial.

Sharpe, Brent A.; de Riese, Werner T.

2001-05-01

460

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Caruncle.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lacrimal caruncle is a rare entity. The authors report the management and outcomes of 3 cases of caruncle SCC. Case 1 underwent wide margin surgical excision with adjuvant topical chemotherapy for a poorly differentiated SCC. He later developed regional lymph node metastasis and required modified radical neck dissection. Case 2 underwent wide margin surgical excision with cryotherapy and adjuvant topical chemotherapy for an invasive moderately differentiated SCC. She later developed a recurrence and underwent orbital exenteration. Case 3 was a moderately differentiated SCC treated with wide margin excision alone and had no recurrence during 5-year follow up. Careful surveillance of caruncle SCC is required, given the observed propensity for local recurrence and/or regional metastasis. PMID:24814271

Sagili, Suresh; Yin, Vivian; Esmaeli, Bita; O'Donnell, Brett; Eckstein, Robert; Malhotra, Raman

2014-05-01

461

Proteomic profiling of thyroid papillary carcinoma.  

PubMed

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. We performed shotgun liquid chromatography (LC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis on pooled protein extracts from patients with PTC and compared the results with those from normal thyroid tissue validated by real-time (RT) PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We detected 524 types of protein in PTC and 432 in normal thyroid gland. Among these proteins, 145 were specific to PTC and 53 were specific to normal thyroid gland. We have also identified two important new markers, nephronectin (NPNT) and malectin (MLEC). Reproducibility was confirmed with several known markers, but the one of two new candidate markers such as MLEC did not show large variations in expression levels. Furthermore, IHC confirmed the overexpression of both those markers in PTCs compared with normal surrounding tissues. Our protein data suggest that NPNT and MLEC could be a characteristic marker for PTC. PMID:22518348

Ban, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Gou; Takada, Michiya; Hayashi, Shigeo; Ban, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazuo; Akasu, Haruki; Igarashi, Takehito; Bando, Yasuhiko; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Hirano, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

462

Proteomic Profiling of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. We performed shotgun liquid chromatography (LC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis on pooled protein extracts from patients with PTC and compared the results with those from normal thyroid tissue validated by real-time (RT) PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We detected 524 types of protein in PTC and 432 in normal thyroid gland. Among these proteins, 145 were specific to PTC and 53 were specific to normal thyroid gland. We have also identified two important new markers, nephronectin (NPNT) and malectin (MLEC). Reproducibility was confirmed with several known markers, but the one of two new candidate markers such as MLEC did not show large variations in expression levels. Furthermore, IHC confirmed the overexpression of both those markers in PTCs compared with normal surrounding tissues. Our protein data suggest that NPNT and MLEC could be a characteristic marker for PTC. PMID:22518348

Ban, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Gou; Takada, Michiya; Hayashi, Shigeo; Ban, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazuo; Akasu, Haruki; Igarashi, Takehito; Bando, Yasuhiko; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Hirano, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

463

Prostatic carcinoma: rectal bleeding after radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

A 64-year-old man had a prostatic nodule on routine physical examination; per-rectal needle biopsies revealed a single focus of well differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient had no history of urinary obstruction or of bowel difficulties. Accordingly, this was clinical stage II carcinoma of the prostate. The patient chose to receive external radiation therapy and was given small-field rotational treatment to a dose of 7000 rad (70 Gy) at a rate of 800 rad (8 Gy) weekly. Late in treatment, he experienced transitory diarrhea with flatulence, but this cleared with completion of treatment. Twenty months later he began to note frequent soft bowel movements, occasionally with red blood. At sigmoidoscopy 24 months after completion of treatment, the rectal mucosa was noted to be friable with minimal bleeding, presumably the result of radiation proctitis.

Kagan, A.R.; Steckel, R.J. (eds.)

1981-06-01

464

Review of angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular tumor, and its vascularity is unique and greatly different from peripheral parenchyma of liver. Afferent and efferent vessels of HCC lesions come to differ as the lesion develops. The characteristic of the flow regulates the common style of metastasis. The portal tract of the HCC lesion is the first site of the intrahepatic metastasis, because cancer cells roll into the portal vein via efferent flow. On microscopic observation, HCC displays marked vascular abnormalities, arteriogenesis and capillarization. Arteriogenesis is defined as the growth of functional collateral arteries covered with smooth muscle cells from pre-existing arteries. Sinusoidal capillarization involves the transformation of fenestrated hepatic sinusoids into continuous capillaries. Several angiogenic factors have been reported, and some of them are studied as prognostic factors or target molecules of chemotherapeutic reagents. However, the mechanism of neovascularization during HCC development is still unclear. This review discusses the characteristics of angiogenesis in HCC and known angiogenic factors of HCC. PMID:24533487

Muto, Jun; Shirabe, Ken; Sugimachi, Keishi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2015-01-01

465

Embolotherapy in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks fifth in frequency of cancers worldwide. The incidence of HCC in the United States is rising, primarily due to the number of patients who were infected by hepatitis in the 1960s and 1970s coupled with the rising migrant population from Asia, where hepatitis is widely prevalent. Up to 80% of the patients present with multicentric HCC and advanced liver disease or comorbidities that restrict the option of resection or liver transplantation. The dual blood supply (arterial and portal) to the liver with predominantly arterial supply to the tumor has made embolotherapy a cornerstone in the management of inoperable HCC. The techniques have become refined not only due to the development of microcatheter angiographic capabilities, but also in the ability to deliver a wide variety of therapeutic agents to these tumors. This article reviews the fundamental principles of bland embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization in the management of HCC. PMID:21326513

Mojtahedi, Alireza; Yang, Xiaoming; Goswami, Gaurav K.

