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1

High output cardiac failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Congestive heart failure describes a syndrome with complex and variable symptoms and signs, including dyspnea, increased fatigability,\\u000a tachypnea, tachycardia, pulmonary rales, and peripheral edema. Although this syndrome usually is associated with low cardiac\\u000a output, it may occur in a number of so-called high output states, when the cardiac output is normal or greater than normal.\\u000a A high output state

Inder S. Anand; Viorel G. Florea

2001-01-01

2

Impedance cardiography: a comparison of cardiac output vs waveform analysis for assessing left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  

PubMed

Early detection of asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) is beneficial in managing heart failure. Recent studies have cast doubt on the usefulness of cardiac output as an indicator of LVSD. In impedance cardiography (ICG), the dZ/dt waveform has a systolic wave called the E wave. This study looked at measurements of the amplitude and area of the E wave compared with ICG-derived cardiac output, stroke volume, cardiac index, and stroke index as methods of assessing LVSD. ICG data were obtained from patients (n=26) admitted to a coronary care unit. Clinical LVSD severity was stratified into 4 groups (none, mild, moderate, and severe) based on echocardiography data and standard clinical assessment by a cardiologist blinded to ICG data. Statistical analysis showed that the E wave amplitude and area were better indicators of the level of LVSD than cardiac output, stroke volume, cardiac index, or stroke index. ICG waveform analysis has potential as a simple point-of-care test for detecting LVSD in asymptomatic patients at high risk for developing heart failure and for monitoring LVSD in patients being treated for heart failure. PMID:17786090

DeMarzo, Arthur P; Kelly, Russell F; Calvin, James E

2007-01-01

3

A comparative evaluation of electrical velocimetry and inert gas rebreathing for the non-invasive assessment of cardiac output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  When assessing the function of the cardiovascular system, cardiac output (CO) is a substantial parameter. For its determination,\\u000a numerous non-invasive techniques have been proposed in the recent years including inert gas rebreathing (IGR) and impedance\\u000a cardiography (ICG). The aim of our study was to evaluate whether a novel ICG algorithm (electrical velocimetry) and IGR can\\u000a be used interchangeably in the

Frederik Trinkmann; Manuel Berger; Ursula Hoffmann; Martin Borggrefe; Jens J. Kaden; Joachim Saur

4

The Determinants of Cardiac Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Gross Physiology of the Cardiovascular System site, this 22-minute video presentation explains fundamental but often misunderstood concepts about the determinants of cardiac output, using Dr. Anderson's hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system. It is a useful summary and overview of the concepts presented in greater detail in the online text. A transcript of the video presentation is available.

Anderson, Robert M.

5

Assessment of the effect of vasodilators on the distribution of cardiac output by whole-body Thallium imaging  

SciTech Connect

Vasodilator therapy (tx) of congestive heart failure (CHF) has been shown to be effective in increasing cardiac output (CO) and lowering vascular resistance. Unfortunately, these hemodynamic effects are not usually accompanied by improved peripheral circulation of exercise capacity. To assess the effect of a new vasodilator, Cl-914, on the redistribution of CO to the peripheral circulation, the authors performed testing whole-body thallium scanning (WB-Th) on 6 patients (pts) with severe CHF. Immediately following i.v. injection of 1.5 mCi Th-201, WB scanning was performed from anterior and posterior views. Regions of interest were defined for the peripheral (P) muscles (legs and arms), central torso (C), and splanchnic bed (S). The geometric mean of activity in these regions was calculated from both views. Each pt was studied before tx and again, after 1 week on tx. Invasive measurements revealed that all pts had significant improvements in resting cardiac output (mean increase 49%) and vascular resistance (mean decrease 30%). Unlike other vasodilators, all CI-914 pts had a significant improvement in treadmill exercise capacity (mean increase 54%). WB-Th revealed a significant shift in CO to the peripheral circulation with P:C increased 33.2% (rho= .001) and P:S increased 29% (rho=.01). Vasoactive drugs may significantly alter the relative distribution of cardiac output. WB-Th scanning provides a simple quantitative means of following such changes.

Juni, J.E.; Wallis, J.; Diltz, E.; Nicholas, J.; Lahti, D.; Pitt, B.

1985-05-01

6

Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

Champanerkar, Jyoti

2013-01-01

7

Comparing the accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on body composition, autonomic nervous system activity, and cardiac output to standardized assessments  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC) is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical impedance, galvanic skin response, and spectrophotometry: (1) ES-BC (Electro Sensor-Body Composition; LD Technology, Miami, FL) to assess body composition, (2) EIS-GS (Electro Interstitial Scan-Galvanic Skin; LD Technology) to predict autonomic nervous system activity, and (3) ES Oxi (Electro Sensor Oxi; LD Technology) to assess cardiac output. The objective of this study was to compare each to a standardized assessment: ES-BC to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), EIS-GS to heart rate variability, and ES Oxi to BioZ Dx Diagnostic System (BioZ Dx; SonoSite Inc, Bothell, WA). Patients and methods The study was conducted in two waves. Fifty subjects were assessed for body composition and autonomic nervous system activity. Fifty-one subjects were assessed for cardiac output. Results We found adequate relative and absolute agreement between ES-BC and DXA for fat mass (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) with ES-BC overestimating fat mass by 0.1 kg and for body fat percentage (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) with overestimation of fat percentage by 0.4%. For autonomic nervous system activity, we found marginal relative agreement between EIS-GS and heart rate variability by using EIS-GS as the predictor in a linear regression equation (adjusted R2 = 0.56, P = 0.03). For cardiac output, adequate relative and absolute agreement was found between ES Oxi and BioZ Dx at baseline (r = 0.60, P < 0.001), after the first exercise stage (r = 0.79, P < 0.001), and after the second exercise stage (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). Absolute agreement was found at baseline and after both bouts of exercise; ES Oxi overestimated baseline and stage 1 exercise cardiac output by 0.3 L/minute and 0.1 L/minute, respectively, but exactly estimated stage 2 exercise cardiac output. Conclusion ES-BC and ES Oxi accurately assessed body composition and cardiac output compared to standardized instruments, whereas EIS-GS showed marginal predictive ability for autonomic nervous system activity. The ESC software managing the three devices would be useful to help detect complications related to metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease and to noninvasively and rapidly manage treatment follow-up. PMID:22915943

Lewis, John E; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Gao, Jinrun; Melillo, Angelica B; Long, Evan G; Alonso, Yaima; Konefal, Janet; Woolger, Judi M; Leonard, Susanna; Singh, Prabjot K; Chen, Lawrence; Tiozzo, Eduard

2011-01-01

8

A Review of Intraoperative Goal-Directed Therapy Using Arterial Waveform Analysis for Assessment of Cardiac Output  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence shows that goal-directed hemodynamic management can improve outcomes in surgical and intensive care settings. Arterial waveform analysis is one of the different techniques used for guiding goal-directed therapy. Multiple proprietary systems have developed algorithms for obtaining cardiac output from an arterial waveform, including the FloTrac, LiDCO, and PiCCO systems. These systems vary in terms of how they analyze the arterial pressure waveform as well as their requirements for invasive line placement and calibration. Although small-scale clinical trials using these monitors show promising data, large-scale multicenter trials are still needed to better determine how intraoperative goal-directed therapy with arterial waveform analysis can improve patient outcomes. This review provides a comparative analysis of the different arterial waveform monitors for intraoperative goal-directed therapy. PMID:24987744

Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana

2014-01-01

9

Determination of cardiac output by Doppler echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac output determined by Doppler echocardiography was compared with that determined by thermodilution at rest and during dobutamine infusion in 10 patients (group A) and by the Fick method at rest in 11 patients (group B). All patients had angina pectoris without valvular heart disease. Maximum spatial blood velocity and cross sectional aortic area were estimated by the Doppler technique

H Ihlen; J P Amlie; J Dale; K Forfang; S Nitter-Hauge; J E Otterstad; S Simonsen; E Myhre

1984-01-01

10

Cardiac output estimation using pulmonary mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) decreases cardiac output (CO). Accurate measurement of CO is highly invasive and is not ideal for all MV critically ill patients. However, the link between the PEEP used in MV, and CO provides an opportunity to assess CO via MV therapy

Ashwath Sundaresan; J Geoffrey Chase; Christopher E Hann; Geoffrey M Shaw

2010-01-01

11

Evaluation of noninvasive cardiac output methods during exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noninvasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (Qc) will be used during future space flight. This retrospective literature survey compared the Qc techniques of carbon dioxide rebreathing (CO2-R), CO2 single breath (CO2-S), Doppler (DOP), impedance (IM), and inert gas (IG: acetylene or nitrous oxide) to direct (DIR) assessments measured at rest and during exercise.

Moore, Alan D.; Barrows, Linda H.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.

1992-01-01

12

USCOM (Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitors) lacks agreement with thermodilution cardiac output and transoesophageal echocardiography valve measurements.  

PubMed

The USCOM (Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitors) device is a non-invasive cardiac output monitor, which utilises transaortic or transpulmonary Doppler flow tracing and valve area estimated using patient height to determine cardiac output. We evaluated USCOM against thermodilution cardiac outputs and transoesophageal echocardiography valve area measurements in 22 ASA PS4 cardiac surgical patients. Data collection commenced following pulmonary artery catheter insertion, with cardiac output measurements repeated after sternotomy closure. Failure to obtain transaortic Doppler readings using USCOM occurred in 5% of planned measurements. USCOM transaortic analysis was not planned for 11 patients with known aortic disease. Bias at the aortic window (n = 20) was -0.79 l/min with limits of agreement from -3.66 to 2.08 l/min. At the pulmonary window, failure to obtain Doppler readings occurred in 24% of planned measurements. Bias at the pulmonary window (n = 36) was -0.17 l/min with limits of agreement from -3.30 to 2.97 l/min. The USCOM estimates of valve area based on height showed poor correlation with the echocardiographic measurements of aortic and pulmonary valves (r = 0.57 and r = 0.17, respectively). It was concluded that USCOM showed poor agreement with thermodilution. The estimated valve area was identified as one source of error. PMID:18084981

Van den Oever, H L A; Murphy, E J; Christie-Taylor, G A

2007-12-01

13

Cardiac output changes during hyperbaric hyperoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Increased ambient pressure and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) influence cardiovascular regulation during diving and caisson work. We measured the cardiac output (Q?) in subjects who practiced moderate work at a usual diving depth of 30?m. Methods: In 23 healthy male Navy divers who performed steady state bicycle exercises (100?W workload) in a hyperbaric chamber Q? was measured by a

Birger Neubauer; Kay Tetzlaff; Carl-Michael Staschen; Eyke Bettinghausen

2001-01-01

14

In vitro, in vivo and numerical assessment of the working principle of the truCCOMS continuous cardiac output catheter system.  

PubMed

The truCCOMS cardiac output monitor system provides a continuous and instantaneous measurement of cardiac output, derived from the amount of energy required for heating a filament to maintain a fixed 2 degrees C blood temperature difference between two thermistors located distally on a pulmonary artery catheter. Clinical studies, however, reported relatively poor accuracy of the cardiac output estimation, possibly due to linearly assumed power-cardiac output relationship used for calibration of the catheters. We experimentally studied the shape of the truCCOMS calibration relationship (i) in a hydraulic bench model of the right heart and (ii) in vivo intact animal model. The results showed a nonlinear relationship between the power input into the heating element and the cardiac output; which could satisfactorily be described with an exponential relationship. Comparison of the performance of the same catheters in vitro and in vivo showed that the in vitro determined calibration relationship should not be used for in vivo measurements. Finally, we also simulated the working principle of the catheter using a simplified numerical model of the blood flow and heat transfer around the catheter. The computed results also suggested a pronounced nonlinear relationship between power and cardiac output in pulsatile conditions. We conclude that the observed over- and underestimation of high- and low flows, respectively, by the current truCCOMS system is likely to arise from its linear calibration relationship. An appropriate calibration scheme accounting for the intrinsic nonlinear power-cardiac output relationship and the difference between in vitro and in vivo conditions should improve the clinical performance of the system. PMID:19767233

Claessens, T; Verwilst, P; Missant, C; Claus, P; Verdonck, P; Wouters, P; Segers, P

2009-12-01

15

Doppler measurement of cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cardiac output produced by external cardiac compression during standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed by two groups of operators with different levels of experience and training. METHODS: Cardiac output was measured by Doppler aortovelography. All patients included in the study had necropsy examinations. Only patients without evidence of pulmonary embolism, myocardial rupture, aortic valve disease, or acute depletion

D I Fodden; A C Crosby; K S Channer

1996-01-01

16

Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

17

Rapid Cardiac-Output Measurement with Ungated Spiral Phase-Contrast J. B. Park1  

E-print Network

Rapid Cardiac-Output Measurement with Ungated Spiral Phase-Contrast J. B. Park1 , B. S. Hu1,2 , S Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States Introduction: Cardiac output (CO) can be a key indicator for assessing patients with cardiovascular diseases and can

Southern California, University of

18

Continuous wave doppler cardiac output: Use in pediatric patients receiving inotropic support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Doppler estimates of cardiac output have been shown to correlate closely with invasive measurement of cardiac output in hemodynamically stable adults and children. However, this method has not been validated in hemodynamically unstable pediatric patients. To assess the accuracy of continuous wave Doppler echocardiography in pediatric patients with unstable hemodynamics, we performed 27 simultaneous Doppler and thermodilution comparisons in

William R. Morrow; Daniel J. Murphy; David J. Fisher; James C. Huhta; Larry S. Jefferson; E. O'Brian Smith

1988-01-01

19

Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring.  

PubMed

Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use. PMID:25276302

Mehta, Yatin; Arora, Dheeraj

2014-09-26

20

Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring  

PubMed Central

Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use. PMID:25276302

Mehta, Yatin; Arora, Dheeraj

2014-01-01

21

Predictors of low cardiac output syndrome after coronary artery bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify patients at risk for the development of low cardiac output syndrome after coronary artery bypass. Low cardiac output syndrome was defined as the need for postoperative intraaortic balloon pump or inotropic support for longer than 30 minutes in the intensive care unit to maintain the systolic blood pressure greater than 90 mm

Vivek Rao; Joan Ivanov; Richard D. Weisel; John S. Ikonomidis; George T. Christakis; Tirone E. David

1996-01-01

22

Rapid Cardiac-Output Measurement With Ungated Spiral Phase Contrast  

E-print Network

Rapid Cardiac-Output Measurement With Ungated Spiral Phase Contrast Jong B. Park,1* Bob S. Hu,1) method was used to measure cardiac output (CO) rapidly and conveniently. The USPC method, which and TRT measurements from all normal volun- teers agreed. In a patient with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA

Southern California, University of

23

Cardiac output and stroke volume estimation using a hybrid of three models  

E-print Network

Cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) are the key hemodynamic parameters to be monitored and assessed in ambulatory and critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to introduce and validate a new algorithm ...

Arai, Tatsuya

24

Cardiac output estimation using arterial blood pressure waveforms  

E-print Network

Cardiac output (CO) is a cardinal parameter of cardiovascular state, and a fundamental determinant of global oxygen delivery. Historically, measurement of CO has been limited to critically-ill patients, using invasive ...

Sun, James Xin

2006-01-01

25

The cardiac output from blood pressure algorithms trial  

E-print Network

Objective: The value of different algorithms that estimate cardiac output (CO) by analysis of a peripheral arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform has not been definitively identified. In this investigation, we developed a ...

Sun, James X.

26

Comparison of thermodilution bolus cardiac output and Doppler cardiac output in the early post-cardiopulmonary bypass period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of measuring cardiac output (CO) in the early post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) period by comparing thermodilution with Doppler methods. Design: Prospective and blinded human trial. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: Thirty adult patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Measurements and Main Results: Thermodilution CO (TCO) was obtained in triplicate. Doppler CO (DCO) in triplicate

Xiaoqin Zhao; John S. Mashikian; Pete Panzica; Adam Lerner; Kyung W. Park; Mark E. Comunale

2003-01-01

27

Radioactive microsphere measurement of cardiac output and regional tissue blood flow in the sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous reports have shown that radioactive microspheres may be used to obtain quantiative measurements of regional tissue blood flow in a number of species. The present work has shown that this also applies to the conscious sheep, and further, that microspheres provide a simple, accurate and reliable method for the routine measurement of cardiac output. Assessment of blood flow through

J. R. S. Hales; Ian Clunies

1973-01-01

28

Clinical review: Positive end-expiratory pressure and cardiac output  

PubMed Central

In patients with acute lung injury, high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may be necessary to maintain or restore oxygenation, despite the fact that 'aggressive' mechanical ventilation can markedly affect cardiac function in a complex and often unpredictable fashion. As heart rate usually does not change with PEEP, the entire fall in cardiac output is a consequence of a reduction in left ventricular stroke volume (SV). PEEP-induced changes in cardiac output are analyzed, therefore, in terms of changes in SV and its determinants (preload, afterload, contractility and ventricular compliance). Mechanical ventilation with PEEP, like any other active or passive ventilatory maneuver, primarily affects cardiac function by changing lung volume and intrathoracic pressure. In order to describe the direct cardiocirculatory consequences of respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation and PEEP, this review will focus on the effects of changes in lung volume, factors controlling venous return, the diastolic interactions between the ventricles and the effects of intrathoracic pressure on cardiac function, specifically left ventricular function. Finally, the hemodynamic consequences of PEEP in patients with heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome are discussed. PMID:16356246

Luecke, Thomas; Pelosi, Paolo

2005-01-01

29

The relationship between cardiac output and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in humans  

PubMed Central

Cerebral autoregulation adjusts cerebrovascular resistance in the face of changing perfusion pressures to maintain relatively constant flow. Results from several studies suggest that cardiac output may also play a role. We tested the hypothesis that cerebral blood flow would autoregulate independent of changes in cardiac output. Transient systemic hypotension was induced by thigh-cuff deflation in 19 healthy volunteers (7 women) in both supine and seated positions. Mean arterial pressure (Finapres), cerebral blood flow (transcranial Doppler) in the anterior (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA), beat-by-beat cardiac output (echocardiography), and end-tidal Pco2 were measured. Autoregulation was assessed using the autoregulatory index (ARI) defined by Tiecks et al. (Tiecks FP, Lam AM, Aaslid R, Newell DW. Stroke 26: 1014–1019, 1995). Cerebral autoregulation was better in the supine position in both the ACA [supine ARI: 5.0 ± 0.21 (mean ± SE), seated ARI: 3.9 ± 0.4, P = 0.01] and MCA (supine ARI: 5.0 ± 0.2, seated ARI: 3.8 ± 0.3, P = 0.004). In contrast, cardiac output responses were not different between positions and did not correlate with cerebral blood flow ARIs. In addition, women had better autoregulation in the ACA (P = 0.046), but not the MCA, despite having the same cardiac output response. These data demonstrate cardiac output does not appear to affect the dynamic cerebral autoregulatory response to sudden hypotension in healthy controls, regardless of posture. These results also highlight the importance of considering sex when studying cerebral autoregulation. PMID:20689094

Deegan, B. M.; Devine, E. R.; Geraghty, M. C.; Jones, E.; ÓLaighin, G.

2010-01-01

30

Measurement of cardiac output from dynamic pulmonary circulation time CT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To introduce a method of estimating cardiac output from the dynamic pulmonary circulation time CT that is primarily used to determine the optimal time window of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Methods: Dynamic pulmonary circulation time CT series, acquired for eight patients, were retrospectively analyzed. The dynamic CT series was acquired, prior to the main CTPA, in cine mode (1 frame/s) for a single slice at the level of the main pulmonary artery covering the cross sections of ascending aorta (AA) and descending aorta (DA) during the infusion of iodinated contrast. The time series of contrast changes obtained for DA, which is the downstream of AA, was assumed to be related to the time series for AA by the convolution with a delay function. The delay time constant in the delay function, representing the average time interval between the cross sections of AA and DA, was determined by least square error fitting between the convoluted AA time series and the DA time series. The cardiac output was then calculated by dividing the volume of the aortic arch between the cross sections of AA and DA (estimated from the single slice CT image) by the average time interval, and multiplying the result by a correction factor. Results: The mean cardiac output value for the six patients was 5.11 (l/min) (with a standard deviation of 1.57 l/min), which is in good agreement with the literature value; the data for the other two patients were too noisy for processing. Conclusions: The dynamic single-slice pulmonary circulation time CT series also can be used to estimate cardiac output.

Yee, Seonghwan, E-mail: Seonghwan.Yee@Beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States); Scalzetti, Ernest M. [Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210 (United States)

2014-06-15

31

Cardiac output during exercise: a comparison of four methods.  

PubMed

Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2 ?= 12%). While all four methods reported a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0.001] and hypoxia (7.2 ± 0.7, 4.9 ± 0.5, 6.4 ± 0.8 and 5.1 ± 0.4 L/min per L/min; P = 0.04). In hypoxia, the increase in the Q/VO2 slope was not detected by Nexfin. In normoxia, Q increases by 5-6 L/min per L/min increase in VO2, which is within the 95% confidence interval of the Q/VO2 slopes determined by the modified Fick method, Physioflow, and Nexfin apparatus while Innocor provided a lower value, potentially reflecting recirculation of the test gas into the pulmonary circulation. Thus, determination of Q during exercise depends significantly on the applied method. PMID:24646113

Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P; Sørensen, H; Zaar, M; Hvidtfeldt, M; Pichon, A; Secher, N H; Lundby, C

2015-02-01

32

Clinical and haemodynamic effects of milrinone in the treatment of low cardiac output after cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

We have studied the haemodynamic effects of i.v. milrinone, a new phosphodiesterase inhibitor, in patients with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery. Thirty-five patients with a cardiac index (Cl) less than 2.5 litre min-1 m-2 and a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) greater than 8 mm Hg were given a loading dose of milrinone 50 micrograms kg-1 followed by an infusion at one of three rates: 0.375 micrograms kg-1 min-1, 0.5 micrograms kg-1 min-1 or 0.75 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 12 h. After 1 h there were increases in Cl (35%) (P less than 0.001), heart rate (13%) (P less than 0.01) and stroke volume index (19%) (P less than 0.005). There were decreases in mean arterial pressure (12%) (P less than 0.01), systemic vascular resistance (35%) (P less than 0.001) and PCWP (24%) (P less than 0.05). Pulmonary vascular resistance was unchanged or reduced and left ventricular stroke work index was unchanged or increased. The haemodynamic improvements were sustained throughout the infusion period. Milrinone was tolerated well: three patients developed tachycardia greater than 125 beat min-1, one patient developed atrial fibrillation and one patient had a short run of atrial bigemini. We conclude that milrinone is a useful agent in the treatment of patients with a reduced cardiac output after cardiac surgery. PMID:1751273

Wright, E M; Sherry, K M

1991-11-01

33

Non-invasive cardiac output trending during exercise recovery on a bathroom-scale-based ballistocardiograph.  

PubMed

Cardiac ejection of blood into the aorta generates a reaction force on the body that can be measured externally via the ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this study, a commercial bathroom scale was modified to measure the BCGs of nine healthy subjects recovering from treadmill exercise. During the recovery, Doppler echocardiogram signals were obtained simultaneously from the left ventricular outflow tract of the heart. The percentage changes in root-mean-square (RMS) power of the BCG were strongly correlated with the percentage changes in cardiac output measured by Doppler echocardiography (R(2) = 0.85, n = 275 data points). The correlation coefficients for individually analyzed data ranged from 0.79 to 0.96. Using Bland-Altman methods for assessing agreement, the mean bias was found to be -0.5% (+/-24%) in estimating the percentage changes in cardiac output. In contrast to other non-invasive methods for trending cardiac output, the unobtrusive procedure presented here uses inexpensive equipment and could be performed without the aid of a medical professional. PMID:19202234

Inan, O T; Etemadi, M; Paloma, A; Giovangrandi, L; Kovacs, G T A

2009-03-01

34

Continuous cardiac output monitoring by peripheral blood pressure waveform analysis.  

PubMed

A clinical method for monitoring cardiac output (CO) should be continuous, minimally invasive, and accurate. However, none of the conventional CO measurement methods possess all of these characteristics. On the other hand, peripheral arterial blood pressure (ABP) may be measured reliably and continuously with little or no invasiveness. We have developed a novel technique for continuously monitoring changes in CO by mathematical analysis of a peripheral ABP waveform. In contrast to the previous techniques, our technique analyzes the ABP waveform over time scales greater than a cardiac cycle in which the confounding effects of complex wave reflections are attenuated. The technique specifically analyzes 6-min intervals of ABP to estimate the pure exponential pressure decay that would eventually result if pulsatile activity abruptly ceased (i.e., after the high frequency wave reflections vanish). The technique then determines the time constant of this exponential decay, which equals the product of the total peripheral resistance and the nearly constant arterial compliance, and computes proportional CO via Ohm's law. To validate the technique, we performed six acute swine experiments in which peripheral ABP waveforms and aortic flow probe CO were simultaneously measured over a wide physiologic range. We report an overall CO error of 14.6%. PMID:16532772

Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Reisner, Andrew T; Hojman, Horacio M; Mark, Roger G; Cohen, Richard J

2006-03-01

35

The effects of chronic prostacyclin therapy on cardiac output and symptoms in primary pulmonary hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThis study evaluated the response to prostacyclin dose reduction in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) who developed high cardiac outputs.BACKGROUNDPatients on prostacyclin require chronic upward dose titration to overcome tolerance to the medication. No upper limit of effective dose has been described.METHODSWe studied 12 patients with PPH treated with chronic prostacyclin therapy who presented in high cardiac output states.

Stuart Rich; Vallerie V McLaughlin

1999-01-01

36

Feasibility and variability of six methods for the echocardiographic and Doppler determination of cardiac output  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and the intrinsic variability of six different methods of echocardiographic and Doppler flow determination of cardiac output were analysed in 34 healthy volunteers. Four were excluded because of poor quality echocardiograms. The mean (range) age of the remaining 30 (12 women, 18 men) was 21 years (13-36 years). Cardiac output was calculated by six methods as a product

G L Nicolosi; E Pungercic; E Cervesato; D Pavan; L Modena; E Moro; V DallAglio; D Zanuttini

1988-01-01

37

Changes in cardiac output during swimming and aquatic hypoxia in the air-breathing Pacific tarpon  

E-print Network

Changes in cardiac output during swimming and aquatic hypoxia in the air-breathing Pacific tarpon T-breathing organ (ABO). We examined changes in cardiac output (Vb) associated with increases in air to recover in a swim flume at 27 °C after being instrumented with a Doppler flow probe around the ventral

Farrell, Anthony P.

38

Transoesophageal Doppler echocardiographic measurement of cardiac output by the mitral annulus method  

PubMed Central

Objective—To compare cardiac output measured by the transoesophageal Doppler and thermodilution techniques. Design—Prospective direct comparison of paired measurements by both techniques in each patient. Setting—Intensive care unit in a cardiovascular centre. Patients—65 patients after open heart surgery (mean (SD) age 53 (12) years). Interventions—Cardiac output was measured simultaneously by the transoesophageal Doppler and thermodilution techniques. Cardiac output was measured again after a mechanical intervention or volume loading. Results—The limits of agreement were ?2·53 to +0·83 1·min?1 for cardiac output measured by the Doppler and thermodilution techniques. This suggests that the Doppler method alone would not be suitable for clinical use. The second measurement of cardiac output by thermodilution was compared with cardiac output estimated from the first and second Doppler measurements and the first thermodilution measurement. The limits of agreement (?0·55 to +0·51 1·min?1) were good enough for clinical use. Conclusions—After cardiac output had been measured simultaneously by both the Doppler and thermodilution techniques, subsequent transoesophageal Doppler alone gave a clinically useful measurement of cardiac output. PMID:1467040

Shimamoto, Hiroyuki; Kito, Hiroyuki; Kawazoe, Kohei; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Shimamoto, Yoriko

1992-01-01

39

Thermodynamics of the heart: Relation between cardiac output and oxygen consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic approach is used to derive a relation between cardiac output and rate of oxygen consumption. As an example, the relation is used to calculate the cardiac output of a young woman exercising on a treadmill. The results can be understood by undergraduates without any previous knowledge of human physiology.

Uehara, Mituo; Sakane, Kumiko K.; Bertolotti, Simone A.

2008-06-01

40

Cardiac Risk Assessment  

MedlinePLUS

... Assessment Related tests: Lipid Profile , VLDL Cholesterol , hs-CRP , Lp(a) Overview | Common Questions | Related Pages What ... risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring CRP with a ...

41

Comparison of bedside measurement of cardiac output with the thermodilution method and the Fick method in mechanically ventilated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Bedside cardiac output determination is a common preoccupation in the critically ill. All available methods have drawbacks. We wished to re-examine the agreement between cardiac output determined using the thermodilution method (QTTHERM) and cardiac output determined using the metabolic (Fick) method (QTFICK) in patients with extremely severe states, all the more so in the context of changing practices in

Jésus Gonzalez; Christian Delafosse; Muriel Fartoukh; André Capderou; Christian Straus; Marc Zelter; Jean-Philippe Derenne; Thomas Similowski

2003-01-01

42

Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical principles and current applications of echocardiography in assessment of heart diseases are reviewed. Technical considerations and unresolved points relative to the use of echocardiography in various disease states are stressed. The discussion covers normal mitral valve motion, mitral stenosis, aortic regurgitation, atrial masses, mitral valve prolapse, and idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Other topics concern tricuspic valve abnormalities, aortic valve disease, pulmonic valve, pericardial effusion, intraventricular septal motion, and left ventricular function. The application of echocardiography to congenital heart disease diagnosis is discussed along with promising ultrasonic imaging systems. The utility of echocardiography in quantitative evaluation of cardiac disease is demonstrated.

Popp, R. L.

1976-01-01

43

Cardiac output estimation from arterial blood pressure waveforms using the MIMIC II database  

E-print Network

The effect of signal quality on the accuracy of cardiac output (CO) estimation from arterial blood pressure (ABP) was evaluated using data from the Multi-Parameter Intelligent Patient Monitoring for Intensive Care (MIMIC) ...

Chen, Tiffany

2009-01-01

44

Calculating arterial pressure-based cardiac output using a novel measurement and analysis method.  

PubMed

Work on applying physical and physiological principles for determining cardiac output by analysis of pressure measurements has been pursued for decades. Reference measurements for this kind of cardiac output analysis rely on the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC), considered the clinical gold standard for cardiac output monitoring. Recent advances in signal processing, as well as applied information on the relationships that enable arterial pulse pressure to be used to determine stroke volume, have led to the development of a novel system that can continuously measure cardiac output from an arterial pressure waveform that does not require an external calibration reference method. There are significant challenges in applying statistical- and signal-processing practices to the analysis of complex physiological waveforms. This paper reviews the historical basis for measuring flow from the analysis of pressure in a vessel, establishes the physiological and mathematical basis for this new system and describes its performance under various physiological conditions. PMID:17992808

Pratt, Benjamin; Roteliuk, Luchy; Hatib, Feras; Frazier, John; Wallen, Roy D

2007-01-01

45

Comparison of bioimpedance versus thermodilution cardiac output during cardiac surgery: Evaluation of a second-generation bioimpedance device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare a second-generation thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) hemodynamic monitoring system with the clinically used pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution (TD-PAC) system. Design: Blinded, simultaneous measurements at specified key time points during surgery. Setting: University teaching hospital cardiac surgical operating rooms. Participants: Forty-seven patients undergoing primary elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Interventions: Timed cardiac output measurements by thermodilution and continuous

Bruce D. Spiess; Muhammad A. Patel; Louise O. Soltow; Ian H. Wright

2001-01-01

46

Influence of different atrioventricular and interventricular delays on cardiac output during cardiac resynchronization therapy.  

PubMed

Restoration of the atrioventricular (AVD) and interventricular (VVD) delays increases the hemodynamic benefit conferred by biventricular (BiV) stimulation. This study compared the effects of different AVD and VVD on cardiac output (CO) during three stimulation modes: BiV-LV = left ventricle (LV) preceding right ventricle (RV) by 4 ms; BiV-RV = RV preceding LV by 4 ms; LVP = single-site LV pacing. We studied 19 patients with chronic heart failure due to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, QRS >/= 150 ms, mean LV end-diastolic diameter = 78 +/- 7 mm, and mean LV ejection fraction = 21 +/- 3%. CO was estimated by Doppler echocardiographic velocity time integral formula with sample volume placed in the LV outflow tract. Sets of sensed-AVDs (S-AVD) 90-160 ms, paced-AVDs (P-AVD) 120-160 ms, and VVDs 4-20 ms were used. BiV-RV resulted in lower CO than BiV-LV. S-AVD 120 ms and P-AVD 140 ms caused the most significant increase in CO for all three pacing modes. LVP produced a similar increase in CO as BiV stimulation; however, AV sequential pacing was associated with a nonsignificantly higher CO during LVP than with BiV stimulation. CO during BiV stimulation was the highest when LV preceded RV, and VVD ranged between 4 and 12 ms. The most negative effect on CO was observed when RV preceded LV by 4 ms. Hemodynamic improvement during BiV stimulation was dependent both on optimized AVD and VVD. LV preceding RV by 4-12 ms was the most optimal. Advancement of the RV was not beneficial in the majority of patients. PMID:15683494

Riedlbauchová, Lucie; Kautzner, Josef; Frídl, Petr

2005-01-01

47

Doppler determination of cardiac output in infants and children: Comparison with simultaneous thermodilution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Ten children, aged six weeks to 13 years, without intracardiac shunts or lesions that could cause turbulent flow in the ascending\\u000a aorta or aortic regurgitation, underwent cardiac catheterization, including cardiac output measurements by thermodilution.\\u000a Simultaneously with each of six consecutive thermodilution injections, mean and maximal blood velocities in the ascending\\u000a aorta were measured by pulsed Doppler echocardiography from the suprasternal

Mats Mellander; Karl-Göran Sabel; Kenneth Caidahl; Laszlo Solymar; Bengt Eriksson

1987-01-01

48

Epi-aortic Doppler measurement of cardiac output in univentricular connection  

PubMed Central

Background In the initial postoperative period after a Fontan-type operation for a univentricular circulation, cardiac output information is important, but cannot be provided by conventional methods due to the surgical reconstruction of the heart. In this regard we investigated the feasibility of epi-aortic Doppler measurements in order to calculate cardiac output. Methods : Epi-aortic cardiac output measurement was compared with Fick measurements as the gold standard in eight patients with a univentricular circulation after a Fontan-type operation. Results The mean diameter of the aorta by epi-aortic measurement was 18 mm (range 14 to 25), by angiography 17 mm (range 10 to 24), correlation coefficient 0.88 (p < 0.05). The mean cardiac output by epi-aortic measurement was 2.8 l.min?1 (range 1.2 to 6.3), by the Fick calculations 1.8 l.min?1 (range 0.8 to 5.0). The correlation coefficient for cardiac output data in aortic diameters up to 20 millimeter in diameter was 0.55 (p < 0.05). Conclusions Epi-aortic Doppler measurement of cardiac output after Fontan type reconstructions could be applied in aortas up to 20 millimeter in diameter. A reasonable correlation with Fick calculations was found. This was supported by Bland–Altman plotting. The method is intrinsically invasive, but application and removal of the device were easy and no complications related to the system were observed. An important restriction is the often present abnormal anatomy, either congenitally or after surgery. PMID:22915911

Bogers, Ad J J C; van den Burg, Martin; Schepp, Ronald; Klein, Jan

2009-01-01

49

Continuous cardiac output measurement - Aspects of Doppler frequency analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the suprasternal notch blood flow velocity in the aorta can be measured non-invasively by a Doppler probe. Integration over systole after frequency analysis gives a measure of stroke volume if a separate diameter observation is incorporated. Frequency analysis by a zero crossing counter or by a set of parallel phaselock loops was less effective than a set of bandpass filters. Observations on dogs, baboons and humans before and after exercise or surgery suggest the indications to be useful. Application to judging heart failure by the effect of introducing a volume load is indicated. Changes in output also are measured in freely moving subjects.

Mackay, R. S.; Hechtman, H. B.

1975-01-01

50

Comparison of bioimpedance and thermodilution methods for determining cardiac output: Experimental and clinical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in electrical bioimpedance caused by the blood flow through a thoracic segment may be measured using a series of electrodes placed at opposing ends of this segment. Cardiac output (CO) is calculated by computer as the change in bioimpedance over time. This study was performed to determine the accuracy of bioimpedance CO (CObi) compared with standard thermodilution CO

Francis G. Spinale; H. David Reines; Fred A. Crawford

1995-01-01

51

Real-time cardiac output estimation of the circulatory system under left ventricular assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for indirect and real-time estimation of the cardiac output of the circulatory system supported by the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is proposed. This method has low invasiveness and is useful for clinical applications of the LVAD since it needs only two measurements: the rate of blood outflow from the LVAD and the aortic pressure. The method is

Makoto Yoshizawa; Hiroshi Takeda; Makoto Miura; Tomoyuki Yambe; Yoshiaki Katahira; Shin-ichi Nitta

1993-01-01

52

Postural effect on cardiac output, oxygen uptake and lactate during cycle exercise of varying intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to changes in cardiac output, blood volume distribution and the efficacy of the muscle pump, oxygen supply may differ during upright and supine cycle exercise. In the present study we measured, in parallel, circulatory (heart rate, stroke volume, blood pressure) and metabolic parameters (oxygen uptake, lactic acid concentration [1a]) during incremental-exercise tests and at constant power levels ranging from

Dieter Leyk; Dieter Eßfeld; Uwe Hoffmann; Hans-Georg Wunderlich; Klaus Baum; Jiirgen Stegemann

1994-01-01

53

Hemodynamic-Induced Changes in Aortic Valve Area: Implications for Doppler Cardiac Output Determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring cardiac output (CO) by transesophageal echocardiography involves measurements of ascend- ing aortic flow and an initial measurement of aortic valve area (AVA). Hemodynamic-induced changes in AVA are a potential source of error for this simplified method. Our goal was to quantify these changes in AVA and their effects on CO calculations. In 17 anesthe- tized patients, a dobutamine infusion

Pamela E. Gray; Albert C. Perrino

2001-01-01

54

Suprasternal Doppler Estimation of Cardiac Output: Standard Versus Sequential Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sequential (Seq) combined spinal epidural (CSE) may provide better cardiovascular stability than standard (Std) CSE for cesarean delivery. We com- pared the cardiovascular stability of both techniques using suprasternal Doppler. METHODS: Healthy women (n 40) scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were randomized into two groups; Std or Seq CSE. Serial measures of cardiac output indices, including minute distance, stroke

Johanna K. Bray; Roshan Fernando; Nisa P. Patel; Malachy O. Columb

2006-01-01

55

Exercise cardiac output following Skylab missions - The second manned Skylab mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cardiac output was measured during preflight and postflight exercise-stress tests on the Skylab astronauts. In the postflight tests immediately following the 28-, 59-, and 84-d earth orbital missions, the astronauts exhibited an approximate 30% decrease in cardiac output coupled with an approximate 50% decrease in cardiac stroke volume during exercise. These changes were accompanied by elevated heart rates and significant increases in total systemic peripheral vascular resistance. Mean arterial pressure was unchanged. All parameters returned to normal preflight values within 30 d of the end of the orbital period. Duration of the zero-G exposure did not appear to influence either the magnitude of the hemodynamic changes or the time-course of their return to normal. These results are discussed in relation to other cardiovascular findings and possible mechanisms responsible for the observations are outlined.

Buderer, M. C.; Mauldin, D. G.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.; Sawin, C. F.

1976-01-01

56

CARDIAC OUTPUT AND BLOOD FLOW DISTRIBUTION DURING SWIMMING AND VOLUNTARY DIVING OF THE TUFTED DUCK (AYTHYA FULIGULA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cardiac output (Kb) and blood flow distribution were continuously measured in the tufted duck when diving voluntarily. Blood flows through pulmonary, ischiadic, carotid and brachiocephalic arteries were recorded using miniature pulsed Doppler flow probes. By measuring these flows, cardiac output and blood flow to the leg muscles and to the flight muscles could be calculated. Heart rate and Vb

R. M. BEVAN; P. J. BUTLER

57

THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON THE CARDIAC OUTPUT AND BLOOD FLOW DISTRIBUTION OF THE LARGESCALE SUCKER CATOSTOMUS MACROCHEILUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cardiac output (Q. ) and blood flow distribution were measured in adult largescale suckers at rest and while swimming. Cardiac output was directly measured using an ultrasonic flowprobe in f ish during the summer (16?C), fall (10?C) and winter (5?C). Largescale suckers were adept at holding station against a current without swimming and, when engaged in this behavior, they

ALAN S. KOLOK; R. MICHAEL SPOONER; ANTHONY P. FARRELL

58

Echocardiographic assessment of the cardiac amyloidoses.  

PubMed

Cardiac amyloidosis is a cardiomyopathy characterized by increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and normal or decreased LV cavity size. Congestive heart failure in cardiac amyloidosis is generally considered a predominantly diastolic phenomenon, with systolic dysfunction only occurring in late-stage disease. Echocardiography is a noninvasive, reproducible method of assessing cardiac features and function in cardiac amyloidosis, and some echocardiographic indices are prognostic for the amyloidoses, with M-mode and 2-dimensional echocardiography able to detect increased LV wall thickness. Moreover, Doppler flow measurements can incrementally assess diastolic LV dysfunction, which is characteristic of cardiac amyloidosis, and provide important prognostic information. Additionally, tissue Doppler imaging can detect subtle changes in both systolic and diastolic LV function, which cannot be detected by Doppler flow measurements, and LV longitudinal strain assessed by color tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography can provide more accurate LV functional and prognostic information than tissue Doppler imaging. This review describes the advances in echocardiography and its crucial role in the diagnosis and management of cardiac amyloidosis. (Circ J 2015; 79: 721-734). PMID:25766406

Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Ikeda, Uichi

2015-03-25

59

Comparison of dynamic measurements of pulse contour with pulsed heat continuous cardiac output in postoperative cardiac surgical patients.  

PubMed

Cardiac output (CO) can be measured using bolus thermodilution via a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) and as continuous cardiac output (CCO), using pulsed heat thermoditution. Pulse contour cardiac output (PCCO) measures continuous CO by analysis of the arterial waveform after calibration with thermodilution CO. The Pulsion Medical Systems (PiCCO system) achieves this by transpulmonary aortic thermodilution (TDtpa). There is uncertainty regarding the agreement between TDtpa, CCO, and PCCO CO measurements in situations of rapid haemodynamic changes. We studied the agreement of the measures by comparing digital recordings of cardiac index (CI) determined by PCCO and CCO (PCCI and CCI, respectively) made during periods of haemodynamic instability. After ethics committee approval we studied four post-coronary artery bypass graft patients, in the immediate postoperative period. Each patient had a 7.5F CCO catheter (Edwards Lifesciences) and a 5F, 20cm PCCO femoral artery catheter. Digital recordings were obtained for the first 12-18 postoperative hours. Six epochs of instability were identified in the first two to three postoperative hours, and at the commencement of inotropic or vasoactive drugs. Notable features, despite frequent PCCO calibrations, were the marked difference of PCCI compared to CCI. In contradistinction, they tracked very closely during a period of stability. Limitations of both methods were noted. Whilst PCCO responded to rapid change, it developed significant error during haemodynmamic instability and requires frequent recalibration. CCO on the other hand has a considerable time lag in responding to changes in CO. The way a monitor measures CO must be taken into account when using the data in clinical management. PMID:17424793

Boyle, Martin; Lawrence, John; Belessis, Andrew; Murgo, Margherita; Shehabi, Yahya

2007-02-01

60

Cardiac output and oxygen uptake relationship during physical effort in men and women over 60 years old  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2), cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (SV), and heart rate (HR) in 54 men and 77 women (age = 69 ± 5 years) during incremental\\u000a effort. Subjects performed a maximal cycle-ergometer test and VO2 was directly measured. HR and SV were assessed by ECG and cardiograph impedance. Regression equations were calculated for\\u000a Q–VO2, HR–VO2, and Q–HR relationships.

Paulo T. V. Farinatti; Pedro P. S. Soares

2009-01-01

61

Quantification of mitral regurgitation by automated cardiac output measurement: experimental and clinical validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an automated noninvasive method to quantify mitral regurgitation. BACKGROUND: Automated cardiac output measurement (ACM), which integrates digital color Doppler velocities in space and in time, has been validated for the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract but has not been tested for the LV inflow tract or to assess mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS: First, to validate ACM against a gold standard (ultrasonic flow meter), 8 dogs were studied at 40 different stages of cardiac output (CO). Second, to compare ACM to the LV outflow (ACMa) and inflow (ACMm) tracts, 50 normal volunteers without MR or aortic regurgitation (44+/-5 years, 31 male) were studied. Third, to compare ACM with the standard pulsed Doppler-two-dimensional echocardiographic (PD-2D) method for quantification of MR, 51 patients (61+/-14 years, 30 male) with MR were studied. RESULTS: In the canine studies, CO by ACM (1.32+/-0.3 liter/min, y) and flow meter (1.35+/-0.3 liter/min, x) showed good correlation (r=0.95, y=0.89x+0.11) and agreement (deltaCO(y-x)=0.03+/-0.08 [mean+/-SD] liter/min). In the normal subjects, CO measured by ACMm agreed with CO by ACMa (r=0.90, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=-0.09+/-0.42 liter/min), PD (r=0.87, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=0.12+/-0.49 liter/min) and 2D (r=0.84, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=-0.16+/-0.48 liter/min). In the patients, mitral regurgitant volume (MRV) by ACMm-ACMa agreed with PD-2D (r= 0.88, y=0.88x+6.6, p < 0.0001, deltaMRV=2.68+/-9.7 ml). CONCLUSIONS: We determined that ACM is a feasible new method for quantifying LV outflow and inflow volume to measure MRV and that ACM automatically performs calculations that are equivalent to more time-consuming Doppler and 2D measurements. Additionally, ACM should improve MR quantification in routine clinical practice.

Sun, J. P.; Yang, X. S.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Zhou, J.; Vazquez, C. J.; Griffin, B. P.; Stewart, W. J.; Thomas, J. D.

1998-01-01

62

Association of HeartMate II left ventricular assist device flow estimate with thermodilution cardiac output.  

PubMed

Cardiac output (CO) assessment is important in treating patients with heart failure. Durable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) provide essentially all CO. In currently used LVADs, estimated device flow is generated by a computerized algorithm. However, LVAD flow estimate may be inaccurate in tracking true CO. We correlated LVAD (HeartMate II) flow with thermodilution CO during postoperative care (day 2-10 after implant) in 81 patients (5,616 paired measurements). Left ventricular assist device flow and CO correlated with a low correlation coefficient (r = 0.42). Left ventricular assist device readings were lower than CO measurements by approximately 0.36 L/min, trending for larger difference with higher values. Left ventricular assist device flow measurements showed less temporal variability compared with CO. Grouping for simultaneous measured blood pressure (BP < 60, 60-70, 70-80, 80-90, and ?90), the correlation of CO with LVAD flow differed (R = 0.42, 0.67, 0.48, 0.32, 0.32, respectively). Indicating better correlation when mean blood pressure is 60 to 70 mm Hg. Left ventricular assist device flow generally trends with measured CO, but large variability exists, hence flow measures should not be assumed to equal with CO. Clinicians should take into account variables such as high CO, BP, and opening of the aortic valve when interpreting LVAD flow readout. Direct flow sensors incorporated in the LVAD system may allow for better estimation. PMID:25068779

Hasin, Tal; Huebner, Marianne; Li, Zhuo; Brown, Daniel; Stulak, John M; Boilson, Barry A; Joyce, Lyle; Pereira, Naveen L; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Park, Soon J

2014-01-01

63

The cardiac output response and the oxygen cost of increased work of breathing  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Physical Education THE CARDIAC OUTPUT RESPONSE AND THE OXYGEN COST OF INCREASED WORK OF BREATHING A Thesis by KEVIN MICHAEL KRAUSE Approved as to style and content by: J. Richard Coast (Chair... by Liljestrand (1918), by measuring oxygen consumption at rest and at a low level of hyperventilation. Since no non-ventilatory work was being performed, the subsequent increase in oxygen consumption was safely assumed to be utilized by the respiratory system...

Krause, Kevin Michael

1989-01-01

64

Validation and application of single breath cardiac output determinations in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a procedure for estimating cardiac output by a single-breath technique (Qsb), obtained in healthy males during supine rest and during exercise on a bicycle ergometer, were compared with the results on cardiac output obtained by the direct Fick method (QF). The single breath maneuver consisted of a slow exhalation to near residual volume following an inspiration somewhat deeper than normal. The Qsb calculations incorporated an equation of the CO2 dissociation curve and a 'moving spline' sequential curve-fitting technique to calculate the instantaneous R from points on the original expirogram. The resulting linear regression equation indicated a 24-percent underestimation of QF by the Qsb technique. After applying a correction, the Qsb-QF relationship was improved. A subsequent study during upright rest and exercise to 80 percent of VO2(max) in 6 subjects indicated a close linear relationship between Qsb and VO2 for all 95 values obtained, with slope and intercept close to those in published studies in which invasive cardiac output measurements were used.

Loeppky, J. A.; Fletcher, E. R.; Myhre, L. G.; Luft, U. C.

1986-01-01

65

Cardiac output variations in supine resting subjects during head-out cold water immersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five men, aged 31.2 years (SD 2.3), under semi-nude conditions and resting in a dorsal reclining position, were exposed to thermoneutral air for 30 min, followed immediately by a cold water (15°C) immersion for 60 min. Cardiac output was measured using a dualbeam Doppler flow meter. During immersion in cold water, cardiac frequency ( f c) showed an initial bradycardia. The lowest values were reached at about 10 min after immersion, 58.3 (SD 2.5) to 48.3 (SD 7.8) beats min-1 ( P < 0.05). By the 20th min of exposure, f c had gradually risen to 70.0 beats min-1 (SD 6.6, P < 0.05). This change could be due to the inhibition of the initial vagal reflex by increased catecholamine concentration. Stroke volume ( V s) was significantly increased ( P < 0.05) during the whole cold immersion period. Cardiac output, increased from 3.57 (SD 0.50) to 6.26 (SD 1.33)1 min-1 ( P < 0.05) and its change with time was a function of both V s and f c. On the other hand, systolic flow acceleration was unchanged during the period of immersion. The changes in the respiratory variables (ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output and respiratory exchange ratio) during immersion showed an initial hyperventilation followed, as immersion proceeded, by a slower metabolic increase due to shivering.

Vogelaere, P.; Deklunder, G.; Lecroart, J.

1995-03-01

66

Cardiac output responses of primigravid women during exercise determined by the direct Fick technique.  

PubMed

We compared metabolic and cardiovascular responses to aerobic exercise with the direct Fick technique in women during and after pregnancy. Seven subjects were studied at 37 weeks' gestation and again 12 weeks postpartum. All were tested at rest and during four sequential exercise bouts consisting of 5 minutes at each of two cycle (50 and 75 W) and two treadmill (67 m x min-1 at 2.5 and 12% grade) protocols. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate were measured during the fifth minute of exercise. Arterial and mixed venous oxygen contents, obtained from catheters placed in the radial and pulmonary arteries, respectively, were used to calculate arterial-venous oxygen difference. Cardiac output and stroke volume were calculated from the Fick equation. Responses of VO2, cardiac output, and stroke volume were greater when exercise was performed at 37 weeks' gestation as compared with postpartum. In contrast, heart rate response (during cycling) and arterial-venous oxygen difference (during treadmill walking) were less when exercise was performed during pregnancy. Our results indicate that there is no compromise in maternal cardiac output during either cycle or treadmill exercise performed late in pregnancy as compared with postpartum conditions. PMID:2342744

Pivarnik, J M; Lee, W; Clark, S L; Cotton, D B; Spillman, H T; Miller, J F

1990-06-01

67

Porcine cardiac myocyte power output is increased after chronic exercise training.  

