Sample records for cardiopulmonary exercise tests

  1. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; Arena, Ross; Cahalin, Lawarence P; Labate, Valentina; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of literature has underscored the value of ventilatory gas exchange techniques during exercise testing (commonly termed cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or CPX) and their applications in the management of patients with heart failure (HF). The added precision provided by this technology is useful in terms of understanding the physiology and mechanisms underlying exercise intolerance in HF, quantifying the response to therapy, evaluating disability, making activity recommendations, and quantifying the response to exercise training. Importantly, a wealth of data has been published in recent years on the prognostic utility of CPX in patients with HF. These studies have highlighted the concept that indices of ventilatory inefficiency, such as the VE/VCO2 slope and oscillatory breathing, are particularly powerful in stratifying risk in HF. This article provides an overview of the clinical utility of CPX in patients with HF, including the applications of ventilatory inefficiency during exercise, the role of the pulmonary system in HF, respiratory muscle performance (RMP), and the application of CPX as part of a comprehensive clinical and exercise test evaluation. PMID:26096801

  2. Exercise-induced Myocardial Ischemia Detected by Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross; Wasserman, Karlman; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan; Chronos, Nicolas; Boden, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a well-accepted physiologic evaluation technique in patients diagnosed with heart failure and in individuals presenting with unexplained dyspnea on exertion. Several variables obtained during CPET, including oxygen consumption relative to heart rate (VO2/HR or O2-pulse) and work rate (VO2/Watt) provide consistent, quantitative patterns of abnormal physiologic responses to graded exercise when left ventricular dysfunction is caused by myocardial ischemia. This concept paper describes both the methodology and clinical application of CPET associated with myocardial ischemia. Initial evidence indicates left ventricular dysfunction induced by myocardial ischemia may be accurately detected by an abnormal CPET response. CPET testing may complement current non-invasive testing modalities that elicit inducible ischemia. It provides a physiologic quantification of the work rate, heart rate and O2 uptake at which myocardial ischemia develops. In conclusion, the potential value of adding CPET with gas exchange measurements is likely to be of great value in diagnosing and quantifying both overt and occult myocardial ischemia and its reversibility with treatment. PMID:19231322

  3. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the assessment of exertional dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Debapriya; Normandin, Edward; ZuWallack, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. It is usually investigated by resting tests such as pulmonary function tests and echocardiogram, which may at times can be non-diagnostic. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) measures physiologic parameters during exercise which can enable accurate identification of the cause of dyspnea. Though CPET has been around for decades and provides valuable and pertinent physiologic information on the integrated cardiopulmonary responses to exercise, it remains underutilized. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensible overview of the underlying principles of exercise physiology, indications and contraindications of CPET, methodology and interpretative strategies involved and thereby increase the understanding of the insights that can be gained from the use of CPET. PMID:25829957

  4. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the assessment of exertional dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Datta, Debapriya; Normandin, Edward; ZuWallack, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. It is usually investigated by resting tests such as pulmonary function tests and echocardiogram, which may at times can be non-diagnostic. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) measures physiologic parameters during exercise which can enable accurate identification of the cause of dyspnea. Though CPET has been around for decades and provides valuable and pertinent physiologic information on the integrated cardiopulmonary responses to exercise, it remains underutilized. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensible overview of the underlying principles of exercise physiology, indications and contraindications of CPET, methodology and interpretative strategies involved and thereby increase the understanding of the insights that can be gained from the use of CPET. PMID:25829957

  5. Ramp exercise protocols for clinical and cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Myers, J; Bellin, D

    2000-07-01

    Historically, the protocol used for exercise testing has been based on tradition, convenience or both. In the 1990s, a considerable amount of research has focused on the effect of the exercise protocol on test performance, including exercise tolerance, diagnostic accuracy, gas exchange patterns and the accuracy with which oxygen uptake (VO2) is predicted from the work rate. Studies have suggested that protocols which contain large and/or unequal increments in work cause a disruption in the normal linear relation between VO2 and work rate, leading to an overprediction of metabolic equivalents. Other studies have demonstrated that such protocols can mask the salutary effects of an intervention, and some have suggested that the protocol design can influence the diagnostic performance of the test. Guidelines published by major organisations have therefore suggested that the protocol be individualised based on the patient being tested and the purpose of the test. The ramp approach to exercise testing has recently been advocated because it facilitates recommendations made in these guidelines. This article reviews these issues and discusses the evolution of ramp testing which has occurred in the 1990s. PMID:10907755

  6. [From interpretation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing to medical decision].

    PubMed

    Aguilaniu, B; Wallaert, B

    2013-06-01

    Exercise is a situation that involves cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic responses simultaneously. Thus, interpretating the results of the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) requires an integrated understanding of the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance which may result from lung, heart, pulmonary or peripheral circulation, muscles disturbances, or a combination of these functional disorders. In this paper, we offer a systematic method to assist clinicians in developing a pathophysiological reasoning from the functional competency of each component measured during incremental exercise. We propose to go through four steps: descriptive analysis, prioritization of the functional disorders, mechanistic proposals and diagnostic and/or therapeutic suggestions. The descriptive analysis step should answer seven key physiological questions, the prioritization step is based on the magnitude of the functional disorders and their relevance to the primary symptoms causing exercise intolerance, the mechanistic proposals step aims at suggesting different mechanisms and etiologies compatible with the scale of observed functional abnormalities, which will finally be tested by exploring specific diagnostic or therapeutic suggestions. PMID:23835322

  7. [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with pectus excavatum].

    PubMed

    Cavestri, B; Wurtz, A; Bart, F; Nevière, R; Aguilaniu, B; Wallaert, B

    2010-09-01

    The functional consequences of physiologic impairments due to pectus excavatum (PE) are not known. This study was conducted to determine the exercise performance in patients with this condition. This prospective study included all patients presenting for PE during a 5-year period. Patients had a chest CT scan to measure the PE severity index, resting pulmonary function tests, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) with gas exchange analysis and echocardiography. Thirty-two patients were included, with a mean age of 25.9 years. The mean PE severity index was 3.72 ± 0.87. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2-max)) was 78.6 ± 22.1% predicted. Only four out of the 32 patients had a normal CPET. In the remaining patients, we observed three main patterns of limitation: 18 patients had a marked limitation in increasing their tidal volume (41 ± 5% of FVC at VO(2-max) versus 51 ± 7.5%); five patients had abnormal gas exchange with increased P(A-a)O(2) at VO(2-max) (47 ± 23 mmHg versus 20 ± 7.5 mmHg) associated with a patent foramen ovale without elevation of right pressure. The five last patients had cardiovascular impairment with a decreased oxygen pulse at VO(2-max) (57 ± 9% versus 90 ± 20%). They exhibited the most severe limitation (VO(2-max) = 55 ± 10%; P = 0.003). CPET abnormalities were predicted by neither PE index severity nor the results of resting pulmonary function tests. PE is associated with abnormal CPET, including impairments in ventilatory, cardiovascular responses and/or gas exchange, which may be of importance in disease management. PMID:20863972

  8. The Prognostic Value of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlene D. Fell; Lyrica Xiaohong Liu; Caroline Motika; Ella A. Kazerooni; Barry H. Gross; William D. Travis; Thomas V. Colby; Susan Murray; Galen B. Toews; Fernando J. Martinez; Kevin R. Flaherty

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by pro- gressive dyspnea, impaired gas exchange, and ultimate mortality. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that maximal oxygen uptake during cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and with short-term longitudinal measures would predict mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Data from 117 patients with IPF and longitudinal cardio- pulmonary exercise tests were

  9. Developing Pulmonary Vasculopathy in Systemic Sclerosis, Detected with Non-Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, Daniel; Oudiz, Ronald J.; Karpouzas, George; Hovanesyan, Arsen; Jayasinghe, Amali; Hansen, James E.; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Wasserman, Karlman

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) may develop exercise intolerance due to musculoskeletal involvement, restrictive lung disease, left ventricular dysfunction, or pulmonary vasculopathy (PV). The latter is particularly important since it may lead to lethal pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that abnormalities during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with SSc can identify PV leading to overt PAH. Methods Thirty SSc patients from the Harbor-UCLA Rheumatology clinic, not clinically suspected of having significant pulmonary vascular disease, were referred for this prospective study. Resting pulmonary function and exercise gas exchange were assessed, including peakVO2, anaerobic threshold (AT), heart rate- VO2 relationship (O2-pulse), exercise breathing reserve and parameters of ventilation-perfusion mismatching, as evidenced by elevated ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE/VCO2) and reduced end-tidal pCO2 (PETCO2) at the AT. Results Gas exchange patterns were abnormal in 16 pts with specific cardiopulmonary disease physiology: Eleven patients had findings consistent with PV, while five had findings consistent with left-ventricular dysfunction (LVD). Although both groups had low peak VO2 and AT, a higher VE/VCO2 at AT and decreasing PETCO2 during early exercise distinguished PV from LVD. Conclusions Previously undiagnosed exercise impairments due to LVD or PV were common in our SSc patients. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing may help to differentiate and detect these disorders early in patients with SSc. PMID:21179195

  10. Theoretical rationale and practical recommendations for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Ingle

    2007-01-01

    The syndrome of chronic heart failure (CHF) becomes increasingly prevalent in older patients, and while mortality rates are\\u000a declining in most cardiovascular diseases, both prevalence and mortality in CHF remain high. The heart is unable to meet the\\u000a demands of the skeletal musculature, and symptoms manifest as dyspnoea and signs of fatigue during exercise. The cardiopulmonary\\u000a exercise test (CPET) can

  11. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in congenital heart disease: (contra)indications and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Takken, T.; Blank, A.C.; Hulzebos, E.H.; van Brussel, M.; Groen, W.G.; Helders, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in paediatric cardiology differs in many aspects from the tests performed in adult cardiology. Children's cardiovascular responses during exercise testing present different characteristics, particularly oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood pressure response, which are essential in interpreting haemodynamic data. Diseases that are associated with myocardial ischaemia are rare in children. The main indications for CPET in children are evaluation of exercise capacity and the identification of exercise-induced arrhythmias. In this article we will review the main indications for CPET in children with congenital heart disease, the contraindications for exercise testing and the indications for terminating an exercise test. Moreover, we will address the interpretation of gas exchange data from CPET in children with congenital heart disease. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:385-92.19949648) PMID:19949648

  12. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in lung and heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Howard, D K; Iademarco, E J; Trulock, E P

    1994-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in recipients of lung and heart-lung transplants demonstrates significant restoration of exercise tolerance to individuals severely disabled by their underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Recipients can perform moderate levels of activity compatible with a normal lifestyle. Considerable exercise limitation, however, remains in most recipients as measured by maximum oxygen uptake and work rate, despite substantial improvement and often normalization in resting cardiopulmonary function. The amount of exercise limitation observed in recipients of single-lung, bilateral-lung, and heart-lung transplants is interestingly similar, and the pattern of limitation is somewhat stereotyped. Ventilatory abnormalities are never limiting. Gas exchange abnormalities are sometimes seen (especially in single-lung transplant recipients) but generally are not limiting. Cardiac dysfunction is sometimes seen (particularly in heart-lung transplant recipients) but also does not appear to be limiting. Peripheral factors limiting exercise (which may include abnormalities in the peripheral circulation and peripheral neuromuscular structure and function) are almost universally seen and are probably the primary determinant of exercise limitation in these patients. At present, the relative contributions of various peripheral factors to exercise limitation are unclear. Further study may help elucidate these issues. PMID:8088101

  13. Comparison of physiological response to cardiopulmonary exercise testing among cancer survivors and healthy controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riggs J. KlikaKatharina; Katharina S. Golik; Scott N. Drum; Kathleen E. Callahan; William G. Thorland

    2011-01-01

    Selected physiological responses, including lactate kinetics, to cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) were evaluated among\\u000a a group of cancer survivors (CS, n = 55) and healthy controls (HC, n = 213). It was uncertain if lactate testing in a group of cancer survivors could provide useful information about training\\u000a intensity. It was hypothesized that chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, physical inactivity or some combination thereof would\\u000a alter

  14. The Utility of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in the Assessment of Suspected Microvascular Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross; Wasserman, Karlman; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan; Belardinelli, Romualdo; LaBudde, Brian; Menasco, Nicholas; Boden, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence demonstrating the potential value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to accurately detect myocardial ischemia secondary to macro-vascular disease is beginning to emerge. Despite distinct mechanisms mediating ischemia in micro-vascular and macrovascular coronary artery disease (CAD), the net physiologic effect of exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is common to both. The abnormal physiologic response to CPET may, therefore, be similar in patients with macro- and micro-vascular ischemia. The following case report describes the CPET abnormalities in a patient with suspected microvascular CAD and the subsequent improvement in LV function following three weeks of medical therapy with the anti-ischemic drug ranolazine. PMID:19233492

  15. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a predictor of complications in oesophagogastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    McCaffer, CJ; Carter, RC; Fullarton, GM; Mackay, CK; Forshaw, MJ

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An anaerobic threshold (AT) of <11ml/min/kg can identify patients at high risk of cardiopulmonary complications after major surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in predicting cardiopulmonary complications in high risk patients undergoing oesophagogastric cancer resection. Methods Between March 2008 and October 2010, 108 patients (83 men, 25 women) with a median age of 66 years (range: 38–84 years) underwent CPET before potentially curative resections for oesophagogastric cancers. Measured CPET variables included AT and maximum oxygen uptake at peak exercise (VO2 peak). Outcome measures were length of high dependency unit stay, length of hospital stay, unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results The mean AT and VO2 peak were 10.8ml/min/kg (standard deviation [SD]: 2.8ml/min/kg, range: 4.6–19.3ml/min/kg) and 15.2ml/min/kg (SD: 5.3ml/min/kg, range: 5.4–33.3ml/min/kg) respectively; 57 patients (55%) had an AT of <11ml/min/ kg and 26 (12%) had an AT of <9ml/min/kg. Postoperative complications occurred in 57 patients (29 cardiopulmonary [28%] and 28 non-cardiopulmonary [27%]). Four patients (4%) died in hospital and 21 (20%) required an unplanned ICU admission. Cardiopulmonary complications occurred in 42% of patients with an AT of <9ml/min/kg compared with 29% of patients with an AT of ?9ml/min/kg but <11ml/min/kg and 20% of patients with an AT of ?11ml/min/kg (p=0.04). There was a trend that those with an AT of <11ml/min/kg and a low VO2 peak had a higher rate of unplanned ICU admission. Conclusions This study has shown a correlation between AT and the development of cardiopulmonary complications although the discriminatory ability was low. PMID:23484995

  16. Clinical Usefulness of Response Profiles to Rapidly Incremental Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Roberta P.; Alencar, Maria Clara N.; Treptow, Erika; Arbex, Flávio; Ferreira, Eloara M. V.; Neder, J. Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The advent of microprocessed “metabolic carts” and rapidly incremental protocols greatly expanded the clinical applications of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The response normalcy to CPET is more commonly appreciated at discrete time points, for example, at the estimated lactate threshold and at peak exercise. Analysis of the response profiles of cardiopulmonary responses at submaximal exercise and recovery, however, might show abnormal physiologic functioning which would not be otherwise unraveled. Although this approach has long been advocated as a key element of the investigational strategy, it remains largely neglected in practice. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to highlight the usefulness of selected submaximal metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiovascular variables in different clinical scenarios and patient populations. Special care is taken to physiologically justify their use to answer pertinent clinical questions and to the technical aspects that should be observed to improve responses' reproducibility and reliability. The most recent evidence in favor of (and against) these variables for diagnosis, impairment evaluation, and prognosis in systemic diseases is also critically discussed. PMID:23766901

  17. Prediction of organ-specific complications following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Barakat, H M; Shahin, Y; McCollum, P T; Chetter, I C

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing whether measures of aerobic fitness can predict postoperative cardiac and pulmonary complications, 30-day mortality and length of hospital stay following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. We prospectively collected cardiopulmonary exercise testing data over two years for 130 patients. Upon multivariate analysis, a decreased anaerobic threshold (OR (95% CI) 0.55 (0.37-0.84); p = 0.005) and open repair (OR (95% CI) 6.99 (1.56-31.48); p = 0.011) were associated with cardiac complications. Similarly, an increased ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (OR (95% CI) 1.18 (1.05-1.33); p = 0.005) and open repair (OR (95% CI) 14.29 (3.24-62.90); p < 0.001) were associated with pulmonary complications. Patients who had an endovascular repair had shorter hospital and critical care lengths of stay (p < 0.001). Measures of fitness were not associated with 30-day mortality or length of hospital stay. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables, therefore, seem to predict different postoperative complications following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, which adds value to their routine use in risk stratification and optimisation of peri-operative care. PMID:25656939

  18. The Utility of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to Detect and Track Early-Stage Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross A.; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan N.; Sperling, Laurence S.; LaBudde, Brian D.; Wasserman, Karlman

    2010-01-01

    Evidence demonstrating the potential value of noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to accurately detect exercise-induced myocardial ischemia is emerging. This case-based concept report describes CPET abnormalities in an asymptomatic at-risk man with suspected early-stage ischemic heart disease. When CPET was repeated 1 year after baseline assessment, his cardiovascular function had worsened, and an anti-atherosclerotic regimen was initiated. When the patient was retested after 3.3 years, the diminished left ventricular function had reversed with pharmacotherapy directed at decreasing cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Thus, in addition to identifying appropriate patients in need of escalating therapy for atherosclerosis, CPET was useful in monitoring progression and reversal of abnormalities of the coronary circulation in a safe and cost-effective manner without the use of radiation. Serial CPET parameters may be useful to track changes marking the progression and/or regression of the underlying global ischemic burden. PMID:20884826

  19. Evaluation of Exercise Capacity with Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing and Type B Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Adult Patients with Patent Atrial Septal Defect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Trojnarska; Andrzej Szyszka; Adrian Gwizdala; Zofia Oko-Sarnowska; Slawomir Katarzynski; Andrzej Siniawski; Ewa Chmara; Andrzej Cieslinski

    2006-01-01

    Adults with patent atrial septal defect (ASD) usually find their exercise capacity satisfactory, and therefore hesitate to accept proposed surgical treatment of the heart disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate both the exercise capacity, using the cardio-pulmonary stress test, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in asymptomatic adults with ASD. Thirty-six patients with patent secundum type ASD

  20. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing to evaluate the exercise capacity of patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: An endothelin antagonist improves the peak PETCO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Hirashiki; Shiro Adachi; Yoshihisa Nakano; Yuji Kono; Shuzo Shimazu; Shinya Shimizu; Ryota Morimoto; Takahiro Okumura; Kyosuke Takeshita; Sumio Yamada; Toyoaki Murohara; Takahisa Kondo

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The 6-min walking distance is often used for assessing the exercise capacity under the treatment with an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) was reported to be more useful for the patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), however, few reports exist in patients with inoperable CTEPH. The aim

  1. Changes in pulmonary function test and cardio-pulmonary exercise capacity in COPD patients after lobar pulmonary resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Bobbio; Alfredo Chetta; Paolo Carbognani; Eveline Internullo; Alessia Verduri; Giulianoezio Sansebastiano; Michele Rusca; Dario Olivieri

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) and Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Testing (C-PET) are useful to evaluate operability in functionally compromised patients. Although modifications of PFT and C-PET after lung surgery have been widely explored, little information exists as to modifications of exercise capacity in COPD patients undergoing lung resection. We prospectively analyzed the changes in PFT and C-PET in patients with COPD

  2. Changes in pulmonary function test and cardio-pulmonary exercise capacity in COPD patients after lobar pulmonary resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Bobbio; Alfredo Chetta; Paolo Carbognani; Eveline Internullo; Alessia Verduri; Giulianoezio Sansebastiano; Michele Rusca; Dario Olivieri

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) and Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Testing (C-PET) are useful to evaluate operability in functionally compromised patients. Although modifications of PFT and C-PET after lung surgery have been widely explored, little information exists as to modifications of exercise capacity in COPD patients undergoing lung resection. We prospectively analyzed the changes in PFT and C-PET in patients with COPD

  3. Difference in Physiological Components of VO2 Max During Incremental and Constant Exercise Protocols for the Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Junshiro; Harada, Tetsuya; Okada, Akinori; Maemura, Yuko; Yamamoto, Misaki; Tabira, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] VO2 is expressed as the product of cardiac output and O2 extraction by the Fick equation. During the incremental exercise test and constant high-intensity exercise test, VO2 results in the attainment of maximal O2 uptake at exhaustion. However, the differences in the physiological components, cardiac output and muscle O2 extraction, have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that constant exercise would result in higher O2 extraction than incremental exercise at exhaustion. [Subjects] Twenty-five subjects performed incremental exercise and constant exercise at 80% of their peak work rate. [Methods] Ventilatory, cardiovascular, and muscle oxygenation responses were measured using a gas analyzer, Finapres, and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. [Results] VO2 was not significantly different between the incremental exercise and constant exercise. However, cardiac output and muscle O2 saturation were significantly lower for the constant exercise than the incremental exercise at the end of exercise. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that if both tests produce a similar VO2 value, the VO2 in incremental exercise would have a higher ratio of cardiac output than constant exercise, and VO2 in constant exercise would have a higher ratio of O2 extraction than incremental exercise at the end of exercise. PMID:25202198

  4. Role of the cardio-pulmonary exercise test and six-minute walking test in the evaluation of exercise performance in patients with late-onset Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Crescimanno, G; Modica, R; Lo Mauro, R; Musumeci, O; Toscano, A; Marrone, O

    2015-07-01

    In patients with late-onset Pompe disease, we explored the role of the Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) and the Six-Minute Walking Test (6MWT) in the assessment of exercise capacity and in the evaluation of the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Eight patients affected by late-onset Pompe disease, followed up at the Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases and treated with ERT, underwent a baseline evaluation with a spirometry, a CPET and a 6MWT. Four of them were restudied after 36 months of treatment. Three patients showed a reduction in exercise capacity as evaluated by peak oxygen uptake (VO2) measured at the CPET and Distance Walked (DW) measured at the 6MWT (median % predicted: 67.1 [range 54.3-99.6] and 67.3 [56.6-82.6], respectively). Cardiac and respiratory limitations revealed by the CPET were correlated to peak VO2, but not to the DW. Nevertheless, percent of predicted values of peak VO2 and DW were strongly correlated (rho?=?0.85, p?=?0.006), and close to identity. In the longitudinal evaluation forced vital capacity decreased, while peak VO2 and DW showed a trend to a parallel improvement. We concluded that although only the CPET revealed causes of exercise limitation, which partially differed among patients, CPET and 6MWT showed a similar overall degree of exercise impairment. That held true in the longitudinal assessment during ERT, where both tests demonstrated similar small improvements, occurring despite deterioration in forced vital capacity. PMID:25908581

  5. Preoperative evaluation of cardiopulmonary reserve with the use of expired gas analysis during exercise testing in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Nagamatsu; Ichirou Shima; Hideaki Yamana; Hiromasa Fujita; Kazuo Shirouzu; Tatsuya Ishitake

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the usefulness of analyzing expired gas during exercise testing for the prediction of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Background data: Radical esophagectomy with 3-field lymphadenectomy is performed in patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma but has a high risk of postoperative complications. To reduce the surgical risk, we performed preoperative risk analysis using 8 factors.

  6. Central and Peripheral Hemodynamic Adaptations During Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in Heart Failure Patients With Exercise Periodic Breathing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Chou, Szu-Ling; Chen, Tai-Tzung; Wang, Chao-Hung; Chang, Hen-Hong; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-07-13

    Some heart failure (HF) patients develop ventilatory oscillation which is composed of exercise periodic breathing (EPB) and sleep apnea. The ventilatory oscillation is associated with exercise intolerance. This study employed an integrated monitoring system to elucidate the way of central and peripheral hemodynamic adaption responding to exercise. This study recruited 157 HF patients to perform exercise testing using a bicycle ergometer. A noninvasive bio-reactance device was adopted to measure cardiac hemodynamics, whereas a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to assess perfusion and O2 extraction in the frontal cerebral lobe (FC) and vastus lateralis muscle (VL) during exercise respectively. Furthermore, quality of life (QoL) was measured with the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaires (MLHFQ). The patients were divided into an EPB group (n = 65) and a non-EPB group (n = 92) according to their ventilation patterns during testing. Compared to their non-EPB counterparts, the patients with EPB exhibited 1) impaired aerobic capacity with a smaller peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and oxygen uptake efficiency slopes; 2) impaired circulatory and ventilatory efficiency with relatively high cardiac output and ventilation per unit workload; 3) impaired ventilatory/hemodynamic adaptation in response to exercise with elevated deoxyhemoglobin levels in the FC region; and 4) impaired QoL with lower physical component scores on the SF-36 and higher scores on the MLHFQ. In conclusion, EPB may reduce circulatory-ventilatory-hemodynamic efficiency during exercise, thereby impairing functional capacity in patients with HF. PMID:26084463

  7. Predicting the highest workload in cardiopulmonary test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Baralis; Tania Cerquitelli; Silvia Chiusano; Vincenzo D'Elia; Riccardo Molinari; Davide Susta

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is an objective method to evaluate both the cardiac and pulmonary functions. It is used in different application domains, ranging from the clinical domain to sport sciences, to assess possible cardiac failures as well as athete performance. The highest workload reached in the test is a key information to evaluate the individual’s physiological characteristics, to plan rehabilitation

  8. Estimating equations for cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables in fontan patients: derivation and validation using a multicenter cross-sectional database.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ryan J; Spencer, Carolyn T; Jackson, Lanier; Heal, Martha E; Forbus, Geoffrey; Hulsey, Thomas C; Atz, Andrew M

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a common method of evaluating patients with a Fontan circulation. Equations to calculate predicted CPET values are based on children with normal circulation. This study aims to create predictive equations for CPET variables solely based on patients with Fontan circulation. Patients who performed CPET in the multicenter Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study were screened. Peak variable equations were calculated using patients who performed a maximal test (RER > 1.1) and anaerobic threshold (AT) variable equations on patients where AT was adequately calculated. Eighty percent of each cohort was randomly selected to derive the predictive equation and the remaining served as a validation cohort. Linear regression analysis was performed for each CPET variable within the derivation cohort. The resulting equations were applied to calculate predicted values in the validation cohort. Observed versus predicted variables were compared in the validation cohort using linear regression. 411 patients underwent CPET, 166 performed maximal exercise tests and 317 had adequately calculated AT. Predictive equations for peak CPET variables had good performance; peak VO2, R (2) = 0.61; maximum work, R (2) = 0.61; maximum O2 pulse, R (2) = 0.59. The equations for CPET variables at AT explained less of the variability; VO2 at AT, R (2) = 0.15; work at AT, R (2) = 0.39; O2 pulse at AT, R (2) = 0.34; VE/VCO2 at AT, R (2) = 0.18; VE/VO2 at AT, R (2) = 0.14. Only the models for VE/VCO2 and VE/VO2 at AT had significantly worse performance in validation cohort. Of the 8 equations for commonly measured CPET variables, six were able to be validated. The equations for peak variables were more robust in explaining variation in values than AT equations. PMID:25179464

  9. Estimating Equations for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Variables in Fontan Patients: Derivation and Validation Using a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Database

