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Sample records for cardiac autonomic nerve

  1. Inhomogeneous derangement of cardiac autonomic nerve control in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Shamarendra Nath; Arita, Makoto; Ono, Katsushige

    2002-03-01

    The present study compared autonomic nervous function in Kob [Spontaneously Diabetic, Bio-Breeding (BB)] rats with control Wistar rats to determine the development of cardiac neuropathy in diabetic rats. Telemetric ECG signals were obtained from an ECG radio-transmitter placed in a dorsal subcutaneous pouch of male Kob and Wistar rats for 30min every 6h at a sample rate of 5kHz. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) were analyzed in each group by power spectrograms obtained by a fast Fourier transform algorithm. RR interval, total power (TP), low frequency (LF) power (0.04-0.67 Hz), high frequency (HF) power (0.79-1.48 Hz) and LF/HF ratio were also measured. The Kob rats had lower HRV than the control Wistar rats; HR, TP, and HF power, but not the LF/HF ratio, in the Kob rats were significantly lower than those of the control rats (p<0.001). However, in the Kob rats the response of these parameters to a muscarinic antagonist (atropine: 2mg/kg) was left intact, but their response to a beta-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol: 4mg/kg) was impeded. Autonomic nervous control of HR in spontaneously diabetic rats was inhomogeneously deranged in terms of the balance in sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, not only in the baseline condition, but also in the regulatory systems, including postsynaptic receptor function. PMID:11922279

  2. Effects of carvedilol on cardiac autonomic nerve activities during sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation in ambulatory dogs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eue-Keun; Shen, Mark J.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Oh, Seil

    2014-01-01

    Aims We hypothesized that carvedilol can effectively suppress autonomic nerve activity (ANA) in ambulatory dogs during sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation (AF), and that carvedilol withdrawal can lead to rebound elevation of ANA. Carvedilol is known to block pre-junctional β2-adrenoceptor responsible for norepinephrine release. Methods and results We implanted radiotransmitters to record stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), vagal nerve activity (VNA), and superior left ganglionated plexi nerve activity (SLGPNA) in 12 ambulatory dogs. Carvedilol (12.5 mg orally twice a day) was given for 7 days during sinus rhythm (n = 8). Four of the eight dogs and an additional four dogs were paced into persistent AF. Carvedilol reduced heart rate [from 103 b.p.m. (95% confidence interval (CI), 100–105) to 100 b.p.m. (95% CI, 98–102), P = 0.044], suppressed integrated nerve activities (Int-NAs, SGNA by 17%, VNA by 19%, and SLGPNA by 12%; all P < 0.05 vs. the baseline), and significantly reduced the incidence (from 8 ± 6 to 3 ± 3 episodes/day, P < 0.05) and total duration (from 68 ± 64 to 16 ± 21 s/day, P < 0.05) of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT). Following the development of persistent AF, carvedilol loading was associated with AF termination in three dogs. In the remaining five dogs, Int-NAs were not significantly suppressed by carvedilol, but SGNA significantly increased by 16% after carvedilol withdrawal (P < 0.001). Conclusion Carvedilol suppresses ANA and PAT in ambulatory dogs during sinus rhythm. PMID:24469435

  3. Differential Patterns and Determinants of Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Dysfunction during Endotoxemia and Oral Fat Load in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Dan; Strom, Alexander; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina; Zahiragic, Lejla; Nowotny, Peter J.; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Herder, Christian; Szendroedi, Julia; Roden, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in regulating the metabolic homeostasis and controlling immune function. ANS alterations can be detected by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in conditions like diabetes and sepsis. We determined the effects of experimental conditions mimicking inflammation and hyperlipidemia on HRV and heart rate (HR) in relation to the immune, metabolic, and hormonal responses resulting from these interventions. Sixteen lean healthy subjects received intravenous (i.v.) low-dose endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), i.v. fat, oral fat, and i.v. glycerol (control) for 6 hours, during which immune, metabolic, hormonal, and five HRV parameters (pNN50, RMSSD, low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power, and LF/HF ratio) were monitored and energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity (M-value) were assessed. LPS infusion induced an increase (AUC) in HR and LF/HF ratio and decline in pNN50 and RMSSD, while oral fat resulted in elevated HR and a transient (hours 1-2) decrease in pNN50, RMSSD, and HF power. During LPS infusion, ΔIL-1ra levels and ΔIL-1ra and ΔIL-1ß gene expression correlated positively with ΔLF/HF ratio and inversely with ΔRMSSD. During oral fat intake, ΔGLP-1 tended to correlate positively with ΔHR and inversely with ΔpNN50 and ΔRMSSD. Following LPS infusion, lipid oxidation correlated positively with HR and inversely with pNN50 and RMSSD, whereas HRV was not related to M-value. In conclusion, suppression of vagal tone and sympathetic predominance during endotoxemia are linked to anti-inflammatory processes and lipid oxidation but not to insulin resistance, while weaker HRV changes in relation to the GLP-1 response are noted during oral fat load. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01054989 PMID:25893426

  4. Device-Based Autonomic Modulation in Arrhythmia Patients: the Role of Vagal Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, William A.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Vaseghi, Marmar

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has shown promise as an adjunctive therapy for management of cardiac arrhythmias by targeting the cardiac parasympathetic nervous system. VNS has been evaluated in the setting of ischemia-driven ventricular arrhythmias and atrial arrhythmias, as well as a treatment option for heart failure. As better understanding of the complexities of the cardiac autonomic nervous system is obtained, vagal nerve stimulation will likely become a powerful tool in the current cardiovascular therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:25894588

  5. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed. PMID:26706915

  6. Noninvasive subject-specific monitoring of autonomic-cardiac regulation.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Pedram; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Dumont, Guy A; Boyce, W Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of a model-based approach to noninvasive and subject-specific monitoring of autonomic-cardiac regulation. The proposed approach is built upon individualizing a physiologically-based model by applying a parameter estimation method to routine clinical observations, thereby assuring physical transparency, computational efficiency, and clinical adaptability. To develop an efficient parameter estimation procedure, a parametric sensitivity analysis was performed on the autonomic-cardiac regulation model to identify high-sensitivity model parameters whose changes exert significant impacts on the system outputs. Then, a parameter estimation problem formulated as a nonlinear optimization was solved to estimate high-sensitivity model parameters associated with autonomic-cardiac regulation, whereas the remaining parameters were fixed at their nominal values. The proposed approach can potentially monitor temporal changes in autonomic-cardiac regulation by identifying time-varying changes in the autonomic-cardiac model parameters, including sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities on the heart (modulating heart rate), and sympathetic nerve activity on the arterial tree (modulating total peripheral resistance). The proof-of-concept for the proposed approach was tested using a number of experimental data from the MIMIC database and the orthostatic hypotension tests. Our finding shows that the proposed approach is able to provide low-variance estimates of the autonomic-cardiac model parameters, which are consistent with their anticipated behaviors inferred from the physiologic knowledge. An extensive comparison study must be conducted in the future to establish the clinical validity of the proposed approach. PMID:24658244

  7. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Vitor E.; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C. F.; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: “auditory stimulation”, “autonomic nervous system”, “music” and “heart rate variability”. The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders. PMID:22948465

  8. Autonomic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure in Ambulatory Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hellyer, Jessica; Akingba, A. George; Rhee, Kyoung-Suk; Tan, Alex Y.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Shen, Changyu; Patel, Jheel; Fishbein, Michael C; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between cardiac autonomic nerve activity and blood pressure (BP) changes in ambulatory dogs is unclear. Objective To test the hypotheses that simultaneous termination of stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) and vagal nerve activity (VNA) predisposes to spontaneous orthostatic hypotension and that specific β2 adrenoceptor blockade prevents the hypotensive episodes. Methods We used a radiotransmitter to record SGNA, VNA and blood pressure (BP) in 8 ambulatory dogs. Video imaging was used to document postural changes. Results Out of these 8 dogs, 5 showed simultaneous sympathovagal discharges in which the minute by minute integrated SGNA correlated with integrated VNA in a linear pattern (“Group 1”). In these dogs abrupt termination of simultaneous SGNA-VNA at the time of postural changes (as documented by video imaging) was followed by abrupt (>20 mmHg over 4 beats) drops in BP. Dogs without simultaneous on/off firing (“Group 2”) did not have drastic drops in pressure. ICI 118,551 (ICI, a specific β2-blocker) infused at 3.1 µg/kg/hr for 7 days significantly increased BP from 126 (95% confidence interval, CI: 118 to 133) mmHg to 133 (95% CI 125 to141) mmHg (p=0.0001). The duration of hypotension (mean systolic BP < 100 mmHg) during baseline accounted for 7.1% of the recording. The percentage was reduced by ICI to 1.3% (p = 0.01). Conclusions Abrupt simultaneous termination of SGNA-VNA was observed at the time of orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory dogs. Selective β2 adrenoceptor blockade increased BP and reduced the duration of hypotension in this model. PMID:24275433

  9. Real-Time Assessment of Autonomic Nerve Activity During Adaptive Servo-Ventilation Support or Waon Therapy.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Komuro, Issei

    2016-07-27

    Adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy are recently developed non-pharmacological and noninvasive therapies for patients with heart failure refractory to guideline-directed medical therapy. These therapies decrease both preload and afterload, increase cardiac output, and appear to ameliorate autonomic nerve activity. However, the time course of autonomic nerve activity during these therapies remains unclear. We performed heart rate variability analysis using the MemCalc power spectral density method (MemCalc system; Suwa Trust Co, Tokyo) to assess autonomic nerve activity during adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy in two different cases and determined the time course of autonomic nerve activity during these therapies. During both therapies, we found a drastic increase in parasympathetic nerve activity and continuous suppression of sympathetic nerve activity. Heart rate variability analysis using the MemCalc method may be promising for the assessment of the efficacy of various treatments, including adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy, from the viewpoint of autonomic nerve activity. PMID:27385607

  10. Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Chen, Wei-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3−/− mice. Asic3−/− mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3−/− mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3−/− mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24804235

  11. Abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation in mice lacking ASIC3.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B J; Chen, Wei-Nan; Lin, Chao-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3(-/-) mice. Asic3(-/-) mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3(-/-) mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3(-/-) mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24804235

  12. The yin and yang of cardiac autonomic control: vago-sympathetic interactions revisited.

    PubMed

    Paton, J F R; Boscan, P; Pickering, A E; Nalivaiko, E

    2005-11-01

    We review the pattern of activity in the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves innervating the heart. Unlike the conventional textbook picture of reciprocal control of cardiac vagal and sympathetic nervous activity, as seen during a baroreceptor reflex, many other reflexes involve simultaneous co-activation of both autonomic limbs. Indeed, even at 'rest', the heart receives tonic drives from both sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac nerves. Autonomic co-activation occurs during peripheral chemoreceptor, diving, oculocardiac, somatic nociceptor reflex responses as well as being evoked from structures within the brain. It is suggested that simultaneous co-activation may lead to a more efficient cardiac function giving greater cardiac output than activation of the sympathetic limb alone; this permits both a longer time for ventricular filling and a stronger contraction of the myocardium. This may be important when pumping blood into a constricted vascular tree such as is the case during the diving response. We discuss that in some instances, high drive to the heart from both autonomic limbs may also be arrhythmogenic. PMID:16269319

  13. Cardiac Autonomic Control in Individuals With Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulopoulou, Styliani; Baynard, Tracy; Collier, Scott; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Figueroa, Arturo; Beets, Michael; Pitetti, Kenneth; Fernhall, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to compare cardiac autonomic control at rest between 50 individuals with Down syndrome and 24 control participants without disabilities. Resting autonomic function was assessed using analysis of heart rate variability. Participants with Down syndrome had reduced total heart rate variability, which indicates possible…

  14. Device-Based Approaches to Modulate the Autonomic Nervous System and Cardiac Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Hucker, William J; Singh, Jagmeet P; Parks, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in resting autonomic tone can be pathogenic in many cardiovascular disease states, such as heart failure and hypertension. Indeed, autonomic modulation by way of beta-blockade is a standard treatment of these conditions. There is a significant interest in developing non-pharmacological methods of autonomic modulation as well. For instance, clinical trials of vagal stimulation and spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of heart failure are currently underway, and renal denervation has been studied recently in the treatment of resistant hypertension. Notably, autonomic stimulation is also a potent modulator of cardiac electrophysiology. Manipulating the autonomic nervous system in studies designed to treat heart failure and hypertension have revealed that autonomic modulation may have a role in the treatment of common atrial and ventricular arrhythmias as well. Experimental data on vagal nerve and spinal cord stimulation suggest that each technique may reduce ventricular arrhythmias. Similarly, renal denervation may play a role in the treatment of atrial fibrillation, as well as in controlling refractory ventricular arrhythmias. In this review, we present the current experimental and clinical data on the effect of these therapeutic modalities on cardiac electrophysiology and their potential role in arrhythmia management. PMID:26835062

  15. Diabetes and cardiac autonomic neuropathy: Clinical manifestations, cardiovascular consequences, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Balcıoğlu, Akif Serhat; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a frequent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus with potentially life-threatening outcomes. CAN is caused by the impairment of the autonomic nerve fibers regulating heart rate, cardiac output, myocardial contractility, cardiac electrophysiology and blood vessel constriction and dilatation. It causes a wide range of cardiac disorders, including resting tachycardia, arrhythmias, intraoperative cardiovascular instability, asymptomatic myocardial ischemia and infarction and increased rate of mortality after myocardial infarction. Etiological factors associated with autonomic neuropathy include insufficient glycemic control, a longer period since the onset of diabetes, increased age, female sex and greater body mass index. The most commonly used methods for the diagnosis of CAN are based upon the assessment of heart rate variability (the physiological variation in the time interval between heartbeats), as it is one of the first findings in both clinically asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Clinical symptoms associated with CAN generally occur late in the disease process and include early fatigue and exhaustion during exercise, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, presyncope and syncope. Treatment is based on early diagnosis, life style changes, optimization of glycemic control and management of cardiovascular risk factors. Medical therapies, including aldose reductase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, prostoglandin analogs and alpha-lipoic acid, have been found to be effective in randomized controlled trials. The following article includes the epidemiology, clinical findings and cardiovascular consequences, diagnosis, and approaches to prevention and treatment of CAN. PMID:25685280

  16. (Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  17. Exercise improves cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Voulgari, Christina; Pagoni, Stamatina; Vinik, Aaron; Poirier, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity is a key element in the prevention and management of obesity and diabetes. Regular physical activity efficiently supports diet-induced weight loss, improves glycemic control, and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Furthermore, physical activity positively affects lipid profile, blood pressure, reduces the rate of cardiovascular events and associated mortality, and restores the quality of life in type 2 diabetes. However, recent studies have documented that a high percentage of the cardiovascular benefits of exercise cannot be attributed solely to enhanced cardiovascular risk factor modulation. Obesity in concert with diabetes is characterized by sympathetic overactivity and the progressive loss of cardiac parasympathetic influx. These are manifested via different pathogenetic mechanisms, including hyperinsulinemia, visceral obesity, subclinical inflammation and increased thrombosis. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an underestimated risk factor for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes. The same is true for the role of physical exercise in the restoration of the heart cardioprotective autonomic modulation in these individuals. This review addresses the interplay of cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes, and focuses on the importance of exercise in improving cardiac autonomic dysfunction. PMID:23084034

  18. Social stress, autonomic neural activation, and cardiac activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo, A; Koolhaas, J; De Boer, S; Musso, E; Stilli, D; Buwalda, B; Meerlo, P

    1999-11-01

    Animal models of social stress represent a useful experimental tool to investigate the relationship between psychological stress, autonomic neural activity and cardiovascular disease. This paper summarizes the results obtained in a series of experiments performed on rats and aimed at verifying whether social challenges produce specific modifications in the autonomic neural control of heart rate and whether these changes can be detrimental for cardiac electrical stability. Short-term electrocardiographic recordings were performed via radiotelemetry and the autonomic input to the heart evaluated by means of time-domain heart rate variability measures. Compared to other stress contexts, a social defeat experience produces a strong shift of autonomic balance toward sympathetic dominance, poorly antagonized by vagal rebound, and associated with the occurrence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias. These effects were particularly severe when a wild-type strain of rats was studied. The data also suggest that the cardiac autonomic responses produced by different types of social contexts (dominant-subordinate interaction, dominant-dominant confrontation, social defeat) are related to different degrees of emotional activation, which in turn are likely modulated by the social rank of the experimental animal and the opponent, the prior experience with the stressor, and the level of controllability over the stimulus. PMID:10580306

  19. Cardiac autonomic functions in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Murat; Kır, Mustafa; Makay, Balahan; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Bora, Elçin; Ünsal, Erbil; Ünal, Nurettin

    2016-05-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common inherited autoinflammatory disease in the world. The long-term effects of subclinical inflammation in FMF are not well recognized. Some studies have suggested that FMF is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction in adult FMF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiac autonomic functions in pediatric FMF patients by using several autonomic tests. Thirty-five patients with FMF and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data, disease-specific data, and orthostatic symptoms were recorded. In all participants, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), 24 h ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill exercise test, and head upright tilt-table (HUTT) test were performed. The heart rate recovery (HRR) indices of the two groups were similar. Also, chronotropic response was similar in both groups. The time-domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were similar in both groups, except mean RR (p = 0.024). Frequencies of ventricular and supraventricular ectopic stimuli were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in average QT and average corrected QT interval length, average QT interval dispersion, and average QT corrected dispersion. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the ratio of clinical dysautonomic reactions on HUTT. However, we observed a significantly higher rate of dysautonomic reactions on HUTT in patients with exertional leg pain than that in patients without (p = 0.013). When the fractal dimension of time curves were compared, FMF patients exhibited significantly lower diastolic blood pressure parameters than controls in response to HUTT. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in children with FMF is not prominent. Particularly, patients with exertional leg pain are more prone to have dysautonomic features

  20. Cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity are absent in familial dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia (Riley–Day syndrome) is an hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN type III), expressed at birth, that is associated with reduced pain and temperature sensibilities and absent baroreflexes, causing orthostatic hypotension as well as labile blood pressure that increases markedly during emotional excitement. Given the apparent absence of functional baroreceptor afferents, we tested the hypothesis that the normal cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are absent in patients with familial dysautonomia. Tungsten microelectrodes were inserted percutaneously into muscle or cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in 12 patients with familial dysautonomia. Spontaneous bursts of MSNA were absent in all patients, but in five patients we found evidence of tonically firing sympathetic neurones, with no cardiac rhythmicity, that increased their spontaneous discharge during emotional arousal but not during a manoeuvre that unloads the baroreceptors. Conversely, skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), recorded in four patients, appeared normal. We conclude that the loss of phasic bursts of MSNA and the loss of baroreflex modulation of muscle vasoconstrictor drive contributes to the poor control of blood pressure in familial dysautonomia, and that the increase in tonic firing of muscle vasoconstrictor neurones contributes to the increase in blood pressure during emotional excitement. PMID:23165765

  1. A novel quantitative method for diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy assessment in type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chon, Ki H; Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Siu, Kin L; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  2. A Novel Quantitative Method for Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Assessment in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F.; Siu, Kin L.; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  3. Evolutionary and comparative anatomical investigations of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in the African Cercopithecidae.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Akita, Keiichi; Sato, Kenji; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the general architecture and morphological variations of the autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) in the African Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys), and to discuss the evolutionary changes between this system in African/Asian Cercopithecidae and humans. A detailed macroscopic comparative morphological investigation of the ACNS was performed by examining the left and right sides of 11 African cercopithecid specimens, including some previously unreported species (Abyssinian colobus, Angola pied colobus, Savanna monkey, and lesser white-nosed guenon). The common characteristics of the ACNS in the African Cercopithecidae are described in detail. Consequently, homologies of the ACNS between Asian (macaques) and African Cercopithecidae, and differences between the Asian/African Cercopithecidae and humans, were found. In particular, differences in the sympathetic (cardiac) systems of the Cercopithecidae and humans were recognized, despite the similar morphology of the parasympathetic vagal (cardiac) system. These differences include the composition of the cervicothoracic ganglion, the lower positions of the middle cervical and cervicothoracic ganglia, and the narrow range for the origin of the cardiac nerves in the Cercopithecidae, compared with that in humans. In conclusion, these findings are considered with regard to the morphology of the last common ancestors of the Cercopithecidae. PMID:17591730

  4. Nitric oxide and the autonomic regulation of cardiac excitability. The G.L. Brown Prize Lecture.

    PubMed

    Paterson, D

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic imbalance and arrhythmia; Nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and the cholinergic modulation of cardiac excitability; Nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and the sympathetic modulation of cardiac excitability; Functional significance of nitric oxide in the autonomic regulation of cardiac excitability; Summary; References. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.1, 1-12. PMID:11429613

  5. Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID) syndrome following cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Dheeraj; Singla, Deepak; Singh, Jasveer; Jindal, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID) appears to be a unique syndrome following brain injury. It can echo many life-threatening conditions, making its early recognition and management a challenge for intensivists. A delay in early recognition and subsequent management may result in increased morbidity, which is preventable in affected patients. Herein, we report the case of a patient who was diagnosed with PAID syndrome following prolonged cardiac arrest, and discuss the pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management of this rare and under-recognised clinical entity. PMID:25189311

  6. Re-Innervation of the Bladder through End-to-Side Neurorrhaphy of Autonomic Nerve and Somatic Nerve in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wan-sheng; Dong, Chuan-jiang; Li, Shu-qiang; Kunwar, Kiran Jang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract End-to-side neurorrhaphy is widely used in the peripheral nervous system for nerve repair; however, the application of this technique has been limited to somatic nerves. The feasibility of nerve regeneration through end-to-side neurorrhaphy between autonomic and somatic nerves with different characteristics in the peripheral nervous system is still undetermined. In this study, rats were divided into three groups for different treatments (n=10 per group). In the end-to-side neurorrhaphy group, left L6 and S1 were transected in the dura, and the distal stump of L6 ventral root was sutured to the lateral face of L4 ventral root through end-to-side coaptation. In the no repair group, the rats did not undergo neurorrhaphy. In the control group, the left L6 dorsal root and S1 roots were transected, respectively, but the L6 ventral root was kept intact. After 16 weeks, the origin and mechanism of nerve regeneration was evaluated by retrograde double labeling technique as well as histological examination and intravesical pressure measurement. Retrograde double labeling indicated that the reconstructed reflex pathway was successfully established and the primary regeneration mechanism involved axon collateral sprouting. Morphological examination and intravesical pressure measurement indicated prominent nerve regeneration and successful re-innervation of the bladder in the neurorrhaphy group, compared with the “no repair” group (p<0.05). No significant changes were observed in the histology of the donor nerve and the bilateral extensor digitorum longus muscles in the neurorrhaphy group. Nerve regeneration may be achievable for nerve repair through end-to-side neurorrhaphy between autonomic and somatic nerves without apparent impairment of donor somatic nerve. PMID:22332710

  7. Cardiac autonomic function and oesophageal acid sensitivity in patients with non-cardiac chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Tougas, G; Spaziani, R; Hollerbach, S; Djuric, V; Pang, C; Upton, A; Fallen, E; Kamath, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Acid reflux can elicit non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP), possibly through altered visceral sensory or autonomic function. The interactions between symptoms, autonomic function, and acid exposure are poorly understood.
AIM—To examine autonomic function in NCCP patients during exposure to oesophageal acid infusion.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS—Autonomic activity was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (PSHRV), before and during oesophageal acidification (0.1 N HCl), in 28 NCCP patients (40.5 (10) years; 13 females) and in 10 matched healthy controls. Measured PSHRV indices included high frequency (HF) (0.15-0.5 Hz) and low frequency (LF) (0.06-0.15 Hz) power to assess vagal and sympathetic activity, respectively.
RESULTS—A total of 19/28 patients had angina-like symptoms elicited by acid. There were no significant manometric changes observed in either acid sensitive or insensitive patients. Acid sensitive patients had a higher baseline heart rate (82.9 (3.1) v 66.7 (3.5) beats/min; p<0.005) and lower baseline vagal activity (HF normalised area: 31.1 (1.9)% v 38.9 (2.3)%; p< 0.03) than acid insensitive patients. During acid infusion, vagal cardiac outflow increased (p<0.03) in acid sensitive but not in acid insensitive patients.
CONCLUSIONS—Patients with angina-like pain during acid infusion have decreased resting vagal activity. The symptoms elicited by perception of acid are further associated with a simultaneous increase in vagal activity in keeping with a vagally mediated pseudoaffective response.


Keywords: reflux disease; non-cardiac chest pain; acid reflux; autonomic nervous system; vagal response; sympathetic activity; heart rate variability; power spectrum analysis PMID:11600476

  8. Autonomic, locomotor and cardiac abnormalities in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy: targeting the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Rasna; Chapleau, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    New Findings What is the topic of this review? This symposium report summarizes autonomic, cardiac and skeletal muscle abnormalities in sarcoglycan-δ-deficient mice (Sgcd-/-), a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, with emphasis on the roles of autonomic dysregulation and activation of the renin-angiotensin system at a young age. What advances does it highlight? The contributions of the autonomic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy are highlighted. Results demonstrate that autonomic dysregulation precedes and predicts later development of cardiac dysfunction in Sgcd-/- mice and that treatment of young Sgcd-/- mice with the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist losartan or with angiotensin-(1-7) abrogates the autonomic dysregulation, attenuates skeletal muscle pathology and increases spontaneous locomotor activity. Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic muscle diseases characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy. Mutations in sarcoglycans and other subunits of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex cause muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy in animals and humans. Aberrant autonomic signalling is recognized in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. We hypothesized that activation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to skeletal muscle and autonomic dysfunction in mice deficient in the sarcoglycan-δ (Sgcd) gene at a young age and that this early autonomic dysfunction contributes to the later development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and increased mortality. We demonstrated that young Sgcd-/- mice exhibit histopathological features of skeletal muscle dystrophy, decreased locomotor activity and severe autonomic dysregulation, but normal LV function. Autonomic regulation continued to deteriorate in Sgcd-/- mice with age and was accompanied by LV dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy at older ages. Autonomic dysregulation at a young age predicted later development of

  9. Rat Whisker Movement after Facial Nerve Lesion: Evidence for Autonomic Contraction of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, James T.; Sheu, Shu-Hsien; Hohman, Marc H.; Knox, Christopher J.; Weinberg, Julie S.; Kleiss, Ingrid J.; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic denervation was from autonomic, cholinergic axons traveling within the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (ION). Rats underwent unilateral facial nerve transection with repair (N=7) or resection without repair (N=11). Post-operative whisking amplitude was measured weekly across 10 weeks, and during intraoperative stimulation of the ION and facial nerves at ≥18 weeks. Whisking was also measured after subsequent ION transection (N=6) or pharmacologic blocking of the autonomic ganglia using hexamethonium (N=3), and after snout cooling intended to elicit a vasodilation reflex (N=3). Whisking recovered more quickly and with greater amplitude in rats that underwent facial nerve repair compared to resection (P<0.05), but individual rats overlapped in whisking amplitude across both groups. In the resected rats, non-facial-nerve mediated whisking was elicited by electrical stimulation of the ION, temporarily diminished following hexamethonium injection, abolished by transection of the ION, and rapidly and significantly (P<0.05) increased by snout cooling. Moreover, fibrillation-related whisker movements decreased in all rats during the initial recovery period (indicative of reinnervation), but re-appeared in the resected rats after undergoing ION transection (indicative of motor denervation). Cholinergic, parasympathetic axons traveling within the ION innervate whisker pad vasculature, and immunohistochemistry for vasoactive intestinal peptide revealed these axons branching extensively over whisker pad muscles and contacting neuromuscular junctions after facial nerve resection. This study provides the first behavioral and anatomical evidence of spontaneous autonomic innervation

  10. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report, September 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  11. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in obese normotensive children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Isabelle Magalhães G.; Miranda, Josiane Aparecida; Mira, Pedro Augusto C.; Lanna, Carla Marcia M.; Lima, Jorge Roberto P.; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that obese normotensive children and adolescents present impaired cardiac autonomic control compared to non-obese normotensive ones. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 66 children and adolescents were divided into the following groups: Obese (n=31, 12±3 years old) and Non-Obese (n=35, 13±3 years old). Obesity was defined as body mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age and gender. Blood pressure was measured by oscillometric method after 15 minutes of rest in supine position. The heart rate was continuously registered during ten minutes in the supine position with spontaneous breathing. The cardiac autonomic control was assessed by heart rate variability, which was calculated from the five-minute minor variance of the signal. The derivations were the index that indicates the proportion of the number of times in which normal adjacent R-R intervals present differences >50 miliseconds (pNN50), for the time domain, and, for the spectral analysis, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, besides the low and high frequencies ratio (LF/HF). The results were expressed as mean±standard deviation and compared by Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (116±14 versus 114±13mmHg, p=0.693) and diastolic blood pressure (59±8 versus 60±11mmHg, p=0.458) were similar between the Obese and Non-Obese groups. The pNN50 index (29±21 versus 43±23, p=0.015) and HF band (54±20 versus 64±14 normalized units - n.u., p=0.023) were lower in the Obese Group. The LF band (46±20 versus 36±14 n.u., p=0.023) and LF/HF ratio (1.3±1.6 versus 0.7±0.4, p=0.044) were higher in Obese Group. CONCLUSIONS: Obese normotensive children and adolescents present impairment of cardiac autonomic control. PMID:25119757

  12. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luis; Oliveira, Jose; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Rebelo, Antonio; Brito, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22) and a control group (CG; n = 25). The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results: The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05). However, the FG performed better (P < 0.05) in Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (1394 ± 558 vs. 778 ± 408 m) and 15-m sprint test (3.06 ± 0.17 vs. 3.20 ± 0.23 s). Also, the FG presented enhanced autonomic function. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05) between groups for low frequency normalized units (38.0 ± 15.2 vs. 47.3 ± 14.2 n.u (normalized units)), high frequency normalized units (62.1 ± 15.2 vs. 52.8 ± 14.2 n.u.), and LF:HF ratio (0.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 ms2). Conclusions: Children engaged with regular football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest. PMID:26448848

  13. Cardiac autonomic impairment and chronotropic incompetence in fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to gather knowledge on the cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) in response to exercise and to investigate whether this population suffers from chronotropic incompetence (CI). Methods Fourteen women with FM (age: 46 ± 3 years; body mass index (BMI): 26.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2) and 14 gender-, BMI- (25.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2), and age-matched (age: 41 ± 4 years) healthy individuals (CTRL) took part in this cross-sectional study. A treadmill cardiorespiratory test was performed and heart-rate (HR) response during exercise was evaluated by the chronotropic reserve. HR recovery (deltaHRR) was defined as the difference between HR at peak exercise and at both first (deltaHRR1) and second (deltaHRR2) minutes after the exercise test. Results FM patients presented lower maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) when compared with healthy subjects (22 ± 1 versus CTRL: 32 ± 2 mL/kg/minute, respectively; P < 0.001). Additionally, FM patients presented lower chronotropic reserve (72.5 ± 5 versus CTRL: 106.1 ± 6, P < 0.001), deltaHRR1 (24.5 ± 3 versus CTRL: 32.6 ± 2, P = 0.059) and deltaHRR2 (34.3 ± 4 versus CTRL: 50.8 ± 3, P = 0.002) than their healthy peers. The prevalence of CI was 57.1% among patients with FM. Conclusions Patients with FM who undertook a graded exercise test may present CI and delayed HR recovery, both being indicative of cardiac autonomic impairment and higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. PMID:22098761

  14. Cardiac Autonomic Function in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Kung, Woon-Man; Chou, Yi-Sheng; Wang, Yao-Chin; Tai, Hsu-Chih; Wei, James Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involing spine and enthesis. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and the association between ANS and the functional status or disease activity in AS. The study included 42 AS patients, all fulfilling the modified New York criteria. All the patients are totally symptom free for ANS involvement and had normal neurological findings. These AS patients and 230 healthy volunteers receive analysis of 5 minutes heart rate variability (HRV) in lying posture. In addition, disease activity and functional status of these AS patients are assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G). Both groups were age and sex-matched. Although the HRV analysis indicates that the peaks of total power (TP, 0–0.5 Hz) and high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz) are similar in both groups, the activities of low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz), LF in normalized units (LF%), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) in AS patients are obviously lower than healthy controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein revealed negative relationship with HF. The AS patients without peripheral joint disease have higher LF, TP, variance, LF%, and HF than the patients with peripheral joint disease. The AS patients without uvetis have higher HF than the patients with uvetis. The total scores of BASDI, BASFI, and BAS-G do not show any association to HRV parameters. AS patients have significantly abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation. This is closely related with some inflammatory activities. Reduced autonomic function may be one of the factors of high cardiovascular risk in AS patients. PMID:27227940

  15. Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy: insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Stables, Catherine L; Glasser, Rebecca L; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a relatively common and often devastating complication of diabetes. The major clinical signs are tachycardia, exercise intolerance, and orthostatic hypotension, but the most severe aspects of this complication are high rates of cardiac events and mortality. One of the earliest manifestations of CAN is reduced heart rate variability, and detection of this, along with abnormal results in postural blood pressure testing and/or the Valsalva maneuver, are central to diagnosis of the disease. The treatment options for CAN, beyond glycemic control, are extremely limited and lack evidence of efficacy. The underlying molecular mechanisms are also poorly understood. Thus, CAN is associated with a poor prognosis and there is a compelling need for research to understand, prevent, and reverse CAN. In this review of the literature we examine the use and usefulness of animal models of CAN in diabetes. Compared to other diabetic complications, the number of animal studies of CAN is very low. The published studies range across a variety of species, methods of inducing diabetes, and timescales examined, leading to high variability in study outcomes. The lack of well-characterized animal models makes it difficult to judge the relevance of these models to the human disease. One major advantage of animal studies is the ability to probe underlying molecular mechanisms, and the limited numbers of mechanistic studies conducted to date are outlined. Thus, while animal models of CAN in diabetes are crucial to better understanding and development of therapies, they are currently under-used. PMID:23562143

  16. Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation in obese and eutrophic children

    PubMed Central

    Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Júnior, Ismael Forte Freitas; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity causes alterations in cardiac autonomic function. However, there are scarce and conflicting data on this function with regard to heart rate variability in obese children. OBJECTIVE: To compare the autonomic function of obese and eutrophic children by analyzing heart rate variability. METHODS: One hundred twenty-one children (57 male and 64 female) aged 8 to 12 years were distributed into two groups based on nutritional status [obese (n  =  56) and eutrophic (ideal weight range; n  =  65) according to the body mass index reference for gender and age]. For the analysis of heart rate variability, heart rates were recorded beat by beat as the children rested in the dorsal (prone) position for 20 minutes. Heart rate variability analysis was carried out using linear approaches in the domains of frequency and time. Either Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare variables between groups. Statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, SD1, SD2, LF and HF indices in milliseconds squared were lower among the obese children when compared to the eutrophic group. There were no alterations in the SD1/SD2 ratio, LF/HF ratio, LF index or HF index in normalized units. There was a significant difference between groups in the RR interval (R-to-R EKG interval). CONCLUSION: The obese children exhibited modifications in heart rate variability, characterized by a reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. These findings stress the need for the early holistic care of obese children to avoid future complications. PMID:20835556

  17. Obesity is associated with impaired cardiac autonomic modulation in children

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Colón, Sol M.; Bixler, Edward O.; Li, Xian; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Liao, Duanping

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional association between measurements of obesity and subclinical impairment of cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in a population-based sample of children. Methods Data from 616 grade K-5 children randomly selected from Central Pennsylvania were utilized. Obesity was defined using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) age and sex specific cut off criteria and classified as normal weight, overweight, and obese. CAM was measured by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of beat-to-beat RR intervals, including time domain measures i.e., the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN), the square root of the mean of the sum of squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), and mean heart rate (HR); and frequency domain measures i.e., high frequency power (HF), low frequency power (LF), and LF/HF ratio. Results The prevalence of obesity and overweight in children was 12.3%, and 16.5%, respectively. Age, race, sex, and sleep disorder breathing (SDB) adjusted means (SE) of SDNN were 98(1.24), 90.2(2.58), and 81.9(3.03) milliseconds (ms) in normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, respectively; and that for (log) HF were 6.83(0.04), 6.56(0.08), and 6.35(0.09) ms2, respectively. Comparing the magnitude of effects from BMI, weight, and height percentiles, and waist circumference on HRV indices revealed that body weight was the strongest correlate of HRV indices. Conclusion Childhood obesity is significantly associated with lower HRV, indicative of sympathetic overflow unopposed by parasympathetic modulation. These findings support the need to target childhood-obesity, before traditional “high risk age” for cardiac events. PMID:20919806

  18. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of −13.6% (95% confidence interval, −17.2% to −9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [μg/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 μg/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment. PMID:21172795

  19. Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy: Do we have any treatment perspectives?