PubMed

Chronic exercise training increases the functional capacity of the heart, perhaps by increased myocyte contractile function, as has been observed in rodent exercise models. We examined whether cardiac myocyte function is enhanced after chronic exercise training in Yucatan miniature swine, whose heart characteristics are similar to humans. Animals were designated as either sedentary (Sed), i.e., cage confined, or exercise trained (Ex), i.e., underwent 16-20 wk of progressive treadmill training. Exercise training efficacy was shown with significantly increased heart weight-to-body weight ratios, skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, and exercise tolerance. Force-velocity properties were measured by attaching skinned cardiac myocytes between a force transducer and position motor, and shortening velocities were measured over a range of loads during maximal Ca2+ activation. Myocytes (n = 9) from nine Ex pigs had comparable force production but a approximately 30% increase in peak power output compared with myocytes (n = 8) from eight Sed. Interestingly, Ex myofibrillar samples also had higher baseline PKA-induced phosphorylation levels of cardiac troponin I, which may contribute to the increase in power. Overall, these results suggest that enhanced power-generating capacity of porcine cardiac myofibrils contributes to improved cardiac function after chronic exercise training. PMID:16565350

Hinken, Aaron C; Korte, F Steven; McDonald, Kerry S

2006-07-01

68

Cardiac Output and Performance during a Marathon Race in Middle-Aged Recreational Runners  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Despite the increasing popularity of marathon running, there are no data on the responses of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) to exercise in this context. We sought to establish whether marathon performance is associated with the ability to sustain high fractional use of maximal SV and CO (i.e, cardiac endurance) and/or CO, per meter (i.e., cardiac cost). Methods. We measured the SV, heart rate (HR), CO, and running speed of 14 recreational runners in an incremental, maximal laboratory test and then during a real marathon race (mean performance: 3?hr 30?min ± 45?min). Results. Our data revealed that HR, SV and CO were all in a high but submaximal steady state during the marathon (87.0 ± 1.6%, 77.2 ± 2.6%, and 68.7 ± 2.8% of maximal values, respectively). Marathon performance was inversely correlated with an upward drift in the CO/speed ratio (mL of CO × m?1) (r = ?0.65, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with the runner's ability to complete the race at a high percentage of the speed at maximal SV (r = 0.83, P < 0.0002). Conclusion. Our results showed that marathon performance is inversely correlated with cardiac cost and positively correlated with cardiac endurance. The CO response could be a benchmark for race performance in recreational marathon runners. PMID:22645458

Billat, Véronique L.; Petot, Hélène; Landrain, Morgan; Meilland, Renaud; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Mille-Hamard, Laurence

2012-01-01

69

Comparison and reliability of two non-invasive acetylene uptake techniques for the measurement of cardiac output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison and reliability of two non-invasive acetylene uptake techniques for the measurement of cardiac output. Thirteen trained male cyclists performed CO2 rebreathing (CO2RB) at intensities from rest to 200 W, and open-circuit acetylene uptake (OpCirc) and single-breath acetylene uptake (SB) at intensities from rest to 300 W, with all procedures using 50 W increments. Oxygen consumption \\u000a cardiac output \\u000a and heart rate (HR), were

D. W. Dibski; D. J. Smith; R. Jensen; S. R. Norris; G. T. Ford

2005-01-01

70

Doppler-derived cardiac output in healthy newborn infants in relation to physiological patency of the ductus arteriosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Noninvasive Doppler-derived cardiac output was measured with the pulsed Doppler method in 22 healthy newborns during their first four days of life. Maximal blood flow velocity in the aorta was measured with the Doppler ultrasound method. The mean Doppler-derived cardiac output was 273±59 ml\\/min\\/kg. Ductal left-to-right shunting was also determined and then graded according to the flow in the

Hannu Hirsimäki; Pentti Kero; Olli Wanne; Risto Erkkola; Zita Makoi

1988-01-01

71

High flow variant postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome amplifies the cardiac output response to exercise in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Abstract Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is characterized by chronic fatigue and dizziness and affected individuals by definition have orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia. There is considerable overlap of symptoms in patients with POTS and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), prompting speculation that POTS is akin to a deconditioned state. We previously showed that adolescents with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) have excessive heart rate (HR) during, and slower HR recovery after, exercise – hallmarks of deconditioning. We also noted exaggerated cardiac output during exercise which led us to hypothesize that tachycardia could be a manifestation of a high output state rather than a consequence of deconditioning. We audited records of adolescents presenting with long?standing history of any mix of fatigue, dizziness, nausea, who underwent both head?up tilt table test and maximal exercise testing with measurement of cardiac output at rest plus 2–3 levels of exercise, and determined the cardiac output () versus oxygen uptake () relationship. Subjects with chronic fatigue were diagnosed with POTS if their HR rose ?40 beat·min?1 with head?up tilt. Among 107 POTS patients the distribution of slopes for the , relationship was skewed toward higher slopes but showed two peaks with a split at ~7.0 L·min?1 per L·min?1, designated as normal (5.08 ± 1.17, N = 66) and hyperkinetic (8.99 ± 1.31, N = 41) subgroups. In contrast, cardiac output rose appropriately with in 141 patients with chronic fatigue but without POTS, exhibiting a normal distribution and an average slope of 6.10 ± 2.09 L·min?1 per L·min?1. Mean arterial blood pressure and pulse pressure from rest to exercise rose similarly in both groups. We conclude that 40% of POTS adolescents demonstrate a hyperkinetic circulation during exercise. We attribute this to failure of normal regional vasoconstriction during exercise, such that patients must increase flow through an inappropriately vasodilated systemic circulation to maintain perfusion pressure. PMID:25168872

Pianosi, Paolo T.; Goodloe, Adele H.; Soma, David; Parker, Ken O.; Brands, Chad K.; Fischer, Philip R.

2014-01-01

72

Simulation evaluation of quantitative myocardial perfusion assessment from cardiac CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrast enhancement on cardiac CT provides valuable information about myocardial perfusion and methods have been proposed to assess perfusion with static and dynamic acquisitions. There is a lack of knowledge and consensus on the appropriate approach to ensure 1) sufficient diagnostic accuracy for clinical decisions and 2) low radiation doses for patient safety. This work developed a thorough dynamic CT simulation and several accepted blood flow estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of perfusion assessment across a range of acquisition and estimation scenarios. Cardiac CT acquisitions were simulated for a range of flow states (Flow = 0.5, 1, 2, 3 ml/g/min, cardiac output = 3,5,8 L/min). CT acquisitions were simulated with a validated CT simulator incorporating polyenergetic data acquisition and realistic x-ray flux levels for dynamic acquisitions with a range of scenarios including 1, 2, 3 sec sampling for 30 sec with 25, 70, 140 mAs. Images were generated using conventional image reconstruction with additional image-based beam hardening correction to account for iodine content. Time attenuation curves were extracted for multiple regions around the myocardium and used to estimate flow. In total, 2,700 independent realizations of dynamic sequences were generated and multiple MBF estimation methods were applied to each of these. Evaluation of quantitative kinetic modeling yielded blood flow estimates with an root mean square error (RMSE) of ~0.6 ml/g/min averaged across multiple scenarios. Semi-quantitative modeling and qualitative static imaging resulted in significantly more error (RMSE = ~1.2 and ~1.2 ml/min/g respectively). For quantitative methods, dose reduction through reduced temporal sampling or reduced tube current had comparable impact on the MBF estimate fidelity. On average, half dose acquisitions increased the RMSE of estimates by only 18% suggesting that substantial dose reductions can be employed in the context of quantitative myocardial blood flow estimation. In conclusion, quantitative model-based dynamic cardiac CT perfusion assessment is capable of accurately estimating MBF across a range of cardiac outputs and tissue perfusion states, outperforms comparable static perfusion estimates, and is relatively robust to noise and temporal subsampling.

Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R.; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Alessio, Adam M.

2014-03-01

73

The measurement of cardiac output and related cardiovascular parameters in the Javelina (Tayassu tajacu)  

E-print Network

values 1'rom 39 observations were: mean arterial pressure - 139 mm. Hg; mean. right atrial pressure - 3. Z7 mm. Hg; mean left atrial pressure - 10. 6 mm. Hg; heart rate ? 1Zl beats/min. ; and mean blood velocity - 38. 4 cm. /sec. The cardiac output... was calculated to be Z778 ml. /min. and the stroke volume to be Z2. 9 ml. /beat. All animals died of an acute bacterial bronchopneumonia within 42 days following surgery. This infection was probably introduced via the catheters. The aortas of 4 of the 5...

Schilling, Paul Wesley

1968-01-01

74

Quantification of Cardiac Sac Network Effects on a Movement-Related Parameter of Pyloric Network Output in the Lobster  

E-print Network

Output in the Lobster JEFF B. THUMA AND SCOTT L. HOOPER Neuroscience Program, Department of Biological on a movement-related parameter of pyloric network output in the lobster. J Neurophysiol 89: 745­753, 2003; 10 of cardiac sac activity on the OSF of all pyloric neurons in the lobster, Panulirus interruptus

Hooper, Scott

75

Design and assessment of cardiac SPECT systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a modality widely used to detect myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. Objectively assessing and comparing different SPECT systems is important so that the best detectability of cardiac defects can be achieved. Whitaker, Clarkson, and Barrett's study on the scanning linear observer (SLO) shows that the SLO can be used to estimate the location and size of signals. One major advantage of the SLO is that it can be used with projection data rather than reconstruction data. Thus, this observer model assesses overall hardware performance independent by any reconstruction algorithm. In addition, we will show that the run time of image-quality studies is significantly reduced. Several systems derived from the GE CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT camera Discovery 530c design, which is officially named the Alcyone Technology: Discovery NM 530c, were assessed using the performance of the SLO for the task of detecting cardiac defects and estimating the properties of the defects. Clinically, hearts can be virtually segmented into three coronary artery territories: left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA). One of the most important functions of a cardiac SPECT system is to produce images from which a radiologist can correctly predict in which territory the defect exists. A good estimation of the defect extent from the images is also very helpful for determining the seriousness of the myocardial ischemia. In this dissertation, both locations and extent of defects were estimated by the SLO, and system performance was assessed using localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) / estimation receiver operating characteristic (EROC) curves. Area under LROC curve (AULC) / area under EROC curve (AUEC) and true positive fraction (TPF) at specific false positive fraction (FPF) can be treated as the gures of merit (FOMs). As the results will show, a combination of the SLO and LROC / EROC curves can determine the configuration that has the most estimation/detection information and thus is a useful method for assessing cardiac SPECT systems.

Lee, Chih-Jie

76

Death due to high-output cardiac failure in fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma.  

PubMed

Fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is being recognized with increasing frequency. Placentomegaly and hydrops fetalis are preterminal events, and it has been suggested that fetal death may be due to high-output cardiac failure from arteriovenous shunting through the tumor. We had a chance to examine this hypothesis when a 21-week fetus presented with a huge sacrococcygeal teratoma. There were marked placentomegaly, cardiomegaly, hyperdynamic ventricles, and a pericardial effusion. Doppler studies showed tremendous flow through the SCT with extreme enlargement of the inferior vena cava, consistent with congestive heart failure from increased flow through the tumor. Hydrops developed, and the fetus was delivered because of placental abruption. This case provides supportive evidence that the teratoma acts as a large arteriovenous shunt, causing high-output cardiac failure. We have now collected 18 more cases of sacrococcygeal teratoma diagnosed in utero. Of the total 45 cases of fetal SCT, 9 had placentomegaly and/or fetal hydrops and all 9 fetuses died in utero or shortly after birth. We conclude that the only hope for survival in these severely affected fetuses is to reduce blood flow to the tumor before birth. PMID:2286911

Bond, S J; Harrison, M R; Schmidt, K G; Silverman, N H; Flake, A W; Slotnick, R N; Anderson, R L; Warsof, S L; Dyson, D C

1990-12-01

77

NOTE: Increasing cardiac output and decreasing oxygenation sequence in pump twins of acardiac twin pregnancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An acardiac twin pregnancy is a rare but serious complication of monochorionic twinning and consists of an acardiac twin and a pump twin. The acardiac twin is a severely malformed fetus that lacks most organs, particularly a heart, but grows during pregnancy because it is perfused by the developmentally normal pump twin via a set of arterioarterial and venovenous placental anastomoses. Pump twins die intrauterine or neonatally in about 50% of the cases. Because the effects of an acardiac mass on the pump twin's development are incompletely known, methods for outcome prognosis are currently not available. We sought to derive simple relations for the pump twin's excess cardiac output and decreased oxygenation and to use available clinical cases for a preliminary test of the model. As a method, we used a theoretical flow model to represent the fetoplacental circulation of an acardiac twin pregnancy and estimated blood deoxygenation and reoxygenation following perfusion of the two bodies and placentas, respectively. The results show the pump twin's excess cardiac output and decrease of venous oxygen saturation to depend on the ratio of pump twin to acardiac twin umbilical blood flow, whose ratio can be measured by ultrasonography. The clinical cases show a decreasing umbilical flow ratio with gestation. In conclusion, prospective serial study is necessary to test whether measurement of umbilical flow ratios allows monitoring the pump twin's pathophysiologic development, possibly resulting in a guideline for prognosis of pump twin survival.

van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Umur, Asli; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Van Bavel, Ed; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.

2005-02-01

78

Training is required to improve the reliability of esophageal doppler to measure cardiac output in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Assessment of and effect of training on reliability of esophageal Doppler (ED) versus thermodilution (TD) for cardiac output\\u000a (CO) measurement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: Prospective study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting: Intensive care unit of a university hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients: 64 consecutive critically ill patients requiring a pulmonary artery catheter, sedation, and mechanical ventilation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions: Esophageal Doppler CO measurements were performed by the same operator, whereas TD

J. Y. Lefrant; P. Bruelle; A. G. M. Aya; G. Saïssi; M. Dauzat; J. E. de La Coussaye; J. J. Eledjam

1998-01-01

79

The Neuromuscular Transform of the Lobster Cardiac System Explains the Opposing Effects of a Neuromodulator on Muscle Output  

PubMed Central

Motor neuron activity is transformed into muscle movement through a cascade of complex molecular and biomechanical events. This nonlinear mapping of neural inputs to motor behaviors is called the neuromuscular transform (NMT). We examined the NMT in the cardiac system of the lobster Homarus americanus by stimulating a cardiac motor nerve with rhythmic bursts of action potentials and measuring muscle movements in response to different stimulation patterns. The NMT was similar across preparations, which suggested that it could be used to predict muscle movement from spontaneous neural activity in the intact heart. We assessed this possibility across semi-intact heart preparations in two separate analyses. First, we performed a linear regression analysis across 122 preparations in physiological saline to predict muscle movements from neural activity. Under these conditions, the NMT was predictive of contraction duty cycle but was unable to predict contraction amplitude, likely as a result of uncontrolled interanimal variability. Second, we assessed the ability of the NMT to predict changes in motor output induced by the neuropeptide C-type allatostatin. Wiwatpanit et al. (2012) showed that bath application of C-type allatostatin produced either increases or decreases in the amplitude of the lobster heart contractions. We show that an important component of these preparation-dependent effects can arise from quantifiable differences in the basal state of each preparation and the nonlinear form of the NMT. These results illustrate how properly characterizing the relationships between neural activity and measurable physiological outputs can provide insight into seemingly idiosyncratic effects of neuromodulators across individuals. PMID:24133260

Williams, Alex H.; Calkins, Andrew; O'Leary, Timothy; Symonds, Renee; Marder, Eve

2013-01-01

80

A fMRI Study of Verbal Working Memory, Cardiac Output, and Ejection Fraction in Elderly Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with cognitive deficits even in the absence of stroke. We examined the relationship\\u000a between cardiac performance, as measured by cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction (EF), and brain activity during a verbal\\u000a working memory (VWM) task in elderly CVD patients who tend to be at increased risk for vascular cognitive impairments. Seventeen\\u000a patients were recruited

Farzin Irani; Lawrence H. Sweet; Andreana P. Haley; John J. Gunstad; Beth A. Jerskey; Richard C. Mulligan; Angela L. Jefferson; Athena Poppas; Ronald A. Cohen

2009-01-01

81

Treatment of High Output Cardiac Failure by Flow-Adapted Hepatic Artery Banding (FHAB) in Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Involvement of abdominal organs in Osler’s disease may lead to the development of hepatic arteriovenous shunts with a dilatation\\u000a of the hepatic artery. Right and subsequent global heart failure due to cardiac valvular insufficiency, pulmonary artery hypertension,\\u000a and hepatomegaly as well as increased cardiac output may result. This hyperdynamic hepatic blood flow can be reduced by ligature\\u000a or banding of

A. Koscielny; W. A. Willinek; A. Hirner; M. Wolff

2008-01-01

82

Noninvasive aortic bloodflow by Pulsed Doppler Echocardiography (PDE) compared to cardiac output by the direct Fick procedure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Left ventricular stroke volume was estimated from the systolic velocity integral in the ascending aorta by pulsed Doppler Echocardiography (PDE) and the cross sectional area of the aorta estimated by M mode echocardiography on 15 patients with coronary disease undergoing right catheterization for diagnostic purposes. Cardiac output was calculated from stroke volume and heart volume using the PDE method as well as the Fick procedure for comparison. The mean value for the cardiac output via the PDE method (4.42 L/min) was only 6% lower than for the cardiac output obtained from the Fick procedure (4.69 L/min) and the correlation between the two methods was excellent (r=0.967, p less than .01). The good agreement between the two methods demonstrates that the PDE technique offers a reliable noninvasive alternative for estimating cardiac output, requiring no active cooperation by the subject. It was concluded that the Doppler method is superior to the Fick method in that it provides beat by beat information on cardiac performance.

1980-01-01

83

Noninvasive photoacoustic measurement of the composite indicator dilution curve for cardiac output estimation  

PubMed Central

Recently, the measurement of indicator dilution curves using a photoacoustic (PA) technology was reported, which showed promising results on the noninvasive estimation of cardiac output (CO) that is an important hemodynamic parameter useful in various clinical situations. However, in clinical practice, measuring PA indicator dilution curves from an arterial blood vessel requires an ultrasound transducer array capable of focusing on the targeted artery. This causes several challenges on the clinical translation of the PA indicator dilution method, such as high sensor cost and complexity. In this paper, we theoretically derived that a composite PA indicator dilution curve simultaneously measured from both arterial and venous blood vessels can be used to estimate CO correctly. The ex-vivo and in-vivo experimental results with a flat ultrasound transducer verified the developed theory. We believe this new concept would overcome the main challenges on the clinical translation of the noninvasive PA indicator dilution technology. PMID:25780743

Kang, DongYel; Huang, Qiaojian; Li, Youzhi

2015-01-01

84

Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans  

SciTech Connect

Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences] [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

1994-09-01

85

Rowing increases stroke volume and cardiac output to a greater extent than cycling.  

PubMed

Exercise stimulates increases in heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). These adaptive mechanisms are strongly dependent on the type of exercise. Both rowing and cycling are widely used for physical training worldwide; however, evidence regarding the differences in major hemodynamic parameters during rowing and cycling remains insufficient. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to perform either a rowing or cycling exercise. After 20 min rest, the group who had rowed first performed the cycling exercise and vice versa. Exercise was performed at a power-to-weight ratio of 2 W/kg for 2 min. HR, SV, CO and blood pressure (BP) were measured noninvasively using pulse-wave analysis at baseline and immediately after each exercise. HR, SV and CO were significantly higher after exercise than at rest. Whereas HR was comparable between rowing and cycling, SV and CO were significantly higher after rowing than after cycling. BP was comparable among all three measurements. Rowing increased SV and CO to a greater extent than cycling, whereas HR and BP were not influenced by the type of exercise. Our data suggest that rowing leads to more extensive stimulation of cardiac contractility and/or decreases in peripheral vascular resistance compared with cycling. PMID:25317691

Horn, P; Ostadal, P; Ostadal, B

2014-10-15

86

Management of perioperative low cardiac output state without extracorporeal life support: What is feasible?  

PubMed Central

A transient and reversible reduction in cardiac output–low cardiac output state (LCOS) often occurs following surgery for congenital heart disease. Inappropriately managed LCOS is a risk factor for increased morbidity and death. LCOS may occasionally be progressive and refractory needing a period of “myocardial rest” with extracorporeal life support (ECLS). ECLS is currently considered a routine tool available for rapid deployment in most industrialized countries. Accumulated experience and refinements in technology have led to improving survivals – discharge survivals of 35%–50%, with almost 100% survival in select groups on elective left ventricular assist device. Thus, there is an increasing trend to initiate ECLS “early or electively in the operating room” in high-risk patients. India has a huge potential need for ECLS given the large number of infants presenting late with preexisting ventricular dysfunction or in circulatory collapse. ECLS is an expensive and resource consuming treatment modality and is not a viable therapeutic option in our country. The purpose of this paper is to reiterate an anticipatory, proactive approach to LCOS: (1) methods for early detection of evolving LCOS and (2) timely initiation of individualized therapy. This paper also explores what is feasible with the refinement of “simple, conventional, inexpensive strategies” for the management of LCOS. Therapy for LCOS should be multimodal based on the type of circulation and physiology. Our approach to LCOS includes: (1) intraoperative strategies, (2) aggressive afterload reduction, (3) lusitropy, (4) exclusion of structural defects, (5) harnessing cardiopulmonary interactions, and (6) addressing metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We have achieved a discharge survival rate of greater than 97% with these simple methods. PMID:21234194

Kumar, Girish; Iyer, Parvathi U

2010-01-01

87

Increased systemic cardiac output improves arterial oxygen saturation in bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt.  

PubMed

The low arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) after bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS) predicts poor prognosis. The venous oxygen saturation of inferior vena cava (SivcO2), as well as the pulmonary blood flow/systemic blood flow ratio (Q p/Q s) affects the SaO2. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SivcO2 or Q p/Q s should be increased to achieve better outcomes after BCPS. Forty-eight patients undergoing BCPS were included. Data of patients' age and body weight, SivcO2, Q p/Q s, pulmonary artery (PA) pressure and resistance, PA area index, morphology of ventricle, atrioventricular valve regurgitation, and history of PA plasty were collected. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate which of the factors most affected the SaO2 after BCPS. There was a significant correlation between SivcO2 and SaO2 (r = 0.771, P < 0.00001). There was no strong correlation between Q p/Q s and SaO2 (r = 0.358, P < 0.05). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that both SivcO2 (r = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.62, P < 0.0001) and Q p/Q s (r = 11.1, 95 % CI 3.3-18.9, P = 0.007) most affected SaO2 after BCPS. Since the SivcO2 has a stronger correlation than Q p/Q s with SaO2, despite the fact that both raising Q p/Q s and raising cardiac output can increase SaO2, raising cardiac output should be considered prior to Q p/Q s to raise the SaO2 after BCPS. PMID:24213974

Oka, Norihiko; Miyaji, Kagami; Kitamura, Tadashi; Itatani, Keiichi; Yoshii, Takeshi; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Fukunishi, Takuma; Shibata, Ko; Torii, Shinzo

2015-01-01

88

Noninvasive cardiac output measurement by inert gas rebreathing in suspected pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate inert gas rebreathing (IGR) reliability in cardiac output (CO) measurement compared with Fick method and thermodilution. IGR is a noninvasive method for CO measurement; CO by IGR is calculated as pulmonary blood flow plus intrapulmonary shunt. IGR may be ideal for follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), sparing the need of repeated invasive right-sided cardiac catheterization. Right-sided cardiac catheterization with CO measurement by thermodilution, Fick method, and IGR was performed in 125 patients with possible PH by echocardiography. Patients were grouped according to right-sided cardiac catheterization-measured mean pulmonary and wedge pressures: normal pulmonary arterial pressure (n = 20, mean pulmonary arterial pressure = 18 ± 3 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure = 11 ± 5 mm Hg), PH and normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PH-NW, n = 37 mean pulmonary arterial pressure = 42 ± 13 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure = 11 ± 6 mm Hg), and PH and high pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PH-HW, n = 68, mean pulmonary arterial pressure = 37 ± 9 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure = 24 ± 6 mm Hg). Thermodilution and Fick measurements were comparable. Fick and IGR agreement was observed in normal pulmonary arterial pressure (CO = 4.10 ± 1.14 and 4.08 ± 0.97 L/min, respectively), whereas IGR overestimated Fick in patients with PH-NW and those with PH-HW because of intrapulmonary shunting overestimation in hypoxemic patients. When patients with arterial oxygen saturation (SO2) ?90% were excluded, IGR and Fick agreement improved in PH-NW (CO = 4.90 ± 1.70 and 4.76 ± 1.35 L/min, respectively) and PH-HW (CO = 4.05 ± 1.04 and 4.10 ± 1.17 L/min, respectively). In hypoxemic patients, we estimated pulmonary shunt as Fick - pulmonary blood flow and calculated shunt as: -0.2423 × arterial SO2 + 21.373 L/min. In conclusion, IGR is reliable for CO measurement in patients with PH with arterial SO2 >90%. For patients with arterial SO2 ?90%, a new formula for shunt calculation is proposed. PMID:24315114

Farina, Stefania; Teruzzi, Giovanni; Cattadori, Gaia; Ferrari, Cristina; De Martini, Stefano; Bussotti, Maurizio; Calligaris, Giuseppe; Bartorelli, Antonio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

2014-02-01

89

Although it is well known that fish increase cardiac output (Q) during exercise to meet increased metabolic demands,  

E-print Network

, cardiac output, exercise, heart rate, mean circulatory filling pressure, prazosin, sea bass, stroke volume this increase. One view is that stroke volume (Vs) and, to a lesser extent, heart rate (fH) are responsible exercise will reduce the pressure gradient for venous return (flow) to the heart from the venous periphery

Farrell, Anthony P.

90

Combined use of phenoxybenzamine and dopamine for low cardiac output syndrome in children at withdrawal from cardiopulmonary bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined use of phenoxybenzamine and dopamine was applied in infants and children when it was difficult to come off cardiopulmonary bypass for low cardiac output. The rationale of this method is to prevent the alpha-adrenergic action of dopamine by phenoxybenzamine and to encourage the beta-adrenergic and direct specific action of dopamine. Dopamine was used in dosage of 10 to

M Kawamura; O Minamikawa; H Yokochi; S Maki; T Yasuda; Y Mizukawa

1980-01-01

91

Influence of water immersion, water gymnastics and swimming on cardiac output in patients with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Whole?body water immersion leads to a significant shift of blood from the periphery to the intrathoracic circulation, followed by an increase in central venous pressure and heart volume. In patients with severely reduced left ventricular function, this hydrostatically induced volume shift might overstrain the cardiovascular adaptive mechanisms and lead to cardiac decompensation. Aim To assess the haemodynamic response to water immersion, gymnastics and swimming in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods 10 patients with compensated CHF (62.9 (6.3)?years, ejection fraction 31.5% (4.1%), peak oxygen consumption (V?o2) 19.4 (2.8)?ml/kg/min), 10 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) but preserved left ventricular function (57.2 (5.6)?years, ejection fraction 63.9% (5.5%), peak V?o2 28 (6.3)?ml/kg/min), and 10 healthy controls (32.8 (7.2)?years, peak V?o2 45.6 (6)?ml/kg/min) were examined. Haemodynamic response to thermoneutral (32°C) water immersion and exercise was measured using a non?invasive foreign gas rebreathing method during stepwise water immersion, water gymnastics and swimming. Results Water immersion up to the chest increased cardiac index by 19% in controls, by 21% in patients with CAD and by 16% in patients with CHF. Although some patients with CHF showed a decrease of stroke volume during immersion, all subjects were able to increase cardiac index (by 87% in healthy subjects, by 77% in patients with CAD and by 53% in patients with CHF). V?o2 during swimming was 9.7 (3.3)?ml/kg/min in patients with CHF, 12.4 (3.5)?ml/kg/min in patients with CAD and 13.9 (4)?ml/kg/min in controls. Conclusions Patients with severely reduced left ventricular function but stable clinical conditions and a minimal peak V?o2 of at least 15?ml/kg/min during a symptom?limited exercise stress test tolerate water immersion and swimming in thermoneutral water well. Although cardiac index and V?o2 are lower than in patients with CAD with preserved left ventricular function and controls, these patients are able to increase cardiac index adequately during water immersion and swimming. PMID:17164483

Schmid, Jean?Paul; Noveanu, Markus; Morger, Cyrill; Gaillet, Raymond; Capoferri, Mauro; Anderegg, Matthias; Saner, Hugo

2007-01-01

92

Assessment of coronary artery and cardiac function using multidetector CT.  

PubMed

Multidetector CT is able to reconstruct artifact-less cardiac images due to improved temporal resolution. In this article, we review the potential benefits of the cardiac application of multidetector CT in the assessment of coronary artery and cardiac function, such as wall motion and systolic thickening. By applying retrospective ECG-gating, 10 phases throughout 1 cardiac cycle are extracted for functional analysis. Animated movies are generated by paging through these 2D and 3D images in cardiac phase order. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction can also be generated. Using the data acquired during a single breath hold, coronary artery and cardiac function can be assessed by multidetector CT. PMID:15160792

Mochizuki, Teruhito; Hosoi, Satoshi; Higashino, Hiroshi; Koyama, Yasushi; Mima, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya

2004-04-01

93

Regional blood flow in chronic heart failure: the reason for the lack of correlation between patients' exercise tolerance and cardiac output?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--In patients with chronic heart failure there is no relation between cardiac output and symptom limited exercise tolerance measured on a bicycle or treadmill. Furthermore, the increase in cardiac output in response to treatment may not be matched by a similar increase in exercise tolerance. More important in determining exercise capability is blood flow to skeletal muscle. This implies that

A F Muller; P Batin; S Evans; M Hawkins; A J Cowley

1992-01-01

94

Increased cardiac output elicits higher V?O2max in response to self-paced exercise.  

PubMed

Recently, a self-paced protocol demonstrated higher maximal oxygen uptake versus the traditional ramp protocol. The primary aim of the current study was to further explore potential differences in maximal oxygen uptake between the ramp and self-paced protocols using simultaneous measurement of cardiac output. Active men and women of various fitness levels (N = 30, mean age = 26.0 ± 5.0 years) completed 3 graded exercise tests separated by a minimum of 48 h. Participants initially completed progressive ramp exercise to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake followed by a verification test to confirm maximal oxygen uptake attainment. Over the next 2 sessions, they performed a self-paced and an additional ramp protocol. During exercise, gas exchange data were obtained using indirect calorimetry, and thoracic impedance was utilized to estimate hemodynamic function (stroke volume and cardiac output). One-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to determine differences in maximal oxygen uptake and cardiac output between ramp and self-paced testing. Results demonstrated lower (p < 0.001) maximal oxygen uptake via the ramp (47.2 ± 10.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) versus the self-paced (50.2 ± 9.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) protocol, with no interaction (p = 0.06) seen for fitness level. Maximal heart rate and cardiac output (p = 0.02) were higher in the self-paced protocol versus ramp exercise. In conclusion, data show that the traditional ramp protocol may underestimate maximal oxygen uptake compared with a newly developed self-paced protocol, with a greater cardiac output potentially responsible for this outcome. PMID:25682980

Astorino, Todd Anthony; McMillan, David William; Edmunds, Ross Montgomery; Sanchez, Eduardo

2015-03-01

95

Pulmonary diffusing capacity, capillary blood volume, and cardiac output during sustained microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured pulmonary diffusing capacity (DL), diffusing capacity per unit lung volume, pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), membrane diffusing capacity (Dm), pulmonary capillary blood flow or cardiac output (Qc), and cardiac stroke volume (SV) in four subjects exposed to nine days of microgravity. DL in microgravity was elevated compared with preflight standing values and was higher than preflight supine because of the elevation of both Vc and Dm. The elevation in Vc was comparable to that measured supine in 1 G, but the increase in Dm was in sharp contrast to the supine value. We postulate that, in 0 G, pulmonary capillary blood is evenly distributed throughout the lung, providing for uniform capillary filling, leading to an increase in the surface area available for diffusion. By contrast, in the supine 1-G state, the capillaries are less evenly filled, and although a similar increase in blood volume is observed, the corresponding increase in surface area does not occur. DL and its subdivisions showed no adaptive changes from the first measurement 24 h after the start of 0 G to eight days later. Similarly, there were no trends in the postflight data, suggesting that the principal mechanism of these changes was gravitational. The increase in Dm suggests that subclinical pulmonary edema did not result from exposure to 0 G. Qc was modestly increased inflight and decreased postflight compared with preflight standing. Compared with preflight standing, SV was increased 46 percent inflight and decreased 14 percent in the 1st week postflight. There were temporal changes in Qc and SV during 0 G, with the highest values recorded at the first measurement, 24 h into the flight. The lowest values of Qc and SV occurred on the day of return.

Prisk, G. K.; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Deutschman, Robert A., III; West, John B.

1993-01-01

96

Cardiac output, at rest and during exercise, before and during myocardial ischemia, reperfusion, and infarction in conscious mice  

PubMed Central

Multiple systems and regulatory strategies interact to control cardiac homeostasis. In fact, regulated systems, feedback controls, and redundant control mechanisms dominate in whole animals. Accordingly, molecular and cellular tools and techniques must be utilized in complex models with multiple systems and regulatory strategies to fully appreciate the physiological context. Currently, these techniques are mainly performed under conditions remote from the normal in vivo condition; thus, the extrapolation of molecular changes to the in vivo situation and the facilitation of translational aspect of the findings are limited. A major obstacle has been the reliance on preparations that do not mimic the clinical or physiological situation. This is particularly true regarding measurements of cardiac function in mice. To address these concerns, we used a permanently implanted Doppler ultrasonic flow probe on the ascending aorta and coronary artery occluder for repeated measurements of ascending aortic blood flow (cardiac output) in conscious mice, at rest and during exercise, before and during coronary artery occlusion/reperfusion and infarction. The conscious mouse model permits detailed monitoring of within-animal changes in cardiac function during myocardial ischemia, reperfusion, and infarction in an intact, complex model free of the confounding influences of anesthetics, surgical trauma, and restraint stress. Results from this study suggest that previous protocols may have overestimated resting baseline values and underestimated cardiac output reserve. Using these procedures in currently available spontaneous or engineered mouse mutants has the potential to be of major importance for advancing the concepts and methods that drive cardiovascular research. PMID:23302959

Lujan, Heidi L.

2013-01-01

97

Combined first pass and gated blood pool radionuclide studies in the hemodynamic-cardiac evaluation of patients with low cardiac output  

SciTech Connect

Cardiac output (CO) is frequently used in the evaluation of cardiac function but low CO does not necessarily reflect heart failure. Similarly, low ejection fraction (EF) can be present in compensated heart diseases. In order to evaluate cardiac performance in relation to systematic hemodynamics, the authors used a multifactorial approach for the determination of CO, EF, pulmonary mean transit time (MTT), ratio of cardiopulmonary volume over total blood volume (CPV/TBV as an index of venous tone) all obtained from a single injection of 99m Tc-HSA. Four different conditions associated with low CO (less than or equal to 2.1 L/min/m/sup 2/) were evaluated. The combined use of CO, EF, MTT and CPV/TBV allowed a better understanding of the myocardial and peripheral circulatory factors associated with low CO states. This is helpful in the selection and follow-up of appropriate therapeutic intervention.

Abi-Mansour, P.; Fouad, F.M.; Sheeler, L.R.; Bravo, E.L.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Tarazi, R.C.

1984-01-01

98

Estimation of cardiac output from peripheral pressure waveforms using Laguerre model blind system identification.  

PubMed

We have developed a new technique, which may enable a more accurate, complete characterization of the circulatory system, including local or global hydrodynamic phenomena, using multiple measurements from several anatomic locations and/or multiple modalities. This technique, Laguerre model blind system identification (LMBSI), uses a Laguerre function series expansion to provide a compact but complete quantitative description of the distinct behavior of two or more circulatory waveforms. LMBSI identifies a set of five parameters per channel plus one common parameter that can be treated as a feature vector and used to predict cardiovascular parameters of interest. Standard statistical techniques can be used to extract information from that compact feature vector. In this paper, multiparameter regression is used to predict cardiac output, using two separate arterial pressure waveforms and the LMBSI algorithm. This serves as a proof-of-principle that two distinct circulatory waveforms, with LMBSI, can be used to characterize the circulatory system. In the future, this technique might be applied to noninvasive circulatory measurements. PMID:17271827

Reisner, A; McCombie, D; Asada, H

2004-01-01

99

[A dye densitometry analysis method for noninvasive measurement of cardiac output based on NIRS].  

PubMed

Currently, there exist technology problems in cardiac output (CO) parameter detection clinically, such as invasive and complex operation, as well as possibility of infection and death for patients. In order to solve these problems, a noninvasive and continuous method based on NIRS for CO detection was presented. In this way, the concentration changing of indocyanine green (ICG) dye in the patient's arterial blood was dynamically measured and analyzed, so that the CO could be noninvasively and continuously measured according to the characteristic parameters of dye densitometry curve. While the ICG dye was injected into the patient's body by the median cubital vein, block of photoelectric pulse dye densitometry measurement system as the lower machine acquired pulse wave data and uploaded the data to upper computer. In the scheme, two specialized light sources of LED at 940 and 805 nm were used to capture the signals of sufferer's fingertip pulse wave synchronously and successively. The CO value could then be successfully calculated through drawing complete ICG concentration variation of dye dilution and excretion process and computing mean transmission time (MTT) by upper computer. Compared with the "gold standard" method of thermodilution, the maximum relative error of this method was below 9. 76%, and the mean relative error was below 4. 39%. The result indicates that the method can be used as a kind of convenient operation, noninvasive and continuous solution for clinical CO measurement. PMID:24611365

Lu, Meng-Meng; Wang, Hong-Xuan; Liu, Guang-Da; Xin, Gui-Jie; Yu, Yong; Zha, Yu-Tong

2013-12-01

100

A computational model-based validation of Guyton's analysis of cardiac output and venous return curves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guyton developed a popular approach for understanding the factors responsible for cardiac output (CO) regulation in which 1) the heart-lung unit and systemic circulation are independently characterized via CO and venous return (VR) curves, and 2) average CO and right atrial pressure (RAP) of the intact circulation are predicted by graphically intersecting the curves. However, this approach is virtually impossible to verify experimentally. We theoretically evaluated the approach with respect to a nonlinear, computational model of the pulsatile heart and circulation. We developed two sets of open circulation models to generate CO and VR curves, differing by the manner in which average RAP was varied. One set applied constant RAPs, while the other set applied pulsatile RAPs. Accurate prediction of intact, average CO and RAP was achieved only by intersecting the CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs because of the pulsatility and nonlinearity (e.g., systemic venous collapse) of the intact model. The CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs were also practically independent. This theoretical study therefore supports the validity of Guyton's graphical analysis.

Mukkamala, R.; Cohen, R. J.; Mark, R. G.

2002-01-01

101

Estimation of cardiac output and peripheral resistance using square-wave-approximated aortic flow signal  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a model-based approach to estimation of cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). In the proposed approach, the response of cardiovascular system (CVS), described by the windkessel model, is tuned to the measurements of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures (BP) so as to yield optimal individual- and time-specific system time constant that is used to estimate CO and TPR. Unique aspects of the proposed approach are that it approximates the aortic flow as a train of square waves and that it also assumes pressure-dependent arterial compliance, as opposed to the traditional windkessel model in which aortic flow is approximated as a train of impulses and constant arterial compliance is assumed. It was shown that the proposed model encompasses the standard windkessel model as a limiting case, and that it also yields more realistic BP waveform response than the standard windkessel model. The proposed approach has potential to outperform its standard counterpart by treating systolic, diastolic, and mean BP as independent features in estimating CO and TPR, rather than solely resorting to pulse pressure as in the case of the standard windkessel model. Experimental results from in-vivo data collected from a number of animal subjects supports the viability of the proposed approach in that it could achieve approximately 29% and 24% reduction in CO and TPR errors when compared with its standard counterpart. PMID:22934049

Fazeli, Nima; Hahn, Jin-Oh

2012-01-01

102

May-Thurner syndrome: High output cardiac failure as a result of iatrogenic iliac fistula.  

PubMed

May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) also termed iliocaval compression or Cockett-Thomas syndrome is a common, although rarely diagnosed, condition in which the patient has an anatomical variant wherein the right common iliac artery overlies and compresses the left common iliac vein against the fifth lumbar spine resulting in increased risk of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. This variant has been shown to be present in over 23% of the population but most go undetected. We present a patient with MTS who developed high output cardiac failure due to an iatrogenic iliac fistula. The patient underwent an extensive workup for a left to right shunt including MRI and arterial duplex in the vascular lab. He was ultimately found to have a 2.1 cm left common iliac artery aneurysm and history of common iliac stent. We took the patient to the operating room for aortogram with placement of an endovascular plug of the left internal iliac artery and aorto-bi-iliac stent graft placement with CO2 and IV contrast. Subsequently the patient underwent successful stent placement in the area that was compressed followed by 6 mo of anticoagulation with warfarin. The flow from the fistula decreased significantly. PMID:25789305

Singh, Shantanu; Singh, Shivank; Jyothimallika, Juthika; Lynch, Teresa J

2015-03-16

103

May-Thurner syndrome: High output cardiac failure as a result of iatrogenic iliac fistula  

PubMed Central

May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) also termed iliocaval compression or Cockett-Thomas syndrome is a common, although rarely diagnosed, condition in which the patient has an anatomical variant wherein the right common iliac artery overlies and compresses the left common iliac vein against the fifth lumbar spine resulting in increased risk of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. This variant has been shown to be present in over 23% of the population but most go undetected. We present a patient with MTS who developed high output cardiac failure due to an iatrogenic iliac fistula. The patient underwent an extensive workup for a left to right shunt including MRI and arterial duplex in the vascular lab. He was ultimately found to have a 2.1 cm left common iliac artery aneurysm and history of common iliac stent. We took the patient to the operating room for aortogram with placement of an endovascular plug of the left internal iliac artery and aorto-bi-iliac stent graft placement with CO2 and IV contrast. Subsequently the patient underwent successful stent placement in the area that was compressed followed by 6 mo of anticoagulation with warfarin. The flow from the fistula decreased significantly. PMID:25789305

Singh, Shantanu; Singh, Shivank; Jyothimallika, Juthika; Lynch, Teresa J

2015-01-01

104

Modulation of cardiac output alters the mechanisms of the muscle metaboreflex pressor response  

PubMed Central

Muscle metaboreflex activation during submaximal dynamic exercise in normal subjects elicits a pressor response primarily due to increased cardiac output (CO). However, when the ability to increase CO is limited, such as in heart failure or during maximal exercise, the muscle metaboreflex-induced increases in arterial pressure occur via peripheral vasoconstriction. How the mechanisms of this pressor response are altered is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that this change in metaboreflex function is dependent on the level of CO. The muscle metaboreflex was activated in dogs during mild dynamic exercise (3.2 km/h) via a partial reduction of hindlimb blood flow. Muscle metaboreflex activation increased CO and arterial pressure, whereas vascular conductance of all areas other than the hindlimbs did not change. CO was then reduced to the same level observed during exercise before the muscle metaboreflex activation via partial occlusion of the inferior and superior vena cavae. Arterial pressure dropped rapidly with the reduction in CO but, subsequently, nearly completely recovered. With the removal of the muscle metaboreflex-induced rise in CO, substantial peripheral vasoconstriction occurred that maintained arterial pressure at the same levels as before CO reduction. Therefore, the muscle metaboreflex function is nearly instantaneously shifted from increased CO to increased vasoconstriction when the muscle metaboreflex-induced rise in CO is removed. We conclude that whether vasoconstriction occurs with muscle metaboreflex depends on whether CO rises. PMID:19897706

Ichinose, Masashi J.; Sala-Mercado, Javier A.; Coutsos, Matthew; Li, ZhenHua; Ichinose, Tomoko K.; Dawe, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

105

Cardiac Output is Not a Significant Source of Low Frequency Mean Arterial Pressure Variability  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous mean arterial pressure (MAP) variability may be mainly due to fluctuations in cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). While high frequency (HF ~ 0.25 Hz) oscillations in MAP are ultimately driven by respiration, the source of low frequency (LF ~ 0.1 Hz) fluctuations has not been fully elucidated. It is known that CO buffers these oscillations, but there is no evidence on its potential role in also generating them. The main goal was to determine whether CO is a source of LF variability in MAP. Six dogs were chronically instrumented to obtain beat-to-beat measurements of CO and MAP while the dogs were fully awake and at rest. A causal dynamic model was identified to relate the fluctuations in CO to MAP. The model was then used to predict the MAP fluctuations from the CO fluctuations. The CO fluctuations were able to predict about 70% of the MAP oscillations in the HF band but showed no predictive value in the LF band. Hence, respiration induces CO fluctuations in the HF band that, in turn, cause MAP oscillations, while TPR fluctuations appear to be the dominant mediator of LF fluctuations of MAP. CO is not a significant source of these oscillations, and it may only be responsible for dampening them, likely through the baroreflex. PMID:23969898

Aletti, F; Hammond, RL; Sala-Mercado, JA; Chen, X; O’Leary, DS; Baselli, G; Mukkamala, R

2013-01-01

106

Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Older heart failure (HF) patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF) due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (aged 68 ± 10 years) without large (aorta) or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery) vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a) peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2), b) physical function, c) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d) determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min) compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min) (p = 0.01). Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p < 0.001). After submaximal exercise, the change in superficial femoral LBF was reduced in HF participants (79 ± 92 ml/min) compared to healthy elderly (222 ± 108 ml/min; p = 0.002). This occurred even though submaximal stress-induced measures of the flow in the descending aorta (5.0 ± 1.2 vs. 5.1 ± 1.3 L/min; p = 0.87), and the stress-resting baseline difference in aortic flow (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.7 ± 0.8 L/min; p = 0.75) were similar between the 2 groups. Importantly, the difference in submaximal exercise induced superficial femoral LBF between the 2 groups persisted after accounting for age, gender, body surface area, LVEF, and thigh muscle area (p ? 0.03). Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow. PMID:19922666

2009-01-01

107

First in vivo application and evaluation of a novel method for non-invasive estimation of cardiac output.  

PubMed

Surgical or critically ill patients often require continuous assessment of cardiac output (CO) for diagnostic purposes or for guiding therapeutic interventions. A new method of non-invasive CO estimation has been recently developed, which is based on pressure wave analysis. However, its validity has been examined only in silico. Aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the reproducibility and accuracy of the "systolic volume balance" method (SVB). Twenty two subjects underwent 2-D transthoracic echocardiography for CO measurement (reference value of CO). The application of SVB method required aortic pressure wave analysis and estimation of total arterial compliance. Aortic pulses were derived by mathematical transformation of radial pressure waves recorded by applanation tonometry. Total compliance was estimated by the "pulse pressure" method. The agreement, association, variability, bias and precision between Doppler and SVB measures of CO were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean difference, SD of differences, percentage error (PR) and Bland-Altman analysis. SVB yielded very reproducible CO estimates (ICC=0.84, mean difference 0.27 ± 0.73 L/min, PR = 16.7%). SVB-derived CO was comparable with Doppler measurements, indicating a good agreement and accuracy (ICC = 0.74, mean difference = -0.22 ± 0.364 L/min, PR ? 15). The basic mathematical and physical principles of the SVB method provide highly reproducible and accurate estimates of CO compared with echocardiography. PMID:25108554

Papaioannou, Theodore G; Soulis, Dimitrios; Vardoulis, Orestis; Protogerou, Athanase; Sfikakis, Petros P; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

2014-10-01

108

Assessing Depression in Cardiac Patients: What Measures Should Be Considered?  

PubMed Central

It is highly recommended to promptly assess depression in heart disease patients as it represents a crucial risk factor which may result in premature deaths following acute cardiac events and a more severe psychopathology, even in cases of subsequent nonfatal cardiac events. Patients and professionals often underestimate or misjudge depressive symptomatology as cardiac symptoms; hence, quick, reliable, and early mood changes assessments are warranted. Failing to detect depressive signals may have detrimental effects on these patients' wellbeing and full recovery. Choosing gold-standard depression investigations in cardiac patients that fit a hospitalised cardiac setting well is fundamental. This paper will examine eight well established tools following Italian and international guidelines on mood disorders diagnosis in cardiac patients: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Cognitive Behavioural Assessment Hospital Form (CBA-H), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the two and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2, PHQ-9), the Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton (DISH), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D/HRSD), and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Though their strengths and weaknesses may appear to be homogeneous, the BDI-II and the PHQ are more efficient towards an early depression assessment within cardiac hospitalised patients. PMID:24649359

Ceccarini, M.; Manzoni, G. M.; Castelnuovo, G.

2014-01-01

109

Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops producing output trait enzymes  

PubMed Central

The environmental risks from cultivating crops producing output trait enzymes can be rigorously assessed by testing conservative risk hypotheses of no harm to endpoints such as the abundance of wildlife, crop yield and the rate of degradation of crop residues in soil. These hypotheses can be tested with data from many sources, including evaluations of the agronomic performance and nutritional quality of the crop made during product development, and information from the scientific literature on the mode-of-action, taxonomic distribution and environmental fate of the enzyme. Few, if any, specific ecotoxicology or environmental fate studies are needed. The effective use of existing data means that regulatory decision-making, to which an environmental risk assessment provides essential information, is not unnecessarily complicated by evaluation of large amounts of new data that provide negligible improvement in the characterization of risk, and that may delay environmental benefits offered by transgenic crops containing output trait enzymes. PMID:19924556

Tuttle, Ann; Shore, Scott; Stone, Terry

2009-01-01

110

Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops producing output trait enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental risks from cultivating crops producing output trait enzymes can be rigorously assessed by testing conservative\\u000a risk hypotheses of no harm to endpoints such as the abundance of wildlife, crop yield and the rate of degradation of crop\\u000a residues in soil. These hypotheses can be tested with data from many sources, including evaluations of the agronomic performance\\u000a and nutritional

Alan Raybould; Ann Tuttle; Scott Shore; Terry Stone

2010-01-01

111

EFFECTS OF THYROXINE AND GROWTH HORMONE TREATMENT OF DAIRY COWS ON MILK YIELD, CARDIAC OUTPUT AND MAMMARY BLOOD FLOW 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cows received thyroxine injections (T4; 20 mg\\/d) and three cows received growth hormone injec- tions (GH; 44 rag\\/d) for 4 d during successive 16-d experimental periods. Measurement was made of milk yield, protein yield, mammary tyrosine and phenylalanine uptake, blood plasma hormone concentrations, mammary blood flow and cardiac output. Milk yield increased by 25% with T4 and 21% with

S. R. Davis; R. J. Collier; J. P. McNamara; H. H. Head; W. Sussman

2010-01-01

112

Non-invasive cardiac output evaluation during a maximal progressive exercise test, using a new impedance cardiograph device  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   One of the greatest challenges in exercise physiology is to develop a valid, reliable, non-invasive and affordable measurement\\u000a of cardiac output (CO). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and accuracy of a new impedance cardiograph\\u000a device, the Physio Flow, during a 1-min step incremental exercise test from rest to maximal peak effort. A group of

Ruddy Richard; Evelyne Lonsdorfer-Wolf; Anne Charloux; Stéphane Doutreleau; Martin Buchheit; Monique Oswald-Mammosser; Eliane Lampert; Bertrand Mettauer; Bernard Geny; Jean Lonsdorfer

2001-01-01

113

Cardiac output distribution in miniature swine during locomotory exercise to VO/sub 3max/  

SciTech Connect

Distribution of cardiac output (CO) was studied in miniature swine (22 +/- 1 kg) during level treadmill exercise up to the speed (17.7 km/hr) that elicited maximal oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2max/) (60 +/- 4 m1/min/kg). COs and tissue blood flows (BFs) were measured with the radiolabelled microsphere technique. CO increased from a preexercise value of 2.1 +/- 0.5 1/min up to 9.9 +/- 0.5 1/min at VO/sub 2max/. In preexercise standing 43% of CO went to skeletal muscle, which comprised 36 +/- 1% of body mass, 42% to viscera (12 +/- 1% mass), 5% to brain, heart, and lungs (2% +/- 0.1% mass), and 10% to skin and skeleton (35 +/- 2% mass). Preexercise could not be considered resting because of the animals' excitability. Skeletal muscle BF increased progressively with speed up to VO/sub 2max/, both in absolute terms and in percent CO. At VO/sub 2max/, 88% of CO went to muscle, 3% to viscera, 8% to brain, heart and lungs, and 1% to skin and skeleton. Thus, at VO/sub 2max/ only 4% of CO went to the inactive tissues, which constituted 47% of body mass. In 2 pigs that ran at speeds above 17 km/hr, total muscle BF leveled off at VO/sub 2max/. These findings demonstrate that muscle BF progressively increases up to VO/sub 2max/, and that VO/sub 2/ levels off at the same intensity as muscle flow.

Armstrong, R.B.; Delp, M.D.; Laughlin, M.H.

1986-03-01

114

Predictors of Post Pericardiotomy Low Cardiac Output Syndrome in Patients With Pericardial Effusion  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Pathological involvement of pericardium by any disease that resulting in effusion may require decompression and pericardiectomy. The current article describes rare patients with effusion who after pericadiectomy and transient hemodynamic improvement rapidly developed progressive heart failure and subsequent multi organ failure. Methods: During periods of five years, 423 patients in our hospital underwent pericardiotomy for decompression of effusion. The clinical characteristics of those patient with postoperative low cardiac output (B group) (14 cases) recorded and compared with other patients without this postoperative complication (A group) by test and X2. Significant variables in invariables (P?0.1) entered in logistic regression analysis and odd ratio of these significant variables obtained. Results: Idiopathic pericardial effusion, malignancy, renal failure, connective tissue disease, viral pericarditis was found in 125 patients (27%), 105 patients (25.4%), 65 patients (15.6%), 50 (17.1%) and 10 (2.4%) of patients subsequently. The factors that predict post-operative death in logistic regression analysis were malignancy, radiotherapy, constrictive pericarditis inotropic drug using IABP using, pre-operative EF and pericardial calcification. Conclusion: Certain preoperative variables such as malignancy, radiotherapy, low EF, calcified pericardium and connective tissue disease are associated with POLCOS and post-operative risk of death. This paradoxical response to pericardial decompression may be more frequent than currently appreciated. Its cause may relate to the sudden removal of the chronic external ventricular support from the effusion or thicken pericardium resulting in ventricular dilatation and failure or intra operative myocardial injury due to pericardiectomy of calcified pericardium, radiation and cardiomyopathy. PMID:25859311

Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

2015-01-01

115

Numerical observer for cardiac motion assessment using machine learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In medical imaging, image quality is commonly assessed by measuring the performance of a human observer performing a specific diagnostic task. However, in practice studies involving human observers are time consuming and difficult to implement. Therefore, numerical observers have been developed, aiming to predict human diagnostic performance to facilitate image quality assessment. In this paper, we present a numerical observer for assessment of cardiac motion in cardiac-gated SPECT images. Cardiac-gated SPECT is a nuclear medicine modality used routinely in the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Numerical observers have been developed for image quality assessment via analysis of detectability of myocardial perfusion defects (e.g., the channelized Hotelling observer), but no numerical observer for cardiac motion assessment has been reported. In this work, we present a method to design a numerical observer aiming to predict human performance in detection of cardiac motion defects. Cardiac motion is estimated from reconstructed gated images using a deformable mesh model. Motion features are then extracted from the estimated motion field and used to train a support vector machine regression model predicting human scores (human observers' confidence in the presence of the defect). Results show that the proposed method could accurately predict human detection performance and achieve good generalization properties when tested on data with different levels of post-reconstruction filtering.