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Carolyn T.; Jackson, Lanier; Heal, Martha E.; Forbus, Geoffrey; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Atz, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a common method of evaluating patients with a Fontan circulation. Equations to calculate predicted CPET values are based on children with normal circulation. This study aims to create predictive equations for CPET variables solely based on patients with Fontan circulation. Patients who performed CPET in the multicenter Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study were screened. Peak variable equations were calculated using patients who performed a maximal test (RER > 1.1) and anaerobic threshold (AT) variable equations on patients where AT was adequately calculated. Eighty percent of each cohort was randomly selected to derive the predictive equation and the remaining served as a validation cohort. Linear regression analysis was performed for each CPET variable within the derivation cohort. The resulting equations were applied to calculate predicted values in the validation cohort. Observed versus predicted variables were compared in the validation cohort using linear regression. 411 patients underwent CPET, 166 performed maximal exercise tests and 317 had adequately calculated AT. Predictive equations for peak CPET variables had good performance; peak VO2, R2 = 0.61; maximum work, R2 = 0.61; maximum O2 pulse, R2 = 0.59. The equations for CPET variables at AT explained less of the variability; VO2 at AT, R2 = 0.15; work at AT, R2 = 0.39; O2 pulse at AT, R2 = 0.34; VE/VCO2 at AT, R2 = 0.18; VE/VO2 at AT, R2 = 0.14. Only the models for VE/VCO2 and VE/VO2 at AT had significantly worse performance in validation cohort. Of the 8 equations for commonly measured CPET variables, six were able to be validated. The equations for peak variables were more robust in explaining variation in values than AT equations. PMID:25179464

  10. Influence of body mass on risk prediction during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Lee; Sloan, Rebecca; Carroll, Sean; Goode, Kevin; Cleland, John G; Clark, Andrew L

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) during a maximal exercise test is used to stratify patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and is usually corrected for body mass. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of body mass on risk prediction during treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with CHF. METHODS: A total of 411 patients with suspected CHF (mean [± SD] age 64±12 years; 81% male; mean left ventricular ejection fraction 39±6%) underwent symptom-limited, maximal CPET on a treadmill. Patients were categorized as normal weight, overweight or obese based on body mass index. RESULTS: One hundred fifteen patients died during a median follow-up period of 8.7±2.3 years in survivors. In the univariable analysis, peak VO2 adjusted for body mass (?2=41.4) and unadjusted (?2=40.2) were similar for predicting all-cause mortality. Peak VO2 adjusted for body mass showed marginally higher ?2 values in normal weight, overweight and obese categories than unadjusted values. Anaerobic threshold had similar prognostic power regardless of whether it was corrected for body mass (?2=22.4 and ?2=24.4), with no difference between the two in any of the subgroups separately. In all patients, unadjusted ventilation (VE)/carbon dioxide production (VCO2) slope (?2=40.6) was a stronger predictor of all-cause mortality than body mass adjusted values (?2=32.8), and unadjusted values remained stronger in normal weight, overweight and obese subgroups. CONCLUSION: Correcting peak VO2 for body mass slightly improves risk prediction, especially in obese patients with CHF. The adjustment of other CPET-derived variables including anaerobic threshold and VE/VCO2 slope for body mass appears to provide less prognostic value. PMID:23592931

  11. A novel cardiopulmonary exercise test protocol and criterion to determine maximal oxygen uptake in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, T. Scott; Cannon, Daniel T.; Begg, Gordon; Baliga, Vivek; Witte, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing for peak oxygen uptake (V?o2peak) can evaluate prognosis in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, with the peak respiratory exchange ratio (RERpeak) commonly used to confirm maximal effort and maximal oxygen uptake (V?o2max). We determined the precision of RERpeak in confirming V?o2max, and whether a novel ramp-incremental (RI) step-exercise (SE) (RISE) test could better determine V?o2max in CHF. Male CHF patients (n = 24; NYHA class I–III) performed a symptom-limited RISE-95 cycle ergometer test in the format: RI (4–18 W/min; ?10 min); 5 min recovery (10 W); SE (95% peak RI work rate). Patients (n = 18) then performed RISE-95 tests using slow (3–8 W/min; ?15 min) and fast (10–30 W/min; ?6 min) ramp rates. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath. V?o2peak was compared within patients by unpaired t-test of the highest 12 breaths during RI and SE phases to confirm V?o2max and its 95% confidence limits (CI95). RERpeak was significantly influenced by ramp rate (fast, medium, slow: 1.21 ± 0.1 vs. 1.15 ± 0.1 vs. 1.09 ± 0.1; P = 0.001), unlike V?o2peak (mean n = 18; 14.4 ± 2.6 ml·kg?1·min?1; P = 0.476). Group V?o2peak was similar between RI and SE (n = 24; 14.5 ± 3.0 vs. 14.7 ± 3.1 ml·kg?1·min?1; P = 0.407); however, within-subject comparisons confirmed V?o2max in only 14 of 24 patients (CI95 for V?o2max estimation averaged 1.4 ± 0.8 ml·kg?1·min?1). The RERpeak in CHF was significantly influenced by ramp rate, suggesting its use to determine maximal effort and V?o2max be abandoned. In contrast, the RISE-95 test had high precision for V?o2max confirmation with patient-specific CI95 (without secondary criteria), and showed that V?o2max is commonly underestimated in CHF. The RISE-95 test was well tolerated by CHF patients, supporting its use for V?o2max confirmation. PMID:22653993

  12. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with heart failure and discordant findings by right-sided heart catheterization and cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chetan B; DeVore, Adam D; Felker, G Michael; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Hernandez, Adrian F; Milano, Carmelo A; O'Connor, Christopher M; Rogers, Joseph G

    2014-10-01

    There are limited data integrating findings on right-sided cardiac catheterization and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in ambulatory patients with heart failure. In this study, 187 outpatients with HF referred to the Duke Medical Center for consideration of advanced HF therapies were retrospectively evaluated. All patients had undergone right-sided cardiac catheterization and cardiopulmonary exercise testing; the median cardiac index (CI) was 2.0 L/min/m2 (interquartile range 1.7 to 2.3), and the median peak oxygen consumption was 11.3 ml/kg/min (interquartile range 9.2 to 13.8). Despite aggressive medical therapy, medical management had failed in 97 patients (52%) at 18 months, defined as left ventricular assist device implantation, cardiac transplantation, or death. After multivariate adjustment, factors associated with failure of optimal medical management included percentage achieved of predicted peak oxygen consumption, low CI (i.e., <2 L/min/m2), left ventricular size, and exercise time. Patients with discordant findings on right-sided cardiac catheterization and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were common, occurring in 88 patients (47%). The most common profile was preserved CI but reduced functional capacity, and these patients remained at high risk for requiring advanced therapies, whereas patients with reduced CIs but preserved exercise capacity were uncommon. In conclusion, low CI was independently associated with higher rates of death, transplantation, and left ventricular assist device implantation in this study. Also, patients with preserved CIs at rest but poor functional capacity, so-called cardiac insufficiency, were commonly encountered and had poor outcomes with medical management. PMID:25212547

  13. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test Characteristics in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Associated Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiaan Holverda; Harm J. Bogaard; H. Groepenhoff; Pieter E. Postmus; Anco Boonstra; Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a well-known complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It remains unclear whether exercise parameters can be used to discriminate between COPD patients with associated PH (COPD-PH) and COPD patients without associated PH (COPD-nonPH). Objective: To study whether the existence of pulmonary hypertension in COPD is related to characteristic findings in gas exchange and circulatory

  14. Risk stratification by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing improves outcomes following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the NHS evidence adoption center and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a review of the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). They recommended the development of a risk-assessment tool to help identify AAA patients with greater or lesser risk of operative mortality and to contribute to mortality prediction. A low anaerobic threshold (AT), which is a reliable, objective measure of pre-operative cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is associated with poor surgical outcomes for major abdominal surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a CPET-based risk-stratification strategy upon perioperative mortality, length of stay and non-operative costs for elective (open and endovascular) infra-renal AAA patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Pre-operative CPET-based selection for elective surgical intervention was introduced in 2007. An anonymized cohort of 230 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2007 to 2011) was studied. A historical control group of 128 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2003 to 2007) was identified for comparison. Comparative analysis of demographic and outcome data for CPET-pass (AT ? 11 ml/kg/min), CPET-fail (AT < 11 ml/kg/min) and CPET-submaximal (no AT generated) subgroups with control subjects was performed. Primary outcomes included 30-day mortality, survival and length of stay (LOS); secondary outcomes were non-operative inpatient costs. Results Of 230 subjects, 188 underwent CPET: CPET-pass n = 131, CPET-fail n = 35 and CPET-submaximal n = 22. When compared to the controls, CPET-pass patients exhibited reduced median total LOS (10 vs 13 days for open surgery, n = 74, P < 0.01 and 4 vs 6 days for EVAR, n = 29, P < 0.05), intensive therapy unit requirement (3 vs 4 days for open repair only, P < 0.001), non-operative costs (£5,387 vs £9,634 for open repair, P < 0.001) and perioperative mortality (2.7% vs 12.6% (odds ratio: 0.19) for open repair only, P < 0.05). CPET-stratified (open/endovascular) patients exhibited a mid-term survival benefit (P < 0.05). Conclusion In this retrospective cohort study, a pre-operative AT > 11 ml/kg/min was associated with reduced perioperative mortality (open cases only), LOS, survival and inpatient costs (open and endovascular repair) for elective infra-renal AAA surgery. PMID:24472159

  15. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity and Preoperative Markers of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Pervez; Edwards, Mark R.; Gutierrez del Arroyo, Ana; Cain, David; Sneyd, J. Robert; Struthers, Richard; Minto, Gary; Ackland, Gareth L.

    2014-01-01

    Explanatory mechanisms for the association between poor exercise capacity and infections following surgery are underexplored. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness—assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET)—would be associated with circulating inflammatory markers, as quantified by the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte subsets. The association between cardiopulmonary reserve and inflammation was tested by multivariable regression analysis with covariates including anaerobic threshold (AT) and malignancy. In a first cohort of 240 colorectal patients, AT was identified as the sole factor associated with higher NLR (P = 0.03) and absolute and relative lymphopenia (P = 0.01). Preoperative leukocyte subsets and monocyte CD14+ expression (downregulated by endotoxin and indicative of chronic inflammation) were also assessed in two further cohorts of age-matched elective gastrointestinal and orthopaedic surgical patients. Monocyte CD14+ expression was lower in gastrointestinal patients (n = 43) compared to age-matched orthopaedic patients (n = 31). The circulating CD14+CD16? monocyte subset was reduced in patients with low cardiopulmonary reserve. Poor exercise capacity in patients without a diagnosis of heart failure is independently associated with markers of inflammation. These observations suggest that preoperative inflammation associated with impaired cardiorespiratory performance may contribute to the pathophysiology of postoperative outcome. PMID:25061264

  16. Utility of standardized exercise oximetry to predict cardiopulmonary morbidity after lung resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Varela; R. Cordovilla; M. F. Jiménez; N. Novoa

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate if desaturation, measured by finger oximetry on standardized exercise, accurately predicts cardiopulmonary morbidity after pulmonary resection. Methods: A prospective observational clinical study was carried out on 81 consecutive lung carcinoma patients scheduled for pulmonary resection from February 1998 to March 1999. Finger oximetry was monitored during an incremental to exhaustion cycle exercise test. The presence or absence

  17. Clinical Correlates and Prognostic Significance of Six-minute Walk Test in Patients with Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Comparison with Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHOICHI MIYAMOTO; NORITOSHI NAGAYA; TORU SATOH; SHINGO KYOTANI; FUMIO SAKAMAKI; MASATOSHI FUJITA; NORIFUMI NAKANISHI; KUNIO MIYATAKE

    The six-minute walk test is a submaximal exercise test that can be performed even by a patient with heart failure not tolerating maximal exercise testing. To elucidate the clinical significance and prog- nostic value of the six-minute walk test in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), we sought ( 1 ) to assess the relation between distance walked during the

  18. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure: Prognostic Comparison from Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 Slope

    PubMed Central

    Sarullo, Filippo Maria; Fazio, Giovanni; Brusca, Ignazio; Fasullo, Sergio; Paterna, Salvatore; Licata, Pamela; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore; Di Pasquale, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing with ventilatory expired gas analysis (CPET) has proven to be a valuable tool for assessing patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The maximal oxygen uptake (peak V02) is used in risk stratification of patients with CHF. The minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production relationship (VE/VCO2 slope) has recently demonstrated prognostic significance in patients with CHF. Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2007 we performed CPET in 184 pts (146 M, 38 F, mean age 59.8 ± 12.9 years), with stable CHF (96 coronary artery disease, 88 dilated cardiomyopathy), in NYHA functional class II (n.107) - III (n.77), with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ? 45%,. The ability of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope to predict cardiac related mortality and cardiac related hospitalization within 12 months after evaluation was examined. Results: Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope were demonstrated with univariate Cox regression analysis both to be significant predictor of cardiac-related mortality and hospitalization (p < 0.0001, respectively). Non survivors had a lower peak VO2 (10.49 ± 1.70 ml/kg/min vs. 14.41 ± 3.02 ml/kg/min, p < 0.0001), and steeper Ve/VCO2 slope (41.80 ± 8.07 vs. 29.84 ± 6.47, p < 0.0001) than survivors. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that VE/VCO2 slope added additional value to VO2 peak as an independent prognostic factor (?2: 56.48, relative risk: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03 – 1.13, p = 0.001). The results from Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a 1-year cardiac-related mortality of 75% in patients with VE/VCO2 slope ? 35.6 and 25% in those with VE/VCO2 slope < 35.6 (log rank ?2: 67.03, p < 0.0001) and 66% in patients with peak VO2 ? 12.2 ml/kg/min and 34% in those with peak VO2 > 12.2 ml/kg/min (log rank ?2: 50.98, p < 0.0001). One-year cardiac-related hospitalization was 77% in patients with VE/VCO2 slope ? 32.5 and 23% in those with VE/VCO2 slope < 32.5 (log rank ?2: 133.80, p < 0.0001) and 63% in patients with peak VO2 ? 12.3 ml/kg/min and 37% in those with peak VO2 > 12.3 ml/kg/min (log rank ?2: 72.86, p < 0.0001). The VE/VCO2 slope was demonstrated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to be equivalent to peak VO2 in predicting cardiac-related mortality (0.89 vs. 0.89). Although area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the VE/VCO2 slope was greater than peak VO2 in predicting cardiac-related hospitalization (0.88 vs 0.82), the difference was no statistically significant (p = 0.13). Conclusion: These results add to the present body of knowledge supporting the use of CPET in CHF patients. The VE/VCO2 slope, as an index of ventilatory response to exercise, is an excellent prognostic parameter and improves the risk stratification of CHF patients. It is easier to obtain than parameters of maximal exercise capacity and is of equivalent prognostic importance than peak VO2. PMID:20657715

  19. Orbital Fitness: An Overview of Space Shuttle Cardiopulmonary Exercise Physiology Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Limited observations regarding the cardiopulmonary responses to aerobic exercise had been conducted during short-duration spaceflight before the Space Shuttle program. This presentation focuses on the findings regarding changes observed in the cardiopulmonary exercise responses during and following Shuttle flights. During flight, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) remained unchanged as did the maximum work rate achievable during cycle exercise testing conducted during the last full flight day. Immediately following flight, the ubiquitous finding, confirmed by investigations conducted during the Spacelab Life Sciences missions 1 and 2 and by NASA Detailed Supplemental Objective studies, indicated that VO2max was reduced; however, the reduction in VO2max was transient and returned to preflight levels within 7 days following return. Studies regarding the influence of aerobic exercise countermeasures performed during flight on postflight performance were mostly limited to the examination of the heart rate (HR) response to submaximal exercise testing on landing day. These studies revealed that exercise HR was elevated in individuals who performed little to no exercise during their missions as compared to individuals who performed regular exercise. In addition, astronauts who performed little to no aerobic exercise during flight demonstrated an increased HR and lowered pulse pressure response to the standard stand test on landing day, indicating a decrease in orthostatic function in these individuals. With regard to exercise modality, four devices were examined during the Shuttle era: two treadmills, a cycle ergometer, and a rowing device. Although there were limited investigations regarding the use of these devices for exercise training aboard the Shuttle, there was no clear consensus reached regarding which proved to be a "superior" device. Each device had a unique operational or physiologic limitation associated with its use. In conclusion, exercise research conducted during the Shuttle Program demonstrated that attenuation of postflight deconditioning was possible through use of exercise countermeasures and the Shuttle served as a test bed for equipment destined for use on the International Space Station. Learning Objective: Overview of the Space Shuttle Program research results related to aerobic capacity and performance, including what was learned from research and effectiveness of exercise countermeasures.

  20. Prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing using percent achieved of predicted peak oxygen uptake for patients with ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur M. Stelken; Liwa T. Younis; Stephen H. Jennison; D. Douglas Miller; Leslie W. Miller; Leslee J. Shaw; Debra Kargl; Bernard R. Chaitman

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that percent achieved of predicted peak oxygen uptake (predicted V02max) improves the prognostic accuracy of identifying high risk ambulatory patients with congestive heart failure considered for heart transplantation compared with absolute peak oxygen uptake (V02max) in 181 patients with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy.Background. Peak oxygen uptake during exercise has been shown to be a useful

  1. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill ... This test is done at a medical center or health care provider's office. The technician will place 10 flat, ...

  2. Exercise and NO production: relevance and implications in the cardiopulmonary system

    PubMed Central

    Nosarev, Alexei V.; Smagliy, Lyudmila V.; Anfinogenova, Yana; Popov, Sergey V.; Kapilevich, Leonid V.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the existing knowledge about the effects of physical exercise on nitric oxide (NO) production in the cardiopulmonary system. The authors review the sources of NO in the cardiopulmonary system; involvement of three forms of NO synthases (eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS) in exercise physiology; exercise-induced modulation of NO and/or NOS in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in human subjects and animal models in the absence and presence of pharmacological modulators; and significance of exercise-induced NO production in health and disease. The authors suggest that physical activity significantly improves functioning of the cardiovascular system through an increase in NO bioavailability, potentiation of antioxidant defense, and decrease in the expression of reactive oxygen species-forming enzymes. Regular physical exercises are considered a useful approach to treat cardiovascular diseases. Future studies should focus on detailed identification of (i) the exercise-mediated mechanisms of NO exchange; (ii) optimal exercise approaches to improve cardiovascular function in health and disease; and (iii) physical effort thresholds. PMID:25610830

  3. Exercise and NO production: relevance and implications in the cardiopulmonary system.

    PubMed

    Nosarev, Alexei V; Smagliy, Lyudmila V; Anfinogenova, Yana; Popov, Sergey V; Kapilevich, Leonid V

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the existing knowledge about the effects of physical exercise on nitric oxide (NO) production in the cardiopulmonary system. The authors review the sources of NO in the cardiopulmonary system; involvement of three forms of NO synthases (eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS) in exercise physiology; exercise-induced modulation of NO and/or NOS in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in human subjects and animal models in the absence and presence of pharmacological modulators; and significance of exercise-induced NO production in health and disease. The authors suggest that physical activity significantly improves functioning of the cardiovascular system through an increase in NO bioavailability, potentiation of antioxidant defense, and decrease in the expression of reactive oxygen species-forming enzymes. Regular physical exercises are considered a useful approach to treat cardiovascular diseases. Future studies should focus on detailed identification of (i) the exercise-mediated mechanisms of NO exchange; (ii) optimal exercise approaches to improve cardiovascular function in health and disease; and (iii) physical effort thresholds. PMID:25610830

  4. Recommendations on the use of exercise testing in clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Palange; S. A. Ward; K. H. Carlsen; R. Casaburi; C. G. Gallagher; R. Gosselink; D. E. O'Donnell; L. Puente-Maestu; A. M. Schols; S. Singh; B. J. Whipp

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based recommendations on the clinical use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in lung and heart disease are presented, with reference to the assessment of exercise intolerance, prognostic assessment and the evaluation of therapeutic interventions (e.g. drugs, supplemental oxygen, exercise training). A commonly used grading system for recommendations in evidence-based guidelines was applied, with the grade of recommendation ranging from A,

  5. Effect of Regular Exercise on Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Males With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Kong, In Deok; Kim, Sung Hoon; Shinn, Jong Mock; Kim, Jong Heon; Yi, Dongsoo; Lee, Jin Hyeong; Chang, Jae Seung; Kim, Tae-ho; Kim, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance of subjects with spinal cord injury by measuring the maximal oxygen consumption with varying degrees of spinal cord injury level, age, and regular exercise. Methods We instructed the subjects to perform exercises using arm ergometer on healthy adults at 20 years of age or older with spinal cord injury, and their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured with a metabolic measurement system. The exercise proceeded stepwise according to the exercise protocol and was stopped when the subject was exhausted or when VO2 reached an equilibriu Results Among the 40 subjects, there were 10 subjects with cervical cord injury, 27 with thoracic cord injury, and 3 with lumbar cord injury. Twenty-five subjects who were exercised regularly showed statistically higher results of VO2max than those who did not exercise regularly. Subjects with cervical injury showed statistically lower VO2max than the subjects with thoracic or lumbar injury out of the 40 subjects with neurologic injury. In addition, higher age showed a statistically lower VO2max. Lastly, the regularly exercising paraplegic group showed higher VO2max than the non-exercising paraplegic group. Conclusion There are differences in VO2max of subjects with spinal cord injury according to the degree of neurologic injury, age, and whether the subject participates in regular exercise. We found that regular exercise increased the VO2max in individuals with spinal cord injury. PMID:25750877

  6. Measuring the Effects of Massage on Exercise Performance and Cardiopulmonary Response in Children With and Without Heart Disease: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Beider, Shay; Boulanger, Karen T.; Joshi, Milind; Pan, Yann Ping; Chang, Ruey-Kang R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Congenital heart disease, a common and serious birth defect, affects 8 per 1000 live-born infants. Decreased exercise capacity and development of obesity is common in this population. These children may benefit from therapies, such as massage therapy, that could enhance cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function when they exercise. Purpose A pilot study conducted at the pediatric cardiology clinic of the Mattel Children’s Hospital of the University of California–Los Angeles examined the safety and feasibility of measuring the effects of pre-exercise massage on exercise performance and cardiopulmonary response in children with and without heart disease. Participants and Methods Sixteen children (mean age: 9.2 ± 2.2 years) participated in the study. Ten participants had various forms of heart disease, and six children were healthy. A female certified massage therapist with specialized training in pediatric massage provided a 30-minute massage to the participants. Using a standard protocol, each participant underwent two exercise tests: one test with and one without pre-exercise massage. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured in the participants. Results All recruited participants completed the study. No adverse events occurred during any of the exercise tests or massage sessions. Measurements during exercise with or without a preceding massage were compared, and the pre-exercise massage condition yielded a significantly higher heart rate and higher minute ventilation. Measurements during exercise in children with heart disease and in healthy participants showed no significant differences in peak heart rate, blood pressure, peak VO2, peak work rate, minute ventilation, or respiratory quotient. Conclusions In this study, peak heart rate, peak VO2, and peak minute ventilation were higher when children received a massage before exercise testing. Larger studies will be needed to investigate the strength of this finding. Future studies should include measurements of anxiety and psychological factors in addition to cardiopulmonary measures. PMID:21589710

  7. Effects of metformin and exercise training, alone or in association, on cardio-pulmonary performance and quality of life in insulin resistance patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metformin (MET) therapy exerts positive effects improving glucose tolerance and preventing the evolution toward diabetes in insulin resistant patients. It has been shown that adding MET to exercise training does not improve insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of MET and exercise training alone or in combination on maximal aerobic capacity and, as a secondary end-point on quality of life indexes in individuals with insulin resistance. Methods 75 insulin resistant patients were enrolled and subsequently assigned to MET (M), MET with exercise training (MEx), and exercise training alone (Ex). 12-weeks of supervised exercise-training program was carried out in both Ex and MEx groups. Cardiopulmonary exercise test and SF-36 to evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was performed at basal and after 12-weeks of treatment. Results Cardiopulmonary exercise test showed a significant increase of peak VO2 in Ex and MEx whereas M showed no improvement of peak VO2 (? VO2 [CI 95%] Ex +0.26 [0.47 to 0.05] l/min; ? VO2 MEx +0.19 [0.33 to 0.05] l/min; ? VO2 M -0.09 [-0.03 to -0.15] l/min; M vs E p?cardiopulmonary negative effects showed by MET therapy may be counterbalanced with the combination of exercise training. Given that exercise training associated with MET produced similar effects to exercise training alone in terms of maximal aerobic capacity and HRQoL, programmed exercise training remains the first choice therapy in insulin resistant patients. PMID:24884495

  8. Respiratory muscle and cardiopulmonary function during exercise in very severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, M; Rassulo, J; Celli, B R

    1996-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to limit exercise capacity through a decreased ventilatory reserve, with cardiovascular factors playing a minimal role. We assessed respiratory muscle (RM) and cardiopulmonary function during exercise in very severe COPD (FEV1 0.79 +/- 0.17 L). We determined minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and O2 pulse with a metabolic cart. RM function was assessed from esophageal and gastric pressures. Dyspnea was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS). Exercise capacity (peak VO2 = 36 +/- 31%), ventilatory reserve (VE/maximum voluntary ventilation [MW] = 89 +/- 31%), HR = 76 +/- 15%, and O2 pulse (O2Pmax = 45 +/- 15%) were abnormal. Peak VO2 correlated with O2Pmax(r = 0.82), the change in end-inspiratory pleural pressure (deltaPpli) (r = -0.74), maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdimax) (r = 0.68), and VEmax (r = 0.58). There were similar correlations with exercise endurance time. Multiple regression analysis revealed O2Pmax to be the best predictor of peak VO2. Thereafter, only VEmax and deltaPpli remained significant (r2 = 0.87). O2Pmax correlated with inspiratory muscle function (Pplimax, r = -0.58; Pdimax, r = 0.53; deltaPpli, r = -0.47; and PImax, r = -0.47). By multiple regression analysis, the predictors of O2Pmax were Pplimax and deltaPpli (r2 = 0.47). In very severe COPD, the impressive swings in intrathoracic pressure resulting from deranged ventilatory mechanics are the most likely cause of exercise limitation and reduced O2 pulse. The contributions of factors such as deconditioning, hypoxemia, and concurrent heart disease remain unknown. PMID:8912737

  9. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  10. Cardiopulmonary stress testing in children with sickle cell disease who are on long-term erythrocytapheresis.

    PubMed

    Das, Bibhuti B; Sobczyk, Walter; Bertolone, Salvatore; Raj, Ashok

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility and safety of symptom-limited cardiopulmonary stress testing (CPST) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), who are on long-term erythrocytapheresis. Maximal symptom-limited CPST was performed in 16 children with SCD who were maintained on long-term erythrocytapheresis and the exercise response in this patient cohort was compared with those of a healthy control population. All patients completed the CPST without any complications. Twelve patients with SCD had significant reduction in aerobic capacity [peak oxygen consumption (VO2) <80% predicted]. No patient demonstrated evidence of myocardial ischemia. In summary, symptom-limited CPST can be performed safely in a subgroup of children with SCD and can yield valuable clinical information. PMID:18458572

  11. Lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites in sedentary subjects and sportsmen before and after a cardiopulmonary test.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Canino, Baldassare; Montana, Maria; Caimi, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of an exercise test on some indices of oxidative status and endothelial function, in trained and untrained subjects. We examined lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and their ratio before and after a cardiopulmonary test, using a cycloergometer. We enrolled 60 male subjects who practiced sport unprofessionally, subdivided in two groups (A and B) according to the values of VO2max. Group A included sportsmen with poor or fair aerobic fitness (VO2max <39 ml/Kg/min), group B sportsmen with average to excellent aerobic fitness (VO2max >39 ml/Kg/min). The control group included 19 male sedentary subjects. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by detection of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS); the NOx were evaluated employing the Griess reagent. At rest, in comparison with sedentary controls, an increase in TBARS, NOx and TBARS/NOx ratio was found in all sportsmen and partially in the two groups. After the cardiopulmonary test, the increase of TBARS and TBARS/NOx ratio was significantly more evident in sedentary controls than in sportsmen. No variation was observed for NOx in any group. These data suggest that sportsmen are protected against the acute oxidative stress induced by an exercise test, and that protection is not strictly dependent on the aerobic fitness. PMID:22710809

  12. [Exercise testing in cardiac patients].