    PubMed Central

    Serhiyenko, Victoria A; Serhiyenko, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite its relationship to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and its association with multiple symptoms and impairments, the significance of CAN has not been fully appreciated. CAN among DM patients is characterized review the latest evidence and own data regarding the treatment and the treatment perspectives for diabetic CAN. Lifestyle modification, intensive glycemic control might prevent development or progression of CAN. Pathogenetic treatment of CAN includes: balanced diet and physical activity; optimization of glycemic control; treatment of dyslipoproteinemia; correction of metabolic abnormalities in myocardium; prevention and treatment of thrombosis; use of aldose reductase inhibitors; dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), acetyl-L-carnitine, antioxidants, first of all α-lipoic acid (α-LA), use of long-chain ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs), vasodilators, fat-soluble vitamin B1, aminoguanidine; substitutive therapy of growth factors, in severe cases-treatment of orthostatic hypotension. The promising methods include research and use of tools that increase blood flow through the vasa vasorum, including prostacyclin analogues, thromboxane A2 blockers and drugs that contribute into strengthening and/or normalization of Na+, K+-ATPase (phosphodiesterase inhibitor), α-LA, DGLA, ω-3 PUFAs, and the simultaneous prescription of α-LA, ω-3 PUFA and DGLA. PMID:25789106

  20. Assesment of Heart Rate Variability As A Measure of Cardiac Autonomic Status in Psychiatric Patients Exposed to Chemical Irritants

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Supriya; Rastogi, Rajesh; Gupta, Manushree

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose However, little is known about the cardiac autonomic activity due to chemicals in psychiatric patients. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of chemical irritants on the ANS of the person and measure that in the form of Heart Rate Variability (HRV), a noninvasive method to estimate the cardiac autonomic activity. The autonomic nervous system can significantly compromised by use of chemical irritants. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted in which 33 patients (mean age: 29.94 years) of depression/anxiety were compared with 37 age matched controls (mean age: 28.10). The patients who were diagnosed as either depressed or anxious by the psychiatry were included in the study group by random sampling. Out of these 8 patients gave positive history of odour use. Thirty seven age matched healthy persons were taken as controls. Grading of patients was done according to DSMV-IV criteria and short- term HRV was recorded. Five minute HRV recording was done and time domain and frequency domain indices of HRV were assessed using RMS Polyearite D. The result in case and control groups was compared. Results We have reported a poor HRV compared to control group in patients of depression/anxiety as reflected by NN50 values (p< 0.05). Although not significant the trend shows a better HRV control in almost all the time domain and frequency domain parameters in controls compared to cases. Regarding the history of use of chemical irritants the trend showed a poor HRV control in these cases compared to the patients who did not give any such history. Conclusion Our results suggest that impaired cardiac autonomic nerve function characterized by sympathetic over activity may occur in depression/phobic patients. The study also proves a poor HRV in psychiatric subjects with history of use of odoriferous substances. PMID:26266195

  1. Autonomic nerves terminating on microvessels in the pineal organs of various submammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Frank, C L; Czirok, Szabina J; Vincze, Csilla; Rácz, G; Szél, A; Vígh, B

    2005-01-01

    In earlier works we have found that in the mammalian pineal organ, a part of autonomic nerves--generally thought to mediate light information from the retina--form vasomotor endings on smooth muscle cells of vessels. We supposed that they serve the vascular support for circadian and circannual periodic changes in the metabolic activity of the pineal tissue. In the present work, we investigated whether peripheral nerves present in the photoreceptive pineal organs of submammalians form similar terminals on microvessels. In the cyclostome, fish, amphibian, reptile and bird species investigated, autonomic nerves accompany vessels entering the arachnoidal capsule and interfollicular meningeal septa of the pineal organ. The autonomic nerves do not enter the pineal tissue proper but remain in the perivasal meningeal septa isolated by basal lamina. They are composed of unmyelinated and myelinated fibers and form terminals around arterioles, veins and capillaries. The terminals contain synaptic and granular vesicles. Comparing various vertebrates, more perivasal terminals were found in reptiles and birds than in the cyclostome, fish and amphibian pineal organs. Earlier, autonomic nerves of the pineal organs were predominantly investigated in connection with the innervation of pineal tissue. The perivasal terminals found in various submammalians show that a part of the pineal autonomic fibers are vasomotoric in nature, but the vasosensor function of some fibers cannot be excluded. We suppose that the vasomotor regulation of the pineal microvessels in the photosensory submamalian pineal--like in mammals--may serve the vascular support for circadian and circannual periodic changes in the metabolic activity of the pineal tissue. The higher number of perivasal terminals in reptiles and birds may correspond to the higher metabolic activity of the tissues in more differentiated species. PMID:15813212

  2. Effects of short-term food deprivation on interoceptive awareness, feelings and autonomic cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Beate M; Herbert, Cornelia; Pollatos, Olga; Weimer, Katja; Enck, Paul; Sauer, Helene; Zipfel, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The perception of internal bodily signals (interoception) plays a relevant role for emotion processing and feelings. This study investigated changes of interoceptive awareness and cardiac autonomic activity induced by short-term food deprivation and its relationship to hunger and affective experience. 20 healthy women were exposed to 24h of food deprivation in a controlled setting. Interoceptive awareness was assessed by using a heartbeat tracking task. Felt hunger, cardiac autonomic activity, mood and subjective appraisal of interoceptive sensations were assessed before and after fasting. Results show that short-term fasting intensifies interoceptive awareness, not restricted to food cues, via changes of autonomic cardiac and/or cardiodynamic activity. The increase of interoceptive awareness was positively related to felt hunger. Additionally, the results demonstrate the role of cardiac vagal activity as a potential index of emotion related self-regulation, for hunger, mood and the affective appraisal of interoceptive signals during acute fasting. PMID:21958594

  3. Cardiac autonomic responses after resistance exercise in treated hypertensive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Trevizani, Gabriela A.; Peçanha, Tiago; Nasario-Junior, Olivassé; Vianna, Jeferson M.; Silva, Lilian P.; Nadal, Jurandir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and to compare heart rate variability (HRV) after resistance exercise (RE) in treated hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Nine hypertensive men [HT: 58.0 ± 7.7 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 133.6 ± 6.5 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 87.3 ± 8.1 mmHg; under antihypertensive treatment] and 11 normotensive men (NT: 57.1 ± 6.0 years, SBP = 127 ± 8.5 mmHg, DBP = 82.7 ± 5.5 mmHg) performed a single session of RE (2 sets of 15–20 repetitions, 50% of 1 RM, 120 s interval between sets/exercise) for the following exercises: leg extension, leg press, leg curl, bench press, seated row, triceps push-down, seated calf flexion, seated arm curl. HRV was assessed at resting and during 10 min of recovery period by calculating time (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domain (LF, HF, LF/HF) indices. Mean values of HRV indices were reduced in the post-exercise period compared to the resting period (HT: lnHF: 4.7 ± 1.4 vs. 2.4 ± 1.2 ms2; NT: lnHF: 4.8 ± 1.5 vs. 2.2 ± 1.1 ms2, p < 0.01). However, there was no group vs. time interaction in this response (p = 0.8). The results indicate that HRV is equally suppressed after RE in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. These findings suggest that a single session of RE does not bring additional cardiac autonomic stress to treated hypertensive subjects. PMID:26441677

  4. Human autonomic rhythms: vagal cardiac mechanisms in tetraplegic subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J.; Brown, T. E.; Beightol, L. A.; Ha, C. Y.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    1. We studied eight young men (age range: 20-37 years) with chronic, clinically complete high cervical spinal cord injuries and ten age-matched healthy men to determine how interruption of connections between the central nervous system and spinal sympathetic motoneurones affects autonomic cardiovascular control. 2. Baseline diastolic pressures and R-R intervals (heart periods) were similar in the two groups. Slopes of R-R interval responses to brief neck pressure changes were significantly lower in tetraplegic than in healthy subjects, but slopes of R-R interval responses to steady-state arterial pressure reductions and increases were comparable. Plasma noradrenaline levels did not change significantly during steady-state arterial pressure reductions in tetraplegic patients, but rose sharply in healthy subjects. The range of arterial pressure and R-R interval responses to vasoactive drugs (nitroprusside and phenylephrine) was significantly greater in tetraplegic than healthy subjects. 3. Resting R-R interval spectral power at respiratory and low frequencies was similar in the two groups. During infusions of vasoactive drugs, low-frequency R-R interval spectral power was directly proportional to arterial pressure in tetraplegic patients, but was unrelated to arterial pressure in healthy subjects. Vagolytic doses of atropine nearly abolished both low- and respiratory-frequency R-R interval spectral power in both groups. 4. Our conclusions are as follows. First, since tetraplegic patients have significant levels of low-frequency arterial pressure and R-R interval spectral power, human Mayer arterial pressure waves may result from mechanisms that do not involve stimulation of spinal sympathetic motoneurones by brainstem neurones. Second, since in tetraplegic patients, low-frequency R-R interval spectral power is proportional to arterial pressure, it is likely to be mediated by a baroreflex mechanism. Third, since low-frequency R-R interval rhythms were nearly abolished

  5. Left phrenic nerve anatomy relative to the coronary venous system: Implications for phrenic nerve stimulation during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Julianne H; Goff, Ryan P; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize anatomy of the human phrenic nerve in relation to the coronary venous system, to reduce undesired phrenic nerve stimulation during left-sided lead implantations. We obtained CT scans while injecting contrast into coronary veins of 15 perfusion-fixed human heart-lung blocs. A radiopaque wire was glued to the phrenic nerve under CT, then we created three-dimensional models of anatomy and measured anatomical parameters. The left phrenic nerve typically coursed over the basal region of the anterior interventricular vein, mid region of left marginal veins, and apical region of inferior and middle cardiac veins. There was large variation associated with the average angle between nerve and veins. Average angle across all coronary sinus tributaries was fairly consistent (101.3°-111.1°). The phrenic nerve coursed closest to the middle cardiac vein and left marginal veins. The phrenic nerve overlapped a left marginal vein in >50% of specimens. PMID:25851773

  6. Artifacts produced during electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve in cats. [autonomic nervous system components of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    Evidence is presented to indicate that evoked potentials in the recurrent laryngeal, the cervical sympathetic, and the phrenic nerve, commonly reported as being elicited by vestibular nerve stimulation, may be due to stimulation of structures other than the vestibular nerve. Experiments carried out in decerebrated cats indicated that stimulation of the petrous bone and not that of the vestibular nerve is responsible for the genesis of evoked potentials in the recurrent laryngeal and the cervical sympathetic nerves. The phrenic response to electrical stimulation applied through bipolar straight electrodes appears to be the result of stimulation of the facial nerve in the facial canal by current spread along the petrous bone, since stimulation of the suspended facial nerve evoked potentials only in the phrenic nerve and not in the recurrent laryngeal nerve. These findings indicate that autonomic components of motion sickness represent the secondary reactions and not the primary responses to vestibular stimulation.

  7. Alterations in the ultrastructure of cardiac autonomic nervous system triggered by crotoxin from rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus cumanensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Miguelina; Scannone, Héctor; Finol, Héctor J; Pineda, Maria E; Fernández, Irma; Vargas, Alba M; Girón, María E; Aguilar, Irma; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2007-10-01

    This study explored the toxic effects of crotoxin isolated from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom on the ultrastructure of mice cardiac autonomic nervous system. Mice were intravenously injected with saline (control group) and crotoxin diluted in saline venom (study group) at a dose of 0.107 mg/kg mouse body weight. Samples from the inter-ventricular septum were prepared for electron microscopy after 6 h (G1), 12 h (G2), 24 h (G3) and 48 h (G4). The G1 group showed some cardiomyocyte with pleomorphic mitochondria. Capillary swollen walls, nerve cholinergic endings with depleted acetylcholine vesicles in their interior and other depletions were observed. A space completely lacking in contractile elements was noticed. The G2 group demonstrated a myelinic figure, a subsarcolemic region with few myofibrils and nervous cholinergic terminal with scarce vacuoles in their interior. The G3 group demonstrated a structure with a depleted axonic terminal, mitochondrias varying in size and enhanced electron density. In addition, muscular fibers with myofibrillar structure disorganization, a depleted nervous structure surrounded by a Schwann cell along with an abundance of natriuretic peptides, were seen. An amyelinic terminal with depleted Schwann cell and with scarce vesicles was also observed. Finally, axonic lysis with autophagic vacuoles in their interior and condensed mitochondria was observed in the G4 group. This work describes the first report of ultrastructural damage caused by crotoxin on mice cardiac autonomic nervous system. PMID:17616380

  8. Post cardiac surgery phrenic nerve palsy in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Serraf, A; Planche, C; Lacour Gayet, F; Bruniaux, J; Nottin, R; Binet, J P

    1990-01-01

    From January 1978 to December 1988, 109 phrenic nerve paralyses (PNP) occurred in a total of 9149 cardiac operations performed in a population of patients younger than 15 years old (1.2%) whose age varied from 1 day to 15 years old and mean weight was 11.3 +/- 8.7 kg. PNP was diagnosed in 43 patients after closed procedures (1.2% of 3509 procedures) and in 66 patients after open heart operations (1.2% of 5640 operations). PNP was right sided in 49 cases and left sided in 60 cases. Open heart operations that predisposed to PNP were those which needed harvesting of autologous pericardium (P less than 0.0001) and wide exposure of the great vessels. The modified right Blalock-Taussig shunt was the main cause of PNP in closed procedures (P less than 0.02). Small children tolerated PNP less well. They needed longer ventilatory support (P less than 0.0005) and developed more respiratory complications. Seventeen children underwent plication of the affected hemidiaphragm and could be subsequently extubated. It is concluded that for prevention of PNP, a high level of attention should be exercised in neonates and small children, particularly when pericardium is harvested or when exposure needs extensive dissection of the great vessels and thymus resection, or at reoperation. We also prefer to avoid the use of iced slush lavage. PNP, when symptomatic, is best managed by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ventilation. Diaphragmatic plication is recommended when after 2-3 weeks there is no recovery of diaphragmatic function or when there are troublesome respiratory complications. PMID:2171593

  9. Motor imagery muscle contraction strength influences spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Bunno, Yoshibumi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Iwatsuki, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in spinal motor neuron excitability and autonomic nervous system activity during motor imagery of isometric thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). [Methods] The F-waves and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio were recorded at rest, during motor imagery, and post-trial. For motor imagery trials, subjects were instructed to imagine thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% MVC while holding the sensor of a pinch meter for 5 min. [Results] The F-waves and LF/HF ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly increased compared with those at rest, whereas those during motor imagery at 10% MVC were not significantly different from those at rest. The relative values of the F/M amplitude ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly higher than those at 10% MVC. The relative values of persistence and the LF/HF ratio during motor imagery were similar during motor imagery at the two muscle contraction strengths. [Conclusion] Motor imagery can increase the spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. Motor imagery at 50% MVC may be more effective than motor imagery at 10% MVC. PMID:26834354

  10. [Drug with a high metabolic activity, cocarnit, in the treatment of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Popov, S V; Melekhovets', O K; Demikhova, N V; Vynnychenko, L B

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes is formed in the absence of atherosclerotic changes as a consequence of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in the early stages of diabetes. Progression of autonomic cardiac neuropathy in cardio-vascular type is associated with the violation of energy supply of cells, protein synthesis, electrolyte exchange, the exchange of trace elements, oxidation reduction processes, oxygen-transport function of blood, so that metabolic therapy is carried out to optimize the processes of formation and energy costs. The drug cocarnit activates processes of aerobic oxidation of glucose, as well as providing regulatory influence on the oxidation of fatty acids. Applying of cocarnit in complex therapy in patients with diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy found improvement of left ventricular diastolic function, and positive dynamics in the efferent activity balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart rate variability, which provides the regression of clinical symptoms. PMID:23356142

  11. Olfactory stimulatory with grapefruit and lavender oils change autonomic nerve activity and physiological function.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuya; Niijima, Akira; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the effects of olfactory stimulation with grapefruit and lavender oils on autonomic nerve activity and physiological function. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of grapefruit oil (GFO) increases the activity of sympathetic nerves that innervate white and brown adipose tissues, the adrenal glands, and the kidneys, decreases the activity of the gastric vagal nerve in rats and mice. This results in an increase in lipolysis, thermogenesis, and blood pressure, and a decrease in food intake. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of lavender oil (LVO) elicits the opposite changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. Olfactory stimulation with scent of limonene, a component of GFO, and linalool, a component of LVO, has similar effects to stimulation with GFO and LVO, respectively. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, abolishes all GFO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables, and the hitstamine H3-receptor antagonist, thioperamide, eliminates all LVO-induced changes. Lesions to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and anosmic treatment with ZnSO4 also abolish all GFO- and LVO-induced changes. These findings indicate that limonene and linalool might be the active substances in GFO and LVO, and suggest that the suprachiasmatic nucleus and histamine are involved in mediating the GFO- and LVO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. PMID:25002406

  12. Safety of nerve conduction studies in patients with implanted cardiac devices.

    PubMed

    Schoeck, Andreas P; Mellion, Michelle L; Gilchrist, James M; Christian, Fredric V

    2007-04-01

    Patients with implanted cardiac devices and their physicians may defer important electrodiagnostic testing because of anxiety about potential negative effects on the device. To determine the safety of routine nerve conduction studies (NCS) in this population, 10 patients with permanent dual-chamber pacemakers of various types and five patients with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICD) underwent nerve stimulation at sites commonly used during NCS. The implanted cardiac device was interrogated before and after the study and there was continuous monitoring of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and atrial and ventricular electrograms. Electrical impulses generated during routine NCS were never detected by the sensing amplifier and did not affect the programmed settings of the implanted cardiac device. We conclude that routine NCS is safe in patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers with bipolar sensing configurations and defibrillators. PMID:17094099

  13. Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Sprouting and Susceptibility to Ventricular Arrhythmias after Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Yi; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmogenesis is thought to be a common cause of sudden cardiac death following myocardial infarction (MI). Nerve remodeling as a result of MI is known to be an important genesis of life-threatening arrhythmias. It is hypothesized that neural modulation might serve as a therapeutic option of malignant arrhythmias. In fact, left stellectomy or β-blocker therapy is shown to be effective in the prevention of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and sudden cardiac death (SCD) after MI both in patients and in animal models. Results from decades of research already evidenced a positive relationship between abnormal nerve density and ventricular arrhythmias after MI. In this review, we summarized the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac sympathetic rejuvenation and mechanisms related to sympathetic hyperinnervation and arrhythmogenesis after MI and analyzed the potential therapeutic implications of nerve sprouting modification for ventricular arrhythmias and SCD control. PMID:26793403

  14. Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Sprouting and Susceptibility to Ventricular Arrhythmias after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Yi; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmogenesis is thought to be a common cause of sudden cardiac death following myocardial infarction (MI). Nerve remodeling as a result of MI is known to be an important genesis of life-threatening arrhythmias. It is hypothesized that neural modulation might serve as a therapeutic option of malignant arrhythmias. In fact, left stellectomy or β-blocker therapy is shown to be effective in the prevention of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and sudden cardiac death (SCD) after MI both in patients and in animal models. Results from decades of research already evidenced a positive relationship between abnormal nerve density and ventricular arrhythmias after MI. In this review, we summarized the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac sympathetic rejuvenation and mechanisms related to sympathetic hyperinnervation and arrhythmogenesis after MI and analyzed the potential therapeutic implications of nerve sprouting modification for ventricular arrhythmias and SCD control. PMID:26793403

  15. Modulation of Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Ischemic Stroke following Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jaideep, Sriranjini Sitaram; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Sudhakara, D.; Talakad, Sathyaprabha N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in stroke has implications on morbidity and mortality. Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine) describes stroke as pakshaghata. We intended to study the effect of Ayurveda therapies on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Methods. Fifty patients of ischemic stroke (middle cerebral artery territory) (mean age 39.26 ± 9.88 years; male 43, female 7) were recruited within one month of ictus. All patients received standard allopathic medications as advised by neurologist. In addition, patients were randomized to receive physiotherapy (Group I) or Ayurveda treatment (Group II) for 14 days. Continuous electrocardiogram and finger arterial pressure were recorded for 15 min before and after treatments and analyzed offline to obtain heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Results were analysed by RMANOVA. Results. Patients in Group II showed statistically significant improvement in cardiac autonomic parameters. The standard deviation of normal to normal intervals,and total and low frequency powers were significantly enhanced (F = 8.16, P = 0.007, F = 9.73, P = 0.004, F = 13.51, and P = 0.001, resp.). The BRS too increased following the treatment period (F = 10.129, P = 0.004). Conclusions. The current study is the first to report a positive modulation of cardiac autonomic activity after adjuvant Ayurveda treatment in ischemic stroke. Further long term studies are warranted. PMID:24971149

  16. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  17. Teaching Cardiac Autonomic Function Dynamics Employing the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) Maneuver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junqueira, Luiz Fernando, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, a brief history of the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) maneuver is outlined, followed by an explanation on the use of this approach for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic function based on underlying heart rate changes. The most important methodological and interpretative aspects of the Valsalva-Weber maneuver are critically updated,…

  18. DAILY VARIATION OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION AND POOR CARDIAC AUTONOMIC CONTROL IN THE ELDERLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter air pollution (PM) has been related to cardiovascular disease mortality in a number of recent studies. The pathophysiologic mechanisms for this association are under study. Low heart rate variability, a marker of poor cardiac autonomic control, is associated wi...

  19. Dysregulation of cardiac autonomic function in offspring exposed to alcohol during antenatal period.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Sajish; Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Murthy, Pratima; Raju, Trichur R; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N

    2015-10-01

    Several lines of investigations have shown the deleterious effect of an alcohol on the autonomic nervous system. Recent evidence shows that infants exposed to alcohol during the antenatal period displayed aberration in the cardiac autonomic function after the birth. However, there is dearth of literature on the long term influence of antenatal alcohol exposure. In this study we measured the cardiac autonomic functions in children who were exposed to alcohol in the antenatal period and compared them with non-exposed control children. Twenty eight children (age: 9±2 years) in the antenatal alcohol exposed group and age, gender matched 30 non exposed healthy volunteers as a control (age: 10±2 years) were recruited. Electrocardiogram was recorded in all subjects at rest in the supine position. HRV parameters were analyzed in the time and frequency domains using customized software. The average heart rate was similar between both the groups. There was no statistical significant difference in the time domain measures between the groups. However, the low frequency power, normalized units and low frequency to high frequency ratio were significantly higher in the antenatal alcohol exposed children compared to the controls. This suggests sympathetic predominance in children who were exposed to alcohol in the antenatal period. In this study we provide evidence for the deleterious long lasting effect of antenatal exposure of alcohol on cardiac autonomic regulation. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the causal relationship between antenatal alcohol exposure and autonomic dysregulation. PMID:26211431

  20. Slow breathing influences cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver: Slow breathing and HRV.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Giovanna Ana de Paula; Tavares, Bruna S; Garner, David M; Porto, Andrey A; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-05-01

    Chronic slow breathing has been reported to improve Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in patients with cardiovascular disorders. However, it is not clear regarding its acute effects on HRV responses on autonomic analysis. We evaluated the acute effects of slow breathing on cardiac autonomic responses to postural change manoeuvre (PCM). The study was conducted on 21 healthy male students aged between 18 and 35 years old. In the control protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 15 min under spontaneous breathing and quickly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. In the slow breathing protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 10 min under spontaneous breath, then performed slow breathing for 5 min and rapidly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. Slow breathing intensified cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver. PMID:27157952

  1. Gross anatomical study of the sympathetic cardiac nerves in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ai; Tanaka, Shigenori; Miyamoto, Kensaku; Yi, Shuang-Qin; Nakatani, Toshio

    2007-05-01

    The sympathetic cardiac nerves originating from the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic ganglia in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) were examined using macroscopic and whole-mount immunohistochemical methods. Based on the results, the nerves were macroscopically classified into the following three groups: nerves innervating the cervical sympathetic ganglia mainly to the arterial porta of the heart; nerves supplying the stellate and thoracic sympathetic ganglia at the level of T2-T5 or T6 for both the arterial and venous portae of the heart; and nerves innervating the thoracic sympathetic ganglia at the level of T4-T9 to the esophagus and lung and then the heart via the blood vessels within the mediastinal pleura. These findings in the house musk shrew suggest a possible primitive morphological pattern of the cervical and thoracic sympathetic nervous system that may be related to those in other mammals, including humans. PMID:17393537

  2. The Epicardial Neural Ganglionated Plexus of the Ovine Heart: Anatomical Basis for Experimental Cardiac Electrophysiology and Nerve Protective Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Saburkina, Inga; Rysevaite, Kristina; Pauziene, Neringa; Mischke, Karl; Schauerte, Patrick; Jalife, José; Pauza, Dainius H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND The sheep is routinely used in experimental cardiac electrophysiology and surgery. OBJECTIVE We aimed at (1) ascertaining the topography and architecture of the ovine epicardial neural plexus (ENP), (2) determining the relationships of the ENP with the vagal and sympathetic cardiac nerves and ganglia, and (3) evaluating gross anatomical differences and similarities among ENPs in humans, sheep and other species. METHODS The ovine ENP, extrinsic sympathetic and vagal nerves were revealed histochemically for acetylcholinesterase on whole heart and/or thorax-dissected preparations from 23 newborn lambs with subsequent examination by a stereomicroscope. RESULTS The intrinsic cardiac nerves extend from the venous part of the ovine heart hilum (HH) along the roots of the cranial (superior) caval and left azygos veins to both atria and ventricles via five epicardial routes; i.e. the dorsal right atrial (DRA), middle (MD), left dorsal (LD), right ventral (VR) and ventral left atrial (VLA) nerve subplexuses. Intrinsic nerves proceeding from the arterial part of the HH along the roots of the aorta and pulmonary trunk extend exclusively into the ventricles as the right and left coronary subplexuses. The DRA, RV, and MD subplexuses receive the main extrinsic neural input from the right cervicothoracic and the right thoracic sympathetic T2, T3 ganglia, as well as from the right vagal nerve. The LD is supplied by sizeable extrinsic nerves from the left thoracic T4-T6 sympathetic ganglia and the left vagal nerve. Sheep hearts contained on average 769±52 epicardial ganglia. Cumulative areas of epicardial ganglia on the root of the cranial vena cava and on the wall of the coronary sinus were the largest of all regions (p<0.05). CONCLUSION Despite substantial interindividual variability in the morphology of the ovine ENP, the right-sided epicardial neural subplexuses supplying the sinuatrial and atrioventricular nodes are mostly concentrated at a fat pad between

  3. Cardiac autonomic imbalance in children with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Tascilar, Emre; Yokusoglu, Mehmet; Dundaroz, Rusen; Baysan, Oben; Ozturk, Sami; Yozgat, Yilmaz; Kilic, Ayhan

    2009-11-01

    The involvement of autonomic imbalance has been reported in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions. Allergic diseases are more frequent in children and some of predisposing factors may be changed according to the increasing age, but the involvement of autonomic imbalance has not been investigated in pediatric population. In this cross-sectional, case-control study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis. Thirty-five pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis and 36 healthy children (mean age 11 +/- 2.7, and 12 +/- 3 years, respectively) were enrolled in the study. Age and gender were not different between the groups. The diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on the history, symptoms, and skin prick tests. Participants with acute infection, nasal polyposis, bronchial asthma, and any other medical problems, assessed by history, physical examination and routine laboratory tests, were excluded. Twenty-four hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings were obtained, and the time domain and frequency domain indices of HRV were analyzed. We found significant increase in calculated HRV variables in children with allergic rhinitis compared to controls, which reflect parasympathetic tones, such as number of R-R intervals exceeding 50 ms, root mean square of successive differences between normal sinus R-R intervals, the percentage of difference between adjacent normal R-R intervals, and high frequency. These results indicate that HRV is increased, which implies sympathetic withdrawal and parasympathetic predominance. We propose that autonomic imbalance may be involved in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis in pediatric patients. PMID:19851046

  4. Impairment of cardiac autonomic control in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Sanja; Stevic, Zorica; Milovanovic, Branislav; Milicic, Biljana; Rakocevic-Stojanovic, Vidosava; Lavrnic, Dragana; Apostolski, Slobodan

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate autonomic cardiac control in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Fifty-five patients with sporadic ALS (28 female and 27 male; average age 56.00 +/- 10.34 years) were compared to 30 healthy controls (17 female and 13 male; average age 42.87 +/- 11.91 years). Patients with previous history of cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, and impaired respiratory function were excluded from the study. Cardiovascular autonomic tests according to Ewing, power spectrum analysis of RR variability (low- and high-frequency bands - LF and HF, LF/HF index), real-time beat-to-beat ECG signal monitoring with heart rate variability analysis and baroreflex function analysis were carried out in all patients. Time-domain parameters of heart rate variability (mean RR interval, SDNN, SDANN, SDNN index, rMSSD and pNN50%) were obtained from 24-h ECG monitoring. ALS patients had a significantly higher score of sympathetic (p <0.01) and parasympathetic (p <0.001) dysfunction, as well as of the overall score of autonomic dysfunction (p <0.001). LF/HF index was significantly increased; baroreflex sensitivity and time-domain parameters of heart rate variability were highly significantly decreased in ALS patients (p <0.001). Our results demonstrated impaired cardiac autonomic control in ALS with marked parasympathetic dysfunction and sympathetic predominance. PMID:20001491

  5. Cardiac Autonomic Adjustments During Baroreflex Test in Obese and Non-Obese Preadolescents

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, Mário Augusto; Brunelli, Aline Carnio; Tamaki, Gabriela Midori; Magela, Sofia Serafim

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown changes in cardiac autonomic control of obese preadolescents. Objective To assess the heart rate responses and cardiac autonomic modulation of obese preadolescents during constant expiratory effort. Methods This study assessed 10 obese and 10 non-obese preadolescents aged 9 to 12 years. The body mass index of the obese group was between the 95th and 97th percentiles of the CDC National Center for Health Statistics growth charts, while that of the non-obese group, between the 5th and 85th percentiles. Initially, they underwent anthropometric and clinical assessment, and their maximum expiratory pressures were obtained. Then, the preadolescents underwent a constant expiratory effort of 70% of their maximum expiratory pressure for 20 seconds, with heart rate measurement 5 minutes before, during and 5 minutes after it. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate values were analyzed by use of a software. Results The HRV did not differ when compared before and after the constant expiratory effort intra- and intergroup. The heart rate values differed (p < 0.05) during the effort, being the total variation in non-obese preadolescents of 18.5 ± 1.5 bpm, and in obese, of 12.2 ± 1.3 bpm. Conclusion The cardiac autonomic modulation did not differ between the groups when comparing before and after the constant expiratory effort. However, the obese group showed lower cardiovascular response to baroreceptor stimuli during the effort, suggesting lower autonomic baroreflex sensitivity. PMID:27007224

  6. The Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus in Cardiac Autonomic Control during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Joustra, S. D.; Reijntjes, R. H.; Pereira, A. M.; Lammers, G. J.; Biermasz, N. R.; Thijs, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may play an important role in central autonomic control, since its projections connect to (para)sympathetic relay stations in the brainstem and spinal cord. The cardiac autonomic modifications during nighttime may therefore not only result from direct effects of the sleep-related changes in the central autonomic network, but also from endogenous circadian factors as directed by the SCN. To explore the influence of the SCN on autonomic fluctuations during nighttime, we studied heart rate and its variability (HRV) in a clinical model of SCN damage. Methods Fifteen patients in follow-up after surgical treatment for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) compressing the optic chiasm (8 females, 26–65 years old) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls (5 females, 30–63 years) underwent overnight ambulatory polysomnography. Eleven patients had hypopituitarism and received adequate replacement therapy. HRV was calculated for each 30-second epoch and corrected for sleep stage, arousals, and gender using mixed effect regression models. Results Compared to controls, patients spent more time awake after sleep onset and in NREM1-sleep, and less in REM-sleep. Heart rate, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power components and the LF/HF ratio across sleep stages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that the SCN does not play a dominant role in cardiac autonomic control during sleep. PMID:27010631

  7. Cardiac autonomic control in high level Brazilian power and endurance track-and-field athletes.

    PubMed

    Abad, C C C; do Nascimento, A M; Gil, S; Kobal, R; Loturco, I; Nakamura, F Y; Mostarda, C T; Irigoyen, M C

    2014-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has an important role in physical performance. However, the cardiac ANS activity in high-level track and field athletes has been poorly explored. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endurance and power athletes would present a markedly different cardiac autonomic control at rest. We analyzed the cardiac ANS by means of time and frequency domains heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and by symbolic analysis. Endurance athletes showed higher pulse interval than power athletes (1,265±126 vs. 1,031±98 ms respectively; p<0.05). No differences were found in time and frequency domains between the groups. However, the LF%, HF% and LF/HF ratio presented high effect sizes (1.46, 1.46 and 1.30, respectively). The symbolic analysis revealed that endurance athletes had higher 2V parasympathetic modulation (36±6.5) than power athletes (24±9.3; p<0.05). A reduced 0V sympathetic modulation was observed in endurance athletes (21±9.9) compared to power athletes (33±11; p<0.05 and ES=1.30). Our results suggest greater parasympathetic modulation and less sympathetic modulation in endurance athletes compared to power athletes. Additionally, the type of HRV analysis needs to be chosen with well-defined criteria and caution because their use in assessing cardiac autonomic modulation can interfere with the interpretation of results. In practical terms, symbolic analysis appears to better discriminate between cardiac autonomic activities of athletes with different training backgrounds than frequency domain analysis. PMID:24771131

  8. Differential myelinated and unmyelinated sensory and autonomic skin nerve fiber involvement in patients with ophthalmic postherpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Truini, Andrea; Haanpaa, Maija; Provitera, Vincenzo; Biasiotta, Antonella; Stancanelli, Annamaria; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Santoro, Lucio; Cruccu, Giorgio; Nolano, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common and exceptionally drug-resistant neuropathic pain condition. In this cross-sectional skin biopsy study, seeking information on the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms we assessed how ophthalmic PHN affects sensory and autonomic skin innervation. We took 2-mm supraorbital punch skin biopsies from the affected and unaffected sides in 10 patients with ophthalmic PHN. Using indirect immunofluorescence and a large panel of antibodies including protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 we quantified epidermal unmyelinated, dermal myelinated and autonomic nerve fibers. Although skin biopsy showed reduced epidermal and dermal myelinated fiber density in specimens from the affected side, the epidermal/dermal myelinated nerve fiber ratio was lower in the affected than in the unaffected side (p < 0.001), thus suggesting a predominant epidermal unmyelinated nerve fiber loss. Conversely, autonomic skin innervation was spared. Our study showing that ophthalmic PHN predominantly affects unmyelinated nerve fiber and spares autonomic nerve fiber might help to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this difficult-to-treat condition. PMID:26300742

  9. Dietary restriction, cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in bulimic women.

    PubMed

    Vögele, Claus; Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2009-08-01

    Recent findings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in relation to biochemical markers of dietary restriction status in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. We predicted that bulimic individuals (BN) with a biochemical profile indicating dietary restriction exhibit reduced cardiac sympathetic and/or increased vagal activity. We also hypothesized, that BN with a biochemical profile within a normal range (i.e. currently not dieting or malnourished) would show heart rate variability responses (HRV) and reactivity to mental stress indicating increased sympathetic activation compared with non-eating disordered controls. Seventeen female volunteers diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were categorized according to their serum profile (glucose, pre-albumin, IGF-1, TSH, leptin) into currently fasting versus non-fasting and compared with 16 non-eating disordered controls matched for age and BMI. Spectral components of HRV were calculated on heart rate data from resting and mental stress periods (standardized achievement challenge) using autoregressive analysis. Compared to non-fasting BN and controls, fasting BN showed increased vagal and decreased sympathetic modulation during both resting and recovery periods. Cardiac autonomic regulation was not impaired in response to mental challenge. No differences could be found between non-fasting BN and controls. The results confirm the notion of cardiac sympathetic inhibition and vagal dominance during dietary restriction and suggest the specificity of starvation related biochemical changes for cardiac autonomic control. The results are discussed in terms of the higher incidence in cardiac complications in these patients. PMID:19497332

  10. Effects of Emotion Regulation Difficulties on the Tonic and Phasic Cardiac Autonomic Response

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Guillaume; Ott, Laurent; Nandrino, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation theory aims to explain the interactions between individuals and the environment. In this context, Emotion Regulation Difficulties (ERD) disrupt the physiological component of emotions through the autonomic nervous system and are involved in several psychopathological states. Objective We were interested in comparing the influence of a film-elicited emotion procedure on the autonomic nervous system activity of two groups with different levels of emotion regulation difficulties. Methods A total of 63 women (undergraduate students) ranging from 18 to 27 (20.7±1.99) years old were included. Using the upper and lower quartile of a questionnaire assessing the daily difficulties in regulating emotions, two groups, one with low (LERD) and one with high (HERD) levels of emotion regulation difficulties, were constituted and studied during a film-elicited emotion procedure. Cardiac vagal activity (HF-HRV) was analyzed during three periods: baseline, film-elicited emotion, and recovery. Results The cardiovascular results showed a decrease in HF-HRV from baseline to elicitation for both groups. Then, from elicitation to recovery, HF-HRV increased for the LERD group, whereas a low HF-HRV level persisted for the HERD group. Conclusions The HERD group exhibited inappropriate cardiac vagal recovery after a negative emotion elicitation had ended. Cardiac vagal tone took longer to return to its initial state in the HERD group than in the LERD group. Prolonged cardiac vagal suppression might constitute an early marker of emotion regulation difficulties leading to lower cardiac vagal tone. PMID:25054913

  11. Differences in autonomic nerve function in patients with silent and symptomatic myocardial ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, C. F.; Katritsis, D.; Crowther, A.; Cooper, I. C.; Coltart, J. D.; Webb-Peploe, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Autonomic neuropathy provides a mechanism for the absence of symptoms in silent myocardial ischaemia, but characterisation of the type of neuropathy is lacking. AIM--To characterise and compare autonomic nerve function in patients with silent and symptomatic myocardial ischaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS--The Valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate variation (HRV) in response to deep breathing and standing, lower body negative pressure, isometric handgrip, and the cold pressor test were performed by patients with silent (n = 25) and symptomatic (n = 25) ambulatory ischaemia and by controls (n = 21). No difference in parasympathetic efferent function between patients with silent and symptomatic ischaemia was recorded, but both had significantly less HRV in response to standing than the controls (p < 0.005 for silent and p < 0.01 for symptomatic). Patients with silent ischaemia showed an increased propensity for peripheral vasodilatation compared with symptomatic patients (p < 0.02) and controls (p < 0.04). Impaired sympathetic function was found in patients with pure silent ischaemia (n = 4) compared with the remaining patients with silent ischaemia whose pain pathways were presumed to be intact. CONCLUSIONS--Patients with silent ischaemia and pain pathways presumed to be intact have an enhanced peripheral vasodilator response, and if this applied to the coronary vasculature it could provide a mechanism for limiting ischaemia to below the pain threshold. Patients with pure silent ischaemia have evidence of sympathetic autonomic dysfunction. Images PMID:8297687

  12. Autonomic control of cardiac function and myocardial oxygen consumption during hypoxic hypoxia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Stone, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation in 19 conscious dogs of the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in the coronary and cardiac response to altitude (hypoxic) hypoxia. Beta-adrenergic blockade was used to minimize the cardiac effect associated with sympathetic receptors. It is shown that the autonomic nervous system, and particularly the sympathetic nervous system, is responsible for the increase in ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption that occurs during hypoxia. Minimizing this response through appropriate conditioning and training may improve the operating efficiency of the heart and reduce the hazard of hypoxia and other environmental stresses, such as acceleration, which are encountered in advanced aircraft systems.