Marin, Thibault; Kalayeh, Mahdi M.; Pretorius, P. H.; Wernick, Miles N.; Yang, Yongyi; Brankov, Jovan G.

2011-03-01

116

Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Increases Cardiac Output, Bradyarrhythmias, and Parasympathetic Tone in Aged Heart Failure–Prone Rats  

PubMed Central

Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel engine exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance of normal cardiac function. To explore this putative mechanism, we examined cardiophysiologic responses to DE inhalation in a model of aged heart failure–prone rats without signs or symptoms of overt heart failure. We hypothesized that acute DE exposure would alter heart rhythm, cardiac electrophysiology, and ventricular performance and dimensions consistent with autonomic imbalance while increasing biochemical markers of toxicity. Spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats (16 months) were exposed once to whole DE (4h, target PM2.5 concentration: 500 µg/m3) or filtered air. DE increased multiple heart rate variability (HRV) parameters during exposure. In the 4h after exposure, DE increased cardiac output, left ventricular volume (end diastolic and systolic), stroke volume, HRV, and atrioventricular block arrhythmias while increasing electrocardiographic measures of ventricular repolarization (i.e., ST and T amplitudes, ST area, T-peak to T-end duration). DE did not affect heart rate relative to air. Changes in HRV positively correlated with postexposure changes in bradyarrhythmia frequency, repolarization, and echocardiographic parameters. At 24h postexposure, DE-exposed rats had increased serum C-reactive protein and pulmonary eosinophils. This study demonstrates that cardiac effects of DE inhalation are likely to occur through changes in autonomic balance associated with modulation of cardiac electrophysiology and mechanical function and may offer insights into the adverse health effects of traffic-related air pollutants. PMID:23047911

Farraj, Aimen K.

2013-01-01

117

Trending ability and limitations of transpulmonary thermodilution and pulse contour cardiac output measurement in cats as a model for pediatric patients.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and pulse contour cardiac output (PCCO) both measured by the PiCCO Plus™ monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany) against pulmonary artery thermodilution (PATD) in cats as a hemodynamic model for small children. A wide range of cardiac outputs (CO) was simultaneously measured. Accuracy and trending abilities were critically evaluated. Three cats were studied under isoflurane anesthesia and 160 CO measurements were performed with 3 mL ice-cold 5 % dextrose with PATD and TPTD. The results were compared with the PCCO measurement before the bolus measurement. Cardiac output was manipulated from 32 to 224 mL/kg/min by dobutamine, dopamine, phenylephrine, medetomidine and increased concentrations of isoflurane. Bland-Altman analysis, concordance and polar plot analysis were performed to assess accuracy and trending ability. TPTD was measuring constantly higher than PATD with a mean bias of 73 mL/kg/min and limits of agreement of 34-112 mL/kg/min, a concordance rate of 94 % and a mean polar angle of -5° with radial limits of agreement (RLOA) of 33°. Concordance rate of the PCCO versus PATD was 82 % with a mean polar angle of -10° and RLOA of 46° and versus TPTD 90 % with a mean polar angle of -6° and RLOA of 46°. Both tested methods constantly overestimated simultaneous PATD measurements. The small size, low flows and the relative short catheter not reaching the abdominal aorta may explain that. However TPTD tracked changes accurately opposed to a poor trending ability of the PCCO measurement. PMID:25228023

Kutter, Annette P N; Bektas, Rima N; Hofer, Christoph K; Larenza Menzies, M Paula; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

2014-09-17

118

Pulmonary Artery Catheter (PAC) Accuracy and Efficacy Compared with Flow Probe and Transcutaneous Doppler (USCOM): An Ovine Cardiac Output Validation.  

PubMed

Background. The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is an accepted clinical method of measuring cardiac output (CO) despite no prior validation. The ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM) is a noninvasive alternative to PAC using Doppler ultrasound (CW). We compared PAC and USCOM CO measurements against a gold standard, the aortic flow probe (FP), in sheep at varying outputs. Methods. Ten conscious sheep, with implanted FPs, had measurements of CO by FP, USCOM, and PAC, at rest and during intervention with inotropes and vasopressors. Results. CO measurements by FP, PAC, and USCOM were 4.0 ± 1.2?L/min, 4.8 ± 1.5?L/min, and 4.0 ± 1.4?L/min, respectively, (n = 280, range 1.9?L/min to 11.7?L/min). Percentage bias and precision between FP and PAC, and FP and USCOM was -17 and 47%, and 1 and 36%, respectively. PAC under-measured Dobutamine-induced CO changes by 20% (relative 66%) compared with FP, while USCOM measures varied from FP by 3% (relative 10%). PAC reliably detected -30% but not +40% CO changes, as measured by receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC), while USCOM reliably detected ±5% changes in CO (AUC > 0.70). Conclusions. PAC demonstrated poor accuracy and sensitivity as a measure of CO. USCOM provided equivalent measurements to FP across a sixfold range of outputs, reliably detecting ±5% changes. PMID:22649718

Phillips, Robert A; Hood, Sally G; Jacobson, Beverley M; West, Malcolm J; Wan, Li; May, Clive N

2012-01-01

119

Pulmonary Artery Catheter (PAC) Accuracy and Efficacy Compared with Flow Probe and Transcutaneous Doppler (USCOM): An Ovine Cardiac Output Validation  

PubMed Central

Background. The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is an accepted clinical method of measuring cardiac output (CO) despite no prior validation. The ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM) is a noninvasive alternative to PAC using Doppler ultrasound (CW). We compared PAC and USCOM CO measurements against a gold standard, the aortic flow probe (FP), in sheep at varying outputs. Methods. Ten conscious sheep, with implanted FPs, had measurements of CO by FP, USCOM, and PAC, at rest and during intervention with inotropes and vasopressors. Results. CO measurements by FP, PAC, and USCOM were 4.0 ± 1.2?L/min, 4.8 ± 1.5?L/min, and 4.0 ± 1.4?L/min, respectively, (n = 280, range 1.9?L/min to 11.7?L/min). Percentage bias and precision between FP and PAC, and FP and USCOM was ?17 and 47%, and 1 and 36%, respectively. PAC under-measured Dobutamine-induced CO changes by 20% (relative 66%) compared with FP, while USCOM measures varied from FP by 3% (relative 10%). PAC reliably detected ?30% but not +40% CO changes, as measured by receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC), while USCOM reliably detected ±5% changes in CO (AUC > 0.70). Conclusions. PAC demonstrated poor accuracy and sensitivity as a measure of CO. USCOM provided equivalent measurements to FP across a sixfold range of outputs, reliably detecting ±5% changes. PMID:22649718

Phillips, Robert A.; Hood, Sally G.; Jacobson, Beverley M.; West, Malcolm J.; Wan, Li; May, Clive N.

2012-01-01

120

Pulse Wave Velocity and Cardiac Output vs. Heart Rate in Patients with an Implanted Pacemaker Based on Electric Impedance Method Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods and device for estimation of cardiac output and measurement of pulse wave velocity simultaneously is presented here. The beat-to-beat cardiac output as well as pulse wave velocity measurement is based on application of electrical impedance method on the thorax and calf. The results are demonstrated in a study of 24 subjects. The dependence of pulse wave velocity and cardiac output on heart rate during rest in patients with an implanted pacemaker was evaluated. The heart rate was changed by pacemaker programming while neither exercise nor drugs were applied. The most important result is that the pulse wave velocity, cardiac output and blood pressure do not depend significantly on heart rate, while the stroke volume is reciprocal proportionally to the heart rate.

Soukup, Ladislav; Vondra, Vlastimil; Viš?or, Ivo; Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef

2013-04-01

121

Cardiac output by Modelflow method from intra-arterial and fingertip pulse pressure profiles.  

PubMed

Modelflow, when applied to non-invasive fingertip pulse pressure recordings, is a poor predictor of cardiac output (Q, litre x min(-1)). The use of constants established from the aortic elastic characteristics, which differ from those of finger arteries, may introduce signal distortions, leading to errors in computing Q. We therefore hypothesized that peripheral recording of pulse pressure profiles undermines the measurement of Q with Modelflow, so we compared Modelflow beat-by-beat Q values obtained simultaneously non-invasively from the finger and invasively from the radial artery at rest and during exercise. Seven subjects (age, 24.0 +/- 2.9 years; weight, 81.2 +/- 12.6 kg) rested, then exercised at 50 and 100 W, carrying a catheter with a pressure head in the left radial artery and the photoplethysmographic cuff of a finger pressure device on the third and fourth fingers of the contralateral hand. Pulse pressure from both devices was recorded simultaneously and stored on a PC for subsequent Q computation. The mean values of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure at rest and exercise steady state were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower from the finger than the intra-arterial catheter. The corresponding mean steady-state Q obtained from the finger (Qporta) was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher than that computed from the intra-arterial recordings (Qpia). The line relating beat-by-beat Qporta and Qpia was y =1.55 x -3.02 ( r2 = 0.640). The bias was 1.44 litre x min(-1) and the precision was 2.84 litre x min(-1). The slope of this line was significantly higher than 1, implying a systematic overestimate of Q by Qporta with respect to Qpia. Consistent with the tested hypothesis, these results demonstrate that pulse pressure profiles from the finger provide inaccurate absolute Q values with respect to the radial artery, and therefore cannot be used without correction with a calibration factor calculated previously by measuring Q with an independent method. PMID:14606952

Azabji Kenfack, Marcel; Lador, Federic; Licker, Marc; Moia, Christian; Tam, Enrico; Capelli, Carlo; Morel, Denis; Ferretti, Guido

2004-04-01

122

Effect of hemorrhage on cardiac output, vasopressin, aldosterone, and diuresis during immersion in men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this research was to test the hypotesis that a reduction in blood volume would attenuate or eliminate immersion-induced increases in cardiac output (Q(sub co)) and urine excretion, and to investigate accompanying vasoactive and fluid-electrolyte hormonal responses. Eight men (19-23 yr) were supine during a 2-hr control period in air, and then sat for 5-hr test periods in air at 20 C (dry control, DC); water at 34.5 C (wet control, WC); and water (34.5 C) after hemorrhage (WH) of 14.8 plus or minus 0.3 percent of their blood volume. Blood volume was -11.6 plus or minus 0.6 percent at immersion (time 0). Mean (bar-X hrs 1-5) Q(sub co) was unchanged in WC (5.3 plus or minus 0.01 l/min) and in WH (4.5 plus or minus 0.1 l/min), but decreased (P less than 0.05) in DC to 3.6 plus or minus 0.1 l/min. Mean urine excretion rates were 1.0 plus or minus 0.2 ml/min for DC and 1.1 plus or minus 0.2 ml/min for WH; both were lower (P less than 0.05) than that for WC of 2.0 plus or minus 0.4 ml/min. Plasma (Na+) and (Osm) were unchanged in all experiments. Mean plasma vasopressin (PVP) (bar-X hrs 1-5) was 1.1 plus or minus 0.1 pg/ml in WC, and higher (P less than 0.05) in DC (2.1 plus or minus 0.2 pg/ml)and WH (2.1 plus or minus 0.1 pg/ml); it was unchanged during air and water test periods. Thus, hemorrhage attenuated the immersion-induced increase in Q(sub co), eliminated the WC diuresis, maintained plasma renin activity and PVP at DC levels and did not change immersion-induced aldosterone suppression; the osmotic diuresis during control immersion is apparently not due to either aldosterone suppression or vasopressin suppression.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Simanonok, K.; Bernauer, E. M.; Wade, C. E.; Keil, L. C.

1992-01-01

123

Predictors of low cardiac output syndrome after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.  

PubMed

Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is one of the most important complications following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and results in higher morbidity and mortality. However, few reports have focused on the predictors of LCOS following CABG. This study aimed to evaluate the predictors of LCOS following isolated CABG through the review of 1524 consecutive well-documented patients in a single center, retrospective trial.The relevant preoperative and intraoperative data of patients with complete information from medical records undergoing isolated CABG from January 2010 to December 2013 in our center were investigated and retrospectively analyzed. LCOS was considered when the following criteria were met: signs of impairment of body perfusion and need for inotropic support with vasoactive drugs or mechanical circulatory support with an intra-aortic balloon pump to maintain systolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg.LCOS developed in 205 patients following CABG, accounting for 13.5% of the total population. The in-hospital mortality in the LCOS group was significantly higher than that in the non-LCOS group (25.4% versus 1.8%, P < 0.0001). In addition to the length of ICU stay and postoperative hospital stay, LCOS was correlated with negative cerebral, respiratory and renal outcomes. Through univariate analysis and then logistic regression analysis, the predictors of LCOS following CABG included older age (age > 65 years) (OR = 1.85, 95%CI 1.27-3.76), impaired left ventricular function (OR = 2.05, 95%CI 1.53-4.54), on-pump CABG (OR = 2.16, 95%CI 1.53-4.86), emergent CPB (OR = 9.15, 95%CI 3.84-16.49), and incomplete revascularization (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.79-5.15).LCOS following isolated CABG caused higher mortality, higher rates of morbidity, and longer ICU and postoperative hospital stays. Older age, impaired left ventricular function, on-pump CABG, emergent CPB, and incomplete revascularization were identified as 5 predictors of LCOS following isolated CABG surgery. PMID:25740396

Ding, WenJun; Ji, Qiang; Shi, YunQing; Ma, RunHua

2015-03-20

124

Exercise assessment of cardiac function in children and young adults before and after bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Cardiac toxicity is a potential complication of bone marrow transplantation because recipients frequently receive cardiotoxic chemotherapy and/or irradiation before transplantation. Most studies indicate that transient cardiac toxicity occurs within weeks of transplantation, but few studies have evaluated either cardiac status before or late after transplantation. Cardiac performance was assessed via cycle ergometry in 20 children and young adults before transplantation and 31 other children and young adults after transplantation. Mean survival time in the group post-transplantation was 3.9 years with a range of 11 months to 12.1 years. Left ventricular size and shortening fraction at rest were assessed via echocardiography. Data were compared to those of 70 healthy subjects from our laboratory. Patients before and after transplantation had normal oxygen consumptions and cardiac indices at rest. During exercise, however, patients treated for cancer both before and after bone marrow transplantation had reduced exercise times, reduced maximal oxygen consumptions, and reduced ventilatory anaerobic thresholds. Cardiac reserve, as judged by the response of the cardiac output during exercise, was reduced severely. There were no significant differences between the groups tested before and after transplantation. Patients who had been treated for aplastic anemia, who had received less intensive therapy before transplantation, performed significantly better than did patients treated for cancer. Despite these findings, only four patients had abnormalities by echocardiography. In conclusion, before transplantation patients with oncologic diagnoses had serious limitations in exercise performance, most likely as a result of the effects of the cardiotoxic therapy given as part of their conventional cancer therapy. Long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation also had similar abnormalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1557268

Larsen, R L; Barber, G; Heise, C T; August, C S

1992-04-01

125

Blunted frequency-dependent upregulation of cardiac output is related to impaired relaxation in diastolic heart failure  

PubMed Central

Aims We tested the hypothesis that, in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF), diastolic dysfunction is accentuated at increasing heart rates, and this contributes to impaired frequency-dependent augmentation of cardiac output. Methods and results In 17 patients with HFNEF (median age 69 years, 13 female) and seven age-matched control patients, systolic and diastolic function was analysed by pressure–volume loops at baseline heart rate and during atrial pacing to 100 and 120 min?1. At baseline, relaxation was prolonged and end-diastolic left ventricular stiffness was higher in HFNEF, whereas all parameters of systolic function were not different from control patients. This resulted in smaller end-diastolic volumes, higher end-diastolic pressure, and a lower stroke volume and cardiac index in HFNEF vs. control patients. During pacing, frequency-dependent upregulation of contractility indices (+dP/dtmax and Ees) occurred similarly in HFNEF and control patients, but frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation (dP/dtmin) was blunted in HFNEF. In HFNEF, end-diastolic volume and stroke volume decreased with higher heart rates while both remained unchanged in control patients. Conclusion In HFNEF, frequency-dependent upregulation of cardiac output is blunted. This results from progressive volume unloading of the left ventricle due to limited relaxation reserve in combination with increased LV passive stiffness, despite preserved force–frequency relation. PMID:19720638

Wachter, Rolf; Schmidt-Schweda, Stephan; Westermann, Dirk; Post, Heiner; Edelmann, Frank; Kasner, Mario; Lüers, Claus; Steendijk, Paul; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Tschöpe, Carsten; Pieske, Burkert

2009-01-01

126

Echo-Doppler assessment of cardiac status in conjoined (thoraco-omphalopagus) twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac status was assessed noninvasively in a case of thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins by two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography which showed completely separate hearts and major arteries and veins. The twins were successfully separated surgically, without preoperative invasive cardiac investigation. Echocardiography can provide an accurate assessment of cardiac status in conjoined twins and may obviate the need for cardiac catheterization.

Vishva Dev; Ramesh Babu Pothineni; Mridula Rohatgi; Savitri Shrivastava

1990-01-01

127

Interleukin10, T-lymphocytes, and cardiac output in children after ventricular septal defect repair: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the acute inflammatory response and cardiac output in children \\u000aafter surgery for ventricular septal defect.Design and setting  Prospective, observational study in a level III multidisciplinary neonatal \\u000aand pediatric intensive care unit.Patients  Ten children undergoing open-heart surgery for ventricular septal defect.Interventions  All children received methylprednisolone (30?mg\\/kg) in cardiopulmonary \\u000abypass (CPB) prime.Measurements and results  Before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, plasma interleukin-10 and tumor \\u000anecrosis factor

Stefan Grosek; Janez Primozic; Alojz Ihan; Branka Wraber; Tone Gabrijelcic; Miro Kosin

2006-01-01

128

Non-invasive beat-to-beat cardiac output monitoring by an improved method of transthoracic bioimpedance measurement.  

PubMed

The report describes a method of impedance cardiography using an improved estimate of thoracic volume. The formulas and their implementation in hardware and software are explained and new shortband electrodes are described which generate a good homogeneous thoracic field. Examples of stroke volume and cardiac output curves underline the capabilities of the monitoring system "Task Force Monitor". In several experiments, results are compared to thermodilution as well as to BioZ measurements: the new method excels in comparison with thermodilution and is comparable to the BioZ device. Compared to traditional electrodes, the new shortband electrodes are shown to provide better reproducibility. PMID:16131462

Fortin, J; Habenbacher, W; Heller, A; Hacker, A; Grüllenberger, R; Innerhofer, J; Passath, H; Wagner, Ch; Haitchi, G; Flotzinger, D; Pacher, R; Wach, P

2006-11-01

129

Antenatal thrombosis of torcular herophili presenting with anemia, consumption coagulopathy and high-output cardiac failure in a preterm infant.  

PubMed

Dural sinus malformation occasionally results in the development of giant venous lakes involving torcular herophili. Such dilatation can result in the formation of a massive venous thrombus leading to ventriculomegaly/hydrocephalus. Although, majority of patients have an unremarkable clinical course owing to spontaneous resolution of the thrombus, significant morbidity and mortality has been documented. We report the first case of torcular thrombosis in a preterm infant who survived severe anemia, consumption coagulopathy and high-output cardiac failure during the neonatal period and had a normal neurological outcome. PMID:22931961

Pandey, V; Dummula, K; Parimi, P

2012-09-01

130

Femoral Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Blood Flow Restricted Leg Press Exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (LBFR) causes muscle hypertrophy that may be stimulated by the local ischemic environment created by the cuff pressure. However, local blood flow (BF) during such exercise is not well understood. PURPOSE: To characterize femoral artery BF and cardiac output (CO) during leg press exercise (LP) performed at a high load (HL) and low load (LL) with different levels of cuff pressure. METHODS: Eleven subjects (men/women 4/7, age 31.4+/-12.8 y, weight 68.9+/-13.2 kg, mean+/-SD) performed 3 sets of supine left LP to fatigue with 90 s of rest in 4 conditions: HL (%1-RM/cuff pressure: 80%/0); LL (20%/0); LBFR(sub DBP) (20%/1.3 x diastolic blood pressure, BP); LBFR(sub SBP) (20%/1.3 x supine systolic BP). The cuff remained inflated throughout the LBFR exercise sessions. Artery diameter, velocity time integral (VTI), and stroke volume (SV) were measured using Doppler ultrasound at rest and immediately after each set of exercise. Heart rate (HR) was monitored using a 3-lead ECG. BF was calculated as VTI x vessel cross-sectional area. CO was calculated as HR x SV. The data obtained after each set of exercise were averaged and used for analyses. Multi-level modeling was used to determine the effect of exercise condition on dependent variables. Statistical significance was set a priori at p< 0.05. RESULTS: Artery diameter did not change from baseline. BF increased (p<0.05) after exercise in each condition except LBFR(sub SBP) in the order of HL (12.73+/-1.42 cm3,mean+/-SE) > LL (9.92+/-0.82 cm3) > LBFR(sub dBP)(6.47+/-0.79 cm3) > LBFR(sub SBP) (3.51+/-0.59 cm3). Blunted exercise induced increases occurred in HR, SV, and CO after LBFR compared to HL and LL. HR increased 45% after HL and LL and 28% after LBFR (p<0.05), but SV increased (p<0.05) only after HL. Consequently, the increase (p<0.05) in CO was greater in HL and LL (approximately 3 L/min) than in LBFR (approximately 1 L/min). CONCLUSION: BF during LBFR(sub SBP) was 1/3 of that observed in LL, which supports the hypothesis that local ischemia stimulates the LBFR hypertrophic response. As the cuff did not compress the artery, the ischemia may have occurred because of the blunted rise in CO or because arterial BP cannot overcome the cuff pressure. As LBFR(sub DBP) effectively reduced BF and CO with cuff pressures less than systolic BP, future studies should investigate the hypertrophic potential of LBFR at even lower cuff pressures.

Everett, M. E.; Hackney, K.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

2011-01-01

131

Assessment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis with Advanced Imaging Modalities  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the presence of noncaseating epithelioid granulomas, usually in multiple organs. Several studies have shown that sarcoidosis might be the result of an exaggerated granulomatous reaction after exposure to unidentified antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. Cardiac involvement may occur and lead to an adverse outcome: the heart mechanics will be affected and that causes ventricular failure, and the cardiac electrical system will be disrupted and lead to third degree atrioventricular block, malignant ventricular tachycardia, and sudden cardiac death. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of this potentially devastating disease is critically important. However, sensitive and accurate imaging modalities have not been established. Recent studies have demonstrated the promising potential of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) in the diagnosis and assessment of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, etiology, histological findings, and clinical features of sarcoidosis. We also introduce advanced imaging including 18F-FDG PET and cardiac MRI as more reliable diagnostic modalities for CS. PMID:25250336

Akasaka, Takashi

2014-01-01

132

The correlation between the first heart sound and cardiac output as measured by using digital esophageal stethoscope under anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Objective: The use of an esophageal stethoscope is a basic heart sounds monitoring procedure performed in patients under general anesthesia. As the size of the first heart sound can express the left ventricle function, its correlation with cardiac output should be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cardiac output (CO) on the first heart sound (S1) amplitude. Methods : Six male beagles were chosen. The S1 was obtained with the newly developed esophageal stethoscope system. CO was measured using NICOM, a non-invasive CO measuring device. Ephedrine and beta blockers were administered to the subjects to compare changes in figures, and the change from using an inhalation anesthetic was also compared. Results: The S1 amplitude displayed positive correlation with the change rate of CO (r = 0.935, p < 0.001). The heart rate measured using the esophageal stethoscope and ECG showed considerably close figures through the Bland-Altman plot and showed a high positive correlation (r = 0.988, p < 0,001). Conclusion: In beagles, the amplitude of S1 had a significant correlation with changes in CO in a variety of situations. PMID:24772126

Duck Shin, Young; Hoon Yim, Kyoung; Hi Park, Sang; Wook Jeon, Yong; Ho Bae, Jin; Soo Lee, Tae; Hwan Kim, Myoung; Jin Choi, Young

2014-01-01

133

Computer-aided assessment of cardiac computed tomographic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate interpretation of cardiac CT images is commonly hindered by the presence of motion artifacts. Since motion artifacts commonly can obscure the presence of coronary lesions, physicians must spend much effort analyzing images at multiple cardiac phases in order to determine which coronary structures are assessable for potential lesions. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier was designed to assign assessability indices to calcified plaques in individual region-of-interest (ROI) images reconstructed at multiple cardiac phases from two cardiac scans obtained at heart rates of 66 bpm and 90 bpm. Six individual features (volume, circularity, mean intensity, margin gradient, velocity, and acceleration) were used for analyzing images. Visually-assigned assessability indices were used as a continuous truth, and jack-knife analysis with four testing sets was used to evaluate the performance of the ANN classifier. In a study in which all six features were inputted into the ANN classifier, correlation coefficients of 0.962 +/- 0.006 and 0.935 +/- 0.023 between true and ANN-assigned assessability indices were obtained for databases corresponding to 66 bpm and 90 bpm, respectively.

King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen; Suzuki, Kenji; Pan, Xiaochuan

2007-03-01

134

ECG patch monitors for assessment of cardiac rhythm abnormalities.  

PubMed

The primary goal of long-term monitoring is the improvement of diagnostic yield. Despite the clear utility of Holter monitoring in clinical cardiology, issues of relatively low diagnostic yield, cost and inconvenience have motivated the development of ultra-portable devices referred to as ECG patch monitors. Although the "gold standard" for assessing cardiac rhythm abnormalities remains a 12-lead Holter, there is an increasing interest in portable monitoring devices that provide the opportunity for evaluating cardiac rhythm in real-world environments such as the workplace or home. To facilitate patient acceptance these monitors underwent a radical miniaturization and redesign to include wireless communication, water proofing and a patch carrier for attaching devices directly to the skin. We review recent developments in the field of "patch" devices primarily designed for very long-term monitoring of cardiac arrhythmic events. As the body of supporting clinical validation data grows, these devices hold promise for a variety of cardiac monitoring applications. From a clinical and research standpoint, the capacity to obtain longitudinal cardiac activity data by patch devices may have significant implications for device selection, monitoring duration, and care pathways for arrhythmia evaluation and atrial fibrillation surveillance. From a research standpoint, the new devices may allow for the development of novel diagnostic algorithms with the goal of finding patterns and correlations with exercise and drug regimens. PMID:24215754

Lobodzinski, S Suave

2013-01-01

135

Optimal dose of landiolol for preventing abrupt changes in both cardiac output and middle cerebral artery flow velocity after electroconvulsive therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the dose-dependent effects of landiolol on systemic hemodynamics, cardiac output, and cerebral artery blood flow. Eight patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) received 1 of the 3 drugs/doses (saline, 0.125 mg/kg of landiolol, 0.25 mg/kg of landiolol), in turn, for 3 ECT sessions, immediately after the administration of succinylcholine. In the case of 0.25 mg/kg of landiolol, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output remained unchanged throughout the study period.We believe that 0.25 mg/kg of landiolol may be suitable for preventing the increase in systemic hemodynamics, including cardiac output after ECT. PMID:24755725

Kadoi, Yuji; Saito, Shigeru

2014-09-01

136

Intraoperative cardiac assessment with transesophageal echocardiography for decision-making in cardiac anesthesia.  

PubMed

Transesophageal echocardiography is an invaluable hemodynamic monitoring modality. Extended and anatomically based evaluation of cardiac function with transesophageal echocardiography is essential to prompt and accurate decision-making in anesthetic management during cardiac surgery. Fractional shortening and fractional area changes are indices widely used to assess the global systolic performance of the left ventricle. Monitoring regional function using semi-quantitative scoring has been demonstrated to be a more sensitive indicator of myocardial ischemia. Assessment of left ventricular diastolic function should be performed in a systematic way, measuring transmitral flow, pulmonary venous flow, transmitral color M-mode flow propagation velocity, and mitral annulus tissue Doppler imaging. The unique anatomical features of the right ventricle make echocardiographic evaluation complicated and therefore less frequently employed. Right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, maximal systolic tricuspid annular velocity with tissue Doppler imaging, and myocardial performance index are indices successfully incorporated into intraoperative right ventricular assessment. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve may develop after cardiac procedures. Transesophageal echocardiography plays a central role in prevention as well as diagnosis of systolic anterior motion. Transesophageal echocardiography is extremely useful not only for detecting and locating intracardiac air, but also for guiding and evaluating the procedures to remove air. Air is likely to persist in the right and left superior pulmonary vein, left ventricular apex, left atrium, right coronary sinus of Valsalva, and ascending aorta. Accurate evaluation of cardiac function depends on performing TEE examination properly and obtaining optimal images. PMID:23404310

Akiyama, Koichi; Arisawa, Shoji; Ide, Masahiro; Iwaya, Masaaki; Naito, Yoshiyuki

2013-06-01

137

Blood flow in the common carotid artery in term and preterm infants: reproducibility and relation to cardiac output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To assess the reproducibility of, and determine normative data for, flow volume measurements from the right common carotid artery (CCA) and its relation to left ventricular output (LVO) in stable term and preterm babies using Doppler ultrasound.Methods: Right CCA flow volume was measured using a near focus, high frequency transducer by obtaining intensity weighted mean velocity and right CCA

A K Sinha; C Cane; S T Kempley

2006-01-01

138

Rapid assessment of cardiac contractility on a home bathroom scale.  

PubMed

Analyzing systolic time intervals-specifically the preejection-period (PEP)-is widely accepted as one of the few methods for the noninvasive assessment of cardiac contractility. In this paper, we investigated the ballistocardiogram (BCG) as a way to noninvasively measure myocardial contractility when combined with the ECG. Specifically, we derived a parameter from the BCG and ECG that we hypothesized would be highly correlated to PEP. This is the time delay between the J-wave peak of the BCG and the R-wave of the ECG, which we refer to as the RJ interval. The RJ interval was correlated to PEP (r(2) = 0.86) for 2126 heartbeats across ten subjects, with a y-intercept of 138 ms and slope of 1.05. This suggests that the RJ interval can be reliably used as a noninvasive assessment of cardiac contractility. PMID:21843998

Etemadi, Mozziyar; Inan, Omer T; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Kovacs, Gregory T A

2011-11-01

139

Respirometric Oxidative Phosphorylation Assessment in Saponin-permeabilized Cardiac Fibers  

PubMed Central

Investigation of mitochondrial function represents an important parameter of cardiac physiology as mitochondria are involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, aging, mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and drug toxicity. Given this, technologies to measure cardiac mitochondrial function are in demand. One technique that employs an integrative approach to measure mitochondrial function is respirometric oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) analysis. The principle of respirometric OXPHOS assessment is centered around measuring oxygen concentration utilizing a Clark electrode. As the permeabilized fiber bundle consumes oxygen, oxygen concentration in the closed chamber declines. Using selected substrate-inhibitor-uncoupler titration protocols, electrons are provided to specific sites of the electron transport chain, allowing evaluation of mitochondrial function. Prior to respirometric analysis of mitochondrial function, mechanical and chemical preparatory techniques are utilized to permeabilize the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. Chemical permeabilization employs saponin to selectively perforate the cell membrane while maintaining cellular architecture. This paper thoroughly describes the steps involved in preparing saponin-skinned cardiac fibers for oxygen consumption measurements to evaluate mitochondrial OXPHOS. Additionally, troubleshooting advice as well as specific substrates, inhibitors and uncouplers that may be used to determine mitochondria function at specific sites of the electron transport chain are provided. Importantly, the described protocol may be easily applied to cardiac and skeletal tissue of various animal models and human samples. PMID:21403632

Hughey, Curtis C.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Johnsen, Virginia L.; Shearer, Jane

2011-01-01

140

Optimized Temporary Biventricular Pacing Acutely Improves Intraoperative Cardiac Output After Weaning From Cardiopulmonary Bypass – A Sub-study of a Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Permanent biventricular pacing benefits patients with heart failure and interventricular conduction delay, but the importance of pacing with and without optimization in patients at risk of low cardiac output after heart surgery is unknown. We hypothesized that pacing parameters independently affect cardiac output. Accordingly, we analyzed aortic flow measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter in patients at risk of low cardiac output, during an ongoing randomized clinical trial of biventricular pacing (n=11) vs. standard of care (n=9). Methods A sub-study was conducted in all 20 patients, in both groups, with stable pacing after coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve surgery. Ejection fraction averaged 33±15%, QRS duration 116±19 msec. Effects were measured within one hour of the conclusion of cardiopulmonary bypass. Atrioventricular delay (7 settings) and interventricular delay (9 settings) were optimized in random sequence. Results Optimization of atrioventricular delay (171±8 msec), at an interventricular delay of 0 msec, increased flow 14% vs. the worst setting (111±11 msec, p < 0.001) and 7% vs. nominal atrioventricular delay (120 msec, p < 0.001). Interventricular delay optimization increased flow 10% vs. the worst setting (p < 0.001) and 5% vs. nominal interventricular delay (0 msec, p < 0.001). Optimized pacing increased cardiac output 13% vs. atrial pacing at matched heart rate (5.5±0.5 vs. 4.9±0.6 L/min; p = 0.003) and 10% vs. sinus rhythm (5.0±0.6 L/min; p = 0.019). Conclusions Temporary biventricular pacing increases intraoperative cardiac output in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing cardiac surgery. Atrioventricular and interventricular delay optimization maximizes this benefit. PMID:20800242

Wang, Daniel Y.; Richmond, Marc E.; Quinn, T. Alexander; Mirani, Ajay J.; Rusanov, Alexander; Yalamanchi, Vinay; Weinberg, Alan D.; Cabreriza, Santos E.; Spotnitz, Henry M.

2010-01-01

141

[Regulation of cardiac output;an approximation at 3 levels: organic, cellular, and protein].  

PubMed

The heart is the central point for adaptation of the organism to physical exercise because it is the center of the energy support system. Its activity is regulated at three levels; organ, cells and molecular and genetic components. During the development of the heart, the organ adapts in response to chronic and acute overloads by instantaneous functional and chronic changes, leading to a variable degree of cardiac growth. Physical exercise (acute and chronic) is the main example of physiologic overload. The acute response of the heart means a mechanical-hemodynamical and energetic modulation, driving to a final point where oxygen supply fits the increased need. Training, as response to chronic exercise, promotes an increase in energetic capacity (heart rate and stroke volume), structurally reflected in the physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Global functional and structural changes express what is happening at the cellular level. Different stimuli signal through specific receptors and second messengers to the nucleus, regulating gene expression and conditioning structural (size) and functional (contractile) changes. Changes in cellular size explain, by Starling mechanism, the increase in individual contractile strength and in reduction of the ventricular cavity in the systolic period. Other structural changes refer to the interstitium, myocardial vasculature and vascular reactivity. Changes in contractility affect the composition of the contractile elements (isoforms of heavy myosin, light myosin and/or modulatory proteins) and sarcoplasmic Ca2+ regulation, through the increase in Ca2+ flow. Many of the adaptations to chronic exercise studied in vivo in intact heart, isolated heart (Langendorf) or papillary muscle (multicellular preparation), are retained in the cardiomyocyte. Isolated cardiomyocytes can be precisely through the medium, temperature, ionic composition, active substances, etc. Shortening speed without load (Vmax), considered an inotropic index (Sonnenblick) can be measured independently of the initial length. Myocytes shorten against an internal load (restoration force) with viscous and elastic components, although they cannot be loaded externally (stretching is difficult). Cardiomyocyte isolation and maintenance requires strict and controlled conditions. This model offers many possibilities for studying dimensions, contraction-relaxation mechanics, Ca2+ and pH dynamics, beta-adrenergic receptors, electrophysiology, pharmacology, genetics, etc. This kind of studies can deal with normal myocytes or myocytes from trained animals, cardiomyopathies, etc. PMID:10386344

Martíenz Caro, D; Rodríguez García, J A; Munguía, L

1999-01-01

142

[The effect of an intracardiac left-right shunt on thermodilution measurements of cardiac output. An extracorporeal circulation model].  

PubMed

Thermodilution measurements of cardiac output (CO) by means of Swan-Ganz catheters, in a strict sense, represent pulmonary arterial blood flow (PBF). In principle, this is also true in the presence of intracardiac left-to-right shunts due to atrial or ventricular septal defects. However, early recirculation of indicator may give rise to serious methodological problems in these cases. We sought to determine the influence of intracardiac left-to-right shunts on different devices for thermodilution measurements of CO using an extra-corporeal flow model. METHODS. Blood flow was regulated by means of a centrifugal pump that at the same time enabled complete mixing of the indicator after injection (Fig. 1). Pulmonary and systemic parts of the circulation were simulated using two membrane oxygenators and a systemic-venous reservoir to delay systemic recirculation of indicator. Control measurements of PBF (Qp) and systemic (Qs) blood flow were performed by calibrated electromagnetic flow-meters (EMF). Blood temperature was kept constant using a heat exchanger without altering the indicator mass balance in the pulmonary circulation. Left-to-right shunt was varied at different systemic flow levels applying a Qp:Qs ratio ranging from 1:1 to 2.5:1. Thermodilution measurements of PBF were performed using two different thermodilution catheters that were connected to commercially available CO computers. Additionally, thermodilution curves were recorded on a microcomputer and analysed with custom-made software that enabled iterative regression analyses of the initial decay to determine that part of the downslope that best fits a mono-exponentially declining function. Extrapolation of the thermodilution curve was then based on the respective curve segment in order to eliminate indicator recirculation due to shunt flow. RESULTS. At moderate left-to-right shunts (Qp:Qs < 2:1) all thermodilution measurements showed close agreement with control measurements. At higher shunt flows (Qp:Qs > or = 2:1), however, conventional extrapolation procedures of CO computers considerably underestimated PBF (Fig. 2). This was particularly true when a slow-response thermistor catheter was used (Fig. 3). The reason for this underestimation of Qp was an overestimation of the area under curve because of inadequate mathematical elimination of indicator recirculation by standard truncation methods (Fig. 4). However, curve-alert messages of the commercially implemented software did not occur. A high level of agreement could be consistently obtained using a fast-response thermistor together with individual definition of extrapolation limits according to logarithmic regression analyses. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION. Under varying levels of left-to-right shunt, both the response time of thermodilution catheters and the algorithms for calculation of flow considerably influenced the validity of thermodilution measurements of PBF in an extracorporeal flow model. The use of computer-based regression analyses to define the optimal segment for monoexponential extrapolation could effectively eliminate indicator recirculation from the initial portion of the declining thermodilution curve and showed the closest agreement with EMF measurements of Qp. The quality of thermodilution curves with respect to recirculation peaks in the flow model was slightly better than in clinical routine. Nevertheless, the clinical applicability of the modified extrapolation algorithm could be illustrated during pulmonary thermodilution measurements in an exemplary patient with a ventricular septal defect (Fig. 5). PBF at extremely high shunt ratios, however, cannot be assessed by monoexponential extrapolation in principle (Fig. 6). Insufficient elimination of indicator recirculation resulted in flow values that closely resembled systemic rather than PBF. This finding is in accordance with a mathematical analysis of the underlying Steward-Hamilton equation if an infinite number of recirculations would be PMID:7695076

Weyland, A; Wietasch, G; Hoeft, A; Buhre, W; Allgeier, B; Weyland, W; Kettler, D

1995-01-01

143

An investigation of the changes in aortic diameter and an evaluation of their effect on Doppler measurement of cardiac output in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of cardiac output by means of Doppler ultrasound is based on the velocity of aortic blood flow and therefore requires that aortic diameter should not change between measurements. Work has been published which suggests that, in pregnancy, aortic diameter varies significantly with systemic blood pressure. The implication of this is that aortic diameter must be remeasured for each determination

M. H. Warner; A. C. Fairhead; J. Rawles; F. M. MacLennan

1996-01-01

144

Role of cardiac output and the autonomic nervous system in the antinatriuretic response to acute constriction of the thoracic superior vena cava.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of the differential characteristics of hepatic congestion and decreased cardiac output in terms of potential afferent stimuli in the antinatriuretic effect of acute thoracic inferior vena cava (TIVC) constriction. An attempt is made to see if the autonomic nervous system is involved in the antinatriuretic effect of acute TIVC or thoracic superior vena cava constriction.

Schrier, R. W.; Humphreys, M. H.; Ufferman, R. C.

1971-01-01

145

Prospective Assessment After Pediatric Cardiac Ablation  

PubMed Central

A multicenter prospective study was designed and implemented as an activity of the Pediatric Electrophysiology Society to assess the risks associated with radiofrequency ablation in children. Patients (age 0–15 years) with supraventricular tachycardia due to accessory path-ways or atrioventricular nodal reentry were enrolled and studied prior to ablation and periodically by clinical evaluation, electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter monitor, and echocardiogram. In addition, a national registry was established, to which the contributing centers report all pediatric patients undergoing ablation at their center. Initial electrophysiological study tracings and all noninvasive studies undergo blinded outside review for quality control. Clinical endpoints were death, recurrence, proarrhythmia, and echocardiographic abnormality. A pilot study demonstrated excellent agreement concerning diagnoses of previously reported ablation patients between the reporting center and the blinded reviewer (kappa = 0.938 ± 0.062). A total of 317 patients were enrolled in the ongoing study from April 1, 1999 to December 31, 2000. The success rate of ablations was 96% with a complication rate of 4.3% for electrophysiological study and 2.9% for the ablation procedure. Comparison of the registry group versus the study group shows that the groups are comparable in terms of patient characteristics, diagnoses, and the results of ablation making it less likely that the sample of prospectively enrolled patients is biased. PMID:11990663

Van Hare, George F.; Carmelli, Dorit; Smith, W. Mcfate; Kugler, John; Silka, Michael; Friedman, Richard; Atkins, Dianne; Saul, J. Philip; Schaffer, Michael; Byrum, Craig; Dunnigan, Ann; Colan, Steven; Serwer, Gerald

2007-01-01

146

Cardiac-respiratory self-gated cine ultra-short echo time (UTE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance for assessment of functional cardiac parameters at high magnetic fields  

PubMed Central

Background To overcome flow and electrocardiogram-trigger artifacts in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), we have implemented a cardiac and respiratory self-gated cine ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence. We have assessed its performance in healthy mice by comparing the results with those obtained with a self-gated cine fast low angle shot (FLASH) sequence and with echocardiography. Methods 2D self-gated cine UTE (TE/TR?=?314 ?s/6.2 ms, resolution: 129?×?129 ?m, scan time per slice: 5 min 5 sec) and self-gated cine FLASH (TE/TR?=?3 ms/6.2 ms, resolution: 129?×?129 ?m, scan time per slice: 4 min 49 sec) images were acquired at 9.4 T. Volume of the left and right ventricular (LV, RV) myocardium as well as the end-diastolic and -systolic volume was segmented manually in MR images and myocardial mass, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac output (CO) were determined. Statistical differences were analyzed by using Student t test and Bland-Altman analyses. Results Self-gated cine UTE provided high quality images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) also for the RV myocardium (CNRblood-myocardium?=?25.5?±?7.8). Compared to cine FLASH, susceptibility, motion, and flow artifacts were considerably reduced due to the short TE of 314 ?s. The aortic valve was clearly discernible over the entire cardiac cycle. Myocardial mass, SV, EF and CO determined by self-gated UTE were identical to the values measured with self-gated FLASH and showed good agreement to the results obtained by echocardiography. Conclusions Self-gated UTE allows for robust measurement of cardiac parameters of diagnostic interest. Image quality is superior to self-gated FLASH, rendering the method a powerful alternative for the assessment of cardiac function at high magnetic fields. PMID:23826850

2013-01-01

147

Effect of increased alpha-adrenergic activity on the blood pressure/cardiac output relationship in dogs.  

PubMed

The relationship between mean aortic blood pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) was examined in anaesthesized, open-chest dogs during variations in pre-load with and without alpha-adrenergic stimulation with phenylephrine. When phenylephrine increased MAP to 200 mmHg, CO fell greatly and could not be increased by volume expansion. Left ventricular ultrasonic measurements and pressure recordings showed that the Frank-Starling mechanism was maximally activated. During vena cava obstruction CO and MAP fell proportionally. At a lower infusion rate of phenylephrine, MAP increased to 160 mmHg without a great reduction of CO. As in control experiments without phenylephrine infusion, CO could be increased by dextran/saline infusion and lowered about 20% below control by vena cava obstruction with no significant change in MAP; by further caval obstruction CO and MAP fell in proportion. Phenylephrine did not alter the relationship between aortic baroreceptor activity and MAP. The same MAP/CO relationships were obtained before and after bilateral vagotomy and nephrectomy. Caval obstruction and pacing tachycardia resulted in similar MAP/CO relationships despite different effects on left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Thus, phenylephrine infusion may raise MAP to 200 mmHg but no cardiac reserve is left. During reduction of CO by caval obstruction, peripheral vascular resistance remains constant despite varying baroreceptor activity. At the lower infusion rate of phenylephrine, raising MAP to 160 mmHg, peripheral vascular resistance is constant at low CO, but at high CO the vasoconstrictive effect of phenylephrine is counteracted by a vasodilatory mechanism which seems to be flow-dependent. PMID:2564244

Thorvaldson, J; Ilebekk, A; Aars, H; Kiil, F

1989-02-01

148

Cardiac output by Doppler echocardiography in the premature baboon: Comparison with radiolabeled microspheres  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed-Doppler echocardiography (PDE) is a useful noninvasive method for determining left ventricular output (LVO). However, despite increasingly widespread use in neonatal intensive care units, validation studies in prematures with cardiopulmonary disease are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare radiolabeled microsphere (RLM) and PDE measurements of LVO, using the critically ill premature baboon as a model of the human neonate. Twenty-two paired RLM and PDE measurements of LVO were obtained in 14 animals between 3 and 24 h of age. Average PDE LVO was 152 ml/min/kg (range, 40-258 ml/min/kg) compared to 158 ml/min/kg (range, 67-278 ml/min/kg) measured by RLM. Linear regression analysis of the paired measurements showed good correlation with a slope near unity (gamma = 0.94x + 4.20, r = 0.91, SEE = 25.7 ml). The authors conclude that PDE determinations of LVO compare well with those measured by RLM in the premature baboon. PDE appears to provide a valid estimate of LVO and should be useful in human prematures with cardiopulmonary distress.

Kinsella, J.P.; Morrow, W.R.; Gerstmann, D.R.; Taylor, A.F.; deLemos, R.A. (Wilford Hall U.S.A.F. Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (USA))

1991-04-01

149

Estimation of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance using a multivariate regression model with features selected from the finger photoplethysmogram and routine cardiovascular measurements  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) are two important parameters of the cardiovascular system. The ability to measure these parameters continuously and noninvasively may assist in diagnosing and monitoring patients with suspected cardiovascular diseases, or other critical illnesses. In this study, a method is proposed to estimate both the CO and SVR of a heterogeneous cohort of intensive care unit patients (N=48). Methods Spectral and morphological features were extracted from the finger photoplethysmogram, and added to heart rate and mean arterial pressure as input features to a multivariate regression model to estimate CO and SVR. A stepwise feature search algorithm was employed to select statistically significant features. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to assess the generalized model performance. The degree of agreement between the estimation method and the gold standard was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Results The Bland-Altman bias ±precision (1.96 times standard deviation) for CO was -0.01 ±2.70 L min-1 when only photoplethysmogram (PPG) features were used, and for SVR was -0.87 ±412 dyn.s.cm-5 when only one PPG variability feature was used. Conclusions These promising results indicate the feasibility of using the method described as a non-invasive preliminary diagnostic tool in supervised or unsupervised clinical settings. PMID:23452705

2013-01-01

150

Non-invasive assessment of perioperative myocardial cell damage by circulating cardiac troponin T  

Microsoft Academic Search

Troponin T is a unique cardiac antigen which is continuously released from infarcting myocardium. Its cardiospecificity as a marker protein might be particularly useful in assessing myocardial cell damage in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Therefore, circulating troponin T was measured in serial blood samples from 56 patients undergoing cardiac surgery and in two control groups--22 patients undergoing minor orthopaedic surgery

H A Katus; M Schoeppenthau; A Tanzeem; H G Bauer; W Saggau; K W Diederich; S Hagl; W Kuebler

1991-01-01

151

Assessing thermalization and estimating the Hamiltonian with output data only  

SciTech Connect

I consider the generic situation where a finite number of identical test systems in varying (possibly unknown) initial states are subjected independently to the same unknown process. I show how one can infer from the output data alone whether the process in question induces thermalization and, if so, which constants of the motion characterize the final equilibrium states. In case thermalization does occur and there is no evidence for constants of the motion other than energy, I further show how the same output data can be used to estimate the test systems' effective Hamiltonian. For both inference tasks I devise a statistical framework inspired by the generic techniques of factor and principal component analysis. I illustrate its use in the simple example of qubits.

Rau, Jochen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2011-11-15

152

Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Increases Cardiac Output, Bradyarrhythmias, and Parasympathetic Tone in Aged Heart Failure-Prone Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance...

153

Role of frailty assessment in patients undergoing cardiac interventions  

PubMed Central

Average life expectancy is increasing in the western world resulting in a growing number of frail individuals with coronary heart disease, often associated with comorbidities. Decisions to proceed to invasive interventions in elderly frail patients is challenging because they may gain benefit, but are also at risk of procedure-related complications. Current risk scores designed to predict mortality in cardiac procedures are mainly based on clinical and angiographic factors, with limitations in the elderly because they are mainly derived from a middle-aged population, do not account for frailty and do not predict the impact of the procedure on quality of life which often matters more to elderly patients than mortality. Frailty assessment has emerged as a measure of biological age that correlates well with quality of life, hospital admissions and mortality. Potentially, the incorporation of frailty into current risk assessment models will cause a shift towards more appropriate care. The need for a more accurate method of risk stratification incorporating frailty, particularly for elderly patients is pressing. This article reviews the association between frailty and cardiovascular disease, the impact of frailty on outcomes of cardiac interventions and suggests ways in which frailty assessment could be incorporated into cardiology clinical practice. PMID:25332792

Rowe, Rebecca; Iqbal, Javaid; Murali-krishnan, Rachel; Sultan, Ayyaz; Orme, Rachel; Briffa, Norman; Denvir, Martin; Gunn, Julian

2014-01-01

154

Atrioventricular delays, cardiac output and diastolic function in patients with implanted dual chamber pacing and sensing pacemakers.  

PubMed

The Cardiac Output (CO), Filling Time (FT) and Myocardial Performance Index (MPI) derived optimal atrioventricular delay (AVD), were compared and systolic and diastolic performance at every optimal AVD were analyzed. Thirty-two patients with implanted DDD pacemaker were investigated from implantation time to 6 months following PM implantation, in Cardiovascular Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The evaluation was performed during AV sequential pacing with different programmed AVDS ranged from 100 to 200 msec by steps of 20-30 msec. At every AVD, the following parameters were measured: FT, mitral VTI, ET, aortic VTI, ICT and IRT. CO and FT derived optimal AVDs were significantly different (146 +/- 37 and 126 +/- 35 msec, respectively), but their difference with MPI derived optimal AVDs was not significant (130 +/- 28 msec). ICT/ET was similar at CO, FT and MPI derived optimal AVD (0.24 +/- 0.10, 0.22 +/- 0.05 and 0.20 +/- 0.07, respectively). IRT/ET ratio was similar at CO, FT and MPI derived optimal AVDs (0.46 +/- 0.14, 0.45 +/- 0.10 and 0.42 +/- 0.10, respectively). Different methods indicate different optimal AVDs. However analysis of systolic and diastolic performance shows that different AVDs result in similar systolic or diastolic performance. At MPI optimized AVD, a high CO combined with the most advantageous conditions of both isovolumic contraction and relaxation phases is achieved. PMID:19137850

Akbarzadeh, F; Toufan, Mehrnoush

2008-10-15

155

Role of cardiac output versus peripheral vasoconstriction in mediating muscle metaboreflex pressor responses: dynamic exercise versus postexercise muscle ischemia  

PubMed Central

Muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) during submaximal dynamic exercise in normal individuals increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) via increases in cardiac output (CO) with little peripheral vasoconstriction. The rise in CO occurs primarily via increases in heart rate (HR) with maintained or slightly increased stroke volume. When the reflex is sustained during recovery (postexercise muscle ischemia, PEMI), HR declines yet MAP remains elevated. The role of CO in mediating the pressor response during PEMI is controversial. In seven chronically instrumented canines, steady-state values with MMA during mild exercise (3.2 km/h) were observed by reducing hindlimb blood flow by ?60% for 3–5 min. MMA during exercise was followed by 60 s of PEMI. Control experiments consisted of normal exercise and recovery. MMA during exercise increased MAP, HR, and CO by 55.3 ± 4.9 mmHg, 42.5 ± 6.9 beats/min, and 2.5 ± 0.4 l/min, respectively. During sustained MMA via PEMI, MAP remained elevated and CO remained well above the normal recovery levels. Neither MMA during dynamic exercise nor during PEMI significantly affected peripheral vascular conductance. We conclude that the sustained increase in MAP during PEMI is driven by a sustained increase in CO not peripheral vasoconstriction. PMID:23427084

Spranger, Marty D.; Sala-Mercado, Javier A.; Coutsos, Matthew; Kaur, Jasdeep; Stayer, Doug; Augustyniak, Robert A.