    PubMed

    Koike, A; Hiroe, M; Marumo, F

    1995-08-01

    Symptom-limited incremental exercise tests have been used, to estimate the severity of cardiovascular disease and the patients' daily activity. However, there is a considerable amount of interest in obtaining submaximal measurements of aerobic function rather than parameters requiring maximal exercise effort. We compared the parameters obtained during the incremental exercise with those during the 6 minutes of moderate constant work rate exercise. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and the anaerobic threshold were significantly decreased in patients with cardiovascular disease as compared to normal subjects. The slope of the increase in carbon dioxide output (VCO2) to the increase in VO2 (delta VCO2/delta VO2) above the anaerobic threshold was significantly increased and the slope of the increase in VO2 to the increase in work rate (delta VO2/delta WR) was significantly decreased in patients with cardiovascular disease. The anaerobic threshold was found to occur at the work rate above which left ventricular function decreased during exercise in these patients. The time constant of VO2 during and following recovery from 6 minutes of 50 watts of constant work rate exercise was significantly longer (the kinetics of VO2 were slower) in patients with cardiovascular disease than in normal subjects. The time constant of VO2 was significantly negatively correlated with peak VO2 and maximum work rate obtained during the incremental exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7474442

  13. Exercise stress testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1975-01-01

    Positive maximum stress tests in the management of coronary patients are discussed. It is believed that coronary angiography would be the ultimate test to predict the future of patients with coronary heart disease. Progression of angina, myocardial infarction, and death due to heart disease were analyzed.

  14. Cardiopulmonary bypass in revascularization and fluid management of exercise-induced acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Bryan A; Nath, Dilip S; Knudtson, Joshua R; Shumway, Sara J

    2006-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was resuscitated from a cardiac arrest during a marathon run. During initial evaluation, he received a significant amount of crystalloid fluid to maintain end-organ perfusion. Based on electrocardiogram findings, myocardial infarction was suspected and an angiogram was performed. An acute thrombosis of the left anterior descending vessel was noted, angioplastied, and stented. Given that he was in cardiogenic shock, acidotic, and hemodynamically labile, an emergent coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass was performed to simultaneously revascularize the myocardium and remove intravascular fluid. PMID:16948763

  15. Development and Safety of an Exercise Testing Protocol for Patients with an Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillator for Primary or Secondary Indication

    PubMed Central

    Flo, Gayle L.; Glenny, Robb W.; Kudenchuk, Peter J.; Dougherty, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Performing exercise tests in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) presents specific challenges because of susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias during maximal levels of exertion. The purpose of this paper is to outline the exercise testing protocol from the Anti-Arrhythmic Effects of Exercise after an ICD trial and to report baseline test results and safety outcomes using the protocol. Methods and Results Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed to assess levels of physical fitness as part of a randomized trial of walking exercise in patients with ICDs. Subjects were randomized after baseline testing to aerobic exercise plus usual care or usual care alone. A modified Balke treadmill exercise test was used and specific ICD programming procedures were implemented to avoid unnecessary shocks, which included programming off ventricular tachycardia (VT) therapies during testing. To date, 161 baseline tests have been performed. One ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest occurred following completion of an exercise test and three tests were stopped by the investigators due to nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Eleven subjects were not able to achieve maximum exercise, defined as reaching an anaerobic threshold (AT) at baseline testing. There have been no deaths as a result of exercise testing. Conclusions Symptom-limited maximal exercise testing can be performed safely and effectively in patients with ICDs for both primary and secondary prevention indications. Specific strategies for ICD programming and preparation for treating ventricular arrhythmias needs to be in place before exercise testing is performed. PMID:22993498

  16. Exercise Testing of the Child with Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Owens; B. Gutin

    1999-01-01

    .   As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, exercise testing of obese children is likely to increase as well. This\\u000a article discusses the implications of pediatric obesity for exercise testing and provides some recommendations for conducting\\u000a tests and evaluating results. Studies comparing obese and nonobese children during exercise testing indicate that obese children\\u000a are capable of meeting the challenges of

  17. Exercise electrocardiogram testing in two brothers with different outcome – a case study exercise testing in master cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The cases of two brothers training and competing as master cyclists and both preparing for a cycling tour are presented. The older brother aged 66 years went first to the primary care physician and presented with an asymptomatic depression in the exercise stress test of the ST segment in V5 and V6 during recovery after complete exhaustion. Coronary angiography revealed a multi vessel coronary artery disease and he underwent bypass surgery. One year later, he successfully completed his planned cycling tour of ~600 km in seven stages and covering ~12,000 m of total ascent. The younger brother aged 59 years went a few months later to the primary care physician and also performed asymptomatic exercise stress testing without changes in the ST segments. Unfortunately, 2 months later he suffered a cardiac arrest during his cycling tour and survived following immediate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the road by his cycling colleagues. Immediate invasive coronary arteriography showed a complete stenosis of the trunk of arteria coronaria sinistra (left coronary artery), a 40%–50% stenosis of ramus circumflexus, and a 20% stenosis of arteria coronaria dextra (right coronary artery). The left coronary artery was dilated and he continued cycling 2 months later. In both brothers, familial hypercholesterolemia was the main cardiovascular risk factor for the multi vessel coronary artery disease. A negative exercise electrocardiogram in siblings with an increased risk for coronary artery disease seemed not to exclude an advanced multi vessel coronary artery disease. In master athletes with asymptomatic exercise electrocardiogram but a positive family history, further examinations should be performed in order to detect relevant stenosis in coronary arteries. PMID:23825929

  18. 9:37 Ventilatory functional restriction in adolescents with mild or moderate scoliosis during maximal exercise tolerance test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Barrios; Cristina Pérez-Encinas; Jose Ignacio Maruenda; Pablo Renovell; Nieves De Bernardo; Luis Garc??a Del Moral; Juan Antonio Mart??n-Benlloch; Manuel Lagu??a

    2002-01-01

    Purpose of study: To evaluate cardiopulmonary function during a maximal exercise tolerance test in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with mild curves and compare to results obtained in healthy adolescents of the same age.Methods used: Twenty-three girls with AIS with an average age of 13.5 years (range, 10 to 16 years) and an average scolitic curve of 27 degrees

  19. Eccentric exercise testing and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    1994-01-01

    Some researchers and practitioners have touted the benefits of including eccentric exercise in strength training programs. However, others have challenged its use because they believe that eccentric actions are dangerous and lead to injuries. Much of the controversy may be based on a lack of understanding of the physiology of eccentric actions. This review will present data concerning eccentric exercise in strength training, the physiological characteristics of eccentric exercise, and the possible stimulus for strength development. Also a discussion of strength needs for extended exposure to microgravity will be presented. Not only is the use of eccentric exercise controversial, but the name itself is fraught with problems. The correct pronunciation is with a hard 'c' so that the word sounds like ekscentric. The confusion in pronunciation may have been prevented if the spelling that Asmussen used in 1953, excentric, had been adopted. Another problem concerns the expressions used to describe eccentric exercise. Commonly used expressions are negatives, eccentric contractions, lengthening contractions, resisted muscle lengthenings, muscle lengthening actions, and eccentric actions. Some of these terms are cumbersome (i.e., resisted muscle lengthenings), one is slang (negatives), and another is an oxymoron (lengthening contractions). Only eccentric action is appropriate and adoption of this term has been recommended by Cavanagh. Despite the controversy that surrounds eccentric exercise, it is important to note that these types of actions play an integral role in normal daily activities. Eccentric actions are used during most forms of movement, for example, in walking when the foot touches the ground and the center of mass is decelerated and in lowering objects, such as placing a bag of groceries in the car.

  20. Exercise testing in metabolic myopathies.

    PubMed

    Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic myopathies are a group of genetic disorders specifically affecting glucose/glycogen, lipid, and mitochondrial metabolism. The main metabolic myopathies that are evaluated in this article are the mitochondrial myopathies, fatty acid oxidation defects, and glycogen storage disease. This article focuses on the usefulness of exercise in the evaluation of genetic metabolic myopathies. PMID:22239882

  1. [Prognostic value of clinical exercise testing in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; Guetta, A; Wemeau-Stervinou, L; Tercé, G; Valette, M; Nevière, R; Aguilaniu, B

    2011-03-01

    Current guidelines for referring patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) for lung transplantation, based on resting parameters, are insufficient to predict 3-year mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with IPF. A multicentre retrospective study of 3-year outcome was made on 63 adult patients with IPF who underwent CPET with blood gas analysis. Demographic data, resting pulmonary function and CPET parameters were collected to perform a univariate survival analysis. To estimate prognosis at 3 years, a multivariate logistic regression analysis by Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests was performed. Forty-four patients (70%) were alive without lung transplant at the end of the 3-year follow-up: 19 patients (30%) were dead (n=14) or transplanted (n=5). Univariate analysis indicated that: at rest lower TLC, FVC, DLCO and PaCO(2), higher alveolo-arterial gradient for oxygen [P(A-a)O(2)] and pH; at ventilatory threshold (VT) higher VE/VO(2) and VE/VCO(2) and at peak exercise higher VE/VO(2) and VE/VCO(2), higher pH and ?P(A-a)O(2)/?VO(2) (mmHg/L), lower VO(2) peak, PaO(2) and VO(2)/FC were associated with a significantly lower survival at 3 years. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CPT (<65%) and VE/VO(2) at VT (>45) were independently associated with a lower survival at 3 years. Restriction and hyperventilation at ventilatory threshold are major prognostic factors in the course of IPF. CPET with blood gas analysis may have a prognostic value in these patients and initial evaluation of these parameters can help to predict disease progression. PMID:21482330

  2. [Exercise testing in probable primary hypokinetic cardiomyopathies].

    PubMed

    Bouhour, J B; Potiron, M; Le Marec, H; Rozo, L; Lefèvre, M; Crochet, D; Nicolas, G

    1980-01-01

    50 patients with primary congestive cardiomyopathy underwent one or several exercise tests at yearly intervals in order to evaluate exercise capacity and to assess the prognosis. Three parameters were studied: the workload, the elevation of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) on exercise and the appearance of premature ventricular beats (PVB) on exercise or during the recovery phase. The results show that when the work loads > 120 watts, an elevation of SBP greater than or equal to 50 mmHg and the appearance of less than 3 PVB per minute were compatible with a moderate degree of physical exertion. On the other hand these same poor prognostic factors were associated with a higher mortality rate after 20 months follow-up. PMID:6779739

  3. Lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status in unprofessional athletes before and after a cardiopulmonary test.

    PubMed

    Caimi, Gregorio; Canino, Baldassare; Amodeo, Gabriella; Montana, Maria; Lo Presti, Rosalia

    2009-01-01

    We examined lipid peroxidation, expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) before and after a cardiopulmonary test, in 20 sedentary controls and in 62 unprofessional male athletes subdivided into 3 subgroups. The first included subjects who practised endurance sports (14 cyclists and 9 endurance swimmers), the second subjects who practised mixed sports (6 basket players, 6 judoists, 8 water polo players) and the third group subjects who practised power sports (3 sprint runners, 4 weightlifters, 12 sprint swimmers). In the whole group of athletes an increase in TBARS and a decrease in TAS were present at baseline. Subdividing the whole group into three subgroups we observed an increase in TBARS in all and a decrease in TAS only in the endurance and mixed athletes. After the test, TBARS showed a more significant increase in controls compared to the whole group and each subgroup of athletes, while TAS increased only in the whole group and in those who practised mixed sports. In conclusion, at baseline in athletes the oxidative status shows a different behaviour compared to controls, while after the test the antioxidant protection is more marked and it may be related to an increase of antioxidant systems. PMID:19847057

  4. Exercise Pathophysiology in Patients With Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing-Guo Sun; James E. Hansen; Ronald J. Oudiz; Karlman Wasserman

    2008-01-01

    Background—Patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) have a pulmonary vasculopathy that leads to exercise intolerance due to dyspnea and fatigue. To better understand the basis of the exercise limitation in patients with PPH, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) with gas exchange measurements, New York Heart Association (NYHA) symptom class, and resting pulmonary hemodynamics were studied. Methods and Results—We retrospectively evaluated 53

  5. Exercise Testing and Prescription in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    ten Harkel, A. D. J.; Takken, T.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper provides a review of the literature regarding exercise testing, exercise capacity, and the role of exercise training in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Different measures of exercise capacity are discussed, including both simple and more advanced exercise parameters. Different groups of patients, including shunt lesions, pulmonary valvar stenosis, patients after completion of Fontan circulation, and patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension are discussed separately in more detail. It has been underscored that an active lifestyle, taking exercise limitations and potential risks of exercise into account is of utmost importance. Increased exercise capacity in these patients is furthermore correlated with an improvement of objective and subjective quality of life. PMID:20871857

  6. A new model of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass: design improvement, performance, and hemolysis tests.

    PubMed

    Leme, Juliana; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Dos Santos, Alex Eugênio; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Andrade, Aron; Biscegli, José F

    2011-05-01

    A new model of blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) application has been developed and evaluated in our laboratories. Inside the pump housing is a spiral impeller that is conically shaped and has threads on its surface. Worm gears provide an axial motion of the blood column. Rotational motion of the conical shape generates a centrifugal pumping effect and improves pumping performance. One annular magnet with six poles is inside the impeller, providing magnetic coupling to a brushless direct current motor. In order to study the pumping performance, a mock loop system was assembled. Mock loop was composed of Tygon tubes (Saint-Gobain Corporation, Courbevoie, France), oxygenator, digital flowmeter, pressure monitor, electronic driver, and adjustable clamp for flow control. Experiments were performed on six prototypes with small differences in their design. Each prototype was tested and flow and pressure data were obtained for rotational speed of 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 rpm. Hemolysis was studied using pumps with different internal gap sizes (1.35, 1.45, 1.55, and 1.7 mm). Hemolysis tests simulated CPB application with flow rate of 5 L/min against total pressure head of 350 mm Hg. The results from six prototypes were satisfactory, compared to the results from the literature. However, prototype #6 showed the best results. Best hemolysis results were observed with a gap of 1.45 mm, and showed a normalized index of hemolysis of 0.013 g/100 L. When combined, axial and centrifugal pumping principles produce better hydrodynamic performance without increasing hemolysis. PMID:21595709

  7. Du test de marche à l’épreuve d’effort cardio-pulmonaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Karila

    2007-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise test is a new respiratory functional test used for sick children. It demonstrates the integrated response of all the systems involved in exercise (especially cardiac and respiratory ones) and consequently evaluates exercise adaptations during chronic disease. This dynamic test assesses exercise tolerance, and so quality of life more objectively than a resting test. Values measured (especially oxygen uptake

  8. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  9. Do we need exercise tests to detect gas exchange impairment in fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias?

    PubMed

    Wallaert, Benoit; Wemeau-Stervinou, Lidwine; Salleron, Julia; Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Perez, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    In patients with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (f-IIP), the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) has been used to predict abnormal gas exchange in the lung. However, abnormal values for arterial blood gases during exercise are likely to be the most sensitive manifestations of lung disease. The aim of this study was to compare DLCO, resting PaO(2), P(A-a)O(2) at cardiopulmonary exercise testing peak, and oxygen desaturation during a 6-min walk test (6MWT). Results were obtained in 121 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n = 88) and fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonias (NSIP, n = 33). All but 3 patients (97.5%) had low DLCO values (35?mmHg) and 100 (83%) demonstrated significant oxygen desaturation during 6MWT (>4%). Interestingly 27 patients had low DLCO and normal P(A-a)O(2), peak and/or no desaturation during the 6MWT. The 3 patients with normal DLCO also had normal PaO(2), normal P(A-a)O(2), peak, and normal oxygen saturation during 6MWT. Our results demonstrate that in fibrotic IIP, DLCO better defines impairment of pulmonary gas exchange than resting PaO(2), exercise P(A-a)O(2), peak, or 6MWT SpO(2). PMID:22900170

  10. Cardiopulmonary transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbora Parizkova; I. Gavin Wright

    2009-01-01

    More than 5260 cardiopulmonary transplants were carried out worldwide between January 2006 and June 2007 across 204 centres. Heart transplantation is a proven surgical option for selected patients who have advanced heart failure refractory to surgical or medical management. Lung transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage lung disease for patients who have failed medical therapy. More than 90% of

  11. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of the art of exercise testing in the Olympic disciplines of eventing, show jumping and dressage, and areas for further development are defined. In event horses, a simple four-step incremental exercise test measuring heart rate (HR), lactate concentration (LA) and velocity (V) is most often used. In dressage and riding horses, a wide variety of exercise tests have been developed, including incremental exercise tests, indoor riding tests and lunging tests. In show jumping, the use of a five-step incremental exercise test and exercise tests evaluating technical skills and fatigue of the horse has been reported. The velocity at a plasma LA of 4?mmol/L (VLA4) and HR recovery during submaximal exercise intensity have been shown to be the best parameters in event horses for predicting performance and impending injuries. In riding horses, the fitness level of horses is also an important determinant of injuries. Implementation of regular exercise testing and monitoring of training sessions may have important added value in the assessment of performance ability and potential future injuries in Warmblood sport horses. However, there is an urgent need to standardise methodologies and outcome parameters in order to make results comparable. PMID:25172838

  12. Cognition and motor impairment correlates with exercise test performance after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ada; Eng, Janice J; Tsang, Teresa SM; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exercise not only benefits physical and cardiovascular function in older adults with multiple chronic conditions, but may also improve cognitive function. Peak heart rate (HR), a physiological indicator for maximal effort, is the most common and practical means of establishing and monitoring exercise intensity. In particular, in the absence of graded maximal exercise tests (GXT) results, age-predicted maximal HR values are typically used. Using individuals with stroke as a model for examining older adults with co-existing cardiovascular and neuromotor conditions, the purpose of this paper was to examine the determinants associated with achieving age-predicted maximal HR on a GXT, with respect to neurological, cognitive and lower limb function. Methods Forty-seven participants with stroke (mean±SD age 67±7 years, 4±3 years post-stroke) performed GXTs. Peak values for gas exchange, HR and ratings of perceived exertion were noted. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine determinants (neurological impairment, leg motor impairment, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, walking ability) associated with the ability to achieve age-predicted maximal HR on the GXT. Results VO2peak was 16.5±6 ml•kg?1•min?1. Fourteen (30%) participants achieved ? 100% of age-predicted maximal HR. Logistic regression modeling revealed that the ability to achieve this threshold was associated with less leg motor impairment (P=0.02, OR 2.3) and higher cognitive scores (P=0.048, OR 1.3). Conclusions These results suggest that non-cardiopulmonary factors such as leg motor impairment and cognitive function are important contributors to achieving maximal effort during exercise tests. This study has important implications for post-stroke exercise prescription whereby training intensities that are based on peak HR from GXTs may be underestimated among individuals with cognitive and physical impairments. PMID:23135375

  13. Effects of a maximal exercise test on neurocognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Covassin; Leigh Weiss; John Powell; Christopher Womack; M. R Lovell

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a maximal exercise test on cognitive function in recreational athletes.Design: A repeated-measures design was used to compare baseline with post-cognitive function and fatigue symptoms after a maximal exercise test.Setting: Division 1 American Midwestern University, (Michigan State University, Michigan, USA).Participants: 102 male and female recreational athletes.Intervention: Participants in the experimental group (n = 54) were

  14. Home-based mobile cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation consultant system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsu-En; Wang, Wen-Chih; Lu, Shao-Wei; Wu, Bo-Yuan; Ko, Li-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most popular cause of death in the world recently. For postoperatives, cardiac rehabilitation is still asked to maintain at home (phase II) to improve cardiac function. However, only one third of outpatients do the exercise regularly, reflecting the difficulty for home-based healthcare: lacking of monitoring and motivation. Hence, a cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation system was proposed in this research to improve rehabilitation efficiency for better prognosis. The proposed system was built on mobile phone and receiving electrocardiograph (ECG) signal from a wireless ECG holter via Bluetooth connection. Apart from heart rate (HR) monitor, an ECG derived respiration (EDR) technique is also included to provide respiration rate (RR). Both HR and RR are the most important vital signs during exercise but only used one physiological signal recorder in this system. In clinical test, there were 15 subjects affording Bruce Task (treadmill) to simulate rehabilitation procedure. Correlation between this system and commercial product (Custo-Med) was up to 98% in HR and 81% in RR. Considering the prevention of sudden heart attack, an arrhythmia detection expert system and healthcare server at the backend were also integrated to this system for comprehensive cardio-pulmonary monitoring whenever and wherever doing the exercise. PMID:22254478

  15. Original article Comparison of track and treadmill exercise tests

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Comparison of track and treadmill exercise tests in saddle horses: a preliminary by measuring cardiovascular, meta- bolic and locomotor system variables. Six Anglo-arabians and one French saddle horse were tested on the track and on a high-speed treadmill with different slopes (0, 3.5 and 6

  16. An Exercise for Illustrating the Logic of Hypothesis Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Hypothesis testing is one of the more difficult concepts for students to master in a basic, undergraduate statistics course. Students often are puzzled as to why statisticians simply don't calculate the probability that a hypothesis is true. This article presents an exercise that forces students to lay out on their own a procedure for testing a…

  17. Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    Exercise - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society ... Living Well with MS Health and Wellness Exercise Exercise In addition to being essential to general health ...

  18. Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PT Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important ... BACK: Nutrition More Exercises Information Back to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email Page Add Page I want ...

  19. Post-exercise syncope: Wingate syncope test and effective countermeasure

    PubMed Central

    Lacewell, Alisha N.; Buck, Tahisha M.; Romero, Steven A.; Halliwill, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Altered systemic hemodynamics following exercise can compromise cerebral perfusion and result in syncope. As the Wingate anaerobic test often induces pre-syncope, we hypothesized that a modified Wingate test could form the basis of a novel model for the study of post-exercise syncope and a test-bed for potential countermeasures. Along these lines, breathing through an impedance threshold device has been shown to increase tolerance to hypovolemia, and could prove beneficial in the setting of post-exercise syncope. Therefore, we hypothesized that a modified Wingate test followed by head-up tilt would produce post-exercise syncope, and that breathing through an impedance threshold device (countermeasure) would prevent post-exercise syncope in healthy individuals. Nineteen recreationally active men and women underwent a 60° head-up tilt during recovery from the Wingate test while arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and cerebral tissue oxygenation were measured on a control and countermeasure day. The duration of tolerable tilt was increased by a median time of 3 min 48 sec with countermeasure compared to control (P < 0.05) and completion of the tilt test increased from 42% to 67% with countermeasure. During the tilt, mean arterial pressure was greater (108.0 ± 4.1 vs.100.4 ± 2.4 mmHg; P < 0.05) with countermeasure compared to control. These data suggest that the Wingate syncope test produces a high incidence of pre-syncope which is sensitive to countermeasures such as inspiratory impedance. PMID:24078670

  20. Samara Dispersal in Boxelder: An Exercise in Hypothesis Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minorsky, Peter V.; Willing, R. Paul

    1999-01-01

    Presents a fun, inexpensive, and pedagogically useful laboratory exercise that involves indoor studies of the dispersal properties of the winged fruits (samaras) of boxelder trees. Engages students in the process of hypothesis testing, experimental design, and data analysis as well as introducing students to important concepts related to…

  1. Comparison of treadmill exercise testing protocols for wheelchair users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Harley Hartung; David A. Lally; Roberta J. Blancq

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The reduced early mortality and the increased life span of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and other chronically disabling conditions which result in loss of use of the legs places them at increased risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Exercise testing in this population is becoming more common, but there is a need for assessment of protocols

  2. Non-invasive ultrasonic cardiac output monitoring in exercise testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Knobloch; Volker Hoeltke; Ernst Jakob; Peter M. Vogt; Rob Phillips

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (VO2) and CO, cardiac index (CI), stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR) determined by a non-invasive continuous wave (CW) Doppler-based system (USCOM) in healthy adolescent and adult athletes during exercise treadmill testing.