  13. Cardiac Autonomic Drive during Arterial Hypertension and Metabolic Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Kseneva, S I; Borodulina, E V; Trifonova, O Yu; Udut, V V

    2016-06-01

    ANS support of the cardiac work was assessed with analysis of heart rate variability in representative samples of patients with arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances manifested by overweight, classes I-II obesity, compromised glucose tolerance, and type II diabetes. Initially enhanced sympathetic effects on the heart rate demonstrated no further increase during the orthostatic test in contrast to suprasegmentary influences enhanced by this test. The pronouncedness of revealed peculiarities in ANS drive to the heart correlated with metabolic disturbances, and these peculiarities attained maximum in patients with type II diabetes. PMID:27383176

  14. Effects of Effortful Swallow on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lívia M S; Silva, Roberta G; Melo, Monique; Silva, Nayra N; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing-induced changes in heart rate have been recently reported. However, it is not apparent the responses of heart rate variability (HRV) elicited by effortful swallow maneuver. We investigated the acute effects of effortful swallowing maneuver on HRV. This study was performed on 34 healthy women between 18 and 35 years old. We assessed heart rate variability in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF, and LF/HF ratio) domains and, visual analysis through the Poincaré plot. The subjects remained at rest for 5 min during spontaneous swallowing and then performed effortful swallowing for 5 min. HRV was analyzed during spontaneous and effortful swallowing. We found no significant differences for SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, HF in absolute units (ms(2)). There is a trend for increase of LF in absolute (p = 0.05) and normalized (p = 0.08) units during effortful swallowing. HF in normalized units reduced (p = 0.02) during effortful swallowing and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.03) increased during effortful swallowing. In conclusion effortful swallow maneuver in healthy women increased sympathetic cardiac modulation, indicating a cardiac overload. PMID:26650792

  15. Cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability and turbulence in pre-hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Alim; Uenishi, Masahiro; Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Matsumoto, Kazuo; Kato, Ritsushi; Hara, Motoki; Yazıcı, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Non-dipping blood pressure pattern was shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular events. In addition, cardiac autonomic dysfunction was found to be associated with non-dipper phenomenon. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cardiac autonomic functions in dipper and non-dipper pre-hypertensive subjects. A total of 65 pre-hypertensive subjects were enrolled in this study. They were divided into two groups as non-dippers (40 subjects, 52% female) and dippers (25 subjects, 52.5% female). Cardiac autonomic functions of the two groups were compared with the aid of heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence (HRT), atrial premature contractions (APCs), ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), and mean heart rate (MHR). There was no significant difference between non-dippers and dippers in basal characteristics. The two parameters of HRT, turbulence onset and turbulence slope, were found to be significantly abnormal in non-dippers than in dippers (P < .011 and P < .002, respectively). Heart rate variability parameters, including SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, and pNN50, were found to be similar in dipper and non-dipper pre-hypertensive subjects (P < .998, P < .453, P < .205, and P < .788, respectively). APCs, VPCs, and MHR were compared, and there were statistical differences between the groups (APCs 5.80 ± 4.55, 9.14 ± 7.33, P < .024; VPCs 8.48 ± 8.83, 13.23 ± 9.68, P < .044; and MHR 70.16 ± 11.08, 76.26 ± 11.31, P < .035; respectively). This study demonstrated a possible cardiac autonomic dysfunction in pre-hypertensive subjects with non-dipper pattern. This may be a basis for future studies related to pre-hypertension and non-dipping BP pattern. PMID:22676318

  16. Functional Ser205Leu polymorphism of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) gene is associated with vagal autonomic dysregulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Hsin-An; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that reduced cardiac vagal (parasympathetic) tone, a robust cardiovascular risk factor, is a trait vulnerability marker of major depressive disorder (MDD). The Ser205/Ser205 genotype of the functional polymorphism (Ser205Leu) of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), also called p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), gene is reported to increase the risk of MDD. Here, we hypothesized that the NGFR Ser205Leu polymorphism may have an effect on vagal control. A sample of 810 healthy, drug-free, unrelated Han Chinese (413 males, 397 females; mean age 35.17 ± 8.53 years) was included in the NGFR genotyping. Short-term heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess vagus-mediated autonomic function. Potential HRV covariates, such as mood/anxiety status and serum metabolic parameters, were assessed. Homozygotes of the Ser205 allele had significantly lower high frequency power and root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences, both HRV indices of vagal modulation, compared to Leu205 allele carriers. Even after adjusting for relevant confounders, these associations remained significant. Further stratification by sex revealed that the associations were observed only in males. Our results implicate that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with the NGFR Ser205/Ser205 genotype in a gender-specific manner, suggesting a potential role of NGFR polymorphism in modulating cardiac autonomic function. PMID:26278479

  17. Response of cardiac autonomic modulation after a single exposure to musical auditory stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Lucas L.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Guida, Heraldo L.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Garner, David M.; Vanderlei, Franciele M.; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E.

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects after exposure to different styles of music on cardiac autonomic modulation assessed through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis have not yet been well elucidated. We aimed to investigate the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation in women after exposure to musical auditory stimulation of different styles. The study was conducted on 30 healthy women aged between 18 years and 30 years. We did not include subjects having previous experience with musical instruments and those who had an affinity for music styles. The volunteers remained at rest for 10 min and were exposed to classical baroque (64-84 dB) and heavy metal (75-84 dB) music for 10 min, and their HRV was evaluated for 30 min after music cessation. We analyzed the following HRV indices: Standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), percentage of normal-to-normal 50 (pNN50), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. SDNN, LF in absolute units (ms2) and normalized (nu), and LF/HF ratio increased while HF index (nu) decreased after exposure to classical baroque music. Regarding the heavy metal music style, it was observed that there were increases in SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, and LF (ms2) after the musical stimulation. In conclusion, the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation after exposure to auditory stimulation with music featured an increased global activity of both systems for the two musical styles, with a cardiac sympathetic modulation for classical baroque music and a cardiac vagal tone for the heavy metal style. PMID:25774614

  18. Response of cardiac autonomic modulation after a single exposure to musical auditory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas L; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Guida, Heraldo L; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Garner, David M; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects after exposure to different styles of music on cardiac autonomic modulation assessed through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis have not yet been well elucidated. We aimed to investigate the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation in women after exposure to musical auditory stimulation of different styles. The study was conducted on 30 healthy women aged between 18 years and 30 years. We did not include subjects having previous experience with musical instruments and those who had an affinity for music styles. The volunteers remained at rest for 10 min and were exposed to classical baroque (64-84 dB) and heavy metal (75-84 dB) music for 10 min, and their HRV was evaluated for 30 min after music cessation. We analyzed the following HRV indices: Standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), percentage of normal-to-normal 50 (pNN50), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. SDNN, LF in absolute units (ms 2 ) and normalized (nu), and LF/HF ratio increased while HF index (nu) decreased after exposure to classical baroque music. Regarding the heavy metal music style, it was observed that there were increases in SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, and LF (ms 2 ) after the musical stimulation. In conclusion, the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation after exposure to auditory stimulation with music featured an increased global activity of both systems for the two musical styles, with a cardiac sympathetic modulation for classical baroque music and a cardiac vagal tone for the heavy metal style. PMID:25774614

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation influences the cardiac autonomic nervous control.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Rafael Ayres; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras; Fontes, Eduardo Bodnariuc; Soares, Pedro Paulo da Silva; Cunha, Felipe Amorim da; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio; Porto, Flávia; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Okano, Alexandre Hideki

    2011-06-15

    To investigate whether the manipulation of brain excitability by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the heart rate variability (HRV), the effect of tDCS applied at rest on the left temporal lobe in athletes (AG) and non-athletes (NAG) was evaluated. The HRV parameters (natural logarithms of LF, HF, and LF/HF) was assessed in 20 healthy men before, and immediately after tDCS and sham stimulation. After anodal tDCS in AG the parasympathetic activity (HF(log)) increased (P<0.01) and the sympathetic activity (LF(log)) and sympatho-vagal balance (LF/HF(log)) decreased (P<0.01), whereas no significant effects were detected in NAG (P>0.05). No significant changes in HRV indexes were provoked by sham stimulation in both AG and NAG (P>0.05). In conclusion, tDCS applied on the left temporal lobe significantly increased the overall HRV in AG, enhancing the parasympathetic and decreasing the sympathetic modulation of heart rate. Consequently the sympatho-vagal balance decreased at rest in AG but not in NAG. Releasing a weak electric current to stimulate selected brain areas may induce favorable effects on the autonomic control to the heart in highly fit subjects. PMID:21527314

  20. Daytime cardiac autonomic activity during one week of continuous night shift.

    PubMed

    Holmes, A L; Burgess, H J; McCulloch, K; Lamond, N; Fletcher, A; Dorrian, J; Roach, G; Dawson, D

    2001-12-01

    Shift workers encounter an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to their day working counterparts. To explore this phenomenon, the effects of one week of simulated night shift on cardiac sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) activity were assessed. Ten (5m; 5f) healthy subjects aged 18-29 years attended an adaptation and baseline night before commencing one week of night shift (2300-0700 h). Sleep was recorded using a standard polysomnogram and circadian phase was tracked using salivary melatonin data. During sleep, heart rate (HR), cardiac PNS activity (RMSSD) and cardiac SNS activity (pre-ejection period) were recorded. Night shift did not influence seep quality, but reduced sleep duration by a mean of 52 +/- 29 min. One week of night shift evoked a small chronic sleep debt of 5 h 14 +/- 56 min and a cumulative circadian phase delay of 5 h +/- 14 min. Night shift had no significant effect on mean HR, but mean cardiac SNS activity during sleep was consistently higher and mean cardiac PNS activity during sleep declined gradually across the week. These results suggest that shiftwork has direct and unfavourable effects on cardiac autonomic activity and that this might be one mechanism via which shiftwork increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is postulated that sleep loss could be one mediator of the association between shiftwork and cardiovascular health. PMID:14564886

  1. Uterine autonomic nerve innervation plays a crucial role in regulating rat uterine mast cell functions during embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xue-Jun; Huang, Li-Bo; Qiao, Hui-Li; Deng, Ze-Pei; Fa, Jing-Jing

    2009-12-01

    To explore the potential mechanism of how uterine innervations would affect the uterine mast cell (MC) population and functions during the periimplantation. We herein first examined the consequence of uterine neurectomy on embryo implantation events. We observed that amputation of autonomic nerves innervating the uterus led to on-time implantation failure in rats. Exploiting MC culture and ELISA approaches, we then further analyzed the effect of neurectomy on cellular histamine levels and its release from uterine MCs, to elucidate the relation of the autonomic nerves and local cellular immunity in the uterine during early pregnancy. We observed that disconnection of autonomic nerve innervation significantly increased the population of uterine MCs. Most interestingly, these increased number of uterine MCs in neuroectomized rats contained a much reduced cellular level of histamine. Our subsequent challenge experiments revealed that uterine MCs in nerve amputated rats exhibited enhanced histamine releasing rate in response to substance P and antiIgE, suggesting loss of nerve innervation in the uterus not only increases the population of uterine MCs, but also facilitates the release of histamine from MCs, thus subsequently interfere with the normal implantation process. Collectively, our findings provide a new line of evidence supporting the concept that immune-neuro-endocrine network plays important role during pregnancy establishment and maintenance. PMID:19765668

  2. Effects of culture supernatant from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 on autonomic nerve activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Yoshinori; Izumo, Takayuki; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Nagai, Katsuya

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal administration of various lactobacilli has been reported to affect autonomic neurotransmission, blood pressure, blood glucose, and body weight in rats, however, the mechanisms of action of the lactobacilli remain to be clarified. Therefore, the effect of the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 on the autonomic nerve activity in urethane-anesthetized rats was investigated. Intraduodenal injection of the low-molecular-weight (LMW) fraction (molecules less than 10,000 Da) of the S-PT84 culture supernatant elevated the brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity and reduced the gastric vagal nerve activity. Moreover, intraoral administration of this LMW fraction increased the body temperature of rats above the interscapular brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the LMW fraction of the S-PT84 culture supernatant affects the autonomic nerve activity and thermogenesis, and that the change in thermogenesis may be caused by the change in the sympathetic nerve activity of brown adipose tissue. PMID:22523286

  3. Increased Efferent Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Defective Intrinsic Heart Rate Regulation in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thaung, H P Aye; Baldi, J Chris; Wang, Heng-Yu; Hughes, Gillian; Cook, Rosalind F; Bussey, Carol T; Sheard, Phil W; Bahn, Andrew; Jones, Peter P; Schwenke, Daryl O; Lamberts, Regis R

    2015-08-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) coupled with dysregulated β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) signaling is postulated as a major driving force for cardiac dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, cardiac SNA has never been assessed directly in diabetes. Our aim was to measure the sympathetic input to and the β-AR responsiveness of the heart in the type 2 diabetic heart. In vivo recording of SNA of the left efferent cardiac sympathetic branch of the stellate ganglion in Zucker diabetic fatty rats revealed an elevated resting cardiac SNA and doubled firing rate compared with nondiabetic rats. Ex vivo, in isolated denervated hearts, the intrinsic heart rate was markedly reduced. Contractile and relaxation responses to β-AR stimulation with dobutamine were compromised in externally paced diabetic hearts, but not in diabetic hearts allowed to regulate their own heart rate. Protein levels of left ventricular β1-AR and Gs (guanine nucleotide binding protein stimulatory) were reduced, whereas left ventricular and right atrial β2-AR and Gi (guanine nucleotide binding protein inhibitory regulatory) levels were increased. The elevated resting cardiac SNA in type 2 diabetes, combined with the reduced cardiac β-AR responsiveness, suggests that the maintenance of normal cardiovascular function requires elevated cardiac sympathetic input to compensate for changes in the intrinsic properties of the diabetic heart. PMID:25784543

  4. Influence of Smoking Consumption and Nicotine Dependence Degree in Cardiac Autonomic Modulation

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Ana Paula Soares; Ramos, Dionei; de Oliveira, Gabriela Martins; dos Santos, Ana Alice Soares; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; It, Juliana Tiyaki; Fernandes, Renato Peretti Prieto; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking consumption alters cardiac autonomic function. Objective Assess the influence of the intensity of smoking and the nicotine dependence degree in cardiac autonomic modulation evaluated through index of heart rate variability (HRV). Methods 83 smokers, of both genders, between 50 and 70 years of age and with normal lung function were divided according to the intensity of smoking consumption (moderate and severe) and the nicotine dependency degree (mild, moderate and severe). The indexes of HRV were analyzed in rest condition, in linear methods in the time domain (TD), the frequency domain (FD) and through the Poincaré plot. For the comparison of smoking consumption, unpaired t test or Mann-Whitney was employed. For the analysis between the nicotine dependency degrees, we used the One-way ANOVA test, followed by Tukey's post test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. The significance level was p < 0,05. Results Differences were only found when compared to the different intensities of smoking consumption in the indexes in the FD. LFun (62.89 ± 15.24 vs 75.45 ± 10.28), which corresponds to low frequency spectrum component in normalized units; HFun (37.11 ± 15.24 vs 24.55 ± 10.28), which corresponds to high frequency spectrum component in normalized units and in the LF/HF ratio (2.21 ± 1.47 vs 4.07 ± 2.94). However, in the evaluation of nicotine dependency, significant differences were not observed (p > 0.05). Conclusion Only the intensity of smoking consumption had an influence over the cardiac autonomic modulation of the assessed tobacco smokers. Tobacco smokers with severe intensity of smoking consumption presented a lower autonomic modulation than those with moderate intensity. PMID:27142649

  5. Abnormal left ventricular torsion and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Milan K.; Shivu, Ganesh Nallur; Tahrani, Abd; Dubb, Kiran; Abozguia, Khalid; Phan, T.T.; Narendran, Parth; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Frenneaux, Michael; Stevens, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Left ventricular torsion is increased and cardiac energetics are reduced in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Our aim was to determine the relationships of these abnormalities to cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in subjects with T1DM. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 subjects with T1DM free of known coronary heart disease attending an outpatient clinic. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was assessed using heart rate variability studies and the continuous wavelet transform method. Left ventricular function was determined by speckle tracking echocardiography. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and stress magnetic resonance imaging were used to measure cardiac energetics and myocardial perfusion reserve index, respectively. Twenty subjects (age, 35 ± 8 years; diabetes duration, 16 ± 9 years; hemoglobin A1c, 8.0% ± 1.1%) were recruited. Forty percent of the subjects exhibited definite or borderline CAN. Log peak radial strain was significantly increased in subjects with CAN compared with those without (1.56 ± 0.06 vs 1.43 ± 0.14, respectively; P = .011). Data were adjusted for log duration of diabetes, and log left ventricular torsion correlated (r = 0.593, P = .01) with log low-frequency to high-frequency ratio during the Valsalva maneuver. Log isovolumic relaxation time correlated significantly with log Valsalva ratio and log proportion of differences in consecutive RR intervals of normal beats greater than 50 milliseconds during deep breathing. However, CAN did not correlate with cardiac energetics or myocardial perfusion reserve index. Spectral analysis of low-frequency to high-frequency ratio power during the Valsalva maneuver is associated with altered left ventricular torsion in subjects with T1DM. Parasympathetic dysfunction is closely associated with diastolic deficits. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is not however the principal cause of impaired cardiac energetics. The role of CAN in the development of cardiomyopathy

  6. PM-induced cardiac oxidative stress and dysfunction are mediated by autonomic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rhoden, Claudia R; Wellenius, Gregory A; Ghelfi, Elisa; Lawrence, Joy; González-Flecha, Beatriz

    2005-10-10

    Epidemiological studies show that increases in particulate air pollution (PM) are associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the cardiac effects of PM remain unknown. We used pharmacological strategies to determine whether oxidants are implicated in PM-dependent cardiac dysfunction and whether PM-induced increase in autonomic stimulation on the heart mediates cardiac oxidative stress and toxicity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either intratracheal instillation of urban air particles (UAP 750 microg) or to inhalation of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs mass concentration 700+/-180 microg/m3) for 5 h. Oxidative stress and cardiac function were evaluated 30 min after UAP instillation or immediately after exposure to CAPs. Instillation of UAP led to significant increases in heart oxidants measured as organ chemiluminescence (UAP: 38+/-5 cps/cm2, sham: 10+/-1 cps/cm2) or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, UAP: 76+/-10, Sham 30+/-6 pmol/mg protein). Heart rate increased immediately after exposure (UAP: 390+/-20 bpm, sham: 350+/-10 bpm) and returned to basal levels over the next 30 min. Heart rate variability (SDNN) was unchanged immediately after exposure, but significantly increased during the recovery phase (UAP: 3.4+/-0.2, Sham: 2.4+/-0.3). To determine the role of ROS in the development of cardiac malfunction, rats were treated with 50 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 1 h prior to UAP instillation or CAPs inhalation. NAC prevented changes in heart rate and SDNN in UAP-exposed rats (340+/-8 and 2.9+/-0.3, respectively). To investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in PM-induced oxidative stress, rats were given 5 mg/kg atenolol (beta-1 receptor antagonist), 0.30 mg/kg glycopyrrolate (muscarinic receptor antagonist) or saline immediately before exposure to CAPs aerosols. Both atenolol and glycopyrrolate effectively prevented CAPs-induced cardiac oxidative stress (CL

  7. Preserved cardiac autonomic dynamics during sleep in patients with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Tobaldini, Eleonora; Proserpio, Paola; Sambusida, Katrina; Lanza, Andrea; Redaelli, Tiziana; Frigerio, Pamela; Fratticci, Lara; Rosa, Silvia; Casali, Karina R.; Somers, Virend K; Nobili, Lino; Montano, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are associated with altered cardiovascular autonomic control. Sleep is characterized by modifications of autonomic control across sleep stages; however, no data are available on the effects of SCI on CAC during sleep. The aim of our study was to assess cariac autonomic modulation during sleep in SCI patients. Overnight polysomnographic recordings were obtained in 27 patients with cervical (Cerv) and thoracic (Thor) SCI and in healthy subjects (Controls). ECG and respiration were extracted from PSG, divided into sleep stages (W, N2, N3 and REM) for assessment of CAC, using symbolic analysis and Corrected Conditional Entropy. SA identifies three main indices, 0V%, index of sympathetic modulation, and 2LV% and 2UV%, markers of vagal modulation. CCE evaluates the complexity of heart period time series. Symbolic analysis revealed a reduction of 0V% in N2 and N3 compared to W and REM and an increase of 2LV% and 2UV% in N2 and N3 compared to W and REM in SCI patients, independent of the level of the lesion, and similar to Controls. Corrected Conditional Entropy was higher in N2 and N3 compared to W and REM in all three groups. In SCI patients, cardiac autonomic control changed across sleep stages, with a reduction of sympathetic and an increase of parasympathetic modulation during NREM compared to W and REM and a parallel increase of complexity during NREM, similar to Controls. Cardiac autonomic dynamics during sleep are maintained in SCI, independent of the level of the lesion. PMID:25953303

  8. Assessment of Cardiac Autonomic Functions in Medical Students With Type D Personality

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, R. Abhilasha Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type D personality experiences joint occurrence of Negative Affectivity and Social Inhibition. It is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with prevalence being 18-53% among cardiac patients. Type D personality people have exaggerated cardiovascular activity mediated by increased sympathetic drive and decreased vagal control of the heart which leads to enhanced risk of hypertension and is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Aim To compare the cardiac autonomic function of Type D and non-Type D students. To compare cardiac autonomic functions among male and female students and students with and without family history of hypertension and coronary artery disease among Type D. To find the most affected test among Type D students. Materials and Methods Thirty Type D and 30 non- Type D medical students were identified by DS14. The Parasympathetic cardiac autonomic tests done assessed Heart Rate response to valsalva manoeuvre, immediate heart rate response to standing and heart rate variation during deep breathing. Sympathetic tests assessed BP response to standing and Sustained Hand Grip. The heart rate and R-R interval measurement were got from lead II of ECG recordings on Polyrite D. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Unpaired student’s t-test was used and p-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Type D students showed slightly decreased parasympathetic activity and increased sympathetic activity when compared to non-Type D students even though there was no statistically significant difference between them. There is a statistically significant decrease in valsalva ratio among females (p<0.01) when compared to males. There is a statistically significant decrease in 30:15 ratio and BP response to handgrip (p<0.05) among students with family history of hypertension and coronary artery disease when compared with students with no family history of coronary artery disease. Valsalva

  9. Silent myocardial infarction secondary to cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Jacob, Aasems; Anthony Diaz, Mark; Lederman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    An 83-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension presented to the emergency department with fever and chills of 1 day duration. On examination, temperature was 100.9 F, heart rate 111/min and she had orthostatic hypotension. Laboratory tests showed elevated blood urea nitrogen and white cell count. The patient underwent treatment for symptomatic urinary tract infection and while her fever and leucocytosis resolved, tachycardia persisted. An EKG done showed T inversions in leads II, III, arteriovenous fistula, V2 and V3. Troponin-I was elevated. Nuclear stress test revealed apical wall motion abnormality confirming myocardial infarction. Ewing's tests were carried out at bedside and these diagnosed severe autonomic neuropathy. Rheumatoid arthritis can cause cardiac autonomic neuropathy from chronic inflammation. This case entails the importance of assessing and detecting cardiac autonomic neuropathy in chronic inflammatory conditions, and the need to be cautious of acute coronary events in these patients, even for minimal or no symptoms. PMID:27489064

  10. Effects of training periodization on cardiac autonomic modulation and endogenous stress markers in volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Mazon, J; Gastaldi, A; Di Sacco, T; Cozza, I; Dutra, S; Souza, H

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the effects of selective loads of periodization model (SLPM) on autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV) and endogenous stress markers before and after a competition period in volleyball players (N=32). The experimental protocol for the evaluation of HRV consisted of using spectral analysis of time series composed of the R-R intervals derived from electrocardiogram obtained in the supine position and during the tilt test. Stress marker levels were determined by quantifying the plasma concentration of endogenous catecholamines, cortisol and free testosterone. The results showed no changes between the levels of HRV before and after a competition period. In contrast, the quantification of the plasma concentration of endogenous stress markers revealed reductions in the levels of total catecholamines, noradrenaline and cortisol. These changes were accompanied by increases in the concentration of free testosterone and in the testosterone/cortisol ratio. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the SLPM did not change the cardiac autonomic modulation of HRV, but promoted beneficial adaptations in athletes, including positive changes in the plasma concentration of the endogenous stress markers. The absence of changes in HRV indicates that there is no direct relationship between cardiac autonomic modulation and endogenous stress markers in the present study. PMID:21812826

  11. Abnormal autonomic cardiac response to transient hypoxia in sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Sangkatumvong, S; Coates, T D; Khoo, M C K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to non-invasively assess cardiac autonomic control in subjects with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by tracking the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) that occur following brief exposure to a hypoxic stimulus. Five African–American SCA patients and seven healthy control subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Each subject was exposed to a controlled hypoxic stimulus consisting of five breaths of nitrogen. Time-varying spectral analysis of HRV was applied to estimate the cardiac autonomic response to the transient episode of hypoxia. The confounding effects of changes in respiration on the HRV spectral indices were reduced by using a computational model. A significant decrease in the parameters related to parasympathetic control was detected in the post-hypoxic responses of the SCA subjects relative to normal controls. The spectral index related to sympathetic activity, on the other hand, showed a tendency to increase the following hypoxic stimulation, but the change was not significant. This study suggests that there is some degree of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in SCA that is revealed by the response to transient hypoxia. PMID:18460753

  12. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Schizophrenia and Their Healthy Relatives – A Small Review

    PubMed Central

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia seems to be caused by cardiovascular complications, and in particular, coronary heart disease. In addition, the prevalence of heart failure and arrhythmias is increased in this population. Reduced efferent vagal activity, which has been consistently described in these patients and their healthy first-degree relatives, might be one important mechanism contributing to their increased cardiac mortality. A decrease in heart rate variability and complexity was often shown in unmedicated patients when compared to healthy controls. In addition, faster breathing rates, accompanied by shallow breathing, seem to influence autonomic cardiac functioning in acute unmedicated patients substantially. Moreover, low-physical fitness is a further and independent cardiac risk factor present in this patient population. Interestingly, new studies describe chronotropic incompetence during physical exercise as an important additional risk factor in patients with schizophrenia. Some studies report a correlation of the autonomic imbalance with the degree of positive symptoms (i.e., delusions) and some with the duration of disease. The main body of psychiatric research is focused on mental aspects of the disease, thereby neglecting obvious physical health needs of these patients. Here, a joint effort is needed to design interventional strategies in everyday clinical settings to improve physical health and quality of life. PMID:26157417

  13. Myocardial Infarction Causes Transient Cholinergic Transdifferentiation of Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves via gp130

    PubMed Central

    Olivas, Antoinette; Gardner, Ryan T.; Wang, Lianguo; Ripplinger, Crystal M.; Woodward, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the heart is a classic example of norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) triggering opposing actions. Sympathetic NE increases heart rate and contractility through activation of β receptors, whereas parasympathetic ACh slows the heart through muscarinic receptors. Sympathetic neurons can undergo a developmental transition from production of NE to ACh and we provide evidence that mouse cardiac sympathetic nerves transiently produce ACh after myocardial infarction (MI). ACh levels increased in viable heart tissue 10–14 d after MI, returning to control levels at 21 d, whereas NE levels were stable. At the same time, the genes required for ACh synthesis increased in stellate ganglia, which contain most of the sympathetic neurons projecting to the heart. Immunohistochemistry 14 d after MI revealed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in stellate sympathetic neurons and vesicular ACh transporter immunoreactivity in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cardiac sympathetic fibers. Finally, selective deletion of the ChAT gene from adult sympathetic neurons prevented the infarction-induced increase in cardiac ACh. Deletion of the gp130 cytokine receptor from sympathetic neurons prevented the induction of cholinergic genes after MI, suggesting that inflammatory cytokines induce the transient acquisition of a cholinergic phenotype in cardiac sympathetic neurons. Ex vivo experiments examining the effect of NE and ACh on rabbit cardiac action potential duration revealed that ACh blunted both the NE-stimulated decrease in cardiac action potential duration and increase in myocyte calcium transients. This raises the possibility that sympathetic co-release of ACh and NE may impair adaptation to high heart rates and increase arrhythmia susceptibility. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sympathetic neurons normally make norepinephrine (NE), which increases heart rate and the contractility of cardiac myocytes. We found that, after myocardial infarction, the

  14. Effects of Kefir on the Cardiac Autonomic Tones and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, Brunella F.; Duemke, Licia B.; Leal, Marcos A.; Friques, Andreia G. F.; Dantas, Eduardo M.; Dalvi, Rodolfo F.; Gava, Agata L.; Pereira, Thiago M. C.; Andrade, Tadeu U.; Meyrelles, Silvana S.; Campagnaro, Bianca P.; Vasquez, Elisardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: It has been previously shown that the probiotic kefir (a symbiotic matrix containing acid bacteria and yeasts) attenuated the hypertension and the endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, the effect of chronic administration of kefir on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in SHR was evaluated. Methods: SHR were treated with kefir (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) for 60 days and compared with non-treated SHR and with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Cardiac autonomic vagal (VT) and sympathetic (ST) tones were estimated through the blockade of the cardiac muscarinic receptors (methylatropine) and the blockade of β1−adrenoceptor (atenolol). The BRS was evaluated by the tachycardia and bradycardia responses to vasoactive drug-induced decreases and increases in arterial blood pressure (BP), respectively. Additionally, spontaneous BRS was estimated by autoregressive spectral analysis. Results: Kefir-treated SHR exhibited significant attenuation of basal BP, HR, and cardiac hypertrophy compared to non-treated SHR (12, 13, and 21%, respectively). Cardiac VT and ST were significantly altered in the SHR (~40 and ~90 bpm) compared with Wistar rats (~120 and ~30 bpm) and were partially recovered in SHR-kefir (~90 and ~25 bpm). SHR exhibited an impaired bradycardic BRS (~50%) compared with Wistar rats, which was reduced to ~40% in the kefir-treated SHR and abolished by methylatropine in all groups. SHR also exhibited a significant impairment of the tachycardic BRS (~23%) compared with Wistar rats and this difference was reduced to 8% in the SHR-kefir. Under the action of atenolol the residual reflex tachycardia was smaller in SHR than in Wistar rats and kefir attenuated this abnormality. Spectral analysis revealed increased low frequency components of BP (~3.5-fold) and pulse interval (~2-fold) compared with Wistar rats and these differences were reduced by kefir-treatment to ~1

  15. An Autonomic Link Between Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Impaired Cardiac Performance: Insight From Treadmill and Doubutamine Challenges in Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Short-term exposure to vehicular emissions is associated with adverse cardiac events. Diesel exhaust (DE) is an ubiquitous air pollutant believed to provoke cardiac events partly through imbalance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervo...

  16. Vasopressin responses to unloading arterial baroreceptors during cardiac nerve blockade in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, C. P.; Keil, L. C.; Thrasher, T. N.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the relative contributions of afferent input from the heart and from arterial baroreceptors in the stimulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion in response to hypotension caused by thoracic inferior vena caval constriction (TIVCC). Afferent input from cardiac receptors was reversibly blocked by infusing 2% procaine into the pericardial space to anesthetize the cardiac nerves. Acute cardiac nerve blockade (CNB) alone caused a rise in mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 24 +/- 3 mmHg but no change in plasma AVP. If the rise in MAP was prevented by TIVCC, plasma AVP increased by 39 +/- 15 pg/ml, and if MAP was allowed to increase and then was forced back to control by TIVCC, plasma AVP increased by 34 +/- 15 pg/ml. Thus the rise in MAP during CNB stimulated arterial baroreceptors, which in turn compensated for the loss of inhibitory input from cardiac receptors on AVP secretion. These results indicate that the maximum secretory response resulting from complete unloading of cardiac receptors at a normal MAP results in a mean increase in plasma AVP of 39 pg/ml in this group of dogs. When MAP was reduced 25% below control levels (from 95 +/- 5 to 69 +/- 3 mmHg) by TIVCC during pericardial saline infusion, plasma AVP increased by 79 +/- 42 pg/ml. However, the same degree of hypotension during CNB (MAP was reduced from 120 +/- 5 to 71 +/- 3 mmHg) led to a greater (P less than 0.05) increase in plasma AVP of 130 +/- 33 pg/ml. Because completely unloading cardiac receptors can account for an increase of only 39 pg/ml on average in this group of dogs, the remainder of the increase in plasma AVP must be due to other sources of stimulation. We suggest that the principal stimulus to AVP secretion after acute CNB in these studies arises from unloading the arterial baroreceptors.

  17. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  18. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  19. Sympathetic cardiac hyperinnervation and atrial autonomic imbalance in diet-induced obesity promote cardiac arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Wohaib; Streiff, Cole T.; Houle, Jennifer C.; Woodward, William R.; Giraud, George D.; Brooks, Virginia L.; Habecker, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that obesity-induced cardiac sympathetic outgrowth and hyperinnervation promotes the development of arrhythmic events. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–275 g), fed a high-fat diet (33% kcal/fat), diverged into obesity-resistant (OR) and obesity-prone (OP) groups and were compared with rats fed normal chow (13% kcal/fat; CON). In vitro experiments showed that both OR and OP rats exhibited hyperinnervation of the heart and high sympathetic outgrowth compared with CON rats, even though OR rats are not obese. Despite the hyperinnervation and outgrowth, we showed that, in vivo, OR rats were less susceptible to arrhythmic events after an intravenous epinephrine challenge compared with OP rats. On examining total and stimulus-evoked neurotransmitter levels in an ex vivo system, we demonstrate that atrial acetylcholine content and release were attenuated in OP compared with OR and CON groups. OP rats also expressed elevated atrial norepinephrine content, while norepinephrine release was suppressed. These findings suggest that the consumption of a high-fat diet, even in the absence of overt obesity, stimulates sympathetic outgrowth and hyperinnervation of the heart. However, normalized cardiac parasympathetic nervous system control may protect the heart from arrhythmic events. PMID:24014675

  20. Vagus nerve stimulation: state of the art of stimulation and recording strategies to address autonomic function neuromodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Bonnet, Stéphane; Carrault, Guy; Couderc, Pascal; Hagège, Albert; Henry, Christine; Hernandez, Alfredo; Karam, Nicole; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mabo, Philippe; Maciejasz, Paweł; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Marijon, Eloi; Maubert, Sandrine; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Bonnet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Neural signals along the vagus nerve (VN) drive many somatic and autonomic functions. The clinical interest of VN stimulation (VNS) is thus potentially huge and has already been demonstrated in epilepsy. However, side effects are often elicited, in addition to the targeted neuromodulation. Approach. This review examines the state of the art of VNS applied to two emerging modulations of autonomic function: heart failure and obesity, especially morbid obesity. Main results. We report that VNS may benefit from improved stimulation delivery using very advanced technologies. However, most of the results from fundamental animal studies still need to be demonstrated in humans.