2013-01-01

156

The 24 h pattern of arterial pressure in mice is determined mainly by heart rate?driven variation in cardiac output  

PubMed Central

Abstract Few studies have systematically investigated whether daily patterns of arterial blood pressure over 24 h are mediated by changes in cardiac output, peripheral resistance, or both. Understanding the hemodynamic mechanisms that determine the 24 h patterns of blood pressure may lead to a better understanding of how such patterns become disturbed in hypertension and influence risk for cardiovascular events. In conscious, unrestrained C57BL/6J mice, we investigated whether the 24 h pattern of arterial blood pressure is determined by variation in cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, or both and also whether variations in cardiac output are mediated by variations in heart rate and or stroke volume. As expected, arterial pressure and locomotor activity were significantly (P < 0.05) higher during the nighttime period compared with the daytime period when mice are typically sleeping (+12.5 ± 1.0 mmHg, [13%] and +7.7 ± 1.3 activity counts, [254%], respectively). The higher arterial pressure during the nighttime period was mediated by higher cardiac output (+2.6 ± 0.3 mL/min, [26%], P < 0.05) in association with lower peripheral resistance (?1.5 ± 0.3 mmHg/mL/min, [?13%] P < 0.05). The increased cardiac output during the nighttime was mainly mediated by increased heart rate (+80.0 ± 16.5 beats/min, [18%] P < 0.05), as stroke volume increased minimally at night (+1.6 ± 0.5 ?L per beat, [6%] P < 0.05). These results indicate that in C57BL/6J mice, the 24 h pattern of blood pressure is hemodynamically mediated primarily by the 24 h pattern of cardiac output which is almost entirely determined by the 24 h pattern of heart rate. These findings suggest that the differences in blood pressure between nighttime and daytime are mainly driven by differences in heart rate which are strongly correlated with differences in locomotor activity. PMID:25428952

Kurtz, Theodore W.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2014-01-01

157

Assessing neutron generator output using neutron activation of silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

D-T neutron generators are used for elemental composition analysis and medical applications. Often composition is determined by examining elemental ratios in which the knowledge of the neutron flux is unnecessary. However, the absolute value of the neutron flux is required when the generator is used for neutron activation analysis, to study radiation damage to materials, to monitor the operation of the generator, and to measure radiation exposure. We describe a method for absolute neutron output and flux measurements of low output D-T neutron generators using delayed activation of silicon. We irradiated a series of silicon oxide samples with 14.1 MeV neutrons and counted the resulting gamma rays of the 28Al nucleus with an efficiency-calibrated detector. To minimize the photon self-absorption effects within the samples, we used a zero-thickness extrapolation technique by repeating the measurement with samples of different thicknesses. The neutron flux measured 26 cm away from the tritium target of a Thermo Electron A-325 D-T generator (Thermo Electron Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO) was 6.2 × 10 3 n/s/cm 2 ± 5%, which is consistent with the manufacturer's specifications.

Kehayias, Pauli M.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

2007-08-01

158

Validation of Pre-operative Patient Self-Assessment of Cardiac Risk for Non-Cardiac Surgery: Foundations for Decision Support  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To better characterize patient understanding of their risk of cardiac complications from non-cardiac surgery and to develop a patient driven clinical decision support system for preoperative patient risk management. Methods: A patient-driven preoperative self-assessment decision support tool for perioperative assessment was created. Patient’ self-perception of cardiac risk and self-report data for risk factors were compared with gold standard preoperative physician assessment to evaluate agreement. Results: The patient generated cardiac risk profile was used for risk score generation and had excellent agreement with the expert physician assessment. However, patient subjective self-perception risk of cardiovascular complications had poor agreement with expert assessment. Conclusion: A patient driven cardiac risk assessment tool provides a high degree of agreement with expert provider assessment demonstrating clinical feasibility. The limited agreement between provider risk assessment and patient self-perception underscores a need for further work including focused preoperative patient education on cardiac risk. PMID:24551384

Manaktala, Sharad; Rockwood, Todd; Adam, Terrence J.

2013-01-01

159

Modifications to the accuracy assessment analysis routine MLTCRP to produce an output file  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications are described that were made to the analysis program MLTCRP in the accuracy assessment software system to produce a disk output file. The output files produced by this modified program are used to aggregate data for regions greater than a single segment.

Carnes, J. G.

1978-01-01

160

A new impedance cardiograph device for the non-invasive evaluation of cardiac output at rest and during exercise: comparison with the “direct” Fick method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of a new impedance cardiograph device, the Physio\\u000a Flow, at rest and during a steady-state dynamic leg exercise (work intensity ranging from 10 to 50?W) performed in the supine\\u000a position. We compared cardiac output determined simultaneously by two methods, the Physio Flow (Q?\\u000a cPF) and the direct Fick

Anne Charloux; Evelyne Lonsdorfer-Wolf; Ruddy Richard; Eliane Lampert; Monique Oswald-Mammosser; Bertrand Mettauer; Bernard Geny; Jean Lonsdorfer

2000-01-01

161

Comparison Between Cardiac Output Measured by the Pulmonary Arterial Thermodilution Technique and that Measured by the Femoral Arterial Thermodilution Technique in a Pediatric Animal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the correlation between two methods for the determination of cardiac output—the pulmonary arterial thermodilution technique using the Swan–Ganz catheter and the femoral arterial thermodilution technique using a pulse contour analysis computer (PiCCO) catheter. We performed a prospective animal study using 16 immature Maryland pigs weighing 9 to 16 kg. A 5.5- or 7.5-Fr Swan–Ganz catheter was introduced

M. Rupérez; J. López-Herce; C. García; C. Sánchez; E. García; D. Vigil

2004-01-01

162

The effects of cardiac output and pulmonary arterial hypertension on volumetric capnography derived-variables during normoxia and hypoxia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the effect of cardiac output (CO) and pulmonary artery hypertension (PHT) on volumetric capnography (VCap) derived-variables. Nine pigs were mechanically ventilated using fixed ventilatory settings. Two steps of PHT were induced by IV infusion of a thromboxane analogue: PHT25 [mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) of 25 mmHg] and PHT40 (MPAP of 40 mmHg). CO was increased by 50 % from baseline (COup) with an infusion of dobutamine ?5 ?g kg(-1) min(-1) and decreased by 40 % from baseline (COdown) infusing sodium nitroglycerine ?30 ?g kg(-1) min(-1) plus esmolol 500 ?g kg(-1) min(-1). Another state of PHT and COdown was induced by severe hypoxemia (FiO2 0.07). Invasive hemodynamic data and VCap were recorded and compared before and after each step using a mixed random effects model. Compared to baseline, the normalized slope of phase III (SnIII) increased by 32 % in PHT25 and by 22 % in PHT40. SnIII decreased non-significantly by 4 % with COdown. A combination of PHT and COdown associated with severe hypoxemia increased SnIII by 28 % compared to baseline. The elimination of CO2 per breath decreased by 7 % in PHT40 and by 12 % in COdown but increased only slightly with COup. Dead space variables did not change significantly along the protocol. At constant ventilation and body metabolism, pulmonary artery hypertension and decreases in CO had the biggest effects on the SnIII of the volumetric capnogram and on the elimination of CO2. PMID:24908108

Mosing, Martina; Kutter, Annette P N; Iff, Samuel; Raszplewicz, Joanna; Mauch, Jacqueline; Bohm, Stephan H; Tusman, Gerardo

2015-02-01

163

Pharmacokinetics, hemodynamic and metabolic effects of epinephrine to prevent post-operative low cardiac output syndrome in children  

PubMed Central

Introduction The response to exogenous epinephrine (Ep) is difficult to predict given the multitude of factors involved such as broad pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic between-subject variabilities, which may be more pronounced in children. We investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Ep, co-administered with milrinone, in children who underwent open heart surgical repair for congenital defects following cardiopulmonary bypass, including associated variability factors. Methods Thirty-nine children with a high risk of low cardiac output syndrome were prospectively enrolled. Ep pharmacokinetics, hemodynamic and metabolic effects were analyzed using the non-linear mixed effects modeling software MONOLIX. According to the final model, an Ep dosing simulation was suggested. Results Ep dosing infusions ranged from 0.01 to 0.23 ?g.kg-1.min-1 in children whose weight ranged from 2.5 to 58 kg. A one-compartment open model with linear elimination adequately described the Ep concentration-time courses. Bodyweight (BW) was the main covariate influencing clearance (CL) and endogenous Ep production rate (q0) via an allometric relationship: CL(BWi)?=??CL x (BWi)3/4 and q0(BWi)?=??q0 x (BWi )3/4. The increase in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) as a function of Ep concentration were well described using an Emax model. The effect of age was significant on HR and MAP basal level parameters. Assuming that Ep stimulated the production rate of plasma glucose, the increases in plasma glucose and lactate levels were well described by turnover models without any significant effect of age, BW or exogenous glucose supply. Conclusions According to this population analysis, the developmental effects of BW and age explained a part of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics between-subject variabilities of Ep administration in critically ill children. This approach ultimately leads to a valuable Ep dosing simulation which should help clinicians to determine an appropriate a priori dosing regimen. PMID:24456639

2014-01-01

164

Comparison of ergonomic risk assessment output in four sawmill jobs.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the agreement between 5 ergonomic risk assessment methods calculated on the basis of quantitative exposure measures and to examine the ability of the methods to correctly classify 4 at risk jobs. Surface electromyography and electrogoniometry were used to record the physical exposures of 87 sawmill workers performing 4 repetitive jobs. Five ergonomic risk assessment tools (rapid upper limb assessment [RULA], rapid entire body assessment [REBA], American conference of governmental industrial hygienist's threshold limit value for mono-task hand work [ACGIH TLV], strain index [SI], and concise exposure index [OCRA]) were calculated. Dichotomization of risk to no risk and at risk resulted in high agreement between methods. Percentage of perfect agreement between methods when 3 levels of risk were considered was moderate and varied by job. Of the methods examined, the RULA and SI were best (correct classification rates of 99 and 97% respectively). The quantitative ACGIH-TLV for mono-task hand work and Borg scale were worst (misclassification rates of 86 and 28% respectively). PMID:20331923

Jones, Troy; Kumar, Shrawan

2010-01-01

165

How to assess prognosis after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia  

PubMed Central

The prognosis of patients who are admitted in a comatose state following successful resuscitation after cardiac arrest remains uncertain. Although the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and improvements in post-resuscitation care have significantly increased the number of patients who are discharged home with minimal brain damage, short-term assessment of neurological outcome remains a challenge. The need for early and accurate prognostic predictors is crucial, especially since sedation and TH may alter the neurological examination and delay the recovery of motor response for several days. The development of additional tools, including electrophysiological examinations (electroencephalography and somatosensory evoked potentials), neuroimaging and chemical biomarkers, may help to evaluate the extent of brain injury in these patients. Given the extensive literature existing on this topic and the confounding effects of TH on the strength of these tools in outcome prognostication after cardiac arrest, the aim of this narrative review is to provide a practical approach to post-anoxic brain injury when TH is used. We also discuss when and how these tools could be combined with the neurological examination in a multimodal approach to improve outcome prediction in this population. PMID:24417885

2014-01-01

166

Automatic Assessment of Socioeconomic Impact on Cardiac Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), which capture life expectancy and quality of the remaining life-years, are applied in a new method to measure socioeconomic impacts related to health. A 7-step methodology estimating the impact of health interventions based on DALYs, QALYs and functioning changes is presented. It relates the latter (1) to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire (2) to automatically calculate the health status before and after the intervention (3). This change of status is represented as a change in quality of life when calculating QALYs gained due to the intervention (4). In order to make an economic assessment, QALYs gained are converted to DALYs averted (5). Then, by inferring the cost/DALY from the cost associated to the disability in terms of DALYs lost (6) and taking into account the cost of the action, cost savings due to the intervention are calculated (7) as an objective measure of socioeconomic impact. The methodology is implemented in Java. Cases within the framework of cardiac rehabilitation processes are analyzed and the calculations are based on 200 patients who underwent different cardiac-rehabilitation processes. Results show that these interventions result, on average, in a gain in QALYs of 0.6 and a cost savings of 8,000 €. PMID:24284349

Calvo, Mireia; Subirats, Laia; Ceccaroni, Luigi; Maroto, José María; de Pablo, Carmen; Miralles, Felip

2013-01-01

167

Reduced heart rate and cardiac output differentially affect angiogenesis, growth, and development in early chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus).  

PubMed

An increase in both vascular circumferential tension and shear stress in the developing vasculature of the chicken embryo has been hypothesized to stimulate angiogenesis in the developing peripheral circulation chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). To test this hypothesis, angiogenesis in the CAM, development, and growth were measured in the early chicken embryo, following acute and chronic topical application of the purely bradycardic drug ZD7288. At hour 56, ZD7288 reduced heart rate (f(H)) by ~30% but had no significant effect on stroke volume (~0.19 ± 0.2 ?L), collectively resulting in a significant fall in cardiac output (CO) from ~27 ± 3 to 18 ± 2 ?L min(-1). Mean f(H) at 72 h of development was similarly significantly lowered by acute ZD7288 treatment (250 ?M) to 128 ± 0.3 beats min(-1), compared with 174.5 ± 0.3 and 174.7 ± 0.8 beats min(-1) in control and Pannett-Compton (P-C) saline-treated embryos, respectively. Chronic dosing with ZD7288-and the attendant decreases in f(H) and CO-did not change eye diameter or cervical flexion (key indicators of development rate) at 120 h but significantly reduced overall growth (wet and dry body mass decreased by 20%). CAM vessel density index (reflecting angiogenesis) measured 200-400 ?m from the umbilical stalk was not altered, but ZD7288 reduced vessel numbers-and therefore vessel density-by 13%-16% more distally (500-600 ?m from umbilical stalk) in the CAM. In the ZD7288-treated embryos, a decrease in vessel length was found within the second branch order (~300-400 ?m from the umbilical stock), while a decrease in vessel diameter was found closer to the umbilical stock, beginning in the first branch order (~200-300 ?m). Paradoxically, chronic application of P-C saline also reduced peripheral CAM vessel density index at 500 and 600 ?m by 13% and 7%, respectively, likely from washout of local angiogenic factors. In summary, decreased f(H) with reduced CO did not slow development rate but reduced embryonic growth rate and angiogenesis in the CAM periphery. This study demonstrates for the first time that different processes in the ontogeny of the early vertebrate embryo (i.e., hypertrophic growth vs. development) have differential sensitivities to altered convective blood flow. PMID:23629887

Branum, Sylvia R; Yamada-Fisher, Miho; Burggren, Warren

2013-01-01

168

WORKSHOP PRESENTATION Open Access Assessment of cardiac time intervals using high  

E-print Network

WORKSHOP PRESENTATION Open Access Assessment of cardiac time intervals using high temporal Cardiac time intervals (CTI) provide information about systolic and diastolic function and can be measured using mitral valve (MV) and LV outflow tract (LVOT) Doppler velocity curves. Velocity curves produced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Assessment of global cardiac function in MSCT imaging using fuzzy connectedness segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work is to assess global cardiac function in terms of ventricular volume from multi-slice computed tomography dynamic dataset. We propose an approach for the segmentation of the left ventricle and the measurement of the ventricular volume along the whole cardiac cycle. It is based on the segmentation of the left cavities using a fuzzy connectedness algorithm.

J. Fleureau; M. Garreau; A. Simon; R. Hachemani; D. Boulmier

2008-01-01

170

Assessment of right ventricular function with 320-slice volume cardiac CT: comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

To evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of right ventricular function parameters measurement using 320-slice volume cardiac CT. Retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive patients (23 men, 27 women) with suspected pulmonary diseases was performed in electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cardiac CT and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Parameters including right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), right ventricular end- systolic volume (RVESV), right ventricular stroke volume (RVSV), right ventricular cardiac output (RVCO), and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) were semi-automatically and separately calculated from both CT and CMR data. Significant difference between measurements was measured by paired t test and two-variable linear regression analysis with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was performed in each pair of parameters. There was little variability between the measurements by the two observers (kappa = 0.895-0.980, P < 0.05). There was good correlation between all parameters obtained by CT and CMR (P < 0.001): RVEDV (108.5 ± 21.9 ml, 113.5 ± 24.8 ml, r = 0.944), RVESV (69.8 ± 33.4 ml, 73.2 ± 35.4 ml, r = 0.972), RVSV (39.0 ± 13.2 ml, 40.2 ± 13.3 ml, r = 0.977), RVCO (2.6 ± 0.7 l, 2.6 ± 0.7 l. r = 0.958), RVEF (38.8 ± 19.1 %, 39.1 ± 19.3 %, r = 0.990), and there was no significant difference between CT and CMR measurements in RVEF (n = 50, t = -0.677, P > 0.05). 320-slice volume cardiac CT is an accurate non-invasive technique to evaluate RV function. PMID:23179750

Huang, Xiaoyong; Pu, Xin; Dou, Ruiyu; Guo, Xi; Yan, Zixu; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Li, Meng; Jiang, Hong; Lu, Biao

2012-12-01

171

A case of external iliac arteriovenous fistula and high-output cardiac failure after endovenous laser treatment of great saphenous vein.  

PubMed

Valvular incompetence in the great saphenous vein (GSV) is the most common cause of superficial venous insufficiency and symptomatic varicose vein development. Recently, less invasive modalities such as foam sclerotherapy, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and endovenous laser treatment (EVLT) have gained popularity in the treatment of saphenofemoral junction and saphenous truncal incompetence over the traditional approach of surgical ligation and stripping. Here, we present the case of a 32-year-old woman who underwent EVLT and was diagnosed subsequently with ipsilateral external iliac arteriovenous (AV) fistula and high-output cardiac failure. She was stabilized medically and treated surgically with a covered stent placed in the external iliac artery with complete resolution of the fistula and cardiac failure. We reviewed the literature and discuss the complications of AV fistulae after EVLT. PMID:20100645

Ziporin, Scott J; Ifune, Catherine K; MacConmara, Malcolm P; Geraghty, Patrick J; Choi, Eric T

2010-03-01

172

Substrate stiffness-regulated matrix metalloproteinase output in myocardial cells and cardiac fibroblasts: implications for myocardial fibrosis.  

PubMed

Cardiac fibrosis, an important pathological feature of structural remodeling, contributes to ventricular stiffness, diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmia and may even lead to sudden death. Matrix stiffness, one of the many mechanical factors acting on cells, is increasingly appreciated as an important mediator of myocardial cell behavior. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were fabricated with different stiffnesses to mimic physiological and pathological heart tissues, and the way in which the elastic modulus of the substrate regulated matrix-degrading gelatinases in myocardial cells and cardiac fibroblasts was explored. Initially, an increase in cell spreading area was observed, concomitant with the increase in PDMS stiffness in both cells. Later, it was demonstrated that the MMP-2 gene expression and protein activity in myocardial cells and cardiac fibroblasts can be enhanced with an increase in PDMS substrate stiffness and, moreover, such gene- and protein-related increases had a significant linear correlation with the elastic modulus. In comparison, the MMP-9 gene and protein expressions were up-regulated in cardiac fibroblasts only, not in myocardial cells. These results implied that myocardial cells and cardiac fibroblasts in the myocardium could sense the stiffness in pathological fibrosis and showed a differential but positive response in the expression of matrix-degrading gelatinases when exposed to an increased stiffening of the matrix in the microenvironment. The phenomenon of cells sensing pathological matrix stiffness can help to increase understanding of the mechanism underlying myocardial fibrosis and may ultimately lead to planning cure strategies. PMID:24508540

Xie, Jing; Zhang, Quanyou; Zhu, Ting; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Bailin; Xu, Jianwen; Zhao, Hucheng

2014-06-01

173

Co-administration of ephedrine prevents reductions in cardiac output and systemic oxygen delivery secondary to lung compression maneuvers during one-lung ventilation, without reducing arterial oxygenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We previously showed that compression of the nondependent lung during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in patients undergoing esophagectomy\\u000a improves arterial oxygenation but impairs cardiac output (CO) and systemic oxygen delivery (DO2). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the combination of nondependent lung compression and ephedrine\\u000a improves arterial oxygenation without compromising DO2.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty patients undergoing esophagectomy through

Seiji Ishikawa; Fumi Makino; Satomi Kobinata; Hiroyuki Ito; Tatsuyuki Kawano; Koshi Makita

2011-01-01

174

Assessment of Patient Knowledge of Cardiac Rehabilitation: Brazil vs Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Much of the relationship between health status and knowledge about health and disease can be attributed to the combined effects of disparate health-related behavior, environmental conditions, and socioeconomic structures as well as contact with and delivery of health care. Objective The aim of this study was to describe and compare knowledge of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs in Brazil and Canada about CAD-related factors. Methods Two samples of 300 Brazilian and 300 Canadian patients enrolled in CR were compared cross-sectionally. Brazilian patients were recruited from 2 CR centers in Southern Brazil, whereas Canadian patients were recruited from 1 CR center in Ontario. Knowledge was assessed using the Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire (CADE-Q), psychometrically validated in Portuguese and English. The data were processed through descriptive statistics, post-hoc and the Student's t-tests. Results The mean total knowledge score for the whole sample was 41.42 ± 9.3. Canadian respondents had significantly greater mean total knowledge scores than Brazilian respondents. The most highly knowledgeably domain in both samples was physical exercise. In 13 of 19 questions, Canadian respondents reported significantly greater knowledge scores than Brazilian respondents. Conclusions Canadian outpatients reported significantly greater knowledge than their Brazilian counterparts. The results also suggest that having a structured educational curriculum in CR programs may contribute to increased patient knowledge, which may ultimately facilitate behavioral changes. PMID:23887735

Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Oh, Paul; Thomas, Scott; Benetti, Magnus

2013-01-01

175

Cardiac imaging for the assessment of patients being evaluated for kidney or liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Cardiac risk assessment prior to kidney and liver transplantation is controversial. Given the paucity of available organs, selecting appropriate recipients with favorable short- and long-term cardiovascular risk profile is crucial. Using noninvasive cardiac imaging tools to guide cardiovascular risk assessment and management can also be challenging and controversial. In this article, we address the burden of coronary artery disease among kidney and liver transplant candidates and review the literature pertaining to the diagnostic accuracy and the prognostic value of noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques in this population. PMID:25294437

Parikh, Kalindi; Appis, Andrew; Doukky, Rami

2015-04-01

176

The output of budesonide from spacer devices assessed under simulated breathing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Spacer devices are increasingly used to aid inhalational therapy, and many different devices are available. Patient and spacer size and spacer static charge may affect drug delivery, but the optimum spacer size and method of reducing static charge is not certain. Objective: We sought to determine the output of budesonide from 3 different spacer devices when assessed by using

Peter W. Barry; Chris O’Callaghan

1999-01-01

177

Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

178

Imminent Cardiac Risk Assessment via Optical Intravascular Biochemical Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Heart disease is by far the biggest killer in the United States, and type II diabetes, which affects 8% of the U.S. population, is on the rise. In many cases, the acute coronary syndrome and/or sudden cardiac death occurs without warning. Atherosclerosis has known behavioral, genetic and dietary risk factors. However, our laboratory studies with animal models and human post-mortem tissue using FT-IR microspectroscopy reveal the chemical microstructure within arteries and in the arterial walls themselves. These include spectra obtained from the aortas of ApoE-/- knockout mice on sucrose and normal diets showing lipid deposition in the former case. Also pre-aneurysm chemical images of knockout mouse aorta walls, and spectra of plaque excised from a living human patient are shown for comparison. In keeping with the theme of the SPEC 2008 conference Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Disease this paper describes the background and potential value of a new catheter-based system to provide in vivo biochemical analysis of plaque in human coronary arteries. We report the following: (1) results of FT-IR microspectroscopy on animal models of vascular disease to illustrate the localized chemical distinctions between pathological and normal tissue, (2) current diagnostic techniques used for risk assessment of patients with potential unstable coronary syndromes, and (3) the advantages and limitations of each of these techniques illustrated with patent care histories, related in the first person, by the physician coauthors. Note that the physician comments clarify the contribution of each diagnostic technique to imminent cardiac risk assessment in a clinical setting, leading to the appreciation of what localized intravascular chemical analysis can contribute as an add-on diagnostic tool. The quality of medical imaging has improved dramatically since the turn of the century. Among clinical non-invasive diagnostic tools, laboratory tests of body fluids, EKG, and physical examination are still the first line of defense. However, with the fidelity of 64-slice CT imaging, this technique has recently become an option when the patient presents with symptoms of reduced arterial flow. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) treadmill exercise testing is a standard non-invasive test for decreased perfusion of heart muscle, but is time consuming and not suited for emergent evaluation. Once the invasive clinical option of catherization is chosen, this provides the opportunity for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. As the probe is pulled through the artery, the diameter at different parts is measurable, and monochrome contrast in the constricted area reveals the presence of tissue with a different ultrasonic response. Also, via an optical catheter with a fiber-optic conductor, the possibly of spectroscopic analysis of arterial walls is now a reality. In this case, the optical transducer is coupled to a near-infrared spectrometer. Revealing the arterial chemical health means that plaque vulnerability and imminent risk could be assessed by the physician. The classical emergency use of catherization involves a contrast agent and dynamic X-ray imaging to locate the constriction, determine its severity, and possibly perform angioplasty, and stent placement.

Wetzel, D.; Wetzel, L; Wetzel, M; Lodder, R

2009-01-01

179

Imminent cardiac risk assessment via optical intravascular biochemical analysis.  

PubMed

Heart disease is by far the biggest killer in the United States, and type II diabetes, which affects 8% of the U.S. population, is on the rise. In many cases, the acute coronary syndrome and/or sudden cardiac death occurs without warning. Atherosclerosis has known behavioral, genetic and dietary risk factors. However, our laboratory studies with animal models and human post-mortem tissue using FT-IR microspectroscopy reveal the chemical microstructure within arteries and in the arterial walls themselves. These include spectra obtained from the aortas of ApoE-/- knockout mice on sucrose and normal diets showing lipid deposition in the former case. Also pre-aneurysm chemical images of knockout mouse aorta walls, and spectra of plaque excised from a living human patient are shown for comparison. In keeping with the theme of the SPEC 2008 conference 'Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Disease...' this paper describes the background and potential value of a new catheter-based system to provide in vivo biochemical analysis of plaque in human coronary arteries. We report the following: (1) results of FT-IR microspectroscopy on animal models of vascular disease to illustrate the localized chemical distinctions between pathological and normal tissue, (2) current diagnostic techniques used for risk assessment of patients with potential unstable coronary syndromes, and (3) the advantages and limitations of each of these techniques illustrated with patent care histories, related in the first person, by the physician coauthors. Note that the physician comments clarify the contribution of each diagnostic technique to imminent cardiac risk assessment in a clinical setting, leading to the appreciation of what localized intravascular chemical analysis can contribute as an add-on diagnostic tool. The quality of medical imaging has improved dramatically since the turn of the century. Among clinical non-invasive diagnostic tools, laboratory tests of body fluids, EKG, and physical examination are still the first line of defense. However, with the fidelity of 64-slice CT imaging, this technique has recently become an option when the patient presents with symptoms of reduced arterial flow. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) treadmill exercise testing is a standard non-invasive test for decreased perfusion of heart muscle, but is time consuming and not suited for emergent evaluation. Once the invasive clinical option of catherization is chosen, this provides the opportunity for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. As the probe is pulled through the artery, the diameter at different parts is measurable, and monochrome contrast in the constricted area reveals the presence of tissue with a different ultrasonic response. Also, via an optical catheter with a fiber-optic conductor, the possibly of spectroscopic analysis of arterial walls is now a reality. In this case, the optical transducer is coupled to a near-infrared spectrometer. Revealing the arterial chemical health means that plaque vulnerability and imminent risk could be assessed by the physician. The classical emergency use of catherization involves a contrast agent and dynamic X-ray imaging to locate the constriction, determine its severity, and possibly perform angioplasty, and stent placement. PMID:19475135

Wetzel, David L; Wetzel, Louis H; Wetzel, Mark D; Lodder, Robert A

2009-06-01

180

Perspectives to performance of environment and health assessments and models--from outputs to outcomes?  

PubMed

The calls for knowledge-based policy and policy-relevant research invoke a need to evaluate and manage environment and health assessments and models according to their societal outcomes. This review explores how well the existing approaches to assessment and model performance serve this need. The perspectives to assessment and model performance in the scientific literature can be called: (1) quality assurance/control, (2) uncertainty analysis, (3) technical assessment of models, (4) effectiveness and (5) other perspectives, according to what is primarily seen to constitute the goodness of assessments and models. The categorization is not strict and methods, tools and frameworks in different perspectives may overlap. However, altogether it seems that most approaches to assessment and model performance are relatively narrow in their scope. The focus in most approaches is on the outputs and making of assessments and models. Practical application of the outputs and the consequential outcomes are often left unaddressed. It appears that more comprehensive approaches that combine the essential characteristics of different perspectives are needed. This necessitates a better account of the mechanisms of collective knowledge creation and the relations between knowledge and practical action. Some new approaches to assessment, modeling and their evaluation and management span the chain from knowledge creation to societal outcomes, but the complexity of evaluating societal outcomes remains a challenge. PMID:23803642

Pohjola, Mikko V; Pohjola, Pasi; Tainio, Marko; Tuomisto, Jouni T

2013-07-01

181

Perspectives to Performance of Environment and Health Assessments and Models—From Outputs to Outcomes?  

PubMed Central

The calls for knowledge-based policy and policy-relevant research invoke a need to evaluate and manage environment and health assessments and models according to their societal outcomes. This review explores how well the existing approaches to assessment and model performance serve this need. The perspectives to assessment and model performance in the scientific literature can be called: (1) quality assurance/control, (2) uncertainty analysis, (3) technical assessment of models, (4) effectiveness and (5) other perspectives, according to what is primarily seen to constitute the goodness of assessments and models. The categorization is not strict and methods, tools and frameworks in different perspectives may overlap. However, altogether it seems that most approaches to assessment and model performance are relatively narrow in their scope. The focus in most approaches is on the outputs and making of assessments and models. Practical application of the outputs and the consequential outcomes are often left unaddressed. It appears that more comprehensive approaches that combine the essential characteristics of different perspectives are needed. This necessitates a better account of the mechanisms of collective knowledge creation and the relations between knowledge and practical action. Some new approaches to assessment, modeling and their evaluation and management span the chain from knowledge creation to societal outcomes, but the complexity of evaluating societal outcomes remains a challenge. PMID:23803642

Pohjola, Mikko V.; Pohjola, Pasi; Tainio, Marko; Tuomisto, Jouni T.

2013-01-01

182

Effects of TIPS on global end-diastolic volume and cardiac output and renal resistive index in ICU patients with advanced alcoholic cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The transjugular porto-systemic stent-shunt (TIPS) reduces portal pressure in cirrhotic patients and is used as a nonsurgical treatment for refractory ascites, recurrent variceal hemorrhage or hepatorenal syndrome. There are concerns regarding a negative impact on cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and deterioration of hyperkinetic circulatory dysfunction. We analyzed a prospectively maintained database containing hemodynamic data on cirrhotic ICU patients. Hemodynamic monitoring was performed using transpulmonary thermodilution (PiCCO, Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany). Renal perfusion was assessed by Doppler ultrasound during studies of portal and TIPS perfusion before and after the procedure. Complete data sets of 8 patients (4 male, 4 female, age 60 years (52-67), Child-Pugh-Turcotte score 10 (8-12)) were available. After TIPS, there was a substantial increase of GEDVI (646 ml/m2 (580-737) to 663 mL/m2 (643-792); p=0.036) that was even more pronounced at 24 hours (716 mL/m2 (663-821); P=0.012). CI increased from 3.3 L/min/m2 (3.1-4.2) to 3.9 L/min/m2 (3.6-5.3) (p=0.012) and 3.9 L/min/m2 (3.7-5.2) (p=0.017), respectively. There was a significant decrease of renal RI from 0.810 (0.781-0.864) to 0.746 (0.710-0.798) (p=0.028) and a transient increase of fractional excretion of sodium. SVRI (1737 dyn*s/cm5/m2 (1088 . 2115) vs. 1917 dyn*s/cm5/m2 (1368-2177) was not significantly altered immediately after TIPS but decreased to 1495 dyn*s/cm5/m2 (833- 1765) at 24 hours (p=0.036). There were no significant changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP). In conclusion, TIPS resulted in a pronounced increase of central blood volume. The observed hemodynamic effects are compatible with a preload driven increase of cardiac output and secondary decreases in SVRI and RI. PMID:20308721

Umgelter, Andreas; Reindl, Wolfgang; Geisler, Fabian; Saugel, Bernd; Huber, Wolfgang; Berger, Hermann; Schmid, Roland M

2010-01-01

183

Roles of nuclear cardiology, cardiac computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance: assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Noninvasive cardiac imaging is now central to the diagnosis and management of patients with known or suspected chronic coronary artery disease (CAD). Although rest echocardiography has become the most common of the techniques, nuclear cardiology and more recently cardiac computed tomography (CCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) play important roles in this regard. This review examines the current applications and interactions of noninvasive cardiac imaging approaches for the assessment of patients with suspected CAD. In addition to considering the strengths and weaknesses of each technique, this review attempts to provide a guide to the selection of a test (or tests) that is based on the question being asked and the ability of each test to answer this question. In patients with suspected CAD, the pretest likelihood of disease, a clinical assessment, becomes the most important determinant of the initial test. If the likelihood is very low, no testing is needed. However, if the likelihood is low, recent data suggest that assessment of early atherosclerosis is likely to be the most useful and cost-effective test. In patients who have an intermediate likelihood of CAD, nuclear cardiology with myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) becomes highly valuable; however, coronary CT angiography (CTA), with fast 16-slice or greater scanners, may emerge as the initial test of choice. MPS would then be used if the CTA is inconclusive or if there is a need to assess the functional significance of a stenosis defined by CTA. Coronary CTA, however, is not yet widely available and is limited in patients with dense coronary calcification. In older patients with a high likelihood of CAD, MPS may be the initial test of choice, since a high proportion of these patients have too much coronary calcium to allow accurate assessment of the presence of coronary stenoses. PET/CT or SPECT/CT could emerge as important modalities combining the advantages of each modality. While CMR has great promise as a radiation-free and contrast-free "one-stop" shop, it currently lags behind CTA for noninvasive coronary angiography. Nonetheless, CMR clearly has the potential for this application and has already emerged as a highly effective method for assessing ventricular function, myocardial mass, and myocardial viability, and there is increasing use of this approach for clinical rest and stress perfusion measurements. CMR is particularly valuable in distinguishing ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy. While CT and CMR are likely to grow considerably in diagnostic evaluation over the next several years, MPS and PET will continue to be very valuable techniques for this purpose. PMID:16391190

Berman, Daniel S; Hachamovitch, Rory; Shaw, Leslee J; Friedman, John D; Hayes, Sean W; Thomson, Louise E J; Fieno, David S; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr; Wong, Nathan D; Kang, Xingping; Rozanski, Alan

2006-01-01

184

MRI assessment of cardiac tumours: part 2, spectrum of appearances of histologically malignant lesions and tumour mimics  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the reference standard technique for assessment and characterization of a suspected cardiac tumour. It provides an unrestricted field of view, high temporal resolution and non-invasive tissue characterization based on multi-parametric assessment of the chemical micro-environment. Sarcomas account for around 95% of all primary malignant cardiac tumours with lymphoma, and primary pericardial mesothelioma making up most of the remainder of cases. By contrast cardiac metastases are much more common. In this article we review the MRI features of the spectrum of histologically malignant cardiac and pericardial tumours as well as some potential tumour mimics. PMID:25525582

Shahid, Muhammad; Ganeshan, Arul; Baijal, Shobhit; Simpson, Helen; Watkin, Richard W.

2014-01-01

185

Dose assessment according to changes in algorithm in cardiac CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this study was to determine the effects of the application of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique in combination with another two factors (body mass index (BMI) and tube potential) on radiation dose in cardiac computed tomography (CT). For quantitative analysis, regions of interest were positioned on the central region of the great coronary artery,

H. C. Jang; J. H. Cho; H. K. Lee; I. S. Hong; M. S. Cho; C. S. Park; S. Y. Lee; K. R. Dong; E. H. Goo; W. K. Chung; Y. H. Ryu; C. S. Lim

2012-01-01

186

Dose assessment according to changes in algorithm in cardiac CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this study was to determine the effects of the application of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique in combination with another two factors (body mass index (BMI) and tube potential) on radiation dose in cardiac computed tomography (CT). For quantitative analysis, regions of interest were positioned on the central region of the great coronary artery,

H. C. Jang; J. H. Cho; H. K. Lee; I. S. Hong; M. S. Cho; C. S. Park; S. Y. Lee; K. R. Dong; E. H. Goo; W. K. Chung; Y. H. Ryu; C. S. Lim

2011-01-01

187

Clinical Significance of a Spiral Phenomenon in the Plot of CO2 Output Versus O2 Uptake During Exercise in Cardiac Patients.  

PubMed

A spiral phenomenon is sometimes noted in the plots of CO2 output (VCO2) against O2 uptake (VO2) measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in patients with heart failure with oscillatory breathing. However, few data are available that elucidate the clinical significance of this phenomenon. Our group studied the prevalence of this phenomenon and its relation to cardiac and cardiopulmonary function. Of 2,263 cardiac patients who underwent CPX, 126 patients with a clear pattern of oscillatory breathing were identified. Cardiopulmonary indexes were compared between patients who showed the spiral phenomenon (n = 49) and those who did not (n = 77). The amplitudes of VO2 and VCO2 oscillations were greater and the phase difference between VO2 and VCO2 oscillations was longer in the patients with the spiral phenomenon than in those without it. Patients with the spiral phenomenon also had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (43.4 ± 21.4% vs 57.1 ± 16.8%, p <0.001) and a higher level of brain natriuretic peptide (637.2 ± 698.3 vs 228.3 ± 351.4 pg/ml, p = 0.002). The peak VO2 was lower (14.5 ± 5.6 vs 18.1 ± 6.3, p = 0.002), the slope of the increase in ventilation versus VCO2 was higher (39.8 ± 9.5 vs 33.6 ± 6.8, p <0.001), and end-tidal PCO2 both at rest and at peak exercise was lower in the patients with the spiral phenomenon than in those without it. In conclusion, the spiral phenomenon in the VCO2-versus-VO2 plot arising from the phase difference between VCO2 and VO2 oscillations reflects more advanced cardiopulmonary dysfunction in cardiac patients with oscillatory breathing. PMID:25591892

Nagayama, Osamu; Koike, Akira; Himi, Tomoko; Sakurada, Koji; Kato, Yuko; Suzuki, Shinya; Sato, Akira; Yamashita, Takeshi; Wasserman, Karlman; Aonuma, Kazutaka

2015-03-01

188

Continuous cardiac output and left atrial pressure monitoring by long time interval analysis of the pulmonary artery pressure waveform: proof of concept in dogs.  

PubMed

We developed a technique to continuously (i.e., automatically) monitor cardiac output (CO) and left atrial pressure (LAP) by mathematical analysis of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) waveform. The technique is unique to the few previous related techniques in that it jointly estimates the two hemodynamic variables and analyzes the PAP waveform over time scales greater than a cardiac cycle wherein wave reflections and inertial effects cease to be major factors. First, a 6-min PAP waveform segment is analyzed so as to determine the pure exponential decay and equilibrium pressure that would eventually result if cardiac activity suddenly ceased (i.e., after the confounding wave reflections and inertial effects vanish). Then, the time constant of this exponential decay is computed and assumed to be proportional to the average pulmonary arterial resistance according to a Windkessel model, while the equilibrium pressure is regarded as average LAP. Finally, average proportional CO is determined similar to invoking Ohm's law and readily calibrated with one thermodilution measurement. To evaluate the technique, we performed experiments in five dogs in which the PAP waveform and accurate, but highly invasive, aortic flow probe CO and LAP catheter measurements were simultaneously recorded during common hemodynamic interventions. Our results showed overall calibrated CO and absolute LAP root-mean-squared errors of 15.2% and 1.7 mmHg, respectively. For comparison, the root-mean-squared error of classic end-diastolic PAP estimates of LAP was 4.7 mmHg. On future successful human testing, the technique may potentially be employed for continuous hemodynamic monitoring in critically ill patients with pulmonary artery catheters. PMID:19057003

Xu, Da; Olivier, N Bari; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

2009-02-01

189

Effect of increased cardiac output on liver blood flow, oxygen exchange and metabolic rate during longterm endotoxin-induced shock in pigs  

PubMed Central

We investigated hepatic blood flow, O2 exchange and metabolism in porcine endotoxic shock (Control, n=8; Endotoxin, n=10) with administration of hydroxyethylstarch to maintain arterial pressure (MAP)>60?mmHg. Before and 12, 18 and 24?h after starting continuous i.v. endotoxin we measured portal venous and hepatic arterial blood flow, intracapillary haemoglobin O2 saturation (Hb-O2%) of the liver surface and arterial, portal and hepatic venous lactate, pyruvate, glyercol and alanine concentrations. Glucose production rate was derived from the plasma isotope enrichment during infusion of [6,6-2H2]-glucose. Despite a sustained 50% increase in cardiac output endotoxin caused a progressive, significant fall in MAP. Liver blood flow significantly increased, but endotoxin affected neither hepatic O2 delivery and uptake nor mean intracapillary Hb-O2% and Hb-O2% frequency distributions. Endotoxin nearly doubled endogenous glucose production rate while hepatic lactate, alanine and glycerol uptake rates progressively decreased significantly. The lactate uptake rate even became negative (P<0.05 vs Control). Endotoxin caused portal and hepatic venous pH to fall significantly concomitant with significantly increased arterial, portal and hepatic venous lactate/pyruvate ratios. During endotoxic shock increased cardiac output achieved by colloid infusion maintained elevated liver blood flow and thereby macro- and microcirculatory O2 supply. Glucose production rate nearly doubled with complete dissociation of hepatic uptake of glucogenic precursors and glucose release. Despite well-preserved capillary oxygenation increased lactate/pyruvate ratios reflecting impaired cytosolic redox state suggested deranged liver energy balance, possibly due to the O2 requirements of gluconeogenesis. PMID:9756385

Šantak, Borislav; Radermacher, Peter; Adler, Jens; Iber, Thomas; Rieger, Karen M; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Georgieff, Michael; Träger, Karl

1998-01-01

190

[Assessment of fetal cardiac function--established and novel methods].  

PubMed

Numerous maternal (diabetes, preeclampsia) and fetal pathologies (uteroplacental dysfunction, hydrops, infection, congenital heart disease) can lead to cardiac dysfunction in the fetus. This includes increase of pre- and afterload, compression of the heart, myocardial damage, hypoxia and hyperglycemia. Beside already established methods like m-mode and pulse-waved Doppler, new promising technologies like tissue Doppler and speckle tracking are available for monitoring fetal cardiac function. Some of these new techniques have not been part of clinical routine yet because no validation has been performed so far and/or the technique is too time-consuming. Other technologies are currently being tested and only part of research projects. Innovations like speckle tracking that have its seeds in adult cardiology, are still limited because of the smallness of the fetal heart, the higher heart rate, fetal and maternal moving artefacts and finally because of a missing fetal ECG signal. Therefore their application should be performed critically. PMID:24788834

Enzensberger, C; Tenzer, A; Degenhardt, J; Kawecki, A; Axt-Fliedner, R

2014-04-01

191

The new criterion for cardiac resynchronization therapy treatment assessed by two channels impedance cardiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cardiac resynchronization therapy is an effective treatment for systolic failure patients. Independent electrical stimulation of left and right ventricle corrects mechanical ventricular dyssynchrony. About 30-40% treated patients do not respond to therapy. In order to improve clinical outcome authors propose the two channels impedance cardiography for assessment of ventricular dyssynchrony. The proposed method is intended for validation of patients diagnosis and optimization of pacemaker settings for cardiac resynchronization therapy. The preliminary study has showed that bichannel impedance cardiography is a promising tool for assessment of ventricular dyssynchrony.

Peczalski, K.; Palko, T.; Wojciechowski, D.; Dunajski, Z.; Kowalewski, M.

2013-04-01

192

The feasibility and applications of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring, thromboelastography and transit-time flow measurement in living-related renal transplantation surgery: results of a prospective pilot observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Delayed graft function (DGF) remains a significant and detrimental postoperative phenomenon following living-related renal allograft transplantation, with a published incidence of up to 15%. Early therapeutic vasodilatory interventions have been shown to improve DGF, and modifications to immunosuppressive regimens may subsequently lessen its impact. This pilot study assesses the potential applicability of perioperative non-invasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM), transit-time flow monitoring (TTFM) of the transplant renal artery and pre-/perioperative thromboelastography (TEG) in the early prediction of DGF and perioperative complications. Methods Ten consecutive living-related renal allograft recipients were studied. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring commenced immediately following induction of anaesthesia and was maintained throughout the perioperative period. Doppler-based TTFM was performed during natural haemostatic pauses in the transplant surgery: immediately following graft reperfusion and following ureteric implantation. Central venous blood sampling for TEG was performed following induction of anaesthesia and during abdominal closure. Results A single incidence of DGF was seen within the studied cohort and one intra-operative (thrombotic) complication noted. NICOM confirmed a predictable trend of increased cardiac index (CI) following allograft reperfusion (mean CI - clamped: 3.17?±?0.29 L/min/m2, post-reperfusion: 3.50?±?0.35 L/min/m2; P?

2014-01-01

193

Short-Term Effects of Transjugular Intrahepatic Shunt on Cardiac Function Assessed by Cardiac MRI: Preliminary Results  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to assess short-term effects of transjugular intrahepatic shunt (TIPS) on cardiac function with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with liver cirrhosis. Eleven patients (six males and five females) with intractable esophageal varices or refractory ascites were imaged with MRI at 1.5 T prior to, within 24 h after, and 4-6 months after TIPS creation (n = 5). Invasive pressures were registered during TIPS creation. MRI consisted of a stack of contiguous slices as well as phase contrast images at all four valve planes and perpendicular to the portal vein. Imaging data were analyzed through time-volume curves and first derivatives. The portoatrial pressure gradient decreased from 19.8 {+-} 2.3 to 6.6 {+-} 2.3, accompanied by a nearly two fold increase in central pressures and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure immediately after TIPS creation. Left and right end diastolic volumes and stroke volumes increased by 11, 13, and 24%, respectively (p < 0.001), but dropped back to baseline at follow-up. End systolic volumes remained unchanged. E/A ratios remained within normal range. During follow-up the left ventricular mass was larger than baseline values in all patients, with an average increase of 7.9 g (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the increased volume load shunted to the heart after TIPS creation transiently exceeded the preload reserve of the right and left ventricle, leading to significantly increased pulmonary wedge pressures and persistent enlargement of the left and right atria. Normalization of cardiac dimensions was observed after months together with mild left ventricular hypertrophy.

Kovacs, A., E-mail: Attila.Kovacs@ukb.uni-bonn.d [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany); Schepke, M.; Heller, J. [University of Bonn, Department of Internal Medicine I (Germany); Schild, H. H.; Flacke, S. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2010-04-15

194

Assessment of Regional Myocardial Strain using Cardiac Elastography: Distinguishing Infarcted from Non-Infarcted Myocardium  

E-print Network

Assessment of Regional Myocardial Strain using Cardiac Elastography: Distinguishing Infarcted from Non-Infarcted Myocardium Elisa E. Konofagou', Timothy Harrigan2 and Scott Solomon3 'Focused Ultrasound in a patient with a known myocardial infarction. Envelope- detected sonographic data was used to estimate

Konofagou, Elisa E.

195

Indium111 antimyosin scintigraphy to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac rejection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indium-111 antimyosin scans were used to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac transplant rejection. The calculation of a myocardium to lung ratio (AM index) to quantify antimyosin uptake was performed. AM index in normal subjects (n = 8) at 48 hr postinjection was 1.46 +\\/- 0.04. In patients with suspected myocarditis (16 studies in 13 patients),

I. Carrio; L. Berna; M. Ballester; M. Estorch; D. Obrador; M. Cladellas; L. Abadal; M. Ginjaume

1988-01-01

196

Sex differences in carotid baroreflex control of arterial blood pressure in humans: relative contribution of cardiac output and total vascular conductance  

PubMed Central

It is presently unknown whether there are sex differences in the magnitude of blood pressure (BP) responses to baroreceptor perturbation or if the relative contribution of cardiac output (CO) and total vascular conductance (TVC) to baroreflex-mediated changes in BP differs in young women and men. Since sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone is attenuated in women, we hypothesized that carotid baroreflex-mediated BP responses would be attenuated in women by virtue of a blunted vascular response (i.e., an attenuated TVC response). BP, heart rate (HR), and stroke volume were continuously recorded during the application of 5-s pulses of neck pressure (NP; carotid hypotension) and neck suction (NS; carotid hypertension) ranging from +40 to ?80 Torr in women (n = 20, 21 ± 0.5 yr) and men (n = 20, 21 ± 0.4 yr). CO and TVC were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis. Women demonstrated greater depressor responses to NS (e.g., ?60 Torr, ?17 ± 1%baseline in women vs. ?11 ± 1%baseline in men, P < 0.05), which were driven by augmented decreases in HR that, in turn, contributed to larger reductions in CO (?60 Torr, ?15 ± 2%baseline in women vs. ?6 ± 2%baseline in men, P < 0.05). In contrast, pressor responses to NP were similar in women and men (e.g., +40 Torr, +14 ± 2%baseline in women vs. +10 ± 1%baseline in men, P > 0.05), with TVC being the primary mediating factor in both groups. Our findings indicate that sex differences in the baroreflex control of BP are evident during carotid hypertension but not carotid hypotension. Furthermore, in contrast to our hypothesis, young women exhibited greater BP responses to carotid hypertension by virtue of a greater cardiac responsiveness. PMID:21963834

Kim, Areum; Deo, Shekhar H.; Vianna, Lauro C.; Balanos, George M.; Hartwich, Doreen; Fisher, James P.

2011-01-01

197

Cardiac MR imaging in constrictive pericarditis: multiparametric assessment in patients with surgically proven constriction.  

PubMed

To assess the utility of cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis (CP). This study was approved by the institutional review board, with a waiver of informed consent. A total of 42 consecutive patients (mean age, 55 ± 16 years; 3 women, 39 men) with CP treated with pericardiectomy who had undergone cardiac MR before surgery were evaluated retrospectively. An additional 21 patients were evaluated as a control group; of these, 10 consecutive patients received cardiac MR for reasons other than suspected pericardial disease, and 11 consecutive patients had a history of pericarditis but no clinical suspicion of pericardial constriction. MR imaging parameters were analyzed independently and with a decision tree algorithm for usefulness in the prediction of CP. Catheterization data were also reviewed when available. A model combining pericardial thickness and relative interventricular septal (IVS) excursion provided the best overall performance in prediction of CP (C statistic, 0.98, 100 % sensitivity, 90 % specificity). Several individual parameters also showed strong predictive value in the assessment of constriction, including relative IVS excursion (sensitivity, 93 %; specificity, 95 %), pericardial thickness (sensitivity, 83 %; specificity, 100 %), qualitative assessment of pathologic coupling (sensitivity, 88 %; specificity, 100 %), diastolic IVS bounce (sensitivity, 90 %; specificity, 85 %), left ventricle area change (sensitivity, 86 %; specificity, 100 %), and eccentricity index (sensitivity, 86 %; specificity, 90 %; all P < 0.001). Strong agreement was observed between catheterization and surgical findings of constriction (97 %). Cardiac MR provides robust quantitative and qualitative analysis for the diagnosis of CP. PMID:25672267

Bolen, Michael A; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Kusunose, Kenya; Collier, Patrick; Klein, Allan; Popovi?, Zoran B; Flamm, Scott D

2015-04-01

198

Beyond auscultation--acoustic cardiography in the diagnosis and assessment of cardiac disease.  