  3. The dobutamine stress test as an alternative to exercise testing after acute myocardial infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Mannering; T Cripps; G Leech; N Mehta; H Valantine; S Gilmour; E D Bennett

    1988-01-01

    Three weeks after myocardial infarction in 50 patients the effect of the infusion of a graded dose of dobutamine was compared with that of symptom limited treadmill exercise testing. The following variables were measured: blood pressure, heart rate, ST segment changes, Doppler aortic blood flow, and cross sectional echocardiographic dimensions. The heart rate and double product increased more during exercise

  4. Effects of bilateral T2-sympathectomy on static and dynamic heart rate responses to exercise in hyperhidrosis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Ting; Shin-Da Lee; Ai-Hui Chung; Ming-Lung Chuang; Gin-Den Chen; Jiuan-Miaw Liao; Chen-Lurng Chang; Thomas S. M. Chiou; Tzer-Bin Lin

    2005-01-01

    The static\\/dynamic changes of gas exchange, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure in terms of work rate (WR) and WR changes in ramp exercise were investigated by cardio-pulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) in hyperhidrosis patients before (W0), one week (W1) and four weeks (W4) after bilateral T2-sympathectomy. Accompanied by constant oxygen consumption and WR at peak exercise and similar oxygen debt

  5. Exercise Standards for Testing and Training A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald F. Fletcher; Gary J. Balady; Vice Chair; Ezra A. Amsterdam; Bernard Chaitman; Robert Eckel; Jerome Fleg; Victor F. Froelicher; Arthur S. Leon; Ileana L. Pina; Roxanne Rodney; Denise G. Simons-Morton; Mark A. Williams; Terry Bazzarre

    he purpose of this report is to provide revised standards and guidelines for the exercise testing and training of individuals who are free from clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease and those with known cardiovascular disease. These guidelines are intended for physicians, nurses, exercise physiologists, specialists, technologists, and other healthcare professionals involved in exercise testing and training of these populations. This

  6. Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

  7. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rao R. Ivatury; Kevin R. Ward

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a patient with multiple injuries involves a different approach than in a nontrauma\\u000a patient. Although the basic principles are the same as dealt with in other chapters of this book, CPR in the trauma victim\\u000a has to address prevention of cardiopulmonary failure from problems exclusive to the injured patient. This chapter concentrates\\u000a on these issues and

  8. The Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Choi, Jun Hwan; Lee, Seog Jae

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on cardiopulmonary function in healthy adults. Method Thirty-six healthy adults without a cardiac problem were enrolled. All patients were randomly assigned to either a control (17 subjects, mean age 29.41) or an electrical stimulation group (19 subjects, mean age 29.26). The electrical stimulation group received NMES on both sides of quadriceps muscle using a Walking Man II® in a sitting position for 30 minutes over 2 weeks. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), metabolic equivalent (MET), resting, maximal heart rate (RHR, MHR), resting, maximal blood pressure (RBP, MBP), and maximal rate pressure product (MRPP), exercise tolerance test (ETT) duration were determined using an exercise tolerance test and a 6 minute walk test (6MWT) before and after treatment. Results The electrical stimulation group showed a significant increase in VO2max (p=0.03), 6MWT (p<0.01), MHR (p<0.04), MsBP (p<0.03), ETT duration (p<0.01) and a significant decrease in RsBP (p<0.02) as compared with the control group after two weeks. NMES induced changes improved only in RsBP (p<0.049) and ETT duration (p<0.01). The effects of NMES training were stronger in females. Conclusion We suggest that NMES is an additional therapeutic option for cardiopulmonary exercise in disabled patients with severe refractory heart failure or acute AMI. PMID:23342319

  9. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  10. Peak exercise capacity estimated from incremental shuttle walking test in patients with COPD: a methodological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragnheiður Harpa Arnardóttir; Margareta Emtner; Hans Hedenström; Kjell Larsson; Gunnar Boman

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with COPD, both laboratory exercise tests and field walking tests are used to assess physical performance. In laboratory tests, peak exercise capacity in watts (W peak) and\\/or peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) are assessed, whereas the performance on walking tests usually is expressed as distance walked. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between

  11. In long-standing hypertensive people the maximal exercise capacity is related to cardiovascular structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Leonarda De Rosa; Antonio Baiano; Carlo Duilio; Massimo Chiariello

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular hypertrophy in patients with never-treated hypertension has been associated with impaired exercise capacity,but we assessed the hypothesis that this relationship remains in long standing hypertensive people and target organ damage is less elucidated.Overall there are no data on the prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in this population.In 62 unmedicated 35 to 58 aged patients with essential hypertension I-II

  12. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a predictor of peri-operative morbidity in Head and Neck Cancer patients - A pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G A Dempsey; S Jack; P Calverley; S N Rogers; T M Jones

    Aims: We aim to develop a strategy for the identification and management of high risk patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery in order to attempt to reduce both morbidity and mortality and to identify required levels of post-operative care. Background: Head and Neck cancer affects an elderly population with significant smoking and alcohol dependence, who are at risk of

  13. Exercise-induced hand tremor: a possible test for beta 2-adrenoceptor selectivity in man?

    PubMed Central

    Abila, B; Wilson, J F; Marshall, R W; Richens, A

    1986-01-01

    The effects of intravenous doses of propranolol, sotalol, timolol, atenolol and placebo on exercise-induced tachycardia and exercise-induced increases in hand tremor were assessed in four healthy volunteers. All active drugs produced significant reductions in exercise-induced tachycardia. Exercise caused consistent significant increases in hand tremor which were blocked by the three non-cardioselective drugs but not by atenolol or placebo. The blockade of exercise-induced hand tremor is suggested as a possible test for the assessment of the selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor blockade in man. PMID:2874824

  14. Refined Exercise testing can aid DNA-based Diagnosis in Muscle Channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    Tan, S. Veronica; Matthews, Emma; Barber, Melissa; Burge, James A; Rajakulendran, Sanjeev; Fialho, Doreen; Sud, Richa; Haworth, Andrea; Koltzenburg, Martin; Hanna, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    Objective To improve the accuracy of genotype prediction and guide genetic testing in patients with muscle channelopathies we applied and refined specialised electrophysiological exercise test parameters. Methods We studied 56 genetically confirmed patients and 65 controls using needle electromyography, the long exercise test, and short exercise tests at room temperature, after cooling, and rewarming. Results Concordant amplitude-and-area decrements were more reliable than amplitude-only measurements when interpreting patterns of change during the short exercise tests. Concordant amplitude-and-area pattern I and pattern II decrements of >20% were 100% specific for PMC and MC respectively. When decrements at room temperature and after cooling were <20%, a repeat short exercise test after rewarming was useful in patients with myotonia congenita. Area measurements and rewarming distinguished true temperature sensitivity from amplitude reduction due to cold-induced slowing of muscle fibre conduction. In patients with negative short exercise tests, symptomatic eye closure myotonia predicted sodium channel myotonia over myotonia congenita. Distinctive ‘tornado-shaped’ neuromyotonia-like discharges may be seen in patients with paramyotonia congenita. In the long exercise test, area decrements from pre-exercise baseline were more sensitive than amplitude decrements-from-maximum-CMAP in patients with Andersen-Tawil syndrome. Possible ethnic differences in the normative data of the long exercise test argue for the use of appropriate ethnically-matched controls. Interpretation Concordant CMAP amplitude-and-area decrements of >20% allow more reliable interpretation of the short exercise tests and aid accurate DNA-based diagnosis. In patients with negative exercise tests, specific clinical features are helpful in differentiating sodium from chloride channel myotonia. A modified algorithm is suggested.. PMID:21387378

  15. Results of a simple exercise test performed routinely to predict postoperative morbidity after anatomical lung resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalo Varela; Nuria Novoa; Esther Ballesteros; Ricardo Oliveira; Marcelo F. Jiménez; Pedro A. Esteban; José L. Aranda

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: Exercise tests are considered the most reliable ones for the preoperative workup of lung resection candidates but frequently are indicated only in cases with low predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO). The aim of this investigation is to evaluate if a simple, standardised incremental bicycle exercise test routinely performed

  16. Trifascicular block progressing to complete AV block on exercise: a rare presentation demonstrating the usefulness of exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ranjan K; Agarwal, Sumit; Ganiga Sanjeeva, Naveen Chandra; Rao, M Sudhakar

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old man presented with dyspnoea and giddiness on exertion for the last 1?month. A resting ECG during showed trifascicular block with complete right bundle branch block, left anterior fascicular block and a prolonged PR interval of >0.24?s. His echocardiography showed no evidence of wall motion abnormality. He was subjected to a treadmill test for exercise-induced ischaemia, which showed complete atrioventricular (AV) block during first stage of Bruce protocol. His symptoms of dyspnoea and giddiness were also reproduced. The test was terminated and ECG returned to trifascicular block, similar to that at his baseline ECG during recovery. Coronary angiogram (CAG) was performed to rule out any ischaemic cause for this exercise-induced AV block, which was normal. In view of his reproducible symptoms and demonstration of complete AV block on exercise, a dual-chamber pacemaker (DDD) was implanted. His symptoms disappeared and he remained asymptomatic on follow-up. PMID:25819829

  17. The minimal important difference of exercise tests in severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Puhan, M A; Chandra, D; Mosenifar, Z; Ries, A; Make, B; Hansel, N N; Wise, R A; Sciurba, F

    2011-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the minimal important difference (MID) for 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and maximal cycle exercise capacity (MCEC) in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial completed exercise tests before and after 4-6 weeks of pre-trial rehabilitation, and 6 months after randomisation to surgery or medical care. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (domain and total scores) and University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (total score) served as anchors for anchor-based MID estimates. In order to calculate distribution-based estimates, we used the standard error of measurement, Cohen's effect size and the empirical rule effect size. Anchor-based estimates for the 6MWD were 18.9 m (95% CI 18.1-20.1 m), 24.2 m (95% CI 23.4-25.4 m), 24.6 m (95% CI 23.4-25.7 m) and 26.4 m (95% CI 25.4-27.4 m), which were similar to distribution-based MID estimates of 25.7, 26.8 and 30.6 m. For MCEC, anchor-based estimates for the MID were 2.2 W (95% CI 2.0-2.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W), 3.2 W (95% CI 3.0-3.4 W) and 3.3 W (95% CI 3.0-3.5 W), while distribution-based estimates were 5.3 and 5.5 W. We suggest a MID of 26 ± 2 m for 6MWD and 4 ± 1 W for MCEC for patients with severe COPD. PMID:20693247

  18. Prediction of functional aerobic capacity without exercise testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Blair, S. N.; Mahar, M. T.; Wier, L. T.; Ross, R. M.; Stuteville, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop functional aerobic capacity prediction models without using exercise tests (N-Ex) and to compare the accuracy with Astrand single-stage submaximal prediction methods. The data of 2,009 subjects (9.7% female) were randomly divided into validation (N = 1,543) and cross-validation (N = 466) samples. The validation sample was used to develop two N-Ex models to estimate VO2peak. Gender, age, body composition, and self-report activity were used to develop two N-Ex prediction models. One model estimated percent fat from skinfolds (N-Ex %fat) and the other used body mass index (N-Ex BMI) to represent body composition. The multiple correlations for the developed models were R = 0.81 (SE = 5.3 ml.kg-1.min-1) and R = 0.78 (SE = 5.6 ml.kg-1.min-1). This accuracy was confirmed when applied to the cross-validation sample. The N-Ex models were more accurate than what was obtained from VO2peak estimated from the Astrand prediction models. The SEs of the Astrand models ranged from 5.5-9.7 ml.kg-1.min-1. The N-Ex models were cross-validated on 59 men on hypertensive medication and 71 men who were found to have a positive exercise ECG. The SEs of the N-Ex models ranged from 4.6-5.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 with these subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  20. EKGs and Exercise Stress Tests: When You Need Them for Heart Disease - and When You Don't

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources EKGs and Exercise Stress Tests EKGs and Exercise Stress Tests When you need them—and when you don’t DOWNLOAD PDF EKGs and stress tests ... or electrocardiogram, measures your heart’s activity. In an exercise stress test, you have an EKG while you ...

  1. Ventilation\\/carbon dioxide production ratio in early exercise predicts poor functional capacity in congestive heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Milani; M. R. Mehra; T. K. Reddy; C. J. Lavie; H. O. Ventura

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether changes in the ventilation\\/carbon dioxide production ratio during early exercise could reliably serve as a surrogate marker for maximal oxygen consumption in heart failure patients. Maximal oxygen consumption is an important determinant of the severity of congestive heart failure with values > 14 ml\\/kg\\/min conferring a good 2-year survival. However, many patients undergoing cardiopulmonary exercise testing

  2. Obesity does not influence the correlation between exercise capacity and serum NT-proBNP levels in chronic heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    António Miguel Ferreira; Miguel Mendes; António Ventosa; Carlos T. Aguiar; Jorge Ferreira; João M. Figueira; José A. Silva

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that obesity is an independent predictor of lower N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) levels and raised concerns about the validity of this biomarker in obese subjects. We evaluated the influence of obesity (body mass index?30 kg\\/m2) on the correlation between exercise capacity and serum NT-proBNP levels in 100 chronic heart failure (CHF) patients referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Circulating

  3. Pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary bypass: current issues.

    PubMed

    Utley, J R

    1990-09-01

    Much of the research related to cardiopulmonary bypass in recent years has been directed toward defining the changes in plasma and blood cells during bypass. In this review, recent information is reexamined for six areas of current interest. These areas are complement activation, immune response, anaphylactic reactions, coagulation, and cerebral dysfunction. Complement may be activated by either the classical or alternate pathway during cardiopulmonary bypass and protamine administration. Membrane oxygenators appear to diminish the degree of complement activation. Complement is a major factor in the whole body inflammatory response; which often accompanies cardiopulmonary bypass. A product of complement activation, C5a- desArg, causes activation and aggregation of granulocytes. Other products of complement activation lead to lysis of blood cells including granulocytes and red cells. Bubble oxygenators appear to have a distinct disadvantage compared to membrane oxygenators regarding infection. Airborne microorganisms are more likely to be entrained into circulating blood with bubble oxygenators than with membrane oxygenators. Bubble oxygenators cause a greater decrease in leukocyte number and function than membrane oxygenators. Anaphylactic reactions have been associated with use of antibiotics, blood products, protamine, and volume expanders during cardiopulmonary bypass. Protamine reactions may be on an immunological basis or due to direct toxicity of the drug. Free radicals including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and the hydroxyl radical may be generated during cardiopulmonary bypass and reperfusion. Free radical scavengers including; vitamin E, coenzyme Q, vitamin C, mannitol, and glutathione have been studied. The avoidance of blood transfusion because of risk of transmitted infection including AIDS has become a major goal in cardiac surgery. Factors that correlate with increased transfusion requirement include low hematocrit, female gender, increased age, small body size, low ejection fraction, reoperation, and emergency operation. Heparin resistance due to antithrombin III deficiency is being recognized more commonly. Antithrombin III deficiency may be corrected with fresh frozen plasma. Patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia may be difficult to manage. Several management protocols are suggested. The most straightforward appears to be the use of aspirin preoperatively and platelet transfusions postoperatively. The incidence of cerebral dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass depends on the sensitivity of the test or indicator used. Perioperative stroke is associated with intrinsic cerebrovascular disease and atherosclerosis of the ascending aorta. Retinal angiograms during cardiopulmonary bypass show that microemboli are very common. Cerebroplegia has been shown to extend the period of safe circulatory arrest in animals. Much of the new knowledge concerning cardiopulmonary bypass is the result of close collaboration between cardiac surgeons and nonsurgical scientists. PMID:2133841

  4. The Effect of Estrogen Usage on Eccentric Exercise-Induced Damage in Rat Testes

    PubMed Central

    Can, Serpil; Selli, Jale; Buyuk, Basak; Aydin, Sergulen; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Guvendi, Gulname Findik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent years, lots of scientific studies are focused on the possible mechanism of inflammatory response and oxidative stress which are the mechanism related with tissue damage and exercise fatigue. It is well-known that free oxygen radicals may be induced under invitro conditions as well as oxidative stress by exhaustive physical exercise. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of anabolic steroids in conjunction with exercise in the process of spermatogenesis in the testes, using histological and stereological methods. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided to six groups, including the control group, the eccentric exercise administered group, the estrogen applied group, the estrogen applied and dissected one hour after eccentric exercise group, the no estrogen applied and dissected 48 hours after eccentric exercise group and the estrogen applied and dissected 48 hours after eccentric exercise group. Eccentric exercise was performed on a motorized rodent treadmill and the estrogen applied groups received daily physiological doses by subcutaneous injections. Testicular tissues were examined using specific histopathological, immunohistochemical and stereological methods. Sections of the testes tissue were stained using the TUNEL method to identify apoptotic cells. Apoptosis was calculated as the percentage of positive cells, using stereological analysis. A statistical analysis of the data was carried out with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the data obtained from stereological analysis. Results: Conventional light microscopic results revealed that testes tissues of the eccentric exercise administered group and the estrogen supplemented group exhibited slight impairment. In groups that were both eccentrically exercised and estrogen supplemented, more deterioration was detected in testes tissues. Likewise, immunohistochemistry findings were also more prominent in the eccentrically exercised and estrogen supplemented groups. Conclusions: The findings suggest that estrogen supplementation increases damage in testicular tissue due to eccentric exercise.

  5. Testing the effectiveness of the exercise plus program in older women post-hip fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Resnick; Denise Orwig; Janet Yu-Yahiro; William Hawkes; Michelle Shardell; J. Richard Hebel; Sheryl Zimmerman; Justine Golden; Michele Werner; Jay Magaziner

    2007-01-01

    Background: Exercise is an important strategy with potential to improve recovery in older adults following a hip fracture.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the impact of a self-efficacy based intervention, the Exercise Plus Program, and the\\u000a different components of the intervention, on self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and exercise behavior among older women\\u000a post-hip fracture.Methods: Participants were randomized to

  6. Insufficient control of exercise intensity by heart rate monitoring in cardiac patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Falko Frese; Philipp Seipp; Susanne Hupfer; Peter Bärtsch; Birgit Friedmann-Bette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To test the reliability of heart rate (HR) recommendations for cardiac rehabilitation training obtained from different treadmill tests.Background: For training in cardiac rehabilitation, HR recommendations are derived from cardio-pulmonary tests. Exercise intensity is often controlled through self-monitoring HR by the cardiac patients.Design: Non-randomized clinical trial.Methods: 25 patients of a cardiac sports group (six women, 19 men, age 68.3 ±

  7. Flow for Exercise Adherence: Testing an Intrinsic Model of Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petosa, R. Lingyak; Holtz, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health behavior theory generally does not include intrinsic motivation as a determinate of health practices. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the flow theory of exercise adherence. Flow theory posits that exercise can be intrinsically rewarding if the experiences of self/time transcendence and control/mastery are achieved…

  8. Six minute walking test for assessing exercise capacity in chronic heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D P Lipkin; A J Scriven; T Crake; P A Poole-Wilson

    1986-01-01

    Twenty six patients, mean age 58 years (range 36-68), with stable chronic heart failure, New York Heart Association class II-III, and 10 normal subjects of a similar age range were studied. Exercise capacity was assessed by determining oxygen consumption reached during a maximal treadmill exercise test and by measuring the distance each patient walked in six minutes. There were significant

  9. Realistic Exercises for Assessing Learning. I. Conceptual Design and Testing. Report 04-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronlund, Wayne R.; And Others

    Researchers at the Coast Guard Academy have designed and tested a series of exercises for assessing the development of intellectual skills in an interdisciplinary context and providing career-related motivation for continued learning. These exercises are based on realistic situations that cadets might encounter as commissioned officers in the…

  10. TECHNICAL STANDARDS Department of Cardiopulmonary Science

    E-print Network

    and other relevant personal characteristics, the Department of Cardiopulmonary Science expects all of health care education. Intellectual Skills: A cardiopulmonary science student must have sufficient powersTECHNICAL STANDARDS Department of Cardiopulmonary Science In addition to proven academic ability

  11. A simple semipaced 3-minute chair rise test for routine exercise tolerance testing in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Aguilaniu, Bernard; Roth, Hubert; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus; Jondot, Marie; Maitre, Jocelyne; Denis, François; Similowski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The functional work capacity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is usually assessed with walk tests such as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) or the shuttle test. Because these exercise modalities require a controlled environment which limits their use by pulmonologists and severely restricts their use among general practitioners, different modalities of a short (1 minute or less) sit-to-stand test were recently proposed. In this study, we evaluated a new modality of a semipaced 3-minute chair rise test (3CRT) in 40 patients with COPD, and compared the reproducibility of physiological responses and symptoms during the 3CRT and their interchangeability with the 6MWT. The results demonstrate that physiological variables, heart rate, pulse oxygen saturation, work done, and symptoms (Borg dyspnea and fatigue scores), during the 3CRT were highly reproducible, and that the physiological responses and symptoms obtained during the 3CRT and the 6MWT were interchangeable for most patients. Moreover, these preliminary data suggest that patients able to perform more than 50 rises during 3 minutes had no significant disability. The simplicity and ease of execution of the 3CRT will facilitate the assessment of exercise symptoms and disability in COPD patients during routine consultations with pulmonologists and general practitioners, and will thus contribute to the improved management of COPD patients. PMID:25285001

  12. Physical activity patterns of patients with cardiopulmonary illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong Q.; Steele, Bonnie G.; Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Burr, Robert

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aims of this paper are to: 1) describe objectively-confirmed physical activity patterns across three chronic cardiopulmonary conditions, and 2) examine the relationship between selected physical activity dimensions with disease severity, self-reported physical and emotional functioning, and exercise performance. INTERVENTIONS Not applicable. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Participant’s home environment. PARTICIPANTS Patients with cardiopulmonary illnesses: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, n=63), heart failure (HF, n=60), and patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD, n=60). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Seven ambulatory physical activity dimensions (total steps, percent time active, percent time ambulating at low, medium, and high intensity, maximum cadence for 30 continuous minutes, and peak performance) were measured with an accelerometer. RESULTS Subjects with COPD had the lowest amount of ambulatory physical activity compared to subjects with heart failure and cardiac dysrhythmias (all seven activity dimensions, p<.05); total step counts were: 5319 vs. 7464 vs. 9570, respectively. Six minute walk distance were correlated (r=.44 to .65, p<.01) with all physical activity dimensions in the COPD sample, the strongest correlations being with total steps and peak performance. In subjects with cardiac impairment, maximal oxygen consumption had only small to moderate correlations with five of the physical activity dimensions (r=.22 to .40, p<.05). In contrast, correlations between six minute walk test distance and physical activity were higher (r=.48 to .61, p<.01) albeit in a smaller sample of only patients with heart failure. For all three samples, self-reported physical and mental health functioning, age, body mass index, airflow obstruction, and ejection fraction had either relatively small or non-significant correlations with physical activity. CONCLUSIONS All seven dimensions of ambulatory physical activity discriminated between subjects with COPD, heart failure, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Depending on the research or clinical goal, use of one dimension such as total steps may be sufficient. Although physical activity had high correlations with performance on a six minute walk test relative to other variables, accelerometry-based physical activity monitoring provides unique, important information about real-world behavior in patients with cardiopulmonary illness not already captured with existing measures. PMID:22772084

  13. Noninvasive diagnostic test choices for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in women: a multivariate comparison of cardiac fluoroscopy, exercise electrocardiography and exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Hung; Bernard R. Chaitman; Jules Lam; Jacques Lesperance; Georges Dupras; Phillippe Fines; Martial G. Bourassa

    1984-01-01

    Several diagnostic noninvasive tests to detect coronary and multivessel coronary disease are available for women. However, all are imperfect and it is not yet clear whether one particular test provides substantially more information than others. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical findings, exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy in 92 symptomatic women without previous

  14. Discordance of exercise thallium testing with coronary arteriography in patients with atypical presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bungo, M. W.; Leland, O. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-one patients with diagnostically difficult clinical presentations suggesting coronary artery disease underwent symptom-limited maximal-exercise treadmill testing (ETT) and exercise radionuclide scanning with thallium-201 followed by coronary angiography. Results showed that in nearly half of the patients (47%) these tests were in agreement, while either exercise thallium or ETT was positive in 94% of patients with coronary artery disease. It was found that agreement between exercise thallium and ETT tests predicted disease in 92% of the instances or excluded disease in 82% of the instances. It is concluded that despite frequent discord between these two tests in 53% of the cases, a significant gain in exclusive diagnostic capability is realized when applied to a patient population anticipated to have a disease prevalence equal to the 67% encountered in this study.

  15. Cardiopulmonary Responses to Supine Cycling during Short-Arm Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vener, J. M.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J.; Evettes, S.; Bailey, K.; Biagini, H.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiopulmonary responses to supine cycling with concomitant +G(sub z) acceleration using the NASA/Ames Human Powered Short-Arm Centrifuge (HPC). Subjects were eight consenting males (32+/-5 yrs, 178+/-5 cm, 86.1+/- 6.2 kg). All subjects completed two maximal exercise tests on the HPC (with and without acceleration) within a three-day period. A two tailed t-test with statistical significance set at p less than or equal to 0.05 was used to compare treatments. Peak acceleration was 3.4+/-0.1 G(sub z), (head to foot acceleration). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2(sub peak) was not different between treatment groups (3.1+/-0.1 Lmin(exp -1) vs. 3.2+/-0.1 Lmin(exp -1) for stationary and acceleration trials, respectively). Peak HR and pulmonary minute ventilation (V(sub E(sub BTPS))) were significantly elevated (p less than or equal to 0.05) for the acceleration trial (182+/-3 BPM (Beats per Minute); 132.0+/-9.0 Lmin(exp -1)) when compared to the stationary trial (175+/-3 BPM; 115.5+/-8.5 Lmin(exp -1)). Ventilatory threshold expressed as a percent of VO2(sub peak) was not different for acceleration and stationary trials (72+/-2% vs. 68+/-2% respectively). Results suggest that 3.4 G(sub z) acceleration does not alter VO2(sub peak) response to supine cycling. However, peak HR and V(sub E(sub BTPS)) response may be increased while ventilatory threshold response expressed as a function of percent VO2(sub peak) is relatively unaffected. Thus, traditional exercise prescription based on VO2 response would be appropriate for this mode of exercise. Prescriptions based on HR response may require modification.

  16. Metabolic response to standardised exercise test in standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia.

    PubMed

    Pösö, A R; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Persson, S G

    1993-11-01

    Plasma concentrations of lactate, amino acids, ammonia and products of purine catabolism were studied before, during and after a standardised incremental exercise test in 29 Standardbred trotters admitted to the clinic for exercise tolerance testing. According to their red cell volume the horses were divided into red cell normovolaemic and red cell hypervolaemic (polycythaemic) groups. The exercise-response curve for taurine differed significantly in the two groups, whereas all the other amino acids behaved similarly. The [branched-chain amino acid]/[alanine] ratio, a proposed indicator for the use of amino acids in gluconeogenesis, was at rest significantly higher in the polycythaemic horses. Post-exercise concentrations of ammonia and allantoin, both end products of ATP breakdown, were lower in the polycythaemic horses. No differences were observed in the VLA4 and V200 markers for lactate and heart rate responses to incremental exercise, the oxidative capacity of the gluteus medius muscle, the enzyme activities or the post-exercise concentration of lactate, uric acid and hypoxanthine. It is concluded that horses with red cell hypervolaemia behave in a submaximal standardised exercise test on a treadmill in the same way as do red cell normovolaemic horses. The results suggest that the rate of amino acid utilisation in gluconeogenesis and the ability of amino acids to produce energy aerobically may be elevated in polycythaemic horses. PMID:8276001

  17. Clinical and Exercise Test Determinants of Survival After Cardiac Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Myers; Odd Geiran; Svein Simonsen; Afshin Ghuyoumi; Lars Gullestad

    Background: Cardiac transplantation (CTX) is now a viable option for patients with end-stage heart failure, but there remains a paucity of available donor hearts relative to the demand for them. Establishing prognosis after CTX can help direct this resource to patients most likely to benefit, as well as to help guide therapy for CTX recipients. Clinical, exercise, and hemodynamic factors

  18. Hypothesis Testing as a Laboratory Exercise: A Simple Analysis of Human Walking, With a Physiological Surprise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD John E. A. Bertram (Florida State University Dept. of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences)

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes a laboratory exercise designed to provide students with experience testing a hypothesis by systematically isolating and controlling determinant variables. The study involves an analysis of walking and is performed by the students on a subject from within their lab group. The study requires use of a motorized treadmill, tape measure, stop watch, metronome, personal cassette player, and calculator. The exercise is designed to include factors that the students are familiar with, so they can focus on the isolation of variables without being confused about the process they are investigating. However, the exercise will not turn out as the students anticipate, meaning they will be forced to reevaluate the assumptions that formed the basis of their original hypothesis. This exercise is designed for a college-level course in exercise science, physiology, or biology but could easily be managed by a high school honors class with appropriate guidance.