  1. Derangement of autonomic nerve control in rat with right ventricular failure.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, S N.; Ono, K

    2002-06-01

    The effects of right ventricular hypertrophy and eventual right ventricular failure on autonomic nerve regulation of heart rate variability were investigated using rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension. ECG signals were obtained from a radio transmitter placed into the subcutaneous pouch in the back of the male MCT-treated and control rats for 30 min every 6 h at a sample rate of 5 kHz with or without injection of atropine (2 mg/kg I.P.) or propranolol (4 mg/kg I.P.), in a room equipped with a climate controller. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) were analyzed in each group by power spectrograms obtained by the fast-Fourier transform algorithm. The RR interval, total power (TP), low-frequency (LF) power (0.04-0.73 Hz), high-frequency (HF) power (0.73-2 Hz) and LF/HF (L/H) ratio were measured. HR was significantly increased in the MCT-treated rats (P<0.001), which also presented lower HRV than that of the control Wistar rats; TP (P<0.05) and HF (P<0.05) power, but not the L/H ratio, were significantly lower than that of the control rats. Responses of these parameters to a muscarinic antagonist (atropine: 2 mg/kg) and a beta-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol: 4 mg/kg), however, remained intact in the MCT-treated rats. Only the parasympathetic component of autonomic nervous controls of HRV was deranged in rats with MCT-induced right ventricular failure. PMID:12039652

  2. Intracisternal naloxone and cardiac nerve blockade prevent vasodilatation during simulated haemorrhage in awake rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R G; Ludbrook, J; Potocnik, S J

    1989-01-01

    1. Acute haemorrhage was simulated in five unanaesthetized rabbits, by inflating a cuff on the inferior vena cava so that cardiac output fell by 8.3% of its resting level per minute. Simulated haemorrhage was performed after sham treatment, after graded doses of intravenous and intracisternal naloxone, and after cardiac nerve blockade with intrapericardial procaine. 2. After sham treatment, the haemodynamic response to simulated haemorrhage was biphasic. During the first phase, systemic vascular conductance fell steadily, heart rate rose steadily, and arterial pressure fell only slightly. A second decompensatory phase began abruptly when cardiac output had fallen to approximately 55% of its resting level. Vascular conductance rose steeply, heart rate fell slowly, and arterial pressure fell precipitately. 3. Treatment with naloxone (intravenous, 0.04-0.4 mg kg-1; intracisternal, 0.2-2 micrograms kg-1) did not affect either phase of the haemodynamic response to simulated haemorrhage. 4. After treatment with larger doses of naloxone (intravenous, 4-8 mg kg-1; intracisternal, 4-69 micrograms kg-1), the first phase was unaffected, but the second phase no longer occurred. Throughout simulated haemorrhage, systemic vascular conductance fell steadily, heart rate rose, and arterial pressure was well maintained. The dose of intracisternal naloxone which prevented the second phase was 90-900 times less than the corresponding intravenous dose. The second phase was also prevented by cardiac nerve blockade. 5. We conclude that an endogenous opiate mechanism is responsible for the haemodynamic decompensation that occurs when cardiac output falls to a critical level. The mechanism is located within the central nervous system. It is triggered by a signal from the heart. PMID:2585286

  3. Bariatric Surgery Restores Cardiac and Sudomotor Autonomic C-Fiber Dysfunction towards Normal in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, David C.; Wohlgemuth, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to evaluate the impact of bariatric surgery on cardiac and sudomotor autonomic C-fiber function in obese subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using sudorimetry and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Method Patients were evaluated at baseline, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after vertical sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. All subjects were assessed using SudoscanTM to measure electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) of hands and feet, time and frequency domain analysis of HRV, Neurologic Impairment Scores of lower legs (NIS-LL), quantitative sensory tests (QST) and sural nerve conduction studies. Results Seventy subjects completed up to 24-weeks of follow-up (24 non-T2DM, 29 pre-DM and 17 T2DM). ESC of feet improved significantly towards normal in T2DM subjects (Baseline = 56.71±3.98 vs 12-weeks = 62.69±3.71 vs 24-weeks = 70.13±2.88, p<0.005). HRV improved significantly in T2DM subjects (Baseline sdNN (sample difference of the beat to beat (NN) variability) = 32.53±4.28 vs 12-weeks = 44.94±4.18 vs 24-weeks = 49.71±5.19, p<0,001 and baseline rmsSD (root mean square of the difference of successive R-R intervals) = 23.88±4.67 vs 12-weeks = 38.06±5.39 vs 24-weeks = 43.0±6.25, p<0.0005). Basal heart rate (HR) improved significantly in all groups, as did weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, waist circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin and HOMA2-IR (homeostatic model assessment) levels improved significantly in pre-DM and T2DM subjects. On multiple linear regression analysis, feet ESC improvement was independently associated with A1C, insulin and HOMA2-IR levels at baseline, and improvement in A1C at 24 weeks, after adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Sudomotor function improvement was not associated with baseline weight, BMI, % body fat or lipid levels. Improvement in basal HR was also independently associated with A1C, insulin and HOMA2-IR levels at

  4. Afferent fibres from pulmonary arterial baroreceptors in the left cardiac sympathetic nerve of the cat

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, K.; Sakanashi, M.; Takenaka, F.

    1974-01-01

    1. Afferent discharges were recorded from the left cardiac sympathetic nerve or the third sympathetic ramus communicans of anaesthetized cats. Twenty-one single units with baroreceptor activity were obtained. 2. The receptors of each unit were localized to the extrapulmonary part of the pulmonary artery, determined by direct mechanical probing of the wall of the pulmonary artery after death of the animals. Conduction velocity of the fibres ranged from 2·5 to 15·7 m/sec. 3. Afferent discharges occurred irregularly under artificial ventilation. The impulse activity was increased when pulmonary arterial pressure was raised by an intravenous infusion of Locke solution, or by occlusion of lung roots, and decreased by bleeding the animal from the femoral artery. 4. Above a threshold pressure, discharges occurred synchronously with the systolic pressure pulse in the pulmonary artery. A progressive further rise in pressure did not produce an increase in the number of impulses per heart beat. Occlusion of lung roots initially elicited a burst of discharges but the number of impulses for each cardiac cycle gradually decreased. 5. The receptors responded to repetitive mechanical stimuli up to a frequency of 10/sec, but failed to respond to stimuli delivered at 20/sec. 6. The results provide further evidence for the presence of afferent fibres in the cardiac sympathetic nerve. These afferent fibres are likely to provide the spinal cord with specific information only on transient changes in pulmonary arterial pressure. PMID:4850456

  5. Evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy (an evidence-based review).

    PubMed

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Carter, G T; Kinsella, L J; Cohen, J A; Asbury, A K; Szigeti, K; Lupski, J R; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Fisher, M A; Herrmann, D; Howard, J F; Lauria, G; Miller, R G; Polydefkis, M; Sumner, A J

    2009-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common variety of neuropathy. Since the evaluation of this disorder is not standardized, the available literature was reviewed to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy for the assessment of polyneuropathy. A literature review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Current Contents was performed to identify the best evidence regarding the evaluation of polyneuropathy published between 1980 and March 2007. Articles were classified according to a four-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. (1) Autonomic testing may be considered in the evaluation of patients with polyneuropathy to document autonomic nervous system dysfunction (Level B). Such testing should be considered especially for the evaluation of suspected autonomic neuropathy (Level B) and distal small fiber sensory polyneuropathy (SFSN) (Level C). A battery of validated tests is recommended to achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy (Level B). (2) Nerve biopsy is generally accepted as useful in the evaluation of certain neuropathies as in patients with suspected amyloid neuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex due to vasculitis, or with atypical forms of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, the literature is insufficient to provide a recommendation regarding when a nerve biopsy may be useful in the evaluation of DSP (Level U). (3) Skin biopsy is a validated technique for determining intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and may be considered for the diagnosis of DSP, particularly SFSN (Level C). There is a need for additional prospective studies to define more exact guidelines for the evaluation of polyneuropathy. PMID:19086069

  6. Effects of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Pereira, Fernando D; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function in young adult smokers during dynamic exercise. Fourteen healthy young smokers (21.4 ± 3.4 years) performed peak and submaximal exercise protocols under control and smoking conditions. Resting and submaximal beat-to-beat R-R series were recorded and spectrally decomposed using the fast Fourier transformation. Smoking resulted in a significant decrease in work time, VO(2peak) and peak O(2) pulse (P < 0.05). Heart rate increased at rest and during submaximal exercise after smoking (P < 0.05). The raw high frequency and low frequency power were significantly reduced by smoking, both at rest and during exercise (P < 0.05). The low to high frequency ratio was higher after smoking (P < 0.05). The normalised low frequency power was also significantly increased by smoking, but only at rest (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that the tachycardic effect elicited by smoking is accompanied by acute changes in heart rate spectral components both at rest and during exercise. Therefore, the cardiac autonomic control is altered by smoking not only at rest, but also during exercise, resulting in reduced vagal modulation and increased sympathetic dominance. PMID:21547834

  7. Factors influencing the role of cardiac autonomic regulation in the service of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Capuana, Lesley J; Dywan, Jane; Tays, William J; Elmers, Jamie L; Witherspoon, Richelle; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-10-01

    Working from a model of neurovisceral integration, we examined whether adding response contingencies and motivational involvement would increase the need for cardiac autonomic regulation in maintaining effective cognitive control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was recorded during variants of the Stroop color-word task. The Basic task involved "accepting" congruent items and "rejecting" words printed in incongruent colors (BLUE in red font); an added contingency involved rejecting a particular congruent word (e.g., RED in red font), or a congruent word repeated on an immediately subsequent trial. Motivation was increased by adding a financial incentive phase. Results indicate that pre-task RSA predicted accuracy best when response contingencies required the maintenance of a specific item in memory or on the Basic Stroop task when errors resulted in financial loss. Overall, RSA appeared to be most relevant to performance when the task encouraged a more proactive style of cognitive control, a control strategy thought to be more metabolically costly, and hence, more reliant on flexible cardiac autonomic regulation. PMID:25079341

  8. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  9. [Autonomic features in Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tamura, Naotoshi

    2012-04-01

    Nonmotor symptoms such as autonomic and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, are commonly seen in Parkinson disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that PD is accompanied by cardiac sympathetic denervation and constipation even in the early stage. Neuropathological studies confirmed changes in the cardiac sympathetic nerves and the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that PD neuropathology may occur first in the peripheral autonomic pathways and extend to the central autonomic pathways, in agreement with the "Braak theory". This article will reviews the symptoms and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary disturbance, sexual dysfunction, sweating dysfunction, pupillary autonomic dysfunction, and orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in PD patients, and discuss to organ selectiveness in autonomic dysfunction in PD. PMID:22481512

  10. Effect of Yoga on migraine: A comprehensive study using clinical profile and cardiac autonomic functions

    PubMed Central

    Kisan, Ravikiran; Sujan, MU; Adoor, Meghana; Rao, Raghavendra; Nalini, A; Kutty, Bindu M; Chindanda Murthy, BT; Raju, TR; Sathyaprabha, TN

    2014-01-01

    Context and Aims: Migraine is an episodic disabling headache requiring long-term management. Migraine management through Yoga therapy would reduce the medication cost with positive health benefits. Yoga has shown to improve the quality of life, reduce the episode of headache and medication. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Yoga as an adjuvant therapy in migraine patients by assessing clinical outcome and autonomic functions tests. Subjects and Methods: Migraine patients were randomly given either conventional care (n = 30) or Yoga with conventional care (n = 30). Yoga group received Yoga practice session for 5 days a week for 6 weeks along with conventional care. Clinical assessment (frequency, intensity of headache and headache impact) and autonomic function test were done at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results: Yoga with conventional care and convention care groups showed significant improvement in clinical variables, but it was better with Yoga therapy. Improvement in the vagal tone along with reduced sympathetic activity was observed in patients with migraine receiving Yoga as adjuvant therapy. Conclusions: Intervention showed significant clinical improvement in both groups. Headache frequency and intensity were reduced more in Yoga with conventional care than the conventional care group alone. Furthermore, Yoga therapy enhanced the vagal tone and decreased the sympathetic drive, hence improving the cardiac autonomic balance. Thus, Yoga therapy can be effectively incorporated as an adjuvant therapy in migraine patients. PMID:25035622

  11. Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Cardiac Nerves on Atrial Arrhythmia in Experimental Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingyan; Deng, Hongping; Jiang, Xuejun; Dai, Zixuan; Wang, Xiaozhan; Wang, Xule; Guo, Zongwen; Hu, Wei; Yu, Shengbo; Yang, Bo; Tang, Yanhong; Huang, Congxin

    2015-11-01

    Atrial arrhythmia, which includes atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL), is common in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), who often have increased sympathetic nerve activity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that autonomic nerves play important roles in vulnerability to AF/AFL in PAH. The atrial effective refractory period and AF/AFL inducibility at baseline and after anterior right ganglionated plexi ablation were determined during left stellate ganglion stimulation or left renal sympathetic nerve stimulation in beagle dogs with or without PAH. Then, sympathetic nerve, β-adrenergic receptor densities and connexin 43 expression in atrial tissues were assessed. The sum of the window of vulnerability to AF/AFL was increased in the right atrium compared with the left atrium at baseline in the PAH dogs but not in the controls. The atrial effective refractory period dispersion was increased in the control dogs, but not in the PAH dogs, during left stellate ganglion stimulation. The voltage thresholds for inducing AF/AFL during anterior right ganglionated plexi stimulation were lower in the PAH dogs than in the controls. The AF/AFL inducibility was suppressed after ablation of the anterior right ganglionated plexi in the PAH dogs. The PAH dogs had higher sympathetic nerve and β1-adrenergic receptor densities, increased levels of nonphosphorylated connexin 43, and heterogeneous connexin 43 expression in the right atrium when compared with the control dogs. The anterior right ganglionated plexi play important roles in the induction of AF/AFL. AF/AFL induction was associated with right atrium substrate remodeling in dogs with PAH. PMID:26418021

  12. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Parasternal Block for Postoperative Pain Management after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Nilgun Kavrut; Baki, Elif Dogan; Kavakli, Ali Sait; Sahin, Ayca Sultan; Ayoglu, Raif Umut; Karaveli, Arzu; Emmiler, Mustafa; Inanoglu, Kerem; Karsli, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Background. Parasternal block and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) have been demonstrated to produce effective analgesia and reduce postoperative opioid requirements in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of TENS and parasternal block on early postoperative pain after cardiac surgery. Methods. One hundred twenty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled in the present randomized, controlled prospective study. Patients were assigned to three treatment groups: parasternal block, intermittent TENS application, or a control group. Results. Pain scores recorded 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, and 8 h postoperatively were lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. Total morphine consumption was also lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. It was also significantly lower in the TENS group than in the control group. There were no statistical differences among the groups regarding the extubation time, rescue analgesic medication, length of intensive care unit stay, or length of hospital stay. Conclusions. Parasternal block was more effective than TENS in the management of early postoperative pain and the reduction of opioid requirements in patients who underwent cardiac surgery through median sternotomy. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT02725229. PMID:27445610

  13. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Improves Cardiac Function by Preventing Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Obese-Insulin Resistant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Samniang, Bencharunan; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chunchai, Titikorn; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Kumfu, Sirinart; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; KenKnight, Bruce H.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption leads to not only obese-insulin resistance, but also impaired left ventricular (LV) function. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to exert cardioprotection. However, its effects on the heart and metabolic parameters under obese-insulin resistant condition is not known. We determined the effects of VNS on metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV) and LV function in obese-insulin resistant rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HFD for 12 weeks, and were randomly divided into sham and VNS groups. VNS was applied for the next 12 weeks. Echocardiography, blood pressure and HRV were examined. Blood samples were collected for metabolic parameters. At the end, the heart was removed for determination of apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiac mitochondrial function. VNS for 12 weeks significantly decreased plasma insulin, HOMA index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and visceral fat. Serum adiponectin was significantly increased in the VNS group. VNS also significantly decreased blood pressure, improved HRV and LV function, decreased cardiac MDA, TNF-α and Bax levels, and improved cardiac mitochondrial function. VNS improves metabolic and hemodynamic parameters, and the LV function via its ability against apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress, and preserved cardiac mitochondrial function in obese-insulin resistant rats. PMID:26830020

  14. Evaluation of Cardiac Autonomic Functions in Older Parkinson's Disease Patients: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Ahmet; Atmis, Volkan; Cengiz, Ozlem Karaarslan; Cinar, Esat; Aras, Sevgi; Varli, Murat; Atli, Teslime

    2016-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), non-motor symptoms may occur such as autonomic dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in older PD cases. 84 PD cases and 58 controls, for a total of 142, participated in the study. Parasympathetic tests were performed using electrocardiography. Sympathetic tests were assessed by blood pressure measurement and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement. The prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in PD patients was 40.5% in PD patients and 24.1% in the control group (p> 0.05). The prevalence of postprandial hypotension was 47.9% in the PD group and 27.5% in the controls (p <0.05). The prevalence of impairment in heart rate response to deep breathing was 26.2% in the PD group and 6.9% in the control group (p <0.05). The prevalence of postprandial hypotension in PD with orthostatic hypotension was 94% and 16% in PD patients without orthostatic hypotension (p <0.05). The prevalence of impairment in heart rate response to deep breathing was 52.9% in PD patients with orthostatic hypotension and 8% in PD cases without orthostatic hypotension (p<0.05). The prevalence of impairment in heart rate response to postural change was 41% in PD cases with orthostatic hypotension and 12% in PD cases without orthostatic hypotension (p <0.05).Although there are tests for assessing cardiovascular autonomic function that are more reliable, they are more complicated, and evaluation of orthostatic hypotension by blood pressure measurement and cardiac autonomic tests by electrocardiography are recommended since these tests are cheap and easy. PMID:26816661

  15. Analyzing Systolic-Diastolic Interval Interaction Characteristics in Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Progression

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Mohammad Hasan; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN), one of the major complications in diabetes, if detected at the subclinical stage allows for effective treatment and avoiding further complication including cardiovascular pathology. Surface ECG (Electrocardiogram)-based diagnosis of CAN is useful to overcome the limitation of existing cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests traditionally used for CAN identification in clinical settings. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes in the mechanical function of the ventricles in terms of systolic-diastolic interval interaction (SDI) from a surface ECG to assess the severity of CAN progression [no CAN, early CAN (ECAN) or subclinical CAN, and definite CAN (DCAN) or clinical CAN]. ECG signals recorded in supine resting condition from 72 diabetic subjects without CAN (CAN-) and 70 diabetic subjects with CAN were analyzed in this paper. The severity of CAN was determined by Ewing’s Cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests. Fifty-five subjects of the CAN group had ECAN and 15 subjects had DCAN. In this paper, we propose an improved version of the SDI parameter (i.e., TQ/RR interval ratio) measured from the electrical diastolic interval (i.e., TQ interval) and the heart rate interval (i.e., RR interval). The performance of the proposed SDI measure was compared with the performance of the existing SDI measure (i.e., QT/TQ interval ratio). The proposed SDI parameter showed significant differences among three groups (no CAN, ECAN, and DCAN). In addition, the proposed SDI parameter was found to be more sensitive in detecting CAN progression than other ECG interval-based features traditionally used for CAN diagnosis. The modified SDI parameter might be used as an alternative measure for the Ewing autonomic reflex tests to identify CAN progression for those subjects who are unable to perform the traditional tests. These findings could also complement the echocardiographic findings of the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction by providing

  16. Analysis of autonomic nerve preservation and pouch reconstruction influencing fragmentation of defecation after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, K; Sumi, T; Enomoto, M; Mori, Y; Aoki, T

    2010-01-01

    Our questionnaire survey on defecation disorders after rectal cancer surgery revealed that 66.7% of postoperative patients were most annoyed with fragmentation of defecation. Therefore, we performed a change-over-time analysis on the relationship of fragmentation and factors including location of rectal cancer, surgical technique, anastomosis method, pouch reconstruction, extent of lymph node dissection, and degree of pelvic and colonic nerve preservation surrounding the superior mesenteric artery. The fragmentation decreased over time at the postoperative time points of 6 months, 2 and 5 years. A statistical analysis of factors influencing fragmentation revealed that location of cancer, reconstruction technique, anastomosis method and degree of pelvic nerve preservation were significant factors for the entire patient population and that colonic nerve preservation was a significant factor 5 years after surgery. Analysis of patients with lower rectal cancer only showed that in addition to surgical technique and anastomosis method, pouch reconstruction was effective and autonomic nerve preservation was effective 5 years after surgery. As a result, when the anastomotic site was closer to the anus, the frequency of fragmentation increased; we concluded that pouch reconstruction was an effective surgical technique and colonic nerve preservation was effective in the longer term. PMID:21051900

  17. Influences of casein hydrolysate ingestion on cerebral activity, autonomic nerve activity, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hirohiko; Iwamoto, Mario; Washida, Kenji; Sekine, Kazunori; Takase, Mitsunori; Park, Bum-Jin; Morikawa, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influences of the oral ingestion of casein hydrolysate from bovine milk at rest physiologically and psychologically. Eleven male university students were given a casein hydrolysate drink (H) or a maltitol drink as a control (C) in a crossover study. Just before and one hour after ingestion of each drink, the total-hemoglobin (tHb) concentrations at ten points of the prefrontal cortex to evaluate cerebral activity, and heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate autonomic nerve activity through spectral analysis were measured as physiological indicators. The Japanese version of the State--Trait Anxiety Inventory--state anxiety (STAI-s) score was also used, as a psychological indicator. In comparison between H and C ingestion, a significant difference is observed only in tHb concentrations at one of ten points. At this point, the change in tHb concentration was lower after H ingestion compared to C ingestion. And in comparison between before and after ingestion of each drink, a significant increase in tHb concentration at two points after C ingestion, a significant increase in parasympathetic activity and decrease in sympathetic activity after H ingestion, and a significant decrease in STAI-s score in H ingestion were observed. These results suggest that ingestion of the casein hydrolysate may keep prefrontal cortex activity stable while maltitol ingestion partially increases the activity. Moreover, there is a possibility that casein hydrolysate might decrease sympathetic activity, increase parasympathetic activity, and lower anxiety. We conclude that the bovine milk casein hydrolysate may have more relaxing effects than maltitol. PMID:20558968

  18. Self-esteem and autonomic physiology: parallels between self-esteem and cardiac vagal tone as buffers of threat.

    PubMed

    Martens, Andy; Greenberg, Jeff; Allen, John J B

    2008-11-01

    In this article a potential physiological connection to self-esteem is suggested: cardiac vagal tone, the degree of influence on the heart by the vagus, a primary nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system. This hypothesis emerges from parallels between the two literatures that suggest both self-esteem and cardiac vagal tone function to provide protection from threat responding. This article reviews these literatures and evidence and preliminary findings that suggest in some contexts self-esteem and cardiac vagal tone may exert an influence on each other. Last, the article discusses theoretical and applied health implications of this potential physiological connection to self-esteem. PMID:18927472

  19. How to Calculate Renyi Entropy from Heart Rate Variability, and Why it Matters for Detecting Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Cornforth, David J.;  Tarvainen, Mika P.; Jelinek, Herbert F.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a disease that involves nerve damage leading to an abnormal control of heart rate. An open question is to what extent this condition is detectable from heart rate variability (HRV), which provides information only on successive intervals between heart beats, yet is non-invasive and easy to obtain from a three-lead ECG recording. A variety of measures may be extracted from HRV, including time domain, frequency domain, and more complex non-linear measures. Among the latter, Renyi entropy has been proposed as a suitable measure that can be used to discriminate CAN from controls. However, all entropy methods require estimation of probabilities, and there are a number of ways in which this estimation can be made. In this work, we calculate Renyi entropy using several variations of the histogram method and a density method based on sequences of RR intervals. In all, we calculate Renyi entropy using nine methods and compare their effectiveness in separating the different classes of participants. We found that the histogram method using single RR intervals yields an entropy measure that is either incapable of discriminating CAN from controls, or that it provides little information that could not be gained from the SD of the RR intervals. In contrast, probabilities calculated using a density method based on sequences of RR intervals yield an entropy measure that provides good separation between groups of participants and provides information not available from the SD. The main contribution of this work is that different approaches to calculating probability may affect the success of detecting disease. Our results bring new clarity to the methods used to calculate the Renyi entropy in general, and in particular, to the successful detection of CAN. PMID:25250311

  20. Physical training induced resting bradycardia and its association with cardiac autonomic nervous activities.

    PubMed

    Alom, M M; Bhuiyan, N I; Hossain, M M; Hoque, M F; Rozario, R J; Nessa, W

    2011-10-01

    Regular physical exercise causes resting bradycardia. This exercise-induced resting bradycardia may be associated with exercise-induced changes in Cardiac autonomic nervous activities (CANA). Power Spectral Analysis (PSA) of Heart rate variability (HRV) is one of the most promising new techniques to quantify CANA. Regular physical exercise induced bradycardia is associated with exercise-induced adaptation in CANA. To observe the HRV parameters by frequency domain method (PSA), in male adolescent athletes in order to find out the influence of regular physical exercise on resting heart rate (HR) and CANA. The cross sectional study was carried out on 62 adolescent male athletes aged 12-18 years (group B), in the Department of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from 1st July 2007 to 30th June 2008. For comparison 30 age, sex and socioeconomic condition matched apparently healthy sedentary subjects (group A) were also studied. The study group was selected from the BKSP (Bangladesh Krira Shikka Prothistan, Savar, Dhaka) and the control from a residential school of Dhaka city. HRV parameters were assessed by Polygraph (Polyrite D, version 2.2). For statistical analysis Independent-Samples t-test was done as applicable. Resting mean HR was significantly (p<0.001) lower in the athletes. The mean value of Total (variance), VLF, LF and HF power was significantly (p<0.001) higher in athletes than that of non-athetes. Regular physical exercise-induced resting bradycardia is associated with exercise-induced adaptation in cardiac autonomic nervous activities. PMID:22081187

  1. P-wave dispersion: an indicator of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in children with neurocardiogenic syncope.

    PubMed

    Köse, Melis Demir; Bağ, Özlem; Güven, Barış; Meşe, Timur; Öztürk, Aysel; Tavlı, Vedide

    2014-04-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope is the most frequent cause of fainting in childhood and adolescence. Although head-up tilt table testing (HUTT) was previously considered as the reference standard in the diagnosis of syncope, in children with a typical history of reflex syncope, normal physical examination, and electrocardiogram (ECG) are sufficient to cease investigation; however, according to recent reports, TT is indicated in patients in whom this diagnosis cannot be proven by initial evaluation. The hypothesis of this study is that P-wave dispersion (PWD) can be a useful electrocardiographic predictor of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in children with vasovagal syncope (VVS). The study was designed prospectively and included 50 children with positive and 50 children with negative HUTT who presented with at least two previous unexplained episodes of syncope as well as 50 sex- and age-matched healthy children as the control group. All standard 12-lead ECGs were obtained in patients and controls, and the difference between maximum and minimum durations of the P wave was defined as the PWD. A total of 100 children with VVS and 50 healthy controls were evaluated for the study. The P maximum values of HUTT-positive (HUTT[+]) patients were significantly greater than those in the HUTT-negative (HUTT[-]) and control groups(p < 0.05). In addition, mean PWD values were 50.2 ± 18.5, 39.6 ± 11.2 and 32.0 ± 11.2 ms in the HUTT(+), HUTT(-), and control groups, respectively. The difference between groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). We suggest that PWD is an early sign of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in children with neurally mediated syncope and can be used as a noninvasive electrocardiographic test to evaluate orthostatic intolerance syndromes. PMID:24633236

  2. Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation as Modifiers of Cardiac Autonomic Responses to Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Eum, Ki-Do; Fang, Shona C.; Rodrigues, Ema G.; Modest, Geoffrey A.; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation on the association between personal exposures to ambient fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and cardiac autonomic dysfunction, indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV), has not been examined. Methods We performed a repeated measures study on community adults in a densely populated inner city neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. Continuous ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and personal exposure to PM2.5 were measured for up to two consecutive days. Peripheral blood and spot urine samples were collected at 12-hour intervals for the measurements of markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts as well as for the analysis of urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage. Results After adjusting for confounders, we found a pronounced decrease in nighttime standard deviation of normal-to normal intervals (SDNN): an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5 (13.6 μg/m3) was associated with an 8.4% decrease in SDNN (95% CI: −11.3 to −5.5). Compared with the lower eightieth percentile, significantly greater PM2.5 associated nighttime SDNN reductions were observed among subjects in the upper twentieth percentile of 8-OHdG by −25.3%, CRP by −24.9%, fibrinogen by −28.7%, WBC by −23.4%, and platelet counts by −24.0% (all P < 0.0001; all Pinteraction <0.01). Conclusions These data suggest that oxidative stress and systemic inflammation exacerbate the adverse effects of PM2.5 on the cardiac autonomic function even at ambient levels of exposure. PMID:25074558

  3. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients

    PubMed Central

    Sujan, M. U.; Rao, M. Raghavendra; Kisan, Ravikiran; Abhishekh, Hulegar A.; Nalini, Atchayaram; Raju, Trichur R.; Sathyaprabha, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head) in migraine patients. Methods: Forty chronic migraine patients fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient clinic. Patients were randomized to receive either hydrotherapy plus conventional pharmacological care (n = 20) or conventional medication only (n = 20). Hydrotherapy group received treatment with hot arm and foot bath (103°F to 110°F) and ice massage to head daily for 20 min for 45 days. Patients were assessed using headache impact test (HIT), visual analog scale for pain and cardiac autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV) before and after intervention period. Results: There was a significant decrease in HIT score, frequency, and intensity of headaches following treatment in both the groups. However, it was more evident in add on hydrotherapy group compared to pharmacological treatment alone group. There was also significant improvement in the HRV parameters. In particular, there was a significant decrease in heart rate (P = 0.017), increase in high frequency (HF) (P = 0.014) and decrease in low frequency/HF ratio (P = 0.004) in add on hydrotherapy group. Conclusion: Our study shows that add on hydrotherapy enhanced the vagal tone in addition to reducing the frequency and intensity of headaches in migraine patients. PMID:26933356

  4. Cardiac Autonomic Function in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Kung, Woon-Man; Chou, Yi-Sheng; Wang, Yao-Chin; Tai, Hsu-Chih; Wei, James Cheng-Chung

    2016-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involing spine and enthesis. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and the association between ANS and the functional status or disease activity in AS.The study included 42 AS patients, all fulfilling the modified New York criteria. All the patients are totally symptom free for ANS involvement and had normal neurological findings. These AS patients and 230 healthy volunteers receive analysis of 5 minutes heart rate variability (HRV) in lying posture. In addition, disease activity and functional status of these AS patients are assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G).Both groups were age and sex-matched. Although the HRV analysis indicates that the peaks of total power (TP, 0-0.5 Hz) and high-frequency power (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) are similar in both groups, the activities of low-frequency power (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz), LF in normalized units (LF%), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) in AS patients are obviously lower than healthy controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein revealed negative relationship with HF. The AS patients without peripheral joint disease have higher LF, TP, variance, LF%, and HF than the patients with peripheral joint disease. The AS patients without uvetis have higher HF than the patients with uvetis. The total scores of BASDI, BASFI, and BAS-G do not show any association to HRV parameters.AS patients have significantly abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation. This is closely related with some inflammatory activities. Reduced autonomic function may be one of the factors of high cardiovascular risk in AS patients. PMID:27227940

  5. Distinctive cardiac autonomic dysfunction following stress exposure in both sexes in an animal model of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Koresh, Ori; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Matar, Michael A; Geva, Amir B; Cohen, Hagit

    2016-07-15

    It is unclear whether the poor autonomic flexibility or dysregulation observed in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a pre-trauma vulnerability factor or results from exposure to trauma. We used an animal model of PTSD to assess the association between the behavioral response to predator scent stress (PSS) and the cardiac autonomic modulation in male and female rats. The rats were surgically implanted with radiotelemetry devices to measure their electrocardiograms and locomotor activity (LMA). Following baseline telemetric monitoring, the animals were exposed to PSS or sham-PSS. Continuous telemetric monitoring (24h/day sampling) was performed over the course of 7days. The electrocardiographic recordings were analyzed using the time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability (HRV). The behavioral response patterns were assessed using the elevated plus maze and acoustic startle response paradigms for the retrospective classification of individuals according to the PTSD-related cut-off behavioral criteria. During resting conditions, the male rats had significantly higher heart rates (HR) and lower HRV parameters than the female rats during both the active and inactive phases of the daily cycle. Immediately after PSS exposure, both the female and male rats demonstrated a robust increase in HR and a marked drop in HRV parameters, with a shift of sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance. In both sexes, autonomic system habituation and recovery were selectively inhibited in the rats whose behavior was extremely disrupted after exposure to PSS. However, in the female rats, exposure to the PSS produced fewer EBR rats, with a more rapid recovery curve than that of the male rats. PSS did not induce changes to the circadian rhythm of the LMA. According to our results, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder that is related to failure-of-recovery mechanisms that impede the restitution of physiological homeostasis. PMID

  6. Low-Level Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reverses Cardiac Dysfunction and Subcellular Calcium Handling in Rats With Post-Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhe; Chen, Ao; Song, Lei; Li, Min; Luo, Zhangyuan; Zhang, Wenzan; Chen, Yingmin; He, Ben

    2016-05-25

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), targeting the imbalanced autonomic nervous system, is a promising therapeutic approach for chronic heart failure (HF). Moreover, calcium cycling is an important part of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), which also participates in the antiarrhythmic effects of VNS. We hypothesized that low-level VNS (LL-VNS) could improve cardiac function by regulation of intracellular calcium handling properties. The experimental HF model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups as follows; control group (sham operated without coronary ligation, n = 10), HF-VNS group (HF rats with VNS, n = 12), and HF-SS group (HF rats with sham nerve stimulation, n = 10). After 8 weeks of treatment, LL-VNS significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and attenuated myocardial interstitial fibrosis in the HF-VNS group compared with the HF-SS group. Elevated plasma norepinephrine and dopamine, but not epinephrine, were partially reduced by LL-VNS. Additionally, LL-VNS restored the protein and mRNA levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a), Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1), and phospholamban (PLB) whereas the expression of ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) as well as mRNA level was unaffected. Thus, our study results suggest that the improvement of cardiac performance by LL-VNS is accompanied by the reversal of dysfunctional calcium handling properties including SERCA2a, NCX1, and PLB which may be a potential molecular mechanism of VNS for HF. PMID:27181040

  7. Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Acute Exposures to Airborne Particulates in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, M. S.; Schlegel, T. T.; Knapp, C. F.; Patwardhan, A. R.; Jenkins, R. A.; Ilgner, R. H.; Evans, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate cardiac autonomic changes associated with acute exposures to airborne particulates. Methods: High fidelity 12-lead ECG (CardioSoft, Houston, TX) was acquired from 19 (10 male / 9 female) non-smoking volunteers (age 33.6 +/- 6.6 yrs) during 10 minutes pre-exposure, exposure and post-exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), cooking oil fumes, wood smoke and sham (water vapor). To control exposure levels, noise, subject activity, and temperature, all studies were conducted inside an environmental chamber. Results: The short-term fractal scaling exponent (Alpha-1) and the ratio of low frequency to high frequency Heart Rate Variability (HRV) powers (LF/HF, a purported sympathetic index) were both higher in males (p<0.017 and p<0.05, respectively) whereas approximate entropy (ApEn) and HF/(LF+HF) (a purported parasympathetic index) were both lower in males (p<0.036, and p<0.044, respectively). Compared to pre-exposure (p<0.0002) and sham exposure (p<0.047), male heart rates were elevated during early ETS post-exposure. Our data suggest that, in addition to tonic HRV gender differences, cardiac responses to some acute airborne particulates are gender related.