2008-01-01

466

A functioning pleomorphic carcinoma of the thyroid.  

PubMed Central

A metastasizing functioning pleomorphic carcinoma of the thyroid displayed a morphologic piture ranging from follicular to sarcomatous and carcinoid-like patterns. Spindle-cell elements were believed to be the result of metaplasia of the follicular epithelium. Development of carcinoid-like lesions in the secondary deposits of tumour supported the contention that so-called parafollicular or c-cells may be a phenomenon of metaplasia and not a histologic entity. The tumour was associated with a chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary and a benign schwannoma of the stomach. Clinically the patient did not show any other endocrinologic abnormalities and lived for 4 years from the time of diagnosis of the thyroid tumour. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1277059

Karnauchow, P. N.

1976-01-01

467

Histone modifications: implications in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In 2012, an estimated 64,770 men and women were diagnosed with malignancy of the kidney and renal pelvis, of which 13,570 succumbed to their disease. Common genetic aberrations in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) include loss of function of the VHL gene in clear-cell RCC, overexpression of the c-MET gene in papillary RCC type I, deficiency in the FH gene in papillary RCC type II and loss of heterozygozity of the BHD gene in chromophobe RCC. Recent studies illustrate epigenetic silencing of VHL, as well as alterations in histone modifications and their governing enzymes. The possibility of reversing these epigenetic marks has resulted in efforts to target these changes by utilizing inhibitors of HDACs, DNA methyltransferases and, recently, histone methyltransferases in preclinical and clinical studies. This article focuses on potential therapeutic interventions, and the implications of histone modifications and related enzyme alterations in RCC. PMID:23895657

Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ellis, Leigh; Pili, Roberto

2013-01-01

468

The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

2014-01-01

469

Endocytoscopic observation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The endocytoscopy system (ECS), adapted for clinical use in 2003, is an ultra-high-power magnifying endoscope that allows observations at the cell level. ECS is based on the technology of light-contact microscopy. The most evident use of ECS is for real-time, high-resolution diagnosis of nuclear abnormalities, mainly in patients with esophageal cancer. Up to now, three different types of ECS have been available. This diagnostic tool makes it possible to omit histological examination of biopsy samples in approximately 84% of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as evidence for both an increase of cell density and nuclear abnormalities is considered to be convincing proof that a lesion is malignant. Here we describe the features of ECS and the background that led to its development, and review the published literature pertaining to the observation of esophageal neoplasms using ECS. PMID:20078658

Kumagai, Youichi; Kawada, Kenro; Yamazaki, Shigeru; Iida, Michio; Ochiai, Takanori; Momma, Kumiko; Odajima, Hajime; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Takubo, Kaiyo

2010-01-01

470

Complex karyotype in a childhood adrenocortical carcinoma.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultured cells from an 11-cm adrenocortical carcinoma in a 3.5-year-old girl revealed the karyotype 46,XX,inv(9)(p11q12)c/[2]/56-57,XX,+2,+4,+5,+7,+8,inv(9)c,+10,+add (13)(p11), +14,+15,+19,+20,+20,+mar[cp19]. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an abnormal karyotype in a pediatric adrenocortical tumor. Inasmuch as the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors is often difficult to make from clinical and histopathologic data alone, the present findings suggest that cytogenetic analysis may be a valuable adjunct in the differential diagnosis. PMID:9723041

Mertens, F; Kullendorff, C M; Moëll, C; Alumets, J; Mandahl, N

1998-09-01

471

Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules. PMID:20847957

Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

2010-01-01

472

Recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a clinical dilemma and challenge  

PubMed Central

Recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which represents a small proportion of head-and-neck cancers, has a unique set of patho-clinical characteristics. The management of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains a challenging clinical problem. Traditional treatments offer limited local control and survival benefits; more seriously, they frequently induce severe late complications. Recently, novel treatment techniques and strategies—including precision radiotherapy, endoscopic surgery or transoral robotic resection, third-generation chemotherapy regimens, and targeted therapies and immunotherapy—have provided new hope for patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Some of these patients can potentially be cured with modern treatments. However, a lack of adequate evidence makes it difficult for clinicians to apply these powerful techniques and strategies. Individualized management guidelines, full evaluation of quality of life in these patients, and a further understanding of the mechanisms underlying recurrence are future directions for research into recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:24155638

Xu, Tao; Tang, J.; Gu, M.; Liu, L.; Wei, W.; Yang, H.