  19. Validity of the Step Test for Exercise Prescription Does Not Extend to a Larger Age Range

    PubMed Central

    Vidoni, Eric D.; Mattlage, Anna; Mahnken, Jonathan; Burns, Jeffrey M; McDonough, Joe; Billinger, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of a submaximal exercise test, the Step Test Exercise Prescription (STEP), in a broad age range and in individuals in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals (n = 102) underwent treadmill-based maximal exercise testing and a STEP. The STEP failed to predict peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), and was a biased estimate of VO2 peak (p < .0001). Only 43% of subjects' STEP results were within 3.5 ml × kg?1 × min?1 of VO2 peak. When categorized into fitness levels these two measures demonstrated moderate agreement (kappa = .59). The validity of the STEP was not supported in our participants, including those with AD. The STEP may not be appropriate in the clinic as a basis for exercise recommendations in these groups, though it may continue to have utility classifying fitness in research or community health screenings. PMID:23238135

  20. Teaching schoolchildren cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Lester, C; Donnelly, P; Weston, C; Morgan, M

    1996-02-01

    Forty-one children aged 11-12 years received tuition in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and subsequently completed questionnaires to assess their theoretical knowledge and attitudes their likelihood of performing CPR. Although most children scored well on theoretical knowledge, this did not correlate with an assessment of practical ability using training manikins. In particular only one child correctly called for help after the casualty was found to be unresponsive, and none telephoned for an ambulance before starting resuscitation. These omissions have important implications for the teaching of CPR and the resulting effectiveness of community CPR programmes. PMID:8701107

  1. Effect of pulmonary endarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension on stroke volume response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Surie, Sulaiman; van der Plas, Mart N; Marcus, J Tim; Kind, Taco; Kloek, Jaap J; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Bresser, Paul

    2014-07-01

    In pulmonary hypertension, exercise is limited by an impaired right ventricular (RV) stroke volume response. We hypothesized that improvement in exercise capacity after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is paralleled by an improved RV stroke volume response. We studied the extent of PEA-induced restoration of RV stroke volume index (SVI) response to exercise using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). Patients with CTEPH (n = 18) and 7 healthy volunteers were included. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cMRI were performed before and 1 year after PEA. For cMRI studies, pre- and post-operatively, all patients exercised at 40% of their preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing-assessed maximal workload. Post-PEA patients (n = 13) also exercised at 40% of their postoperative maximal workload. Control subjects exercised at 40% of their predicted maximal workload. Preoperatively, SVI (n = 18) decreased during exercise from 35.9 ± 7.4 to 33.0 ± 9.0 ml·m(2) (p = 0.023); in the control subjects, SVI increased (46.6 ± 7.6 vs 57.9 ± 11.8 ml·m(-2), p = 0.001). After PEA, the SVI response (?SVI) improved from -2.8 ± 4.6 to 4.0 ± 4.6 ml·m(2) (p <0.001; n = 17). On exercise at 40% of the postoperative maximal workload, SVI did not increase further and was still significantly lower compared with controls. Moreover, 4 patients retained a negative SVI response, despite (near) normalization of their pulmonary hemodynamics. The improvement in SVI response was accompanied by an increased exercise tolerance and restoration of RV remodeling. In conclusion, in CTEPH, exercise is limited by an impaired stroke volume response. PEA induces a restoration of SVI response to exercise that appears, however, incomplete and not evident in all patients. PMID:24819907

  2. The 6-minute walk test: How important is the learning effect?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace Wu; Bonnie Sanderson; Vera Bittner

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundThe 6-minute walk test is a submaximal exercise test that is widely used as an outcomes measure in clinical trials and cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. An initial learning effect with repeated administration is well documented, but it is unknown whether this learning effect persists with time.

  3. Evaluation of oxidative status in coronary heart disease at baseline and during exercise test.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; D'Amico, Teresa; Montana, Maria; Canino, Baldassare; Amodeo, Gabriella; Ciancarelli, Maria Giuliana Tozzi; Caimi, Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress has probably a role in coronary heart disease (CHD), but studies focused on the behaviour of oxidative status in patients with stable CHD have obtained controversial results. On the other hand, an increased release of leukocyte elastase is considered a marker of CHD. Exercise can induce oxidative stress and leukocyte activation, so the aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative status and plasma elastase level in a group of subjects with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), at baseline and during an exercise test. We enrolled 15 patients with previous acute myocardial infarction, all treated with statins and platelet antiaggregating agents. As parameters of oxidative status we determined the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total antioxidant status (TAS). The exercise test was performed according to the Bruce protocol. At baseline, elastase level was higher in CHD subjects than in normal controls and during the exercise test it increased in both groups in comparison with basal values. Regarding oxidative status, only TAS was slightly lower in CHD subjects than in normal controls. In both groups, during exercise test, no parameter of oxidative status was significantly different compared to basal values. In conclusion, CHD patients showed, at rest, an abnormal neutrophil activation and a lower antioxidant status. The exercise test further activated neutrophils but did not influence oxidative status. The absence of a marked oxidative stress in our patients may be partly due to the pharmacological treatment, which apparently did not influence the abnormal leukocyte activation. PMID:17942986

  4. Submaximal Treadmill Exercise Test to Predict VO[subscript 2]max in Fit Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat R.; George, James D.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Plowman, Sharon A.; Dustman-Allen, Kymberli

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a single-stage submaximal treadmill jogging (TMJ) test to predict VO[subscript 2]max in fit adults. Participants (N = 400; men = 250 and women = 150), ages 18 to 40 years, successfully completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) at 1 of 3 laboratories to determine VO[subscript 2]max. The TMJ test was completed…

  5. Arm exercise testing with myocardial scintigraphy in asymptomatic patients with peripheral vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, S.; Rubler, S.; Bryk, H.; Sklar, B.; Glasser, L.

    1989-04-01

    Arm exercise with myocardial scintigraphy and oxygen consumption determinations was performed by 33 men with peripheral vascular disease, 40 to 74 years of age (group 2). None had evidence of coronary disease. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects (group 1) were also tested to determine the normal endurance and oxygen consumption during arm exercise in their age group and to compare the results with those obtained during a standard treadmill performance. The maximal heart rate, systolic blood pressure, pressure rate product, and oxygen consumption were all significantly lower for arm than for leg exercise. However, there was good correlation between all these parameters for both types of exertion. The maximal heart rate, work load and oxygen consumption were greater for group 1 subjects than in patients with peripheral vascular disease despite similar activity status. None of the group 1 subjects had abnormal arm exercise ECGs, while six members of group 2 had ST segment changes. Thallium-201 scintigraphy performed in the latter group demonstrated perfusion defects in 25 patients. After nine to 29 months of follow-up, three patients who had abnormal tests developed angina and one of them required coronary bypass surgery. Arm exercise with myocardial scintigraphy may be an effective method of detecting occult ischemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Those with good exercise tolerance and no electrocardiographic changes or /sup 201/T1 defects are probably at lower risk for the development of cardiac complications, while those who develop abnormalities at low exercise levels may be candidates for invasive studies.

  6. Pulmonary artery pressure measurement during exercise testing in patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Raeside; A. Smith; A. Brown; K. R. Patel; R. Madhok; J. Cleland; A. J. Peacock

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT: It is recognized,that exercise produces,abnormally,large increases in pulmonary,artery pressure in patients with pulmonary,vascular disease as a conse- quence of a variety of disorders, but the relationship between pressure and cardio- pulmonary,exercise performance,is poorly understood. This lack of understanding,is due (in part) to difficulty making,measurements,of pulmonary,haemodynamics,using conventional,fluid filled catheters. This article seeks to improve,understanding,by comparing,variables measured,during formal exercise testing with

  7. Ischemic exercise test: failure to detect partial expression of McArdle's disease.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R G; Lieberman, J S; Portwood, M M

    1987-01-01

    The forearm ischemic exercise test (FIET) is a very important clinical tool for evaluation of patients suspected to have a metabolic disorder of muscle function. Failure to elevate lactate in blood washed out from ischemically exercised muscles confirms an abnormality of glycolytic metabolism. A normal increase of lactate on FIET is assumed to rule out a disorder of glycolytic metabolism. Two patients with low levels of muscle phosphorylase are presented who produced a normal elevation of lactate on FIET. This suggests that, although the FIET is capable of identifying patients with absence of myophosphorylase, the test cannot identify patients with a partial expression of that disorder. Evaluation of the blood samples for ammonia in addition to lactate can be a significant help in confirming that the exercise performed by the patient was an adequate challenge for the glycolytic pathway. In addition, failure to elevate ammonia on ischemic exercise can identify a relatively new disorder of muscle metabolism. PMID:3476851

  8. The effects of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Gaffney, F. Andrew; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Alterations of the human cardiopulmonary system in space flight are examined, including fluid shifts, orthostatic intolerance, changes in cardiac dynamics and electromechanics, and changes in pulmonary function and exercise capacity. Consideration is given to lower body negative pressure data from Skylab experiments and studies on the Space Shuttle. Also, echocardiography, cardiac dysrhythmias during spaceflight, and the role of neural mechanisms in circulatory control after spaceflight are discussed.

  9. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-06-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD. PMID:25738234

  10. MAXIMAL EXERCISE TESTING USING THE ELLIPTICAL CROSS-TRAINER AND TREADMILL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LANCE C. DALLECK; LEN KRAVITZ; ROBERT A. ROBERGS

    MAXIMAL EXERCISE TESTING USING THE ELLIPTICAL CROSS-TRAINER AND TREADMILL. Lance C. Dalleck, Len Kravitz, Robert A. Robergs. JEPonline 2004;7(3):94-101. The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses during incremental exercise to fatigue using the elliptical cross-trainer and treadmill running. Twenty recreationally active individuals (10 men and 10 women, mean age, height, weight, and body composition = 29.5±7.1

  11. Comparison of Peak Cardiopulmonary Performance Parameters on a Robotics-Assisted Tilt Table, a Cycle and a Treadmill

    PubMed Central

    Saengsuwan, Jittima; Nef, Tobias; Laubacher, Marco; Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Robotics-assisted tilt table (RATT) technology provides body support, cyclical stepping movement and physiological loading. This technology can potentially be used to facilitate the estimation of peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters in patients who have neurological or other problems that may preclude testing on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. The aim of the study was to compare the magnitude of peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters including peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) obtained from a robotics-assisted tilt table (RATT), a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. The strength of correlations between the three devices, test-retest reliability and repeatability were also assessed. Eighteen healthy subjects performed six maximal exercise tests, with two tests on each of the three exercise modalities. Data from the second tests were used for the comparative and correlation analyses. For nine subjects, test-retest reliability and repeatability of VO2peak and HRpeak were assessed. Absolute VO2peak from the RATT, the cycle ergometer and the treadmill was (mean (SD)) 2.2 (0.56), 2.8 (0.80) and 3.2 (0.87) L/min, respectively (p < 0.001). HRpeak from the RATT, the cycle ergometer and the treadmill was 168 (9.5), 179 (7.9) and 184 (6.9) beats/min, respectively (p < 0.001). VO2peak and HRpeak from the RATT vs the cycle ergometer and the RATT vs the treadmill showed strong correlations. Test-retest reliability and repeatability were high for VO2peak and HRpeak for all devices. The results demonstrate that the RATT is a valid and reliable device for exercise testing. There is potential for the RATT to be used in severely impaired subjects who cannot use the standard modalities. PMID:25860019

  12. Reliability of Strength Testing using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and Free Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Laughlin, Mitzi A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) was developed for use on the International Space Station as a countermeasure against muscle atrophy and decreased strength. This investigation examined the reliability of one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing using ARED and traditional free weight (FW) exercise. Methods: Six males (180.8 +/- 4.3 cm, 83.6 +/- 6.4 kg, 36 +/- 8 y, mean +/- SD) who had not engaged in resistive exercise for at least six months volunteered to participate in this project. Subjects completed four 1RM testing sessions each for FW and ARED (eight total sessions) using a balanced, randomized, crossover design. All testing using one device was completed before progressing to the other. During each session, 1RM was measured for the squat, heel raise, and deadlift exercises. Generalizability (G) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each exercise on each device and were used to predict the number of sessions needed to obtain a reliable 1RM measurement (G . 0.90). Interclass reliability coefficients and Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) also were calculated for the highest 1RM value (1RM9sub peak)) obtained for each exercise on each device to quantify 1RM relationships between devices.

  13. Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor…

  14. The Yield of Downstream Tests after Exercise Treadmill Testing: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Christman, Mitalee P.; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer; Hulten, Edward; Saksena, Ekta; Hainer, Jon; Skali, Hicham; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Forman, Daniel E.; Dorbala, Sharmila; O’Gara, Patrick T.; Di Carli, Marcelo F.; Blankstein, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the frequency and results of downstream testing following exercise treadmill tests (ETT). Background The utility of additional diagnostic testing following ETT is not well characterized. Methods We followed consecutive individuals without known CAD referred for clinical ETT at a large medical center. We measured the frequency and results of downstream imaging tests and invasive angiography within six months of ETT, and the combined endpoint of survival free from cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization. Results Among 3,345 consecutive subjects who were followed for a mean of 2.5±1.1 years, 332 (9.0%) underwent noninvasive imaging while 84 (2.3%) were referred directly to invasive angiography after ETT. The combined endpoint occurred in 76 (2.2%) patients. The annual incidence of the combined endpoint following negative, inconclusive and positive ETT was 0.2%, 1.3% and 12.4% respectively (P<0.001). Rapid recovery of ECG changes during ETT was associated with negative downstream test results and excellent prognosis while typical angina despite negative ECG was associated with positive downstream tests and adverse prognosis (P<0.001). Younger age, female gender, higher METs achieved and rapid recovery of ECG changes were predictors of negative downstream tests. Conclusions Among patients referred for additional testing after ETT, the lowest yield was observed among individuals with rapid recovery of ECG changes or negative ETT while the highest yield was observed among those with typical angina despite negative ECG or a positive ETT. These findings may be used to identify patients who are most and least likely to benefit from additional testing. PMID:24509269

  15. Simple Screening Test for Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm in the Middle School Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tyler J.; Baker, Rachel H.; Weiss, Jason B.; Weiss, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article recommends and provides results from a simple screening test that could be incorporated into a standardized school evaluation for all children participating in sports and physical education classes. The test can be employed by physical educators utilizing their own gym to identify children who demonstrate signs of exercise-induced…

  16. Psychometric properties of the Compulsive Exercise Test in an adolescent eating disorder population.

    PubMed

    Formby, Pam; Watson, Hunna J; Hilyard, Anna; Martin, Kate; Egan, Sarah J

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET) in an adolescent clinical eating disorder population. The data source was the Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders (HOPE) Project, a prospective ongoing registry study comprising consecutive pediatric tertiary eating disorder referrals. Adolescents (N=104; 12-17years) with eating disorders completed the CET and other measures. Factor structure, convergent validity, and internal consistency were evaluated. Despite failing to identify a factor structure, the study provided clear evidence of the multidimensionality of the measure. The total score correlated significantly with measures of eating pathology, perfectionism, and frequency of exercise for shape and weight control (r=0.32-0.70, ps<0.05). More research into the multidimensional nature of compulsive exercise in clinical populations is needed. Further, research into compulsive exercise offers promise as an addition to existing cognitive behavioral models and treatments for eating disorders. PMID:25200383

  17. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  18. Peak exercise capacity estimated from incremental shuttle walking test in patients with COPD: a methodological study

    PubMed Central

    Arnardóttir, Ragnheiður Harpa; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Larsson, Kjell; Boman, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Background In patients with COPD, both laboratory exercise tests and field walking tests are used to assess physical performance. In laboratory tests, peak exercise capacity in watts (W peak) and/or peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) are assessed, whereas the performance on walking tests usually is expressed as distance walked. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between an incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT) and two laboratory cycle tests in order to assess whether W peak could be estimated from an ISWT. Methods Ninety-three patients with moderate or severe COPD performed an ISWT, an incremental cycle test (ICT) to measure W peak and a semi-steady-state cycle test with breath-by-breath gas exchange analysis (CPET) to measure VO2 peak. Routine equations for conversion between cycle tests were used to estimate W peak from measured VO2 peak (CPET). Conversion equation for estimation of W peak from ISWT was found by univariate regression. Results There was a significant correlation between W peak and distance walked on ISWT × body weight (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001). The agreement between W peak measured by ICT and estimated from ISWT was similar to the agreement between measured W peak (ICT) and W peak estimated from measured VO2 peak by CPET. Conclusion Peak exercise capacity measured by an incremental cycle test could be estimated from an ISWT with similar accuracy as when estimated from peak oxygen uptake in patients with COPD. PMID:17044921

  19. [Results of 1000 electrocardiographic exercise tests. Their correlation with previous ischemic cardiopathy and arteriosclerotic risk factors].

    PubMed

    Carrillo López, L; Gómez Lepe, A; Moragrega, J L; Parás Chavero, E

    1976-01-01

    Exercise electrocardiograms were done on one thousand patients referred to the laboratory of exercise tests for: suggestive symptoms of acute heart failure, old miocardial infarction abnormal resting ECG, or evaluation of coronary reserve. The average value of cardiac rate reached for the group, was close to 80%. The maximum exercise loads managed by the men were superior to those of the women, and in general those managed in the negative test were superior in relation to the positive tests. Of the one thousand cases, 20.2% had positive exercise ECG's. There was no difference inthe percentages of positivity between the two sexes, 20.75% and 19.11% for men and women respecitvely. The percentages of positivity are greater in those subjects sent to the laboratory for suspicion of angina pectoris, old MI, or abnormal resting ECG, than in those referred for detection of ischemic heart disease. The groups of patients with diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, old MI, and abnormal resting ECG had the highest incidence of positive tests: 41%, 37.5%, 30.6%, and 28.2% respectively. The most frequent localization of the ST segment alterations was the anterior portion, with percentages of 85.1% similar to those mentioned in the literature. The frequency of arrithmias, of 12.4% in this group, is a little less than that described in similar groups, but it corroborates the predominance of non-lethal ventricular arrithmias. The mortality in the tests performed was null. PMID:1023833

  20. Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Science. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 81-S [and] Answer Key for Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Science. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 85-S. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    The "Test Development Notebook" is a resource designed for the preparation of tests of literal comprehension for students in grades 1 through 12. This volume contains 200 multiple-choice cloze exercises taken from textbooks in science, and the accompanying answer key. Each exercise carries the code letter of the section to which it belongs. The…

  1. Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Mathematics. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 81-M [and] Answer Key for Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Mathematics. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 85-M. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    The "Test Development Notebook" is a resource designed for the preparation of tests of literal comprehension for students in grades 1 through 12. This volume contains 200 multiple-choice cloze exercises taken from textbooks in mathematics, and the accompanying answer key. Each exercise carries the code letter of the section to which it belongs.…

  2. Clinical Implications of Referral Bias in the Diagnostic Performance of Exercise Testing for Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ladapo, Joseph A.; Blecker, Saul; Elashoff, Michael R.; Federspiel, Jerome J.; Vieira, Dorice L.; Sharma, Gaurav; Monane, Mark; Rosenberg, Steven; Phelps, Charles E.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise testing with echocardiography or myocardial perfusion imaging is widely used to risk?stratify patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, reports of diagnostic performance rarely adjust for referral bias, and this practice may adversely influence patient care. Therefore, we evaluated the potential impact of referral bias on diagnostic effectiveness and clinical decision?making. Methods and Results Searching PubMed and EMBASE (1990–2012), 2 investigators independently evaluated eligibility and abstracted data on study characteristics and referral patterns. Diagnostic performance reported in 4 previously published meta?analyses of exercise echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging was adjusted using pooled referral rates and Bayesian methods. Twenty?one studies reported referral patterns in 49 006 patients (mean age 60.7 years, 39.6% women, and 0.8% prior history of myocardial infarction). Catheterization referral rates after normal and abnormal exercise tests were 4.0% (95% CI, 2.9% to 5.0%) and 42.5% (36.2% to 48.9%), respectively, with odds ratio for referral after an abnormal test of 14.6 (10.7 to 19.9). After adjustment for referral, exercise echocardiography sensitivity fell from 84% (80% to 89%) to 34% (27% to 41%), and specificity rose from 77% (69% to 86%) to 99% (99% to 100%). Similarly, exercise myocardial perfusion imaging sensitivity fell from 85% (81% to 88%) to 38% (31% to 44%), and specificity rose from 69% (61% to 78%) to 99% (99% to 100%). Summary receiver operating curve analysis demonstrated only modest changes in overall discriminatory power but adjusting for referral increased positive?predictive value and reduced negative?predictive value. Conclusions Exercise echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging are considerably less sensitive and more specific for coronary artery disease after adjustment for referral. Given these findings, future work should assess the comparative ability of these and other tests to rule?in versus rule?out coronary artery disease. PMID:24334965

  3. [Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Cardiology for clinical practice in exercise testing].

    PubMed

    Arós, F; Boraita, A; Alegría, E; Alonso, A M; Bardají, A; Lamiel, R; Luengo, E; Rabadán, M; Alijarde, M; Aznar, J; Baño, A; Cabañero, M; Calderón, C; Camprubí, M; Candell, J; Crespo, M; de la Morena, G; Fernández, A; Ferrero, J A; Gayán, R; Bolao, I G; Hernández, M; Maceira, A; Marín, E; Muela de Lara, A; Placer, L; San Román, J A; Serratosa, L; Sosa, V; Subirana, M T; Wilke, M

    2000-08-01

    Most exercise testing is performed in adults with known or suspected ischemic heart disease. In the last few years cardiac imaging techniques have been applied in this field, improving the information obtained with the procedure. However, the exceptions to this rule are emerging rapidly not only in healthy people (asymptomatic individuals, athletes, handicapped people) but also in cardiac patients (advanced congestive heart failure, hypertension, rhythm disorders, congenital heart disease, etc.). All the-se issues justify the need for a multidisciplinary consensus document in Spain. This paper reviews and updates the methodological aspects of the stress test, including those related to oxygen consumption measurements. The main aim of this review was to determine the role of exercise testing in the evaluation of ischemic heart disease as well as the applications of imaging stress testing. The usefulness of this test in other non-ischemic cardiac disorders and in selected subsets of healthy people is also reviewed. PMID:10956604

  4. The prevalence of arrhythmias, predictors for arrhythmias, and safety of exercise stress testing in children.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Reena M; Gates, Gregory J; Walsh, Christine A; Schiller, Myles S; Pass, Robert H; Ceresnak, Scott R

    2015-03-01

    Exercise testing is commonly performed in children for evaluation of cardiac disease. Few data exist, however, on the prevalence, types of arrhythmias, predictors for arrhythmias, and safety of exercise testing in children. A retrospective review of all patients ?21 years undergoing exercise testing at our center from 2008 to 2012 was performed. Patients with clinically relevant arrhythmias were compared to those not experiencing a significant arrhythmia. 1,037 tests were performed in 916 patients. The mean age was 14 ± 4 years, 537 (55 %) were male, 281 (27 %) had congenital heart disease, 178 (17 %) had a history of a prior arrhythmia, and 17 (2 %) had a pacemaker or ICD. 291 (28 %) patients had a rhythm disturbance during the procedure. Clinically important arrhythmias were noted in 34 (3 %) patients and included: 19 (1.8 %) increasing ectopy with exercise, 5 (0.5 %) VT, 5 (0.5 %) second degree AV block, 3 (0.3 %) SVT, and 2 (0.2 %) AFIB. On multivariate logistic regression, variables associated with the development of clinically relevant arrhythmias included severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction on echo (OR 1.99, CI 1.20-3.30) and prior history of a documented arrhythmia (OR 2.94, CI 1.25-6.88). There were no adverse events related to testing with no patient requiring cardioversion, defibrillation, or acute anti-arrhythmic therapy. A total of 28 % of children developed a rhythm disturbance during exercise testing and 3 % were clinically important. Severe LV dysfunction and a history of documented arrhythmia were associated with the development of a clinically important arrhythmia. PMID:25384613

  5. [Prognostic value after 1 year of post-infarction exercise test with measurement of oxygen consumption].

    PubMed

    Borgat, C; Potiron, M; Bouhour, J B; Leroy, A; Helias, J; Bourdon, A; Patra, O; Louvet, S

    1992-03-01

    A symptoms-limited exercise stress test with measurement of myocardial oxygen consumption (VO2) was carried out in 56 patients on the 44th +/- 16 days after infarction and in 48 patients on the 119th +/- 31 days. Analysis of the expired gases was performed by mass spectrography, cycle by cycle. The second test was coupled with an exercise gamma-angiography in 40 cases. The parameters on exercise were analysed in two groups at one year: group 1 asymptomatic and group 2 symptomatic (subgroup 2a with angina but no dyspnoea, subgroup 2b with dyspnoea). At the second test, the peak VO2 was lower in group 2 (19.46 +/- 5.78 ml/mn/kg) than in group 1 (24.2 +/- 6.5 ml/mn/kg) (p less than 0.008) irrespective of the symptom (angina and/or dyspnoea). The oxygen pulse was lower in group 2a with angina at one year (42.4% +/- 14.3%) compared with asymptomatic group 1 patient (58.5 +/- 12.4%) (p = 0.03). The 3 parameters: VO2, blood pressure and ejection fraction on exercise were independent. The lack of physical fitness may partially explain the absence of variation of the peak VO2 at the first test. These preliminary results should be confirmed by a multivariate analysis in a larger patient group. PMID:1575611

  6. JAMA Patient Page: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation W hen the heart stops beating (cardiac arrest), ... circulation (blood flow) returns or is restored. Providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( CPR ) is a way to keep some circulation ...

  7. Effect of In-Flight Exercise and Extravehicular Activity on Postflight Stand Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice; Greenisen, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise performed by Space Shuttle crewmembers during short-duration spaceflights (9-16 days) affects the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to standing within 2-4 hr of landing. Thirty crewmembers performed self-selected in-flight exercise and maintained exercise logs to monitor their exercise intensity and duration. A 10min stand test, preceded by at least 6 min of quiet supine rest, was completed 10- 15 d before launch (PRE) and within four hours of landing (POST). Based upon their in-flight exercise records, subjects were grouped as either high (HIex: = 3x/week, HR = 70% ,HRMax, = 20 min/session, n = 11), medium (MEDex: = 3x/week, HR = 70% HRmax, = 20 min/session, n = 10), or low (LOex: = 3x/week, HR and duration variable, n = 11) exercisers. HR and BP responses to standing were compared between groups (ANOVA, or analysis of variance, P < 0.05). There were no PRE differences between the groups in supine or standing HR and BP. Although POST supine HR was similar to PRE, all groups had an increased standing HR compared to PRE. The increase in HR upon standing was significantly greater after flight in the LOex group (36+/-5 bpm) compared to HIex or MEDex groups (25+/-1bpm; 22+/-2 bpm). Similarly, the decrease in pulse pressure (PP) from supine to standing was unchanged after spaceflight in the MEDex and HIex groups, but was significantly less in the LOex group (PRE: -9+/- 3, POST: -19+/- 4 mmHg). Thus, moderate to high levels of in-flight exercise attenuated HR and PP responses to standing after spaceflight compared.