  8. [Effect of aerobic training on cardiac autonomic regulation revealed by heart rate variability analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wang, S; Zhang, Z; Zheng, J; Wang, X

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to elucidate the effect of aerobiac training on cardic autonomic function and to clarify whether there is any association between the changes in cardiac regulation and the heart rate dynamics and orthostatic tolerance during LBNP testing. To achieve this, the heart rate variability (HRV) signals obtained from a group of eight students before and after a 6-mon aerobic training, as well as from six athletes (medium- and long distance runners) were analyzed by conventional spectral, dynamic spectral and non-linear analysis. Our results showed that the conventional AR spectral analysis could not provide data with significance, owing to its greater variance and inherent limitation in being able to reflect only the average statistical characters over a certain period. While from the data obtained by use of the time-varying AR spectral analysis we could follow the time course of cardiac vagal withdrawl and sympathetic excitation during LBNP exposure. Regarding the non linear methods used, beta estimates didn't provide any significant result, but the ApEn analysis of the HRV signal could detect subtle changes in heart rate dynamics associated with aerobic training. Moreover, after aerobic training, the increments delta ApEn and delta DNP during LB NP testing were closely correlated. Our results would have important implications for further work in elucidating the effect of aerobic training on heart rate dynamics and improving the work on HRV signal analysis. PMID:10322949

  9. The onset and rate of myelination in six peripheral and autonomic nerves of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, K; Friede, R L

    1988-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study was carried out of the numbers of myelinated fibres in 6 nerves of the rat for 7 age groups from birth to 73 weeks. The hypoglossal nerve and the mandibular branch of the facial nerve had short and early myelination periods, essentially complete by the second week. The glossopharyngeal nerve and the sympathetic rami communicantes myelinated late and over a protracted period. Myelination of the rami communicantes continued up to 20 weeks, followed by a marked loss of fibres in the 73 week animals. Intercostal and saphenous nerves had intermediary patterns. There was evidence of subpopulations myelinating at different times. Measurements of myelin sheath thickness showed variations of relative sheath thickness with age, between nerves and for subpopulations of nerves. Late myelination corresponded to relatively thin myelin sheaths. Statistical two-stage-density cluster analysis by computer was used for analysing complex fibre populations. The developmental changes of three subpopulations of the intercostal nerve are documented. Nerves also differed in their rates of axon growth. The increment in axon calibre was small and late for sympathetic fibres. Intercostal and facial nerve fibres had rapid axon growth with different growth rates for subpopulations. PMID:3248966

  10. Vagus nerve stimulation mitigates intrinsic cardiac neuronal remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic pressure overload in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Eric; Wright, Gary L; Southerland, Elizabeth M; Li, Ying; Chui, Ray; KenKnight, Bruce H; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2016-05-15

    Our objective was to determine whether chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) mitigates pressure overload (PO)-induced remodeling of the cardioneural interface. Guinea pigs (n = 48) were randomized to right or left cervical vagus (RCV or LCV) implant. After 2 wk, chronic left ventricular PO was induced by partial (15-20%) aortic constriction. Of the 31 animals surviving PO induction, 10 were randomized to RCV VNS, 9 to LCV VNS, and 12 to sham VNS. VNS was delivered at 20 Hz and 1.14 ± 0.03 mA at a 22% duty cycle. VNS commenced 10 days after PO induction and was maintained for 40 days. Time-matched controls (n = 9) were evaluated concurrently. Echocardiograms were obtained before and 50 days after PO. At termination, intracellular current-clamp recordings of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons were studied in vitro to determine effects of therapy on soma characteristics. Ventricular cardiomyocyte sizes were assessed with histology along with immunoblot analysis of selected proteins in myocardial tissue extracts. In sham-treated animals, PO increased cardiac output (34%, P < 0.004), as well as systolic (114%, P < 0.04) and diastolic (49%, P < 0.002) left ventricular volumes, a hemodynamic response prevented by VNS. PO-induced enhancements of IC synaptic efficacy and muscarinic sensitivity of IC neurons were mitigated by chronic VNS. Increased myocyte size, which doubled in PO (P < 0.05), was mitigated by RCV. PO hypertrophic myocardium displayed decreased glycogen synthase (GS) protein levels and accumulation of the phosphorylated (inactive) form of GS. These PO-induced changes in GS were moderated by left VNS. Chronic VNS targets IC neurons accompanying PO to obtund associated adverse cardiomyocyte remodeling. PMID:26993230

  11. The Relationship between Expressive/Suppressive Hostility Behavior and Cardiac Autonomic Activations in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Mei; Weng, Chia-Ying; Lin, Tin-Kwang; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2015-01-01

    Background Hostility is an important psychosocial risk factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). Expressive and suppressive hostility behaviors are related to cardiovascular response in healthy adults. However, the relationships of these behavioral dimensions to cardiac autonomic activations in CAD remain unclear. Method This study involved 76 patients with CAD to whom a hostility inventory was administered, who were instructed to recall a neutral event and an anger-related event. Heart rate and blood pressure were obtained for each patient as the indices of cardiovascular response; heart rate variability was transformed from electrocardiograph and as the indices of cardiac autonomic activation. Results The results showed that CAD patients with expressive hostility behavior experienced higher cardiovascular autonomic activations during the neutral and anger recall tasks, and lower parasympathetic activations during the recovery after an anger episode. On the other hand, CAD patients with suppressive hostility behavior experienced both sympathetic and parasympathetic activations during the baseline and recovery stages, as well as simultaneously activated higher parasympathetic response. Conclusions The results of this study suggested that it is appropriate to extend the cardiac autonomic activation model for expressive and suppressive hostility behaviors in patients with CAD. PMID:27122887

  12. Guanfacine enhances cardiac acetylcholine release with little effect on norepinephrine release in anesthetized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuji; Kawada, Toru; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Turner, Michael James; Shishido, Toshiaki; Kamiya, Atsunori; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    An α2A-adrenergic agonist guanfacine improves autonomic imbalance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, suggesting that it may be useful to correct autonomic imbalance in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. To investigate the effects of guanfacine on cardiac autonomic nerve activities, a microdialysis technique was applied to anesthetized rabbit heart. Acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations in atrial dialysates were measured as indices of cardiac autonomic nerve activities. Guanfacine at a dose of 100 μg/kg significantly decreased heart rate and increased dialysate ACh concentration without decreasing sympathetic NE release. Guanfacine may be useful for vagal activation therapy in CHF patients. PMID:25498385

  13. Anatomical basis and clinical research of pelvic autonomic nerve preservation with laparoscopic radical resection for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Lu, Xiao-ming; Tao, Kai-xiong; Ma, Jian-hua; Cai, Kai-lin; Wang, Lin-fang; Niu, Yan-feng; Wang, Guo-bin

    2016-04-01

    The clinical effect of laparoscopic rectal cancer curative excision with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) was investigated. This study evaluated the frequency of urinary and sexual dysfunction of 149 male patients with middle and low rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic or open total mesorectal excision with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) from March 2011 to March 2013. Eighty-four patients were subjected to laparoscopic surgery, and 65 to open surgery respectively. The patients were followed up for 12 months, interviewed, and administered a standardized questionnaire about postoperative functional outcomes and quality of life. In the laparoscopic group, 13 patients (18.37%) presented transitory postoperative urinary dysfunction, and were medically treated. So did 12 patients (21.82%) in open group. Sexual desire was maintained by 52.86%, un-ability to engage in intercourse by 47.15%, and un-ability to achieve orgasm and ejaculation by 34.29% of the patients in the laparoscopic group. Sexual desire was maintained by 56.36%, un-ability to engage in intercourse by 43.63%, and un-ability to achieve orgasm and ejaculation by 33.73% of the patients in the open group. No significant differences in urinary and sexual dysfunction between the laparoscopic and open rectal resection groups were observed (P>0.05). It was concluded that laparoscopic rectal cancer radical excision with PANP did not aggravate or improve sexual and urinary dysfunction. PMID:27072964

  14. Impact of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of referees.

    PubMed

    Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Abreu, Laurinda; Tuimil, José Luis; Leicht, Anthony Scott

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) in soccer referees. Sixteen Spanish regional and third division referees (11 males: 26 ± 7 years, 74.4 ± 4.1 kg, 178 ± 3 cm, Yo-Yo IR1 ~600-1,560 m; 5 females: 22 ± 3 years, 59.3 ± 4.8 kg, 158 ± 8 cm, Yo-Yo IR1 ~200-520 m) participated with 24-h HR recordings measured with a Polar RS800 during a rest and a match day. Autonomic control of HR was assessed from HR variability (HRV) analysis. Inclusion of a soccer match (92.5% spent at >75% maximum HR) reduced pre-match (12:00-17:00 hours; small to moderate), post-match (19:00-00:00 hours; moderate to almost perfect), and night-time (00:00-05:00 hours; small to moderate) HRV. Various moderate-to-large correlations were detected between resting HRV and the rest-to-match day difference in HRV. The rest-to-match day differences of low and high-frequency bands ratio (LF/HF) and HR in the post-match period were moderately correlated with time spent at different exercise intensities. Yo-Yo IR1 performance was highly correlated with jump capacity and peak lactate, but not with any HRV parameter. These results suggest that a greater resting HRV may allow referees to tolerate stresses during a match day with referees who spent more time at higher intensities during matches exhibiting a greater LF/HF increment in the post-match period. The relationship between match activities, [Formula: see text] and HR recovery kinetics in referees and team sport athletes of different competitive levels remains to be clarified. PMID:21997680

  15. Is baseline cardiac autonomic modulation related to performance and physiological responses following a supramaximal Judo test?

    PubMed

    Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Martínez-Navarro, Ignacio; Mateo-March, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Little research exists concerning Heart Rate (HR) Variability (HRV) following supramaximal efforts focused on upper-body explosive strength-endurance. Since they may be very demanding, it seems of interest to analyse the relationship among performance, lactate and HR dynamics (i.e. HR, HRV and complexity) following them; as well as to know how baseline cardiac autonomic modulation mediates these relationships. The present study aimed to analyse associations between baseline and post-exercise HR dynamics following a supramaximal Judo test, and their relationship with lactate, in a sample of 22 highly-trained male judoists (20.70±4.56 years). A large association between the increase in HR from resting to exercise condition and performance suggests that individuals exerted a greater sympathetic response to achieve a better performance (Rating of Perceived Exertion: 20; post-exercise peak lactate: 11.57±2.24 mmol/L; 95.76±4.13 % of age-predicted HR(max)). Athletes with higher vagal modulation and lower sympathetic modulation at rest achieved both a significant larger ∆HR and a faster post-exercise lactate removal. A enhanced resting parasympathetic modulation might be therefore related to a further usage of autonomic resources and a better immediate metabolic recovery during supramaximal exertions. Furthermore, analyses of variance displayed a persistent increase in α₁ and a decrease in lnRMSSD along the 15 min of recovery, which are indicative of a diminished vagal modulation together with a sympathovagal balance leaning to sympathetic domination. Eventually, time-domain indices (lnRMSSD) showed no lactate correlations, while nonlinear indices (α₁ and lnSaEn) appeared to be moderate to strongly correlated with it, thus pointing to shared mechanisms between neuroautonomic and metabolic regulation. PMID:24205273

  16. Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Toddlers - Resting and Developmental Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nicole R; Caron, Zoe K; Blackburn, Katherine S; Alkon, Abbey

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) consists of two branches, the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, and controls the function of internal organs (e.g., heart rate, respiration, digestion) and responds to everyday and adverse experiences (1). ANS measures in children have been found to be related to behavior problems, emotion regulation, and health (2-7). Therefore, understanding the factors that affect ANS development during early childhood is important. Both branches of the ANS affect young children's cardiovascular responses to stimuli and have been measured noninvasively, via external monitoring equipment, using valid and reliable measures of physiological change (8-11). However, there are few studies of very young children with simultaneous measures of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, which limits understanding of the integrated functioning of the two systems. In addition, the majority of existing studies of young children report on infants' resting ANS measures or their reactivity to commonly used mother-child interaction paradigms, and less is known about ANS reactivity to other challenging conditions. We present a study design and standardized protocol for a non-invasive and rapid assessment of cardiac autonomic control in 18 month old children. We describe methods for continuous monitoring of the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the ANS under resting and challenge conditions during a home or laboratory visit and provide descriptive findings from our sample of 140 ethnically diverse toddlers using validated equipment and scoring software. Results revealed that this protocol can produce a range of physiological responses to both resting and developmentally challenging conditions, as indicated by changes in heart rate and indices of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. Individuals demonstrated variability in resting levels, responses to challenges, and challenge reactivity, which provides additional evidence

  17. Metabolic and cardiac autonomic effects of high-intensity resistance training protocol in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Deus, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Claudio Ricardo; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Baldissera, Vilmar; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; Rossi, Bruno Rafael Orsini; de Sousa, Hugo Celso Dutra; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of metabolic and autonomic nervous control on high-intensity resistance training (HRT) as determined by pancreatic glucose sensitivity (GS), insulin sensitivity (IS), blood lactate ([La]), and heart rate variability (HRV) in rats. Thirty male, albino Wistar rats (292 ± 20 g) were divided into 3 groups: sedentary control (SC), low-resistance training (LRT), and HRT. The animals in the HRT group were submitted to a high-resistance protocol with a progressively increasing load relative to body weight until exhaustion, whereas the LRT group performed the same exercise regimen with no load progression. The program was conducted 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The [La], parameters related to the functionality of pancreatic tissue, and HRV were measured. There was a significant increase in peak [La] only in the HRT group, but there was a reduction in [La] when corrected to the maximal load in both trained groups (LRT and HRT, p < 0.05). Both trained groups exhibited an increase in IS; however, compared with SC and LRT, HRT demonstrated a significantly higher GS posttraining (p < 0.05). With respect to HRV, the low-frequency (LF) band, in milliseconds squared, reduced in both trained groups, but the high-frequency band, in milliseconds squared and nu, increased, and the LF in nu, decreased only in the HRT group (p < 0.05). The HRT protocol produced significant and beneficial metabolic and cardiac autonomic adaptations. These results provide evidence for the positive benefits of HRT in counteracting metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:22067239

  18. Leptin Receptor Signaling in the Hypothalamus Regulates Hepatic Autonomic Nerve Activity via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Morgan, Donald A.; Kurata, Yasutaka; Shibamoto, Toshishige

    2015-01-01

    Leptin action in the brain has emerged as an important regulator of liver function independently from its effects on food intake and body weight. The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in the regulation of physiological processes by leptin. Here, we used direct recording of nerve activity from sympathetic or vagal nerves subserving the liver to investigate how brain action of leptin controls hepatic autonomic nerve activity. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of leptin activated hepatic sympathetic traffic in rats and mice in dose- and receptor-dependent manners. The hepatic sympatho-excitatory effects of leptin were also observed when leptin was microinjected directly into the arcuate nucleus (ARC), but not into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Moreover, using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that leptin-induced increase in hepatic sympathetic outflow depends on PI3K but not AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), STAT3, or ERK1/2. Interestingly, ICV leptin also increased hepatic vagal nerve activity in rats. We show that this response is reproduced by intra-ARC, but not intra-VMH, leptin administration and requires PI3K and AMPK. We conclude that central leptin signaling conveys the information to the liver through the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Our data also provide important insight into the molecular events underlying leptin's control of hepatic autonomic nerve activity by implicating PI3K and AMPK pathways. PMID:25589743

  19. Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Klusek, Jessica; Roberts, Jane E.; Losh, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significance of efforts to understand the biological basis of autism, progress in this area has been hindered, in part, by the considerable heterogeneity in the disorder. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a monogenic condition associated with high risk for autism, may pave the way for the dissection of biological heterogeneity within idiopathic autism. This paper adopts a cross-syndrome biomarker approach to evaluate potentially overlapping profiles of cardiac arousal dysregulation (and broader autonomic dysfunction) in autism and FXS. Approaches such as this, aimed at delineating shared mechanisms across genetic syndromes, hold great potential for improving diagnostic precision, promoting earlier identification, and uncovering key systems that can be targeted in pharmaceutical/behavioral interventions. Biomarker approaches may be vital to deconstructing complex psychiatric disorders, and are currently promoted as such by major research initiatives such as the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Evidence reviewed here supports physiological dysregulation in a subset of individuals with autism, as evidenced by patterns of hyperarousal and dampened parasympathetic vagal tone, which overlap with the well-documented physiological profile of FXS. Moreover, there is growing support for a link between aberrant cardiac activity and core deficits associated with autism, such as communication and social impairment. The delineation of physiological mechanisms common to autism and FXS could lend insight into relationships between genetic etiology and behavioral endstates, highlighting FMR1 as a potential candidate gene. Research gaps and potential pitfalls are discussed to inform timely, well-controlled biomarker research that will ultimately promote better diagnosis and treatment of autism and associated conditions. PMID:25420222

  20. Cardiac autonomic regulation in autism and Fragile X syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Klusek, Jessica; Roberts, Jane E; Losh, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of efforts to understand the biological basis of autism, progress in this area has been hindered, in part, by the considerable heterogeneity in the disorder. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a monogenic condition associated with high risk for autism, may pave the way for the dissection of biological heterogeneity within idiopathic autism. This article adopts a cross-syndrome biomarker approach to evaluate potentially overlapping profiles of cardiac arousal dysregulation (and broader autonomic dysfunction) in autism and FXS. Approaches such as this, aimed at delineating shared mechanisms across genetic syndromes, hold great potential for improving diagnostic precision, promoting earlier identification, and uncovering key systems that can be targeted in pharmaceutical/behavioral interventions. Biomarker approaches may be vital to deconstructing complex psychiatric disorders and are currently promoted as such by major research initiatives such as the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Evidence reviewed here supports physiological dysregulation in a subset of individuals with autism, as evidenced by patterns of hyperarousal and dampened parasympathetic vagal tone that overlap with the well-documented physiological profile of FXS. Moreover, there is growing support for a link between aberrant cardiac activity and core deficits associated with autism, such as communication and social impairment. The delineation of physiological mechanisms common to autism and FXS could lend insight into relationships between genetic etiology and behavioral endstates, highlighting FMR1 as a potential candidate gene. Research gaps and potential pitfalls are discussed to inform timely, well-controlled biomarker research that will ultimately promote better diagnosis and treatment of autism and associated conditions. PMID:25420222

  1. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence

    PubMed Central

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R.; Baker, Fiona C.; Sugarbaker, David S.; Colrain, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4-month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  2. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R; Baker, Fiona C; Sugarbaker, David S; Colrain, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4 month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  3. Modulation of sphingosine receptors influences circadian pattern of cardiac autonomic regulation.

    PubMed

    Simula, Sakari; Laitinen, Tomi P; Laitinen, Tiina M; Hartikainen, Päivi; Hartikainen, Juha E K

    2016-09-01

    Fingolimod is an oral sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) receptor modulator for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In addition to therapeutic effects on lymphoid and neural tissue, fingolimod influences cardiovascular system by specific S1P-receptor modulation. The effects of S1P-receptor modulation on the endogenous circadian pattern of cardiac autonomic regulation (CAR), however, are not known. We examined the effects of fingolimod on the circadian pattern of CAR Ambulatory 24-h ECG recordings were undertaken in 27 RRMS patients before fingolimod (baseline), at the day of fingolimod initiation (1D) and after 3 months of fingolimod treatment (3M). The mean time between two consecutive R-peaks (RR-interval) and mean values for measures of heart rate variability (HRV) in time- and frequency domain were calculated from ECG recording at daytime and nighttime. The mean night:day-ratio of RR-interval was 1.23 ± 0.12 at baseline, decreased temporarily at 1D (1.16 ± 0.12; P < 0.01) and was higher at 3M (1.32 ± 0.11; P < 0.001) than at baseline. The night:day-ratio of HRV parameters reflecting parasympathetic cardiac regulation (pNN50, rMSSD, HFnu) decreased at 1D but recovered back to baseline at 3M (P < 0.05 for all). On the other hand, the night:day-ratio of TP, a parameter reflecting overall HRV gradually decreased and was lower at 3M than at baseline (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that physiological relation between the circadian pattern of RR-interval and overall HRV as well as parasympathetic cardiac regulation becomes uncoupled during fingolimod treatment. In addition, fingolimod shifts the circadian equilibrium of CAR toward greater daytime dominance of overall HRV Accordingly, S1P-receptor modulation influences circadian pattern of CAR. PMID:27624686

  4. Sequential modulation of cardiac autonomic control induced by cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflex mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Palazzolo, L.; Rimoldi, A.; Diedrich, A.; Harris, P. A.; Porta, A.; Malliani, A.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonhypotensive lower body negative pressure (LBNP) induces a reflex increase in forearm vascular resistance and muscle sympathetic neural discharge without affecting mean heart rate. We tested the hypothesis that a reflex change of the autonomic modulation of heartbeat might arise during low intensity LBNP without changes of mean heart rate. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten healthy volunteers underwent plasma catecholamine evaluation and a continuous recording of ECG, finger blood pressure, respiratory activity, and central venous pressure (CVP) during increasing levels of LBNP up to -40 mm Hg. Spectrum and cross-spectrum analyses assessed the changes in the spontaneous variability of R-R interval, respiration, systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and CVP and in the gain (alpha(LF)) of arterial baroreflex control of heart rate. Baroreceptor sensitivity was also evaluated by the SAP/R-R spontaneous sequences technique. LBNP began decreasing significantly: CVP at -10, R-R interval at -20, SAP at -40, and the indexes alpha(LF) and baroreceptor sensitivity at -30 and -20 mm Hg, compared with baseline conditions. Plasma norepinephrine increased significantly at -20 mm Hg. The normalized low-frequency component of R-R variability (LF(R-R)) progressively increased and was significantly higher than in the control condition at -15 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Nonhypotensive LBNP elicits a reflex increase of cardiac sympathetic modulation, as evaluated by LF(R-R), which precedes the changes in the hemodynamics and in the indexes of arterial baroreflex control.

  5. Effects of metabolic and myocardial microcirculatory abnormalities on the pathogenesis of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective study in Japanese patients*

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    Background: In diabetic patients, cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an important factor affecting prognosis. Whether this condition in diabetic patients is caused directly by neurovisceral metabolic disorder and/or indirectly by micro circulation remains to be clarified. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction can be detected using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing, while also investigating the effects of metabolic and/or myocardial microcirculatory abnormalities on the pathogenesis of cardiac autonomic nerve dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) in Japan. Methods: This prospective study was performed at the Division of Diabetology Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University, Ohashi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with DM-2 with no abnormalities on electrocardiography (ECG) or echocardiography were enrolled. An ATP thallium (Tl)-201 myocardial scintigraphy test (ATP test) and iodine (I)-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy were performed. ATP was administered by continuous IV infusion over 6 minutes at 0.16 mg/kg · min. Five minutes after the ATP infusion was started, T1-201 111 MBq IV was administered. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging was begun immediately after the end of ATP infusion and was completed 3 hours after stress to show washout from stress to rest. I-123 MIBG 111 MBq IV was administered. A planar image from the front side and a SPECT image (early phase) was obtained 15 to 30 minutes later. After 3 hours, a planar image from the front side and a SPECT image (late phase) were obtained to show washout from stress to rest. The mean TI washout rate (ATP-WR) and heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio in the late-phase scintigraphic images and the washout rate of MIBG (MIBG-WR) in the left ventricle was determined. The correlations of these measurements with the mean values of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting

  6. Prenatal Stress and Balance of the Child's Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System at Age 5-6 Years

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Autonomic nervous system (ANS) misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. Methods Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study) filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12–20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80th percentiles). Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5–6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB), measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. Results 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17). Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07). Conclusion Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years. PMID:22272345

  7. Carotid body denervation improves autonomic and cardiac function and attenuates disordered breathing in congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Noah J; Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Evan P; Xia, Xiao-Hong; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-01-01

    ± 0.06), and was attenuated in CHF–CBD animals (0.59 ± 0.05) (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Arrhythmia incidence was increased in CHF–sham and reduced in CHF–CBD animals (213 ± 58 events h–1 CHF, 108 ± 48 events h–1 CHF–CBD, P < 0.05). Furthermore, ventricular systolic (3.8 ± 0.7 vs. 6.3 ± 0.5 ml, P < 0.05) and diastolic (6.3 ± 1.0 vs. 9.1 ± 0.5 ml, P < 0.05) volumes were reduced, and ejection fraction preserved (41 ± 5% vs. 54 ± 2% reduction from pre-pace, P < 0.05) in CHF–CBD compared to CHF–sham rabbits. Similar patterns of changes were observed longitudinally within the CHF–CBD group before and after CBD. In conclusion, CBD is effective in reducing RSNA, SRC and arrhythmia incidence, while improving breathing stability and cardiac function in pacing-induced CHF rabbits. Key points A strong correlation between disordered breathing patterns, elevated sympathetic nerve activity and enhanced chemoreflex sensitivity exists in patients with heart failure. Evidence indicates that disordered breathing patterns and increased sympathetic nerve activity increases arrhythmia incidence in patients with heart failure. Enhanced coupling between sympathetic and respiratory neural drive underlies elevated sympathetic nerve activity in an animal model of sleep apnoea. We investigated the impact of carotid body chemoreceptor denervation on sympathetic nerve activity, disordered breathing and sympatho-respiratory coupling in an animal model of heart failure. Renal sympathetic nerve activity, apnoea/hypopnoea incidence, variability measures of tidal volume and respiratory rate and arrhythmia incidence were quantified during resting breathing in heart failure animals with and without carotid body ablation. Our results indicate that carotid body chemoreceptor denervation reduces sympathetic nerve activity, disordered breathing patterns, arrhythmia incidence and sympatho-respiratory coupling in

  8. Vagus nerve stimulation mitigates intrinsic cardiac neuronal and adverse myocyte remodeling postmyocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Eric; Southerland, Elizabeth M; Hardwick, Jean C; Wright, Gary L; Ryan, Shannon; Li, Ying; KenKnight, Bruce H; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to determine whether chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) mitigates myocardial infarction (MI)-induced remodeling of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICNS), along with the cardiac tissue it regulates. Guinea pigs underwent VNS implantation on the right cervical vagus. Two weeks later, MI was produced by ligating the ventral descending coronary artery. VNS stimulation started 7 days post-MI (20 Hz, 0.9 ± 0.2 mA, 14 s on, 48 s off; VNS-MI, n = 7) and was compared with time-matched MI animals with sham VNS (MI n = 7) vs. untreated controls (n = 8). Echocardiograms were performed before and at 90 days post-MI. At termination, IC neuronal intracellular voltage recordings were obtained from whole-mount neuronal plexuses. MI increased left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) 30% (P = 0.027) and reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 6.5% (P < 0.001) at 90 days post-MI compared with baseline. In the VNS-MI group, LVESV and LVEF did not differ from baseline. IC neurons showed depolarization of resting membrane potentials and increased input resistance in MI compared with VNS-MI and sham controls (P < 0.05). Neuronal excitability and sensitivity to norepinephrine increased in MI and VNS-MI groups compared with controls (P < 0.05). Synaptic efficacy, as determined by evoked responses to stimulating input axons, was reduced in VNS-MI compared with MI or controls (P < 0.05). VNS induced changes in myocytes, consistent with enhanced glycogenolysis, and blunted the MI-induced increase in the proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (P < 0.05). VNS mitigates MI-induced remodeling of the ICNS, correspondingly preserving ventricular function via both neural and cardiomyocyte-dependent actions. PMID:26276818

  9. Cardiomyocyte Circadian Oscillations Are Cell-Autonomous, Amplified by β-Adrenergic Signaling, and Synchronized in Cardiac Ventricle Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks impact vital cardiac parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate, and adverse cardiac events such as myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. In mammals, the central circadian pacemaker, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, synchronizes cellular circadian clocks in the heart and many other tissues throughout the body. Cardiac ventricle explants maintain autonomous contractions and robust circadian oscillations of clock gene expression in culture. In the present study, we examined the relationship between intrinsic myocardial function and circadian rhythms in cultures from mouse heart. We cultured ventricular explants or dispersed cardiomyocytes from neonatal mice expressing a PER2::LUC bioluminescent reporter of circadian clock gene expression. We found that isoproterenol, a β-adrenoceptor agonist known to increase heart rate and contractility, also amplifies PER2 circadian rhythms in ventricular explants. We found robust, cell-autonomous PER2 circadian rhythms in dispersed cardiomyocytes. Single-cell rhythms were initially synchronized in ventricular explants but desynchronized in dispersed cells. In addition, we developed a method for long-term, simultaneous monitoring of clock gene expression, contraction rate, and basal intracellular Ca2+ level in cardiomyocytes using PER2::LUC in combination with GCaMP3, a genetically encoded fluorescent Ca2+ reporter. In contrast to robust PER2 circadian rhythms in cardiomyocytes, we detected no rhythms in contraction rate and only weak rhythms in basal Ca2+ level. In summary, we found that PER2 circadian rhythms of cardiomyocytes are cell-autonomous, amplified by adrenergic signaling, and synchronized by intercellular communication in ventricle explants, but we detected no robust circadian rhythms in contraction rate or basal Ca2+. PMID:27459195

  10. Exercise Type Affects Cardiac Vagal Autonomic Recovery After a Resistance Training Session.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Xián; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Fariñas-Rodríguez, Juán; Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Kingsley, J Derek

    2016-09-01

    Mayo, X, Iglesias-Soler, E, Fariñas-Rodríguez, J, Fernández-del-Olmo, M, and Kingsley, JD. Exercise type affects cardiac vagal autonomic recovery after a resistance training session. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2565-2573, 2016-Resistance training sessions involving different exercises and set configurations may affect the acute cardiovascular recovery pattern. We explored the interaction between exercise type and set configuration on the postexercise cardiovagal withdrawal measured by heart rate variability and their hypotensive effect. Thirteen healthy participants (10 repetitions maximum [RM] bench press: 56 ± 10 kg; parallel squat: 91 ± 13 kg) performed 6 sessions corresponding to 2 exercises (Bench press vs. Parallel squat), 2 set configurations (Failure session vs. Interrepetition rest session), and a Control session of each exercise. Load (10RM), volume (5 sets), and rest (720 seconds) were equated between exercises and set configurations. Parallel squat produced higher reductions in cardiovagal recovery vs. Bench press (p = 0.001). These differences were dependent on the set configuration, with lower values in Parallel squat vs. Bench press for Interrepetition rest session (1.816 ± 0.711 vs. 2.399 ± 0.739 Ln HF/IRR × 10, p = 0.002), but not for Failure session (1.647 ± 0.904 vs. 1.808 ± 0.703 Ln HF/IRR × 10, p > 0.05). Set configuration affected the cardiovagal recovery, with lower values in Failure session in comparison with Interrepetition rest (p = 0.027) and Control session (p = 0.022). Postexercise hypotension was not dependent on the exercise type (p > 0.05) but was dependent on the set configuration, with lower values of systolic (p = 0.004) and diastolic (p = 0.011) blood pressure after the Failure session but not after an Interrepetition rest session in comparison with the Control session (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the exercise type and an Interrepetition rest design could blunt the decrease of cardiac vagal activity after

  11. Vasopressin, renin, and cortisol responses to hemorrhage during acute blockade of cardiac nerves in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, C. P.; Keil, L. C.; Thrasher, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of acute cardiac nerve blockade (CNB) on the increases in plasma renin activity (PRA), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and cortisol in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage was determined in conscious dogs (n = 9). Procaine was infused into the pericardial space to produce acute reversible CNB, or saline was infused in the control hemorrhage. Blood was removed from the inferior vena cava at a rate of 1 ml.kg-1.min-1. In the control hemorrhage, plasma AVP increased from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 219 +/- 66 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.63 +/- 0.20 to 3.08 +/- 0.91 ng angiotensin I (ANG I).ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.7 micrograms/dl. When the hemorrhage was repeated during acute CNB, plasma AVP increased from 2.8 +/- 1.6 to 185 +/- 59 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.44 +/- 0.14 to 2.24 +/- 0.27 ng ANG I.ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.9 +/- 0.3 to 5.4 +/- 0.6 micrograms/dl, and none of the increases differed significantly from the responses during the control hemorrhage. Left atrial pressure fell significantly after removal of 6 ml/kg of blood, but mean arterial pressure was maintained at control levels until blood loss reached 20 ml/kg during pericardial infusion of either saline or procaine. The declines in MAP at the 30 ml/kg level of hemorrhage in both treatments were similar. These results demonstrate that acutely blocking input from cardiac receptors does not reduce the increases in plasma AVP, cortisol, and PRA in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that input from cardiac receptors is required for a normal AVP response to hemorrhage and suggest that other receptors, presumably arterial baroreceptors, can stimulate AVP and cortisol secretion in the absence of signals from the heart.