PubMed

Auscultation has long been an important part of the evaluation of patients with known and suspected cardiac disease. The subsequent development of phonocardiography provided an analogue visual display that permitted a more detailed analysis of the timing and acoustical characteristics of heart sounds, murmurs, clicks and rubs. In addition, the measurement of systolic time intervals enabled a valuable non-invasive assessment of left ventricular function. Acoustic cardiography, a much more recently developed technology, has enabled the simultaneous acquisition of ECG and cardiac acoustical data. This user-friendly and cost-effective technology permits acquisition of detailed information regarding systolic and diastolic left ventricular function and provides both a computerized interpretation and a visual display of the findings. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of patients with suspected heart failure, ischaemia and cardiac arrhythmias and the optimization of cardiovascular drug and device therapies. It can also be used in a wide variety of ambulatory and inpatient monitoring applications. PMID:18690557

Erne, P

2008-08-01

199

Computerized assessment of coronary calcified plaques in CT images of a dynamic cardiac phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion artifacts in cardiac CT are an obstacle to obtaining diagnostically usable images. Although phase-specific reconstruction can produce images with improved assessability (image quality), this requires that the radiologist spend time and effort evaluating multiple image sets from reconstructions at different phases. In this study, ordinal logistic regression (OLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models were used to automatically assign assessability to images of coronary calcified plaques obtained using a physical, dynamic cardiac phantom. 350 plaque images of 7 plaques from five data sets (heart rates 60, 60, 70, 80, 90) and ten phases of reconstruction were obtained using standard cardiac CT scanning parameters on a Phillips Brilliance 64-channel clinical CT scanner. Six features of the plaques (velocity, acceleration, edge-based volume, threshold-based volume, sphericity, and standard deviation of intensity) as well as mean feature values and heart rate were used for training the OLR and ANN in a round-robin re-sampling scheme based on training and testing groups with independent plaques. For each image, an ordinal assessability index rating on a 1-5 scale was assigned by a cardiac radiologist (D.B.) for use as a "truth" in training the OLR and ANN. The mean difference between the assessability index truth and model-predicted assessability index values was +0.111 with SD=0.942 for the OLR and +0.143 with SD=0.916 for the ANN. Comparing images from the repeat 60 bpm scans gave concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) of 0.794 [0.743, 0.837] (value, 95% CI) for the radiologist assigned values, 0.894 [0.856, 0.922] for the OLR, and 0.861 [0.818, 0.895] for the ANN. Thus, the variability of the OLR and ANN assessability index values appear to lie within the variability of the radiologist assigned values.

Rodgers, Zachary B.; King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Vannier, Michael; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Suzuki, Kenji; Lan, Li

2008-03-01

200

Effects of active chronic cocaine use on cardiac sympathetic neuronal function assessed by carbon-11-hydroxyephedrine  

SciTech Connect

Cardiac toxicity of cocaine has been linked to its inhibitory effect on norepinephrine reuptake by sympathetic nerve terminals of the heart. Carbon-11-hydroxyephedrine is a positron-emitting tracer that has been validated as a highly specific marker for norepinephrine transporter activity of the sympathetic nerve terminals and thus makes possible in vivo assessment of the effect of cocaine on norepinephrine reuptake and storage in the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals. The aim of the study was to use the catecholamine analog {sup 11}C-hydroxyephedrine with PET to determine whether active chronic use of cocaine in women modifies the function of sympathetic nerve terminals of the heart. Six normal female volunteers and nine female active chronic cocaine users were studied. Cardiac regional {sup 11}C-hydroxyephedrine uptake and blood flow, as assessed with {sup 13}N-ammonia, were determined using semi-quantitative polar map analysis of myocardial tracer distribution. Carbon-11-hydroxyephedrine cardiac retention was quantified using dynamic data acquisition and kinetic analysis of blood and tissue activity. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Melon, P.G.; Boyd, C.J.; McVey, S. [Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]|[Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

1997-03-01

201

The assessment of cardiac autonomic functions in adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Subclinical atherosclerosis has been recently detected in adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis. However, no studies in the literature have assessed the cardiac autonomic functions of these adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic functions of adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis compared with those of age- and gender-matched adolescents without a family history of atherosclerosis. METHOD: We evaluated the cardiac autonomic functions of 36 adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis (Group 1) and compared them with those of 31 age- and gender-matched adolescents whose parents did not have premature atherosclerosis (Group 2). Twenty-four-hour time domain (standard deviation of all normal sinus RR intervals [SDNN], standard deviation of the mean of normal RR intervals in each 5-minute segment [SDANN], root-mean-square differences in successive RR intervals) and frequency domain (very low frequency, low frequency, high frequency, low frequency/high frequency) parameters of heart rate variability were used for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic functions. RESULTS: There were no differences in the time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability between the two groups. Heart rate was negatively correlated with SDNN (r?=?-0.278, p?=?0.035), while age was significantly correlated with root-mean-square differences in successive RR intervals, high frequency, low frequency and low frequency/high frequency (r?=?-0.264, -0.370, 0.265 and 0.374, respectively; p<0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: We found that the cardiac autonomic functions of adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis were not different compared with those of adolescents without a positive family history of premature atherosclerosis. It appears that subclinical atherosclerosis does not reach a critical value such that it can alter cardiac autonomic functions in adolescence. PMID:25627994

Dursun, Huseyin; Kilicaslan, Baris; Aydin, Mehmet

2014-01-01

202

Heart mass and the maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals: implications for estimating the maximum aerobic power input of flying animals  

PubMed Central

Empirical studies of cardiovascular variables suggest that relative heart muscle mass (relative Mh) is a good indicator of the degree of adaptive specialization for prolonged locomotor activities, for both birds and mammals. Reasonable predictions for the maximum oxygen consumption of birds during flight can be obtained by assuming that avian heart muscle has the same maximum physiological and biomechanical performance as that of terrestrial mammals. Thus, data on Mh can be used to provide quantitative estimates for the maximum aerobic power input (aerobic Pi,max) available to animals during intense levels of locomotor activity. The maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals is calculated to scale with respect to Mh (g) as 213 Mh0.88+-0.04 (ml min-1), while aerobic Pi,max is estimated to scale approximately as 11 Mh0.88+-0.09 (W). In general, estimated inter-species aerobic Pi,max, based on Mh for all bird species (excluding hummingbirds), is calculated to scale with respect to body mass (Mb in kg) as 81 Mb0.82+-0.11 (W). Comparison of family means for Mh indicate that there is considerable diversity in aerobic capacity among birds and mammals, for example, among the medium to large species of birds the Tinamidae have the smallest relative Mh (0.25 per cent) while the Otidae have unusually large relative Mh (1.6 per cent). Hummingbirds have extremely large relative Mh (2.28 per cent), but exhibit significant sexual dimorphism in their scaling of Mh and flight muscle mass, so that when considering hummingbird flight performance it may be useful to control for sexual differences in morphology. The estimated scaling of aerobic Pi,max (based on Mh and Mb in g) for male and female hummingbirds is 0.51 Mb0.83 +/-0.07 and 0.44 Mb0.85+- 0.11 (W), respectively. Locomotory muscles are dynamic structures and it might be anticipated that where additional energetic 'costs' occur seasonally (e.g. due to migratory fattening or the development of large secondary sexual characteristics) then the relevant cardiac and locomotor musculature might also be regulated seasonally. This is an important consideration, both due to the intrinsic interest of studying muscular adaptation to changes in energy demand, but also as a confounding variable in the practical use of heart rate to estimate the energetics of animals. Haemoglobin concentration (or haematocrit) may also be a confounding variable. Thus, it is concluded that data on the cardiovascular and flight muscle morphology of animals provides essential information regarding the behavioural, ecological and physiological significance of the flight performance of animals.

Bishop, C. M.

1997-01-01

203

Evaluation of optical imaging and spectroscopy approaches for cardiac tissue depth assessment  

SciTech Connect

NIR light scattering from ex vivo porcine cardiac tissue was investigated to understand how imaging or point measurement approaches may assist development of methods for tissue depth assessment. Our results indicate an increase of average image intensity as thickness increases up to approximately 2 mm. In a dual fiber spectroscopy configuration, sensitivity up to approximately 3 mm with an increase to 6 mm when spectral ratio between selected wavelengths was obtained. Preliminary Monte Carlo results provided reasonable fit to the experimental data.

Lin, B; Matthews, D; Chernomordik, V; Gandjbakhche, A; Lane, S; Demos, S G

2008-02-13

204

Assessment of Metabolic Phenotypes in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of myocardial metabolism have reported that contractile performance at a given myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2)\\u000a can be lower when the heart is oxidizing fatty acids rather than glucose or lactate. The objective of this study is to assess\\u000a the prognostic value of myocardial metabolic phenotypes in identifying non-responders among non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy\\u000a (NIDCM) patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

Sebastian Obrzut; Jay Tiongson; Neema Jamshidi; Huy Minh Phan; Carl Hoh; Ulrika Birgersdotter-Green

2010-01-01

205

A Simplified and Rapid Screening Assay using Zebrafish to Assess Cardiac Effects of Air Pollution-derived Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Comparative toxicity assessment of particulate matter (PM) from different sources will potentially inform the understanding of regional differences in PM-induced cardiac health effects by identifying PM sources linked to highest potency components. Conventional low-throughput in...

206

Functional Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the Assessment of Myocardial Viability and Perfusion  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness safety and cost-effectiveness of using functional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Results Functional MRI has become increasingly investigated as a noninvasive method for assessing myocardial viability and perfusion. Most patients in the published literature have mild to moderate impaired LV function. It is possible that the severity of LV dysfunction may be an important factor that can alter the diagnostic accuracy of imaging techniques. There is some evidence of comparable or better performance of functional cardiac MRI for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion compared with other imaging techniques. However limitations to most of the studies included: Functional cardiac MRI studies that assess myocardial viability and perfusion have had small sample sizes. Some studies assessed myocardial viability/perfusion in patients who had already undergone revascularization, or excluded patients with a prior MI (Schwitter et al., 2001). Lack of explicit detail of patient recruitment. Patients with LVEF >35%. Interstudy variability in post MI imaging time(including acute or chronic MI), when patients with a prior MI were included. Poor interobserver agreement (kappa statistic) in the interpretation of the results. Traditionally, 0.80 is considered “good”. Cardiac MRI measurement of myocardial perfusion to as an adjunct tool to help diagnose CAD (prior to a definitive coronary angiography) has also been examined in some studies, with methodological limitations, yielding comparable results. Many studies examining myocardial viability and perfusion report on the accuracy of imaging methods with limited data on long-term patient outcome and management. Kim et al. (2000) revealed that the transmural extent of hyperenhancement was significantly related to the likelihood of improvement in contractility after revascularization. However, the LVEF in the patient population was 43% prior to revascularization. It is important to know whether the technique has the same degree of accuracy in patients who have more severe LV dysfunction and who would most benefit from an assessment of myocardial viability. “Substantial” viability used as a measure of a patient’s ability to recover after revascularization has not been definitively reported (how much viability is enough?). Patients with severe LV dysfunction are more likely to have mixtures of surviving myocardium, including normal, infarcted, stunned and hibernating myocardium (Cowley et al., 1999). This may lead to a lack of homogeneity of response to testing and to revascularization and contribute to inter- and intra-study differences. There is a need for a large prospective study with adequate follow-up time for patients with CAD and LV dysfunction (LVEF<35%) comparing MRI and an alternate imaging technique. There is some evidence that MRI has comparable sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to PET for determining myocardial viability. However, there is a lack of evidence comparing the accuracy of these two techniques to predict LV function recovery. In addition, some studies refer to PET as the gold standard for the assessment of myocardial viability. Therefore, PET may be an ideal noninvasive imaging comparator to MRI for a prospective study with follow-up. To date, there is a lack of cost-effectiveness analyses (or any economic analyses) of functional cardiac MRI versus an alternate noninvasive imaging method for the assessment of myocardial viability/perfusion. Conclusion There is some evidence that the accuracy of functional cardiac MRI compares favourably with alternate imaging techniques for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. There is insufficient evidence whether functional cardiac MRI can better select which patients [who have CAD and severe LV dysfuncti

2003-01-01

207

Noninvasive Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenoses Using Cardiac CT  

PubMed Central

Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has become an important noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). CCTA enables accurate evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. However, CCTA provides limited information on the physiological significance of stenotic lesions. A noninvasive “one-stop-shop” diagnostic test that can provide both anatomical significance and functional significance of stenotic lesions would be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of CAD. Recently, with the introduction of novel techniques, such as myocardial CT perfusion, CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT), and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), CCTA has emerged as a noninvasive method for the assessment of both anatomy of coronary lesions and its physiological consequences during a single study. This review provides an overview of the current status of new CT techniques for the physiologic assessments of CAD. PMID:25685790

Fan, Zhanming

2015-01-01

208

Non-invasive assessment of cardiac hemodynamics in patients with advanced cancer and with chronic heart failure: a pilot feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Relationships between cardiac pressure and volume have been suggested as markers of cardiac contractility; parameters include stroke work and the maximal rate of pressure rise during isovolumic contraction (dP/dtmax). Patients with cancer often display dyspnea and fatigue. These are also frequent symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The reasons for similar symptoms in cancer patients are unknown. Using the novel Nexfin Finapres technique, we sought to assess measures of cardiac performance in patients with cancer and compare these values with those from control subjects and patients with chronic HF. Material and methods We prospectively studied 98 patients (control n = 18, chronic HF n = 37, advanced pancreatic or colorectal cancer n = 43) and assessed blood pressure (BP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and dP/dtmax at rest. Results All parameters of interest could be assessed using the Nexfin Finapres technique with SV and CO being significantly higher in patients with cancer than in controls (both p < 0.05). The SV was significantly higher in patients with chronic HF than in controls (p < 0.05). In patients with cancer, SV correlated with age (r = –0.45, p < 0.01) and body weight (r = +0.55, p = 0.0001). In chronic HF, SV declined with increasing age (r = –0.49, p < 0.01); in control subjects, SV increased with increasing body weight (r = +0.57, p = 0.01). Conclusions Patients with cancer tended to display elevated BP, CO, SV, and dP/dtmax as compared to control subjects and patients with HF. These findings may reveal an elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases in this group. PMID:23671436

Lainscak, Mitja; Kung, Thomas; Cramer, Larissa; Fülster, Susann; Pelzer, Uwe; Hildebrandt, Bert; Sandek, Anja; Schefold, Joerg C.; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D.

2013-01-01

209

MRI assessment of cardiac tumours: part 1, multiparametric imaging protocols and spectrum of appearances of histologically benign lesions  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the reference standard technique for assessment and characterization of a suspected cardiac tumour. It provides an unrestricted field of view, high temporal resolution and non-invasive tissue characterization based on multi-parametric assessment of the chemical micro-environment. MRI exploits differences in hydrogen proton density in conjunction with T1 and T2 relaxation properties of different tissues to help differentiation normal from abnormal and benign from malignant lesions. In this article we review specific cardiac MRI techniques, tumour protocol design and the appearance of the spectrum of histologically benign tumours. PMID:25525581

Shahid, Muhammad; Ganeshan, Arul; Baijal, Shobhit; Simpson, Helen; Watkin, Richard W.

2014-01-01

210

Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using Ultrasound and Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this joint U.S. - Russian project was the development and validation of an in-flight methodology to assess a number of cardiac and vascular parameters associated with circulating volume and its manipulation in long-duration space flight. Responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers were measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (US) before, during, and after temporary volume reduction by means of Braslet-M thigh occlusion cuffs (Russia). Materials and Methods: The study protocol was conducted in 14 sessions on 9 ISS crewmembers, with an average exposure to microgravity of 122 days. Baseline cardiovascular measurements were taken by echocardiography in multiple modes (including tissue Doppler of both ventricles) and femoral and jugular vein imaging on the International Space Station (ISS). The Braslet devices were then applied and measurements were repeated after >10 minutes. The cuffs were then released and the hemodynamic recovery process was monitored. Modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers were used throughout the protocol. All US data were acquired by the HDI-5000 ultrasound system aboard the ISS (ATL/Philips, USA) during remotely guided sessions. The study protocol, including the use of Braslet-M for this purpose, was approved by the ISS Human Research Multilateral Review Board (HRMRB). Results: The effects of fluid sequestration on a number of echocardiographic and vascular parameters were readily detectable by in-flight US, as were responses to respiratory maneuvers. The overall volume status assessment methodology appears to be valid and practical, with a decrease in left heart lateral E (tissue Doppler) as one of the most reliable measures. Increase in the femoral vein cross-sectional areas was consistently observed with Braslet application. Other significant differences and trends within the extensive cardiovascular data were also observed. (Decreased - RV and LV preload indices, Cardiac Output, LV E all maneuvers, LV Stroke Volume). Conclusions: This Study: 1) Addressed specific aspects of operational space medicine and space physiology, including assessment of circulating volume disturbances 2) Expanded the applications of diagnostic ultrasound imaging and Doppler techniques in microgravity. 3) Used respiratory maneuvers against the background of acute circulating volume manipulations which appear to enhance our ability to noninvasively detect volume-dependency in a number of cardiac and vascular parameters. 4) Determined that Tei index is not clinically changed therefore contractility not altered in the face of reduced preload. 5) Determined that increased Femoral Vein Area indicating blood being sequestered in lower extremities correlates with reduced preload and cardiac output. 6) That Braslet may be the only feasible means of acutely treating high pressure pulmonary edema in reduced gravity environments.

Hamilton, Douglas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Duncan, Michael; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Alferova, Irina V.; Matveev, Vladimir P.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

2010-01-01

211

Revised ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management. Implications for preoperative clinical evaluation.  

PubMed

Each year, an increasing number of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery require careful perioperative management to minimize the perioperative risk. Perioperative cardiovascular complications are the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality after major non-cardiac surgery. A Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) has recently published revised Guidelines on the perioperative cardiovascular management of patients scheduled to undergo non-cardiac surgery, which represent the official position of the ESC and ESA on various aspects of perioperative cardiac care. According to the Guidelines effective perioperative cardiac management includes preoperative risk stratification based on preoperative assessment of functional capacity, type of surgery, cardiac risk factors, and cardiovascular function. The ESC/ESA Guidelines discourage indiscriminate routine preoperative cardiac testing, because it is time- and cost-consuming, resource-limiting, and does not improve perioperative outcome. They rather emphasize the importance of individualized preoperative cardiac evaluation and the cooperation between anesthesiologists and cardiologists. We summarize the relevant changes of the 2014 Guidelines as compared to the previous ones, with particular emphasis on preoperative cardiac testing. PMID:25384693

Guarracino, F; Baldassarri, R; Priebe, H J

2015-02-01

212

Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT  

SciTech Connect

An automated method for evaluating the image quality of calcified plaques with respect to motion artifacts in noncontrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) images is introduced. This method involves using linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN) regression models for predicting two patient-specific, region-of-interest-specific, reconstruction-specific and temporal phase-specific image quality indices. The first is a plaque motion index, which is derived from the actual trajectory of the calcified plaque and is represented on a continuous scale. The second is an assessability index, which reflects the degree to which a calcified plaque is affected by motion artifacts, and is represented on an ordinal five-point scale. Two sets of assessability indices were provided independently by two radiologists experienced in evaluating cardiac CT images. Inputs for the regression models were selected from 12 features characterizing the dynamic, morphological, and intensity-based properties of the calcified plaques. Whereas LR-velocity (LR-V) used only a single feature (three-dimensional velocity), the LR-multiple (LR-M) and ANN regression models used the same subset of these 12 features selected through stepwise regression. The regression models were parameterized and evaluated using a database of simulated calcified plaque images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations and 40 cardiac phases covering two cardiac cycles. Six calcified plaques were used for the plaque motion indices and three calcified plaques were used for both sets of assessability indices. In one configuration, images from the second cardiac cycle were used for feature selection and regression model parameterization, whereas images from the first cardiac cycle were used for testing. With this configuration, repeated measures concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the LR-V, LR-M, and ANN were 0.817 [0.785, 0.848], 0.894 [0.869, 0.916], and 0.917 [0.892, 0.936] for the plaque motion indices. For the two sets of assessability indices, CCC values for the ANN model were 0.843 [0.791, 0.877] and 0.793 [0.747, 0.828]. These two CCC values were statistically greater than the CCC value of 0.689 [0.648, 0.727], which was obtained by comparing the two sets of assessability indices with each other. These preliminary results suggest that the variabilities of assessability indices provided by regression models can lie within the variabilities of the indices assigned by independent observers. Thus, the potential exists for using regression models and assessability indices for determining optimal phases for cardiac CT image interpretation.

King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Greenberg, Brent; Lan Li; Pan Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2007-12-15

213

Indium-111 antimyosin scintigraphy to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac rejection  

SciTech Connect

Indium-111 antimyosin scans were used to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac transplant rejection. The calculation of a myocardium to lung ratio (AM index) to quantify antimyosin uptake was performed. AM index in normal subjects (n = 8) at 48 hr postinjection was 1.46 +/- 0.04. In patients with suspected myocarditis (16 studies in 13 patients), AM index was 2.0 +/- 0.5 (p less than 0.001); suggesting a considerable incidence of ongoing cell damage in this group, despite the small proportion of positive right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy (RVbx) (4/13). In patients studied after cardiac transplantation (37 studies in 17 patients), AM indexes correlated with RVbx. In patients with RVbx proven rejection (n = 14), AM index was 1.87 +/- 0.19 (p less than 0.001). In patients with RVbx showing infiltrates but not myocyte damage (n = 13), AM index was 1.80 +/- 0.27 (p = 0.02). In patients with normal RVbx (n = 10), AM index was 1.56 +/- 0.17 (p = NS versus controls; p = 0.001 versus those with positive RVbx). Calculated AM indexes correlated with graded visual analysis of the scans (r = 0.823; p = 0.001). Antimyosin scans are an appropriate method to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac rejection.

Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Ballester, M.; Estorch, M.; Obrador, D.; Cladellas, M.; Abadal, L.; Ginjaume, M.

1988-12-01

214

Integrating input output analysis with risk assessment to evaluate the population risk of arsenic.  

PubMed

Multimedia and site-specific risk assessments (RA) of major sources releasing arsenic (As) were converted into sector-based risk coefficients, which were integrated with the Input Output Table (IO) to analyze the association between sector activities and health risks. The developed IO-RA framework is a valuable tool for unfolding the risk chain linking the receptors, exposure pathways, emission sources, and production and consumption activities associated with various industrial sectors. The enlarged decision space along the chain can then be considered in planning risk management strategies. This case study estimates that air emissions of As result in 1.54 carcinogenic cases. Export is the primary driving force and accounts for approximately 48% of the final demand that leads to population risks of As. The ranking of the contribution of the five sectors in terms of total population risks is as follows: electricity supply (1.06E+00), steelmaking (2.2 × 10(-1)), cement kilns (1.50 × 10(-1)), semiconductor manufacturing (6.34 × 10(-2)) and incinerators (4.31 × 10(-2)). The electricity supply, steelmaking industry, and cement kilns are the major sectors, not only because their emissions directly cause risk but also because they have a stronger influence on the risk generated by other sectors. PMID:22192073

Ma, Hwong-Wen; Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Hung, Ming-Lung; Chao, Chia-Wei; Li, Pei-Chiun

2012-01-17

215

Assessing satellite AOD based and WRF/CMAQ output PM2.5 estimators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particulate matter measurements (PM2.5) are essential for air quality monitoring and related public health; however, the shortage of reliable measurmennts constrains researchers to use other means for obtaining reliable estimates over large scales. In particular, model forecasters and satellite community use their respective products to develop ground particulate matter estimations but few experiments have explored how the remote sensing approaches compare to the high resolution models. . In this paper we focus on studying the performance of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) regression based estimates in comparison to more direct bias corrected outputs from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, We use a two-year dataset (2005-2006) and apply urban, season and hour filters to illustrate the agreement between estimated and in-situ measured fine particulate matter from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). We first begin by analyzing the correspondence between ground aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from an AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) Cimel sun/sky radiometer with both satellite and model products in one urban location; we show that satellite readings perform better than model outputs, especially during the summer (RMODIS>=0.65, RCMAQ>=0.37). This is a clear symptom of the difficulty in the models to properly model realistic optical properties. We then turn to a direct assessment of PM2.5 presenting individual comparisons between ground PM2.5 measurements with satellite/model predictions and demonstrate the higher accuracy from model estimations (RurbanMODIS >= 0.74, RurbanCMAQ >= 0.77; Rnon-urbanMODIS >= 0.48, Rnon-urbanCMAQ >= 0.78). In general, we find that the bias corrected CMAQ estimates are superior to satellite based estimators except at very high resolution. Finally, we show that when using both model and satellite approximations as separate estimators merged optimally, our product (PM2.5 average) becomes closer to real measurements with improved correlations (RAVE ~ 0.86) in urban areas during the summer.

Cordero, Lina; Wu, Yonghua; Gross, Barry M.; Moshary, Fred

2013-05-01

216

Spatiotemporal Downscaling of Global Climate Model Output for Assessing Soil Erosion and Crop Production Under Climate Change.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spatial and temporal mismatches between coarse resolution output of General Circulation Models (GCMs) and fine resolution data requirements of ecosystems models are the major obstacles for assessing the site-specific climatic impacts of climate change on natural resources and ecosystems. The object...

217

[Pain assessment and training: the impact on pain control after cardiac surgery].  

PubMed

We analyzed the effects of training and the application of a form for the systematized assessment of pain control after cardiac surgery on pain intensity and supplementary use of morphine. Three patient groups underwent a non-randomized clinical trial with standardized analgesic prescription. In Group I, the nursing staff did not receive specific training regarding the assessment and management of pain, and patients were treated following the established protocol of the institution. In Groups II and III, the nursing staff received targeted training. In Group II the nursing staff used a form for the systematized assessment of pain, which was not used in Group III. Group II presented a lower intensity of pain and greater consumption of supplementary morphine compared to Groups I and II. Training associated with the systematized assessment form increased the chance of identifying pain and influenced nurses' decision-making process, thus promoting pain relief among patients. PMID:23515807

Silva, Magda Aparecida Dos Santos; Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos; Cruz, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da

2013-02-01

218

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Cardiac Patients: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Considerations for Assessment and Treatment.  

PubMed

There is increasing awareness of the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on physical health, particularly cardiovascular disease. We review the literature on the role of trauma in the development of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, aftermath of a cardiac event, and risk for recurrence in cardiac patients. We explore possible mechanisms to explain these relationships, as well as appropriate assessment and treatment strategies for this population. Our main conclusion is that screening and referral for appropriate treatments are important given the high prevalence rates of PTSD in cardiac populations and the associated impact on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25545708

Tulloch, Heather; Greenman, Paul S; Tassé, Vanessa

2014-01-01

219

A novel cardiac MR chamber volume model for mechanical dyssynchrony assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel cardiac chamber volume model is proposed for the assessment of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony. The tool is potentially useful for assessment of regional cardiac function and identification of mechanical dyssynchrony on MRI. Dyssynchrony results typically from a contraction delay between one or more individual left ventricular segments, which in turn leads to inefficient ventricular function and ultimately heart failure. Cardiac resynchronization therapy has emerged as an electrical treatment of choice for heart failure patients with dyssynchrony. Prior MRI techniques have relied on assessments of actual cardiac wall changes either using standard cine MR images or specialized pulse sequences. In this abstract, we detail a semi-automated method that evaluates dyssynchrony based on segmental volumetric analysis of the left ventricular (LV) chamber as illustrated on standard cine MR images. Twelve sectors each were chosen for the basal and mid-ventricular slices and 8 sectors were chosen for apical slices for a total of 32 sectors. For each slice (i.e. basal, mid and apical), a systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) was measured. SDI, a parameter used for 3D echocardiographic analysis of dyssynchrony, was defined as the corrected standard deviation of the time at which minimal volume is reached in each sector. The SDI measurement of a healthy volunteer was 3.54%. In a patient with acute myocardial infarction, the SDI measurements 10.98%, 16.57% and 1.41% for basal, mid-ventricular and apical LV slices, respectively. Based on published 3D echocardiogram reference threshold values, the patient's SDI corresponds to moderate basal dysfunction, severe mid-ventricular dysfunction, and normal apical LV function, which were confirmed on echocardiography. The LV chamber segmental volume analysis model and SDI is feasible using standard cine MR data and may provide more reliable assessment of patients with dyssynchrony especially if the LV myocardium is thin or if the MR images have spatial resolution insufficient for proper resolution of wall thickness-features problematic for dyssynchrony assessment using existing MR techniques.

Song, Ting; Fung, Maggie; Stainsby, Jeffrey A.; Hood, Maureen N.; Ho, Vincent B.

2009-02-01

220

Motion corrected LV quantification based on 3D modelling for improved functional assessment in cardiac MRI.  

PubMed

Cine MRI is a clinical reference standard for the quantitative assessment of cardiac function, but reproducibility is confounded by motion artefacts. We explore the feasibility of a motion corrected 3D left ventricle (LV) quantification method, incorporating multislice image registration into the 3D model reconstruction, to improve reproducibility of 3D LV functional quantification. Multi-breath-hold short-axis and radial long-axis images were acquired from 10 patients and 10 healthy subjects. The proposed framework reduced misalignment between slices to subpixel accuracy (2.88 to 1.21?mm), and improved interstudy reproducibility for 5 important clinical functional measures, i.e. end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, ejection fraction, myocardial mass and 3D-sphericity index, as reflected in a reduction in the sample size required to detect statistically significant cardiac changes: a reduction of 21-66%. Our investigation on the optimum registration parameters, including both cardiac time frames and number of long-axis (LA) slices, suggested that a single time frame is adequate for motion correction whereas integrating more LA slices can improve registration and model reconstruction accuracy for improved functional quantification especially on datasets with severe motion artefacts. PMID:25768708

Liew, Y M; McLaughlin, R A; Chan, B T; Aziz, Y F Abdul; Chee, K H; Ung, N M; Tan, L K; Lai, K W; Ng, S; Lim, E

2015-04-01

221

Motion corrected LV quantification based on 3D modelling for improved functional assessment in cardiac MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cine MRI is a clinical reference standard for the quantitative assessment of cardiac function, but reproducibility is confounded by motion artefacts. We explore the feasibility of a motion corrected 3D left ventricle (LV) quantification method, incorporating multislice image registration into the 3D model reconstruction, to improve reproducibility of 3D LV functional quantification. Multi-breath-hold short-axis and radial long-axis images were acquired from 10 patients and 10 healthy subjects. The proposed framework reduced misalignment between slices to subpixel accuracy (2.88 to 1.21?mm), and improved interstudy reproducibility for 5 important clinical functional measures, i.e. end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, ejection fraction, myocardial mass and 3D-sphericity index, as reflected in a reduction in the sample size required to detect statistically significant cardiac changes: a reduction of 21–66%. Our investigation on the optimum registration parameters, including both cardiac time frames and number of long-axis (LA) slices, suggested that a single time frame is adequate for motion correction whereas integrating more LA slices can improve registration and model reconstruction accuracy for improved functional quantification especially on datasets with severe motion artefacts.

Liew, Y. M.; McLaughlin, R. A.; Chan, B. T.; Aziz, Y. F. Abdul; Chee, K. H.; Ung, N. M.; Tan, L. K.; Lai, K. W.; Ng, S.; Lim, E.

2015-04-01

222

Quantitative assessment of left ventricular function with dual-source CT in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: initial findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are currently regarded as standard modalities for the quantification\\u000a of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. With the recent introduction of dual-source computedtomography (DSCT),\\u000a the increased temporal resolution of 83 ms should also improve the assessment of cardiac function in CT. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the accuracy of DSCT in the

S. Busch; T. R. C. Johnson; B. J. Wintersperger; N. Minaifar; A. Bhargava; C. Rist; M. F. Reiser; C. Becker; K. Nikolaou

2008-01-01

223

Assessment of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography performance using a scanning linear observer  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to detect myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. It is important to assess and compare different SPECT system designs in order to achieve the highest detectability of cardiac defects. Methods:Whitaker ’s study [“Estimating random signal parameters from noisy images with nuisance parameters: linear and scanning-linear methods,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8150–8173 (2008)]10.1364/OE.16.008150 on the scanning linear observer (SLO) shows that the SLO can be used to estimate the location and size of signals. One major advantage of the SLO is that it can be used with projection data rather than with reconstruction data. Thus, this observer model assesses the overall hardware performance independent of any reconstruction algorithm. In addition, the computation time of image quality studies is significantly reduced. In this study, three systems based on the design of the GE cadmium zinc telluride-based dedicated cardiac SPECT camera Discovery 530c were assessed. This design, which is officially named the Alcyone Technology: Discovery NM 530c, was commercialized in August, 2009. The three systems, GE27, GE19, and GE13, contain 27, 19, and 13 detectors, respectively. Clinically, a human heart can be virtually segmented into three coronary artery territories: the left-anterior descending artery, left-circumflex artery, and right coronary artery. One of the most important functions of a cardiac SPECT system is to produce images from which a radiologist can accurately predict in which territory the defect exists [http://www.asnc.org/media/PDFs/PPReporting081511.pdf, Guideline from American Society of Nuclear Cardiology]. A good estimation of the extent of the defect from the projection images is also very helpful for determining the seriousness of the myocardial ischemia. In this study, both the location and extent of defects were estimated by the SLO, and the system performance was assessed by localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) [P. Khurd and G. Gindi, “Decision strategies maximizing the area under the LROC curve,” Proc. SPIE 5749, 150–161 (2005)]10.1117/12.595915 or estimation receiver operating characteristic (EROC) [E. Clarkson, “Estimation receiver operating characteristic curve and ideal observers for combined detection/estimation tasks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B91–B98 (2007)]10.1364/JOSAA.24.000B91 curves. Results: The area under the LROC/EROC curve (AULC/AUEC) and the true positive fraction (TPF) at a specific false positive fraction (FPF) can be treated as the figures of merit. For radii estimation with a 1 mm tolerance, the AUEC values of the GE27, GE19, and GE13 systems are 0.8545, 0.8488, and 0.8329, and the TPF at FPF = 5% are 77.1%, 76.46%, and 73.55%, respectively. The assessment of all three systems revealed that the GE19 system yields estimated information and cardiac defect detectability very close to those of the GE27 system while using eight fewer detectors. Thus, 30% of the expensive detector units can be removed with confidence. Conclusions: As the results show, a combination of the SLO and LROC/EROC curves can determine the configuration that yields the most relevant estimation/detection information. Thus, this is a useful method for assessing cardiac SPECT systems. PMID:23298097

Lee, Chih-Jie; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Volokh, Lana

2013-01-01

224

Assessment of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography performance using a scanning linear observer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to detect myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. It is important to assess and compare different SPECT system designs in order to achieve the highest detectability of cardiac defects. Methods: Whitaker et al.'s study ['Estimating random signal parameters from noisy images with nuisance parameters: linear and scanning-linear methods,' Opt. Express 16(11), 8150-8173 (2008)] on the scanning linear observer (SLO) shows that the SLO can be used to estimate the location and size of signals. One major advantage of the SLO is that it can be used with projection data rather than with reconstruction data. Thus, this observer model assesses the overall hardware performance independent of any reconstruction algorithm. In addition, the computation time of image quality studies is significantly reduced. In this study, three systems based on the design of the GE cadmium zinc telluride-based dedicated cardiac SPECT camera Discovery 530c were assessed. This design, which is officially named the Alcyone Technology: Discovery NM 530c, was commercialized in August, 2009. The three systems, GE27, GE19, and GE13, contain 27, 19, and 13 detectors, respectively. Clinically, a human heart can be virtually segmented into three coronary artery territories: the left-anterior descending artery, left-circumflex artery, and right coronary artery. One of the most important functions of a cardiac SPECT system is to produce images from which a radiologist can accurately predict in which territory the defect exists [http://www.asnc.org/media/PDFs/PPReporting081511.pdf, Guideline from American Society of Nuclear Cardiology]. A good estimation of the extent of the defect from the projection images is also very helpful for determining the seriousness of the myocardial ischemia. In this study, both the location and extent of defects were estimated by the SLO, and the system performance was assessed by localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) [P. Khurd and G. Gindi, 'Decision strategies maximizing the area under the LROC curve,' Proc. SPIE 5749, 150-161 (2005)] or estimation receiver operating characteristic (EROC) [E. Clarkson, 'Estimation receiver operating characteristic curve and ideal observers for combined detection/estimation tasks,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B91-B98 (2007)] curves. Results: The area under the LROC/EROC curve (AULC/AUEC) and the true positive fraction (TPF) at a specific false positive fraction (FPF) can be treated as the figures of merit. For radii estimation with a 1 mm tolerance, the AUEC values of the GE27, GE19, and GE13 systems are 0.8545, 0.8488, and 0.8329, and the TPF at FPF = 5% are 77.1%, 76.46%, and 73.55%, respectively. The assessment of all three systems revealed that the GE19 system yields estimated information and cardiac defect detectability very close to those of the GE27 system while using eight fewer detectors. Thus, 30% of the expensive detector units can be removed with confidence. Conclusions: As the results show, a combination of the SLO and LROC/EROC curves can determine the configuration that yields the most relevant estimation/detection information. Thus, this is a useful method for assessing cardiac SPECT systems.

Lee, Chih-Jie; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Volokh, Lana [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); GE Healthcare, Haifa 39120 (Israel)

2013-01-15

225

Resource and Output Equity as a Mechanism for Assessing Educational Opportunity in Korean Middle School Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korea is recognized as a high-performing country in international achievement studies; however, many researchers in and outside Korea have been worried about the existing gaps between high-socioeconomic and low-socioeconomic (SES) students in both student achievement and educational resources. We analyzed the resource and output equity of Korean…

Houck, Eric A.; Eom, Moonyoung

2012-01-01

226

ICT Expenditures and Education Outputs/Outcomes in Selected Developed Countries: An Assessment of Relative Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to review some previous researches examining ICT efficiency and the impact of ICT on educational output/outcome as well as different conceptual and methodological issues related to performance measurement. Design/methodology/approach: This paper adopts a non-parametric methodology, i.e. data envelopment analysis…

Aristovnik, Aleksander

2013-01-01

227

Assessment of Inlet Cooling to Enhance Output of a Fleet of Gas Turbines  

E-print Network

fogging scheme was selected for detailed studies due to its low installation capital costs. The results indicate a potential of 10% enhancement in power output on a warm, dry day, a 5% enhancement in a typical summer day, but only a 1% enhancement in a hot...

Wang, T.; Braquet, L.

2008-01-01

228

Urban Policy Outputs: A Proposed Framework for Assessment and Some Empirical Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a framework for measuring quantitative and qualitative policy output in educational services. Cites data from a study in Israel which found that citizens in communities in which the government spends increasing sums on educational services are significantly less satisfied than are those in communities where less money is spent. (GC)

Gaziel, H. H.

1982-01-01

229

Assessment of input-output properties and control of neuroprosthetic hand grasp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of three tests which have been developed to evaluate rapidly and quantitatively the input-output properties and patient control of a neuroprosthetic hand grasp is presented. Each test utilizes a visual pursuit tracking task during which the subject controls the grasp force and grasp opening (position) of the hand. The tests provide a rapid evaluation of both the system

Anne E. Hines; N. E. Owens; P. E. Crago

1992-01-01

230

Cardiac gated ventilation  

SciTech Connect

There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

1995-12-31

231

Cardiac index assessment using bioreactance in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery in ovarian carcinoma.  

PubMed

This clinical study compared the cardiac index (CI) assessed by the totally non-invasive method of bioreactance (CIBR) (NICOM™, Cheetah Medical, Vancouver, USA) to transpulmonary thermodilution (CITD) during cytoreductive surgery in ovarian carcinoma. The hypothesis was that CI could be assessed by bioreactance in an accurate and precise manner including accurate trending ability when compared to transpulmonary thermodilution. In 15 patients CIBR and CITD were assessed after induction of anesthesia, after opening of the peritoneum, hourly during the operative procedure, and 30 min after extubation. Trending ability was assessed between the described timepoints. In total 84 points of measurement were analyzed. Concordance correlation coefficient for repeated measures correlating the CIBR and CITD was 0.32. Bias was 0.26 l/min/m(2) (limits of agreement -1.39 and 1.92 l/min/m(2)). The percentage error was 50.7 %. Trending ability quantified by the mean of angles ? which are made by the ?CI vector and the line of identity (y = x) showed a value for CIBR of ? = 23.4°. CI assessment by bioreactance showed acceptable accuracy and trending ability. However, its precision was poor. Therefore, CI measurement can not be solely based on bioreactance in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery in ovarian carcinoma. PMID:23689837

Kober, David; Trepte, Constantin; Petzoldt, Martin; Nitzschke, Rainer; Herich, Lena; Reuter, Daniel A; Haas, Sebastian

2013-12-01

232

Statistical Downscaling and Bias Correction of Climate Model Outputs for Climate Change Impact Assessment in the U.S. Northeast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical downscaling can be used to efficiently downscale a large number of General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs to a fine temporal and spatial scale. To facilitate regional impact assessments, this study statistically downscales (to 1/8deg spatial resolution) and corrects the bias of daily maximum and minimum temperature and daily precipitation data from six GCMs and four Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the northeast United States (US) using the Statistical Downscaling and Bias Correction (SDBC) approach. Based on these downscaled data from multiple models, five extreme indices were analyzed for the future climate to quantify future changes of climate extremes. For a subset of models and indices, results based on raw and bias corrected model outputs for the present-day climate were compared with observations, which demonstrated that bias correction is important not only for GCM outputs, but also for RCM outputs. For future climate, bias correction led to a higher level of agreements among the models in predicting the magnitude and capturing the spatial pattern of the extreme climate indices. We found that the incorporation of dynamical downscaling as an intermediate step does not lead to considerable differences in the results of statistical downscaling for the study domain.

Ahmed, Kazi Farzan; Wang, Guiling; Silander, John; Wilson, Adam M.; Allen, Jenica M.; Horton, Radley; Anyah, Richard

2013-01-01

233

Low-carbon building assessment and multi-scale input–output analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented as a low-carbon building evaluation framework in this paper are detailed carbon emission account procedures for the life cycle of buildings in terms of nine stages as building construction, fitment, outdoor facility construction, transportation, operation, waste treatment, property management, demolition, and disposal for buildings, supported by integrated carbon intensity databases based on multi-scale input–output analysis, essential for low-carbon planning,

G. Q. Chen; H. Chen; Z. M. Chen; Bo Zhang; L. Shao; S. Guo; S. Y. Zhou; M. M. Jiang

2011-01-01

234

Assessment of catchment scale connectivity in different catchments using measured suspended sediment output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in hydrology and geomorphology include the connectivity principle, which describes how different elements in a landscape are connected and how water and matter moves between these elements. So far, studies on connectivity have been mainly of a conceptual nature and have been done on a small scale, while studies that map, quantitatively establish relations, and model water and sediment transport in connectivity are rare. In this study we established a relation between change in connectivity within four catchments and the time of year by using suspended sediment data. The data were collected for four catchments in Navarra, Spain of which two catchments are dominated by forest and pasture, while the other two catchments are dominated by agriculture and have no forest. Data were collected during a 13 year period; 4 samples were taken a day at 6 hour intervals which were mixed to obtain a daily average suspended sediment concentration. This was then converted into daily suspended sediment output using the measured total daily discharge. The effect of precipitation on the sediment output data was minimized by using an antecedent precipitation index (API), which consists of the precipitation of the current day added by the precipitation of the previous 14 days, where the influence of the previous days decays exponentially with time. The daily total suspended sediment output was divided by the API, to obtain a measure for sediment output independent of precipitation. This sediment output then serves as a measure for the connectivity within the catchment. The connectivity of the four catchments throughout the years will be compared to each other and we hypothesise that the two catchments dominated by forests and pastures will change only slightly throughout the year, whereas we expect to see large differences in connectivity in the two agricultural catchments. The agricultural catchments are likely to display a highly varying connectivity throughout the seasons due to changes in vegetation cover of the fields throughout the year, whereas daily variations will likely be small due to a slowly changing connectivity.

Masselink, Rens; Keesstra, Saskia; Seeger, Manuel

2014-05-01

235

Cardiac magnetic resonance for the assessment of myocardial viability: from pathophysiology to clinical practice.  

PubMed

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly applied for the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with ischemic ventricular dysfunction, and it holds potential advantages over more traditional imaging modalities, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). CMR-based techniques for viability assessment include the evaluation of transmural extent of the scar using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images, the evaluation of end-diastolic wall thickness from resting cine images and the study of inotropic reserve during low-dose dobutamine infusion. During the past decade, the diffusion of the use of CMR for viability assessment confirmed the clinical strengths of this modality and, at the same time, helped to use old techniques with an increased level of awareness. With LGE CMR, both viable and nonviable dysfunctional myocardium can be visualized in a single image, allowing a direct quantification of the amount of regional viability, with a significant impact on the estimation of chance for recovery. As well, studies with CMR applied in the setting of ischemic heart disease allowed a better understanding of the best way to apply and interpret other tests for viability evaluation. For instance, it has been demonstrated that the transmural extension of the scar may influence the level of concordance between SPECT and DSE in assessing myocardial viability. The transmural extent of scar on LGE CMR also correlates with the timing of postrevascularization recovery of systolic function, with significant impact on the diagnostic accuracy of any applied imaging modality. PMID:23756415

Dellegrottaglie, Santo; Guarini, Pasquale; Savarese, Gianluigi; Gambardella, Francesco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Cirillo, Annapaola; Vitagliano, Alice; Formisano, Tiziana; Pellegrino, Angela M; Bossone, Eduardo; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale

2013-12-01

236

Optical assessment of the cardiac rhythm of contracting cardiomyocytes in vitro and a pulsating heart in vivo for pharmacological screening  

PubMed Central

Our quest in the pathogenesis and therapies targeting human heart diseases requires assessment of the contractile dynamics of cardiac models of varied complexity, such as isolated cardiomyocytes and the heart of a model animal. It is hence beneficial to have an integral means that can interrogate both cardiomyocytes in vitro and a heart in vivo. Herein we report an application of dual-beam optical reflectometry to determine noninvasively the rhythm of two representative cardiac models–chick embryonic cardiomyocytes and the heart of zebrafish. We probed self-beating cardiomyocytes and revealed the temporally varying contractile frequency with a short-time Fourier transform. Our unique dual-beam setup uniquely records the atrial and ventricular pulsations of zebrafish simultaneously. To minimize the cross talk between signals associated with atrial and ventricular chambers, we particularly modulated the two probe beams at distinct frequencies and extracted the signals specific to individual cardiac chambers with phase-sensitive detection. With this setup, we determined the atrio-ventricular interval, a parameter that is manifested by the electrical conduction from the atrium to the ventricle. To demonstrate pharmacological applications, we characterized zebrafish treated with various cardioactive and cardiotoxic drugs, and identified abnormal cardiac rhythms and atrioventricular (AV) blocks of varied degree. In light of its potential capability to assess cardiac models both in vitro and in vivo and to screen drugs with cardioactivity or toxicity, we expect this approach to have broad applications ranging from cardiopharmacology to developmental biology. PMID:24877019

Lai, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Wei-Tien; Lin, Kuen-You; Liau, Ian

2014-01-01

237

Scintigraphic assessment of cardiac adrenergic innervation in patients with essential hypertension  

SciTech Connect

To assess the regional cardiac adrenergic innervation in patients with essential hypertension (EHT), simultaneous iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123I)MIBG) and thallium-201 (201Tl) myocardial imagings were performed in five patients with EHT, seven patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and seven normal subjects. Short axial images at rest were divided into five segments: anterior, septal, posterior, lateral, and apical segments. Percent regional uptake (%RU) of 201Tl except the septal segment in patients with EHT showed no significant difference. However, the %RU of (123I)MIBG at posterior, lateral, and apical segments was significantly lower than that at anterior and septal segments in EHT. This intraimage heterogeneity of (123I)MIBG was also observed in HCM. These results suggest that there is a difference in regional adrenergic innervation of the left ventricle with myocardial hypertrophy.

Fujiwara, Y.; Hamada, M.; Shigematsu, Y.; Sumimoto, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Hiwada, K. (2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Ehime University School of Medicine (Japan))

1991-01-01

238

Simultaneous Assessment of Fractional and Coronary Flow Reserves in Cardiac Transplant Recipients Physiologic Investigation for Transplant Arteriopathy (PITA Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The utility of measuring fractional flow reserve (FFR) to assess cardiac transplant arteriopathy has not been evaluated. Measuring coronary flow reserve (CFR) as well as FFR could add information about the microcirculation, but until recently, this has required two coronary wires. We evaluated a new method for simultaneously measuring FFR and CFR with a single wire to investigate transplant arteriopathy.

William F. Fearon; Mamoo Nakamura; David P. Lee; Mehrdad Rezaee; Randall H. Vagelos; Sharon A. Hunt; Peter J. Fitzgerald; Paul G. Yock; Alan C. Yeung

239

Florida's timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1991. Forest Service resource bulletin  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, roundwood output from Florida's forests totaled 533 million cubic feet--10 percent more than in 1989. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufactures increased 9 percent to 175 million cubic feet. Almost all of the plant residues (99 percent) were used, mostly for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 329 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 156 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third with 21 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 127 in 1989 to 115 in 1991; however, total receipts increased 11 percent to 603 million cubic feet.

Davenport, E.L.

1993-12-13

240

Wisconsin timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin  

SciTech Connect

In this bulletin we discuss recent Wisconsin forest industry trends and report results of a detailed study of forest industry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Wisconsin in 1992. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects. The last published report from a detailed study of all industrial roundwood output in Wisconsin was in 1990. Most comparisons in this report are with the 1990 study results.

Hackett, R.L.; Whipple, J.W.

1995-09-15

241

Assessing the treatment costs and the fertilizing value of the output products in digestate treatment systems.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to advance towards finding sustainable solutions to deal with biogas digestate and contribute to faster development of the market for digestate treatment products. The study compares digestate treatment costs through four different treatment plants, estimates the potential fertilizing and humus value (PFHV) of the derived products and allocates the cash flows to show the possible regional benefits. The treatment costs for the pre-dried solid fraction of digestate ranged from €19 to €23/tonne output. These costs may be covered by vending treatment products at a price reaching at least 34-41% of their PFHV (ca €55/tonne). Treatment of raw digestate generates high operating costs (€216-247/tonne output), much higher than the PFHV of the products (ca €35-51/tonne). For such systems either the treatment has to be financially subsidized by the authorities or €13-32/tonne input should be covered by the substrate deliverers as a disposal fee. Nevertheless, a well-prepared investment concept in this field may allow the local binding of up to 80% of total cash flows. Finally, the current difficult market situation of the treatment products can be primarily improved by clearing their legal status at European level. PMID:24552741

Golkowska, K; Vázquez-Rowe, I; Lebuf, V; Accoe, F; Koster, D

2014-01-01

242

The Hirsch-index: a simple, new tool for the assessment of scientific output of individual scientists  

PubMed Central

In this brief paper we explore the Hirsch-index together with a couple of other bibliometric parameters for the assessment of the scientific output of 29 Dutch professors in clinical cardiology. It appears that even within such a homogeneous group there is large interindividual variability. Although the differences are quite remarkable, it remains undetermined what they mean; at least it is premature to interpret them as differences in scientific quality. It goes without saying that even more prudence is required when different fields of medicine and life sciences are compared (for example within University Medical Centres). Recent efforts to produce an amalgam of scientific ‘productivity’, ‘relevance’ and ‘viability’ as a surrogate parameter for the assessment of scientific quality, as for example performed in the AMC in Amsterdam, should be discouraged in the absence of a firm scientific base. Unfortunately for politicians and ‘managers of science’ only reading papers and studying are suitable for quality assessment of scientific output. Citations analyses can't substitute that. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:145-54.19421360) PMID:19421360

Opthof, T.; Wilde, A.A.M.

2009-01-01

243

Fully automated assessment of left ventricular volumes and mass from cardiac magnetic resonance images.  

PubMed

Quantification of left ventricular (LV) size and function from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images requires manual tracing of LV borders on multiple 2D slices, which is subjective, tedious and time-consuming experience. This paper presents a fully automated method for endocardial and epicardial boundaries detection for the assessment of LV volumes, ejection fraction (EF) and mass from CMR images. The segmentation procedure is based on a combined level set approach initialized by an automatically detected point inside the LV cavity. To validate the proposed technique, myocardial boundaries were manually traced on end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) frames by an experienced cardiologist. Bland-Altman analysis and linear regression were used to validate LV volumes, EF and mass and similarity metrics were applied to assess the agreement between manually and automatically detected contours. We found minimal biases and narrow limits of agreement for LV volumes, EF and mass; Dice coefficient, Jaccard index and Hausdorff distance evaluated for 2D ED and ES endocardial and epicardial boundaries showed adequate overlapping. The proposed technique allows fast and accurate assessment of LV volumes, EF and mass as a basis for accurate quantification of LV size and function, and myocardial scar from CMR images. PMID:25570149

Marino, M; Veronesi, F; Corsi, C

2014-08-01

244

Lower limb alactic anaerobic power output assessed with different techniques in morbid obesity.  

PubMed

Short-term alactic anaerobic performance in jumping (5 consecutive jumps with maximal effort), sprint running (8 m) and stair climbing (modified Margaria test) were measured in 75 obese subjects (BMI: 40.3+/-5.0 kg/m2) and in 36 lean control subjects (BMI: 22.4+/-3.2 kg/m2) of the same age and gender distribution. The results show that obese subjects attained a significantly lower specific (per unit body mass) power output both in jumping (W(spec,j); p<0.001) and stair climbing (W(spec,s); p<0.001) and run at a significantly lower average velocity (v; p<0.001) during sprinting. In spite of the different motor skillfulness required to accomplish the jumping and climbing tests, W(spec,s) (and hence the vertical velocity in climbing, v(v)) was closely correlated with W(spec,j) (R2=0.427, p<0.001). In jumping, although the average force during the positive work phase was significantly higher in obese subjects (p<0.001), no difference between the 2 groups was detected in absolute power. In stair climbing the absolute power output of obese resulted significantly higher (18%) than that of lean controls (p<0.001). In sprint running, the lower average horizontal velocity attained by obese subjects also entailed a different locomotion pattern with shorter step length (L(s); p<0.001), lower frequency (p<0.001) and longer foot contact time with ground (T(c,r); p<0.001). W(spec,j) seems to be a determinant of the poorer motor performance of obese, being significantly correlated with: I) the vertical displacement of the centre of gravity (R2=0.853, p<0.001) in jumping; II) with v(v) in stair climbing; and III) with T(c,r) (R2=0.492, p<0.001), L(s) (R2=0.266, p<0.001) and v (R2=0.454, p<0.001) in sprinting. The results suggest that obese individuals, although partially hampered in kinetic movements, largely rely on their effective specific power output to perform complex anaerobic tasks, and they suffer from the disproportionate excess of inert mass of fat. Furthermore, in view of the sedentary style of life and the consequent degree of muscle de-conditioning accompanying this condition, it may prove useful to implement rehabilitation programs for obesity with effective power training protocols. PMID:11929084

Lafortuna, C L; Fumagalli, E; Vangeli, V; Sartorio, A

2002-02-01

245

Multiple-output support vector machine regression with feature selection for arousal/valence space emotion assessment.  