  8. Epsilon wave uncovered by exercise test in a patient with desmoplakin-positive arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Adler, Arnon; Perrin, Mark J; Spears, Danna; Gollob, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    Epsilon waves are a major criterion for the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) but are an insensitive sign. Recently, exercise testing has been shown to uncover epsilon waves in asymptomatic patients carrying mutations in the PKP2 gene. We describe a case of an asymptomatic carrier of a mutation in the DSP gene who had a normal baseline electrocardiogram and an exercise-induced epsilon wave. This finding suggests that exercise testing may be valuable for the diagnosis of ARVC and that exercise-induced epsilon waves may be found in various genetic subtypes of this disease. PMID:25936878

  9. Comparative ergoespirometric adaptations to a treadmill exercise test in untrained show Andalusian and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Castejón-Riber, Cristina; Muñoz, Ana; Trigo, Pablo; Riber, Cristina; Santisteban, Rafael; Castejón, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Significant differences exist in the respiratory adaptation to exercise in different equine breeds. This research describes the ergoespirometric response to exercise of Andalusian (AN) and Arabian (A) horses, both selected according to morphological criteria. Thirteen untrained male horses (6 AN and 7 A) performed a treadmill exercise test (TET) with a slope of 6%, with workloads starting from 5 m/s and increasing 1 m/s every 3 min until the horses were not able to keep the required velocity. Tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate, minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), exercise time to fatigue (ETF) and respiratory aerobic threshold (RAT) were determined. AN horses presented higher TV and VE, whereas respiratory rate, VO2 and VCO2 were lower at the same velocities. RER was similar between breeds. ETF was longer in A horses (556.7?±?66.5 in AN vs. 607.1?±?71.1 s in A) and no significant differences were found in RAT (5.50?±?0.50 in AN vs. 5.86?±?1.07 m/s in A). In summary, despite the more intense ventilatory response to exercise at the same velocity, AN horses had lower VO2. The AN horse develops a more intense ventilatory response to fixed velocities than the A horse and it could be interesting to clarify the role of the locomotion characteristics in this response. PMID:22183731

  10. Smoking Status and Exercise in relation to PTSD Symptoms: A Test among Trauma-Exposed Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Farris, Samantha G.; Harte, Christopher B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effect of cigarette smoking status (i.e., regular smoking versus non-smoking) and weekly exercise (i.e., weekly metabolic equivalent) in terms of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) symptom severity among a community sample of trauma-exposed adults. Participants included 86 trauma-exposed adults (58.1% female; Mage = 24.3). Approximately 59.7% of participants reported regular (? 10 cigarettes per day) daily smoking over the past year. The interactive effect of smoking status by weekly exercise was significantly associated with hyperarousal and avoidance symptom cluster severity (p ? .05). These effects were evident above and beyond number of trauma types and gender, as well as the respective main effects of smoking status and weekly exercise. Follow-up tests indicated support for the moderating role of exercise on the association between smoking and PTSD symptoms, such that the highest levels of PTSD symptoms were observed among regular smokers reporting low weekly exercise levels. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24273598

  11. Cross-Validation of the Recumbent Stepper Submaximal Exercise Test to Predict Peak Oxygen Uptake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Herda, Ashley A.; Lentz, Angela A.; Mattlage, Anna E.; Sisante, Jason-Flor

    2014-01-01

    Background Submaximal exercise testing can have a greater application in clinical settings because peak exercise testing is generally not available. In previous work, a prediction equation was developed to estimate peak oxygen consumption (V?o2) using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS) and the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) protocol in adults who were healthy. Objective The purpose of the present study was to cross-validate the TBRS peak V?o2 prediction equation in older adults. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods Thirty participants (22 female, 8 male; mean age=66.8 years, SD=5.52; mean weight=68.51 kg, SD=13.39) who previously completed a peak exercise test and met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the cross-validation study. Within 5 days of the peak V?o2 test, participants completed the TBRS submaximal exercise test. The TBRS submaximal exercise test equation was used to estimate peak V?o2. The variables in the equation included age, weight, sex, watts (at the end of the submaximal exercise test), and heart rate (at the end of the submaximal exercise test). Results A strong correlation was found between the predicted peak V?o2 and the measured peak V?o2. The difference between the values was 0.9 mL·kg?1·min?1, which was not statistically different. The standard error of the estimate was 4.2 mL·kg?1·min?1. Limitations The sample included individuals who volunteered to perform a peak exercise test, which may have biased the results toward those willing to exercise to fatigue. Conclusion The data suggest the TBRS submaximal exercise test and prediction equation can be used to predict peak V?o2 in older adults. This finding is important for health care professionals wanting to provide information to their patients or clients regarding their fitness level. PMID:24435104

  12. Oxygen uptake does not increase linearly at high power outputs during incremental exercise test in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerzy A. Zoladz; Krzysztof Duda; Joanna Majerczak

    1998-01-01

    A group of 12 healthy non-smoking men [mean age 22.3 (SD 1.1)?years], performed an incremental exercise test. The test started\\u000a at 30?W, followed by increases in power output (P) of 30?W every 3 min, until exhaustion. Blood samples were taken from an antecubital vein for determination of plasma concentration\\u000a lactate [La?]pl and acid-base balance variables. Below the lactate threshold (LT)

  13. Elderly patients and coronary heart disease on response to treadmill exercise test.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-ling; Gao, Guo-lan; Zhao, Ying; Gao, Yu-lian; Xiong, Li-juan; Guo, Ji-hong; Li, Xiao-ying

    2013-01-01

    To study the response of the cardiovascular system, to exercise tolerance in-patients over 75 years old with coronary heart disease (CHD), and to evaluate the significance of the parameters of the treadmill exercise test (TET). 110 patients received TET and coronary artery angiography. They were divided into two groups: the elderly patients group included 50 patients over 75 years old, and the control group included 60 patients under 60 years old. (1) With aging, there were much more CHD patients in the positive TET (P < 0.05) than in the negative TET (P > 0.05). (2) The parameters of TET for the elderly CHD patients group, included exercise time, peak heart rate, and the onset of ST depression, were lower than the control group (P < 0.05). There was no statistical significance between the two groups in the extent and duration of ST depression (P < 0.05). (1) In TET, the elderly patients had the higher diagnostic value on CHD. (2) The elderly patients with CHD had the lower endurance to exercise test. PMID:23543427

  14. Cardiopulmonary response and body composition changes after prolonged high altitude exposure in women.

    PubMed

    Ermolao, Andrea; Bergamin, Marco; Rossi, Alberto Carlo; Dalle Carbonare, Luca; Zaccaria, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss in men is commonly observed during prolonged high altitude exposure as a result of a daily negative energy balance. Its amount depends mainly on duration of exposure, altitude reached, and level of physical activity. This reduction in body weight often comes with a loss of muscular mass, likely contributing to the decreased physical performance generally reported. Limited data is, however, available on body composition, functional capacity, and cardiopulmonary response to exercise after high altitude exposure in women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged high altitude exposure on body composition and on cardiopulmonary response to maximal exercise in a group of young, moderately active women. Twelve female subjects, aged 21.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD), BMI 22.1 ± 1.9 kg · m(-2) and Vo(2max) 33.8 ± 3.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), participated in this study, by residing for 21 days at high altitude (5050 m, Pyramid, EV-K(2)-CNR laboratory). Before and after high altitude exposure, all subjects underwent both a body composition evaluation using two methods (bioimpedance analysis and DEXA) and a functional evaluation based on a maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer with breath-by-breath gas analysis. After high altitude exposure, data showed a slight, nonsignificant reduction in body weight, with an average 3:2 reduction ratio between fat and fat-free mass evaluated by DEXA, in addition to a significant decrease in Vo(2max) on the cycle ergometer test (p<0.01). Changes in Vo(2max) correlated to changes of leg muscle mass, evaluated by DEXA (r(2) = 0.72; p<0.0001). No changes were observed in the maximal heart rate, work capacity, and ventilatory thresholds, while the Vo(2)/W slope was significantly reduced (p<0.05). Finally, Ve/Vo(2) and VE/Vco(2max) slopes were increased (p<0.01), suggesting a possible long-term modulation of the exercise ventilatory response after prolonged high altitude exposure. PMID:22206562

  15. Relationship of exercise test variables to cycling performance in an Ironman triathlon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul B. Laursen; Edward C. Rhodes; Robert H. Langill; Donald C. McKenzie; Jack E. Taunton

    2002-01-01

    .   The purpose of this study was, firstly, to investigate the intensity of exercise performanceof highly trained ultra-endurance\\u000a triathletes during the cycling portion of an Ironman triathlon, and, secondly, to examine the anaerobic threshold and its\\u000a relationship to this performance. Following a peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) test on a cycle ergometer to determine the heart rate (HRTh,vent) and power output

  16. Development and evaluation of a treadmill-based exercise tolerance test in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Dunagan, Julie; Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Barton, Stephanie; Bigej-Cerqua, Janet; Mims, Lisa; Molden, Jennifer; Anderson, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation exercise prescriptions should be based on exercise stress tests; however, limitations in performing stress tests in this setting typically force reliance on subjective measures like the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI). We developed and evaluated a treadmill-based exercise tolerance test (ETT) to provide objective physiologic measures without requiring additional equipment or insurance charges. The ETT is stopped when the patient's Borg scale rating of perceived exertion (RPE) reaches 15 or when any sign/symptom indicates risk of an adverse event. Outcomes of the study included reasons for stopping; maximum heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate pressure product; and adverse events. We tested equivalence to the DASI as requiring the 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between DASI and ETT metabolic equivalents (METs) to fall within the range (-1, 1). Among 502 consecutive cardiac rehabilitation patients, one suffered a panic attack; no other adverse events occurred. Most (80%) stopped because they reached an RPE of 15; the remaining 20% were stopped on indications that continuing risked an adverse event. Mean maximum systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product were significantly (P < 0.001) below thresholds of the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Two patients' heart rates exceeded 150 beats per minute, but their rate pressure products remained below 36,000. The mean difference between DASI and ETT METs was -0.8 (-0.98, -0.65), indicating equivalence at our threshold. In conclusion, the ETT can be performed within cardiac rehabilitation, providing a functional capacity assessment equivalent to the DASI and objective physiologic measures for developing exercise prescriptions and measuring progress. PMID:23814381

  17. Development and evaluation of a treadmill-based exercise tolerance test in cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Barton, Stephanie; Bigej-Cerqua, Janet; Mims, Lisa; Molden, Jennifer; Anderson, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation exercise prescriptions should be based on exercise stress tests; however, limitations in performing stress tests in this setting typically force reliance on subjective measures like the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI). We developed and evaluated a treadmill-based exercise tolerance test (ETT) to provide objective physiologic measures without requiring additional equipment or insurance charges. The ETT is stopped when the patient's Borg scale rating of perceived exertion (RPE) reaches 15 or when any sign/symptom indicates risk of an adverse event. Outcomes of the study included reasons for stopping; maximum heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate pressure product; and adverse events. We tested equivalence to the DASI as requiring the 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between DASI and ETT metabolic equivalents (METs) to fall within the range (–1, 1). Among 502 consecutive cardiac rehabilitation patients, one suffered a panic attack; no other adverse events occurred. Most (80%) stopped because they reached an RPE of 15; the remaining 20% were stopped on indications that continuing risked an adverse event. Mean maximum systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product were significantly (P < 0.001) below thresholds of the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Two patients’ heart rates exceeded 150 beats per minute, but their rate pressure products remained below 36,000. The mean difference between DASI and ETT METs was ?0.8 (?0.98, ?0.65), indicating equivalence at our threshold. In conclusion, the ETT can be performed within cardiac rehabilitation, providing a functional capacity assessment equivalent to the DASI and objective physiologic measures for developing exercise prescriptions and measuring progress. PMID:23814381

  18. Inspiratory Capacity during Exercise: Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Guenette, Jordan A; Chin, Roberto C; Cory, Julia M; Webb, Katherine A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is an established method for evaluating dyspnea and ventilatory abnormalities. Ventilatory reserve is typically assessed as the ratio of peak exercise ventilation to maximal voluntary ventilation. Unfortunately, this crude assessment provides limited data on the factors that limit the normal ventilatory response to exercise. Additional measurements can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of respiratory mechanical constraints during CPET (e.g., expiratory flow limitation and operating lung volumes). These measurements are directly dependent on an accurate assessment of inspiratory capacity (IC) throughout rest and exercise. Despite the valuable insight that the IC provides, there are no established recommendations on how to perform the maneuver during exercise and how to analyze and interpret the data. Accordingly, the purpose of this manuscript is to comprehensively examine a number of methodological issues related to the measurement, analysis, and interpretation of the IC. We will also briefly discuss IC responses to exercise in health and disease and will consider how various therapeutic interventions influence the IC, particularly in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our main conclusion is that IC measurements are both reproducible and responsive to therapy and provide important information on the mechanisms of dyspnea and exercise limitation during CPET. PMID:23476765

  19. Comparison of Oxygen Consumption in Rats During Uphill (Concentric) and Downhill (Eccentric) Treadmill Exercise Tests

    PubMed Central

    Chavanelle, Vivien; Sirvent, Pascal; Ennequin, Gaël; Caillaud, Kévin; Montaurier, Christophe; Morio, Béatrice; Boisseau, Nathalie; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    The study of the physiological adaptations of skeletal muscle in response to eccentric (ECC) contraction is based on protocols in which exercise intensities are determined relative to the concentric (CON) reference exercise (as percentage of the CON maximal oxygen consumption, or VO2max). In order to use similar exercise protocols in rats, we compared the VO2 values during uphill (CON) and downhill (ECC) running tests. VO2 was measured in 15 Wistar rats during incremental treadmill running exercises with different slopes: level (0%), positive (+15% incline: CON+15%) and negative (i15% incline: ECC-15%; and 130% incline: ECC-30%). Similar VO2 values were obtained in the ECC-30% and CON+15% running conditions at the three target speeds (15, 25 and 35 cm/sec). Conversely, VO2 values were lower (p < 0.05) in the ECC-15% than in the CON+15% condition (CON+15% VO2/ECC-15% VO2 ratios ranging from 1.86 to 2.05 at the three target speeds). Thus, doubling the downhill slope gradient in ECC condition leads to an oxygen consumption level that is not significantly different as in CON condition. These findings can be useful for designing animal research protocols to study the effects of ECC and CON exercise in ageing population or subjects suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Key Points VO2 in rats during treadmill race in eccentric and concentric conditions were measured. A novel breath-by-breath device allowing direct access to the animal was used. Three different slopes: +15%, -15% and -30% were used. VO2 values obtained in the -30% eccentric and the +15% concentric conditions were not significantly different. PMID:25177200

  20. Ischemic preconditioning accelerates muscle deoxygenation dynamics and enhances exercise endurance during the work-to-work test

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Kohei; Suga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Daichi; Honjo, Toyoyuki; Homma, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Satoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) improves maximal exercise performance. However, the potential mechanism(s) underlying the beneficial effects of IPC remain unknown. The dynamics of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and muscle deoxygenation during exercise is frequently used for assessing O2 supply and extraction. Thus, this study examined the effects of IPC on systemic and local O2 dynamics during the incremental step transitions from low- to moderate- and from moderate- to severe-intensity exercise. Fifteen healthy, male subjects were instructed to perform the work-to-work cycling exercise test, which was preceded by the control (no occlusion) or IPC (3 × 5 min, bilateral leg occlusion at >300 mmHg) treatments. The work-to-work test was performed by gradually increasing the exercise intensity as follows: low intensity at 30 W for 3 min, moderate intensity at 90% of the gas exchange threshold (GET) for 4 min, and severe intensity at 70% of the difference between the GET and VO2 peak until exhaustion. During the exercise test, the breath-by-breath pulmonary VO2 and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle deoxygenation were continuously recorded. Exercise endurance during severe-intensity exercise was significantly enhanced by IPC. There were no significant differences in pulmonary VO2 dynamics between treatments. In contrast, muscle deoxygenation dynamics in the step transition from low- to moderate-intensity was significantly faster in IPC than in CON (27.2 ± 2.9 vs. 19.8 ± 0.9 sec, P < 0.05). The present findings showed that IPC accelerated muscle deoxygenation dynamics in moderate-intensity exercise and enhanced severe-intensity exercise endurance during work-to-work test. The IPC-induced effects may result from mitochondrial activation in skeletal muscle, as indicated by the accelerated O2 extraction. PMID:25952936

  1. NASA's Functional Task Test: High Intensity Exercise Improves the Heart Rate Response to a Stand Test Following 70 Days of Bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurie, Steven S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Phillips, Tiffany R.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Urban, Randall J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Stenger, Michael B.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular adaptations due to spaceflight are modeled with 6deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR) and result in decreased orthostatic tolerance. We investigated if high-intensity resistive and aerobic exercise with and without testosterone supplementation would improve the heart rate (HR) response to a 3.5-min stand test and how quickly these changes recovered following BR. During 70 days of BR male subjects performed no exercise (Control, n=10), high intensity supine resistive and aerobic exercise (Exercise, n=9), or supine exercise plus supplemental testosterone (Exercise+T, n=8; 100 mg i.m., weekly in 2-week on/off cycles). We measured HR for 2 min while subjects were prone and for 3 min after standing twice before and 0, 1, 6, and 11 days after BR. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to evaluate group, time, and interaction effects. Compared to pre-bed rest, prone HR was elevated on BR+0 and BR+1 in Control, but not Exercise or Exercise+T groups, and standing HR was greater in all 3 groups. The increase in prone and standing HR in Control subjects was greater than either Exercise or Exercise+T groups and all groups recovered by BR+6. The change in HR from prone to standing more than doubled on BR+0 in all groups, but was significantly less in the Exericse+T group compared to the Control, but not Exercise group. Exercise reduces, but does not prevent the increase in HR observed in response to standing. The significantly lower HR response in the Exercise+T group requires further investigation to determine physiologic significance.

  2. Identification of a Core Set of Exercise Tests for Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Delphi Survey of Researchers and Clinicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Keefer, Daniel; Wright, Virginia; Butler, Jane; Ada, Louise; Maher, Carol; Reid, Siobhan; Wright, Marilyn; Dalziel, Blythe; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Unnithan, Viswanath; Maltais, Desiree B.; van den Berg-Emons, Rita; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Evidence-based recommendations regarding which exercise tests to use in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) are lacking. This makes it very difficult for therapists and researchers to choose the appropriate exercise-related outcome measures for this group. This study aimed to identify a core set of exercise tests for children…

  3. Noninvasive diagnostic test choices for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in women: a multivariate comparison of cardiac fluoroscopy, exercise electrocardiography and exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Chaitman, B.R.; Lam, J.; Lesperance, J.; Dupras, G.; Fines, P.; Bourassa, M.G.

    1984-07-01

    Several diagnostic noninvasive tests to detect coronary and multivessel coronary disease are available for women. However, all are imperfect and it is not yet clear whether one particular test provides substantially more information than others. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical findings, exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy in 92 symptomatic women without previous infarction and determine which tests were most useful in determining the presence of coronary disease and its severity. Univariate analysis revealed two clinical, eight exercise electrocardiographic, seven myocardial scintigraphic and seven fluoroscopic variables predictive of coronary or multivessel disease with 70% or greater stenosis. The multivariate discriminant function analysis selected a reversible thallium defect, coronary calcification and character of chest pain syndrome as the variables most predictive of presence or absence of coronary disease. The ranked order of variables most predictive of multivessel disease were cardiac fluoroscopy score, thallium score and extent of ST segment depression in 14 electrocardiographic leads. Each provided statistically significant information to the model. The estimate of predictive accuracy was 89% for coronary disease and 97% for multivessel coronary disease. The results suggest that cardiac fluoroscopy or thallium scintigraphy provide significantly more diagnostic information than exercise electrocardiography in women over a wide range of clinical patient subsets.

  4. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  5. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  6. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

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  7. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  8. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  9. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  10. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  11. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  12. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

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  13. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  14. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  15. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  16. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  17. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  18. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240 Section 870... § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240 Section 870... § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400 Section 870... § 870.4400 Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  6. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Primes Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jess D. Schwartz; Peter Shamamian; Daniel S. Schwartz; Eugene A. Grossi; Chad E. Jacobs; Federico Steiner; Peter C. Minneci; F. Gregory Baumann; Stephen B. Colvin; Aubrey C. Galloway

    1998-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) superoxide (·O?2) production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-related end organ injury. PMN “priming” has been described as an event which enhances the release of ·O?2following a second, activating insult. We hypothesized that PMN priming occurs during CBP and is temporally related to the plasma level of complement (C3a), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8.

  7. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul Jindal; M. Jayashree; Sunit C. Singhi

    Cardiopulmonary arrest refers to cessation of clinically detectable cardiac activity. In children, it usually results from\\u000a progression of shock, respiratory failure or cardiac dysrhythmia. Early recognition and timely interventions in above group\\u000a of patients is the key to prevent progression to cardiac arrest. The goal of resuscitation is to urgently re-establish oxygenation\\u000a of vital organs by attention to Airway, Breathing

  8. Preliminary Testing of the Role of Exercise and Predator Recognition for Bonytail and Razorback Sucker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Krapfel, Robert; Figiel, Chester

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Hatchery-reared juvenile, 45-cm TL) flathead catfish. Predator-nai??ve juveniles (20- to 25-cm TL) exhibited no discernable preference when provided areas with and without (52 percent and 48 percent, n = 16 observations; 46 percent and 54 percent, n = 20 observations) large flathead catfish. However, once predation occurred, use of predator-free areas nearly doubled in two trials (36 percent and 64 percent, n = 50 observations; 33 percent and 67 percent, n = 12 observations). A more stringent test examining available area indicated predator-savvy razorback suckers used predator-free areas (88 percent, n = 21) illustrating predator avoidance was a learned behavior. Razorback suckers exercised (treatment) in water current (<0.3 m/s) for 10 weeks exhibited greater swimming stamina than unexercised, control fish. When exercised and unexercised razorback suckers were placed together with large predators in 2006, treatment fish had significantly fewer (n = 9, z = 1.69, p = 0.046) mortalities than control fish, suggesting increased stamina improved predator escape skills. Predator/prey tests comparing razorback suckers that had been previously exposed to a predation event with control fish, found treatment fish also had significantly fewer losses than predator-nai??ve fish (p = 0.017). Similar tests exposing predator-savvy and predator-nai??ve bonytail with largemouth bass showed a similar trend; predator-savvy bonytail suffered 38 percent fewer losses than control fish. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between the test groups (p = 0.143) due to small sample size. All exercise and predator exposure trials increased the survival rate of razorback sucker and bonytail compared to untreated counterparts.

  9. Exercise performance and oxygen uptake efficiency slope in obese children performing standardized exercise.

    PubMed

    Marinov, B; Kostianev, S

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is an index meant to provide an objective measure of cardiopulmonary function at submaximal exercise. The aim was to study the exercise performance and OUES in obese children performing standardized exercise. Sixty children aged 6-17 years performed incremental treadmill exercise test. They were divided into two groups matched by age, sex and height: thirty obese subjects (15 girls/15 boys; BMI = 27.4+/-1.7 m x kg(-2)) and 30 controls (BMI = 18.8+/-1.0 m x kg(-2)). Perceived exertion was assessed by means of CR-10 Borg scale. The duration of the exercise for the obese children was significantly shorter than for controls (p = 0.010) but obese children had greater absolute values for oxygen uptake (VO2 peak mL x min(-1) = 1907+/-249 vs. 1495+/-208; p = 0.013) which, adjusted for body mass, decreased significantly (VO2/kg mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) = 29.2+/-1.4 vs. 33.6+/-1.3; p < 0.001). OUES correlated strongly with VO2 peak (r = 0.91) and oxygen pulse (r = 0.80), as well as with anthropometric variables height (r = 0.88) and age (r = 0.83). Extremely high correlation was found between OUES calculated for 100% of exercise duration and OUES at the anaerobic threshold (r = 0.979; p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between the studied groups concerning the absolute values of OUES. Obese children rated perceived exertion significantly higher than controls (Borg score 6.2+/-0.4 vs. 5.2+/-0.4; p = 0.001). In conclusion, the absolute metabolic cost of exercise and perceived exertion were higher in the obesity group. OUES is an objective measure of cardiopulmonary reserve that doesn't require a maximal effort but it is considerably dependent on anthropometric variables which impedes its interpretation as exercise index in childhood. PMID:14570149

  10. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in a nonathlete: case report and review of physiology.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Amit; Schmidt, Gregory A

    2014-04-01

    The integrity of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier is vulnerable to intense exercise in elite athletes, similar to the phenomenon of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in thoroughbred racehorses. A 50-year-old previously healthy man presented with acute onset shortness of breath, dry cough, and hypoxemia after engaging in an extremely vigorous game of handball. CT scan of the chest showed diffuse patchy air-space disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Infectious etiologies and bleeding diatheses were excluded by laboratory testing. Serological tests for ANCA-associated vasculitis, lupus, and Goodpasture's disease also were negative. A transthoracic echocardiogram was normal. The patient recovered completely on supportive therapy in less than 72 h. This case demonstrates strenuous exercise as a cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a previously healthy male with no apparent underlying cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:24532148

  11. Effects of a Supervised Exercise Intervention on Recovery From Treatment Regimens in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, City C.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Hydock, David S.; Carter, Susan D.; Hayward, Reid; Schneider, Carole M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To investigate the effects of supervised exercise training on cardiopulmonary function and fatigue in cancer survivors undergoing various clinical treatments. Design Pretest and post-test quasiexperimental. Setting Outpatient oncology rehabilitation center. Sample 96 breast cancer survivors undergoing various clinical treatments. Methods Subjects were divided into four groups based on the specific type of clinical treatment: surgery alone (n = 22); surgery and chemotherapy (n = 30); surgery and radiation (n = 17); and surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation (n = 27). Following a comprehensive screening and medical examination, cardiovascular endurance, pulmonary function, and fatigue were assessed, leading to the development of an individualized exercise prescription and a six-month exercise intervention. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and covariance were used to compare the effectiveness of the intervention and differences among treatment groups. Main Research Variables Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, predicted oxygen consumption, time on treadmill, and fatigue. Findings Cardiopulmonary function (predicted maximal oxygen consumption and time on treadmill) significantly increased in all groups after exercise training. In addition, resting heart rate and forced vital capacity significantly improved in those receiving surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Psychologically, the exercise intervention resulted in significant reductions in behavioral, affective, sensory, cognitive and mood, and total fatigue scale scores in all three groups who received treatment with surgery. The breast cancer survivors in the surgery-alone group showed significant reductions in behavioral, affective, and total fatigue scale scores but not in sensory and cognitive and mood fatigue scale scores. Conclusions The results suggest that moderate intensity, individualized, prescriptive exercise maintains or improves cardiopulmonary function with concomitant reductions in fatigue regardless of treatment type. Moreover, cancer survivors receiving combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy following surgery appear to benefit to a greater extent as a result of an individualized exercise intervention. Implications for Nursing Clinicians need to be aware of adjuvant therapies such as moderate exercise that attenuate negative side effects of cancer treatments. Symptom management recommendations should be given to cancer survivors concerning the effectiveness of exercise throughout the cancer continuum and the importance of participating in a cancer rehabilitation exercise program. PMID:18980921

  12. Cardiopulmonary Function and Age-Related Decline Across the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lee W.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.; Muss, Hyman B.; Pituskin, Edith N.; Scott, Jessica M.; Hornsby, Whitney E.; Coan, April D.; Herndon, James E.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Haykowsky, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate cardiopulmonary function (as measured by peak oxygen consumption [VO2peak]) across the breast cancer continuum and its prognostic significance in women with metastatic disease. Patients and Methods Patients with breast cancer representing four cross-sectional cohorts—that is, (1) before, (2) during, and (3) after adjuvant therapy for nonmetastatic disease, and (4) during therapy in metastatic disease—were studied. A cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with expired gas analysis was used to assess VO2peak. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of death according to VO2peak category (< 15.4 v ? 15.4 mL · kg?1 · min?1) with adjustment for clinical factors. Results A total of 248 women (age, 55 ± 8 years) completed a CPET. Mean VO2peak was 17.8 ± a standard deviation of 4.3 mL · kg?1 · min?1, the equivalent of 27% ± 17% below age-matched healthy sedentary women. For the entire cohort, 32% had a VO2peak less than 15.4 mL · kg?1 · min?1—the VO2peak required for functional independence. VO2peak was significantly different across breast cancer cohorts for relative (mL · kg?1 · min?1) and absolute (L · min?1) VO2peak (P = .017 and P < .001, respectively); VO2peak was lowest in women with metastatic disease. In patients with metastatic disease (n = 52), compared with patients achieving a VO2peak ? 1.09 L · min?1, the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 0.32 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.67, P = .002) for a VO2peak more than 1.09 L · min?1. Conclusion Patients with breast cancer have marked impairment in VO2peak across the entire survivorship continuum. VO2peak may be an independent predictor of survival in metastatic disease. PMID:22614980