  12. Vagal Nerve Stimulation Evoked Heart Rate Changes and Protection from Cardiac Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rahul; Mokelke, Eric; Ruble, Stephen B; Stolen, Craig M

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) leads to improvements in ischemic heart failure via heart rate modulation. At 7 ± 1 days post left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligation, 63 rats with myocardial infarctions (MI) were implanted with ECG transmitters and VNS devices (MI + VNS, N = 44) or just ECG transmitters (MI, N = 17). VNS stimulation was active from 14 ± 1 days to 8 ± 1 weeks post MI. The average left ventricular (LV) end diastolic volumes at 8 ± 1 weeks were MI = 672.40 μl and MI + VNS = 519.35 μl, p = 0.03. The average heart weights, normalized to body weight (± std) at 14 ± 1 weeks were MI = 3.2 ± 0.6 g*kg(-1) and MI + VNS = 2.9 ± 0.3 g*kg(-1), p = 0.03. The degree of cardiac remodeling was correlated with the magnitude of acute VNS-evoked heart rate (HR) changes. Further research is required to determine if the acute heart rate response to VNS activation is useful as a heart failure biomarker or as a tool for VNS therapy characterization. PMID:26746408

  13. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor as a cause of chronic cardiac insufficiency in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chronic cardiac insufficiency was associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a cow. An eight-year-old cow developed a progressive condition (over a period of three months) characterized by an enhanced abdominal volume, reluctance to move, a positive jugular pulse, watery diarrhea and death. At necropsy, moderate subcutaneous edema and an enhanced hepatic lobular pattern were observed. A 23x20x11 cm firm, grayish-white mass adhered to and infiltrated the right atrium. Multiple firm, yellowish-white nodules of 0.5 to 12 cm in diameter were diffusely scattered in the epicardium and parietal pericardium. Histologically, the tumor was poorly circumscribed with foci of infiltration of the myocardium. The neoplastic cells had two major histologic patterns, Antoni types A and B. Within occasional foci, pleomorphic cells with an epithelioid appearance were present in addition to multinucleated cells with periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive cytoplasmic globules. Foci of cartilaginous and granular differentiations were interspersed among the neoplastic cells. Multiple vessels presented wall hyalinization and tumoral embolus. Large necrotic foci with mineralization and cholesterol clefts were also observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for S100 protein, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase labeling. PMID:23369465

  14. On the vagal cardiac nerves, with special reference to the early evolution of the head-trunk interface.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Hiroki; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Hyodo, Susumu; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    The vagus nerve, or the tenth cranial nerve, innervates the heart in addition to other visceral organs, including the posterior visceral arches. In amniotes, the anterior and posterior cardiac branches arise from the branchial and intestinal portions of the vagus nerve to innervate the arterial and venous poles of the heart, respectively. The evolution of this innervation pattern has yet to be elucidated, due mainly to the lack of morphological data on the vagus in basal vertebrates. To investigate this topic, we observed the vagus nerves of the lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), and mouse (Mus musculus), focusing on the embryonic patterns of the vagal branches in the venous pole. In the lamprey, no vagus branch was found in the venous pole throughout development, whereas the arterial pole was innervated by a branch from the branchial portion. In contrast, the vagus innervated the arterial and venous poles in the mouse and elephant shark. Based on the morphological patterns of these branches, the venous vagal branches of the mouse and elephant shark appear to belong to the intestinal part of the vagus, implying that the cardiac nerve pattern is conserved among crown gnathostomes. Furthermore, we found a topographical shift of the structures adjacent to the venous pole (i.e., the hypoglossal nerve and pronephros) between the extant gnathostomes and lamprey. Phylogenetically, the lamprey morphology is likely to be the ancestral condition for vertebrates, suggesting that the evolution of the venous branch occurred early in the gnathostome lineage, in parallel with the remodeling of the head-trunk interfacial domain during the acquisition of the neck. J. Morphol. 277:1146-1158, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27216138

  15. Acute Auditory Stimulation with Different Styles of Music Influences Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Men

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Sheila Ap. F.; Guida, Heraldo L.; dos Santos Antonio, Ana Marcia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Monteiro, Carlos B. M.; Ferreira, Celso; Ribeiro, Vivian F.; Barnabe, Viviani; Silva, Sidney B.; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.; Adami, Fernando; Petenusso, Marcio; Raimundo, Rodrigo D.; Valenti, Vitor E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: No clear evidence is available in the literature regarding the acute effect of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic control. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of classical baroque and heavy metal musical auditory stimulation on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in healthy men. Patients and Methods: In this study, HRV was analyzed regarding time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, and pNN50) and frequency domain (LF, HF, and LF / HF) in 12 healthy men. HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the participants were exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes through an earphone at seated rest. After exposure to the first song, they remained at rest for five minutes and they were again exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music. The music sequence was random for each individual. Standard statistical methods were used for calculation of means and standard deviations. Besides, ANOVA and Friedman test were used for parametric and non-parametric distributions, respectively. Results: While listening to heavy metal music, SDNN was reduced compared to the baseline (P = 0.023). In addition, the LF index (ms2 and nu) was reduced during exposure to both heavy metal and classical baroque musical auditory stimulation compared to the control condition (P = 0.010 and P = 0.048, respectively). However, the HF index (ms2) was reduced only during auditory stimulation with music heavy metal (P = 0.01). The LF/HF ratio on the other hand decreased during auditory stimulation with classical baroque music (P = 0.019). Conclusions: Acute auditory stimulation with the selected heavy metal musical auditory stimulation decreased the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation on the heart, while exposure to a selected classical baroque music reduced sympathetic regulation on the heart. PMID:25177673

  16. Cardiac autonomic response following high-intensity running work-to-rest interval manipulation.

    PubMed

    Cipryan, Lukas; Laursen, Paul B; Plews, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    The cardiorespiratory, cardiac autonomic (via heart rate variability (HRV)) and plasma volume responses to varying sequences of high-intensity interval training (HIT) of consistent external work were investigated. Twelve moderately trained males underwent three HIT bouts and one control session. The HIT trials consisted of warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s work:relief HIT sequences at an exercise intensity of 100% of the individual velocity at [Formula: see text]O2max (v[Formula: see text]O2max), interspersed by relief intervals at 60% [Formula: see text]O2max (work/relief ratio = 1). HRV was evaluated via the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (rMSSD) before, 1 h, 3 h and 24 h after the exercise. Plasma volume was assessed before, immediately after, and 3 h and 24 h after. There were no substantial between-trial differences in acute cardiorespiratory responses. The rMSSD values remained decreased 1 h after the exercise cessation in all exercise groups. The rMSSD subsequently increased between 1 h and 3 h after exercise, with the most pronounced change in the 15/15 group. There were no relationships between HRV and plasma volume. All HIT protocols resulted in similar cardiorespiratory responses with slightly varying post-exercise HRV responses, with the 30/30 protocol eliciting the least disruption to post-exercise HRV. These post-exercise HRV findings suggest that the 30/30 sequence may be the preferable HIT prescription when the between-training period is limited. PMID:26523343

  17. PER3 polymorphism and cardiac autonomic control: effects of sleep debt and circadian phase.

    PubMed

    Viola, Antoine U; James, Lynette M; Archer, Simon N; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2008-11-01

    A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the coding region of the circadian clock PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been shown to affect sleep. Because circadian rhythms and sleep are known to modulate sympathovagal balance, we investigated whether homozygosity for this PER3 polymorphism is associated with changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during sleep and wakefulness at baseline and after sleep deprivation. Twenty-two healthy participants were selected according to their PER3 genotype. ANS activity, evaluated by heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) indexes, was quantified during baseline sleep, a 40-h period of wakefulness, and recovery sleep. Sleep deprivation induced an increase in slow-wave sleep (SWS), a decrease in the global variability, and an unbalance of the ANS with a loss of parasympathetic predominance and an increase in sympathetic activity. Individuals homozygous for the longer allele (PER3(5/5)) had more SWS, an elevated sympathetic predominance, and a reduction of parasympathetic activity compared with PER3(4/4), in particular during baseline sleep. The effects of genotype were strongest during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and absent or much smaller during REM sleep. The NREM-REM cycle-dependent modulation of the low frequency-to-(low frequency + high frequency) ratio was diminished in PER3(5/5) individuals. Circadian phase modulated HR and HRV, but no interaction with genotype was observed. In conclusion, the PER3 polymorphism affects the sympathovagal balance in cardiac control in NREM sleep similar to the effect of sleep deprivation. PMID:18835917

  18. Cardiac autonomic recovery after a single session of resistance exercise with and without vascular occlusion.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Nilo M; Pedro, Rafael E; Leicht, Anthony S; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the heart rate variability (HRV) after resistance training with and without vascular occlusion. It was hypothesized that low intensity (LI) with vascular occlusion (LIO) would elicit comparable postexercise HRV responses with that of high intensity (HI) without vascular occlusion. Nine subjects undertook 4 experimental sessions of leg press exercise on different days: (a) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test, (b) 4 sets of 8 repetitions + 1 set until exhaustion at 80% of 1RM without vascular occlusion (HI), (c) 4 sets of 16 repetitions + 1 set until exhaustion at 40% of 1RM with vascular occlusion (LIO), and (d) 4 sets of 16 repetitions + 1 set with the number of repetitions equal to the last set of LIO but at 40% of 1RM without vascular occlusion (LI). Heart rate variability was analyzed 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 5 hours, and 24 hours after the HI, LIO, and LI sessions. The HI session increased the heart rate (HR) and reduced the root mean square of the successive difference of R-R intervals (RMSSD) and log-transformed high-frequency (lnHF) power during prolonged recovery (HR = 5 hours; RMSSD = 30 minutes; lnHF = 1 hour) at a greater magnitude when compared with LIO and LI. Despite the same intensity of exercise for LIO and LI, the occlusion delayed the recovery of HR and HRV variables. Postexercise blood lactate concentration was moderate to strongly correlated with peak HR (r = 0.87), RMSSD (r = -0.64), and lnHF (r = -0.68). This study has demonstrated that LIO was able to reduce cardiac autonomic stress when compared with HI. PMID:24077384

  19. Cardiac autonomic modulation in non-frail, pre-frail and frail elderly women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Pedro Lourenço; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Silva, Luiz Eduardo Virgilio; Virtuoso-Junior, Jair Sindra; Marocolo, Moacir

    2015-10-01

    Frailty has been defined as a geriatric syndrome that results in high vulnerability to health adverse outcomes. This increased vulnerability state results from dysregulation of multiple physiological systems and its complex interactions. Thus, assessment of physiological systems integrity and of its dynamic interactions seems to be useful in the context of frailty management. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis provides information about autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, which is responsible to control several physiologic functions. This study investigated the cardiac autonomic modulation by HRV analysis in community-dwelling elderly women classified as non-frail, pre-frail and frail. Twenty-three elderly women were assigned to the following groups: non-frail (n = 8), pre-frail (n = 8) and frail (n = 7). HRV assessment was performed through linear and non-linear analysis of cardiac interval variability. It was observed a higher sympathetic and lower parasympathetic modulation in frail when compared with non-frail and pre-frail groups (p < 0.05) as indicated by frequency domain indices. Additionally, frail group had a decreased 2LV % pattern (that reflects parasympathetic modulation) in the symbolic analysis in comparison with non-frail group. These findings suggest that frail elderly women present an autonomic imbalance characterized by a shift towards sympathetic predominance. Thus, monitoring ANS function in the context of frailty management may be an important strategy to prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome and its consequences. PMID:25673231

  20. Examining the role of TRPA1 in air pollution-induced cardiac arrhythmias and autonomic imbalance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe how air pollution causes cardiac arrhythmogenesis through sensory irritation in the airways. Time-series studies show the risk of adverse cardiac events increases significantly in the hours to days after expos...

  1. Short-term ECG recording for the identification of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in people with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Herbert F.; Pham, Phuong; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Spence, Ian

    2007-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious and increasing health problem worldwide. Compared to non-diabetics, patients experience an increased risk of all cardiovascular diseases, including dysfunctional neural control of the heart. Poor diagnoses of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) may result in increased incidence of silent myocardial infarction and ischaemia, which can lead to sudden death. Traditionally the Ewing battery of tests is used to identify CAN. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of heart rate variability (HRV) analyses of short-term ECG recordings as a method for detecting CAN. HRV may be able to identify asymptomatic individuals, which the Ewing battery is not able to do. Several HRV parameters are assessed, including time and frequency domain, as well as nonlinear parameters. Eighteen out of thirty-eight individuals with diabetes were positive for two or more of the Ewing battery of tests indicating CAN. Approximate Entropy (ApEn), log normalized total power (LnTP) and log normalized high frequency (LnHF) power demonstrate a significant difference at p < 0.05 between CAN+ and CAN-. This indicates that nonlinear scaling parameters are able to identify people with cardiac autonomic neuropathy in short ECG recordings. Our study paves the way to assess the utility of nonlinear parameters in identifying asymptomatic CAN.

  2. Effects of psychological stress test on the cardiac response of public safety workers: alternative parameters to autonomic balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Franco, M. R.; Vargas-Luna, F. M.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that public safety workers (PSW) face many stressful situations that yield them as high-risk population for suffering chronic stress diseases. In this multidisciplinary research the cardiac response to induced psychological stress by a short duration Stroop test was evaluated in 20 female and 19 male PSW, in order to compare traditionally used cardiac response parameters with alternative ones. Electrocardiograms have been recorded using the Eindhoven electrodes configuration for 1 min before, 3 min during and 1 min after the test. Signals analysis has been performed for the heart rate and the power spectra of its variability and of the variability of the amplitude of the R-wave, i.e. the highest peak of the electrocardiographic signal periodic sequence. The results demonstrated that the traditional autonomic balance index shows no significant differences between stages. In contrast, the median of the area of the power spectrum of the R-wave amplitude variability in the frequency region dominated by the autonomous nervous system (0.04-to-0.4 Hz) is the more sensitive parameter. Moreover, this parameter allows to identify gender differences consistent with those encountered in other studies.

  3. Pelvic autonomic nerve preservation in radical rectal cancer surgery: changes in the past 3 decades

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Min-Hoe; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Lim, Evan; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The advent of total mesorectal excision (TME) together with minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopic colorectal surgery and robotic surgery has improved surgical results. However, the incidence of bladder and sexual dysfunction remains high. This may be particularly distressing for the patient and troublesome to manage for the surgeon when it does occur. The increased use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant radiotherapy is also associated with poorer functional outcomes. In this review, we evaluate current understanding of the anatomy of pelvic nerves which are divided into the areas of the inferior mesenteric artery pedicle, the lateral pelvic wall and dissection around the urogenital organs. Surgical techniques in these areas are discussed. We also discuss the results in functional outcomes of the various techniques including open, laparoscopic and robotic over the last 30 years. PMID:27478196

  4. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... normal body temperature. Being too cold slows nerve conduction. Tell your doctor if you have a cardiac ...

  5. Selective contribution of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors to cardiac autonomic dysfunction in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, D; Zentai, C; Perz, S; Rathmann, W; Haastert, B; Meisinger, C; Löwel, H

    2006-04-01

    Both cardiac autonomic dysfunction adn cardiovascular risk factors are related to and excess risk of mortality. We sought to determine whether the major cardiovascular risk factors are associated with diminished heart rate variability (HRV), prolonged QTc interval, or increased QT dispersion (QTD). Male (n = 1030) and female (n = 957) subjects, aged 55-74 years, who participated in the population-based MONICA Augsburg survey 1989/90 were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and low physical activity. Lowest quartiles for time domain indexes of HRV (SD of R-R intervals [SDNN], max-min difference), QTc > 440 ms, and QTD > 60 ms determined from 12-lead resting ECG were used as cutpoints. In men, after adjustment for age and alcohol consumption, significant independent determinants for the lowest quartiles of SDNN were diabetes, obesity, and smoking. Independent contributors to prolonged QTc were hypertension, obesity, smoking, and low physical activity, whereas for increased QTD it was only hypertension. In women, diabetes was the only contributor to low SDNN, and hypertension was the only determinant of prolonged QTc. In conclusion, diabetes is the primary determinant of reduced HRV in the general population, while hypertension is the primary contributor to prolonged QTc in both sexes. However, obesity and smoking contribute to autonomic dysfunction in men but not women. Thus, a selectivity and sex-related differences exist among the various cardiovascular risk factors as to their influence on autonomic dysfunction. PMID:16710813

  6. Are Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Perceived Stress Related to Functional Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents? The TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Riese, Harriëtte; Van Roon, Arie M.; Hunfeld, Joke A. M.; Groot, Paul F. C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Stressors have been related to medically insufficiently explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSS). However, the underlying mechanism of this association is largely unclear. In the current study, we examined whether FSS are associated with different perceived stress and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) levels during a standardized stressful situation, and whether these associations are symptom-specific. Methods We examined 715 adolescents (16.1 years, 51.3% girls) from the Dutch cohort study Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Sample during the Groningen Social Stress Test (GSST). FSS were assessed by the Youth Self-Report, and clustered into a cluster of overtiredness, dizziness and musculoskeletal pain and a cluster of headache and gastrointestinal symptoms. Perceived stress levels (i.e. unpleasantness and arousal) were assessed by the Self-Assessment Manikin, and cardiac ANS activity by assessing heart rate variability (HRV-HF) and pre-ejection period (PEP). Perceived stress and cardiac ANS levels before, during, and after the GSST were studied as well as cardiac ANS reactivity. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Results Perceived arousal levels during (beta = 0.09, p = 0.04) and after (beta = 0.07, p = 0.047) the GSST, and perceived unpleasantness levels before (beta = 0.07, p = 0.048) and during (beta = 0.12, p = 0.001) the GSST were related to FSS during the past couple of months. The association between perceived stress and FSS was stronger for the FSS cluster of overtiredness, dizziness and musculoskeletal pain than for the cluster of headache and gastrointestinal symptoms. Neither ANS activity levels before, during, and after the GSST, nor maximal HF-HRV and PEP reactivity were related to FSS. Conclusions This study suggests that perceived stress levels during social stress are related to FSS, whereas cardiac ANS activity and reactivity are not related to FSS. PMID:27089394

  7. Cardiac Innervation and Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem and higher centers) which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes-hours) and long term (days-years). This important neurovisceral /autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extra-cardiac neural remodeling have also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provides a rational mechanistic basis for development of neuraxial therapies for preventing SCD and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26044253

  8. Previous exposure to musical auditory stimulation immediately influences the cardiac autonomic responses to the postural change maneuver in women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to musical auditory stimulation has been reported to improve cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not clear if music acutely influences it in response to autonomic tests. We evaluated the acute effects of music on heart rate variability (HRV) responses to the postural change maneuver (PCM) in women. Method We evaluated 12 healthy women between 18 and 28 years old and HRV was analyzed in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50 and pNN50) and frequency (LF, HF and LF/HF ratio) domains. In the control protocol, the women remained at seated rest for 10 minutes and quickly stood up within three seconds and remained standing still for 15 minutes. In the music protocol, the women remained at seated rest for 10 minutes, were exposed to music for 10 minutes and quickly stood up within three seconds and remained standing still for 15 minutes. HRV was recorded at the following time: rest, music (music protocol) 0–5, 5–10 and 10–15 min during standing. Results In the control protocol the SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50 indexes were reduced at 10–15 minutes after the volunteers stood up, while the LF (nu) index was increased at the same moment compared to seated rest. In the protocol with music, the indexes were not different from control but the RMSSD, pNN50 and LF (nu) were different from the music period. Conclusion Musical auditory stimulation attenuates the cardiac autonomic responses to the PCM. PMID:23941333

  9. Cardiac autonomic activity predicts dominance in verbal over spatial reasoning tasks: results from a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Solernó, Juan I; Chada, Daniela Pérez; Guinjoan, Salvador M; Lloret, Santiago Pérez; Hedderwick, Alejandro; Vidal, María Florencia; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel E

    2012-04-01

    The present study sought to determine whether autonomic activity is associated with dominance in verbal over spatial reasoning tasks. A group of 19 healthy adults who performed a verbal and spatial aptitude test was evaluated. Autonomic function was assessed by means of heart rate variability analysis, before and during the tasks. The results showed that a better relative performance in verbal over spatial reasoning tasks was associated with vagal prevalence in normal subjects. PMID:22118959

  10. Evaluation of Cardiac Autonomic Functions in Older Parkinson’s Disease Patients: a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Ahmet; Atmis, Volkan; Cengiz, Ozlem Karaarslan; Cinar, Esat; Aras, Sevgi; Varli, Murat; Atli, Teslime

    2016-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD), non-motor symptoms may occur such as autonomic dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in older PD cases. 84 PD cases and 58 controls, for a total of 142, participated in the study. Parasympathetic tests were performed using electrocardiography. Sympathetic tests were assessed by blood pressure measurement and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement. The prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in PD patients was 40.5% in PD patients and 24.1% in the control group (p> 0.05). The prevalence of postprandial hypotension was 47.9% in the PD group and 27.5% in the controls (p <0.05). The prevalence of impairment in heart rate response to deep breathing was 26.2% in the PD group and 6.9% in the control group (p <0.05). The prevalence of postprandial hypotension in PD with orthostatic hypotension was 94% and 16% in PD patients without orthostatic hypotension (p <0.05). The prevalence of impairment in heart rate response to deep breathing was 52.9% in PD patients with orthostatic hypotension and 8% in PD cases without orthostatic hypotension (p<0.05). The prevalence of impairment in heart rate response to postural change was 41% in PD cases with orthostatic hypotension and 12% in PD cases without orthostatic hypotension (p <0.05).Although there are tests for assessing cardiovascular autonomic function that are more reliable, they are more complicated, and evaluation of orthostatic hypotension by blood pressure measurement and cardiac autonomic tests by electrocardiography are recommended since these tests are cheap and easy. PMID:26816661

  11. Noninvasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system. Final progress report, December 24, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    During the first year of funding, C-11 hydroxyephedrine has been introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue. Studies in normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders indicated the feasibility of this tracer for further evaluation. Simultaneously, animal studies have been used to assess the use of these radiopharmaceuticals in ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threo-hydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, the authors are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve their ability to identify abnormalities. They are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. In addition, they are participating in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in their institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by preliminary PET data. A compilation of all publications funded by this grant is presented in this report.

  12. Targeted NGF siRNA Delivery Attenuates Sympathetic Nerve Sprouting and Deteriorates Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats with Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye; Xue, Mei; Suo, Fei; Li, Xiaolu; Cheng, Wenjuan; Li, Xinran; Yin, Jie; Liu, Ju; Yan, Suhua

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in nerve sprouting, hyper-innervation, angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and preservation of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Positively modulating NGF expression may represent a novel pharmacological strategy to improve post-infarction prognosis. In this study, lentivirus encoding NGF short interfering RNA (siRNA) was prepared, and MI was modeled in the rat using left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Rats were randomly grouped to receive intramyocardial injection of lentiviral solution containing NGF-siRNA (n = 19, MI-SiNGF group), lentiviral solution containing empty vector (n = 18, MI-GFP group) or 0.9% NaCl solution (n = 18, MI-control group), or to receive thoracotomy and pericardiotomy (n = 17, sham-operated group). At 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after transduction, rats in the MI-control group had higher levels of NGF mRNA and protein than those in the sham-operated group, rats in the MI-GFP group showed similar levels as the MI-control group, and rats in the MI-SiNGF group had lower levels compared to the MI-GFP group, indicating that MI model was successfully established and NGF siRNA effectively inhibited the expression of NGF. At 8 wk, echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies revealed a more severe cardiac dysfunction in the MI-siRNA group compared to the MI-GFP group. Moreover, rats in the MI-siRNA group had lower mRNA and protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and growth-associated protein 43-positive nerve fibers (GAP-43) at both the infarcted border and within the non-infarcted left ventricles (LV). NGF silencing also reduced the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and decreased the arteriolar and capillary densities at the infarcted border compared to the MI-GFP group. Histological analysis indicated a large infarcted size in the MI-SiNGF group. These findings suggested that endogenous NGF silencing attenuated sympathetic nerve sprouting and

  13. Role of cardiac output and the autonomic nervous system in the antinatriuretic response to acute constriction of the thoracic superior vena cava.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrier, R. W.; Humphreys, M. H.; Ufferman, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the differential characteristics of hepatic congestion and decreased cardiac output in terms of potential afferent stimuli in the antinatriuretic effect of acute thoracic inferior vena cava (TIVC) constriction. An attempt is made to see if the autonomic nervous system is involved in the antinatriuretic effect of acute TIVC or thoracic superior vena cava constriction.

  14. Central-peripheral neural network interactions evoked by vagus nerve stimulation: functional consequences on control of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Ardell, Jeffrey L; Rajendran, Pradeep S; Nier, Heath A; KenKnight, Bruce H; Armour, J Andrew

    2015-11-15

    Using vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), we sought to determine the contribution of vagal afferents to efferent control of cardiac function. In anesthetized dogs, the right and left cervical vagosympathetic trunks were stimulated in the intact state, following ipsilateral or contralateral vagus nerve transection (VNTx), and then following bilateral VNTx. Stimulations were performed at currents from 0.25 to 4.0 mA, frequencies from 2 to 30 Hz, and a 500-μs pulse width. Right or left VNS evoked significantly greater current- and frequency-dependent suppression of chronotropic, inotropic, and lusitropic function subsequent to sequential VNTx. Bradycardia threshold was defined as the current first required for a 5% decrease in heart rate. The threshold for the right vs. left vagus-induced bradycardia in the intact state (2.91 ± 0.18 and 3.47 ± 0.20 mA, respectively) decreased significantly with right VNTx (1.69 ± 0.17 mA for right and 3.04 ± 0.27 mA for left) and decreased further following bilateral VNTx (1.29 ± 0.16 mA for right and 1.74 ± 0.19 mA for left). Similar effects were observed following left VNTx. The thresholds for afferent-mediated effects on cardiac parameters were 0.62 ± 0.04 and 0.65 ± 0.06 mA with right and left VNS, respectively, and were reflected primarily as augmentation. Afferent-mediated tachycardias were maintained following β-blockade but were eliminated by VNTx. The increased effectiveness and decrease in bradycardia threshold with sequential VNTx suggest that 1) vagal afferents inhibit centrally mediated parasympathetic efferent outflow and 2) the ipsilateral and contralateral vagi exert a substantial buffering capacity. The intact threshold reflects the interaction between multiple levels of the cardiac neural hierarchy. PMID:26371171

  15. Impact of regular relaxation training on the cardiac autonomic nervous system of hospital cleaners and bank employees.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, H; Länsimies, E; Jokela, V; Hänninen, O

    1993-10-01

    The work-related strain of 50 female hospital cleaners and 48 female bank employees was recorded during a period of rationalization in the workplace, and the effect of daily relaxation to help the workers cope was tested. The subjects were arranged into age-matched pairs and randomly allocated into intervention and reference groups. The intervention period lasted six months. The relaxation method was brief and easily introduced as an alternative break in the workplace. Each training session lasted 15 min. A microcomputer-based system was used to record heart rate variability in response to quiet breathing, the Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, and active orthostatic tests. Cardiac reflexes indicated that occupational strain (especially of a mental nature) caused the functioning of the autonomic nervous system to deteriorate. Regular deep relaxation normalized the function and improved the ability to cope. PMID:8296180

  16. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), a reliable non-invasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder) are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25206349

  17. Exercise training associated with diet improves heart rate recovery and cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in obese children.

    PubMed

    Prado, D M; Silva, A G; Trombetta, I C; Ribeiro, M M; Guazzelli, I C; Matos, L N; Santos, M S; Nicolau, C M; Negrão, C E; Villares, S M

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that in obese children: 1) hypocaloric diet (D) improves both heart rate recovery at 1 min (Δ HRR1) cfter an exercise test, and cardiac autonomic nervous system activity (CANSA) in obese children; 2) Diet and exercise training (DET) combined leads to greater improvement in both Δ HRR1 after an exercise test and in CANSA, than D alone. Moreover, we examined the relationships among Δ HRR1, CANSA, cardiorespiratory fitness and anthropometric variables (AV) in obese children submitted to D and to DET. 33 obese children (10 ± 0.2 years; body mass index (BMI) >95 (th) percentile) were divided into 2 groups: D (n=15; BMI=31 ± 1 kg/m²)) and DET (n=18; 29 ± 1 kg/m²). All children performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill. The Δ HRR1 or LF/HF ratio (P>0.05). In contrast, the DET group showed increased peak VO₂ ( P=0.01) and improved Δ HRR1 (Δ HRR1=37.3 ± 2.6; P=0.01) and LF/HF ratio ( P=0.001). The DET group demonstrated significant relationships among Δ HRR1, peak VO₂ and CANSA (P<0.05). In conclusion, DET, in contrast to D, promoted improved ÄΔ HRR1 and CANSA in obese children, suggesting a positive influence of increased levels of cardiorespiratory fitness by exercise training on cardiac autonomic activity. PMID:21072735

  18. Fatalities after taking ibogaine in addiction treatment could be related to sudden cardiac death caused by autonomic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Maas, U; Strubelt, S

    2006-01-01

    Ibogaine is the most important alkaloid of the Central African Iboga-shrub. It is the central drug in Gabonian initiation ceremonies in which it is used to cause a near-death experience. In Western countries it is used in private clinics to treat addiction. However, in the United States and most European countries it is classified as an illegal drug because at least eight persons have died after having taken Ibogaine. These fatalities occurred in most cases several days after ingestion or following the intake of very small doses. There is no conclusive explanation at the present time for these deaths. We hypothesize, that these deaths may be a result of cardiac arrhythmias, caused by a dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. Ibogaine affects the autonomic nervous system by influencing several neurotransmitter-systems and the fastigial nucleus. The cerebellar nucleus responds to small doses with a stimulation of the sympathetic system, leading to a fight or flight reaction. High doses, however, lead to a vagal dominance: a "feigned death". The risk of cardiac arrhythmias is increased in situations of sympathetic stimulation or coincidence of a high parasympathetic tonus and a left-sided sympathetic stimulation. This could occur under influence of small doses of ibogaine and also at times of exhaustion with a high vagal tonus, when sudden fear reactions could cause a critical left-sided sympathetic stimulation. Gabonian healers prevent these risks by isolating their patients from normal life and by inducing a trance-state with right-hemispheric and vagal dominance for several days. PMID:16698188

  19. Cardiac autonomic functions and the emergence of violence in a highly realistic model of social conflict in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Jozsef; Raczkevy-Deak, Gabriella; Gyimesine, Katalin P.; Szakmary, Andras; Farkas, Istvan; Vegh, Jozsef

    2014-01-01

    Among the multitude of factors that can transform human social interactions into violent conflicts, biological features received much attention in recent years as correlates of decision making and aggressiveness especially in critical situations. We present here a highly realistic new model of human aggression and violence, where genuine acts of aggression are readily performed and which at the same time allows the parallel recording of biological concomitants. Particularly, we studied police officers trained at the International Training Centre (Budapest, Hungary), who are prepared to perform operations under extreme conditions of stress. We found that aggressive arousal can transform a basically peaceful social encounter into a violent conflict. Autonomic recordings show that this change is accompanied by increased heart rates, which was associated earlier with reduced cognitive complexity of perceptions (“attentional myopia”) and promotes a bias toward hostile attributions and aggression. We also observed reduced heart rate variability in violent subjects, which is believed to signal a poor functioning of prefrontal-subcortical inhibitory circuits and reduces self-control. Importantly, these autonomic particularities were observed already at the beginning of social encounters i.e., before aggressive acts were initiated, suggesting that individual characteristics of the stress-response define the way in which social pressure affects social behavior, particularly the way in which this develops into violence. Taken together, these findings suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are valuable external symptoms of internal motivational states and decision making processes, and raise the possibility that behavior under social pressure can be predicted by the individual characteristics of stress responsiveness. PMID:25374519

  20. Autonomic Regulation Therapy in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Una; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic Regulation Therapy (ART) is a rapidly emerging therapy in the management of congestive heart failure secondary to systolic dysfunction. Modulation of the cardiac neuronal hierarchy can be achieved with bioelectronics modulation of the spinal cord, cervical vagus, baroreceptor, or renal nerve ablation. This review will discuss relevant preclinical and clinical research in ART for systolic heart failure. Understanding mechanistically what is being stimulated within the autonomic nervous system by such device-based therapy and how the system reacts to such stimuli is essential for optimizing stimulation parameters and for the future development of effective ART. PMID:26054327

  1. Autonomic Regulation Therapy in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Una; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic regulation therapy (ART) is a rapidly emerging therapy in the management of congestive heart failure secondary to systolic dysfunction. Modulation of the cardiac neuronal hierarchy can be achieved with bioelectronics modulation of the spinal cord, cervical vagus, baroreceptor, or renal nerve ablation. This review will discuss relevant preclinical and clinical research in ART for systolic heart failure. Understanding mechanistically what is being stimulated within the autonomic nervous system by such device-based therapy and how the system reacts to such stimuli is essential for optimizing stimulation parameters and for the future development of effective ART. PMID:26054327

  2. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper in relation to peripheral nerve conduction: a study of R-R interval variability

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, K.; Araki, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the autonomic neurotoxicity due to lead was undertaken by measuring variability in the electrocardiographic R-R interval (CVRR) in 16 male workers exposed to lead, zinc, copper, and tin and in 16 unexposed control subjects. Two component coefficients of variation in the R-R interval, the C-CVRSA (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and C-CVMWSA (Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia), were examined; these indices are considered to reflect parasympathetic and sympathetic activities, respectively. Maximal motor and sensory conduction velocities (MCV and SCV) in the median nerve were also measured. In the 16 exposed workers, blood lead concentrations ranged from 16 to 60 (mean 34) micrograms/dl. The CVRR and C-CVRSA were found to be significantly reduced in the workers with elevated lead, zinc, and copper absorption as compared to unexposed control subjects; also, the MCV and SCV were significantly slowed. The C-CVMWSA was not significantly reduced, and was positively related to plasma zinc concentrations. No significant relationships were found between indicators of lead and copper absorption and these electrophysiological measurements. These data suggest that subclinical toxicity of lead occurs in the parasympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system as well as in the peripheral nerves. Zinc may antagonize the autonomic nervous dysfunction caused by lead.

  3. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Mark; Pavy, Alan; van den Heuvel, Cameron

    2006-12-01

    Chewing has been shown to alleviate feelings of sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during the day. This study investigated the effect of chewing on alertness and cognitive performance across one night without sleep as well as the possible mediating role of cardiac autonomic activity. Fourteen adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced protocol employing a chewing, placebo and caffeine condition. Participants completed tasks assessing psychomotor vigilance, tracking, grammatical reasoning, alertness and sleepiness each hour across the night. All participants received either placebo or caffeine (200 mg), while the chewing condition also chewed on a tasteless and odorless substance for 15 min each hour. Heart rate (HR), root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals on the ECG (RMSSD), and preejection period (PEP) were simultaneously recorded. Alertness and cognitive performance amongst the chewing condition did not differ or were in fact worse when compared with placebo. Similarly, measures of HR and RMSSD remained the same between these two conditions; however, PEP was reduced in the later part of the night in the chewing condition compared with a relative increase for placebo. Caffeine led to improved speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks and increased alertness when compared with chewing. Relative increases in RMSSD and reductions in HR were demonstrated following caffeine; however, no change in PEP was seen. Strong associations between cardiac parasympathetic activity and complex cognitive tasks, as well as between subjective alertness and simpler cognitive tasks, suggest a differential process mediating complex versus simple cognitive performance during sleep deprivation. PMID:17118092

  4. Acute hypoxia during organogenesis affects cardiac autonomic balance in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Maslova, M V; Graf, A V; Maklakova, A S; Krushinskaya, Ya V; Sokolova, N A; Koshelev, V B

    2005-02-01

    Changes in ECG parameters were studied in pregnant rats exposed to acute hypobaric hypoxia during the period of organogenesis (gestation days 9 to 10). Rats with low, medium, and high tolerance to hypoxia exhibited pronounced autonomic nervous system imbalance, which become apparent as a loss of correlation between various parameters of ECG signals recorded at rest and during exposure to some stress factors existing under normal conditions. PMID:16027800

  5. Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Tatiana Dias; Wajnsztejn, Rubens; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Marques Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos; Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Adami, Fernando; Valenti, Vitor E; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Leone, Claudio; da Cruz Martins, Karen Cristina; Ferreira, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by decreased attention span, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. Autonomic nervous system imbalance was previously described in this population. We aim to compare the autonomic function of children with ADHD and controls by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Children rested in supine position with spontaneous breathing for 20 minutes. Heart rate was recorded beat by beat. HRV analysis was performed in the time and frequency domains and Poincaré plot. Results Twenty-eight children with ADHD (22 boys, aged 9.964 years) and 28 controls (15 boys, age 9.857 years) participated in this study. It was determined that the mean and standard deviation of indexes which indicate parasympathetic activity is higher in children with ADHD than in children without the disorder: high frequency in normalized units, 46.182 (14.159) versus 40.632 (12.247); root mean square of successive differences, 41.821 (17.834) versus 38.150 (18.357); differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds, 199.75 (144.00) versus 127.46 (102.21) (P<0.05); percentage of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds, 23.957 (17.316) versus 16.211 (13.215); standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat interval, 29.586 (12.622) versus 26.989 (12.983). Conclusion Comparison of the autonomic function by analyzing HRV suggests an increase in the activity of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous systems in children with ADHD in relation to the control group. PMID:24748797

  6. Self-Monitoring of Cardiac Autonomic Function at Home Is Feasible

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Jesper; Nielsen, Roni; Laugesen, Esben; Nygaard, Hans; Poulsen, Per Logstrup; Ejskjaer, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with diabetes and may be related to the development of hypertension, ischemic stroke, and a number of other late complications. The earliest sign of CAN is a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Standard HRV tests for CAN include expiration-to-inspiration ratio, response to active standing (30:15), and the Valsalva maneuver. Because of the technical requirements for these tests, they are limited to the point-of-care office or a clinical laboratory setting. It is unknown if a “white-coat“ phenomenon exists in autonomic neuropathy testing and if home testing is feasible. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reproducibility of CAN testing in a clinical setting, (2) to evaluate the feasibility of self-monitoring of cardiovascular autonomic function at home, and (3) report possible differences in measurements taken at the hospital versus those taken at home. Method Ten healthy subjects were included. Participants underwent in-hospital testing for CAN before and after home monitoring. For 6 consecutive days, participants measured autonomic function once a day at home. The intra- and interindividual reproducibility was determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and the reproducibility coefficient (RC). Agreement between hospital and home testing was analyzed using Pearson r, mean difference, and Bland–Altman analysis with Pitman’s test of difference in variance. Results Pitman’s test showed no significant difference in variance between hospital and home measurements, indicating suitable agreement between the two measurements. Reproducibility was moderate to high in all measures, with RC ranging from 66–94% and CV ranging from 5–10%. Conclusions Home testing of CAN is feasible. The evaluations showed no significant systematic error of in-hospital testing compared with self-monitoring at home. In this study, we were not able to demonstrate the presses of “white coat

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and cardiac autonomic responses to transrectal examination differ with behavioral reactivity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Kulcsár-Huszenicza, M; Ruff, F; Szenci, O; Jurkovich, V

    2016-09-01

    Behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were evaluated in response to transrectal examination in nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows with different behavioral reactivity. According to behavioral reactions shown to the procedure of fixing the heart rate (HR) monitors, the 20 cows with the highest and the 20 cows with the lowest behavioral reactivity were involved in the study (high responder, n=20; and low responder, n=20, respectively). Activity of the ANS was assessed by HR and HR variability parameters. Blood and saliva were collected at 5 min before (baseline) and 0, 5 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 120 min after the examination to determine cortisol concentrations. The examination lasted for 5 min. Cardiac parameters included HR, the root mean square of successive differences between the consecutive interbeat intervals, the high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability, and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF parameter (LF/HF). Following the examination, peak plasma and saliva cortisol levels and the amplitude of the plasma and saliva cortisol response were higher in high responder cows than in low responders. Areas under the plasma and saliva cortisol response curves were greater in high responder cows. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels correlated significantly at baseline (r=0.91), right after examination (r=0.98), and at peak levels (r=0.96). Area under the HR response curve was higher in low responder cows; however, maximum HR and the amplitude of the HR response showed no differences between groups. Minimum values of both parameters calculated for the examination were higher in high responders. Following the examination, response parameters of root mean square of successive differences and HF did not differ between groups. The maximum and the amplitude of LF/HF response and area under the LF/HF response curve were lower in low responder cows, suggesting a lower sympathetic

  8. Reduced cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing: A heritable vulnerability trait in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An

    2016-09-30

    Reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV) has been observed in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, suggesting genetic predispositions. However, findings have not been consistent. We assessed cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (n=45; 26 female; aged 39.69±14.82 years). Data were compared to healthy controls (n=45; 26 female; aged 38.27±9.79 years) matched for age, gender, body mass index and physical activity as well as to unmedicated patients with acute schizophrenia (n=45; 25 female; aged 37.31±12.65 years). Electrocardiograms were recorded under supine resting and deep-breathing conditions (10-12breaths/min). We measured HRV components including variance, low-frequency (LF) power, which may reflect baroreflex function, high-frequency (HF) power, which reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, and LF/HF ratio, which may reflect sympatho-vagal balance. Patients rather than relatives exhibited lower resting-state HRV (variance, LF, and HF) than controls. As expected, deep breathing induced an increase in variance and HF-HRV in controls. However, such a response was significantly reduced in both patients and their relatives. In conclusion, the diminished cardiac autonomic reactivity to deep breathing seen in patients and their unaffected relatives indicates that this pattern of cardiac autonomic dysregulation may be regarded as a genetic trait marker for schizophrenia. PMID:27442977

  9. Linking an Anxiety-Related Personality Trait to Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Well-Defined Healthy Adults: Harm Avoidance and Resting Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Lien-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxiety trait, anxiety and depression states have all been reported to increase risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through altering cardiac autonomic regulation. Our aim was to investigate whether the relationship between harm avoidance (HA, an anxiety-related personality trait) and cardiac autonomic regulation is independent of anxiety and depression states in healthy adults. Methods We recruited 535 physically and mentally healthy volunteers. Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Tri-dimensional Personality Questionnaire. Participants were divided into high or low HA groups as discriminated by the quartile value. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). We obtained the time and frequency-domain indices of HRV including variance (total HRV), the low-frequency power (LF; 0.05–0.15 Hz), which may reflect baroreflex function, the high-frequency power (HF; 0.15–0.40 Hz), which reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, as well as the LF/HF ratio. Results The BDI and HA scores showed associations with HRV parameters. After adjustment for the BDI scores and other control variables, HA is still associated with reduced variance, LF and HF power. Compared with the participants with low HA, those with high HA displayed significant reductions in variance, LF and HF power and a significant increase in their LF/HF ratio. Conclusion This study highlights the independent role of HA in contributing to decreased autonomic cardiac regulation in healthy adults and provides a potential underlying mechanism for anxiety trait to confer increased risk for CVD. PMID:27482240

  10. The use of pupillometry in the assessment of cardiac autonomic function in elite different type trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Kaltsatou, Antonia; Kouidi, Evangelia; Fotiou, Dimitrios; Deligiannis, Pantazis

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic function by pupillometry in male athletes. Fifteen elite endurance- (END) and eleven power-trained (POWER) athletes and fifteen sedentary individuals (CONTROL) were studied. All subjects underwent three pupillometric measurements: at rest, peak exercise testing and recovery phase. The pupillometric indices studied were: baseline pupil radius (R1), minimum pupil radius (R2), maximum constriction velocity (VC(max)), maximum constriction acceleration (AC(max)), amplitude (AMP, R1-R2), constriction ratio (AMP%). During exercise, RR intervals were obtained for each subject with a Polar S810i for time and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The following parameters of HRV were measured: standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN), the mean square successive differences (rMSSD), percent of NN intervals differing >50 ms from the preceding NN (pNN50), low (LF)- and high (HF)- frequency components of the autoregressive power spectrum of the NN intervals and their ratio (LF/HF). At rest and recovery, END showed significantly increased VC(max) and AC(max) compared to POWER and CONTROL. AMP% was significantly greater in END at rest, peak exercise and recovery compared to POWER and CONTROL. END and POWER had significantly greater AMP at rest and recovery compared to CONTROL. Moreover, all HRV indices were significantly increased in END compared to POWER and CONTROL. However, POWER showed significantly increased rMSSD and LF compared to CONTROL. HRV parameters were significantly correlated with pupillometric parameters during exercise. Our results indicated that any kind of exercise training and mainly endurance one affects autonomic regulation of pupillary light reflex. PMID:21259023

  11. Nonlinearity and fractality in the variability of cardiac period in the lizard, Gallotia galloti: effects of autonomic blockade.