PubMed

Human emotion recognition (HER) allows the assessment of an affective state of a subject. Until recently, such emotional states were described in terms of discrete emotions, like happiness or contempt. In order to cover a high range of emotions, researchers in the field have introduced different dimensional spaces for emotion description that allow the characterization of affective states in terms of several variables or dimensions that measure distinct aspects of the emotion. One of the most common of such dimensional spaces is the bidimensional Arousal/Valence space. To the best of our knowledge, all HER systems so far have modelled independently, the dimensions in these dimensional spaces. In this paper, we study the effect of modelling the output dimensions simultaneously and show experimentally the advantages in modeling them in this way. We consider a multimodal approach by including features from the Electroencephalogram and a few physiological signals. For modelling the multiple outputs, we employ a multiple output regressor based on support vector machines. We also include an stage of feature selection that is developed within an embedded approach known as Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), proposed initially for SVM. The results show that several features can be eliminated using the multiple output support vector regressor with RFE without affecting the performance of the regressor. From the analysis of the features selected in smaller subsets via RFE, it can be observed that the signals that are more informative into the arousal and valence space discrimination are the EEG, Electrooculogram/Electromiogram (EOG/EMG) and the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). PMID:25570122

Torres-Valencia, Cristian A; Alvarez, Mauricio A; Orozco-Gutierrez, Alvaro A

2014-08-01

246

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Assessment of Left Ventricular Mass in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with a substantial cardiovascular disease burden including early onset hypertension, intracranial aneurysms, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A 41% prevalence of LVH has been reported in ADPKD, using echocardiographic assessment of LV mass (LVM). The HALT PKD study was designed to assess the effect of intensive angiotensin blockade on progression of total kidney volume and LVM. Measurements of LVM were performed using cardiac magnetic resonance (MR). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Five hundred forty-three hypertensive patients with GFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 underwent MR assessment of LVM at baseline. LVM was adjusted for body surface area and expressed as LVM index (LVMI; g/m2). Results Baseline BP was 125.1 ± 14.5/79.3 ± 11.6 mmHg. Average duration of hypertension was 5.79 years. Prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers was present in 59.5% of patients. The prevalence of LVH assessed using nonindexed LVM (g) was 3.9% (n = 21, eight men and 13 women) and 0.93% (n = 5, one man and four women) using LVMI (g/m2). In exploratory analyses, the prevalence of LVH using LVM indexed to H2.7, and the allometric index ppLVmassHW, ranged from 0.74% to 2.23% (n = 4 to 12). Multivariate regression showed significant direct associations of LVMI with systolic BP, serum creatinine, and albuminuria; significant inverse associations with LVMI were found with age and female gender. Conclusions The prevalence of LVH in hypertensive ADPKD patients <50 years of age with short duration of hypertension, and prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers is low. Early BP intervention in ADPKD may have decreased LVH and may potentially decrease cardiovascular mortality. PMID:21903983

Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Schrier, Robert W.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Torres, Vicente E.; Bost, James; Kaya, Diana; Miskulin, Dana C.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Braun, William; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Hogan, Marie C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Kelleher, Cass; Masoumi, Amirali; Glockner, James; Halin, Neil J.; Martin, Diego; Remer, Erick; Patel, Nayana; Pedrosa, Ivan; Wetzel, Louis H.; Thompson, Paul A.; Miller, J. Philip; Meyers, Catherine M.; Bae, K. Ty

2011-01-01

247

Global assessment of agreement among streamflow projections using CMIP5 model outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff outputs from 11 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) participating in the fifth phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project were used to evaluate the changes in streamflow and agreement among AOGCMs at the end of 21st century. Under the highest emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5), high flow is projected to increase in northern high latitudes of Eurasia and North America, Asia, and eastern Africa, while mean and low flows are both projected to decrease in Europe, Middle East, southwestern United States, and Central America. Projected changes under RCP4.5 show similar spatial distribution but with lower magnitude. The model spread of projected changes, however, is found to be large under both scenarios. Bootstrapped Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U test revealed that projected changes of streamflow regimes are statistically not significant in 8-32% (19-59%) of the world under RCP8.5 (RCP4.5). The model agreement on projected increase or decrease in mean and high flows is stronger under RCP8.5 than that under RCP4.5. On the other hand, the projected changes in low flow are robust in both scenarios with strong model agreement. In ˜7% (4%) of the world, high flow is projected to increase and low flow is projected to decrease, whereas in ˜29% (13%) all mean, high, and low flows are projected to increase under RCP8.5 (RCP4.5).

Koirala, Sujan; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Mahendran, Roobavannan; Kanae, Shinjiro

2014-05-01

248

Cardiac risk in the treatment of breast cancer: assessment and management.  

PubMed

As the number of long-term breast cancer survivors has increased, the side effects of adjuvant cancer therapy, such as cardiac toxicity, remain clinically important. Although the cardiac toxicity due to anthracyclines, radiotherapy, or trastuzumab is well-documented, several issues need to be clarified and are the subjects of extensive ongoing clinical research. This review summarizes the incidence of cardiac toxicity due to breast cancer adjuvant therapy and highlights the current trends in early detection and management of cardiac toxicities. PMID:25653554

Valachis, Antonis; Nilsson, Cecilia

2015-01-01

249

Cardiac risk in the treatment of breast cancer: assessment and management  

PubMed Central

As the number of long-term breast cancer survivors has increased, the side effects of adjuvant cancer therapy, such as cardiac toxicity, remain clinically important. Although the cardiac toxicity due to anthracyclines, radiotherapy, or trastuzumab is well-documented, several issues need to be clarified and are the subjects of extensive ongoing clinical research. This review summarizes the incidence of cardiac toxicity due to breast cancer adjuvant therapy and highlights the current trends in early detection and management of cardiac toxicities. PMID:25653554

Valachis, Antonis; Nilsson, Cecilia

2015-01-01

250

Empirical comparison of process and economic input-output life cycle assessment in service industries.  

PubMed

The study fills a gap in existing literature by comparing process-based and E10-based life cycle assessment (LCA) methods empirically in service industries. Despite the numerous methodological differences, the methods were found mostly to produce the same environmentally significant processes for the case organization: the use of electricity in the premises, the construction of the premises, the business travel by cars, the heating of the premises, and the business flights. However, the process-based LCA could not be used to assess the environmental impacts of purchased services properly. The study also recognized most of the theoretical differences listed in the literature, and found the ones related to the cut-offs in purchased services, the price inhomogeneity, and the industry-atypical electricity production have the greatest influence on results. PMID:17154018

Junnila, Seppo I

2006-11-15

251

Cardiac shock wave therapy: assessment of safety and new insights into mechanisms of tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

Although low-energy extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (ECSW) therapy represents an attractive non-invasive treatment option for ischaemic heart disease, the precise mechanisms of its action and influence on the cardiac tissue remain obscure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of SW application on cardiac function and structure. Four-month-old Fisher 344 rats were subjected to ECSW therapy. Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac function were performed at baseline and at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Signs of inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the control and treated hearts. ECSW application did not provoke arrhythmia or increase the troponin-I level. At all time points, the left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening remained stable. Histological analysis revealed neither differences in the extracellular matrix collagen content nor the presence of fibrosis; similarly, there were no signs of inflammation. Moreover, a population of cardiac cells that responded eagerly to ECSW application in the adult heart was identified; c-kit-positive, Ki67-positive, orthochromatic cells, corresponding to cardiac primitive cells, were 2.65-fold more numerous in the treated myocardium. In conclusion, non-invasive ECSW therapy is a safe and effective way of activating cardiac stem cells and myocardial regeneration. Because many factors influence cellular turnover in the ischaemic myocardium during the course of ischaemic heart disease, cardiac remodelling, and heart failure progression, studies to identify the optimal treatment time are warranted. PMID:21790971

Di Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria; Castaldo, Clotilde; Miraglia, Rita; Romano, Veronica; De Angelis, Antonella; Piegari, Elena; Russo, Sergio; Montagnani, Stefania

2012-04-01

252

Use of biomarkers for the assessment of chemotherapy-induced cardiac toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objectives To review the evidence for the use of various biomarkers in the detection of chemotherapy associated cardiac damage. Design and methods Pubmed.gov was queried using the search words chemotherapy and cardiac biomarkers with the filters of past 10 years, humans, and English language. An emphasis was placed on obtaining primary research articles looking at the utility of biomarkers for the detection of chemotherapy-mediated cardiac injury. Results Biomarkers may help identify patients undergoing treatment who are at high risk for cardiotoxicity and may assist in identification of a low risk cohort that does not necessitate continued intensive screening. cTn assays are the best studied biomarkers in this context and may represent a promising and potentially valuable modality for detecting cardiac toxicity in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Monitoring cTnI levels may provide information regarding the development of cardiac toxicity before left ventricular dysfunction becomes apparent on echocardiography or via clinical symptoms. A host of other biomarkers have been evaluated for their utility in the field of chemotherapy related cardiac toxicity with intermittent success; further trials are necessary to determine what role they may end up playing for prediction and prognostication in this setting. Conclusions Biomarkers represent an exciting potential complement or replacement for echocardiographic monitoring of chemotherapy related cardiac toxicity which may allow for earlier realization of the degree of cardiac damage occurring during treatment, creating the opportunity for more timely modulation of therapy. PMID:25445234

Christenson, Eric S.; James, Theodore; Agrawal, Vineet; Park, Ben H.

2015-01-01

253

Cardiac shock wave therapy: assessment of safety and new insights into mechanisms of tissue regeneration  

PubMed Central

Abstract Although low-energy extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (ECSW) therapy represents an attractive non-invasive treatment option for ischaemic heart disease, the precise mechanisms of its action and influence on the cardiac tissue remain obscure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of SW application on cardiac function and structure. Four-month-old Fisher 344 rats were subjected to ECSW therapy. Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac function were performed at baseline and at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Signs of inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the control and treated hearts. ECSW application did not provoke arrhythmia or increase the troponin-I level. At all time points, the left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening remained stable. Histological analysis revealed neither differences in the extracellular matrix collagen content nor the presence of fibrosis; similarly, there were no signs of inflammation. Moreover, a population of cardiac cells that responded eagerly to ECSW application in the adult heart was identified; c-kit–positive, Ki67-positive, orthochromatic cells, corresponding to cardiac primitive cells, were 2.65-fold more numerous in the treated myocardium. In conclusion, non-invasive ECSW therapy is a safe and effective way of activating cardiac stem cells and myocardial regeneration. Because many factors influence cellular turnover in the ischaemic myocardium during the course of ischaemic heart disease, cardiac remodelling, and heart failure progression, studies to identify the optimal treatment time are warranted. PMID:21790971

Di Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria; Castaldo, Clotilde; Miraglia, Rita; Romano, Veronica; De Angelis, Antonella; Piegari, Elena; Russo, Sergio; Montagnani, Stefania

2012-01-01

254

Towards an Atrio-Ventricular Delay optimization assessed by a computer model for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy  

E-print Network

for dierent atrio-ventricular delay (AVD) configurations, in the context of cardiac resynchronization therapy hemodynamics of patients undergoing AVD optimization during CRT. Keywords: Heart Failure, Cardiac pacing delay - AVD), and this configuration has been shown to be patient-specific.2 The lack

Boyer, Edmond

255

A Prospective Assessment of the Effect of Aminophylline Therapy on Urine Output and Inflammation in Critically Ill Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Aminophylline, an established bronchodilator, is also purported to be an effective diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent. However, the data to support these contentions are scant. We conducted a prospective, open-label, single arm, single center study to assess the hypothesis that aminophylline increases urine output and decreases inflammation in critically ill children. Methods: Children less than 18?years of age admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit who were prescribed aminophylline over a 24-h period were eligible for study. The use and dosing of aminophylline was independent of the study and was at the discretion of the clinical team. Data analyzed consisted of demographics, diagnoses, medications, and markers of pulmonary function, renal function, and inflammation. Data were collected at baseline and at 24-h after aminophylline initiation with primary outcomes of change in urine output and inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Results: Thirty-five patients were studied. Urine output increased significantly with aminophylline use [median increase 0.5?mL/kg/h (IQR: ?0.3, 1.3), p?=?0.05] while blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations remained unchanged. Among patients with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, levels of both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 decreased at 24?h of aminophylline therapy. There were no significant differences in pulmonary compliance or resistance among patients invasively ventilated at both time points. Side effects of aminophylline were detected in 7 of 35 patients. Conclusion: Although no definitive conclusions can be drawn from this study, aminophylline may be a useful diuretic and effective anti-inflammatory medication in critically ill children. Given the incidence of side effects, the small sample size and the uncontrolled study design, further study is needed to inform the appropriate use of aminophylline in these children. PMID:24971305

Tamburro, Robert F.; Thomas, Neal J.; Ceneviva, Gary D.; Dettorre, Michael D.; Brummel, Gretchen L.; Lucking, Steven E.

2014-01-01

256

Wearable seismocardiography: towards a beat-by-beat assessment of cardiac mechanics in ambulant subjects.  

PubMed

Seismocardiogram (SCG) is the measure of the micro-vibrations produced by the heart contraction and blood ejection into the vascular tree. Over time, a large body of evidence has been collected on the ability of SCG to reflect cardiac mechanical events such as opening and closure of mitral and aortic valves, atrial filling and point of maximal aortic blood ejection. We recently developed a smart garment, named MagIC-SCG, that allows the monitoring of SCG, electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration out of the laboratory setting in ambulant subjects. The present pilot study illustrates the results of two different experiments performed to obtain a first evaluation on whether a dynamical assessment of indexes of cardiac mechanics can be obtained from SCG recordings obtained by MagIC-SCG. In the first experiment, we evaluated the consistency of the estimates of two indexes of cardiac contractility, the pre-ejection period, PEP, and the left ventricular ejection time, LVET. This was done in the lab, by reproducing an experimental protocol well known in literature, so that our measures derived from SCG could have been compared with PEP and LVET reference values obtained by traditional techniques. Six healthy subjects worn MagIC-SCG while assuming two different postures (supine and standing); PEP was estimated as the time interval between the Q wave in ECG and the SCG wave corresponding to the opening of aortic valve; LVET was the time interval between the SCG waves corresponding to the opening and closure of the aortic valve. The shift from supine to standing posture produced a significant increase in PEP and PEP/LVET ratio, a reduction in LVET and a concomitant rise in the LF/HF ratio in the RR interval (RRI) power spectrum. These results are in line with data available in literature thus providing a first support to the validity of our estimates. In the second experiment, we evaluated in one subject the feasibility of the beat-by-beat assessment of LVET during spontaneous behavior. The subject was continuously monitored by the smart garment from 8 am to 8 pm during a workday. From the whole recording, three data segments were selected: while the subject was traveling to work (M1), during work in the office (O) and while traveling back home (M2). LVET was estimated on a beat-by-beat basis from SCG and the RRI influence was removed by regression analysis. The LVET series displayed marked beat-by-beat fluctuations at the respiratory frequency. The amplitude of these fluctuations changed in the three periods and was lower when the LF/HF RRI power ratio was higher, at O, thus suggesting a possible influence of the autonomic nervous system on LVET short-term variability. To the best of our knowledge this case report provides for the first time a representation of the beat-by-beat dynamics of a systolic time interval during daily activity. The statistical characterization of these findings remains to be explored on a larger population. PMID:23664242

Di Rienzo, M; Vaini, E; Castiglioni, P; Merati, G; Meriggi, P; Parati, G; Faini, A; Rizzo, F

2013-11-01

257

Detecting drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex: New insights for cardiac safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Background: Drugs slowing the conduction of the cardiac action potential and prolonging QRS complex duration by blocking the sodium current (I{sub Na}) may carry pro-arrhythmic risks. Due to the frequency-dependent block of I{sub Na}, this study assesses whether activity-related spontaneous increases in heart rate (HR) occurring during standard dog telemetry studies can be used to optimise the detection of class I antiarrhythmic-induced QRS prolongation. Methods: Telemetered dogs were orally dosed with quinidine (class Ia), mexiletine (class Ib) or flecainide (class Ic). QRS duration was determined standardly (5 beats averaged at rest) but also prior to and at the plateau of each acute increase in HR (3 beats averaged at steady state), and averaged over 1 h period from 1 h pre-dose to 5 h post-dose. Results: Compared to time-matched vehicle, at rest, only quinidine and flecainide induced increases in QRS duration (E{sub max} 13% and 20% respectively, P < 0.01–0.001) whereas mexiletine had no effect. Importantly, the increase in QRS duration was enhanced at peak HR with an additional effect of + 0.7 ± 0.5 ms (quinidine, NS), + 1.8 ± 0.8 ms (mexiletine, P < 0.05) and + 2.8 ± 0.8 ms (flecainide, P < 0.01) (calculated as QRS at basal HR-QRS at high HR). Conclusion: Electrocardiogram recordings during elevated HR, not considered during routine analysis optimised for detecting QT prolongation, can be used to sensitise the detection of QRS prolongation. This could prove useful when borderline QRS effects are detected. Analysing during acute increases in HR could also be useful for detecting drug-induced effects on other aspects of cardiac function. -- Highlights: ? We aimed to improve detection of drug-induced QRS prolongation in safety screening. ? We used telemetered dogs to test class I antiarrhythmics at low and high heart rate. ? At low heart rate only quinidine and flecainide induced an increase in QRS duration. ? At high heart rate the effects of two out of three antiarrhythmics were enhanced. ? Detection of a drug-induced prolongation of QRS was improved at high heart rate.

Cros, C., E-mail: caroline.cros@hotmail.co.uk [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Skinner, M., E-mail: Matthew.Skinner@astrazeneca.com [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Moors, J. [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom)] [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Lainee, P. [Sanofi-Aventis R and D, 371, rue du Pr Joseph Blayac, 34184 Montpellier Cedex 04 (France)] [Sanofi-Aventis R and D, 371, rue du Pr Joseph Blayac, 34184 Montpellier Cedex 04 (France); Valentin, J.P. [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom)] [Safety Pharmacology, Global Safety Assessment, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TG (United Kingdom)

2012-12-01

258

Assessment of cardiac function during mechanical circulatory support: the quest for a suitable clinical index.  

PubMed

A new index to assess left ventricular (LV) function in patients implanted with continuous flow left-ventricular assist devices (LVADs) is proposed. Derived from the pump flow signal, this index is defined as the coefficient (k) of the semilogarithmic relationship between "pseudo-ejection" fraction (pEF) and the volume discharged by the pump in diastole, (V d). pEF is defined as the ratio of the "pseudo-stroke volume" (pSV) to V d. The pseudo-stroke volume is the difference between V d and the volume discharged by the pump in systole (V s), both obtained by integrating pump flow with respect to time in a cardiac cycle. k was compared in-vivo with others two indices: the LV pressure-based index, M(TP), and the pump flow-based index, I(Q). M(TP) is the slope of the linear regression between the "triple-product" and end-diastolic pressure, EDP. The triple-product, TP = LV SP.dP/dt(max). HR, is the product of LV systolic pressure, maximum time-derivative of LV pressure, and heart rate. I(Q) is the slope of the linear regression between maximum time-derivative of pump flow, dQ/dt(max), and pump flow peak-to-peak amplitude variation, Q(P2P). To test the response of k to contractile state changes, contractility was altered through pharmacological interventions. The absolute value of k decreased from 1.354 ± 0.25 (baseline) to 0.685 ± 0.21 after esmolol infusion. The proposed index is sensitive to changes in inotropic state, and has the potential to be used clinically to assess contractile function of patients implanted with VAD. PMID:22254290

Ferreira, Antonio L; Wang, Yajuan; Gorcsan, John; Antaki, James F

2011-01-01

259

Commutability of Possible External Quality Assessment Materials for Cardiac Troponin Measurement  

PubMed Central

Background The measurement of cardiac troponin is crucial in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. The performance of troponin measurement is most conveniently monitored by external quality assessment (EQA) programs. The commutability of EQA samples is often unknown and the effectiveness of EQA programs is limited. Methods Commutability of possible EQA materials was evaluated. Commercial control materials used in an EQA program, human serum pools prepared from patient samples, purified analyte preparations, swine sera from model animals and a set of patient samples were measured for cTnI with 4 assays including Abbott Architect, Beckman Access, Ortho Vitros and Siemens Centaur. The measurement results were logarithm-transformed, and the transformed data for patient samples were pairwise analyzed with Deming regression and 95% prediction intervals were calculated for each pair of assays. The commutability of the materials was evaluated by comparing the logarithmic results of the materials with the limits of the intervals. Matrix-related biases were estimated for noncommutable materials. The impact of matrix-related bias on EQA was analyzed and a possible correction for the bias was proposed. Results Human serum pools were commutable for all assays; purified analyte preparations were commutable for 2 of the 6 assay pairs; commercial control materials and swine sera were all noncommutable; swine sera showed no reactivity to Vitros assay. The matrix-related biases for noncommutable materials ranged from ?83% to 944%. Matrix-related biases of the EQA materials caused major abnormal between-assay variations in the EQA program and correction of the biases normalized the variations. Conclusion Commutability of materials has major impact on the effectiveness of EQA programs for cTnI measurement. Human serum pools prepared from patient samples are commutable and other materials are mostly noncommutable. EQA programs should include at least one human serum pool to allow proper interpretation of EQA results. PMID:25000586

Zhang, Shunli; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Chuanbao; Li, Yilong; Zhao, Haijian; Cheng, Fei; Yu, Songlin; Wang, Mo; Chen, Wenxiang

2014-01-01

260

Non-invasive assessment of cardiac function and pulmonary vascular resistance in an canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to quantify right (RV) and left (LV) ventricular function, pulmonary artery flow (QP), tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity (TRV), and aorta flow (QS) from a single 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) (time-resolved three-directionally motion encoded CMR) sequence in a canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods Acute PH was induced in six female beagles by microbead injection into the right atrium. Pulmonary arterial (PAP) and pulmonary capillary wedge (PCWP) pressures and cardiac output (CO) were measured by right heart catheterization (RHC) at baseline and following induction of acute PH. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRRHC) was calculated from RHC values of PAP, PCWP and CO (PVRRHC?=?(PAP-PCWP)/CO). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed on a 3 T scanner at baseline and following induction of acute PH. RV and LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes were determined from both CINE balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and 4D flow CMR magnitude images. QP, TRV, and QS were determined from manually placed cutplanes in the 4D flow CMR flow-sensitive images in the main (MPA), right (RPA), and left (LPA) pulmonary arteries, the tricuspid valve (TRV), and aorta respectively. MPA, RPA, and LPA flow was also measured using two-dimensional flow-sensitive (2D flow) CMR. Results Biases between 4D flow CMR and bSSFP were 0.8 mL and 1.6 mL for RV EDV and RV ESV, respectively, and 0.8 mL and 4 mL for LV EDV and LV ESV, respectively. Flow in the MPA, RPA, and LPA did not change after induction of acute PAH (p?=?0.42-0.81). MPA, RPA, and LPA flow determined with 4D flow CMR was significantly lower than with 2D flow (p?cardiac function and cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters important in the assessment of PH. PMID:24625242

2014-01-01

261

Cardiac Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program ... be designed to meet your needs. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Team Cardiac rehab involves a long-term commitment ...

262

Noninvasive Assessment of Cardiac Abnormalities in Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, but only ~10% of those affected show clinical manifestations of the disease. To study the immune events of myocardial injuries, various mouse models of myocarditis have been widely used. This study involved experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced with cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc)-? 334–352 in A/J mice; the affected animals develop lymphocytic myocarditis but with no apparent clinical signs. In this model, the utility of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) as a non-invasive modality to determine the cardiac structural and functional changes in animals immunized with Myhc-? 334–352 is shown. EAM and healthy mice were imaged using a 9.4 T (400 MHz) 89 mm vertical core bore scanner equipped with a 4 cm millipede radio-frequency imaging probe and 100 G/cm triple axis gradients. Cardiac images were acquired from anesthetized animals using a gradient-echo-based cine pulse sequence, and the animals were monitored by respiration and pulse oximetry. The analysis revealed an increase in the thickness of the ventricular wall in EAM mice, with a corresponding decrease in the interior diameter of ventricles, when compared with healthy mice. The data suggest that morphological and functional changes in the inflamed hearts can be non-invasively monitored by MRM in live animals. In conclusion, MRM offers an advantage of assessing the progression and regression of myocardial injuries in diseases caused by infectious agents, as well as response to therapies. PMID:24998332

Massilamany, Chandirasegaran; Khalilzad-Sharghi, Vahid; Gangaplara, Arunakumar; Steffen, David; Othman, Shadi F.; Reddy, Jay

2015-01-01

263

Effects of vital exhaustion on cardiac autonomic nervous functions assessed by heart rate variability at rest in middle-aged male workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of vital exhaustion (VE) on cardiac autonomic functions in relation to working conditions such\\u000a as overtime and frequent business trips, and to lifestyles such as smoking on 52 healthy middle-aged male workers. VE was\\u000a evaluated by an abbreviated Maastricht Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire. Cardiac autonomic function atsupine rest was assessed\\u000a by spectral analysis of heart rate variability

Takemasa Watanabe; Yoshiki Sugiyama; Yoshiko Sumi; Misuzu Watanabe; Kiyomi Takeuchi; Fumio Kobayashi; Koichi Kono

2002-01-01

264

Sympathetic restraint of respiratory sinus arrhythmia: implications for vagal-cardiac tone assessment in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clinicians and experimentalists routinely estimate vagal-cardiac nerve traffic from respiratory sinus arrhythmia. However, evidence suggests that sympathetic mechanisms may also modulate respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Our study examined modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia by sympathetic outflow. We measured R-R interval spectral power in 10 volunteers that breathed sequentially at 13 frequencies, from 15 to 3 breaths/min, before and after beta-adrenergic blockade. We fitted changes of respiratory frequency R-R interval spectral power with a damped oscillator model: frequency-dependent oscillations with a resonant frequency, generated by driving forces and modified by damping influences. beta-Adrenergic blockade enhanced respiratory sinus arrhythmia at all frequencies (at some, fourfold). The damped oscillator model fit experimental data well (39 of 40 ramps; r = 0.86 +/- 0.02). beta-Adrenergic blockade increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia by amplifying respiration-related driving forces (P < 0.05), without altering resonant frequency or damping influences. Both spectral power data and the damped oscillator model indicate that cardiac sympathetic outflow markedly reduces heart period oscillations at all frequencies. This challenges the notion that respiratory sinus arrhythmia is mediated simply by vagal-cardiac nerve activity. These results have important implications for clinical and experimental estimation of human vagal cardiac tone.

Taylor, J. A.; Myers, C. W.; Halliwill, J. R.; Seidel, H.; Eckberg, D. L.

2001-01-01

265

Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization in the preoperative assessment of ventricular septal defect in infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Cardiac catheterization is commonly performed before repair of ventricular septal defect (VSD) in infancy. No study has addressed the accuracy of echocardiography alone in defining all of the important anatomic features in this population. Methods Consecutive infants undergoing VSD repair between 1991 and 1995 (n = 156) were reviewed. The number of additional VSDs and the presence of commonly

Alan G. Magee; Christine Boutin; Brian W. McCrindle; Jeffrey F. Smallhorn

1998-01-01

266

Cardiac Autonomic Regulation under Hypnosis Assessed by Heart Rate Variability: Spectral Analysis and Fractal Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effects of hypnosis on autonomic cardiac control. We hypothesized a modification of autonomic modulation of the heart rate with an enhanced vagal tone during hypnosis compared to baseline. Methods: In 12 healthy subjects (6 men and 6 women, 22.2 ± 1.0 years of age) ECG was recorded at baseline and during hypnosis. Heart rate variability

André E. Aubert; Bart Verheyden; Frank Beckers; Jan Tack; Joris Vandenberghe

2009-01-01

267

Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Long-Term Mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed anatomical information on infarction. However, few studies have investigated the association of these data with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Objective To study the association between data regarding infarct size and anatomy, as obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, and long-term mortality. Methods A total of 1959 reports of “infarct size” were identified in 7119 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, of which 420 had clinical and laboratory confirmation of previous myocardial infarction. The variables studied were the classic risk factors – left ventricular ejection fraction, categorized ventricular function, and location of acute myocardial infarction. Infarct size and acute myocardial infarction extent and transmurality were analyzed alone and together, using the variable named “MET-AMI”. The statistical analysis was carried out using the elastic net regularization, with the Cox model and survival trees. Results The mean age was 62.3 ± 12 years, and 77.3% were males. During the mean follow-up of 6.4 ± 2.9 years, there were 76 deaths (18.1%). Serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with mortality. Age was the main explanatory factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables independently associated with mortality were transmurality of acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.047), ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005) and infarcted size (p = 0.0005); the latter was the main explanatory variable for ischemic heart disease death. The MET-AMI variable was the most strongly associated with risk of ischemic heart disease death (HR: 16.04; 95%CI: 2.64-97.5; p = 0.003). Conclusion The anatomical data of infarction, obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, were independently associated with long-term mortality, especially for ischemic heart disease death.

Petriz, João Luiz Fernandes; Gomes, Bruno Ferraz de Oliveira; Rua, Braulio Santos; Azevedo, Clério Francisco; Hadlich, Marcelo Souza; Mussi, Henrique Thadeu Periard; Taets, Gunnar de Cunto; do Nascimento, Emília Matos; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; e Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza

2015-01-01

268

Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Long-Term Mortality.  

PubMed

Background: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed anatomical information on infarction. However, few studies have investigated the association of these data with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Objective: To study the association between data regarding infarct size and anatomy, as obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, and long-term mortality. Methods: A total of 1959 reports of "infarct size" were identified in 7119 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, of which 420 had clinical and laboratory confirmation of previous myocardial infarction. The variables studied were the classic risk factors - left ventricular ejection fraction, categorized ventricular function, and location of acute myocardial infarction. Infarct size and acute myocardial infarction extent and transmurality were analyzed alone and together, using the variable named "MET-AMI". The statistical analysis was carried out using the elastic net regularization, with the Cox model and survival trees. Results: The mean age was 62.3 ± 12 years, and 77.3% were males. During the mean follow-up of 6.4 ± 2.9 years, there were 76 deaths (18.1%). Serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with mortality. Age was the main explanatory factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables independently associated with mortality were transmurality of acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.047), ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005) and infarcted size (p = 0.0005); the latter was the main explanatory variable for ischemic heart disease death. The MET-AMI variable was the most strongly associated with risk of ischemic heart disease death (HR: 16.04; 95%CI: 2.64-97.5; p = 0.003). Conclusion: The anatomical data of infarction, obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, were independently associated with long-term mortality, especially for ischemic heart disease death. PMID:25424161

Petriz, João Luiz Fernandes; Gomes, Bruno Ferraz de Oliveira; Rua, Braulio Santos; Azevedo, Clério Francisco; Hadlich, Marcelo Souza; Mussi, Henrique Thadeu Periard; Taets, Gunnar de Cunto; Nascimento, Emília Matos do; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza E

2014-11-21

269

A time-saving method to assess power output at lactate threshold in well-trained and elite cyclists.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lactate threshold (LT) as a percentage of maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) and power output at LT (LTW) and also to investigate to what extent V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, oxygen cost of cycling (CC), and maximal aerobic power (MAP) determine LTW in cycling to develop a new time-saving model for testing LTW. To do this, 108 male competitive cyclists with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 65.2 ± 7.4 ml·kg·min and an average LTW of 274 ± 43 W were tested for V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LT %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LTW, MAP, and CC on a test ergometer cycle. The product of MAP and individual LT in %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was found to be a good determinant of LTW (R = 0.98, p < 0.0001). However, LT in %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was found to be a poor determinant of LTW (R = 0.39, p < 0.0001). Based on these findings, we have suggested a new time-saving method for calculating LTW in well-trained cyclists. The benefits from this model come both from tracking LTW during training interventions and from regularly assessing training status in competitive cyclists. Briefly, this method is based on the present findings that LTW depends on LT in %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and CC and may after an initial test session reduce the time for the subsequent testing of LTW by as much as 50% without the need for blood samples. PMID:23942166

Støren, Øyvind; Rønnestad, Bent R; Sunde, Arnstein; Hansen, Joar; Ellefsen, Stian; Helgerud, Jan

2014-03-01

270

Towards an atrio-ventricular delay optimization assessed by a computer model for cardiac resynchronization therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, lumped-parameter models of the cardiovascular system, the cardiac electrical conduction system and a pacemaker are coupled to generate mitral ow pro les for di erent atrio-ventricular delay (AVD) con gurations, in the context of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). First, we perform a local sensitivity analysis of left ventricular and left atrial parameters on mitral ow characteristics, namely E and A wave amplitude, mitral ow duration, and mitral ow time integral. Additionally, a global sensitivity analysis over all model parameters is presented to screen for the most relevant parameters that a ect the same mitral ow characteristics. Results provide insight on the in uence of left ventricle and atrium in uence on mitral ow pro les. This information will be useful for future parameter estimation of the model that could reproduce the mitral ow pro les and cardiovascular hemodynamics of patients undergoing AVD optimization during CRT.

Ojeda, David; Le Rolle, Virginie; Tse Ve Koon, Kevin; Thebault, Christophe; Donal, Erwan; Hernández, Alfredo I.

2013-11-01

271

Assessing quality in cardiac surgery: why this is necessary in the twenty-first century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost and high-profile nature of coronary surgery means that this is an area of close public scrutiny. As much pioneering work in data collection and risk analyses has been carried out by cardiac surgeons, substantial information exists and the correct interpretation of that data is identified as an important issue. This paper considers the background and history of risk-adjustment in cardiac surgery, the uses of quality data, examines the observed/expected mortality ratio and looks at issues such as cost and reactions to outliers. The conclusion of the study is that the continuation of accurate data collection by the whole operative team and a strong commitment to constantly improving quality is crucial to its meaningful application.

Swain, J. A.; Hartz, R. S.

2000-01-01

272

An autocalibrating algorithm for non-invasive cardiac output determination based on the analysis of an arterial pressure waveform recorded with radial artery applanation tonometry: a proof of concept pilot analysis.  

PubMed

We aimed to describe and evaluate an autocalibrating algorithm for determination of cardiac output (CO) based on the analysis of an arterial pressure (AP) waveform recorded using radial artery applanation tonometry (AT) in a continuous non-invasive manner. To exemplarily describe and evaluate the CO algorithm, we deliberately selected 22 intensive care unit patients with impeccable AP waveforms from a database including AP data obtained with AT (T-Line system; Tensys Medical Inc.). When recording AP data for this prospectively maintained database, we had simultaneously noted CO measurements obtained from just calibrated pulse contour analysis (PiCCO system; Pulsion Medical Systems) every minute. We applied the autocalibrating CO algorithm to the AT-derived AP waveforms and noted the computed CO values every minute during a total of 15 min of data recording per patient (3 × 5-min intervals). These 330 AT-derived CO (AT-CO) values were then statistically compared to the corresponding pulse contour CO (PC-CO) values. Mean ± standard deviation for PC-CO and AT-CO was 7.0 ± 2.0 and 6.9 ± 2.1 L/min, respectively. The coefficient of variation for PC-CO and AT-CO was 0.280 and 0.299, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a bias of +0.1 L/min (standard deviation 0.8 L/min; 95% limits of agreement -1.5 to 1.7 L/min, percentage error 23%). CO can be computed based on the analysis of the AP waveform recorded with AT. In the selected patients included in this pilot analysis, a percentage error of 23% indicates clinically acceptable agreement between AT-CO and PC-CO. PMID:24322474

Saugel, Bernd; Meidert, Agnes S; Langwieser, Nicolas; Wagner, Julia Y; Fassio, Florian; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Prechtl, Luisa M; Huber, Wolfgang; Schmid, Roland M; Gödje, Oliver

2014-08-01

273

Assessment of cardiac proteome dynamics with heavy water: slower protein synthesis rates in interfibrillar than subsarcolemmal mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Traditional proteomics provides static assessment of protein content, but not synthetic rates. Recently, proteome dynamics with heavy water (2H2O) was introduced, where 2H labels amino acids that are incorporated into proteins, and the synthesis rate of individual proteins is calculated using mass isotopomer distribution analysis. We refine this approach with a novel algorithm and rigorous selection criteria that improve the accuracy and precision of the calculation of synthesis rates and use it to measure protein kinetics in spatially distinct cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated from adult rats, which were given 2H2O in the drinking water for up to 60 days. Plasma 2H2O and myocardial 2H-enrichment of amino acids were stable throughout the experimental protocol. Multiple tryptic peptides were identified from 28 proteins in both SSM and IFM and showed a time-dependent increase in heavy mass isotopomers that was consistent within a given protein. Mitochondrial protein synthesis was relatively slow (average half-life of 30 days, 2.4% per day). Although the synthesis rates for individual proteins were correlated between IFM and SSM (R2 = 0.84; P < 0.0001), values in IFM were 15% less than SSM (P < 0.001). In conclusion, administration of 2H2O results in stable enrichment of the cardiac precursor amino acid pool, with the use of refined analytical and computational methods coupled with cell fractionation one can measure synthesis rates for cardiac proteins in subcellular compartments in vivo, and protein synthesis is slower in mitochondria located among the myofibrils than in the subsarcolemmal region. PMID:23457012

Dabkowski, Erinne R.; Shekar, Kadambari Chandra; Li, Ling; Ribeiro, Rogerio F.; Walsh, Kenneth; Previs, Stephen F.; Sadygov, Rovshan G.; Willard, Belinda; Stanley, William C.

2013-01-01

274

SVM-based classification of LV wall motion in cardiac MRI with the assessment of STE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose an automated method to classify normal/abnormal wall motion in Left Ventricle (LV) function in cardiac cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), taking as reference, strain information obtained from 2D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE). Without the need of pre-processing and by exploiting all the images acquired during a cardiac cycle, spatio-temporal profiles are extracted from a subset of radial lines from the ventricle centroid to points outside the epicardial border. Classical Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used to classify features extracted from gray levels of the spatio-temporal profile as well as their representations in the Wavelet domain under the assumption that the data may be sparse in that domain. Based on information obtained from radial strain curves in 2D-STE studies, we label all the spatio-temporal profiles that belong to a particular segment as normal if the peak systolic radial strain curve of this segment presents normal kinesis, or abnormal if the peak systolic radial strain curve presents hypokinesis or akinesis. For this study, short-axis cine- MR images are collected from 9 patients with cardiac dyssynchrony for which we have the radial strain tracings at the mid-papilary muscle obtained by 2D STE; and from one control group formed by 9 healthy subjects. The best classification performance is obtained with the gray level information of the spatio-temporal profiles using a RBF kernel with 91.88% of accuracy, 92.75% of sensitivity and 91.52% of specificity.

Mantilla, Juan; Garreau, Mireille; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Paredes, José Luis

2015-01-01

275

Real time assessment of RF cardiac tissue ablation with optical spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

An optical spectroscopy approach is demonstrated allowing for critical parameters during RF ablation of cardiac tissue to be evaluated in real time. The method is based on incorporating in a typical ablation catheter transmitting and receiving fibers that terminate at the tip of the catheter. By analyzing the spectral characteristics of the NIR diffusely reflected light, information is obtained on such parameters as, catheter-tissue proximity, lesion formation, depth of penetration of the lesion, formation of char during the ablation, formation of coagulum around the ablation site, differentiation of ablated from healthy tissue, and recognition of micro-bubble formation in the tissue.

Demos, S G; Sharareh, S

2008-03-20

276

Examining the global environmental impact of regional consumption activities — Part 2: Review of input–output models for the assessment of environmental impacts embodied in trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a detailed review of recently described single- and multi-region input–output models used to assess environmental impacts of internationally traded goods and services. It is the second part of a two-part contribution. In Part 1 [Turner, K., Lenzen, M., Wiedmann, T. and Barrett, J. in press. Examining the Global Environmental Impact of Regional Consumption Activities — Part 1:

Thomas Wiedmann; Manfred Lenzen; Karen Turner; John Barrett

2007-01-01

277

Utilization of YouTube as a Tool to Assess Patient Perception Regarding Implanted Cardiac Devices  

PubMed Central

Background: The outreach of YouTube may have a dramatic role in the widespread dissemination of knowledge on implantable cardioverter devices (ICD). Aims: This study was designed to review and analyze the information available on YouTube pertaining to implantable cardiac devices such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and pacemakers. Materials and Methods: YouTube was queried for the terms “ICD”, “Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator”, and “Pacemaker”. The videos were reviewed and categorized as according to content; number of views and “likes” or “dislikes” was recorded by two separate observers. Results: Of the 55 videos reviewed, 18 of the videos were categorized as patient education, 12 were advertisements, 8 were intraoperative videos documenting the device implantation procedures, 7 of the videos were produced to document personal patient experiences, and 4 were categorized as documentation of a public event. 3 were intended to educate health care workers. The remaining 3 were intended to raise public awareness about sudden cardiac death. The videos portraying intraoperative procedures generated the most “likes” or “dislikes” per view. Conclusion: While YouTube provides a logical platform for delivery of health information, the information on this platform is not regulated. Initiative by reputed authorities and posting accurate information in such platform can be a great aid in public education regarding device therapy. PMID:25077075

Hayes, Kevin; Mainali, Prajeena; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Pant, Sadip; Badheka, Apurva O; Paydak, Hakan

2014-01-01

278

Cardiac risk assessment before vascular surgery: a prospective study comparing clinical evaluation, dobutamine stress echocardiography, and dobutamine Tc99m sestamibi tomoscintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preoperative evaluation for cardiac risk assessment before peripheral vascular surgery remains controversial. Between January and June 1994, a prospective open study was carried out in 156 patients scheduled for elective vascular procedures (63 carotid endarterectomies, 34 abdominal aortic aneurysms, 29 aortoiliac and 30 infrainguinal reconstructions) to compare the ability of clinical data, dobutamine stress echocardiography, and dobutamine Tc-99m sestamibi tomoscintigraphy

H. Van Damme; L. Piérard; D. Gillain; Th. Benoit; P. Rigo; R. Limet

1997-01-01

279

Advanced imaging of cardiac sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis with cardiac involvement is underdiagnosed and can put patients at risk of morbidity including conduction defects, arrhythmias and heart failure, as well as sudden cardiac death. In addition, cardiac sarcoidosis may have no clinical manifestations or non-specific presentation and diagnosis may be difficult on clinical criteria. Investigation for cardiac sarcoidosis should be considered in those with extra-cardiac sarcoidosis and cardiac findings as well as those under the age of 60 years presenting with atrioventricular block without a clear cause. Advanced imaging modalities including cardiac magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography may help in both the diagnosis and assessment of response to treatment for cardiac sarcoidosis. This ultimately may help to minimize associated adverse outcomes from this enigmatic disease. PMID:25702313

Ayoub, Chadi; Pena, Elena; Ohira, Hiroshi; Dick, Alexander; Leung, Eugene; Nery, Pablo B; Birnie, David; Beanlands, Rob S B

2015-04-01

280

Predictive Value of Assessing Diastolic Strain Rate on Survival in Cardiac Amyloidosis Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction  

PubMed Central

Objectives Since diastolic abnormalities are typical findings of cardiac amyloidosis (CA), we hypothesized that speckle-tracking-imaging (STI) derived longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (LSRdias) could predict outcome in CA patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF >50%). Background Diastolic abnormalities including altered early filling are typical findings and are related to outcome in CA patients. Reduced longitudinal systolic strain (LSsys) assessed by STI predicts increased mortality in CA patients. It remains unknown if LSRdias also related to outcome in these patients. Methods Conventional echocardiography and STI were performed in 41 CA patients with preserved LVEF (25 male; mean age 65±9 years). Global and segmental LSsys and LSRdias were obtained in six LV segments from apical 4-chamber views. Results Nineteen (46%) out of 41 CA patients died during a median of 16 months (quartiles 5–35 months) follow-up. Baseline mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE, 6±2 vs. 8±3 mm), global LSRdias and basal-septal LSRdias were significantly lower in non-survivors than in survivors (all p<0.05). NYHA class, number of non-cardiac organs involved, MAPSE, mid-septal LSsys, global LSRdias, basal-septal LSRdias and E/LSRdias were the univariable predictors of all-cause death. Multivariable analysis showed that number of non-cardiac organs involved (hazard ratio [HR] ?=?1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–3.26, P?=?0.010), global LSRdias (HR?=?7.30, 95% CI 2.08–25.65, P?=?0.002), and E/LSRdias (HR?=?2.98, 95% CI 1.54–5.79, P?=?0.001) remained independently predictive of increased mortality risk. The prognostic performance of global LSRdias was optimal at a cutoff value of 0.85 S?1 (sensitivity 68%, specificity 67%). Global LSRdias <0.85 S?1 predicted a 4-fold increased mortality in CA patients with preserved LVEF. Conclusions STI-derived early diastolic strain rate is a powerful independent predictor of survival in CA patients with preserved LVEF. PMID:25542015

Störk, Stefan; Herrmann, Sebastian; Kramer, Bastian; Cikes, Maja; Gaudron, Philipp Daniel; Knop, Stefan; Ertl, Georg; Bijnens, Bart; Weidemann, Frank

2014-01-01

281

South Carolina`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the findings of a 1995 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in South Carolina and presents changes in product output and residue use since 1994. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) periodic inventory of volume and removals from the State`s timberland. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood receipts and annual timber product drain by county in 1995 and to determine interstate and cross-regional movement of industrial roundwood. Only primary wood-using mills were canvassed. Primary mills are those that process roundwood in log or bolt form or as chipped roundwood.

Johnson, T.G.; Jenkins, A.; Stratton, D.P.; Bischoff, P.S.

1997-05-01

282

South Carolina's timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1991. Forest Service resource bulletin  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, roundwood output from South Carolina's forests totaled 508 million cubic feet, down 13 percent from 1989. Mill byproducts generated from primary processors declined an equal rate to 170 million cubic feet. Almost 100 percent of the residues were used, mostly for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood remained the leading roundwood product at 250 million cubic feet; saw logs was second with 203 million cubic feet; veneer production was third at 52 million cubic feet. One hundred and eight mills were operating in 1991, nine fewer than in 1989.

Johnson, T.G.; Davenport, E.L.

1993-05-01

283

Cardiac Assessment Risk Evaluation (Care Study) of African American College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify physiological and psychosocial variables of young African American women that may serve as a risk factor for heart disease and to assess their health promotion programme preferences. Method: A descriptive design was used to assess the cardiovascular risk factors of 100 African American women ages 18 to 40 years, enrolled in…

Brown, Sandra C.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Copeland, Amy L.; Gordon, Carol; Dudley, Mary; Manogin, Toni; Backstedt, Carol; Pourciau, Cathi; Ghebretatios, Ghenet

2005-01-01

284

Operation Everest III (Comex '97): Modifications of Cardiac Function Secondary to Altitude-induced Hypoxia An Echocardiographic and Doppler Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ameters, left ventricular (LV) diameters, and right ventricular (RV) end-systolic diameter fell regu- larly. Heart rate (HR) increased at all altitudes accompanied by a decrease in stroke volume; in total, cardiac output ( ) remained unchanged. LV filling was assessed on transmitral and pulmonary venous flow profiles. Mitral peak E velocity decreased, peak A velocity increased, and E\\/A ratio de-

ALAIN BOUSSUGES; FLORENCE MOLENAT; HENRI BURNET; EMMANUEL CAUCHY; BERNARD GARDETTE; JEAN-MARIE SAINTY; YVES JAMMES; JEAN-PAUL RICHALET

285

Left ventricular modelling: a quantitative functional assessment tool based on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

We present the development and testing of a semi-automated tool to support the diagnosis of left ventricle (LV) dysfunctions from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). CMR short-axis images of the LVs were obtained in 15 patients and processed to detect endocardial and epicardial contours and compute volume, mass and regional wall motion (WM). Results were compared with those obtained from manual tracing by an expert cardiologist. Nearest neighbour tracking and finite-element theory were merged to calculate local myocardial strains and torsion. The method was tested on a virtual phantom, on a healthy LV and on two ischaemic LVs with different severity of the pathology. Automated analysis of CMR data was feasible in 13/15 patients: computed LV volumes and wall mass correlated well with manually extracted data. The detection of regional WM abnormalities showed good sensitivity (77.8%), specificity (85.1%) and accuracy (82%). On the virtual phantom, computed local strains differed by less than 14 per cent from the results of commercial finite-element solver. Strain calculation on the healthy LV showed uniform and synchronized circumferential strains, with peak shortening of about 20 per cent at end systole, progressively higher systolic wall thickening going from base to apex, and a 10° torsion. In the two pathological LVs, synchronicity and homogeneity were partially lost, anomalies being more evident for the more severely injured LV. Moreover, LV torsion was dramatically reduced. Preliminary testing confirmed the validity of our approach, which allowed for the fast analysis of LV function, even though future improvements are possible. PMID:22670208

Conti, C. A.; Votta, E.; Corsi, C.; De Marchi, D.; Tarroni, G.; Stevanella, M.; Lombardi, M.; Parodi, O.; Caiani, E. G.; Redaelli, A.

2011-01-01

286

An improved method for measuring heart-rate variability: assessment of cardiac autonomic function.  

PubMed

Heart rate oscillates in synchrony with respiration. Several methods have been employed to assess this 'sinus arrhythmia', as an index of autonomic nervous system function. This paper proposes a new, easily computed measure, R, which is relatively resistant to the major nonrespiratory sources of variation, including premature beats, heart-rate differences among subjects, and slow trends in heart rate over time within subjects. The method can also be used more generally in any context where individuals are associated with event processes (for example, with seizures), when one requires assessment of the extent to which a point process is periodic with a particular known period. PMID:6518250

Weinberg, C R; Pfeifer, M A

1984-09-01

287

Cardiac Amyloidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... pdf/view ). Previous Section Next Section Sources of Funding Dr Quarta received funding from the “Istituto Nazionale per le Ricerche Cardiovascolari ( ... Women's Hospital Cardiac Amyloidosis Fund. Dr Falk received funding from the Brigham and Women's Hospital Cardiac Amyloidosis ...

288

Noncardiac Surgery: Evaluating and Minimizing Cardiac Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perioperative cardiac complications remain a great concern during noncardiac surgeries since a large majority of patients undergoing such procedures are elderly, who have a greater prevalence of coronary artery disease. Thus, it is imperative to assess risk of perioperative cardiac complications in all patients scheduled for noncardiac surgery. The current review attempts to outline a systematic approach to assess cardiac

Rajendra H. Mehta; Michael H. Sketch Jr.; Eduardo Bossone; Christopher B. Granger

2005-01-01

289

Application of Lidar Data in the Assessment of Observed and Model Output Temperature Soundings During the Pacific 2001 Field Study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface and airborne lidar, along with upper air soundings and model derived soundings were examined over the course of the Pacific 2001 Air Quality Field Study. The general region of interest in this report is the Georgia Basin with a focus on the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. Data included the following: RASCAL (Rapid Acquisition SCanning Aerosol Lidar), a surface-based scanning lidar facility at the Langley Lochiel site, operating close to 16 hours each day; AERIAL (AERosol Imaging Airborne Lidar), a simultaneous upward/downward airborne lidar system providing 9 flights during the field study; radiosondes, released 4 times daily from the Langley Poppy site; and once-daily 3.3 km resolution MC2 (Mesoscale Compressible Community weather prediction) model output. Methods of diagnosing mixing heights amongst the various datasets are outlined. The higher resolution lidar data provides a means of calibrating mixing heights from radiosondes and also allows a means of evaluating model derived soundings. Results show that in most cases there is good agreement amongst the various sources of data. This data is then used to demonstrate the variation of mixing height with sea breeze activity over the Lower Fraser Valley.

Strawbridge, K. B.; Snyder, B. J.

2002-12-01

290

CT Imaging: Cardiac Electrophysiology Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An understanding of detailed 3-D cardiac anatomy is important to the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Cardiovascular computed\\u000a tomographic angiography (CCTA) can comprehensively assess cardiovascular structure and function relevant to the assessment,\\u000a treatment, and follow-up of patients with electrophysiologically-related disease processes. CCTA provides 3-D visualization\\u000a of cardiac chambers, coronary vessels, and thoracic vasculature including structures particularly important to cardiac electrophysiology,\\u000a such

Jerold S. Shinbane; Marc J. Girsky; Leslie A. Saxon; Michael K. Cao; David A. Cesario; Matthew J. Budoff

291

ASSESSMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR STORM AND COMBINED SEWER MANAGEMENT. APPENDIX F: SELECTED COMPUTER INPUT AND OUTPUT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mathematical models for the nonsteady simulation of urban runoff were evaluated to determine their suitability for the engineering assessment, planning, design and control of storm and combined sewerage systems. The models were evaluated on the basis of information published by t...