  13. Effective risk stratification using exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT in women: Gender-related differences in prognostic nuclear testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rory Hachamovitch; Daniel S. Berman; Hosen Kiat; C. Noel Bairey Merz; Ishac Cohen; J. Arthur Cabico; John Friedman; Guido Germano; Kenneth F. Van Train; George A. Diamond

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. This study was designed to evaluate the incremental prognostic value over clinical and exercise variables of rest thallium-201\\/exercise technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in women compared with men and to determine whether this test can be used to effectively risk stratify patients of both genders.Background. To minimize the previously described gender-related bias in the evaluation of coronary

  14. Talk test as a practical method to estimate exercise intensity in highly trained competitive male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brent D; McCormick, James J; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L

    2015-04-01

    The Talk Test (TT) has been used to determine exercise intensity among various population subgroups but not for competitive athletes. This study was designed to compare the ventilatory threshold (VT) with the last positive (+/+), equivocal (+/-), and negative (-/-) stages of the TT for highly trained cyclists. Twelve men (26.5 ± 4.6 years, 71.9 ± 7.6 kg) consented and completed the study, as approved by the university institutional review board. A maximal graded exercise test was used to identify VT, maximal aerobic capacity ((Equation is included in full-text article.)max: 65.9 ± 6.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and maximal heart rate (HRmax: 187.3 ± 11.3 b·min). On a separate visit, the TT was administered using the same protocol. Participants were asked if they could speak comfortably after a standard passage recitation. Response options were: "Yes" (+/+), "I'm not sure" (+/-), or "No" (-/-). Variables at VT were compared with the last (+/+), (+/-), and (-/-) stages of TT through t-test with Bonferroni's adjustment (0.05/3). Differences (p ? 0.017) were found between variables at VT, as compared with (+/+) TT ((Equation is included in full-text article.): 32.9 ± 7.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), %(Equation is included in full-text article.): 49.9 ± 9.9, heart rate [HR]: 128.7 ± 18.7 b·min, %HRmax: 68.6 ± 7.9, rating of perceived exertion [RPE]: 11.1 ± 1.1) and (+/-) TT ((Equation is included in full-text article.): 44.4 ± 7.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), %(Equation is included in full-text article.): 67.2 ± 7.5). There were no differences between RPE- and HR-based variables at VT, as compared with (+/-) TT (RPE: 13.6 ± 0.63, HR: 147.1 ± 17.2 b·min, %HRmax: 78.5 ± 7.4) or (-/-) TT ((Equation is included in full-text article.): 48.8 ± 7.8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), %(Equation is included in full-text article.): 73.9 ± 7.1, HR: 155.6 ± 13.6 b·min, %HRmax: 83.1 ± 5.3, RPE: 14.8 ± 0.90). We found that when the athlete could no longer speak comfortably, he was exercising at or near his VT; we concluded that (-/-) TT estimated VT and can therefore provide a practical method to gauge exercise intensity for highly trained competitive cyclists similar to those in our study. PMID:25259472

  15. Pre-Exercise Participation Cardiovascular Screening in a Heterogeneous Cohort of Adult Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kenjale, Aarti A.; Hornsby, Whitney E.; Crowgey, Theresa; Thomas, Samantha; Herndon, James E.; Khouri, Michel G.; Lane, Amy R.; Bishop, Caroline E.; Eves, Neil D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of pre-exercise participation (“preparticipation”) health screening in a heterogeneous cohort of adult cancer patients. Methods. Patients (n = 413) with histologically confirmed solid or hematologic malignancy were categorized into preparticipation health screening risk stratification based on American College Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommendations. Risk of an exercise-related event was evaluated during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). Results. Participant risk was categorized as low risk (n = 59, 14%), moderate risk (n = 217, 53%), and high risk (n = 137, 33%). Mean peak oxygen consumption was 21.7 ± 6.7 mL/kg?1 per minute?1 or 19.5 ± 21.7% below age- and sex-predicted sedentary values. No major serious adverse events or fatal events were observed during CPET procedures. A total of 31 positive ECG tests were observed, for an event rate of 8%. ACSM risk stratification did not predict the risk of a positive test. Age, statin use, antiplatelet therapy use, cardiovascular disease, prior treatment with anthracycline or radiation therapy, and being sedentary were predictors of a positive test (all p < .10). Conclusion. The patient risk-stratification profile strongly suggests that the use of formalized preparticipation health screening is required in all oncology scenarios; however, risk of an exercise-induced event is low, suggesting that the use of exercise testing is not required for pre-exercise clearance in the majority of patients. PMID:25061091

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  17. Postexercise hypotension after maximal short-term incremental exercise depends on exercise modality.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Felipe A; Midgley, Adrian W; Soares, Pedro P; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated postexercise hypotension (PEH) after maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performed using different exercise modalities. Twenty healthy men (aged 23 ± 3 years) performed 3 maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running), separated by 72 h in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), autonomic function (spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV)), and energy expenditure (EE) were assessed during a 60-min nonexercise control session and for 60 min immediately after each CPET. Total exercise volume (EE during CPET plus 60 min recovery) was significantly higher in running versus cycling and walking CPETs (P ? 0.001). Compared with control, only SBP after running CPET was significantly reduced (? = -6 ± 8 mm Hg; P < 0.001). Heart rate and cardiac output were significantly increased (P < 0.001) and SVR significantly decreased (P < 0.001) postexercise. BRS and HRV decreased after all CPETs (P < 0.001), whereas sympatho-vagal balance (low- and high-frequency (LF:HF) ratio) increased significantly after all exercise conditions, especially after running CPET (P < 0.001). Changes in SVR, BRS, sympathetic activity (low-frequency component of HRV), and LF:HF ratio were negatively correlated to variations in SBP (range -0.69 to -0.91; P < 0.001) and DBP (range -0.58 to -0.93; P ? 0.002). These findings suggest that exercise mode or the total exercise volume are major determinants of PEH magnitude in healthy men. Because of the running CPET, the PEH was primarily related to a decrease in SVR and to an increase in sympatho-vagal balance, which might be a reflex response to peripheral vasodilatation after exercise. PMID:25947649

  18. Effectiveness of the BBC's 999 training roadshows on cardiopulmonary resuscitation: video performance of cohort of unforewarned participants at home six months afterwards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Ll Morgan; P D Donnelly; C A Lester; D H Assar

    1996-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To examine the competence of a cohort trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation by the BBC's 999 training roadshows.Design: Descriptive cohort study applying an innovative testing procedure to a nationwide systematic sample. The test sample received an unsolicited home visit and without warning were required to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a manikin while being videoed. The videos were then analysed for

  19. The Impact of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure on Exercise Capacity in Mild-to-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Manika, Katerina; Pitsiou, Georgia G.; Boutou, Afroditi K.; Tsaoussis, Vassilis; Chavouzis, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Marina; Fotoulaki, Maria; Stanopoulos, Ioannis; Kioumis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an often complication of severe cystic fibrosis (CF); however, data on the presence and impact of pulmonary vasculopathy in adult CF patients with milder disease, is very limited. Aim. To investigate, for the first time, the impact of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PASP) on maximal exercise capacity in adults with mild-to-moderate cystic fibrosis, without PH at rest. Methods. This is a Case Control study. Seventeen adults with mild-to-moderate CF, without PH at rest (cases) and 10 healthy, nonsmoking, age, and height matched controls were studied. All subjects underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing and echocardiography before and within 1 minute after stopping exercise. Results. Exercise ventilation parameters were similar in the two groups; however, cases, compared to controls, had higher postexercise PASP and decreased exercise capacity, established with lower peak work rate, peak O2 uptake, anaerobic threshold, and peak O2 pulse. Furthermore, the change in PASP values before and after exercise was strongly correlated to the parameters of exercise capacity among cases but not among controls. Conclusions. CF adults with mild-to-moderate disease should be screened for the presence of pulmonary vasculopathy, since the elevation of PASP during exercise might contribute to impaired exercise capacity. PMID:22900167

  20. Testing a self-determination theory-based teaching style intervention in the exercise domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jemma Edmunds; Nikos Ntoumanis; Joan L Duda

    2008-01-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT), this study examined the effect of an autonomy supportive, well structured and interpersonally involving teaching style on exercise class participants' psychological need satisfaction, motivational regulations, exercise behaviour, behavioural intention and affect. Female exercise class participants enrolled in a 10-week exercise program were exposed to an SDT-based (i.e. SDTc; n ¼ 25) or typical (i.e. control

  1. Inflammatory changes upon a single maximal exercise test in depressed patients and healthy controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silke Boettger; Hans-Josef Müller; Klaus Oswald; Christian Puta; Lars Donath; Holger H. W. Gabriel; Karl-Jürgen Bär

    2010-01-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have repeatedly been described to exhibit both a humoral as well as a cellular pro-inflammatory state. Acute exercise, representing physical stress, can further aggravate such an immune dysbalance. In the light of recommended exercise programmes for depressed patients, we aimed to investigate the inflammatory response to exercise in patients with MDD.Blood cells counts and

  2. Breakpoints in ventilation, cerebral and muscle oxygenation, and muscle activity during an incremental cycling exercise

    PubMed Central

    Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Girard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the breakpoints of cerebral and muscle oxygenation and muscle electrical activity during a ramp exercise in reference to the first and second ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-five cyclists completed a maximal ramp test on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 25 W/min. Expired gazes (breath-by-breath), prefrontal cortex and vastus lateralis (VL) oxygenation [Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] together with electromyographic (EMG) Root Mean Square (RMS) activity for the VL, rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were continuously assessed. There was a non-linear increase in both cerebral deoxyhemoglobin (at 56 ± 13% of the exercise) and oxyhemoglobin (56 ± 8% of exercise) concomitantly to the first ventilatory threshold (57 ± 6% of exercise, p > 0.86, Cohen's d < 0.1). Cerebral deoxyhemoglobin further increased (87 ± 10% of exercise) while oxyhemoglobin reached a plateau/decreased (86 ± 8% of exercise) after the second ventilatory threshold (81 ± 6% of exercise, p < 0.05, d > 0.8). We identified one threshold only for muscle parameters with a non-linear decrease in muscle oxyhemoglobin (78 ± 9% of exercise), attenuation in muscle deoxyhemoglobin (80 ± 8% of exercise), and increase in EMG activity of VL (89 ± 5% of exercise), RF (82 ± 14% of exercise), and BF (85 ± 9% of exercise). The thresholds in BF and VL EMG activity occurred after the second ventilatory threshold (p < 0.05, d > 0.6). Our results suggest that the metabolic and ventilatory events characterizing this latter cardiopulmonary threshold may affect both cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels, and in turn, muscle recruitment responses. PMID:24782786

  3. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  4. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-03-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  5. Relationship between blood pressure response during step exercise test and atherosclerotic markers.

    PubMed

    Idoue, Ayaka; Hirata, Chiaki; Utsumi, Miyoko; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Iwahara, Akihiko; Hattori, Sonomi; Uematsu, Yuji; Shiba, Mitsuru; Buyo, Momoko; Arita, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between blood pressure (BP) response to exercise and atherosclerotic markers were evaluated in a population based sample of 426 normotensive subjects. The subjects with greater increase of SBP during exercise and delayed recovery of SBP after exercise showed higher hs-CRP and SBP2. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the greater BP response and delayed BP recovery were independently associated with SBP2 after adjusting for resting SBP, age, and gender. These results suggest that early atherosclerosis may contribute to greater BP responses to exercise, supporting the concept that exercise BP adds incremental information of cardiovascular risks to resting BP. PMID:24678855

  6. Cardiac Arrest During Medically-Supervised Exercise Training: A Report of Fifteen Successful Defibrillations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Howard R.; And Others

    The Cardio-Pulmonary Research Institute conducted an exercise program for men with a history of coronary heart disease. Over 7 years, there were 15 cases of cardiac arrest during exercise (one for every 6,000 man-hours of exercise). Trained medical personnel were present in all cases, and all were resuscitated by electrical defibrillation with no…

  7. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Popov, S. G.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p <0.05) but the decrease of leg blood volumes was higher (p<0.001) in athletes. The reactions in arms and abdomen blood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p <0.05) in response to the tilt test. After (10 min recovery) the aerobic bicycle exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (p<0.05) and leg blood volumes (p <0.001) were lowered more significantly in athletes. The neck blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (p<0.01), which was offset by higher tachycardia in response to tilt-test in controls after exercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  8. Cardiopulmonary Syndromes–for health professionals (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

  9. An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana C.; Huddleston, Dan E.; Brickman, Adam M.; Sosunov, Alexander A.; Hen, Rene; McKhann, Guy M.; Sloan, Richard; Gage, Fred H.; Brown, Truman R.; Small, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    With continued debate over the functional significance of adult neurogenesis, identifying an in vivo correlate of neurogenesis has become an important goal. Here we rely on the coupling between neurogenesis and angiogenesis and test whether MRI measurements of cerebral blood volume (CBV) provide an imaging correlate of neurogenesis. First, we used an MRI approach to generate CBV maps over time in the hippocampal formation of exercising mice. Among all hippocampal subregions, exercise was found to have a primary effect on dentate gyrus CBV, the only subregion that supports adult neurogenesis. Moreover, exercise-induced increases in dentate gyrus CBV were found to correlate with postmortem measurements of neurogenesis. Second, using similar MRI technologies, we generated CBV maps over time in the hippocampal formation of exercising humans. As in mice, exercise was found to have a primary effect on dentate gyrus CBV, and the CBV changes were found to selectively correlate with cardiopulmonary and cognitive function. Taken together, these findings show that dentate gyrus CBV provides an imaging correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis and that exercise differentially targets the dentate gyrus, a hippocampal subregion important for memory and implicated in cognitive aging. PMID:17374720

  10. Outcome Predictors of Pediatric Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. KellyRick; Rick E. Harrison

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) allows clinicians to potentially rescue pediatric patients unresponsive\\u000a to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Clinical and laboratory variables predictive of survival to hospital discharge\\u000a are beginning to emerge. In this retrospective, historical cohort case series, clinical, and laboratory data from 31 pediatric\\u000a patients (<21 years of age) receiving ECPR from March 2000 to April 2006 at our university-affiliated,

  11. Reduced Cardiopulmonary Baroreflex Sensitivity in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy 1 1 Drs. Frenneaux, Morris-Thurgood and Atherton were supported by the British Heart Foundation, London. This study was supported in part by Project Grant 665 941193 and Scholarship Grant 948220 from the NH&MRC of Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen L Thomson; Jayne Morris-Thurgood; John Atherton; Michael Frenneaux

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to assess baroreflex function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).Background. We have previously demonstrated a specific abnormality in the afferent limb of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex in patients with vasovagal syncope. Patients with HCM exhibit abnormal control of their vasculature during exercise and upright tilt; we therefore hypothesize a similar abnormality in the afferent limb of the cardiopulmonary

  12. Equity in access to exercise tolerance testing, coronary angiography, and coronary artery bypass grafting by age, sex and clinical indications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bowling; M Bond; D McKee; M McClay; A P Banning; N Dudley; A Elder; A Martin; I Blackman

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo assess whether patients with heart disease in a single UK hospital have equitable access to exercise testing, coronary angiography, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG).METHODRetrospective analysis of patients' medical case notes (n = 1790), tracking each case back 12 months and forward 12 months from the patient's date of entry to the study.SETTINGSingle UK district hospital in the

  13. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  14. Improvement of Orthography Test Performance by Relaxation Exercises: Results of a Controlled Field Experiment in Basic Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krampen, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    The effects of relaxation exercises on orthography performance in language arts education of fifth to seventh graders were experimentally tested. Participants were 399 basic secondary school students and their language arts teachers from the Hauptschule, a German type of secondary education covering grades five to nine that leads to a basic…

  15. The diagnostic value of treadmill exercise test parameters for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian Ling; Han, Rong; Guo, Ji Hong; Li, Xiao Ying; Ma, Xian Lin; Wang, Chong Yu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of treadmill exercise test (TET) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) by comparing the diagnostic conclusions with coronary angiography (CAG). Patients (445) with CHD and suspected CHD underwent TET and CAG, and the corresponding diagnostic conclusions were compared. (1) Out of the 200 cases that had the positive result with TET, 150 cases had been diagnosed CHD by means of CAG; Out of the 245 cases that had the negative result during TET, only 39 cases had been diagnosed CHD by means of CAG. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, the false positive incidence, the false negative incidence, and agreement rate in diagnosis of CHD by TET were 79.36, 80.40, 75.00, 84.08, 25.00, 15.92, and 80.00 %, respectively. The patients with multi-vessel disease had a higher positive rate of TET as compared with those with single-vessel disease (P < 0.05). (2) The parameters for 189 cases positive CAG (patients diagnosed CHD by CAG) and 256 cases negative CAG (the control group), including the general exercise time, peak heart rate, and the beginning time of ST depression, were lower than that of control group (P < 0.05). However, the extent of ST depression and duration of ST depression were higher in these patients than in the control group (P < 0.05). (3) 189 cases positive CAG, include 87 cases of single coronary artery and 102 cases of binary or more coronary arteries (the control group). The parameters, including the general exercise time, peak heart rate, and the beginning time of ST depression, were lower than the control group (P < 0.05). However, the extent of ST depression and duration of ST depression were higher in these patients than the control group (P < 0.05). The TET is valuable for noninvasive diagnosis of CHD, especially for patients with multi-vessel disease. PMID:22872585

  16. Blunted Heart Rate Recovery Is Improved Following Exercise Training in Overweight Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Crowley, E. Patrick; Ewing, Gary B.; Burch, James B.; Blair, Steven N.; Durstine, J. Larry; Davis, J. Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) predisposes individuals to cardiovascular morbidity, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) markers prognostic for cardiovascular disease have been found to be abnormal in adults with OSA. Due to the persistence of OSA and its cardiovascular consequences, whether the cardiovascular adaptations normally conferred by exercise are blunted in adults not utilizing established OSA treatment is unknown. The aims of this study were to document whether OSA participants have abnormal CPET responses and determine whether exercise modifies these CPET markers in individuals with OSA. Methods The CPET responses of 43 sedentary, overweight adults (body mass index [BMI]>25) with untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]?15) were compared against matched non-OSA controls (n=9). OSA participants were then randomized to a 12-week exercise training (n=27) or stretching control treatment (n=16), followed by a post-intervention CPET. Measures of resting, exercise, and post-exercise recovery heart rate (HRR), blood pressure, and ventilation, as well as peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), were obtained. Results OSA participants had blunted HRR compared to non-OSA controls at 1 (P=.03), 3 (P=.02), and 5 min post-exercise (P=.03). For OSA participants, exercise training improved VO2peak (P=.04) and HRR at 1 (P=.03), 3 (P<.01), and 5 min post-exercise (P<.001) compared to control. AHI change was associated with change in HRR at 5-min post-exercise (r=?.30, P<.05), but no other CPET markers. Conclusions These results suggest that individuals with OSA have autonomic dysfunction, and that exercise training, by increasing HRR and VO2peak, may attenuate autonomic imbalance and improve functional capacity independent of OSA severity reduction. PMID:22572632

  17. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  18. Respiratory symptoms, asthma, exercise test spirometry, and atopy in schoolchildren from a Lima shanty town

    PubMed Central

    Penny, M; Murad, S; Madrid, S; Herrera, T; Pineiro, A; Caceres, D; Lanata, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Little is known about the associations between symptoms of asthma, pulmonary function tests, and atopy in developing countries. While asthma in children is often associated with atopy, some studies of wheezing illness have found little or no association, leading to suggestions that there are subgroups of wheezing illness. The ISAAC study recently reported that the prevalence of reported asthma symptoms in Lima, Peru was among the highest in the world, but did not report on the atopic status of the subjects.?METHODS—A cross sectional survey was conducted of children aged 8-10 years who had previously participated in a cohort study of respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses in infancy. Questionnaires were administered asking about respiratory symptoms and asthma diagnoses, pulmonary function tests were performed before and after exercise on a treadmill, and atopy was determined from skin prick tests and specific serum IgE levels.?RESULTS—A total of 793 children participated in the survey. The prevalence of asthma related symptoms in the last 12 months was 23.2%, but only 3.8% of children reported a recent asthma attack. The mean differences in pretest percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were 8.1% (95% CI 2.4 to 13.8) between children who did and did not report an asthma attack in the last 12 months, and 5.3% (95% CI 2.8 to 7.9) in children who did and did not report respiratory symptoms. The corresponding differences in mean percentage fall in FEV1 after exercise were 3.1% (95% CI -1 to 7.1) and 5.1% (95% CI 3.4 to 6.8). Recent asthma or respiratory symptoms were not associated with atopy in this population (odds ratios 1.29 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.97) and 0.91 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.37), respectively).?CONCLUSIONS—Most asthma in these children was unrecognised and mild. Asthma and asthma symptoms in this population do not seem to be related to atopy.?? PMID:11462062

  19. Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction Is Related to Oxidative Stress and Exercise Capacity in Hypertensive Patients with Preserved Systolic Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milica Dekleva; Vera Celic; Nada Kostic; Biljana Pencic; Ana M. Ivanovic; Zorica Caparevic

    2007-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and oxidative stress are important determinants in heart failure development. Peak oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalents (MET), ventilatory response and time to respiratory gas exchange assess cardiopulmonary capacity. Aim: It was the aim of this study to investigate the impact of oxidative stress on diastolic indexes and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in hypertensive patients

  20. Follow-Up with Exercise Test of Effort-Induced Ventricular Arrhythmias Linked to Ryanodine Receptor Type 2 Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Steriotis, Alexandros Klavdios; Nava, Andrea; Rampazzo, Alessandra; Basso, Cristina; Thiene, Gaetano; Daliento, Luciano; Folino, Antonio Franco; Rigato, Ilaria; Mazzotti, Elisa; Beffagna, Giorgia; Carturan, Elisa; Corrado, Domenico; Bauce, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exercise test results and efficacy of therapy with a ? blocker (acebutolol) in ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) mutation carriers with documented ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and long-term follow-up. Twenty RyR2 mutation carriers belonging to 8 families and regularly followed at our center were analyzed using a study protocol involving electrocardiography, exercise tests off and on ?-blocker therapy, 2-dimensional echocardiography, and signal-averaged electrocardiography. Off-therapy exercise testing triggered the onset of VAs at different heart rates (mean 132 ± 13 beats/min) with various patterns that worsened while exercising and disappeared immediately after stopping. The most severe VAs detected were nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 35% and ventricular couplets in 35%. In the remaining subjects single ventricular premature beats were recorded. In 15% of patients single monomorphic ventricular premature beats were detected and identified to be linked to RyR2 mutations owing to the presence of sudden deaths of their family members and subsequent family screening. Acebutolol made the VAs disappear completely in 20% of subjects and decreased their complexity in 50%, whereas it did not change VAs appreciably in 30% of patients with less complex VAs. After 11 ± 8 years of follow-up 2 patients developed syncope. In conclusion, exercise testing was a fundamental tool for assessing the clinical phenotype and efficacy of therapy in RyR2 mutation carriers and therapy with acebutolol led in most subjects to a decreased complexity of the arrhythmic pattern or to complete suppression. PMID:22221940

  1. An Experimental Test of Cognitive Dissonance Theory in the Domain of Physical Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis; Martin S. Hagger; John C. K. Wang

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined cognitive dissonance-related attitude change in the domain of exercise. Experimental participants made a decision to perform a boring exercise task (stepping on a bench\\/chair) under three different conditions: a free-choice condition (n = 33, Male = 17 female = 16, Age = 14.57), under a no-choice\\/control condition (n = 28, Male = 15, Female = 13,

  2. Factors determining symptoms in heart failure: comparison of fast and slow exercise tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D P Lipkin; R Canepa-Anson; M R Stephens; P A Poole-Wilson

    1986-01-01

    Factors determining the symptoms of breathlessness and fatigue in patients with congestive heart failure were investigated by comparing the response to slow and fast exercise. Symptom limited oxygen consumption (maximal); minute ventilation, mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; and arterial blood gases, pH, and lactate concentrations were measured during treadmill exercise using a slow protocol in 25 men (age 34-67 years)

  3. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  4. Current Approaches to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Truong, Huu Tam; Low, Li Shien; Kern, Karl B

    2015-07-01

    Real progress has been made in improving long-term outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the past 10 years. Many communities have doubled their survival-to-hospital-discharge rate during this period. Common features of such successful programs include the following: (1) 911 dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction, (2) bystander chest compression-only CPR program, (3) public access defibrillation, including targeted automated external defibrillator programs, (4) renewed emphasis on minimally interrupted chest compressions by emergency medical services responders, and (5) aggressive postresuscitation care, including targeted temperature management and early coronary angiography and intervention. An important lesson from these successful community efforts is that multiple, simultaneous changes to the local cardiac arrest response system are necessary to improve survival. The next exciting step in this quest appears to be the treatment of refractory cardiac arrest with the combination of mechanical CPR, intra-arrest hypothermia, extracorporeal CPR with mechanical circulatory support devices, and early coronary intervention. PMID:26071014

  5. Optimizing the 6-Min Walk Test as a Measure of Exercise Capacity in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Divay; Wise, Robert A.; Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S.; Benzo, Roberto P.; Criner, Gerard; Make, Barry; Slivka, William A.; Ries, Andrew L.; Reilly, John J.; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is uncertain whether the effort and expense of performing a second walk for the 6-min walk test improves test performance. Hence, we attempted to quantify the improvement in 6-min walk distance if an additional walk were to be performed. Methods: We studied patients consecutively enrolled into the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who prior to randomization and after 6 to 10 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation performed two 6-min walks on consecutive days (N = 396). Patients also performed two 6-min walks at 6-month follow-up after randomization to lung volume reduction surgery (n = 74) or optimal medical therapy (n = 64). We compared change in the first walk distance to change in the second, average-of-two, and best-of-two walk distances. Results: Compared with the change in the first walk distance, change in the average-of-two and best-of-two walk distances had better validity and precision. Specifically, 6 months after randomization to lung volume reduction surgery, changes in the average-of-two (r = 0.66 vs r = 0.58, P = .01) and best-of-two walk distances (r = 0.67 vs r = 0.58, P = .04) better correlated with the change in maximal exercise capacity (ie, better validity). Additionally, the variance of change was 14% to 25% less for the average-of-two walk distances and 14% to 33% less for the best-of-two walk distances than the variance of change in the single walk distance, indicating better precision. Conclusions: Adding a second walk to the 6-min walk test significantly improves its performance in measuring response to a therapeutic intervention, improves the validity of COPD clinical trials, and would result in a 14% to 33% reduction in sample size requirements. Hence, it should be strongly considered by clinicians and researchers as an outcome measure for therapeutic interventions in patients with COPD. PMID:23364913

  6. Prognostic value of predischarge low-level exercise thallium testing after thrombolytic treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Tilkemeier, P.L.; Guiney, T.E.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

    1990-11-15

    Low-level exercise thallium testing is useful in identifying the high-risk patient after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To determine whether this use also applies to patients after thrombolytic treatment of AMI, 64 patients who underwent early thrombolytic therapy for AMI and 107 patients without acute intervention were evaluated. The ability of both the electrocardiogram and thallium tests to predict future events was compared in both groups. After a mean follow-up of 374 days, there were 25 and 32% of cardiac events in the 2 groups, respectively, with versus without acute intervention. These included death, another AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty with 75% of the events occurring in the 3 months after the first infarction. The only significant predictors of outcome were left ventricular cavity dilatation in the intervention group and ST-segment depression and increased lung uptake in the nonintervention group. The sensitivity of exercise thallium was 55% in the intervention group and 81% in the nonintervention group (p less than 0.05). Therefore, in patients having thrombolytic therapy for AMI, nearly half the events after discharge are not predicted by predischarge low-level exercise thallium testing. The relatively weak correlation of outcome with unmasking ischemia in the laboratory before discharge may be due to an unstable coronary lesion or rapid progression of disease after the test. Tests considered useful for prognostication after AMI may not necessarily have a similar value if there has been an acute intervention, such as thrombolytic therapy.