    PubMed

    De Vera, Luis; Santana, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Julian J

    2008-10-01

    Both nonlinear and fractal properties of beat-to-beat R-R interval variability signal (RRV) of freely moving lizards (Gallotia galloti) were studied in baseline and under autonomic nervous system blockade. Nonlinear techniques allowed us to study the complexity, chaotic behavior, nonlinearity, stationarity, and regularity over time of RRV. Scaling behavior of RRV was studied by means of fractal techniques. The autonomic nervous system blockers used were atropine, propranolol, prazosin, and yohimbine. The nature of RRV was linear in baseline and under beta-, alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor blockades. Atropine changed the linear nature of RRV to nonlinear and increased its stationarity, regularity and fractality. Propranolol increased the complexity and chaotic behavior, and decreased the stationarity, regularity, and fractality of RRV. Both prazosin and yohimbine did not change any of the nonlinear and fractal properties of RRV. It is suggested that 1) the use of both nonlinear and fractal analysis is an appropriate approach for studying cardiac period variability in reptiles; 2) the cholinergic activity, which seems to make the alpha(1)-, alpha(2)- and beta-adrenergic activity interaction unnecessary, determines the linear behavior in basal RRV; 3) fractality, as well as both RRV regularity and stationarity over time, may result from the balance between cholinergic and beta-adrenergic activities opposing actions; 4) beta-adrenergic activity may buffer both the complexity and chaotic behavior of RRV, and 5) neither the alpha(1)- nor the alpha(2)-adrenergic activity seem to be involved in the mediation of either nonlinear or fractal components of RRV. PMID:18685061

  12. Cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy elderly after different intensities of dynamic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Droguett, Viviane Santos López; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; de Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo; Marques, Douglas Porto; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the heart rate (HR) and its autonomic modulation at baseline and during dynamic postexercise (PEX) with intensities of 40% and 60% of the maximum HR in healthy elderly. Methods This cross-sectional study included ten apparently healthy people who had been submitted to a protocol on a cycle ergometer for 35 minutes. Autonomic modulation was evaluated by spectral analysis of HR variability (HRV). Results A relevant increase in HR response was observed at 15 minutes postexercise with intensities of 60% and 40% of the maximum HR (10±2 bpm versus 5±1 bpm, respectively; P=0.005), and a significant reduction in HRV was also noted with 40% and 60% intensities during the rest period, and significant reduction in HRV (RR variance) was also observed in 40% and 60% intensities when compared to the baseline, as well as between the post-exercise intensities (1032±32 ms versus 905±5 ms) (P<0.001). In the HRV spectral analysis, a significant increase in the low frequency component HRV and autonomic balance at 40% of the maximum HR (68±2 normalized units [nu] versus 55±1 nu and 2.0±0.1 versus 1.2±0.1; P<0.001) and at 60% of the maximum HR (77±1 nu versus 55±1 nu and 3.2±0.1 versus 1.2±0.1 [P<0.001]) in relation to baseline was observed. A significant reduction of high frequency component at 40% and 60% intensities, however, was observed when compared to baseline (31±2 nu and 23±1 nu versus 45±1 nu, respectively; P<0.001). Moreover, significant differences were observed for the low frequency and high frequency components, as well as for the sympathovagal balance between participants who reached 40% and 60% of the maximum HR. Conclusion There was an increase in the HR, sympathetic modulation, and sympathovagal balance, as well as a reduction in vagal modulation in the elderly at both intensities of the PEX. PMID:25653509

  13. Effect of Head-Down Bed Rest and Artificial Gravity Countermeasure on Cardiac Autonomic and Advanced Electrocardiographic Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, T. T.; Platts, S.; Stenger, M.; Ribeiro, C.; Natapoff, A.; Howarth, M.; Evans, J.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of 21 days of head-down bed rest (HDBR), with versus without an artificial gravity (AG) countermeasure, on cardiac autonomic and advanced electrocardiographic function. Fourteen healthy men participated in the study: seven experienced 21 days of HDBR alone ("HDBR controls") and seven the same degree and duration of HDBR but with approximately 1hr daily short-arm centrifugation as an AG countermeasure ("AG-treated"). Five minute supine high-fidelity 12-lead ECGs were obtained in all subjects: 1) 4 days before HDBR; 2) on the last day of HDBR; and 3) 7 days after HDBR. Besides conventional 12-lead ECG intervals and voltages, all of the following advanced ECG parameters were studied: 1) both stochastic (time and frequency domain) and deterministic heart rate variability (HRV); 2) beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV); 3) T-wave morphology, including signal-averaged T-wave residua (TWR) and principal component analysis ratios; 4) other SAECG-related parameters including high frequency QRS ECG and late potentials; and 5) several advanced ECG estimates of left ventricular (LV) mass. The most important results by repeated measures ANOVA were that: 1) Heart rates, Bazett-corrected QTc intervals, TWR, LF/HF power and the alpha 1 of HRV were significantly increased in both groups (i.e., by HDBR), but with no relevant HDBR*group differences; 2) All purely "vagally-mediated" parameters of HRV (e.g., RMSSD, HF power, Poincare SD1, etc.), PR intervals, and also several parameters of LV mass (Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon voltages, spatial ventricular activation times, ventricular gradients) were all significantly decreased in both groups (i.e., by HDBR), but again with no relevant HDBR*group differences); 3) All "generalized" or "vagal plus sympathetic" parameters of stochastic HRV (i.e., SDNN, total power, LF power) were significantly more decreased in the AG-treated group than in the HDBR-only group (i.e., here there was a relevant HDBR*group difference

  14. Effect of overreaching on cognitive performance and related cardiac autonomic control.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, O; Lussier, M; Fraser, S; Bherer, L; Audiffren, M; Bosquet, L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of a 2-week overload period immediately followed by a 1-week taper period on different cognitive processes including executive and nonexecutive functions, and related heart rate variability. Eleven male endurance athletes increased their usual training volume by 100% for 2 weeks, and decreased it by 50% for 1 week. A maximal graded test, a constant speed test at 85% of peak treadmill speed, and a Stroop task with the measurement of heart rate variability were performed at each period. All participants were considered as overreached. We found a moderate increase in the overall reaction time to the three conditions of the Stroop task after the overload period (816 ± 83 vs 892 ± 117 ms, P = 0.03) followed by a return to baseline after the taper period (820 ± 119 ms, P = 0.013). We found no association between cognitive performance and cardiac parasympathetic control at baseline, and no association between changes in these measures. Our findings clearly underscore the relevance of cognitive performance in the monitoring of overreaching in endurance athletes. However, contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find any relationship between executive performance and cardiac parasympathetic control. PMID:22537000

  15. Intervention study on cardiac autonomic nervous effects of methylmercury from seafood.

    PubMed

    Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Murata, Katsuyuki; Shimada, Miyuki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Kameo, Satomi; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    To scrutinize whether the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, 3.4 microg/kg body weight/week) of methylmercury in Japan is safe for adults, we conducted an intervention study using heart rate variability (HRV) that has been considered to reflect cardiac events. Fifty-four healthy volunteers were recruited and divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was exposed to methylmercury at the PTWI level through consumption of bigeye tuna and swordfish for 14 weeks, and HRV parameters were compared between the two groups. In the experimental group, mean hair mercury levels, determined before and after the dietary methylmercury exposure and after 15-week wash-out period following the cessation of exposure, were 2.30, 8.76 and 4.90 microg/g, respectively. The sympathovagal balance index of HRV was significantly elevated after the exposure, and decreased to the baseline level at the end of this study. Still, such changes in HRV parameters were not found in the control group with a mean hair mercury level of around 2.1 microg/g. In conclusion, the PTWI does not appear to be safe for adult health, because methylmercury exposure from fish consumption induced a temporary sympathodominant state. Rather, long-term exposure to methylmercury may pose a potential risk for cardiac events involving sympathovagal imbalance among fish-consuming populations. PMID:19732823

  16. [Evaluation of autonomic dysfunction by novel methods].

    PubMed

    Ando, Yukio; Obayashi, Konen

    2004-07-01

    The autonomic nervous system innervates every organ in the body. Since autonomic disturbances affect patient survival, an understanding and recognition of these disturbances are important. We adopted several new methods to evaluate autonomic function accurately. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy can assess the cardiac autonomic function even in the presence of cardiac arrhythmia. Laser-Doppler flowmetry, ultrasonographic study in the vessels and near-infrared spectrophotoscopy techniques serve as useful markers for screening the dysfunction of vasomotor neurons and blood circulation. Electrogastrography and the circadian rhythms of protein C secretion could be markers of the visceromotor nerves in the abdomen. Electrogastrography is a particularly useful tool for reflecting on functional changes in gastrointestinal motility. The evaluation of anemia could be a marker of autonomic dysfunction in the kidney and bone marrow in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, pandysautonomia, and multiple system atrophy. Normocytic and normochromic anemia correlated with the severity of autonomic dysfunction were shown in these patients. We also evaluated the dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system and sudomotor neuron using our new autonomic function tests. The glucose-tolerance test could become one of the most useful clinical tools for detecting autonomic dysfunction in the endocrine system. Microhydrography and thermography could be useful tools for diagnosing the lesion site of dyshidrosis. Moreover, it is clinically important to check the systemic circulation and autonomic function in patients treated with sildenafil citrate and organ transplantation to save their lives. Our new autonomic function tests, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy, are crucial tools in supplying the best symptomatic treatment for such patients. PMID:15344558

  17. Creative motivation: creative achievement predicts cardiac autonomic markers of effort during divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Eddington, Kari M; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-10-01

    Executive approaches to creativity emphasize that generating creative ideas can be hard and requires mental effort. Few studies, however, have examined effort-related physiological activity during creativity tasks. Using motivational intensity theory as a framework, we examined predictors of effort-related cardiac activity during a creative challenge. A sample of 111 adults completed a divergent thinking task. Sympathetic (PEP and RZ) and parasympathetic (RSA and RMSSD) outcomes were assessed using impedance cardiography. As predicted, people with high creative achievement (measured with the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) showed significantly greater increases in sympathetic activity from baseline to task, reflecting higher effort. People with more creative achievements generated ideas that were significantly more creative, and creative performance correlated marginally with PEP and RZ. The results support the view that creative thought can be a mental challenge. PMID:25063471

  18. Impact of aging on cardiac function in a female rat model of menopause: role of autonomic control, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Machi, Jacqueline Freire; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Freitas, Sarah Cristina; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; da Silva, Maikon Barbosa; Cruz, Paula Lázara; Mostarda, Cristiano; Salemi, Vera M C; Morris, Mariana; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters after ovarian hormone deprivation (OVX). Methods Female Wistar rats (3 or 22 months old) were divided into: young controls, young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized (bilateral ovaries removal). After a 9-week follow-up, physical capacity, metabolic parameters, and morphometric and cardiac functions were assessed. Subsequently, arterial pressure was recorded and cardiac autonomic control was evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured on the cardiac tissue, while inflammatory profile was assessed in the plasma. Results Aging or OVX caused an increase in body and fat weight and triglyceride concentration and a decrease in both insulin sensitivity and aerobic exercise capacity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased cardiac overload (myocardial performance index) were reported in old groups when compared with young groups. Aging and OVX led to an increased sympathetic tonus, and vagal tonus was lower only for the old groups. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were increased in old groups when compared with young groups. Glutathione redox balance (GSH/GSSG) was reduced in young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized groups when compared with young controls, indicating an increased oxidative stress. A negative correlation was found between GSH/GSSG and tumor necrosis factor-α (r=−0.6, P<0.003). Correlations were found between interleukin-6 with adipose tissue (r=0.5, P<0.009) and vagal tonus (r=−0.7, P<0.0002); and among myocardial performance index with interleukin-6 (r=0.65, P<0.0002), sympathetic tonus (r=0.55, P<0.006), and physical capacity (r=−0.55, P<0.003). The findings in this trial showed that ovariectomy aggravated the impairment of cardiac and functional effects of aging in female rats, probably associated with exacerbated autonomic dysfunction

  19. Effort Deficits and Depression: The Influence of Anhedonic Depressive Symptoms on Cardiac Autonomic Activity During a Mental Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Paul J.; Nusbaum, Emily C.; Eddington, Kari M.; Beaty, Roger E.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Motivational approaches to depression emphasize the role of dysfunctional motivational dynamics, particularly diminished reward and incentive processes associated with anhedonia. A study examined how anhedonic depressive symptoms, measured continuously across a wide range of severity, influenced the physiological mobilization of effort during a cognitive task. Using motivational intensity theory as a guide, we expected that the diminished incentive value associated with anhedonic depressive symptoms would reduce effort during a “do your best” challenge (also known as an unfixed or self-paced challenge), in which effort is a function of the value of achieving the task’s goal. Using impedance cardiography, two cardiac autonomic responses were assessed: pre-ejection period (PEP), a measure of sympathetic activity and our primary measure of interest, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic activity. As expected, PEP slowed from baseline to task as anhedonic depressive symptoms increased (as measured with the DASS Depression scale), indicating diminished effort-related sympathetic activity. No significant effects appeared for RSA. The findings support motivational intensity theory as a translational model of effort processes in depression and clarify some inconsistent effects of depressive symptoms on effort-related physiology found in past work. PMID:25431505

  20. Effects of autonomic balance and fluid and electrolyte changes on cardiac function in infarcted rats: A serial study of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Souza, N S; Dos-Santos, R C; Silveira, Anderson Luiz Bezerra da; R, Sonoda-Côrtes; Gantus, Michel Alexandre Villani; Fortes, F S; Olivares, Emerson Lopes

    2016-04-01

    Premenopausal women are known to show lower incidence of cardiovascular disease than men. During myocardial infarction (MI), homeostatic responses are activated, including the sympathetic autonomic nervous system and the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is related to the fluid and electrolyte balance, both aiming to maintain cardiac output. This study sought to perform a serial evaluation of sexual dimorphism in cardiac autonomic control and fluid and electrolyte balance during the development of MI-induced heart failure in rats. Experimental MI was induced in male (M) and female (F) adult (7-9 weeks of age) Wistar rats. The animals were placed in metabolic cages to assess fluid intake and urine volume 1 and 4 weeks after inducing MI (male myocardial infarction (MMI) and female myocardial infarction (FMI) groups). They subsequently underwent echocardiographic evaluation and spectral analysis of heart rate variability. After completing each protocol, the animals were killed for postmortem evaluation and histology. The MMI group showed earlier and more intense cardiac morphological and functional changes than the FMI group, although the extent of MI did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). The MMI group showed higher sympathetic modulation and sodium and water retention than the FMI group (P < 0.05), which may partly explain both the echocardiographic and pathological findings. Females subjected to infarction seem to show attenuation of sympathetic modulation, more favourable fluid and electrolyte balances, and better preserved cardiac function compared to males subjected to the same infarction model. PMID:26748814

  1. Autonomic neuropathy resulting in recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in an HIV patient with Hodgkin lymphoma receiving vinblastine and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cherif, S; Danino, S; Yoganathan, K

    2015-03-01

    Hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paresis as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy has been well recognised. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy is commonly caused by compression due to tumour or lymph nodes or by surgical damage. Vinca alkaloids are well known to cause peripheral neuropathy. However, vinca alkaloids causing recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy has been reported rarely in children. We report a case of an adult patient with HIV who developed hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paralysis during vinblastine treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement in such patients may distract clinicians from considering alternative causes of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, with potential ensuing severe or even life-threatening stridor. PMID:24828552

  2. Cardiac coherence, self-regulation, autonomic stability, and psychosocial well-being

    PubMed Central

    McCraty, Rollin; Zayas, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to alter one’s emotional responses is central to overall well-being and to effectively meeting the demands of life. One of the chief symptoms of events such as trauma, that overwhelm our capacities to successfully handle and adapt to them, is a shift in our internal baseline reference such that there ensues a repetitive activation of the traumatic event. This can result in high vigilance and over-sensitivity to environmental signals which are reflected in inappropriate emotional responses and autonomic nervous system dynamics. In this article we discuss the perspective that one’s ability to self-regulate the quality of feeling and emotion of one’s moment-to-moment experience is intimately tied to our physiology, and the reciprocal interactions among physiological, cognitive, and emotional systems. These interactions form the basis of information processing networks in which communication between systems occurs through the generation and transmission of rhythms and patterns of activity. Our discussion emphasizes the communication pathways between the heart and brain, as well as how these are related to cognitive and emotional function and self-regulatory capacity. We discuss the hypothesis that self-induced positive emotions increase the coherence in bodily processes, which is reflected in the pattern of the heart’s rhythm. This shift in the heart rhythm in turn plays an important role in facilitating higher cognitive functions, creating emotional stability and facilitating states of calm. Over time, this establishes a new inner-baseline reference, a type of implicit memory that organizes perception, feelings, and behavior. Without establishing a new baseline reference, people are at risk of getting “stuck” in familiar, yet unhealthy emotional and behavioral patterns and living their lives through the automatic filters of past familiar or traumatic experience. PMID:25324802

  3. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children: The ABCD Study

    PubMed Central

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.; Hoekstra, Christine M. C. A.; Gademan, Maaike G. J.; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R.; Twickler, Marcel T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system activation and metabolic profile and its components in children at age of 5–6 years. Methods Cross-sectional data from an apparently healthy population (within the ABCD study) were collected at age 5–6 years in 1540 children. Heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; parasympathetic activity) and pre-ejection period (PEP; sympathetic activity) were assessed during rest. Metabolic components were waist-height ratio (WHtR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting triglycerides, glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Individual components, as well as a cumulative metabolic score, were analyzed. Results In analysis adjusted for child’s physical activity, sleep, anxiety score and other potential confounders, increased HR and decreased RSA were associated with higher WHtR (P< 0.01), higher SBP (p<0.001) and a higher cumulative metabolic score (HR: p < 0.001; RSA: p < 0.01). Lower PEP was only associated with higher SBP (p <0.05). Of all children, 5.6% had 3 or more (out of 5) adverse metabolic components; only higher HR was associated with this risk (per 10 bpm increase: OR = 1.56; p < 0.001). Conclusions This study shows that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with central adiposity and higher SBP, indicative of increased metabolic risk, already at age 5–6 years. PMID:26394362

  4. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  5. Comparing the accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on body composition, autonomic nervous system activity, and cardiac output to standardized assessments

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John E; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Gao, Jinrun; Melillo, Angelica B; Long, Evan G; Alonso, Yaima; Konefal, Janet; Woolger, Judi M; Leonard, Susanna; Singh, Prabjot K; Chen, Lawrence; Tiozzo, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC) is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical impedance, galvanic skin response, and spectrophotometry: (1) ES-BC (Electro Sensor-Body Composition; LD Technology, Miami, FL) to assess body composition, (2) EIS-GS (Electro Interstitial Scan-Galvanic Skin; LD Technology) to predict autonomic nervous system activity, and (3) ES Oxi (Electro Sensor Oxi; LD Technology) to assess cardiac output. The objective of this study was to compare each to a standardized assessment: ES-BC to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), EIS-GS to heart rate variability, and ES Oxi to BioZ Dx Diagnostic System (BioZ Dx; SonoSite Inc, Bothell, WA). Patients and methods The study was conducted in two waves. Fifty subjects were assessed for body composition and autonomic nervous system activity. Fifty-one subjects were assessed for cardiac output. Results We found adequate relative and absolute agreement between ES-BC and DXA for fat mass (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) with ES-BC overestimating fat mass by 0.1 kg and for body fat percentage (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) with overestimation of fat percentage by 0.4%. For autonomic nervous system activity, we found marginal relative agreement between EIS-GS and heart rate variability by using EIS-GS as the predictor in a linear regression equation (adjusted R2 = 0.56, P = 0.03). For cardiac output, adequate relative and absolute agreement was found between ES Oxi and BioZ Dx at baseline (r = 0.60, P < 0.001), after the first exercise stage (r = 0.79, P < 0.001), and after the second exercise stage (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). Absolute agreement was found at baseline and after both bouts of exercise; ES Oxi overestimated baseline and stage 1 exercise cardiac output by 0.3 L/minute and 0.1 L/minute, respectively, but exactly estimated stage 2 exercise cardiac output. Conclusion ES-BC and ES Oxi accurately assessed body composition and cardiac output compared to standardized instruments, whereas EIS

  6. Cardiorespiratory and cardiac autonomic responses to 30-15 intermittent fitness test in team sport players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Al Haddad, Hani; Millet, Grégoire Paul; Lepretre, Pierre Marie; Newton, Michael; Ahmaidi, Said

    2009-01-01

    The 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) is an attractive alternative to classic continuous incremental field tests for defining a reference velocity for interval training prescription in team sport athletes. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiorespiratory and autonomic responses to 30-15IFT with those observed during a standard continuous test (CT). In 20 team sport players (20.9 +/- 2.2 years), cardiopulmonary parameters were measured during exercise and for 10 minutes after both tests. Final running velocity, peak lactate ([La]peak), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured. Parasympathetic function was assessed during the postexercise recovery phase via heart rate (HR) recovery time constant (HRR[tau]) and HR variability (HRV) vagal-related indices. At exhaustion, no difference was observed in peak oxygen uptake VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio, HR, or RPE between 30-15IFT and CT. In contrast, 30-15IFT led to significantly higher minute ventilation, [La]peak, and final velocity than CT (p < 0.05 for all parameters). All maximal cardiorespiratory variables observed during both tests were moderately to well correlated (e.g., r = 0.76, p = 0.001 for [latin capital VO2peak). Regarding ventilatory thresholds (VThs), all cardiorespiratory measurements were similar and well correlated between the 2 tests. Parasympathetic function was lower after 30-15IFT than after CT, as indicated by significantly longer HHR[tau] (81.9 +/- 18.2 vs. 60.5 +/- 19.5 for 30-15IFT and CT, respectively, p < 0.001) and lower HRV vagal-related indices (i.e., the root mean square of successive R-R intervals differences [rMSSD]: 4.1 +/- 2.4 and 7.0 +/- 4.9 milliseconds, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the 30-15IFT is accurate for assessing VThs and VO2peak, but it alters postexercise parasympathetic function more than a continuous incremental protocol. PMID:19057401

  7. 4-[18F]fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine: A Radiopharmaceutical for Quantifying Regional Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Density with Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Keun Sam; Jung, Yong-Woon; Gu, Guie; Koeppe, Robert A.; Sherman, Phillip S.; Quesada, Carole A.; Raffel, David M.

    2013-01-01

    4-[18F]fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine ([18F]4F-MHPG, [18F]1) is a new cardiac sympathetic nerve radiotracer with kinetic properties favorable for quantifying regional nerve density with PET and tracer kinetic analysis. An automated synthesis of [18F]1 was developed in which the intermediate 4-[18F]fluoro-m-tyramine ([18F]16) was prepared using a diaryliodonium salt precursor for nucleophilic aromatic [18F]fluorination. In PET imaging studies in rhesus macaque monkeys, [18F]1 demonstrated high quality cardiac images with low uptake in lungs and liver. Compartmental modeling of [18F]1 kinetics provided ‘net uptake rate’ constants Ki (mL/min/g wet) and Patlak graphical analysis of [18F]1 kinetics provided Patlak slopes Kp (mL/min/g). In pharmacological blocking studies with the norepinephrine transporter inhibitor desipramine (DMI), each of these quantitative measures declined in a dose-dependent manner with increasing DMI doses. These initial results strongly suggest that [18F]1 can provide quantitative measures of regional cardiac sympathetic nerve density in human hearts using PET. PMID:23965035

  8. Exposure to medium and high ambient levels of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects.

    PubMed

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Wong, Hofer; Donde, Aneesh; Frelinger, Jessica; Dalton, Sarah; Ching, Wendy; Power, Karron; Balmes, John R

    2015-06-15

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ozone increases cardiovascular morbidity. However, the specific biological mechanisms mediating ozone-associated cardiovascular effects are unknown. To determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of ozone causes changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease including heart rate variability (HRV), systemic inflammation, and coagulability, 26 subjects were exposed to 0, 100, and 200 ppb ozone in random order for 4 h with intermittent exercise. HRV was measured and blood samples were obtained immediately before (0 h), immediately after (4 h), and 20 h after (24 h) each exposure. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 20 h after exposure. Regression modeling was used to examine dose-response trends between the endpoints and ozone exposure. Inhalation of ozone induced dose-dependent adverse changes in the frequency domains of HRV across exposures consistent with increased sympathetic tone [increase of (parameter estimate ± SE) 0.4 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.1 in low- to high-frequency domain HRV ratio per 100 ppb increase in ozone at 4 h and 24 h, respectively (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01)] and a dose-dependent increase in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) across exposures at 24 h [increase of 0.61 ± 0.24 mg/l in CRP per 100 ppb increase in ozone (P = 0.01)]. Changes in HRV and CRP did not correlate with ozone-induced local lung inflammatory responses (BAL granulocytes, IL-6, or IL-8), but changes in HRV and CRP were associated with each other after adjustment for age and ozone level. Inhalation of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects that may contribute to the cardiovascular mortality associated with short-term exposure. PMID:25862833

  9. An Autonomic Link Between Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Impaired Cardiac Performance: Insight From Treadmill and Dobutamine Challenges in Heart Failure–Prone Rats

    PubMed Central

    Farraj, Aimen K.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac disease exacerbation is associated with short-term exposure to vehicular emissions. Diesel exhaust (DE) might impair cardiac performance in part through perturbing efferent sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) input to the heart. We hypothesized that acute changes in ANS balance mediate decreased cardiac performance upon DE inhalation. Young adult heart failure–prone rats were implanted with radiotelemeters to measure heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), core body temperature, and pre-ejection period (PEP, a contractility index). Animals pretreated with sympathetic antagonist (atenolol), parasympathetic antagonist (atropine), or saline were exposed to DE (500 µg/m3 fine particulate matter, 4h) or filtered air and then treadmill exercise challenged. At 1 day postexposure, separate rats were catheterized for left ventricular pressure (LVP), contractility, and lusitropy and assessed for autonomic influence using the sympathoagonist dobutamine and surgical vagotomy. During DE exposure, atenolol inhibited increases in HR, BP, and contractility, but not body temperature, suggesting a role for sympathetic dominance. During treadmill recovery at 4h post-DE exposure, HR and HRV indicated parasympathetic dominance in saline- and atenolol-pretreated groups that atropine inhibited. Conversely, at treadmill recovery 21h post-DE exposure, HRV and PEP indicated sympathetic dominance and subsequently diminished contractility that only atenolol inhibited. LVP at 1 day postexposure indicated that DE impaired contractility and lusitropy while abolishing parasympathetic-regulated cardiac responses to dobutamine. This is the first evidence that air pollutant inhalation both causes time-dependent oscillations between sympathetic and parasympathetic dominance and decreases cardiac performance via aberrant sympathetic dominance. PMID:23872579

  10. Role of endothelin-1 in mediating changes in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Abukar, Yonis; May, Clive N; Ramchandra, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity to the heart (CSNA), which is directly linked to mortality in HF patients. Previous studies indicate that HF is associated with high levels of plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1), which correlates with the severity of the disease. We hypothesized that blockade of endothelin receptors would decrease CSNA. The effects of intravenous tezosentan (a nonselective ETA and ETB receptor antagonist) (8 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)) on resting levels of CSNA, arterial pressure, and heart rate were determined in conscious normal sheep (n = 6) and sheep with pacing-induced HF (n = 7). HF was associated with a significant decrease in ejection fraction (from 74 ± 2% to 38 ± 1%, P < 0.001) and a significant increase in resting levels of CSNA burst incidence (from 56 ± 11 to 87 ± 2 bursts/100 heartbeats, P < 0.01). Infusion of tezosentan for 60 min significantly decreased resting mean aterial pressure (MAP) in both normal and HF sheep (-8 ± 4 mmHg and -4 ± 3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). This was associated with a significant decrease in CSNA (by 25 ± 26% of control) in normal sheep, but there was no change in CSNA in HF sheep. Calculation of spontaneous baroreflex gain indicated significant impairment of the baroreflex control of HR after intravenous tezosentan infusion in normal animals but no change in HF animals. These data suggest that endogenous levels of ET-1 contribute to the baseline levels of CSNA in normal animals, but this effect is absent in HF. PMID:26468257

  11. Profound Autonomic Instability Complicated by Multiple Episodes of Cardiac Asystole and Refractory Bradycardia in a Patient with Anti-NMDA Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Mehr, Stephanie R.; Neeley, Roy C.; Wiley, Melissa; Kumar, Avinash B.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) is autoimmune encephalitis primarily affecting young adults and children. First described about a decade ago, it frequently manifests as a syndrome that includes progressive behavioral changes, psychosis, central hypoventilation, seizures, and autonomic instability. Although cardiac arrhythmias often accompany anti-NMDARE, the need for long-term electrophysiological support is rare. We describe the case of NMDARE whose ICU course was complicated by progressively worsening episodes of tachyarrhythmia-bradyarrhythmia and episodes of asystole from which she was successfully resuscitated. Her life-threatening episodes of autonomic instability were successfully controlled only after the placement of a permanent pacemaker during her ICU stay. She made a clinical recovery and was discharged to a skilled nursing facility after a protracted hospital course. PMID:27190663

  12. Autonomic Modulation by Electrical Stimulation of the Parasympathetic Nervous System: An Emerging Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Lu, Zhibing; He, Wenbo; Huang, Bing; Jiang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac autonomic nervous system has been known to play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which increases the parasympathetic activity and suppresses the sympathetic activity, is emerging as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review the recent literature on autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, including vagus nerve stimulation, transcutaneous auricular vagal stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and ganglionated plexi stimulation, in the treatment of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26914959

  13. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  14. Development of an autonomous detector for sensing of nerve agents based on functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Clavaguera, Simon; Raoul, Nicolas; Carella, Alexandre; Delalande, Michael; Celle, Caroline; Simonato, Jean-Pierre

    2011-10-15

    The ability to detect minute traces of chemical warfare agents is mandatory both for military forces and homeland security. Various detectors based on different technologies are available but still suffer from serious drawbacks such as false positives. There is still a need for the development of innovative reliable sensors, in particular for organophosphorus nerve agents like Sarin. We report herein on the fabrication of a portable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based prototype sensor system relying on silicon nanowire field-effect transistors for the detection of nerve agents. A fast, supersensitive and highly selective detection of organophosphorus molecules is reported. The results show also high selectivity in complex mixtures and on contaminated materials. PMID:21962681

  15. Metabolic syndrome burden in apparently healthy adolescents are adversely associated with cardiac autonomic modulation- Penn State Children Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Colón, Sol M.; He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Calhoun, Susan; Zheng, Zhi-Jie; Liao, Duanping

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the association between MetS component cluster and CAM has not been examined in adolescents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Penn State Child Cohort follow-up examination. CAM was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of 39-hour RR intervals, including frequency (high frequency, HF; low frequency, LF; and LF/HF ratio) and time (SDNN, standard deviation of all RR intervals; RMSSD, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals; and HR, heart rate) domain variables. To assess the MetS burden, we used continuous MetS score (cMetS)–sum of the age and sex-adjusted standardized residual (Z-score) of five established MetS components. Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyze the association between cMetS and CAM in the entire population and stratified by gender. Results After adjusting for age, sex, and race, cMetS was significantly associated with reduced HRV and higher HR. With 1 standard deviation increase in cMetS, there was a significant decrease in HF(−0.10(SE=0.02)), LF(−0.07(SE=0.01)), SDNN(−1.97(SE=0.50)), and RMSSD(−1.70(SE=0.72)), and increase in LF/HF(0.08(SE=0.02)) and HR(1.40(SE=0.26)). All cMetS components, with the exception of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), were associated with significantly decreased HRV and increased HR. High blood pressure (MAP) and triglyceride (TG) levels were also associated with an increase in LF/HF and decrease in RMSSD. An increase in high-density lipoprotein was only associated with higher LF and SDNN. Moreover, cMetS and HRV associations were more pronounced in males than in females. The associations between HRV and. MAP, TG, and HDL were more pronounced in females. Conclusions cMetS score is associated with lower HRV, suggesting an adverse impact on CAM, even in apparently healthy adolescents

  16. IFATS collection: Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce angiogenesis and nerve sprouting following myocardial infarction, in conjunction with potent preservation of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liying; Johnstone, Brian H; Cook, Todd G; Tan, Jian; Fishbein, Michael C; Chen, Peng-Sheng; March, Keith L

    2009-01-01

    The administration of therapeutic cell types, such as stem and progenitor cells, has gained much interest for the limitation or repair of tissue damage caused by a variety of insults. However, it is still uncertain whether the morphological and functional benefits are mediated predominantly via cell differentiation or paracrine mechanisms. Here, we assessed the extent and mechanisms of adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC)-dependent tissue repair in the context of acute myocardial infarction. Human ASCs in saline or saline alone was injected into the peri-infarct region in athymic rats following left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Cardiac function and structure were evaluated by serial echocardiography and histology. ASC-treated rats consistently exhibited better cardiac function, by all measures, than control rats 1 month following LAD occlusion. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and fractional shortening were improved in the ASC group, whereas LV remodeling and dilation were limited in the ASC group compared with the saline control group. Anterior wall thinning was also attenuated by ASC treatment, and post-mortem histological analysis demonstrated reduced fibrosis in ASC-treated hearts, as well as increased peri-infarct density of both arterioles and nerve sprouts. Human ASCs were persistent at 1 month in the peri-infarct region, but they were not observed to exhibit significant cardiomyocyte differentiation. Human ASCs preserve heart function and augment local angiogenesis and cardiac nerve sprouting following myocardial infarction predominantly by the provision of beneficial trophic factors. PMID:18772313

  17. Role of the cardiac nerve in the adaptive changes of heart rate in response to an aversive stimulus in Megalobulimus mogianensis.