292

Effects of Ozone and Particulate Matter on Cardiac Mechanics: Role of the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Gene  

PubMed Central

A positive association between air pollution exposure and increased human risk of chronic heart disease progression is well established. In the current study, we test two hypotheses: (1) the cardiac compensatory changes in response to air pollution are dependent on its composition and (2) specific cardiac adaptations are regulated by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). We address these hypotheses by initially examining the exposure effects of ozone (O3) and/or particulate matter (PM) on cardiac function in C57Bl/6J (B6) mice. Subsequently, the results are compared with cardiac functional changes to the same exposures in Nppa (the precursor gene for ANP) knockout (KO) mice. Separate groups of mice underwent 3 consecutive days of the same exposure sequence for 3h each consisting of the following: (1) 6h of filtered air (FAFA), (2) O3 then FA (O3FA), (3) FA then carbon black (FACB), or (4) O3 then CB. Cardiac function was assessed using a conductance catheter to generate cardiac pressure-volume loops 8–10h following each exposure sequence. As compared with FAFA, each sequence led to a substantial drop (as much as 33%) in stroke volume and cardiac output. However, these losses of cardiac function occurred by different compensatory mechanisms dependent on the pollutant composition. For example, O3FA exposure led to reductions in both end-systolic and end-diastolic left ventricular (LV) volumes, whereas FACB exposure led an increase in end-diastolic LV volume. These same cardiac compensatory changes were largely abolished in Nppa KO mice following O3FA or FACB exposure. These results suggest that cardiac functional changes in response to air pollution exposure are strongly dependent on the pollutant constituents, especially related to O3 and/or PM. Furthermore, ANP regulation appears to be crucial to these cardiac compensatory mechanisms induced by air pollution. PMID:22977167

Tankersley, Clarke G.

2013-01-01

293

Assessment of cardiac contractility during a cold pressor test by using (dP/dt)/P of carotid artery pulses.  

PubMed

The ratio of the first derivative (dP/dt) of a carotid artery pulse to the developed pressure (P), (dP/dt)/P, is an easily measurable, noninvasive index of cardiac contractility even in moderate exercise. We examined the effects of transient cold exposure on cardiac contractility in normal reactors (n = 12) and hyperreactors (an increase in systolic or diastolic pressure >15 mm Hg; n = 6) by using this index. Eighteen healthy participants were subjected to the cold pressor test, which required them to immerse the right hand in chilly water (4 degrees C) for 2 min. Although cold stress maximally increased mean blood pressure during the second minute, it maximally increased heart rate and cardiac contractility after 60 s of immersion in both groups of subjects. Comparing normal reactors and hyperreactors by two-way ANOVA revealed a group x time interaction for heart rate but not for cardiac contractility. These findings suggest that the increase in cardiac contractility during cold-water immersion dose not reflect the levels of heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and that the specific responses of cardiac function to a cold pressor test in hyperreactors depends on heart rate rather than cardiac contractility. PMID:17323074

Moriyama, Kayo; Ifuku, Hirotoshi

2007-05-01

294

NT-proBNP: a cardiac biomarker to assess prognosis in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

NT-proBNP provides diagnostic and prognostic information in heart syndromes but its role in cancer has not yet been established. The prognostic value of NT-proBNP was prospectively studied in 104 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients treated with chemotherapy. Echocardiography and NT-proBNP were determined prior to treatment. In multivariate analysis, NT-proBNP ? 900 pg/ml was the variable with higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 11.1; 95% CI 3.8-32.9; P<0.001). The C statistic for NT-proBNP ? 900 pg/ml was significantly better than IPI score for prediction of survival. These findings suggest that NT-proBNP ? 900 pg/ml could be considered a useful marker for risk assessment in NHL patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:21333352

Gimeno, Eva; Gómez, Miquel; González, Juan Ramón; Comín, Josep; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Molina, Lluis; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Garcia-Pallarols, Francesc; Pedro, Carmen; Abella, Eugenia; Vilaplana, Carles; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Besses, Carlos; Salar, Antonio

2011-06-01

295

Advanced Imaging Applications to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy  

E-print Network

Advanced Imaging Applications to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Justin D. Pearlman Professor pacemaker leads can be placed to improve cardiac output, avoiding areas of dead tissue, and achieving of Medicine and Radiology Director of Advanced CV Imaging Dartmouth 4pm, Wed, Jan. 31, 2007 Auditorium

Zanibbi, Richard

296

Update on intravenous dipyridamole cardiac imaging in the assessment of ischemic heart disease  

SciTech Connect

Intravenous dipyridamole is a relative selective coronary vasodilator which, when combined with thallium-201, provides a useful technique to assess myocardial perfusion. The intravenous dipyridamole is administered as an infusion at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min for 4 minutes. In the presence of significant coronary artery disease the increase of coronary blood flow is disproportionate between vessels with and without significant coronary lesions, providing the basis for detecting regional differences in flow using thallium-201. The test can be used alone or combined with low level exercise to increase test sensitivity. The test is safe when performed under medical supervision and when patient selection is done appropriately. Most of the side effects induced by dipyridamole infusion are well tolerated by patients and readily reversed with intravenous aminophylline and sublingual nitroglycerin. The average sensitivity and specificity of the dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy test from the major studies are 76% and 70%, respectively. The test is very useful in providing prognostic information in patients who are unable to exercise. A reversible thallium defect after dipyridamole infusion has been shown to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity in patients with documented or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of intravenous dipyridamole has been extended into other modalities of imaging, including 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, to study functional changes in the left ventricular induced by the infusion of intravenous dipyridamole. 52 references.

Younis, L.T.; Chaitman, B.R. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (USA))

1990-01-01

297

Non-invasive assessment of cardiac contractility on a weighing scale.  

PubMed

Myocardial contractility, the intrinsic ability of the heart muscle to produce force, has been difficult to quantify non-invasively. Pre-ejection-period (PEP), the time the ventricles spend in isovolumetric contraction, is widely accepted as a way to measure contractility. This work presents a way by which the ballistocardiogram - a readily accessible non-invasive cardiovascular signal - can be used in tandem with the electrocardiogram to obtain a parameter highly correlated to PEP and thus to myocardial contractility. This parameter is the delay from the electrocardiogram R-wave to the peak (the J-wave) of the ballistocardiogram. In this work, we showed that this delay, the RJ interval, was correlated to PEP (r(2) = 0.75) for 709 heartbeats across 4 subjects, with a slope of 1.11, and a y-intercept of 151 ms. This suggests that the RJ interval can be used in place of the PEP for a reliable, practical, and non-invasive assessment of myocardial contractility. PMID:19963690

Etemadi, Mozziyar; Inan, Omer T; Wiard, Richard M; Kovacs, Gregory T A; Giovangrandi, Laurent

2009-01-01

298

Development and illustrative outputs of the Community Integrated Assessment System (CIAS), a multi-institutional modular integrated assessment approach for modelling climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and first results of the ''Community Integrated Assessment System'' (CIAS), a unique multi-institu- tional modular and flexible integrated assessment system for modelling climate change. Key to this development is the supporting software in- frastructure, SoftIAM. Through it, CIAS is distributed between the communities of institutions which has each contributed modules to the CIAS system. At

R. Warren; S. De La Nava Santos; N. W. Arnell; M. Bane; T. Barker; C. Barton; Rupert W. Ford; H.-M. Füssel; Robin K. S. Hankin; Rupert Klein; C. Linstead; J. Kohler; T. D. Mitchell; T. J. Osborn; H. Pan; S. C. B. Raper; G. Riley; H. J. Schellnhüber; S. Winne; D. Anderson

2008-01-01

299

Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits voltage-gated ionic currents: A study to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile  

SciTech Connect

The plant alkaloid ibogaine has promising anti-addictive properties. Albeit not licenced as a therapeutic drug, and despite hints that ibogaine may perturb the heart rhythm, this alkaloid is used to treat drug addicts. We have recently reported that ibogaine inhibits human ERG (hERG) potassium channels at concentrations similar to the drugs affinity for several of its known brain targets. Thereby the drug may disturb the heart's electrophysiology. Here, to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile in more detail, we studied the effects of ibogaine and its congener 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) on various cardiac voltage-gated ion channels. We confirmed that heterologously expressed hERG currents are reduced by ibogaine in low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, at higher concentrations, the drug also reduced human Na{sub v}1.5 sodium and Ca{sub v}1.2 calcium currents. Ion currents were as well reduced by 18-MC, yet with diminished potency. Unexpectedly, although blocking hERG channels, ibogaine did not prolong the action potential (AP) in guinea pig cardiomyocytes at low micromolar concentrations. Higher concentrations (? 10 ?M) even shortened the AP. These findings can be explained by the drug's calcium channel inhibition, which counteracts the AP-prolonging effect generated by hERG blockade. Implementation of ibogaine's inhibitory effects on human ion channels in a computer model of a ventricular cardiomyocyte, on the other hand, suggested that ibogaine does prolong the AP in the human heart. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine have the propensity to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in humans. In some cases this may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. - Highlights: • We study effects of anti-addiction drug ibogaine on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes. • We assess the cardiac ion channel profile of ibogaine. • Ibogaine inhibits hERG potassium, sodium and calcium channels. • Ibogaine’s effects on ion channels are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias. • 18-Methoxycoronaridine has a lower affinity for cardiac ion channels than ibogaine.

Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Rubi, Lena; Mike, Agnes K.; Lukacs, Peter; Gawali, Vaibhavkumar S.; Todt, Hannes [Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Neurophysiology and -pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hilber, Karlheinz, E-mail: karlheinz.hilber@meduniwien.ac.at [Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Neurophysiology and -pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Sandtner, Walter [Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

2013-12-01

300

Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on the sequence of mechanical activation assessed by two-dimensional radial strain imaging.  

PubMed

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) induces left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling by synchronizing LV mechanical activation. We evaluated changes in segmental LV activation after CRT and related them to CRT response. A total of 292 patients with heart failure (65 ± 10 years, 77% men) treated with CRT underwent baseline echocardiographic assessment of LV volumes and ejection fraction. Time-to-peak radial strain was measured for 6 midventricular LV segments with speckle-tracking strain imaging. Moreover, the time difference between the peak radial strain of the anteroseptal and the posterior segments was calculated to obtain LV dyssynchrony. After 6 months, LV volumes, segmental LV mechanical activation timings, and LV dyssynchrony were reassessed. Response to CRT was defined as ?15% decrease in LV end-systolic volume at 6-month follow-up. Responders (n = 177) showed LV resynchronization 6 months after CRT (LV dyssynchrony from 200 ± 127 to 85 ± 86 ms; p <0.001) by earlier activation of the posterior segment (from 438 ± 141 to 394 ± 132 ms; p = 0.001) and delayed activation of the anteroseptal segment (from 295 ± 155 to 407 ± 138 ms; p <0.001). In contrast, nonresponders (n = 115) experienced an increase in LV dyssynchrony 6 months after CRT (from 106 ± 86 to 155 ± 112 ms; p = 0.001) with an earlier activation of posterior wall (from 391 ± 139 to 355 ± 136 ms; p = 0.039) that did not match the delayed anteroseptal activation (from 360 ± 148 to 415 ± 122 ms; p = 0.001). In conclusion, responders to CRT showed LV resynchronization through balanced lateral and anteroseptal activations. In nonresponders, LV dyssynchrony remains, by posterior wall preactivation and noncompensatory delayed septal wall activation. PMID:24462070

Auger, Dominique; Hoke, Ulas; Thijssen, Joep; Abate, Elena; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Ewe, See Hooi; Witkowski, Tomasz G; Leong, Darryl P; Holman, Eduard R; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Schalij, Martin J; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

2014-03-15

301

Contribution to the biological assessment of orthodontic acrylic materials. Measurement of their residual monomer output and cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

The acrylic materials used in orthodontics for the fabrication of removable appliances are subjected in the oral cavity to processes of change which influence their physical, mechanical and biological properties. It is therefore essential that every newly developed material must be judged in terms of its clinical value. In the present study, 2 orthodontic cold-cure acrylics, Orthocryl and Forestacryl, and 4 orthodontic photocure acrylics, Triad, Wil-O-Dont, Odontolux and Lux-A-Tech, were investigated and compared with 2 prosthetic acrylic materials: the cold-cure acrylic Palapress and the hot-cure acrylic Paladon. The quantity of residual monomers from methyl methacrylate (MAA) or urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) eluted from the sample in a given time after the processing was estimated by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The cytotoxic properties of the materials were examined by Mosmann's proliferation-inhibition test with an established culture of fibroblasts (= MTT test). The hot-cure acrylic Paladon produced by far the smallest amount of eluted residual monomer and the least growth inhibition in the MTT test. The prosthetic cold-cure acrylic Palapress achieved significantly better results than the orthodontic cold-cure materials Orthocryl and Forestacryl. The photocure acrylics released less UDMA than did the cold-cure acrylics MMA. In the cell culture test, all the orthodontic materials examined were assessed as "slightly cytotoxic"; the prosthetic acrylics were graded under ISO-standard 10993-5 as "noncytotoxic". After soaking the plastic material in water for 3 days its cytotoxic properties, as exemplified by the cold-cure acrylic Forestacryl and the photocure acrylic Triad, were reduced, and during the following investigation no more inhibition of growth was observed. It was possible to confirm with the tests used that, for Triad, it is necessary to carefully remove the oxygen-inhibition layer of the photocure acrylic in order to improve the biological properties. The influence of the plastic material on fibroblast cultures was assessed, among other methods, by the quantity of residual monomers liberated. These were significantly reduced after soaking the manufactured substance in water for 3 days. Careful laboratory treatment of the photocure acrylics is necessary in order to improve their biological properties. PMID:10961050

Rose, E C; Bumann, J; Jonas, I E; Kappert, H F

2000-01-01

302

Radiation dose assessment in a 320-detector-row CT scanner used in cardiac imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In the present era of cone-beam CT scanners, the use of the standardized CTDI{sub 100} as a surrogate of the idealized CTDI is strongly discouraged and, consequently, so should be the use of the dose-length product (DLP) as an estimate of the total energy imparted to the patient. However, the DLP is still widely used as a reference quantity to normalize the effective dose for a given scan protocol mainly because the CTDI{sub 100} is an easy-to-measure quantity. The aim of this article is therefore to describe a method for radiation dose assessment in large cone-beam single axial scans, which leads to a straightforward estimation of the total energy imparted to the patient. The authors developed a method accessible to all medical physicists and easy to implement in clinical practice in an attempt to update the bridge between CT dosimetry and the estimation of the effective dose. Methods: The authors used commercially available material and a simple mathematical model. The method described herein is based on the dosimetry paradigm introduced by the AAPM Task Group 111. It consists of measuring the dose profiles at the center and the periphery of a long body phantom with a commercial solid-state detector. A weighted dose profile is then calculated from these measurements. To calculate the CT dosimetric quantities analytically, a Gaussian function was fitted to the dose profile data. Furthermore, the Gaussian model has the power to condense the z-axis information of the dose profile in two parameters: The single-scan central dose, f(0), and the width of the profile, {sigma}. To check the energy dependence of the solid-state detector, the authors compared the dose profiles to measurements made with a small volume ion chamber. To validate the overall method, the authors compared the CTDI{sub 100} calculated analytically to the measurement made with a 100 mm pencil ion chamber. Results: For the central and weighted dose profiles, the authors found a good agreement between the measured dose profile data and the fitted Gaussian functions. The solid-state detector had no energy dependence--within the energy range of interest--and the analytical model succeeded in reproducing the absolute dose values obtained with the pencil ion chamber. For the case of large cone-beam single axial scans, the quantity that better characterizes the total energy imparted to the patient is the weighted dose profile integral (DPI{sub w}). The DPI{sub w} can be easily determined from the two parameters that define the Gaussian functions: f(0) and {sigma}. The authors found that the DLP underestimated the total energy imparted to the patient by more than 20%. The authors also found that the calculated CT dosimetric quantities were higher than those displayed on the scanner console. Conclusions: The authors described and validated a method to assess radiation dose in large cone-beam single axial scans. This method offers a simple and more accurate estimation of the total energy imparted to the patient, thus offering the possibility to update the bridge between CT dosimetry and the estimation of the effective dose for cone-beam CT examinations in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy.

Goma, Carles; Ruiz, Agustin; Jornet, Nuria; Latorre, Artur; Pallerol, Rosa M.; Carrasco, Pablo; Eudaldo, Teresa; Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de Radiofisica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-03-15

303

[Cardiac sarcoidosis].  

PubMed

Cardiac sarcoidosis induces heart failure death or sudden death in many cases and is thus often associated with a poor prognosis. In Japan 47-78% of sarcoidosis patients die of cardiac lesions. Early diagnosis is important in such cases, and a comprehensive judgment based on the endomyocardial biopsy, echocardiography and nuclear medicine examination findings should be made according to the 'Handbook of the Diagnosis of Cardiac Sarcoidosis'. Once a diagnosis is made the introduction of steroid therapy should be considered. Steroid administration should be conducted referring to the 'Guidelines to the Treatment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis'. PMID:12233077

Uemura, Akihisa; Morimoto, Shin-ichiro

2002-09-01

304

Echocardiogram versus cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for assessing systolic function of subaortic right ventricle in adults with complete transposition of great arteries and previous atrial switch operation.  

PubMed

In adults with congenital heart disease and a systemic right ventricle, subaortic ventricular systolic dysfunction is common. Echocardiographic assessment of systolic right ventricular (RV) function in these patients is important but challenging. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of conventional echocardiographic RV functional parameters to quantify the systolic performance of a subaortic right ventricle. We compared 56 contemporary echocardiograms and cardiac magnetic resonance studies in 37 adults, aged 26.9 ± 7.4 years, with complete transposition and a subaortic right ventricle. The fractional area change (FAC), lateral tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, lateral RV systolic motion velocities by tissue Doppler, RV myocardial performance index, and the rate of systolic RV pressure increase (dp/dt) measured across the tricuspid regurgitant jet were assessed by echocardiography and correlated with the cardiac magnetic resonance-derived RV ejection fraction (EF). The mean RVEF was 48.0 ± 7.8%. FAC (r(2) = 0.206, p = 0.001) and dp/dt (r(2) = 0.173, p = 0.009) significantly correlated with RVEF, and the other nongeometric echocardiographic parameters failed to show a significant correlation with RVEF by linear regression analysis. FAC <33% and dp/dt <1,000 mm Hg/s identified a RVEF of <50% with a sensitivity of 77% and 69% and a specificity of 58% and 87%, respectively. In conclusion, in patients with a systemic right ventricle, routine nongeometric echocardiographic parameters of RV function correlated weakly with cardiac magnetic resonance-derived EF. RV FAC and the measurement of the rate of systolic RV pressure increase (dp/dt) should be preferentially used to assess systemic systolic function in adult patients with a subaortic right ventricle. PMID:23276471

Khattab, Kerstin; Schmidheiny, Pascal; Wustmann, Kerstin; Wahl, Andreas; Seiler, Christian; Schwerzmann, Markus

2013-03-15

305

Assessment of phase based dose modulation for improved dose efficiency in cardiac CT on an anthropomorphic motion phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State of the art automatic exposure control modulates the tube current across view angle and Z based on patient anatomy for use in axial full scan reconstructions. Cardiac CT, however, uses a fundamentally different image reconstruction that applies a temporal weighting to reduce motion artifacts. This paper describes a phase based mA modulation that goes beyond axial and ECG modulation; it uses knowledge of the temporal view weighting applied within the reconstruction algorithm to improve dose efficiency in cardiac CT scanning. Using physical phantoms and synthetic noise emulation, we measure how knowledge of sinogram temporal weighting and the prescribed cardiac phase can be used to improve dose efficiency. First, we validated that a synthetic CT noise emulation method produced realistic image noise. Next, we used the CT noise emulation method to simulate mA modulation on scans of a physical anthropomorphic phantom where a motion profile corresponding to a heart rate of 60 beats per minute was used. The CT noise emulation method matched noise to lower dose scans across the image within 1.5% relative error. Using this noise emulation method to simulate modulating the mA while keeping the total dose constant, the image variance was reduced by an average of 11.9% on a scan with 50 msec padding, demonstrating improved dose efficiency. Radiation dose reduction in cardiac CT can be achieved while maintaining the same level of image noise through phase based dose modulation that incorporates knowledge of the cardiac reconstruction algorithm.

Budde, Adam; Nilsen, Roy; Nett, Brian

2014-03-01

306

Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Cardiac MSCT Imaging by a 4D Hierarchical Surface-Volume Matching Process  

PubMed Central

Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scanners offer new perspectives for cardiac kinetics evaluation with 4D dynamic sequences of high contrast and spatiotemporal resolutions. A new method is proposed for cardiac motion extraction in multislice CT. Based on a 4D hierarchical surface-volume matching process, it provides the detection of the heart left cavities along the acquired sequence and the estimation of their 3D surface velocity fields. A Markov random field model is defined to find, according to topological descriptors, the best correspondences between a 3D mesh describing the left endocardium at one time and the 3D acquired volume at the following time. The global optimization of the correspondences is realized with a multiresolution process. Results obtained on simulated and real data show the capabilities to extract clinically relevant global and local motion parameters and highlight new perspectives in cardiac computed tomography imaging. PMID:23165027

Simon, Antoine; Boulmier, Dominique; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Le Breton, Hervé

2006-01-01

307

Use of equilibrium (gated) radionuclide ventriculography to quantitate left ventricular output in patients with and without left-sided valvular regurgitation  

SciTech Connect

We examined the accuracy with which left ventricular output can be estimated by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography. After red blood cells were labeled in vivo, we measured left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic count rates and the count rate in 5 ml of the patient's blood. After estimating the average ratio of counting efficiency for the left ventricle to counting efficiency for the blood sample (Elv/Es) in six patients, we calculated left ventricular output in 26 other patients as (left ventricular activity ejected per minute divided by activity per liter of blood) divided by the previously estimated Elv/Es. Radionuclide left ventricular output closely approximated Fick cardiac output (r . 0.94) in patients without mitral or aortic regurgitation and exceeded Fick cardiac output in all patients with valvular regurgitation. Regurgitant fraction, calculated as the difference between the radionuclide and Fick outputs divided by the radionuclide output, correlated with the severity of of regurgitation as assessed angiographically. The equilibrium radionuclide ventriculogram is an excellent means for noninvasive estimation of left ventricular output.

Konstam, M.A.; Wynne, J.; Holman, B.L.; Brown, E.J.; Neill, J.M.; Kozlowski, J.

1981-09-01

308

A Novel Methodology for Assessing the Bounded-Input Bounded-Output Instability in QT Interval Dynamics: Application to Clinical ECG With Ventricular Tachycardia  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to present a new methodology for assessing the bounded-input bounded-output (BIBO) stability in QT interval (QTI) dynamics from clinical ECG. The ECG recordings were collected from 15 patients who experienced ventricular tachycardia (VT). Ten-minute-long ECG recordings extracted immediately before the onset of a chosen VT, one per patient, were assembled into a VT group, while the control group comprised 10-min-long ECGs extracted 1 h before VT onset and at least 1 h after any prior arrhythmic event. Each 10-min recording was subdivided into 1-min ECG recordings (minECGs). The QTI dynamics of each minECG was defined as a function of several prior QTIs and RR intervals; the BIBO stability of this function was then assessed in the z-domain. The number of minECGs with unstable QTI dynamics (Nus) and the frequency of premature activations (PA), fPA, were counted for each ECG recording and were compared between the VT and control groups. The results show that the present methodology successfully captured the instability in QTI dynamics leading to VT onset in the studied population. Significantly larger Nus was found in the VT group compared against the control and a positive correlation between Nus and fPA was identified in both groups. PMID:21984490

Chen, Xiaozhong; Trayanova, Natalia A.

2012-01-01

309

Necessity of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related gene for cardiac functions and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster assessed by optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior studies have established the necessity of an angiotensin-converting enzyme-related (ACER) gene for heart morphogenesis of Drosophila. Nevertheless, the physiology of ACER has yet to be comprehensively understood. Herein, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of ACER in Drosophila's heart and swept source optical coherence tomography to assess whether ACER is required for cardiac functions in living adult flies. Several contractile parameters of Drosophila heart, including the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), percent fractional shortening (%FS), and stress-induced cardiac performance, are shown, which are age dependent. These age-dependent cardiac functions declined significantly when ACER was down-regulated. Moreover, the lifespans of ACER knock-down flies were significantly shorter than those of wild-type control flies. Thus, we posit that ACER, the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is essential for both heart physiology and longevity of animals. Since mammalian ACE2 controls many cardiovascular physiological features and is implicated in cardiomyopathies, our findings that ACER plays conserved roles in genetically tractable animals will pave the way for uncovering the genetic pathway that controls the renin-angiotensin system.

Liao, Fang-Tsu; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Su, Ming-Tsan; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

2014-01-01

310

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Upregulates Cardiac Autonomic Control  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on sympathetic nervous function in heart failure (HF). Background: Neurohormonal dysregulation and cardiac autonomic dysfunction are associated with HF and contribute to HF progression and its poor prognosis. We hypothesized that mechanical resynchronization improves cardiac sympathetic function in HF. Methods: Sixteen consecutive patients receiving CRT for advanced cardiomyopathy and 10 controls were included in this prospective study. NYHA class, 6-minute walk distance, echocardiographic parameters, plasma norepinephrine (NE) were assessed at baseline, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Cardiac sympathetic function was determined by 123iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography. Results: Along with improvement in NYHA class (3.1 ± 0.3 to 2.1 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) and LVEF (23 ± 6% to 33 ± 12%, P < 0.001 delayed heart/mediastinum (H/M) 123 I-MIBG ratio increased significantly (1.8 ± 0.7 to 2.1 ± 0.6, P = 0.04) while the H/M 123I-MIBG washout rate decreased significantly (54 ± 25% to 34± 24%, P = 0.01) from baseline to 6-month follow-up. The heart rate variability (HRV) measured in SD of normal-to-normal intervals also increased significantly from baseline (82 ± 30 ms) to follow-up (111 ± 32 ms, P = 0.04). The improvement in NYHA after CRT was significantly associated with baseline 123I-MIBG H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). The improvement in LVESV index was associated with baseline 123I-MIBG delayed H/M ratio (r = ?0.67, P = 0.02) and H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). Conclusion: After CRT, improvements in cardiac symptoms and LV function were accompanied by rebalanced cardiac autonomic control as measured by 123I-MIBG and HRV. PMID:18479331

CHA, YONG-MEI; OH, JAE; MIYAZAKI, CHINAMI; HAYES, DAVID L.; REA, ROBERT F.; SHEN, WIN-KUANG; ASIRVATHAM, SAMUEL J.; KEMP, BRAD J.; HODGE, DAVID O.; CHEN, PENG-SHENG; CHAREONTHAITAWEE, PANITHAYA

2009-01-01

311

Nonexercise cardiac stress testing  

SciTech Connect

Many patients who require evaluation for coronary artery disease are unable to undergo exercise stress testing because of physiologic or psychological limitations. Drs Vacek and Baldwin describe three alternative methods for assessment of cardiac function in these patients, all of which have high levels of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. 23 references.

Vacek, J.L.; Baldwin, T. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

1989-09-15

312

Digital cardiac imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 16 papers. Some of the titles are: The analysis of left ventricular function with digital subtraction angiography; Digital radiographic assessment of coronary flow reserve; Clinical application of cardiac CT; Digital two-dimensional echocardiography; and Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart.

Buda, A.J.; Delp, E.J.

1985-01-01

313

Dynamic iterative beam hardening correction (DIBHC) for an optimized assessment of cardiac perfusion in ECG-correlated CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cardiac perfusion examinations large concentrations of iodine in the ventricle cause beam hardening artifacts that lead to incorrect perfusion parameters. Beam hardening corrections are either implemented as simple precorrections which cannot account for higher order beam hardening effects, or as iterative approaches that are based on segmenting the original image into material distribution images. Conventional segmentation algorithms fail to

Philip Stenner; Bernhard Schmidt; Rainer Raupach; Thomas Allmendinger; Thomas Flohr; M. Kachelriess

2009-01-01

314

A new classifier-based strategy for in-silico ion-channel cardiac drug safety assessment  

PubMed Central

There is currently a strong interest in using high-throughput in-vitro ion-channel screening data to make predictions regarding the cardiac toxicity potential of a new compound in both animal and human studies. A recent FDA think tank encourages the use of biophysical mathematical models of cardiac myocytes for this prediction task. However, it remains unclear whether this approach is the most appropriate. Here we examine five literature data-sets that have been used to support the use of four different biophysical models and one statistical model for predicting cardiac toxicity in numerous species using various endpoints. We propose a simple model that represents the balance between repolarisation and depolarisation forces and compare the predictive power of the model against the original results (leave-one-out cross-validation). Our model showed equivalent performance when compared to the four biophysical models and one statistical model. We therefore conclude that this approach should be further investigated in the context of early cardiac safety screening when in-vitro potency data is generated.

Mistry, Hitesh B.; Davies, Mark R.; Di Veroli, Giovanni Y.

2015-01-01

315

Utility of Doppler Myocardial Imaging, Cardiac Biomarkers and Clonal Immunoglobulin Genes to Assess Left Ventricular Performance and Stratify Risk Following Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Systemic Light Chain Amyloidosis (AL)  

PubMed Central

Cardiac dysfunction is a well-recognized complication of light chain amyloidosis (AL). Autologous stem cell transplant (auto-SCT) has emerged as a successful treatment modality for AL patients. In this study, we examined the effect of clonal immunoglobulin light chain genes (VL), which encodes the immunoglobulin light chain protein that ultimately forms amyloid, on cardiac function, in the context of auto-SCT and its impact on overall survival. Longitudinal Doppler myocardial imaging parameters along with cardiac biomarkers were used to assess for cardiac function pre and post auto-SCT. VL gene analysis revealed that V? genes, in particular V?VI, were associated with worse cardiac function parameters than V? genes. Clonal VL genes appeared to have an impact on left ventricular (LV) function post-transplant and also influenced mortality, with specific VL gene families associated with lower survival. Another key predictor of mortality in this report was change in tricuspid regurgitant flow velocity following auto-SCT. Correlations were also observed between systolic strain rate, systolic strain and VL genes associated with amyloid formation. In summary, clonal VL gene usage influences global cardiac function in AL, with patients having V?VI and V?II-III-associated amyloid more severely affected than those having V? or V?I amyloid. Pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging along with immunoglobulin gene analysis offers novel insights into prediction of mortality and cardiac dysfunction in AL after auto-SCT. PMID:21315556

Bellavia, Diego; Abraham, Roshini S.; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Burnett, John C.; Al-Zahrani, Ghormallah B.; Green, Tammy D.; Manske, Michelle K.; Gertz, Morie A.; Miller, Fletcher A.; Abraham, Theodore P.

2011-01-01

316

Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

2012-03-15

317

Cardiac Catheterization  

MedlinePLUS

... done during a cardiac catheterization include: closing small holes inside the heart repairing leaky or narrow heart ... bandage. It's normal for the site to be black and blue, red, or slightly swollen for a ...

318

CARDIAC MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

Cardiac muscle fibers of the hummingbird and finch have no transverse tubules and are smaller in diameter than those of mammalian hearts. The fibers are connected by intercalated discs which are composed of desmosomes and f. adherentes; small nexuses are often interspersed. As in cardiac muscle of several other animals, the junctional SR of the couplings is highly structured in these two birds but, in addition, and after having lost sarcolemmal contact, the junctional SR continues beyond the coupling to extend deep into the interior of the cells and to form belts around the Z-I regions of the sarcomeres. This portion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which we have named "extended junctional SR," and which is so prominent and invariant a feature of cardiac cells of hummingbirds and finches, has not been observed in chicken cardiac cells. The morphological differences between these species of birds may be related to respective differences in heart rates characteristic for these birds. PMID:5555579

Jewett, Paul H.; Sommer, J. R.; Johnson, E. A.

1971-01-01

319

Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function in thyrotoxicosis and implications for the therapeutics of thyrotoxic cardiac disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Thyrotoxicosis is an endocrine disorder with prominent cardiovascular manifestations. Thyroid hormone acts through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms to regulate cardiac function. Echocardiography is a useful, non-invasive, easily accessible, and affordable tool for studying the structural and physiological function of the heart. Aim We studied thyrotoxicosis patients in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital and employed trans-thoracic echocardiography to find out if there were abnormalities in the hearts of these patients. Methods Fifty adult thyrotoxicosis patients diagnosed with clinical and thyroid function tests in the medical out-patient unit of the hospital were recruited and we performed transthoracic echocardiography with a Sonos 2000 HP machine. Results We documented the presence of abnormalities in the following proportion of thyrotoxicosis patients: left ventricular enhanced systolic function in 30%, enhanced diastolic function in 34%, diastolic dysfunction in 34%, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in10%, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in 6%, and left ventricular hypertrophy in 34%. Conclusion Echocardiography was useful in the stratification of cardiac function abnormalities and is indispensable as a guide in the choice of therapeutic options in patients with thyrocardiac disease. The finding of left ventricular enhanced systolic and diastolic functions signify early echocardiographic detectable cardiac abnormalities in thyrotoxicosis, and the clinical management includes the use of anti-thyroid drugs and ?-adrenoceptor blockade. Diastolic dysfunction in thyrotoxicosis patients asymptomatic for cardiac disease should be treated with anti-thyroid drugs, and ?-adrenoceptor blockade. The judicious application of clinical therapeutics will guide the use of anti-thyroid drugs, diuretics, digoxin, angiotensin inhibitors, and ?-adrenoceptor blockade in the successful management of thyrotoxicosis patients with heart failure and reduced, preserved, or increased ejection fraction: parameters which are derived from echocardiography. PMID:25709461

Anakwue, Raphael C; Onwubere, Basden J; Ikeh, Vincent; Anisiuba, Benedict; Ike, Samuel; Anakwue, Angel-Mary C

2015-01-01

320

Cardiac Aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiac aspergillosis has been increasingly recognized as a complication of immunocompromise in recent times. The use of progressively\\u000a more potent immunosuppressive agents and the longer survival times of transplant recipients is likely contributing to an increasing\\u000a prevalence of the disease. Although still uncommon, the disease has an extremely high mortality rate and management remains\\u000a difficult. Cardiac aspergillosis can present as

Philippe Lagacé-Wiens; Ethan Rubinstein

321

Nuclear cardiac  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

1982-01-01

322

Cardiac factors in orthostatic hypotension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiac function is determined by preload, afterload, heart rate and contractility. During orthostatic stress, the footward blood shift is compensated for by an increase of afterload. LBNP is widely used to analyze effects of volume displacement during orthostatic stress. Comparisons of invasive ( right heart catheterization) and non-invasive approach (echocardiography) yielded similar changes. Preload and afterload change with graded LBNP, heart rate increases, and stroke volume and cardiac output decrease. Thus, the working point on the left ventricular function curve is shifted to the left and downward, similar to hypovolemia. However, position on the Frank-Starling curve, the unchanged ejection fraction, and the constant Vcf indicate a normal contractile state during LBNP. A decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure during LBNP shwos impaired ventilation/perfusion ratio. Finally, LBNP induced cardiac and hemodynamic changes can be effectively countermeasured by dihydroergotamine, a potent venoconstrictor. Comparison of floating catheter data with that of echocardiography resulted in close correlation for cardiac output and stroke volume. In addition, cardiac dimensions changed in a similar way during LBNP. From our findings, echocardiography as a non-invasive procedure can reliably used in LBNP and orthostatic stress tests. Some informations can be obtained on borderline values indicating collaps or orthostatic syncope. Early fainters can be differentiated from late fainters by stroke volume changes.

Löllgen, H.; Dirschedl, P.; Koppenhagen, K.; Klein, K. E.

323

Cardiac cephalgia.  

PubMed

"Cardiac cephalgia" is a type of secondary headache disorder, usually initiated by exertion that is related to myocardial ischemia. Primary exertional headaches such as sex-, cough-, or exercise-induced headaches are typically benign. Cardiac cephalgia, on the other hand, can have life-threatening complications. Due to overlapping features and similarities in presentation, cardiac cephalgia can be misdiagnosed as a primary headache disorder such as migraine. However, the management of these conditions is unique, and treatment of cardiac cephalgia with vasoconstrictors intended for migraine can potentially worsen myocardial ischemia. Thus, it is important to make the correct diagnosis by evaluating cardiac function with an electrocardiogram and/or stress testing. In this review, we examine reported cases of cardiac cephalgia from the past 5 years to highlight the importance of this condition in the differential diagnosis of a headache in a patient with a history of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to discuss the appropriate approach to diagnosis and the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of this condition. PMID:25819974

Torres-Yaghi, Yasar; Salerian, Justin; Dougherty, Carrie

2015-04-01

324

Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits voltage-gated ionic currents: A study to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile?  

PubMed Central

The plant alkaloid ibogaine has promising anti-addictive properties. Albeit not licenced as a therapeutic drug, and despite hints that ibogaine may perturb the heart rhythm, this alkaloid is used to treat drug addicts. We have recently reported that ibogaine inhibits human ERG (hERG) potassium channels at concentrations similar to the drugs affinity for several of its known brain targets. Thereby the drug may disturb the heart's electrophysiology. Here, to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile in more detail, we studied the effects of ibogaine and its congener 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) on various cardiac voltage-gated ion channels. We confirmed that heterologously expressed hERG currents are reduced by ibogaine in low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, at higher concentrations, the drug also reduced human Nav1.5 sodium and Cav1.2 calcium currents. Ion currents were as well reduced by 18-MC, yet with diminished potency. Unexpectedly, although blocking hERG channels, ibogaine did not prolong the action potential (AP) in guinea pig cardiomyocytes at low micromolar concentrations. Higher concentrations (? 10 ?M) even shortened the AP. These findings can be explained by the drug's calcium channel inhibition, which counteracts the AP-prolonging effect generated by hERG blockade. Implementation of ibogaine's inhibitory effects on human ion channels in a computer model of a ventricular cardiomyocyte, on the other hand, suggested that ibogaine does prolong the AP in the human heart. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine have the propensity to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in humans. In some cases this may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:23707769

Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Rubi, Lena; Mike, Agnes K.; Lukacs, Peter; Gawali, Vaibhavkumar S.; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz; Sandtner, Walter

2013-01-01

325

Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits voltage-gated ionic currents: a study to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile.  

PubMed

The plant alkaloid ibogaine has promising anti-addictive properties. Albeit not licensed as a therapeutic drug, and despite hints that ibogaine may perturb the heart rhythm, this alkaloid is used to treat drug addicts. We have recently reported that ibogaine inhibits human ERG (hERG) potassium channels at concentrations similar to the drugs affinity for several of its known brain targets. Thereby the drug may disturb the heart's electrophysiology. Here, to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile in more detail, we studied the effects of ibogaine and its congener 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) on various cardiac voltage-gated ion channels. We confirmed that heterologously expressed hERG currents are reduced by ibogaine in low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, at higher concentrations, the drug also reduced human Nav1.5 sodium and Cav1.2 calcium currents. Ion currents were as well reduced by 18-MC, yet with diminished potency. Unexpectedly, although blocking hERG channels, ibogaine did not prolong the action potential (AP) in guinea pig cardiomyocytes at low micromolar concentrations. Higher concentrations (? 10 ?M) even shortened the AP. These findings can be explained by the drug's calcium channel inhibition, which counteracts the AP-prolonging effect generated by hERG blockade. Implementation of ibogaine's inhibitory effects on human ion channels in a computer model of a ventricular cardiomyocyte, on the other hand, suggested that ibogaine does prolong the AP in the human heart. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine have the propensity to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in humans. In some cases this may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:23707769

Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Rubi, Lena; Mike, Agnes K; Lukacs, Peter; Gawali, Vaibhavkumar S; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz; Sandtner, Walter

2013-12-01

326

The Outputs of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of efforts over the last several decades to assess the outputs of higher education, including economic and noneconomic, and public and private benefits. Recommends resisting the viewing of higher education merely in terms of its quantifiable economic returns because that line of reasoning diminishes its substantial intangible…

Breneman, David W.

2001-01-01

327

Assessment of the dose distribution inside a cardiac cath lab using TLD measurements and Monte Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, there was a substantial increase in the number of interventional cardiology procedures worldwide, and the corresponding ionizing radiation doses for both the medical staff and patients became a subject of concern. Interventional procedures in cardiology are normally very complex, resulting in long exposure times. Also, these interventions require the operator to work near the patient and, consequently, close to the primary X-ray beam. Moreover, due to the scattered radiation from the patient and the equipment, the medical staff is also exposed to a non-uniform radiation field that can lead to a significant exposure of sensitive body organs and tissues, such as the eye lens, the thyroid and the extremities. In order to better understand the spatial variation of the dose and dose rate distributions during an interventional cardiology procedure, the dose distribution around a C-arm fluoroscopic system, in operation in a cardiac cath lab at Portuguese Hospital, was estimated using both Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and dosimetric measurements. To model and simulate the cardiac cath lab, including the fluoroscopic equipment used to execute interventional procedures, the state-of-the-art MC radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.0 was used. Subsequently, Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) measurements were performed, in order to validate and support the simulation results obtained for the cath lab model. The preliminary results presented in this study reveal that the cardiac cath lab model was successfully validated, taking into account the good agreement between MC calculations and TLD measurements. The simulated results for the isodose curves related to the C-arm fluoroscopic system are also consistent with the dosimetric information provided by the equipment manufacturer (Siemens). The adequacy of the implemented computational model used to simulate complex procedures and map dose distributions around the operator and the medical staff is discussed, in view of the optimization principle (and the associated ALARA objective), one of the pillars of the international system of radiological protection.

Baptista, M.; Teles, P.; Cardoso, G.; Vaz, P.

2014-11-01

328

Platelet concentrates transfusion in cardiac surgery in relation to preoperative point-of-care assessment of platelet adhesion and aggregation.  

PubMed

Platelet dysfunction is an important cause of bleeding early after cardiac surgery. Whole-blood multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), investigating the adhesion and aggregation of activated platelets onto metal electrodes, has shown correlations with platelet concentrates transfusion in this setting. Platelet activity in vivo is dependent on shear stress, an aspect that cannot be investigated with MEA, but with the cone and plate(let) analyzer (CPA) Impact-R that measures the interaction of platelets and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in whole blood under shear. We hypothesized that preoperative CPA may show better correlation with platelet concentrates transfusion post-cardiac surgery than MEA, since it is dependent on both platelet activity and platelet interaction with vWF multimers. Blood was obtained preoperatively from 30 patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass (ACB) and 20 patients with aortic valve (AV) surgery. MEA was performed in hirudin-anticoagulated blood. The Impact-R analyses were performed in blood anticoagulated with hirudin, heparin or the standard anticoagulant citrate. For the light microscopy images obtained, the parameter surface coverage (SC) was calculated. Preoperative Impact-R results were abnormally decreased in AV patients and significantly lower than in ACB patients. For the Impact-R analysis performed in citrated blood, no correlation with platelet concentrates transfusion was observed. In contrast, MEA was comparable between the groups and correlated significantly with intraoperative platelet concentrates transfusion in both groups (rho between -0.47 and -0.62, p < 0.05). Multiple electrode aggregometry appeared more useful and easier to apply than CPA for preoperatively identifying patients with platelet concentrates transfusion in cardiac surgery. PMID:20158381

Solomon, Cristina; Hartmann, Jennifer; Osthaus, Alexander; Schöchl, Herbert; Raymondos, Kostas; Koppert, Wolfgang; Rahe-Meyer, Niels

2010-01-01

329

Cardiac conditions.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US. The growth of the older population in coming decades will inevitably increase the incidence of age-related cardiac disease. Increasing evidence has shown the prevalence of co-morbid mental health conditions in CVD patients. Specifically, depression and anxiety have been linked with CVD mortality. Due to the risk of psychosocial conditions with cardiac patients, mental health practitioners in health and gerontology need to be well-informed about CVD-related mental health comorbidity and current research developments. Accordingly, this article provides a systematic review of the clinical evidence about the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and any potential risk of psychosocial intervention with cardiac patients. PMID:18924386

Peck, Michel D; Ai, Amy L

2008-01-01

330

Dipyridamole cardiac imaging  

SciTech Connect

Dipyridamole cardiac imaging is a useful alternative technique to exercise stress testing in the evaluation of patients with ischemic heart disease. Intravenous dipyridamole is still in the investigational phase, while oral dipyridamole is widely available. The hemodynamic effects of dipyridamole include an increase in coronary blood flow (due to coronary vasodilation) which is in excess of the increase in myocardial oxygen consumption and cardiac output. The disparity in the increase in coronary blood flow relative to the cardiac output results in an increase in myocardial thallium activity and an increase in the myocardial/background activity ratio. The quality of the thallium images is better or similar to that of exercise thallium images. The optimal dose of intravenous dipyridamole is 0.56 mg/kg, and of the oral dose it is 300 to 400 mg, although higher doses may be necessary in some patients. Analysis of the thallium images has been to a large extent based on visual inspection of the planar images. Delayed images are helpful to establish the nature of the perfusion abnormalities (transient or fixed). The process of redistribution is based on disparate rates of washout from the normal and abnormal zones. The sensitivity and specificity of dipyridamole thallium imaging, whether intravenous or oral, have been shown in a number of studies to be quite adequate and comparable to that achieved during exercise thallium imaging. Dipyridamole two-dimensional echocardiography has also been used in the detection of coronary artery disease; transient (new or worsening of preexisting) wall motion abnormalities have been found to be a specific marker of coronary artery disease. Transmural as well as regional coronary steal phenomena have been postulated as the mechanism for dipyridamole-induced regional wall motion abnormalities. 65 references.

Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Askenase, A.; Segal, B.L.; Auerbach, N.

1988-02-01

331

Cardiac angiosarcoma.  

PubMed

Angiosarcoma is one of the most common cardiac tumors, but early detection of this tumor is often difficult, as exemplified by our patient, a 55-year-old woman whose cardiac tumor was first detected by echocardiography. Surgical removal of the tumor was impossible due to its extensive pericardial invasion. Pathological diagnosis was not complete before autopsy because of the wide occupied necrotized area of the tumor. There is no diagnostic imaging technique available to detect such a necrotized area. An imaging technique more powerful than echocardiography and able to diagnose angiosarcoma earlier is needed. PMID:8933189

Ohtahara, A; Hattori, K; Fukuki, M; Hirata, S; Ahmmed, G U; Kato, M; Fujimoto, Y; Shigemasa, C; Mashiba, H

1996-10-01

332

Cardiac sympathetic denervation imaging in movement disorders and dementias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sympathetic nervous system greatly influences cardiovascular physiology, and the importance of cardiac innervation abnormalitiesinthephysiopathologyof variouscardiacdiseases has been emphasised. Cardiac neurotransmission imaging with single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows in vivo assessment of the myocardial nervous system. At present, the most commonly used SPECT tracer to assess cardiac neurotransmission is metaiodobenzylguanidine labelled with iodine-123 ( 123 I-MIBG). Cardiac 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy

Giovanni Lucignani

2008-01-01

333

Cardiac mechanics: Physiological, clinical, and mathematical considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies concerning the basic physiological and biochemical principles underlying cardiac muscle contraction, methods for the assessment of cardiac function in the clinical situation, and mathematical approaches to cardiac mechanics are presented. Some of the topics covered include: cardiac ultrastructure and function in the normal and failing heart, myocardial energetics, clinical applications of angiocardiography, use of echocardiography for evaluating cardiac performance, systolic time intervals in the noninvasive assessment of left ventricular performance in man, evaluation of passive elastic stiffness for the left ventricle and isolated heart muscle, a conceptual model of myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock, application of Huxley's sliding-filament theory to the mechanics of normal and hypertrophied cardiac muscle, and a rheological modeling of the intact left ventricle. Individual items are announced in this issue.

Mirsky, I. (editor); Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

1974-01-01

334

Accessing, Visualizing, and Preparing Weather and Climate Model Output Data using the NCDC Weather and Climate Toolkit to Aid Decision Makers in Assessing  

E-print Network

Scientist National Climatic Data Center The National Weather Service (NWS), as an integral decision weather and climate information to decision makers. Many NWS products and services are made availableAccessing, Visualizing, and Preparing Weather and Climate Model Output Data using the NCDC Weather

Miami, University of

335

Quantitative Assessment of the Degree of Ductal Steal Using Celiac Artery Blood Flow to Left Ventricular Output Ratio in Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Determining the significance of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) remains difficult in preterm neonates and current echocardiographic markers give little information about ductal steal. We hypothesized that the relationship between celiac artery flow (CAF) and left ventricular output (LVO) in the presence of a PDA may determine haemodynamic significance. Objectives: To examine CAF to LVO ratio (CAF:LVO) in the

Afif El-Khuffash; Mary Higgins; Kevin Walsh; Eleanor J. Molloy

2008-01-01

336

Renal perfusion index reflects cardiac systolic function in chronic cardio-renal syndrome.  

PubMed

Background Cardiac dysfunction can modify renal perfusion, which is crucial to maintain sufficient kidney tissue oxygenation. Renal cortex perfusion assessed by dynamic ultrasound method is related both to renal function and cardiac hemodynamics. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that Renal Perfusion Index (RPI) can more closely reflect cardiac hemodynamics and differentiate etiology of chronic cardio-renal syndrome. Material and Methods Twenty-four patients with hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at 2-4 stage (12 with hypertensive nephropathy and 12 with CKD prior to hypertension) were enrolled in the study. Blood tests, 24-h ABPM, echocardiography, and ultrasonography with estimation of Total renal Cortical Perfusion intensity and Renal Perfusion Index (RPI) were performed. Results In the group of all patients, RPI correlated with left ventricular stoke volume (LVSV), and cardiac index, but not with markers of renal function. In multiple stepwise regression analysis CKD-EPI(Cys-Cr) (b=-0.360), LVSV (b=0.924) and MAP (b=0.376) together independently influenced RPI (R2=0.74; p<0.0001). RPI<0.567 allowed for the identification of patients with chronic cardio-renal syndrome with sensitivity of 41.7% and specificity of 83.3%. Conclusions Renal perfusion index relates more strongly to cardiac output than to renal function, and could be helpful in recognizing chronic cardio-renal syndrome. Applicability of RPI in diagnosing early abnormalities in the cardio-renal axis requires further investigation. PMID:25881555

Lubas, Arkadiusz; Ryczek, Robert; Kade, Grzegorz; Niemczyk, Stanis?aw

2015-01-01

337

Cardiac cone-beam CT  

SciTech Connect

This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net.

Manzke, Robert [University of London (King's College) (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: robert.manzke@philips.com

2005-10-15

338

Effects of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac electrical instability assessed by T-wave alternans during ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring in coronary artery disease patients without and with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Effects of exercise rehabilitation on electrocardiographic markers of risk for sudden cardiac death have not been adequately studied. We examined effects of controlled exercise training on T-wave alternans (TWA) in 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram recordings in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Consecutive patients with angiographically confirmed CAD were recruited to join the ARTEMIS (Innovation to Reduce Cardiovascular Complications of Diabetes at the Intersection) study. Exercise (n = 65) and control groups (n = 65) were matched on age, sex, DM, and previous myocardial infarction. Ambulatory electrocardiograms were recorded before and after a 2-year training period. TWA was assessed using time domain-modified moving average method by an investigator blinded to patients' clinical status. Average TWA values decreased in the rehabilitation group but not in control patients (rehabilitation [mean ± SEM]: 52.8 ± 1.7 ?V vs 48.7 ± 1.5 ?V, p <0.001; control: 53.7 ± 1.7 ?V vs 54.3 ± 1.6 ?V, p = 0.746). Changes in TWA differed between the groups (rehabilitation: -4.1 ± 1.2 ?V vs controls: +0.6 ± 1.1 ?V, p = 0.005). In CAD + DM patients, 50% (n = 9) of the 18 positive TWA cases were converted with exercise versus 10% (n = 2 of 20) of controls (p = 0.020). In CAD patients, 30% (n = 8 of 27) of positive TWA cases were converted with exercise versus 4% (n = 1 of 28) of controls (p = 0.012). In conclusion, this is the first report of the effectiveness of exercise rehabilitation to reduce TWA, a marker of sudden cardiac death risk, in patients with stable CAD. PMID:25107578

Kenttä, Tuomas; Tulppo, Mikko P; Nearing, Bruce D; Karjalainen, Jaana J; Hautala, Arto J; Kiviniemi, Antti M; Huikuri, Heikki V; Verrier, Richard L

2014-09-15

339

Cardiac optogenetics.  

PubMed

Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

Entcheva, Emilia

2013-05-01

340

Cardiac optogenetics  

PubMed Central

Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

2013-01-01

341

Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

Weisse, Allen B.

2011-01-01

342

Estimates of Embodied Global Energy and Air-Emission Intensities of Japanese Products for Building a Japanese Input–Output Life Cycle Assessment Database with a Global System Boundary  

PubMed Central

To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input–output LCA method with a global link input–output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input–output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input–output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains. PMID:22881452

2012-01-01

343

[Possibilities of dopplerography in assessment of functional state of the heart in patients with arterial hypertension with impaired diastolic cardiac function].  