2013-01-01

473

Lobular Carcinoma in Situ, Classical Type and Unusual Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphologic spectrum of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) includes the classical type and unusual variants recently described. In this article we review the morphology of LCIS and highlight ways to distinguish it from its morphologic mimickers.

Melissa Murray; Edi Brogi

2009-01-01

474

Involvement of the central nervous system by ovarian carcinoma.  

PubMed

Ovarian carcinoma rarely metastasizes to the central nervous system (CNS). Of 110 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma treated at the Northern Israel Oncology Center between the years 1979 and 1985, only five (4.5%) had CNS involvement. The median age of the patients with 54.5 years. All of them had treatment with cisplatin and Adriamycin (doxorubicin). The median duration from diagnosis to the development of brain involvement was 17 months. The median survival time was 28 months from diagnosis of carcinoma and 2 months from diagnosis of CNS disease. The increased incidence of this kind of metastasis in patients achieving local control of their advanced disease suggests that a change in the pattern of metastatic spread or the prolonged survival permits occult CNS metastases to become apparent. A routine computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan of the brain should therefore be performed on patients with ovarian carcinoma with prolonged survival. PMID:3756821

Stein, M; Steiner, M; Klein, B; Beck, D; Atad, J; Kuten, A; Robinson, E; Goldsher, D

1986-11-01

475

Unusual presentation of oesophageal carcinoma with adrenal metastasis  

PubMed Central

Adrenal gland is a common site of metastasis in many cancers but it is very rare in oesophageal carcinoma. We report one such case found to have adrenal metastasis on follow-up PET/computed tomography scan. PMID:23919072

Kashyap, Raghava; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder

2012-01-01

476

Autoantibodies to Tumor-Associated Antigens in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

This review will focus on recent knowledge related to circulating autoantibodies (AAbs) to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. So far, the following TAAs have been identified to elicit circulating AAbs in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: p53, homeobox proteins (HOXA7, HOXB7), heat shock proteins (HSP-27, HSP-90), cathepsin D, cancer-testis antigens (NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1), MUC1, GIPC-1, IL-8, Ep-CAM, and S100A7. Since AAbs to TAAs have been identified in the circulation of patients with early-stage cancer, it has been speculated that the assessment of a panel of AAbs specific for epithelial ovarian carcinoma TAAs might hold great potential as a novel tool for early diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:20145720

Piura, Benjamin; Piura, Ettie

2009-01-01

477

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the renal pelvis: A case report  

PubMed Central

Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a high-grade malignant neoplasm which exhibits morphological and/or immunohistochemical evidence of bidirectional epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. Sarcomatoid carcinoma occurring in the upper urinary tract is rare. The present study reports a case of primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of the renal pelvis. A 49-year-old female patient was admitted to Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital for experiencing two weeks of intermittent hematuria. A computed tomography scan revealed a mass of 2 cm in diameter in the left renal pelvis. A retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy combined with a bladder cuff excision was performed, and the final pathological diagnosis was sarcomatoid carcinoma of the renal pelvis. The patient did not receive systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Regular follow-up was performed for 30 months, and there was no evidence of tumor local recurrence or distant metastasis. PMID:25120689

TIAN, XIQUAN; ZHAO, JIYU; WANG, YUE; XING, NIANZENG

2014-01-01

478

Transitional cell carcinoma in a duplicated ectopic ureter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of transitional cell carcinoma occurring within an ectopically located upper pole ureter of a completely duplicated collecting system in an 81-year-old man. Presentation, evaluation, and management issues are discussed.

Scott D. Dudak; Rafael A. Antun

1995-01-01

479

Lymphoepithelial-like carcinomas of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Lymphoepithelial-like carcinomas (LELC) of the head and neck represent malignant neoplasms that are histologically similar to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), nonkeratinizing undifferentiated type but arise in locations other than the nasopharynx. The most common location for LELC in the head and neck is the salivary glands, in particular the parotid gland. However, LELC may arise in other sites including the oropharynx (tonsils, base of tongue), sinonasal tract, larynx, and middle ear/temporal bone. Unlike the nonkeratinizing undifferentiated type of NPC which is etiologically linked to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), LELCs are not uniformly associated with EBV. The differential diagnosis for LELC varies per site and depending on the site of occurrence may include lymphoepithelial sialadenitis, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Treatment general includes combined (multimodality) therapy including surgical resection, neck dissection, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The prognosis may vary per site overall favorable owing to a good response to therapy. PMID:25804344

Wenig, Bruce M

2015-01-01

480

Metachronous tracheal squamous cell carcinoma treated with Nd: YAG laser  

PubMed Central

Tracheal squamous cell carcinoma detected early in a high-risk patient has been treated twice with local neodymium-yttrium aluminium garnet laser therapy with good result so far. Ongoing bronchoscopic monitoring continues.

Burke, Greg; McCaughan, Brian; Glanville, Allan

2015-01-01

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