    PubMed

    Romero, S M B; Hoffmann, A

    2008-05-01

    The effect of an aversive stimulus represented by contact with a hot plate on the heart rate of Megalobulimus mogianensis was evaluated with electrocardiogram recording in intact snails (N = 8). All stimulated animals showed an increase in heart rate, with mean values ranging from 35.6 +/- 1.2 (basal heart rate) to 43.8 +/- 0.9 bpm (post-stimulation heart rate). The cardioacceleration was followed by gradual recovery of the basal heart rate, with mean recovery times varying from 4.3 +/- 0.3 to 5.8 +/- 0.6 min. Repetition of the stimulus did not affect the magnitude of variation nor did it influence the basal heart rate recovery time. To investigate the role of the cardiac nerve in mediating the heart rate alterations induced by the aversive stimulus, denervated (N = 8) and sham-operated (N = 8) animals were also tested. Although the aversive stimulus caused the heart rate to increase significantly in both experimental groups, the mean increase in heart rate in denervated animals (4.4 +/- 0.4 bpm) was 57% of the value obtained in sham-operated animals (7.7 +/- 1.3 bpm), indicating that the cardiac nerve is responsible for 43% of the cardioacceleration induced by the aversive stimulus. The cardioacceleration observed in denervated snails may be due to an increase in venous return promoted by the intense muscular activity associated with the withdrawal response. Humoral factors may also be involved. A probable delaying inhibitory effect of the cardiac nerve on the recuperation of the basal heart rate is suggested. PMID:18545816

  18. Acute toxicant exposure and cardiac autonomic dysfunction from smoking a single narghile waterpipe with tobacco and with a "healthy" tobacco-free alternative.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Caroline O; Sahmarani, Kamar; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2012-11-23

    Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (narghile, hookah, shisha) has become a global epidemic. Unlike cigarette smoking, little is known about the health effects of waterpipe use. One acute effect of cigarette smoke inhalation is dysfunction in autonomic regulation of the cardiac cycle, as indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is implicated in adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, and is associated with inhalation exposure-induced oxidative stress. Using a 32 participant cross-over study design, we investigated toxicant exposure and effects of waterpipe smoking on heart rate variability when, under controlled conditions, participants smoked a tobacco-based and a tobacco-free waterpipe product promoted as an alternative for "health-conscious" users. Outcome measures included HRV, exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma nicotine, and puff topography, which were measured at times prior to, during, and after smoking. We found that waterpipe use acutely decreased HRV (p<0.01 for all measures), independent of product smoked. Plasma nicotine, blood pressure, and heart rate increased only with the tobacco-based product (p<0.01), while CO increased with both products (p<0.01). More smoke was inhaled during tobacco-free product use, potentially reflecting attempted regulation of nicotine intake. The data thus indicate that waterpipe smoking acutely compromises cardiac autonomic function, and does so through exposure to smoke constituents other than nicotine. PMID:23059956

  19. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  20. Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu β2 adrenergic polymorphisms influence cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Atala, Magda M; Goulart, Alessandra; Guerra, Grazia M; Mostarda, Cristiano; Rodrigues, Bruno; Mello, Priscila R; Casarine, Dulce E; Irigoyen, Maria-Claudia; Pereira, Alexandre C; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M

    2015-01-01

    The association between functional β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) polymorphisms and cardiac autonomic modulation is still unclear. Thus, two common polymorphisms in the β2-AR gene (Gln27Glu β2 and Arg16Gly β2) were studied to determine whether they might affect tonic and reflex cardiac sympathetic activity in healthy young subjects. A total of 213 healthy young white subjects of both genders (53% female), aged 18-30 years (23.5±3.4 y), had their continuous blood pressure curves noninvasively recorded by Finometer at baseline, and other hemodynamic parameters, as cardiac autonomic modulation, baroreflex sensitivity, and allele, genotype, and diplotype frequencies calculated. Associations were made between Arg16Gly β2 and Gln27Glu β2 polymorphisms and between β2-AR diplotypes and all variables. The heart rate was significantly lower (P<0.001) in the presence of homozygous Arg/Arg alleles (60.9±1.5 bpm) than in that of Arg/Gly heterozygotes (65.9±1.0 bpm) or Gly/Gly homozygotes (66.3±1.2 bpm). Homozygous carriers of Arg16 allele had an alpha index (19.2±1.3) significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of the subjects with the Gly allele Gly/Gly (14.5±0.7) or Arg/Gly (14.6±0.7). Furthermore, the recessive Glu27Glu and the heterozygous Gln27Glu genotypes had a higher percentage of low-frequency components (LF%) than the homozygous Gln27Gln (15.1% vs. 16.0% vs. 8.2%, P=0.03, respectively). In healthy young subjects, the presence of β2-AR Arg16 allele in a recessive model was associated with higher baroreflex sensitivity, and increased parasympathetic modulation in studied individuals. PMID:25755837

  1. Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu β2 adrenergic polymorphisms influence cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Atala, Magda M; Goulart, Alessandra; Guerra, Grazia M; Mostarda, Cristiano; Rodrigues, Bruno; Mello, Priscila R; Casarine, Dulce E; Irigoyen, Maria-Claudia; Pereira, Alexandre C; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M

    2015-01-01

    The association between functional β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) polymorphisms and cardiac autonomic modulation is still unclear. Thus, two common polymorphisms in the β2-AR gene (Gln27Glu β2 and Arg16Gly β2) were studied to determine whether they might affect tonic and reflex cardiac sympathetic activity in healthy young subjects. A total of 213 healthy young white subjects of both genders (53% female), aged 18-30 years (23.5±3.4 y), had their continuous blood pressure curves noninvasively recorded by Finometer at baseline, and other hemodynamic parameters, as cardiac autonomic modulation, baroreflex sensitivity, and allele, genotype, and diplotype frequencies calculated. Associations were made between Arg16Gly β2 and Gln27Glu β2 polymorphisms and between β2-AR diplotypes and all variables. The heart rate was significantly lower (P<0.001) in the presence of homozygous Arg/Arg alleles (60.9±1.5 bpm) than in that of Arg/Gly heterozygotes (65.9±1.0 bpm) or Gly/Gly homozygotes (66.3±1.2 bpm). Homozygous carriers of Arg16 allele had an alpha index (19.2±1.3) significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of the subjects with the Gly allele Gly/Gly (14.5±0.7) or Arg/Gly (14.6±0.7). Furthermore, the recessive Glu27Glu and the heterozygous Gln27Glu genotypes had a higher percentage of low-frequency components (LF%) than the homozygous Gln27Gln (15.1% vs. 16.0% vs. 8.2%, P=0.03, respectively). In healthy young subjects, the presence of β2-AR Arg16 allele in a recessive model was associated with higher baroreflex sensitivity, and increased parasympathetic modulation in studied individuals. PMID:25755837

  2. Impact of functional training on cardiac autonomic modulation, cardiopulmonary parameters and quality of life in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rezende Barbosa, Marianne Penachini da Costa de; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Cassemiro, Bruna Montechieze; de Souza, Naiara Maria; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda Barbosa; da Silva, Anne Kastelianne França; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-07-01

    Functional training (FT) promotes benefits in various physical abilities; however, its effect on autonomic modulation, cardiorespiratory parameters and quality of life in the healthy adult population is unknown, and thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of  FT on these variables in healthy young women. The study consisted of 29 women, distributed into two groups: the FT Group (FTG; n = 13; 23 ± 2·51 years; 21·90 ± 2·82 kg m(-) ²) and the Control Group (CG; n = 16; 20·56 ± 1·03 years; 22·12 ± 3·86 kg m(-) ²). The FTG performed periodized FT for 12 weeks, three times a week. The following were evaluated: autonomic modulation (heart rate variability), cardiorespiratory parameters and quality of life (SF-36 Questionnaire). The Student's t-test for unpaired data or the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the differences obtained between the final moment and the initial moment of the studied groups (P<0·05). The FTG demonstrated significant improvements in quality of life and autonomic modulation (P<0·05), but not in the cardiorespiratory parameters. Functional training was able to produce improvements in autonomic modulation and quality of life. PMID:26033271

  3. A Review of Cardiac Autonomic Measures: Considerations for Examination of Physiological Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benevides, Teal W.; Lane, Shelly J.

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is responsible for multiple physiological responses, and dysfunction of this system is often hypothesized as contributing to cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses in children. Research suggests that examination of ANS activity may provide insight into behavioral dysregulation in children with autism…

  4. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on acute changes in cardiac autonomic modulation during rest and physical activity: a cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Weichenthal, Scott; Kubesch, Nadine; Foraster, Maria; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Bouso, Laura; Martínez, David; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during physical activity (PA), but it is not clear if PA modifies the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic modulation. We conducted a panel study among 28 healthy adults in Barcelona, Spain to examine how PA may modify the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic regulation. Participants completed four 2-h exposure scenarios that included either rest or intermittent exercise in high- and low-traffic environments. Time- and frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during each exposure period along with continuous measures of TRAP. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the impact of TRAP on HRV as well as potential effect modification by PA. Exposure to TRAP was associated with consistent decreases in HRV; however, exposure-response relationships were not always linear over the broad range of exposures. For example, each 10 μg/m(3) increase in black carbon was associated with a 23% (95% CI: -31, -13) decrease in high frequency power at the low-traffic site, whereas no association was observed at the high-traffic site. PA modified the impact of TRAP on HRV at the high-traffic site and tended to weaken inverse associations with measures reflecting parasympathetic modulation (P ≤ 0.001). Evidence of effect modification at the low-traffic site was less consistent. The strength and direction of the relationship between TRAP and HRV may vary across exposure gradients. PA may modify the impact of TRAP on HRV, particularly at higher concentrations. PMID:26486990

  5. Autoimmune autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility. Historically, these disorders were poorly recognized, and thought to be neurodegenerative. Over the last 20 years a number of autoantibody biomarkers have been discovered that have enabled the identification of certain patients as having an autoimmune basis for either autonomic failure or hyperactivity. Peripheral autoimmune autonomic disorders include autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy, and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. AAG manifests with acute or subacute onset of generalized or selective autonomic failure. Antibody targeting the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α3gAChR) is detected in approximately 50% of cases of AAG. Some other disorders are characterized immunologically by paraneoplastic antibodies with a high positive predictive value for cancer, such as antineuronal nuclear antibody, type 1 (ANNA-1: anti-Hu); others still are seronegative. Recognition of an autoimmune basis for autonomic disorders is important, as their manifestations are disabling, may reflect an underlying neoplasm, and have the potential to improve with a combination of symptomatic and immune therapies. PMID:27112689

  6. High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Promotes Postexercise Hypotension Greater than Moderate Intensity and Affects Cardiac Autonomic Responses in Women Who Are Hypertensive.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Brito, Aline; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do S; Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio V; Sarmento da Nóbrega, Thereza K; Lúcia de Moraes Forjaz, Cláudia; da Cruz Santos, Amilton

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) sessions on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation, and forearm blood flow (FBF). Sixteen trained hypertensive women (n = 16, 56 ± 3 years) completed the following 3 experimental sessions: control (CS), RE at 50% (EX50%), and RE at 80% (EX80%) of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Both EX50% and EX80% comprised a set of 10 repetitions of 10 exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Measurements were taken preintervention and postintervention (at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery). Reductions in systolic/diastolic BP after exercise were greater in EX80% (largest declines, -29 ± 4/-14 ± 5 mm Hg) than EX50% (largest declines, -18 ± 6/-8 ± 5 mm Hg, p ≤ 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) increased more in relation to pre-exercise values in EX80% than EX50% (largest increases 96 ± 3 vs. 90 ± 4 b·min, LF/HF = 1.77 ± 0.25 vs. 1.40 ± 0.20, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). Increases in FBF and hyperemia was also higher in EX80% than EX50% compared with pre-exercise (4.97 ± 0.28 vs. 4.36 ± 0.27 ml·min·100 ml and 5.90 ± 0.20 vs. 5.38 ± 0.25 ml·min·100 ml; p ≤ 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that RE of higher intensity promoted greater postexercise hypotension accompanied by greater increases in FBF, vasodilator response, HR, and cardiac sympathovagal balance. PMID:25992658

  7. Assessing nerves in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Garbino, José Antonio; Heise, Carlos Otto; Marques, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy neuropathy is dependent on the patient's immune response and expresses itself as a focal or multifocal neuropathy with asymmetric involvement. Leprosy neuropathy evolves chronically but recurrently develops periods of exacerbation during type 1 or type 2 reactions, leading to acute neuropathy. Nerve enlargement leading to entrapment syndromes is also a common manifestation. Pain may be either of inflammatory or neuropathic origin. A thorough and detailed evaluation is mandatory for adequate patient follow-up, including nerve palpation, pain assessment, graded sensory mapping, muscle power testing, and autonomic evaluation. Nerve conduction studies are a sensitive tool for nerve dysfunction, including new lesions during reaction periods or development of entrapment syndromes. Nerve ultrasonography is also a very promising method for nerve evaluation in leprosy. The authors propose a composite nerve clinical score for nerve function assessment that can be useful for longitudinal evaluation. PMID:26773623

  8. Excitation of afferent fibres in the cardiac sympathetic nerves induced by coronary occlusion and injection of bradykinin. The influence of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyron.

    PubMed

    Vogt, A; Vetterlein, F; dal Ri, H; Schmidt, G

    1979-05-01

    Afferent impulse activity was recorded in single fibres of the inferior cardiac sympathetic nerve of the cat. When the descending branch of the left coronary artery was ligated for 60 sec an enhancement of afferent impulses was recorded. Elevations in discharge frequency were also induced by injecting bradykinin, epinephrine, and isoprenaline or by general hypoxia due to interruption of the artificial ventilation. When these procedures were after pretreatment with the analgesic agents, acetylsalicylic acid or dipyron a reduction in spike discharge was observed only with bradykinin after application of acetylsalicylic acid. No influence of these pretreatments on the effects of coronary occlusion, general hypoxia and injection of epinephrine and isoprenaline could be observed. These results suggest that bradykinin does not predominate as mediator substance in eliciting ischemic heart pain. PMID:485722

  9. Identificaton of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one isolated from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 culture supernatants as a compound that stimulates autonomic nerve activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Yoshinori; Komura, Hajime; Izumo, Takayuki; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Nagai, Katsuya

    2012-11-01

    Intestinal administration of various lactobacilli has been reported to affect autonomic neurotransmission, blood pressure, and body weight in rats. In this study, three molecules (peaks A, B, and C) were isolated from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 (S-PT 84) culture supernatants. Intraduodenal (ID) injection of these molecules increased or inhibited renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats as follows: peak A, 134%; peak B, 40.1%; peak C, 408%. Furthermore, we identified peak C as 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP). ID injection of DDMP increased brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA; 118 ± 15.3%), whereas intraoral injection of DDMP increased the body temperature above the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT-T; 0.72 ± 0.13 °C) in rats. These data suggest that S-PT84 produces molecules that modulate autonomic nerve activity. In addition, DDMP increased BAT-SNA and BAT-T, and these changes in BAT-T may be caused by changes in BAT-SNA. PMID:23082723

  10. Measurement of the effect of Isha Yoga on cardiac autonomic nervous system using short-term heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balakrishnan, Bhavani; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Visnegarawla, Fehmida

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beneficial effects of Yoga have been postulated to be due to modulation of the autonomic nervous system. Objective: To assess the effect of Isha Yoga practices on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system through short-term heart rate variability (HRV). Design of the Study: Short-term HRV of long-term regular healthy 14 (12 males and 2 females) Isha Yoga practitioners was compared with that of age- and gender-matched 14 (12 males and 2 females) non-Yoga practitioners. Methods and Materials: ECG Lead II and respiratory movements were recorded in both groups using Polyrite during supine rest for 5 min and controlled deep breathing for 1 minute. Frequency domain analysis [RR interval is the mean of distance between subsequent R wave peaks in ECG], low frequency (LF) power, high frequency (HF) power, LF normalized units (nu), HF nu, LF/HF ratio] and time domain analysis [Standard Deviation of normal to normal interval (SDNN), square of mean squared difference of successive normal to normal intervals (RMSSD), normal to normal intervals which are differing by 50 ms (NN50), and percentage of NN50 (pNN50)] of HRV variables were analyzed for supine rest. Time domain analysis was recorded for deep breathing. Results: Results showed statistically significant differences between Isha Yoga practitioners and controls in both frequency and time domain analyses of HRV indices, with no difference in resting heart rate between the groups. Conclusions: Practitioners of Isha Yoga showed well-balanced beneficial activity of vagal efferents, an overall increased HRV, and sympathovagal balance, compared to non-Yoga practitioners during supine rest and deep breathing. PMID:22707866

  11. Search for a cardiac nociceptor: stimulation by bradykinin of sympathetic afferent nerve endings in the heart of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, D G; Coleridge, H M; Coleridge, J C; Nerdrum, T

    1980-01-01

    1. We have examined the effect of bradykinin on impulse traffic in sympathetic afferent fibres from the heart, great vessels and pleura, and have attempted to identify cardiac nociceptors that on the basis of their functional characteristics might have a role in the initiation of cardiac pain. 2. In anaesthetized cats, we recorded afferent impulses from 'single-fibre' slips of the left 2nd--5th thoracic rami communicantes and associated chain, and selected fibres arising from endings in the heart, great vessels, pericardium and pleura. We applied bradykinin solution (0 . 1--1 . 0 microgram/ml.) locally to the site of the ending; we also injected bradykinin (0 . 3--1 . 0 microgram/kg) into the left atrium. 3. Afferent endings excited by bradykinin (159 of 191 tested) were of two types. The larger group (140) were primarily mechanoreceptors with A delta of C fibres (mean conduction velocity, 7 . 5 +/- 0 . 6 m/sec). They were very sensitive to light touch. Those located in the heart, great vessels or overlying pleura had a cardiac rhythm of discharge and were stimulated by an increase in blood pressure or cardiac volume. 4. Bradykinin increased mechanoreceptor firing from 0 . 7 +/- to 5 . 0 +/- 0 . 3 (mean +/- S.E. of mean) impulses/sec. Some endings appeared to be stimulated directly by bradykinin, others sensitized by it so that they responded more vigorously to the pulsatile mechanical stimulation associated with the cardiac cycle. 5. The smaller group of eighteen endings, of which ten were in the left ventricle, were primarily chemosensitive. Most had C fibres, a few had A delta fibres (mean conduction velocity, 2 . 3 +/- 0 . 7 m/sec). They were insensitive to light touch. With one exception they never fired with a cardiac rhythm, and even large increases in aortic or left ventricular pressure had little effect on impulse frequency. 6. Chemosensitive endings were stimulated by bradykinin, impulse activity increasing from 0 . 6 to 15 . 6 +/- 1 . 3 impulses/sec and

  12. elPBN neurons regulate rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections during activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Fu, Liang-Wu

    2016-08-01

    The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (elPBN) within the pons and rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) contributes to central processing of excitatory cardiovascular reflexes during stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves (CSAN). However, the importance of elPBN cardiovascular neurons in regulation of rVLM activity during CSAN activation remains unclear. We hypothesized that CSAN stimulation excites the elPBN cardiovascular neurons and, in turn, increases rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections. Compared with controls, in rats subjected to microinjection of retrograde tracer into the rVLM, the numbers of elPBN neurons double-labeled with c-Fos (an immediate early gene) and the tracer were increased after CSAN stimulation (P < 0.05). The majority of these elPBN neurons contain vesicular glutamate transporter 3. In cats, epicardial bradykinin and electrical stimulation of CSAN increased the activity of elPBN cardiovascular neurons, which was attenuated (n = 6, P < 0.05) after blockade of glutamate receptors with iontophoresis of kynurenic acid (Kyn, 25 mM). In separate cats, microinjection of Kyn (1.25 nmol/50 nl) into the elPBN reduced rVLM activity evoked by both bradykinin and electrical stimulation (n = 5, P < 0.05). Excitation of the elPBN with microinjection of dl-homocysteic acid (2 nmol/50 nl) significantly increased basal and CSAN-evoked rVLM activity. However, the enhanced rVLM activity induced by dl-homocysteic acid injected into the elPBN was reversed following iontophoresis of Kyn into the rVLM (n = 7, P < 0.05). These data suggest that cardiac sympathetic afferent stimulation activates cardiovascular neurons in the elPBN and rVLM sequentially through a monosynaptic (glutamatergic) excitatory elPBN-rVLM pathway. PMID:27225950

  13. Left lower lobe atelectasis and consolidation following cardiac surgery: the effect of topical cooling on the phrenic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, J.J.; Cascade, P.N.; Rubenfire, M.; Wajszczuk, W.; Kerin, N.Z.

    1982-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective analyses of chest radiographs of patients following coronary artery bypass surgery were undertaken. Left lower lobe pulmonary infiltrate and/or atelectasis developed in 13 of 40 (32.5%) patients who were operated upon without topical cooling of the heart with ice, and in 77 of 122 (63.1%) patients in one group and 34 of 40 (85.0%) patients in another group who were operated upon with topical cooling of the heart with ice. This difference was highly significant (p<0.001). Of the patients in one group in whom left lower lobe abnormality developed, 69.2% had paralysis or paresis of the left hemidiaphragm. It is evident that application of ice to the phrenic nerve can lead to temporary paralysis of the left leaf of the diaphragm, with subsequent development of left lower lobe pulmonary infiltrate and/or atelectasis.

  14. (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy in α-synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Orimo, Satoshi; Yogo, Makiko; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hirohisa

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake on (123)I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy is reduced in patients with Lewy body disease such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and pure autonomic failure, and has been reported to be useful for differentiating PD from other parkinsonian syndromes, as well as DLB from Alzheimer disease (AD). Postmortem studies have shown that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive nerve fibers of the heart was decreased in pathologically-confirmed Lewy body disease, supporting the findings of reduced cardiac MIBG uptake in Lewy body diseases. Now, reduced cardiac MIBG uptake can be a potential biomarker for the presence of Lewy bodies in the nervous system. (123)I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy can allow us to determine the presence of Lewy bodies. PMID:26835846

  15. SOD1 Overexpression Preserves Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate with an Increase of Aortic Depressor Nerve Function.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jeffrey; Gu, He; Cheng, Zixi Jack

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical (O2 (∙-)), is associated with diseases which compromise cardiac autonomic function. Overexpression of SOD1 may offer protection against ROS damage to the cardiac autonomic nervous system, but reductions of O2 (∙-) may interfere with normal cellular functions. We have selected the C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse as a model to determine whether SOD1 overexpression alters cardiac autonomic function, as measured by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and aortic depressor nerve (ADN) recordings, as well as evaluation of baseline heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Under isoflurane anesthesia, C57 wild-type and SOD1 mice were catheterized with an arterial pressure transducer and measurements of HR and MAP were taken. After establishing a baseline, hypotension and hypertension were induced by injection of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively, and ΔHR versus ΔMAP were recorded as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). SNP and PE treatment were administered sequentially after a recovery period to measure arterial baroreceptor activation by recording aortic depressor nerve activity. Our findings show that overexpression of SOD1 in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse preserved the normal HR, MAP, and BRS but enhanced aortic depressor nerve function. PMID:26823951

  16. SOD1 Overexpression Preserves Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate with an Increase of Aortic Depressor Nerve Function

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Jeffrey; Gu, He; Cheng, Zixi (Jack)

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical (O2∙−), is associated with diseases which compromise cardiac autonomic function. Overexpression of SOD1 may offer protection against ROS damage to the cardiac autonomic nervous system, but reductions of O2∙− may interfere with normal cellular functions. We have selected the C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse as a model to determine whether SOD1 overexpression alters cardiac autonomic function, as measured by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and aortic depressor nerve (ADN) recordings, as well as evaluation of baseline heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Under isoflurane anesthesia, C57 wild-type and SOD1 mice were catheterized with an arterial pressure transducer and measurements of HR and MAP were taken. After establishing a baseline, hypotension and hypertension were induced by injection of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively, and ΔHR versus ΔMAP were recorded as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). SNP and PE treatment were administered sequentially after a recovery period to measure arterial baroreceptor activation by recording aortic depressor nerve activity. Our findings show that overexpression of SOD1 in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse preserved the normal HR, MAP, and BRS but enhanced aortic depressor nerve function. PMID:26823951

  17. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans.

    PubMed

    Biaggioni, I; Costa, F; Kaufmann, H

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans. PMID:9416587

  18. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Costa, F.; Kaufmann, H.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  19. Intrinsic Cardiac Autonomic Ganglionated Plexi within Epicardial Fats Modulate the Atrial Substrate Remodeling: Experiences with Atrial Fibrillation Patients Receiving Catheter Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Rahul; Lo, Li-Wei; Lin, Yenn-Jiang Lin; Chang, Shih-Lin; Hu, Yu-Feng; Chao, Tze-Fan; Chung, Fa-Po; Chiou, Cheun-Wang; Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background A recent study reported the close relationship between high dominant frequent (DF) sites [atrial fibrillation (AF) nest] and the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the regional distribution of epicardial fat and the properties of the biatrial substrates in AF patients. Methods We studied 32 patients with paroxysmal (n = 23) and persistent (n = 9) AF. The epicardial fat volume around the left atrium (LA) was evaluated using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography and the topographic distribution of the fat volume was assessed. The biatrial DFs, voltages, and total activation times (TATs) were obtained during sinus rhythm. Results Out of the 8 divided LA regions, a significant linear correlation existed between the LA fat and mean DF values in the right upper anterior LA, left upper anterior LA, right lower anterior LA, right upper posterior LA, left upper posterior LA, and left lower posterior LA. There was no significant correlation between the regional LA fat distribution and regional LA peak-to-peak bipolar voltage and TAT. During a mean follow-up of 17 ± 8 months, 22 of the 32 (69%) patients were free of AF. In the multivariate analysis, only the mean LA DF was found to be a significant predictor of recurrence. Conclusions There was a close association between the regional distribution of the LA epicardial fat and the atrial substrate manifesting high frequency during sinus rhythm (AF nest). Those nests were related to ablation outcome. Hence, epicardial fat may play a significant role in atrial substrate remodeling and thereby in the pathogenesis and maintenance of AF. PMID:27122948

  20. Modulation by Central MAPKs/PI3K/sGc of the TNF-α/iNOS-dependent Hypotension and Compromised Cardiac Autonomic Control in Endotoxic Rats.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Marwa Y; El-Gowilly, Sahar M; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A; El-Mas, Mahmoud M

    2016-08-01

    Reduced blood pressure (BP) and cardiac autonomic activity are early manifestations of endotoxemia. We investigated whether these effects are modulated by central mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and related phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) signaling in conscious rats. The effect of pharmacologic inhibition of these molecular substrates on BP, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) responses evoked by intravascular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 mg/kg) were assessed. LPS (1) lowered BP (2) increased HR, (3) reduced time [SD of beat-to-beat intervals (SDNN), and root mean square of successive differences in R-R intervals (rMSSD)], and frequency domain indices of HRV (total power and spectral bands of low and high-frequency), and (4) elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. The inhibition of TNF-α (pentoxifylline) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, aminoguanidine) abolished hemodynamic, HRV, and inflammatory actions of LPS. Intracisternal (i.c.) injection of ODQ (sGC inhibitor), wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor), and SP600125 (MAPKJNK inhibitor) mitigated the hypotensive and tachycardic actions of LPS but failed to affect associated decreases in HRV. MAPKp38 inhibition by i.c. SB203580 produced exactly opposite effects. None of the LPS effects was altered after i.c. PD98059 (MAPKERK1/2 inhibitor). Overall, central MAPKs/PI3K/sGC pathways variably contribute to the TNF-α/iNOS-dependent reductions in BP and HRV seen during endotoxic shock. PMID:27110744

  1. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, B F; Ewing, D J; Campbell, I W

    1979-10-01

    This review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasinly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added disturbances of thermoregulatory function and pupillary reflexes. Possible effects on neuroendocrine and peptidergic secretion and respiratory control await definition. Current interest centres around the development of a new generation of tests of autonomic nerve function that are simple, non-invasive, reproducible and allow precision in diagnosis and accurate quantitation. Most are based on cardiovascular reflexes and abnormality in them is assumed to reflect autonomic damage elsewhere. Probably no single test suffices and a battery of tests reflecting both parasympathetic and sympathetic function is preferable. Little is known of the natural history. The prevalence may be greater than previously suspected and although symptoms are mild in the majority, a few develop florid features. The relation of control and duration of diabetes to the onset and progression of autonomic neuropathy is not clearly established. Once tests of autonomic function become abnormal they usually remain abnormal. Symptomatic autonomic neuropathy carries a greatly increased mortality rate possibly due to indirect mechanisms such as renal failure and direct mechanisms such as cardio-resiratory arrest. Improved treatment of some of the more disabling symptoms has been possible in recent years. PMID:387501

  2. Comparative effects of long-acting and short-acting loop diuretics on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yae; Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Funada, Ryuichi; Takama, Noriaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Ichikawa, Shuichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Naoya; Sato, Yuichi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Short-acting loop diuretics are known to enhance cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The effects of two loop diuretics—long-acting azosemide and short-acting furosemide—on CSNA were evaluated using 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in patients with CHF. Methods The present study was a subanalysis of our previously published study, which had reported that serial 123I-MIBG studies were the most useful prognostic indicator in patients with CHF. Patients with CHF (n=208, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%) but no history of cardiac events for at least 5 months prior to the study were identified according to their histories of acute decompensated heart failure requiring hospitalisation. Patients underwent 123I-MIBG scintigraphy immediately before hospital discharge and at a 6-month follow-up. The delayed % denervation, delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio and washout rate (WR) were determined using 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. A total of 108 patients were selected, and propensity score matching was used to compare patients treated with either oral azosemide (n=54) or furosemide (n=54). Results After treatment, 123I-MIBG scintigraphic parameters improved in both groups. However, the degree of change in % denervation was −13.8±10.5 in the azosemide group and −5.7±12.7 in the furosemide group (p<0.01), the change in H/M ratio was 0.20±0.16 in the azosemide group and 0.06±0.19 in the furosemide group (p<0.01), and the change in WR was −11.3±9.2% in the azosemide group and −3.0±12.7% in the furosemide group (p<0.01). Moreover, multivariate analysis showed an independent and significant positive relationship between furosemide and δ-WR from hospital discharge to 6 months after treatment in patients with CHF (p=0.001). Conclusions These findings indicate that azosemide suppresses CSNA compared with furosemide in patients with CHF. Trial registration number UMIN000000626

  3. Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

  4. Autonomic neural control of heart rate during dynamic exercise: revisited

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel W; Raven, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    The accepted model of autonomic control of heart rate (HR) during dynamic exercise indicates that the initial increase is entirely attributable to the withdrawal of parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) activity and that subsequent increases in HR are entirely attributable to increases in cardiac sympathetic activity. In the present review, we sought to re-evaluate the model of autonomic neural control of HR in humans during progressive increases in dynamic exercise workload. We analysed data from both new and previously published studies involving baroreflex stimulation and pharmacological blockade of the autonomic nervous system. Results indicate that the PSNS remains functionally active throughout exercise and that increases in HR from rest to maximal exercise result from an increasing workload-related transition from a 4 : 1 vagal–sympathetic balance to a 4 : 1 sympatho–vagal balance. Furthermore, the beat-to-beat autonomic reflex control of HR was found to be dependent on the ability of the PSNS to modulate the HR as it was progressively restrained by increasing workload-related sympathetic nerve activity. In conclusion: (i) increases in exercise workload-related HR are not caused by a total withdrawal of the PSNS followed by an increase in sympathetic tone; (ii) reciprocal antagonism is key to the transition from vagal to sympathetic dominance, and (iii) resetting of the arterial baroreflex causes immediate exercise-onset reflexive increases in HR, which are parasympathetically mediated, followed by slower increases in sympathetic tone as workloads are increased. PMID:24756637

  5. Attenuated preejection period response to tyramine in patients with cardiac sympathetic denervation

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, Richard; Eldadah, Basil A.; Bentho, Oladi; Pechnik, Sandra; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Holmes, Courtney; Goldstein, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress is a well-known factor affecting cardiac contractility through the cardiac sympathetic nerves. A positive inotropic effect of the cardiac sympathetic nerves on the myocardium is reflected by preejection period (PEP) shortening. Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) (PD+NOH) or with pure autonomic failure (PAF) have markedly decreased myocardial 6-[18]F-fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity, reflecting cardiac sympathetic denervation. The functional effects of the cardiac sympathetic denervation have been unknown. Methods We measured PEP and heart rate-corrected PEP (PEPI) responses to i.v. tyramine (1 mg/min) in 13 patients (9 PD+OH and 4 PAF) with low 6-[18]F-fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity and in subjects with normal radioactivity (15 multiple system atrophy with NOS patients (MSA+NOS). Results Baseline PEP and PEPI did not differ between the groups. By 10 minutes after initiation of tyramine infusion, PEP and PEPI were significantly lower (p<0.01) in MSA+NOS, compared to baseline, whereas PEP and PEPI remained unchanged in the PD+NOH/PAF group. The PEP and PEPI decrease was larger in the MSA+NOS group than in the PD+NOH/PAF group (p<0.05). Conclusion One of the functional consequences of cardiac sympathetic denervation is failure to increase contractility in response to stimuli that depend on endogenous norepinephrine release. PMID:19120145

  6. Respiratory modulation of human autonomic rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badra, L. J.; Cooke, W. H.; Hoag, J. B.; Crossman, A. A.; Kuusela, T. A.; Tahvanainen, K. U.; Eckberg, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the influence of three types of breathing [spontaneous, frequency controlled (0.25 Hz), and hyperventilation with 100% oxygen] and apnea on R-R interval, photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, and muscle sympathetic rhythms in nine healthy young adults. We integrated fast Fourier transform power spectra over low (0.05-0.15 Hz) and respiratory (0.15-0.3 Hz) frequencies; estimated vagal baroreceptor-cardiac reflex gain at low frequencies with cross-spectral techniques; and used partial coherence analysis to remove the influence of breathing from the R-R interval, systolic pressure, and muscle sympathetic nerve spectra. Coherence among signals varied as functions of both frequency and time. Partialization abolished the coherence among these signals at respiratory but not at low frequencies. The mode of breathing did not influence low-frequency oscillations, and they persisted during apnea. Our study documents the independence of low-frequency rhythms from respiratory activity and suggests that the close correlations that may exist among arterial pressures, R-R intervals, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity at respiratory frequencies result from the influence of respiration on these measures rather than from arterial baroreflex physiology. Most importantly, our results indicate that correlations among autonomic and hemodynamic rhythms vary over time and frequency, and, thus, are facultative rather than fixed.

  7. Particles Alter Diesel Exhaust Gases-Induced Hypotension, Cardiac Arrhythmia,Conduction Disturbance, and Autonomic Imbalance in Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that acute exposures to vehicular traffic and particulate matter (PM) air pollution are key causes of fatal cardiac arrhythmia, especially in those with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Researchers point to electrophysiologic dysfunction and auto...

  8. Atropine-resistant effects of the muscarinic agonists McN-A-343 and AHR 602 on cardiac performance and the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves of the perfused rabbit heart

    PubMed Central

    Fozard, J.R.; Muscholl, E.

    1974-01-01

    1 The effects of 4-(m-chlorophenylcarbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium chloride (McN-A-343) and N-benzyl-3-pyrrolidyl acetate methobromide (AHR 602) on cardiac performance and noradrenaline release from terminal sympathetic fibres were measured in isolated perfused hearts of rabbits. 2 In the presence of sufficient atropine to block muscarinic receptors, high concentrations of McN-A-343 and AHR 602 caused no cardiac stimulation and there was no increase in the resting output of noradrenaline into the perfusates. 3 McN-A-343 and AHR 602 increased both the mechanical responses and the transmitter overflow evoked by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerves (SNS) but inhibited both parameters during perfusion with 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP). The effects were atropine-resistant and qualitatively similar to those seen with cocaine. Hexamethonium inhibited DMPP, but affected neither SNS per se nor the facilitatory effects of McN-A-343 and AHR 602 on SNS. 4 McN-A-343, cocaine and desipramine (but not AHR 602 or hexamethonium) blocked the net cardiac noradrenaline uptake and increased the positive chronotropic effect of noradrenaline. 5 Prior perfusion with concentrations of cocaine and desipramine sufficient to block uptake reduced or abolished the facilitatory effects of both McN-A-343 and AHR 602 on SNS. 6 Cocaine, McN-A-343 and AHR 602 displayed local anaesthetic properties on the guinea-pig wheal and frog nerve plexus tests, and their relative potencies in this respect were similar to those for inhibition of DMPP-evoked transmitter overflow. Hexamethonium did not produce local anaesthesia. 7 The results indicate that the facilitated release of noradrenaline after SNS and the inhibition of release after DMPP produced by McN-A-343 and AHR 602 are the result of their combined local anaesthetic action and inhibition of amine uptake. PMID:4447857

  9. Reflexly evoked coactivation of cardiac vagal and sympathetic motor outflows: observations and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Paton, Julian F R; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Boscan, Pedro; Pickering, Anthony E

    2006-12-01

    1. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the pattern of activity in the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves innervating the heart during their reflex activation. 2. We describe the well-known reciprocal control of cardiac vagal and sympathetic activity during the baroreceptor reflex, but point out that this appears to be the exception rather than the rule and that many other reflexes reviewed herein (e.g. peripheral chemoreceptor, nociceptor, diving response and oculocardiac) involve simultaneous coactivation of both autonomic limbs. 3. The heart rate response during simultaneous activation of cardiac autonomic outflows is unpredictable because it does not simply reflect the summation of opposing influences. Indeed, it can result in bradycardia (peripheral chemoreceptor, diving and corneal), tachycardia (nociceptor) and, in some circumstances, can predispose to malignant arrhythmias. 4. We propose that this cardiac autonomic coactivation may allow greater cardiac output during bradycardia (increased ventricular filling time and stronger contraction) than activation of the sympathetic limb alone. This may be important when pumping blood into a constricted vascular tree, such as is the case during the peripheral chemoreceptor reflex and the diving response. PMID:17184509

  10. Nerve biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy may be done to help diagnose: Axon degeneration (destruction of the axon portion of the nerve cell) Damage to the ... Demyelination Inflammation of the nerve Leprosy Loss of axon tissue Metabolic neuropathies Necrotizing vasculitis Sarcoidosis