PubMed

The search for reliable Dopplerographic markers of incipient diastolic cardiac failure became especially actual in recent years. We examined 71 patients with II degree arterial hypertension (AH) with Dopplerographical signs of diastolic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. For the assessment of severity of diastolic dysfunction we carried out complex Dopplerographic evaluation of maximal velocities of transmitral blood flow and motion of fibrous annulus of the mitral valve (MV). We revealed relationships between standard parameters of transmitral flow, Doppler visualization of tissues, and tolerance to physical effort. We found moderate negative correlation between exercise tolerance and maximal velocity of movement of lateral part of MV fibrous annulus E' (r=-0.4, p=<0.001), E/E' ratio (r=-0.65, p=<0.001). E/E' ratio had the strongest linear relationship with exercise tolerance. We showed that combined assessment of velocity of early LV diastolic filling and velocity of MV fibrous annulus motion (E/E') was possible in all patients with preserved LV systolic function. In patients with AH without myocardial hypertrophy with incipient LV diastolic dysfunction increase of E/E' > or = 10 allows to suggest lowering of exercise tolerance and might be indicative of early signs of diastolic heart failure. PMID:19772501

Alekseeva, O A; Alekhin, M N; Sidorenko, B A

2009-01-01

344

Prophylactic intravenous use of milrinone after cardiac operation in pediatrics (PRIMACORP) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Many pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass have a predictable fall in the cardiac index 6 to18 hours after surgery, the so-called low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS). Because patients who have LCOS require more monitoring and support and have a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit, the syndrome is associated with a costly morbidity. Milrinone, a

Timothy M. Hoffman; Gil Wernovsky; Andrew M. Atz; James M. Bailey; Akbar Akbary; John F. Kocsis; David P. Nelson; Anthony C. Chang; Thomas J. Kulik; Thomas L. Spray; David L. Wessel

2002-01-01

345

Tapping the brake on cardiac growth-endogenous repressors of hypertrophic signaling-  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac hypertrophy is considered an early hallmark during the clinical course of heart failure and an important risk factor for cardiac morbidity and mortality. Although hypertrophy of individual cardiomyocytes in response to pathological stimuli has traditionally been considered as an adaptive response required to sustain cardiac output, accumulating evidence from studies in patients and animal models suggests that in most

Joost J. Leenders; Yigal M. Pinto; Esther E. Creemers

2011-01-01

346

[The assessment of reactions of polygraphic parameters at HRV-biofeedback training in adolescents with different variants of cardiac autonomic nervous system tone].  

PubMed

There is examine a character of change of brain bioelectric activity and polygraphic indicators at sessions of biofeedback by heart rhythm variability parameters (HRV-biofeedback) in 15-17 years adolescents who have different variants of cardiac autonomic nervous system tone. It is taped, that adolescents with cardiac balanced tone have more intensive optimization of functional brain activity in comparison with adolescents who have cardiac sympathetic tone - increase on alpha-activity and theta-activity depression in electroencephalogram structure. There were optimization of neurodynamic processes and most expressed stabilization of the hemodynamics indicators in adolescents with cardiac sympathetic tone after HRV-biofeedback training. PMID:22642173

Demin, D B

2012-01-01

347

3D Cardiac Deformation from Ultrasound Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative estimation of regional cardiac deformation from 3D image sequences has important clinical implications for the assessment of viability in the heart wall. Such estimates have so far been obtained almost exclusively from Magnetic Resonance (MR) im- ages, speciflcally MR tagging. In this paper we describe a methodology for estimating cardiac deformations from 3D ultrasound images. The images are

Xenophon Papademetris; Albert J. Sinusas; Donald P. Dione; James S. Duncan

1999-01-01

348

Cardiac Vagal Regulation and Early Peer Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 341 5 1/2-year-old children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study was the focus of a study on the relation between cardiac vagal regulation and peer status. To assess cardiac vagal regulation, resting measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA change (suppression) to 3 cognitively and emotionally challenging tasks…

Graziano, Paulo A.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

2007-01-01

349

Adaptive detection of missed text areas in OCR outputs: application to the automatic assessment of OCR quality in mass digitization projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French National Library (BnF*) has launched many mass digitization projects in order to give access to its collection. The indexation of digital documents on Gallica (digital library of the BnF) is done through their textual content obtained thanks to service providers that use Optical Character Recognition softwares (OCR). OCR softwares have become increasingly complex systems composed of several subsystems dedicated to the analysis and the recognition of the elements in a page. However, the reliability of these systems is always an issue at stake. Indeed, in some cases, we can find errors in OCR outputs that occur because of an accumulation of several errors at different levels in the OCR process. One of the frequent errors in OCR outputs is the missed text components. The presence of such errors may lead to severe defects in digital libraries. In this paper, we investigate the detection of missed text components to control the OCR results from the collections of the French National Library. Our verification approach uses local information inside the pages based on Radon transform descriptors and Local Binary Patterns descriptors (LBP) coupled with OCR results to control their consistency. The experimental results show that our method detects 84.15% of the missed textual components, by comparing the OCR ALTO files outputs (produced by the service providers) to the images of the document.

Ben Salah, Ahmed; Ragot, Nicolas; Paquet, Thierry

2013-01-01

350

Sudden Cardiac Arrest  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest? Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a condition in which the heart ... This Content: Next >> April 1, 2011 Sudden Cardiac Arrest Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

351

Cardiac pacemakers: an update.  

PubMed

In this update of cardiac pacing we review the new revised ACC/AHA/NASPE Guidelines for implantation of cardiac pacemakers, including selection of pacing mode, possible new indications, and other more recent advances in cardiac pacing. PMID:15008358

Johnson, Charles D; Arzola-Castañer, Daniel

2003-01-01

352

Cardiac Syndrome X  

MedlinePLUS

... What causes cardiac syndrome X? There are many theories about what causes cardiac syndrome X. Some doctors ... disease. How is cardiac syndrome X treated? A number of medicines can help relieve the angina pain ...

353

Assessment of RCM output from the ENSEMBLES RT3 project in AMMA-region: focus on Senegal actual climate reproduction and effects on simulated crop yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In West-Africa countries, most economies and people depend on rainfed agriculture. In this area, rainfall is highly variable and, from the period 1931-1960 to 1968-1990, the annual rainfall has decreased 15 to 40%. Since the mid 1990's, an increase in rainfall is detected, but only to reach the level of 1970's rainfall. The aim of this study is to determine if large-scale fields, interpolated at local-scale are able (i) to reproduce observed climate at station and (ii) to simulate observed crop yields. Another objective of this study is to see if a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling methods is useful to correct biases due to scale change. For that, we use data from some synoptic stations in Senegal and simulated data provided by the European project ENSEMBLES. Among research themes (RT) of this project, one (RT3) had the responsibility for providing improved climate model tools developed in the context of regional climate models (RCMs), at spatial scales of 50km at AMMA-region. RT3 provides 15-year experiments over West Africa driven by the ERA-INTERIM reanalysis of the ECMWF. A statistical method (CDF-transform), developed to generate local cumulative distribution functions of surface climate variables from large-scale fields is used to correct biases in RCM output, due to large-scale information basically interpolated at local-scale. In the present study, a deterministic crop model, SARRA-H, is used to simulate sorghum yields for the actual period, at local scale. This crop model simulates yield attainable under water-limited conditions by simulating the soil water balance, potential and actual evapotranspiration, phenology, potential and water-limited carbon assimilation, and biomass partitioning. SARRA-H model is driven by 4 meteorological datasets, at synoptic station scale: - observations, - ERA-INTERIM, - original RCM output, - corrected RCM output.

Oettli, Pascal; Sultan, Benjamin; Baron, Christian; Vrac, Mathieu

2010-05-01

354

Cardiac hybrid imaging.  

PubMed

Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. PMID:24658682

Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Alkadhi, Hatem

2014-05-01

355

Ontogeny of hypoxic modulation of cardiac performance and its allometry in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of cardiac hypoxic responses, and how such responses may be modified by rearing environment, are poorly understood in amphibians. In this study, cardiac performance was investigated in Xenopus laevis from 2 to 25 days post-fertilization (dpf). Larvae were reared under either normoxia or moderate hypoxia (PO? = 110 mmHg), and each population was assessed in both normoxia and acute hypoxia. Heart rate (f(H)) of normoxic-reared larvae exhibited an early increase from 77 ± 1 beats min?¹ at 2 dpf to 153 ± 1 beats min?¹ at 4 dpf, followed by gradual decreases to 123 ± 3 beats min?¹ at 25 dpf. Stroke volume (SV), 6 ± 1 nl, and cardiac output (CO), 0.8 ± 0.1 ?l min?¹, at 5 dpf both increased by more than 40-fold to 25 dpf with rapid larval growth (~30-fold increase in body mass). When exposed to acute hypoxia, normoxic-reared larvae increased f(H) and CO between 5 and 25 dpf. Increased SV in acute hypoxia, produced by increased end-diastolic volume (EDV), only occurred before 10 dpf. Hypoxic-reared larvae showed decreased acute hypoxic responses of EDV, SV and CO at 7 and 10 dpf. Over the period of 2-25 dpf, cardiac scaling with mass showed scaling coefficients of -0.04 (f(H)), 1.23 (SV) and 1.19 (CO), contrary to the cardiac scaling relationships described in birds and mammals. In addition, f(H) scaling in hypoxic-reared larvae was altered to a shallower slope of -0.01. Collectively, these results indicate that acute cardiac hypoxic responses develop before 5 dpf. Chronic hypoxia at a moderate level can not only modulate this cardiac reflex, but also changes cardiac scaling relationship with mass. PMID:22752075

Pan, T-C Francis; Burggren, Warren W

2013-01-01

356

Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Cardiac Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac rehabilitation services are comprehensive, long-term programs involving medical evaluation, prescribed exercise,\\u000a cardiac risk factor modification, education and counseling. These programs are designed to limit the physiologic and psychologic\\u000a effects of cardiac illness, reduce the risk for sudden death or reinfarction, control cardiac symptoms, stabilize or reverse\\u000a the atherosclerotic process, and enhance the psychosocial and vocational status of patients with

Philip A. Ades

357

Influence of a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on the cardiovascular, psychological, and social functioning of cardiac patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight male cardiac patients who had either experienced myocardial infarction or undergone coronary bypass surgery were assigned to a treatment condition and participated in a 3-month, exercise-based Cardiac Rehabilitation Program, whereas 20 other cardiac patients were assigned to a routine-care condition and did not participate in the rehabilitation program. Cardiovascular, psychological, and psychosocial functioning were assessed before treatment or routine

Susan Roviaro; David S. Holmes; R. David Holmsten

1984-01-01

358

Visualization of Model Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualization of output from mathematical or statistical models is one of the best ways to introduce introductory geoscience students to the results and behavior of sophisticated models. Example of good sites ...

359

Doppler imaging predicts cardiac events in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe evaluated whether right ventricular (RV) diastolic dysfunction assessed by pulsed tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) predicts cardiac events in patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE).

Yumi Shiina; Nobusada Funabashi; Kwangho Lee; Masao Daimon; Tai Sekine; Miyuki Kawakubo; Yukiko Sekine; Maiko Takahashi; Rei Yajima; Yu Wakatsuki; Nobuhiro Tanabe; Takayuki Kuriyama; Issei Komuro

2009-01-01

360

Diagnostic accuracy of combined cardiac troponin and copeptin assessment for early rule-out of myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Aims: This systematic review aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of combined cardiac troponin (cTn) and copeptin assessment in comparison to cTn alone for early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Primary studies were eligible if they evaluated diagnostic accuracy for cTn with and without copeptin in patients with symptoms suggestive of AMI. AMI was defined according to the universal definition, using detection of cTn as a marker for myocardial necrosis. Eligible studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, CINAHL, Pascal, and Cochrane) from inception to March 2013, reviewing conference proceedings and contacting field experts and the copeptin manufacturer. Results: In 15 studies totalling 8740 patients (prevalence of AMI 16%), adding copeptin improved the sensitivity of cTn assays (from 0.87 to 0.96, p=0.003) at the expense of lower specificity (from 0.84 to 0.56, p<0.001). In 12 studies providing data for 6988 patients without ST-segment elevation, the summary sensitivity and specificity estimates were 0.95 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.98) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.65) for the combined assessment of cTn and copeptin. When a high-sensitivity cTnT assay was used in combination with copeptin, the summary sensitivity and specificity estimates were 0.98 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.00) and 0.50 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.58). Conclusion: Despite substantial between-study heterogeneity, this meta-analysis demonstrates that copeptin significantly improves baseline cTn sensitivity. Management studies are needed to establish the effectiveness and safety of measuring copeptin in combination with high-sensitivity cTnT for early rule-out of AMI without serial testing. PMID:24562800

Raskovalova, Tatiana; Twerenbold, Raphael; Collinson, Paul O; Keller, Till; Bouvaist, Hélène; Folli, Christian; Giavarina, Davide; Lotze, Ulrich; Eggers, Kai M; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Meune, Christophe; Maisel, Alan; Mueller, Christian

2014-01-01

361

Transmural myocardial perfusion gradients in relation to coronary artery stenoses severity assessed by cardiac multidetector computed tomography.  

PubMed

To assess the relationship between epicardial coronary artery stenosis severity and the corresponding regional transmural perfusion at rest and during adenosine stress, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). We evaluated the relationship between the severity of coronary artery diameter stenosis assessed by MDCT angiography and semi-quantitative myocardial MDCT perfusion in 200 symptomatic patients. The perfusion index (PI = mean myocardial attenuation density/mean left ventricular lumen attenuation density) at rest and during adenosine stress, the myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR = stress - PI/rest - PI), and the transmural perfusion ratio (TPR = subendocardium/subepicardium) were calculated. A coronary artery stenosis ?50 % was present in 49 patients (25 %). Rest-PI and rest-TPR values were similar in patients with and without a coronary artery stenosis ?50 %, whereas stress-PI, stress-TPR and MPR were significantly reduced in patients with a stenosis ?50 % (p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). Subendocardial PI was significantly higher than subepicardial PI at rest and during stress for patients without a significant stenosis, whereas this difference was blurred during stress in patients with ?50 % stenosis. In a broad spectrum of stenosis severity groups, TPR at rest remained unchanged until the group of patients with total occlusions, whereas TPR during stress decreased progressively when a threshold of 50 % was superseded. In this study we establish the relationship between semi-quantitative perfusion measurements by MDCT and severity of coronary artery stenoses and find the transmural myocardial perfusion ratio to be a potential strong functional index of the hemodynamic significance of coronary artery atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:25194436

Linde, Jesper James; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Hove, Jens Dahlgaard; Sørgaard, Mathias; Kelbæk, Henning; Nielsen, Walter Bjørn; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang

2015-01-01

362

Linear output nitinol engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.

Banks, R.M.

1986-01-14

363

Cardiac Mass and Function Decrease in Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome after Lung Transplantation: Relationship to Physical Activity?  

PubMed Central

Rationale There is a need to expand knowledge on cardio-pulmonary pathophysiology of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) following lung transplantation (LTx). Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess MRI-derived biventricular cardiac mass and function parameters as well as flow hemodynamics in patients with and without BOS after LTx. Methods Using 1.5T cardiac MRI, measurements of myocardial structure and function as well as measurements of flow in the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta were performed in 56 lung transplant patients. The patients were dichotomized into two gender matched groups of comparable age range: one with BOS (BOS stages 1–3) and one without BOS (BOS 0/0p). Measurements and Main Results Significantly lower biventricular cardiac mass, right and left ventricular end-diastolic volume, biventricular stroke volume, flow hemodynamics and significant higher heart rate but preserved cardiac output were observed in patients with BOS 1–3 compared to the BOS 0/0p group (p<0.05). In a stepwise logistic regression analysis global cardiac mass (p?=?0.046) and days after LTx (p?=?0.0001) remained independent parameters to predict BOS. In a second model an indicator for the physical fitness level - walking number of stairs - was added to the logistic regression model. In this second model, time after LTx (p?=?0.005) and physical fitness (p?=?0.01) remained independent predictors for BOS. Conclusion The observed changes in biventricular cardiac mass and function as well as changes in hemodynamic flow parameters in the pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta are likely attributed to the physical fitness level of patients after lung transplantation, which in turn is strongly related to lung function. PMID:25479016

Hinrichs, Jan B.; Renne, Julius; Schoenfeld, Christian; Gutberlet, Marcel; Haverich, Axel; Warnecke, Gregor; Welte, Tobias; Wacker, Frank

2014-01-01

364

Diabetes and cardiac autonomic neuropathy: Clinical manifestations, cardiovascular consequences, diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a frequent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus with potentially life-threatening outcomes. CAN is caused by the impairment of the autonomic nerve fibers regulating heart rate, cardiac output, myocardial contractility, cardiac electrophysiology and blood vessel constriction and dilatation. It causes a wide range of cardiac disorders, including resting tachycardia, arrhythmias, intraoperative cardiovascular instability, asymptomatic myocardial ischemia and infarction and increased rate of mortality after myocardial infarction. Etiological factors associated with autonomic neuropathy include insufficient glycemic control, a longer period since the onset of diabetes, increased age, female sex and greater body mass index. The most commonly used methods for the diagnosis of CAN are based upon the assessment of heart rate variability (the physiological variation in the time interval between heartbeats), as it is one of the first findings in both clinically asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Clinical symptoms associated with CAN generally occur late in the disease process and include early fatigue and exhaustion during exercise, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, presyncope and syncope. Treatment is based on early diagnosis, life style changes, optimization of glycemic control and management of cardiovascular risk factors. Medical therapies, including aldose reductase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, prostoglandin analogs and alpha-lipoic acid, have been found to be effective in randomized controlled trials. The following article includes the epidemiology, clinical findings and cardiovascular consequences, diagnosis, and approaches to prevention and treatment of CAN. PMID:25685280

Balc?o?lu, Akif Serhat; Müderriso?lu, Haldun

2015-02-15

365

Protocol for the China PEACE (Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events) retrospective study of coronary catheterisation and percutaneous coronary intervention  

PubMed Central

Introduction During the past decade, the volume of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in China has risen by more than 20-fold. Yet little is known about patterns of care and outcomes across hospitals, regions and time during this period of rising cardiovascular disease and dynamic change in the Chinese healthcare system. Methods and analysis Using the China PEACE (Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events) research network, the Retrospective Study of Coronary Catheterisation and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (China PEACE-Retrospective CathPCI Study) will examine a nationally representative sample of 11?900 patients who underwent coronary catheterisation or PCI at 55 Chinese hospitals during 2001, 2006 and 2011. We selected patients and study sites using a two-stage cluster sampling design with simple random sampling stratified within economical-geographical strata. A central coordinating centre will monitor data quality at the stages of case ascertainment, medical record abstraction and data management. We will examine patient characteristics, diagnostic testing patterns, procedural treatments and in-hospital outcomes, including death, complications of treatment and costs of hospitalisation. We will additionally characterise variation in treatments and outcomes by patient characteristics, hospital, region and study year. Ethics and dissemination The China PEACE collaboration is designed to translate research into improved care for patients. The study protocol was approved by the central ethics committee at the China National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases (NCCD) and collaborating hospitals. Findings will be shared with participating hospitals, policymakers and the academic community to promote quality monitoring, quality improvement and the efficient allocation and use of coronary catheterisation and PCI in China. Registration details http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01624896). PMID:24607563

Li, Jing; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Li, Xi; Lin, Zhenqiu; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

2014-01-01

366

The China PEACE (Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events) Retrospective Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Study Design China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study Design  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases are rising as a cause of death and disability in China. To improve outcomes for patients with these conditions, the Chinese government, academic researchers, clinicians, and more than 200 hospitals have created China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (China-PEACE), a national network for research and performance improvement. The first study from China PEACE, the Retrospective Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction (China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study), is designed to promote improvements in AMI quality of care by generating knowledge about the characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) across a representative sample of Chinese hospitals over the last decade. Methods and Results The China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study will examine more than 18,000 patient records from 162 hospitals identified using a 2-stage cluster sampling design within economic-geographic regions. Records were chosen from 2001, 2006, and 2011 to identify temporal trends. Data quality will be monitored by a central coordinating center and will, in particular, address case ascertainment, data abstraction, and data management. Analyses will examine patient characteristics, diagnostic testing patterns, in-hospital treatments, in-hospital outcomes, and variation in results by time and site of care. In addition to publications, data will be shared with participating hospitals and the Chinese government to develop strategies to promote quality improvement. Conclusions The China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study is the first to leverage the China PEACE platform to better understand AMI across representative sites of care and over the last decade in China. The China PEACE collaboration between government, academicians, clinicians and hospitals is poised to translate research about trends and patterns of AMI practices and outcomes into improved care for patients. PMID:24221838

Dharmarajan, Kumar; Li, Jing; Li, Xi; Lin, Zhenqiu; Krumholz, Harlan; Jiang, Lixin

2014-01-01

367

Cardiac pearls.  

PubMed

Most diagnoses of cardiovascular disease are made in the office or at the bedside. For example, in pulsus alternans of the radial pulse, observed when first greeting a patient, alteration of intensity of the second sound and systolic murmur and a ventricular (S3) gallop are clinical pearls--often subtle--that diagnose cardiac decompensation. A faint gallop, ventricular (S3) or atrial (S4), might be overlooked in a patient who has an emphysematous chest and an increase in anteroposterior diameter if one listens over the usual areas of the precordium. However, the gallop might be detected easily by listening over the xiphoid or epigastric area. How do you tell the difference between an S4, a split first sound, and an ejection sound? The S4 is eliminated with pressure on the stethoscope, but pressure does not eliminate the ejection sound or the splitting of S1. The atrial sound (S4) is most frequently found in patients who have coronary heart disease, and it is a constant finding in patients who have hypertension. It does not denote heart failure, as does the S3 (ventricular) gallop. In some patients, both atrial (S4) and ventricular (S3) diastolic gallops may be present. This occurrence is common in patients with cardiac decompensation associated with coronary heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy. When these diastolic filling sounds occur in close proximity, a short rumbling murmur may be heard, which causes confusion of this sound with that of a valvular or congenital lesion. When both sounds occur exactly simultaneously, a single sound results. Often, this sound is louder than either the first or second sound and can be misinterpreted as either a valvular or congenital lesion. This, however, is a summation gallop, which is rare. For the most accurate timing of heart sounds and murmurs, the simple technique called "inching" is the best. Keeping the second sound in mind as a reference, the physician moves (inches) the stethoscope from the aortic area to the apex. An extra sound may be noted to occur in systole before the second sound, thereby diagnosing a systolic click. If the sound occurs after the second sound, however, it is an S3 or ventricular diastolic gallop. If a murmur appears before S2, it is a systolic murmur; if it appears after S2, it is a diastolic murmur. When the Austin-Flint murmur is heard, significant aortic regurgitation exists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8306847

Harvey, W P

1994-02-01

368

Cardiac decompression after operation for congenital heart disease in infancy.  

PubMed

Between January 1987 and July 1992, 641 infants (less than 1 year of age) underwent cardiac surgical procedures through a median sternotomy incision at the UCLA Medical Center. In 36 (5.6%), to achieve cardiac decompression, the chest was left open after the operation, or was re-opened immediately postoperatively because of low cardiac output. The incidence of cardiac decompression was 31% (4/13) after the Norwood procedure and 24% (7/29) after truncus arteriosus repair. Opening of the chest reduced intrathoracic pressure and allowed complete expansion of the lungs. Delayed sternal closure was carried out in 27 patients at a mean of 5 days (range, 2 to 14 days) postoperatively. By the time of chest closure, left atrial pressure had decreased from a mean of 12 +/- 1.4 to 8.4 +/- 0.8 mm Hg (p < 0.004), and inotropic drug support with dopamine and dobutamine had also decreased significantly. Thirteen (36%) patients died of low cardiac output and multiorgan failure (4 of them after delayed chest closure) that was complicated by sepsis in 2. The incidence of sternal wound infection was relatively low at 5.6% (2/36); 1 patient died of generalized sepsis complicating multiorgan failure and the second case occurred in a patient who survived long term after sternectomy. With optimal ventilatory and inotropic drug support and meticulous wound care, delayed sternal closure may improve the survival of infants in low cardiac output after cardiac surgical procedures. PMID:7979665

Elami, A; Permut, L C; Laks, H; Drinkwater, D C; Sebastian, J L

1994-11-01

369

Diodes stabilize LED output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-signal diodes are placed in series with light-emitting diodes (LED's) to stabilize LED output against temperature fluctuations. Simple inexpensive method compensates for thermal fluctuations over a broad temperature range. Requiring few components, technique is particularly useful where circuit-board space is limited.

Deters, R. A.

1977-01-01

370

AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE -  

E-print Network

AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE - Ashwin A. Seshia*,Roger T. Howe vibratory rate gyroscope based on resonant sensing of the Coriolis force. The new design has several advantages over rate gyroscopes that utilize open-loop displacement sensing for rotation rate measurement

Tang, William C

371

Cardiac MRI and Iron Overload Cardiomyopathy in Thalassemia Major: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Heart failure is the leading cause of death in patients with Thalassemia major and primarily results from transfusional iron overload. It is essential to assess myocardial iron load. Previous studies have shown that neither serum ferritin nor liver iron concentration gives a reliable measure of cardiac iron accumulation. Cardiac T2* MRI technique offers noninvasive measurement of myocardial iron load. Case Report: A 39-year-old man with a past medical history significant for beta thalassemia major requiring blood transfusions every three-weeks and on iron chelation, presented with a cough, high fevers, and chills. He was subsequently found to have community acquired pneumonia and was treated with ceftriaxone and doxycycline. His hospital course was significant for episodes of atrial fibrillation and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. An echocardiogram showed normal left ventricular function with an ejection fraction of 70%, which hadn't changed from 2011. Although, the patient didn't have symptoms of heart failure, he likely had ventricular dysfunction that could be masked by the basal high cardiac output which can be seen in patients with chronic anemia and we decided to start the patient on sotalol 80 mg twice a day. The MRI software for multiecho T2* measurement was installed at Queens Medical Center in September 2011 and we were able to obtain images for our patient at that time. His myocardial T2* value was estimated to be 9 milliseconds which suggests an increased risk for the development of future cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. The repeat cardiac MRI images after discharge showed 8 milliseconds which suggested an interval worsening of the iron deposition within the myocardium. Discussion: We were able to keep track of the progression of his iron cardiomyopathy, and start additional treatment. The patient continues to be followed by a hematologist for management of his hemochromatosis and a cardiologist for his infiltrative heart disease both resulting from his need for chronic blood transfusions. In patients with iron overload cardiomyopathy, their systolic function is preserved until a very late stage as iron deposition begins within the epicardium and extends to the myocardium. This case illustrates the importance of assessing cardiac iron content utilizing cardiac MRI as it is less invasive than cardiac biopsy and may show earlier involvement than echocardiogram.

Azuma, Steven

2014-01-01

372

Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition Attenuates Cardiac Response to Hemodilution with Viscogenic Plasma Expander  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Increased vascular wall shear stress by elevated plasma viscosity significantly enhances the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity during an acute isovolemic hemodilution. Also the modulation of plasma viscosity has effects on the cardiac function that were revealed if a left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume (PV) measurement was used. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac function responses to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors with the presence of an elevated plasma viscosity but a low hematocrit level. Furthermore, systemic parameters were monitored in a murine model. Materials and Methods As test group five anesthetized hamsters were administered with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), NOS inhibitor, whereas five other hamsters were used as control group without L-NAME infusion. The dosage of L-NAME was 10 mg/kg. An isovolemic hemodilution was performed by 40% of estimated blood volume with 6% w/v dextran 2000 kDa, high viscosity plasma expanders (PEs) with viscosity 6.34 cP. LV function was measured and assessed using a 1.4 Fr PV conductance catheter. Results The study results demonstrated that NOS inhibition prevented the normal cardiac adaptive response after hemodilution. The endsystolic pressure increased 14% after L-NAME infusion and maintained higher than at the baseline after hemodilution, whereas it gradually decreased in the animals without L-NAME infusion. The admission of L-NAME significantly decreased the maximum rate of ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dtmax), stroke volume and cardiac output after hemodilution if compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion This finding supports the presumption that nitric oxide induced by an increased plasma viscosity with the use of a high viscosity PE plays a major role in the cardiac function during an acute isovolemic hemodilution. PMID:24653740

Cabrales, Pedro

2014-01-01

373

An electricity-focused economic input-output model: Life-cycle assessment and policy implications of future electricity generation scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electricity industry is extremely important to both our economy and our environment. We would like to be able to examine the economic, environmental and policy implications of both future electricity scenarios which include advanced generation technologies such as gasified coal, and of the products and processes which will use them, along with the interaction of this industry with the rest of the economy. This work builds upon an existing economic input-output framework, by adding detail about the electricity industry, specifically by differentiating among the various functions of the sector, and the different means of generating power. The mix of electricity consumed at any stage in the life-cycle of a product, process or industrial sector has a significant effect on the associated inventory of emissions. Fossil fuel or nuclear generators, large-scale hydroelectric, and renewable options such as geothermal, wind and solar each have a unique set of issues---both in the production of electricity at the plant and throughout the supply chain. Decision makers need better information regarding the environmental and economic impact of the electricity industry, including full supply chain details---the interaction of the electricity industry with the other 500 sectors of the economy. A systematic method for creating updated state level and sector generation mixes is developed. The results show that most sector mixes are very close to the U.S. average due to geographic dispersion of industries, but that some sectors are different, and they tend to be important raw material extraction or primary manufacturing industries. We then build a flexible framework for creating new sectors, supply chains and emission factors for the generation, transmission and distribution portions of the electricity industry. We look at scenarios of the present and future, for electricity and for particular products, and develop results which show environmental impacts split up by generation type, and with full supply chain detail. For analyses of the current electricity system and products, economic and environmental results match well with external verification sources, but for analyses of the future, there is significant uncertainty.

Marriott, Joe

374

Influence of cirrhosis in cardiac surgery outcomes  

PubMed Central

Liver cirrhosis has evolved an important risk factor for cardiac surgery due to the higher morbidity and mortality that these patients may suffer compared with general cardiac surgery population. The presence of contributing factors for a poor outcome, such as coagulopathy, a poor nutritional status, an adaptive immune dysfunction, a degree of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, and a degree of renal and pulmonary dysfunction, have to be taken into account for surgical evaluation when cardiac surgery is needed, together with the degree of liver disease and its primary complications. The associated pathophysiological characteristics that liver cirrhosis represents have a great influence in the development of complications during cardiac surgery and the postoperative course. Despite the population of cirrhotic patients who are referred for cardiac surgery is small and recommendations come from small series, since liver cirrhotic patients have increased their chance of survival in the last 20 years due to the advances in their medical care, which includes liver transplantation, they have been increasingly considered for cardiac surgery. Indeed, there is an expected rise of cirrhotic patients within the cardiac surgical population due to the increasing rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, especially in western countries. In consequence, a more specific approach is needed in the assessment of care of these patients if we want to improve their management. In this article, we review the pathophysiology and outcome prediction of cirrhotic patients who underwent cardiac surgery.

Lopez-Delgado, Juan C; Esteve, Francisco; Javierre, Casimiro; Ventura, Josep L; Mañez, Rafael; Farrero, Elisabet; Torrado, Herminia; Rodríguez-Castro, David; Carrio, Maria L

2015-01-01

375

Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using "Braslet-M" Occlusion Cuffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The transition to microgravity eliminates the hydrostatic gradients in the vascular system. The resulting fluid redistribution commonly manifests as facial edema, engorgement of the external neck veins, nasal congestion, and headache. This experiment examined the responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers as measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound in a baseline microgravity steady state, and under the influence of thigh occlusion cuffs (Braslet cuffs). METHODS: Nine International Space Station crewmember subjects (Expeditions 16 - 20) were examined in 15 experiment sessions 101 46 days after launch (mean SD; 33 - 185). 27 cardiac and vascular parameters were obtained under three respiratory conditions (baseline, Valsalva, and Mueller) before and after tightening of the Braslet cuffs for a total of 162 data points per session. The quality of cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations was assured through remote monitoring and guidance by Investigators from the NASA Telescience Center in Houston, TX, USA. RESULTS: Fourteen of the 81 measured conditions were significantly different with Braslet application and were apparently related to cardiac preload reduction or increase in the venous volume sequestered in the lower extremity. These changes represented 10 of the 27 parameters measured. In secondary analysis, 7 of the 27 parameters were found to respond differently to respiratory maneuvers depending on the presence or absence of thigh compression, with a total of 11 differences. CONCLUSIONS: Acute application of Braslet occlusion cuffs causes lower extremity fluid sequestration and exerts proportionate measurable effects on cardiac performance in microgravity. Ultrasound techniques measuring the hemodynamic effects of thigh cuffs in combination with respiratory maneuvers may serve as an effective tool in determining the volume status of a cardiac or hemodynamically compromised patient in microgravity.

Hamilton, D. R.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Garcia, K. M.; Ebert, D.; Feiveson, A. H.; Alferova, I. V.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Matveev, V. P.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Duncan, J. M.

2011-01-01

376

An integrated bioimpedance—ECG gating technique for respiratory and cardiac motion compensation in cardiac PET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiratory motion may degrade image quality in cardiac PET imaging. Since cardiac PET studies often involve cardiac gating by ECG, a separate respiratory monitoring system is required increasing the logistic complexity of the examination, in case respiratory gating is also needed. Thus, we investigated the simultaneous acquisition of both respiratory and cardiac gating signals using II limb lead mimicking electrode configuration during cardiac PET scans of 11 patients. In addition to conventional static and ECG-gated images, bioimpedance technique was utilized to generate respiratory- and dual-gated images. The ability of the bioimpedance technique to monitor intrathoracic respiratory motion was assessed estimating cardiac displacement between end-inspiration and -expiration. The relevance of dual gating was evaluated in left ventricular volume and myocardial wall thickness measurements. An average 7.6? ± ?3.3?mm respiratory motion was observed in the study population. Dual gating showed a small but significant increase (4?ml, p = 0.042) in left ventricular myocardial volume compared to plain cardiac gating. In addition, a thinner myocardial wall was observed in dual-gated images (9.3? ± ?1.3?mm) compared to cardiac-gated images (11.3? ± ?1.3?mm, p = 0.003). This study shows the feasibility of bioimpedance measurements for dual gating in a clinical setting. The method enables simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals using a single device with standard ECG electrodes.

Koivumäki, Tuomas; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Fürst, Sebastian; Loher, Simone; Vauhkonen, Marko; Schwaiger, Markus; Hakulinen, Mikko A.

2014-10-01

377

Cardiac conduction system  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components ... the cardiac conduction system’s electrical activity in the heart.

378

Cardiac sodium channelopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward\\u000a depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies,\\u000a i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A,

Ahmad S. Amin; Alaleh Asghari-Roodsari; Hanno L. Tan

2010-01-01

379

Imaging of Mechanical Cardiac Assist Devices  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the assessment of patients with mechanical cardiac assist devices. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the basic components, function, and radiographic appearances of these devices in order to appropriately diagnose complications. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review indications, components, normal imaging appearances, and complications of surgically and percutaneously implanted ventricular assist devices, intra-aortic balloon pumps, and cardiac meshes. PMID:21966618

Ginat, Daniel; Massey, Howard Todd; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S

2011-01-01

380

A differentiated approach to assess the diagnostic usefulness of a rapid particle gel immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against heparin-platelet factor 4 in cardiac surgery patients.  

PubMed

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods have shown to be of a low specificity for confirming heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in cardiac surgery patients. In other patient collectives, a new antigen test [ID-HPF4 Particle Gel Immuno Assay (PaGIA); Diamed, Cressier sur Morat, Switzerland] was recently reported to exhibit a better specificity than the ELISA. Since a more specific test would serve as a useful tool when diagnosing HIT, a prospective study was carried out to elucidate the specificity and diagnostic usefulness of PaGIA in cardiac surgical patients. As assessed in cardiac surgery patients without HIT, the proportion of PaGIA-positive samples was lowest at baseline (16%; 13/74), increasing to 31% (19/61) at postoperative days 5-9 (P = 0.06) and 69% (29/42) at postoperative days 10-18 (P < 0.001 versus postoperative days 5-9). The respective proportions in an ELISA (HPF4 ELISA; Stago, Asnières sur Seine, France) were lower. Because the prevalence of antibody positivity increases during the postoperative course, a differentiated mathematical model was used to assess predictive values and likelihood ratios (LR) of the PaGIA at three different phases of hospitalization. Calculating LR revealed -LR to be 0.07 at baseline, 0.09 during postoperative days 5-9, and 0.19 during postoperative days 10-18, while +LR were 5.9 at baseline, 3.0 during postoperative days 5-9, and 1.4 during postoperative days 10-18. Thus, in cardiac surgery patients, the PaGIA can be regarded as a useful tool in excluding rapid onset and typical onset of HIT, and further provides valuable information in the confirmation of rapid onset of HIT. Using a differentiated approach for calculation of predictive values and LR, the present study demonstrates that PaGIA, despite a lower specificity than the employed ELISA, in some situations is a valuable tool when diagnosing HIT in cardiac surgery patients. PMID:12544737

Risch, Lorenz; Bertschmann, Wolfgang; Heijnen, Ingmar A F M; Huber, Andreas R

2003-01-01

381

Assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull Blue dye for relative output factor measurements of the Leksell Gamma Knife® PerfexionTM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to perform assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull blue dye formed by irradiation (TB gel dosimeter) for measurement of ROFs for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators for the Leksell Gamma Knife PerfexionTM. All measurements have been carried out using home-made spherical Perspex glass phantom of diameter 160 mm. TB gel dosimeters were scanned using homemade optical CT scanner. The results are compared with vendor recommended Monte Carlo calculated ROFs values of 0.814 and 0.900 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The comparisons between the gel measurements and the treatment planning system (TPS) calculation are presented in the form of 2D isodoses for the central slices and 1D profile. Measured ROF 0.746 and 0.874 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators respectively are in a reasonable agreement with vendor recommended values and measured relative dose distribution in a central slice and measured profiles of all shots show excellent correspondence with TPS.

Kozubikova, P.; Solc, J.; Novotny, J., Jr.; Pilarova, K.; Pipek, J.; Koncekova, J.

2015-01-01

382

A methodology for fast assessments to the electrical activity of barrel fields in vivo: from population inputs to single unit outputs  

PubMed Central

Here we propose a methodology to analyze volumetric electrical activity of neuronal masses in the somatosensory barrel field of Wistar rats. The key elements of the proposed methodology are a three-dimensional microelectrode array, which was customized by our group to observe extracellular recordings from an extended area of the barrel field, and a novel method for the current source density analysis. By means of this methodology, we were able to localize single barrels from their event-related responses to single whisker deflection. It was also possible to assess the spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal aggregates in several barrels at the same time with the resolution of single neurons. We used simulations to study the robustness of our methodology to unavoidable physiological noise and electrode configuration. We compared the accuracy to reconstruct neocortical current sources with that obtained with a previous method. This constitutes a type of electrophysiological microscopy with high spatial and temporal resolution, which could change the way we analyze the activity of cortical neurons in the future. PMID:24550785

Riera, Jorge J.; Goto, Takakuni; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-01-01

383

Echocardiography in cardiac amyloidosis.  

PubMed

Echocardiography is the most widely used noninvasive test in patients with heart failure or abnormal cardiac findings on examination. Patients with amyloidosis may have significant cardiac abnormalities, several of which are highly suggestive of the disease. This article reviews echocardiographic features found in cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:25597027

Falk, Rodney H; Quarta, C Cristina

2015-03-01

384

Cardiac electrophysiology in mice: a matter of size  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, mouse models have become a popular instrument for studying cardiac arrhythmias. This review assesses in which respects a mouse heart is a miniature human heart, a suitable model for studying mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias in humans and in which respects human and murine hearts differ. Section I considers the issue of scaling of mammalian cardiac (electro) physiology to body mass. Then, we summarize differences between mice and humans in cardiac activation (section II) and the currents underlying the action potential in the murine working myocardium (section III). Changes in cardiac electrophysiology in mouse models of heart disease are briefly outlined in section IV, while section V discusses technical considerations pertaining to recording cardiac electrical activity in mice. Finally, section VI offers general considerations on the influence of cardiac size on the mechanisms of tachy-arrhythmias. PMID:22973235

Kaese, Sven; Verheule, Sander

2012-01-01

385

A multivariate analysis to assess the effect of packed red cell transfusion and the unit age of transfused red cells on postoperative complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background: Transfusion of blood components and age of transfused packed red cells (PRCs) are independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgeries. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively examined data of patients undergoing cardiac surgery at our institute from January 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012. Details of transfusion (autologous and allogenic), postoperative length of stay (PLOS), postoperative complications were recorded along with other relevant details. The analysis was done in two stages, in the first both transfused and nontransfused individuals and in the second only transfused individuals were considered. Age of transfused red cells as a cause of morbidity was analyzed only in the second stage. Results: Of the 762 patients included in the study, 613 (80.4%) were males and 149 (19.6%) were females. Multivariate analysis revealed that factors like the number and age of transfused PRCs and age of the patient had significant bearing upon the morbidity. Morbidity was significantly higher in the patients transfused with allogenic PRCs when compared with the patients not receiving any transfusion irrespective of the age of transfused PRCs. Transfusion of PRC of over 21 days was associated with higher postoperative complications, but not with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, allogenic blood transfusion increases morbidity. The age of PRCs transfused has a significant bearing on morbidity, but not on in-hospital mortality. Blood transfusion services will therefore have to weigh the risks and benefits of providing blood older than 21 days in cardiac surgeries. PMID:25722566

Makroo, Raj Nath; Hegde, Vikas; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Arora, Bhavna; Rosamma, N.L; Thakur, Uday Kumar

2015-01-01

386

Cardiac Trauma: Clinical and Experimental Correlations of Myocardial Contusion  

PubMed Central

Clinical and experimental observations in myocardial contusion have been correlated. Cardiac arrhythmia is always an important consequence and may be fatal. Reduction in cardiac output often accompanies significant cardiac injury. The coronary arterial circulation is not interrupted and is generally enhanced to the area of injury. Healing of the injury under these circulatory conditions may result in patchy scarring and peculiar adynamic areas of myocardium. Early diagnosis of myocardial contusion may be aided using radionuclide imaging with 99mTc-Sn-polyphosphate. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4412327

Doty, Donald B.; Anderson, Alan E.; Rose, Earl F.; Go, Raymundo T.; Chiu, Chiang L.; Ehrenhaft, J. L.

1974-01-01

387

Increase in cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) alpha protein isoform in hibernating ground squirrels, with echocardiographic visualization of ventricular wall hypertrophy and prolonged contraction.  

PubMed

Deep hibernators such as golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis) have multiple challenges to cardiac function during low temperature torpor and subsequent arousals. As heart rates fall from over 300 beats min(-1) to less than 10, chamber dilation and reduced cardiac output could lead to congestive myopathy. We performed echocardiography on a cohort of individuals prior to and after several months of hibernation. The left ventricular chamber exhibited eccentric and concentric hypertrophy during hibernation and thus calculated ventricular mass was ~30% greater. Ventricular ejection fraction was mildly reduced during hibernation but stroke volumes were greater due to the eccentric hypertrophy and dramatically increased diastolic filling volumes. Globally, the systolic phase in hibernation was ~9.5 times longer, and the diastolic phase was 28× longer. Left atrial ejection generally was not observed during hibernation. Atrial ejection returned weakly during early arousal. Strain echocardiography assessed the velocity and total movement distance of contraction and relaxation for regional ventricular segments in active and early arousal states. Myocardial systolic strain during early arousal was significantly greater than the active state, indicating greater total contractile movement. This mirrored the increased ventricular ejection fraction noted with early arousal. However, strain rates were slower during early arousal than during the active period, particularly systolic strain, which was 33% of active, compared with the rate of diastolic strain, which was 67% of active. As heart rate rose during the arousal period, myocardial velocities and strain rates also increased; this was matched closely by cardiac output. Curiously, though heart rates were only 26% of active heart rates during early arousal, the cardiac output was nearly 40% of the active state, suggesting an efficient pumping system. We further analyzed proportions of cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms in a separate cohort of squirrels over 5 months, including time points before hibernation, during hibernation and just prior to emergence. Hibernating individuals were maintained in both a 4°C cold room and a 20°C warm room. Measured by SDS-PAGE, relative percentages of cardiac MyHC alpha were increased during hibernation, at both hibernacula temperatures. A potential increase in contractile speed, and power, from more abundant MyHC alpha may aid force generation at low temperature and at low heart rates. Unlike many models of cardiomyopathies where the alpha isoform is replaced by the beta isoform in order to reduce oxygen consumption, ground squirrels demonstrate a potential cardioprotective mechanism to maintain cardiac output during torpor. PMID:24072796

Nelson, O Lynne; Rourke, Bryan C

2013-12-15

388

Increase in cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) alpha protein isoform in hibernating ground squirrels, with echocardiographic visualization of ventricular wall hypertrophy and prolonged contraction  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Deep hibernators such as golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis) have multiple challenges to cardiac function during low temperature torpor and subsequent arousals. As heart rates fall from over 300 beats min?1 to less than 10, chamber dilation and reduced cardiac output could lead to congestive myopathy. We performed echocardiography on a cohort of individuals prior to and after several months of hibernation. The left ventricular chamber exhibited eccentric and concentric hypertrophy during hibernation and thus calculated ventricular mass was ~30% greater. Ventricular ejection fraction was mildly reduced during hibernation but stroke volumes were greater due to the eccentric hypertrophy and dramatically increased diastolic filling volumes. Globally, the systolic phase in hibernation was ~9.5 times longer, and the diastolic phase was 28× longer. Left atrial ejection generally was not observed during hibernation. Atrial ejection returned weakly during early arousal. Strain echocardiography assessed the velocity and total movement distance of contraction and relaxation for regional ventricular segments in active and early arousal states. Myocardial systolic strain during early arousal was significantly greater than the active state, indicating greater total contractile movement. This mirrored the increased ventricular ejection fraction noted with early arousal. However, strain rates were slower during early arousal than during the active period, particularly systolic strain, which was 33% of active, compared with the rate of diastolic strain, which was 67% of active. As heart rate rose during the arousal period, myocardial velocities and strain rates also increased; this was matched closely by cardiac output. Curiously, though heart rates were only 26% of active heart rates during early arousal, the cardiac output was nearly 40% of the active state, suggesting an efficient pumping system. We further analyzed proportions of cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms in a separate cohort of squirrels over 5 months, including time points before hibernation, during hibernation and just prior to emergence. Hibernating individuals were maintained in both a 4°C cold room and a 20°C warm room. Measured by SDS-PAGE, relative percentages of cardiac MyHC alpha were increased during hibernation, at both hibernacula temperatures. A potential increase in contractile speed, and power, from more abundant MyHC alpha may aid force generation at low temperature and at low heart rates. Unlike many models of cardiomyopathies where the alpha isoform is replaced by the beta isoform in order to reduce oxygen consumption, ground squirrels demonstrate a potential cardioprotective mechanism to maintain cardiac output during torpor. PMID:24072796

Nelson, O. Lynne; Rourke, Bryan C.

2013-01-01

389

Antioxidant treatment improves neonatal survival and prevents impaired cardiac function at adulthood following neonatal glucocorticoid therapy  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat chronic lung disease in premature infants but their longer-term adverse effects on the cardiovascular system raise concerns. We reported that neonatal dexamethasone treatment in rats induced in the short term molecular indices of cardiac oxidative stress and cardiovascular tissue remodelling at weaning, and that neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment was protective at this time. In this study, we investigated whether such effects of neonatal dexamethasone have adverse consequences for NO bioavailability and cardiovascular function at adulthood, and whether neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment is protective in the adult. Newborn rat pups received daily i.p. injections of a human-relevant tapering dose of dexamethasone (D; n= 8; 0.5, 0.3, 0.1 ?g g?1) or D with vitamins C and E (DCE; n= 8; 200 and 100 mg kg?1, respectively) on postnatal days 1–3 (P1–3); vitamins were continued from P4 to P6. Controls received equal volumes of vehicle from P1 to P6 (C; n= 8). A fourth group received vitamins alone (CCE; n= 8). At P100, plasma NO metabolites (NOx) was measured and isolated hearts were assessed under both Working and Langendorff preparations. Relative to controls, neonatal dexamethasone therapy increased mortality by 18% (P < 0.05). Surviving D pups at adulthood had lower plasma NOx concentrations (10.6 ± 0.8 vs. 28.0 ± 1.5 ?m), an increased relative left ventricular (LV) mass (70 ± 2 vs. 63 ± 1%), enhanced LV end-diastolic pressure (14 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 1 mmHg) and these hearts failed to adapt output with increased preload (?cardiac output: 2.9 ± 2.0 vs. 10.6 ± 1.2 ml min?1) or afterload (?cardiac output: ?5.3 ± 2.0 vs.1.4 ± 1.2 ml min?1); all P < 0.05. Combined neonatal dexamethasone with antioxidant vitamins improved postnatal survival, restored plasma NOx and protected against cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal dexamethasone therapy promotes cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. Combined neonatal treatment with antioxidant vitamins is an effective intervention. PMID:23940378

Niu, Youguo; Herrera, Emilio A; Evans, Rhys D; Giussani, Dino A

2013-01-01

390

Central Venous Saturation: A Prognostic Tool in Cardiac Surgery patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) is a valuable prognostic marker in sepsis. However, its value in cardiac surgery has not been assessed yet. This study aimed at evaluating ScvO2 as a tool for predicting short-term organ dysfunction (OD) after cardiac surgery. Methods: A prospective cohort including cardiac surgery patients submitted to a goal-oriented therapy to maintain ScvO2 above 70%

Pedro M. Nogueira; Hugo T. Mendonça-Filho; Luiz Antonio Campos; Renato V. Gomes; Alexandre R. Felipe; Marco A. Fernandes; Cristiane A. Villela-Nogueira; José R. Rocco

2010-01-01

391

Doppler echocardiography: Quantitative methods of pulsed and continuous wave cardiac doppler  

SciTech Connect

This book is written in workbook format and presents basic physical principles involved in the Doppler flow velocity recording in both normal and abnormal states. Formulas necessary in the computation of valve gradients, valve areas, and cardiac outputs are included.

Labovitz, A.J.; Williams, G.A.

1985-01-01

392

Diabetes influences cardiac extracellular matrix remodelling after myocardial infarction and subsequent development of cardiac dysfunction  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to examine the influence of acute streptozotocin-induced diabetes on cardiac remodelling and function in mice subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) by coronary artery ligation. Echocardiography analysis indicated that diabetes induced deleterious cardiac functional changes as demonstrated by the negative differences of ejection fraction, fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output and left ventricular volume 24 hrs after MI. Temporal analysis for up to 2 weeks after MI showed higher mortality in diabetic animals because of cardiac wall rupture. To examine extracellular matrix remodelling, we used fluorescent molecular tomography to conduct temporal studies and observed that total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in hearts was higher in diabetic animals at 7 and 14 days after MI, which correlated well with the degree of collagen deposition in the infarct area visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Gene arrays indicated temporal changes in expression of distinct MMP isoforms after 1 or 2 weeks after MI, particularly in diabetic mice. Temporal changes in cardiac performance were observed, with a trend of exaggerated dysfunction in diabetic mice up to 14 days after MI. Decreased radial and longitudinal systolic and diastolic strain rates were observed over 14 days after MI, and there was a trend towards altered strain rates in diabetic mouse hearts with dyssynchronous wall motion clearly evident. This correlated with increased collagen deposition in remote areas of these infarcted hearts indicated by Masson's trichrome staining. In summary, temporal changes in extracellular matrix remodelling correlated with exaggerated cardiac dysfunction in diabetic mice after MI. PMID:22862852

Eguchi, Megumi; Xu, Guoxiong; Li, Ren-Ke; Sweeney, Gary

2012-01-01

393

Development and validation of a bayesian model for perioperative cardiac risk assessment in a cohort of 1,081 vascular surgical candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to develop and validate a Bayesian risk prediction model for vascular surgery candidates.Background. Patients who require surgical treatment of peripheral vascular disease are at increased risk of perioperative cardiac morbidity and mortality. Existing prediction models tend to underestimate risk in vascular surgery candidates.Methods. The cohort comprised 1,081 consecutive vascular surgery candidates at five medical centers. Of

Gilbert J. L'Italien; Sumita D. Paul; Robert C. Hendel; Jeffrey A. Leppo; Mylan C. Cohen; Lee A. Fleisher; Kenneth A. Brown; Stuart W. Zarich; Richard P. Cambria; Bruce S. Cutler; Kim A. Eagle

1996-01-01

394

Utilization of Intraoperative TEE to Assess Supraventricular Tachycardia-Inducing Right-Sided Cardiac Compression by the Liver, Post-Liver-Transplantation Status  

PubMed Central

This unique and interesting case report involves a patient who recently underwent a combined liver and kidney transplant (due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease) and subsequently suffered from episodes of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) secondary to the new liver graft compressing the right atrium and ventricle. After this was diagnosed, the patient underwent operative plication of the right hemidiaphragm. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was used to demonstrate cardiac compression from the liver and demonstrate resolution of compression after plication of the hemidiaphragm.

Stoll, W. David; Hand, William R.; Rohan, Vinayak S.; Gaddy, Parker M.; Reeves, Scott T.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

2015-01-01