  7. Postconditioning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a better protocol for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yaguang; Chen, Di; Ma, Xiao peng; Yang, Guang tian

    2009-09-01

    Although current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance can increase the rates of restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital admission, the discharge rates of patients remain disappointing. The high mortality rate is attributed to post-cardiac arrest brain injury. The discovery of the postconditioning phenomenon opens a door to endogenous neuroprotection. The protection mechanisms of postconditioning include attenuating mitochondrial calcium overload and reducing oxidative stress, recruiting the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway, and preventing from the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening at the time of reperfusion. An advantage of postconditioning lies in the potentially clinical application in the unexpected ischemic situation. Prior laboratory researches indicate that postconditioning may lessen the reperfusion/ischemia-induced injury in unexpected coronary occlusion, acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Because cardiac arrest, stroke and acute myocardial infarction have a similar pathophysiological process, we hypothesize that postconditioning could be used in the clinical practice of CPR to treat patients with post-cardiac arrest brain injury. We propose a novel protocol of "Postconditioning cardiocerebral resuscitation (Post-CCR)". The Post-CCR includes applying three cycles of 18s chest compression and 10s interruption for ventilation first, and then executing chest compression only CPR until the patients return spontaneous circulation. Post-CCR can not only provide vital blood flow to the heart and brain but also activate endogenous protective mechanism to lessen post-cardiac arrest brain injury. We consider that it would become a feasible, safe and efficient cerebralprotective intervention in the prevention and alleviation of post-cardiac arrest brain injury, which would also improve the outcome after cardiac arrest. PMID:19394152

  8. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  13. Skeletal muscle VO? kinetics from cardio-pulmonary measurements: assessing distortions through O? transport by means of stochastic work-rate signals and circulatory modelling.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, U; Drescher, U; Benson, A P; Rossiter, H B; Essfeld, D

    2013-07-01

    During non-steady-state exercise, dynamic changes in pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO?pulm) are dissociated from skeletal muscle VO? (VO?musc) by changes in lung and venous O? concentrations (CvO?), and the dynamics and distribution of cardiac output (CO) between active muscle and remaining tissues (Qrem). Algorithms can compensate for fluctuations in lung O? stores, but the influences of CO and CvO? kinetics complicate estimation of VO?musc from cardio-pulmonary measurements. We developed an algorithm to estimate VO?musc kinetics from VO?pulm and heart rate (HR) during exercise. 17 healthy volunteers (28 ± 7 years; 71 ± 12 kg; 7 females) performed incremental exercise using recumbent cycle ergometry (VO?peak 52 ± 8 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Participants completed a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) test between 30 and 80 W. VO?pulm and HR were measured, and CO was estimated from HR changes and steady-state stroke volume. VO?musc was derived from a circulatory model and time series analyses, by solving for the unique combination of venous volume and the perfusion of non-exercising tissues that provided close to mono-exponential VO?musc kinetics. Independent simulations showed that this approach recovered the VO?musc time constant (?) to within 7% (R(2) = 0.976). Estimates during PRBS were venous volume 2.96 ± 0.54 L; Qrem 3.63 ± 1.61 L min(-1); ?HR 27 ± 11 s; ?VO?musc 33 ± 8 s; ?VO?pulm 43 ± 14 s; VO?pulm time delay 19 ± 8 s. The combination of stochastic test signals, time series analyses, and a circulatory model permitted non-invasive estimates of VO?musc kinetics. Large kinetic dissociations exist between muscular and pulmonary VO? during rapid exercise transients. PMID:23412541

  14. Dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation occurs without expiratory flow limitation in chronic heart failure during exercise.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Stefania; Torregiani, Chiara; Boni, Enrico; Bassini, Sonia; Vizzardi, Enrico; Tantucci, Claudio

    2013-10-01

    To assess the occurrence of tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL) and/or dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation (DH) in chronic heart failure (CHF) during exercise 15 patients with stable systolic CHF, aged 69 ± 6yr, underwent pulmonary function testing and incremental cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. They subsequently performed constant load exercise testing at 30, 60 and 90% of respective maximum workload. At each step the presence of EFL, by negative expiratory pressure technique, and changes in inspiratory capacity (IC) were assessed. Ejection fraction amounted to 36 ± 6% and VO?, peak (77 ± 19% pred.) was reduced. EFL was absent at any step during constant load exercise. In 6 patients IC decreased more than 10% pred. at highest step. Only in these patients TLC, FRC, RV FEF(25-75%) and DL(CO) were decreased at rest. VO?, peak correlated with DL(CO), TLC and IC at rest and with IC (r(2)=0.59; p<0.001) and decrease in IC (r(2)=0.44; p<0.001) at 90% of maximum workload. During exercise CHF patients do not exhibit EFL, but some of them develop DH that is associated with lower VO?, peak. PMID:23851110

  15. A comparison of dipyridamole-thallium imaging and exercise testing in the prediction of postoperative cardiac complications in patients requiring arterial reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    McPhail, N.V.; Ruddy, T.D.; Calvin, J.E.; Davies, R.A.; Barber, G.G.

    1989-07-01

    The individual and combined predictive values of dipyridamole-thallium imaging and exercise testing were compared in a prospective study of 70 patients who had abdominal aortic aneurysms or aortoiliac occlusive disease that required surgical repair. All patients were evaluated clinically by the same cardiologist and had exercise stress testing and dipyridamole-thallium imaging before admission for surgery. Ten patients were excluded from the study because they had evidence of severe ischemia when tested (ST segment depression greater than 2 mm on exercise testing, severe multivessel disease on thallium imaging). The remaining 60 patients were operated on (abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, 40; aortobifemoral repair, 17; femorofemoral graft, 3). The test results were withheld from the surgeon, anesthetist, and cardiologist before surgery. A total of 22 patients experienced major cardiac complications postoperatively (acute pulmonary edema, 17; acute myocardial infarction, 5; cardiac death, 2). Thallium imaging showed myocardial ischemia in 31/60 patients. Exercise testing was positive (greater than or equal to 1 mm ST segment depression) in 10/60 patients. Dipyridamole-thallium imaging with a high sensitivity and reasonable specificity is the initial test of choice. Exercise testing is a poor screening test because of its low sensitivity. The combination of the two tests gives the highest positive predictive value and the greatest likelihood ratio. Thus patients assessed initially and found to have positive thallium scan results may be further stratified by exercise testing.

  16. Statistics for Chemists: Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wehrens, Ron

    This website contains a group of exercises that allow students to practice basic statistical calculations for descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression and experimental design. The exercises are interactive and provide feedback for students who submit wrong answers.

  17. Reproducibility of Oxygen Saturation Monitoring During Six-Minute Walk Test and Exercise Stress Test in Patients with Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Associated With Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Li; Bolin Niu; Katherine Henderson; Veronika Northrup; Jeffery S. Pollak; Terence Trow; John Fahey; Robert I. White

    2011-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are at risk for multiple complications and require close follow-up.\\u000a We investigated the reproducibility of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and exercise stress test (EST) for the evaluation of\\u000a low oxygen saturation in patients with PAVMs. Twenty-two patients with PAVMs, most of whom had hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia\\u000a (HHT), participated in a Human Investigations Committee-approved

  18. Control strategies for integration of electric motor assist and functional electrical stimulation in paraplegic cycling: utility for exercise testing and mobile cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Hunt; Barry Stone; N.-O. Negard; T. Schauer; M. H. Fraser; A. J. Cathcart; C. Ferrario; S. A. Ward; S. Grant

    2004-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate feedback control strategies for integration of electric motor assist and functional electrical stimulation (FES) for paraplegic cycling, with particular focus on development of a testbed for exercise testing in FES cycling, in which both cycling cadence and workrate are simultaneously well controlled and contemporary physiological measures of exercise performance derived. A

  19. Inflammatory response after myocardial revascularization with or without cardiopulmonary bypass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz A Brasil; Walter J Gomes; Reinaldo Salomão; Enio Buffolo

    1998-01-01

    Background. Tumor necrosis factor-? has been implicated in complications seen after cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. The release of tumor necrosis factor-? and its possible effects were studied in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with and without cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods. Twenty patients were studied, 10 with (group 1) and 10 without cardiopulmonary bypass (group 2). Serial blood samples were obtained

  20. Exercise physiology, testing, and training in patients supported by a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y; Plaisance, Eric P; Arena, Ross; Shah, Keyur

    2015-08-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an accepted treatment alternative for the management of end-stage heart failure. As we move toward implantation of LVADs in less severe cases of HF, scrutiny of functional capacity and quality of life becomes more important. Patients demonstrate improvements in exercise capacity after LVAD implantation, but the effect is less than predicted. Exercise training produces multiple beneficial effects in heart failure patients, which would be expected to improve quality of life. In this review, we describe factors that are thought to participate in the persistent exercise impairment in LVAD-supported patients, summarize current knowledge about the effect of exercise training in LVAD-supported patients, and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25682553

  1. Testing the recovery of stellar rotation signals from Kepler light curves using a blind hare-and-hounds exercise

    E-print Network

    Aigrain, S; Ceillier, T; Chagas, M L das; Davenport, J R A; Garcia, R A; Hay, K L; Lanza, A F; McQuillan, A; Mazeh, T; de Medeiros, J R; Nielsen, M B; Reinhold, T

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a blind exercise to test the recoverability of stellar rotation and differential rotation in Kepler light curves. The simulated light curves lasted 1000 days and included activity cycles, Sun-like butterfly patterns, differential rotation and spot evolution. The range of rotation periods, activity levels and spot lifetime were chosen to be representative of the Kepler data of solar like stars. Of the 1000 simulated light curves, 770 were injected into actual quiescent Kepler light curves to simulate Kepler noise. The test also included five 1000-day segments of the Sun's total irradiance variations at different points in the Sun's activity cycle. Five teams took part in the blind exercise, plus two teams who participated after the content of the light curves had been released. The methods used included Lomb-Scargle periodograms and variants thereof, auto-correlation function, and wavelet-based analyses, plus spot modelling to search for differential rotation. The results show that th...

  2. Dysregulated arginine metabolism and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in patients with thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Claudia R; Kim, Hae-Young; Klings, Elizabeth S; Wood, John; Porter, John B; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Sweeters, Nancy; Olivieri, Nancy F; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Virzi, Lisa; Hassell, Kathryn; Taher, Ali; Neufeld, Ellis J; Thompson, Alexis A; Larkin, Sandra; Suh, Jung H; Vichinsky, Elliott P; Kuypers, Frans A

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) commonly develops in thalassaemia syndromes, but is poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the cardiopulmonary and biological profile of patients with thalassaemia at risk for PH. A case-control study of thalassaemia patients at high versus low PH-risk was performed. A single cross-sectional measurement for variables reflecting cardiopulmonary status and biological pathophysiology were obtained, including Doppler-echocardiography, 6-min-walk-test, Borg Dyspnoea Score, New York Heart Association functional class, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest-computerized tomography, pulmonary function testing and laboratory analyses targeting mechanisms of coagulation, inflammation, haemolysis, adhesion and the arginine-nitric oxide pathway. Twenty-seven thalassaemia patients were evaluated, 14 with an elevated tricuspid-regurgitant-jet-velocity (TRV) ? 2·5 m/s. Patients with increased TRV had a higher frequency of splenectomy, and significantly larger right atrial size, left atrial volume and left septal-wall thickness on echocardiography and/or MRI, with elevated biomarkers of abnormal coagulation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and arginase concentration, and lower arginine-bioavailability compared to low-risk patients. Arginase concentration correlated significantly to several echocardiography/MRI parameters of cardiovascular function in addition to global-arginine-bioavailability and biomarkers of haemolytic rate, including LDH, haemoglobin and bilirubin. Thalassaemia patients with a TRV ? 2·5 m/s have additional echocardiography and cardiac-MRI parameters suggestive of right and left-sided cardiac dysfunction. In addition, low arginine bioavailability may contribute to cardiopulmonary dysfunction in ?-thalassaemia. PMID:25907665

  3. Functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in people with asbestos related pleural disease: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional exercise capacity in people with asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD) is unknown and there are no data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The primary aims were to determine whether functional exercise capacity and HRQoL were reduced in people with ARPD. The secondary aim was to determine whether functional exercise capacity was related to peak exercise capacity, HRQoL, physical activity or respiratory function. Methods In participants with ARPD, exercise capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and incremental cycle test (ICT); HRQoL by the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and physical activity by an activity monitor worn for one week. Participants also underwent lung function testing. Results 25 males completed the study with a mean (SD) age of 71 (6) years, FVC 82 (19)% predicted, FEV1/FVC 66 (11)%, TLC 80 (19)% predicted and DLCO 59 (13)% predicted. Participants had reduced exercise capacity demonstrated by six-minute walk distance (6MWD) of 76 (11)% predicted and peak work rate of 71 (21)% predicted. HRQoL was also reduced. The 6MWD correlated with peak work rate (r=0.58, p=0.002), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total score (r=-0.57, p=0.003), metabolic equivalents from the activity monitor (r=0.45, p<0.05), and FVC % predicted (r=0.52, p<0.01). Conclusions People with ARPD have reduced exercise capacity and HRQoL. The 6MWT may be a useful surrogate measure of peak exercise capacity and physical activity levels in the absence of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and activity monitors. Trial registration ANZCTR12608000147381 PMID:23305075

  4. AGONIST-MEDIATED AIRWAY CHALLENGE: CARDIOPULMONARY INTERACTIONS MODULATE GAS EXCHANGE AND RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT To better understand the early phase response (0-60 minutes) to airway challenge, we examined cardiopulmonary reactions during ovalbumin (OVA), histamine, and methacholine aerosol challenge tests in guinea pigs. Propranolol and 100% O2 were used to modify the reacti...

  5. What are we doing in cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in Europe? An analysis of a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mila Garcia-Barbero; Juan Caturla-Such

    1999-01-01

    This study has analysed the status of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in Europe in medical schools, cities in the WHO European Healthy Cities network, and hospitals in the WHO European Health Promoting Hospitals network. Three questionnaires tested by a pilot study were sent in 1996–1997: one to medical school deans, one to the WHO Health Promoting Hospitals Network coordinators and

  6. The Association of Complication Type with Mortality and Prolonged Stay After Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian J. Welsby; Elliott Bennett-Guerrero; Darryl Atwell; William D. White; Mark F. Newman; Peter K. Smith; Michael G. Mythen

    2002-01-01

    Outcome after cardiac surgery varies depending on complication type. We therefore sought to determine the association between complication type, mortality, and length of stay in a large series of patients undergo- ing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test for differences between complication types in mortality and prolonged length of stay (10 days) while

  7. Real-time exercise load control using heart rate response during exercise on a stationary bicycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyungryul Chung; Sayup Kim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm for exercise load control and estimation of energy expenditure during bicycle exercise. In this study, forty-eight healthy volunteers participated and were tested graded exercise test using ramp protocol and four interval training programs. To define the exercise intensity and workload, %HRmax was used for participants exercise prescription. Exercise load of

  8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Older Adults' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)

  9. Development and use of a standard treadmill exercise test for the comparison of different conditioning schedules in the horse 

    E-print Network

    Pearson, Susan Carol

    1980-01-01

    ) Susan Carol Pearson, B. S. , Montana State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. G. D. Potter Two trials were conducted to develop a submaximal treadmill ex- ercise test for the horse. In Trial I heart and respiration rates in response... to nine treadmill exercise tests were measured on six mature horses. Mean resting heart rate response was 3B beats/min. Overall mean restino respiration rate was 21 expirations/min. Speed appeared to have a areater effect on hear t and respiration rates...

  10. The influence of brief episodes of aerobic exercise activity, soothing music-nature scenes condition, and suggestion on coping with test-taking anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Plante; David Marcotte; Gerdenio Manuel; Eleanor Willemsen

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the influence of aerobic exercise activity, soothing musicnature scenes condition, and suggestion on coping with test-taking anxiety. Sixty test anxious subjects were randomly assigned to four treatment groups consisting of 15-min episodes of exercise or soothing music-nature scenes condition with or without verbal suggestion that the treatment task in which they were engaged would be helpful to

  11. Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in elite karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Tan, Erik C H; Chaouachi, Anis; Carling, Christopher; Castagna, Carlo; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Behm, David G

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with deadlift (r = 0.86), leg press (r = 0.76), lunge (r = 0.86), and step-up (r = 0.92). Linear regression showed that the 6RM squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p < 0.001). The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Deadlift = squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population. PMID:20838250

  12. Feasibility and effectiveness of a home-based exercise training program before lung resection surgery

    PubMed Central

    Coats, Valérie; Maltais, François; Simard, Sébastien; Fréchette, Éric; Tremblay, Lise; Ribeiro, Fernanda; Saey, Didier

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with lung cancer often experience a reduction in exercise tolerance, muscle weakness and decreased quality of life. Although the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation programs is well recognized in other forms of cancers and in many pulmonary diseases, few researchers have studied its impact in patients with lung cancer, particularly in those awaiting lung resection surgery (LRS). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility of a short, home-based exercise training program (HBETP) with patients under investigation for non-small cell lung cancer and potential candidates for LRS, and to determine the effectiveness of this program on exercise tolerance, skeletal muscle strength and quality of life. METHODS: Sixteen patients with lung cancer awaiting LRS participated in a four-week HBETP including moderate aerobic activities (walking and cycling) and muscle training performed three times weekly. Before and after the intervention, a cardiopulmonary exercise test, a 6 min walk test and the assessment of muscle strength and quality of life were performed. RESULTS: Thirteen patients completed the four-week HBETP and all the patients completed >75% of the prescribed exercise sessions. The duration of the cycle endurance test (264±79 s versus 421±241 s; P<0.05) and the 6 min walk test distance (540±98 m versus 568±101 m; P<0.05) were significantly improved. Moreover, the strength of the deltoid, triceps and hamstrings were significantly improved (? post-pre training 1.82±2.83 kg, 1.32±1.75 kg and 3.41±3.7 kg; P<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with lung cancer awaiting LRS, HBETP was feasible and improved exercise tolerance and muscle strength. This may be clinically relevant because poor exercise capacity and muscle weakness are predictors of postoperative complications. PMID:23616972

  13. Effect of L-carnitine on exercise performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, A C; Bravo, D M; Nápolis, L M; Mello, M T; Oliveira, A S B; Neder, J A; Nery, L E

    2015-04-01

    Exercise intolerance due to impaired oxidative metabolism is a prominent symptom in patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM), but it is still uncertain whether L-carnitine supplementation is beneficial for patients with MM. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on exercise performance in MM. Twelve MM subjects (mean age±SD=35.4±10.8 years) with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) were first compared to 10 healthy controls (mean age±SD=29±7.8 years) before they were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine supplementation (3 g/daily) or placebo in a double-blind crossover design. Clinical status, body composition, respiratory function tests, peripheral muscle strength (isokinetic and isometric torque) and cardiopulmonary exercise tests (incremental to peak exercise and at 70% of maximal), constant work rate (CWR) exercise test, to the limit of tolerance [Tlim]) were assessed after 2 months of L-carnitine/placebo administration. Patients with MM presented with lower mean height, total body weight, fat-free mass, and peripheral muscle strength compared to controls in the pre-test evaluation. After L-carnitine supplementation, the patients with MM significantly improved their Tlim (14±1.9 vs 11±1.4 min) and oxygen consumption ( V ? O 2 ) at CWR exercise, both at isotime (1151±115 vs 1049±104 mL/min) and at Tlim (1223±114 vs 1060±108 mL/min). These results indicate that L-carnitine supplementation may improve aerobic capacity and exercise tolerance during high-intensity CWRs in MM patients with CPEO. PMID:25714882

  14. ST-Segment Depression in Hyperventilation Indicates a False Positive Exercise Test in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Andreas P.; Liakos, Charalampos I.; Antoniades, Charalambos; Tsiachris, Dimitrios L.; Soulis, Dimitrios; Dilaveris, Polichronis E.; Tsioufis, Konstantinos P.; Stefanadis, Christodoulos I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a known cause for false positive exercise test (ET). The purpose of this study was to establish additional electrocardiographic criteria to distinguish the false positive exercise results in patients with MVP. Methods. We studied 218 consecutive patients (53 ± 6 years, 103 males) with MVP (according to echocardiographic study), and positive treadmill ET was performed due to multiple cardiovascular risk factors or angina-like symptoms. A coronary angiography was performed to detect coronary artery disease (CAD). Results. From 218 patients, 90 (group A) presented with normal coronary arteries according to the angiography (false positive ET) while the rest 128 (group B) presented with CAD. ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase was present in 54 patients of group A (60%) while only in 14 patients of group B (11%), P < .05. Conclusions. Presence of ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase favors a false positive ET in patients with MVP. PMID:21113438

  15. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Roberta; Beltran Valls, Maria Reyes; Duranti, Guglielmo; Dimauro, Ivan; Quaranta, Federico; Pittaluga, Monica; Sabatini, Stefania; Caserotti, Paolo; Parisi, Paolo; Parisi, Attilio; Caporossi, Daniela

    2013-12-12

    We recently demonstrated that low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) is highly beneficial in elderly subjects towards muscle strength and power, with a systemic adaptive response of anti-oxidant and stress-induced markers. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of EMRT on oxidative stress biomarkers induced in old people (70-75 years) by a single bout of acute, intense exercise. Sixteen subjects randomly assigned to either a control, not exercising group (n=8) or a trained group performing EMRT protocol for 12-weeks (n=8), were submitted to a graded maximal exercise stress test (GXT) at baseline and after the 12-weeks of EMRT protocol, with blood samples collected before, immediately after, 1 and 24h post-GXT test. Blood glutathione (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG), plasma malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls and creatine kinase (CK) levels, as well as PBMCs cellular damage (Comet assay, apoptosis) and stress-protein response (Hsp70 and Hsp27 expression) were evaluated. The use of multiple biomarkers allowed us to confirm that EMRT per se neither affected redox homeostasis nor induced any cellular and oxidative damage. Following the GXT, the EMRT group displayed a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and a less pronounced increase in MDA, protein carbonyls and CK levels compared to control group. Moreover, we found that Hsp70 and Hsp27 proteins were induced after GXT only in EMRT group, while any significant modification within 24h was detected in untrained group. Apoptosis rates and DNA damage did not show any significant variation in relation to EMRT and/or GXT. In conclusion, the adherence to an EMRT protocol is able to induce a cellular adaptation allowing healthy elderly trained subjects to cope with the oxidative stress induced by an acute exercise more effectively than the aged-matched sedentary subjects. PMID:25460722

  16. Prognostic value of end-tidal carbon dioxide during exercise testing in heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Arena; Marco Guazzi; Jonathan Myers

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundThe partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide production (PETCO2) at ventilatory threshold (VT) has been shown to be strongly correlated with cardiac output during exercise in patients with heart failure (HF), but few data are available regarding its prognostic utility.

  17. Coronary heart disease diagnosis bases on the change of different parts in treadmill exercise test ECG.

    PubMed

    Jian-ling, Sun; Ying, Zhao; Yu-lian, Gao; Li-juan, Xiong; Ji-hong, Guo; Xiao-ying, Li

    2013-01-01

    Summarize the value of the change of different parts in treadmill exercise test (TET) ECG to coronary heart disease (CHD) diagnosis. Four hundred and forty-five cases have been included in this investigation, which stayed in our hospital from January of 2006 to March of 2011 and underwent TET and coronary arteriography (CAG). The change of different parts in TET ECG in these patients had been retrospective summarized to determine its diagnosis value to CHD. (1) In the 445 cases of TET testers, 200 cases showed positive in TET with 150 cases of positive CAG, and 50 cases of negative CAG; 245 cases showed negative in TET with 206 cases of negative CAG, and 39 cases of positive CAG. The diagnosis sensitivity of CHD was 79.36% (150/189), the specificity was 80.47% (206/256), positive prediction value was 75.00% (150/200), negative prediction value was 84.08% (206/245), and false-positive rate was 25.00% (50/200) with prediction accuracy of 80.00% (356/445). (2) In the 200 cases with positive TET: 51 cases were in the limb lead group; 73 cases were in the chest lead group; and 76 cases were in the limb lead + chest lead group. There were 150 cases showing positive in CAG: 22 cases were in the limb lead group; 58 cases were in the chest lead group; and 70 cases were in the limb lead + chest lead group. The positive diagnosis rate of ST change in the chest lead was obviously higher than that of simple limb lead group (P < 0.05). (3) People with healthy coronary artery will have decreased amplitude of R wave while patients with coronary stenosis have elevated amplitude of R wave. (4) As for the T wave, the positive CAG had no statistical significance between normal T wave group and TET positive group (P > 0.05); CAG results had statistical significance between normal T wave group and TET negative group (P < 0.05). (5) Positive CAG results had no statistical significance between U-wave inversion group and TET positive group (P > 0.05); positive CAG results has statistical significance when TET negative group compared with U-wave inversion group or TET positive group (P < 0.05). TET is a relatively idea invasive diagnosis method for coronary disease, which can be utilized to evaluate the stage of CHD when integrating with the change of TET ECG. PMID:23546936

  18. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  19. Comparison of Effect of One Course of Intense Exercise (Wingate test) on Serum Levels of Interleukin-17 in Different Groups of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tofighee, Asghar; Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Jalili, Arman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the effects of exercise on immune function, has a wide range of sporting activities. Study on the long-term effects of regular exercise on serum levels of cytokines such as interleukin-17 have shown that moderate and regular exercise, has an important role in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Objectives: Exhaustive exercise has a deep effect on cellular, humoral, innate immunity and the amount of cytokines of an athlete’s immune system. So this study was designed to compare the effect of one course of exhaustive exercise on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17 in different groups of athletes. Patients and Methods: Forty professional athletes with a mean age of 25.1 ± 5.0 years, divided equally in 4 groups (handball, volleyball, Sepak-takraw and climbing) were selected for this purpose. 30 second Wingate test for each athlete was used to assess anaerobic power. Blood samples before, immediately after and 2 hours after exercise was collected and the amount of serum IL-17 was measured. Results: The results showed that the level of IL-17 in the study groups before and after the two hours exercise did not significantly change in all four groups. Conclusions: The results showed that short anaerobic exercise has no effect on the level of IL-17. PMID:25741409

  20. Determinants of exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis patients with mild-to-moderate lung disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) frequently have reduced exercise tolerance, which is multifactorial but mainly due to bronchial obstruction. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to determine the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in patients with mild-to-moderate or severe disease. Methods Cardiopulmonary exercise testing with blood gas analysis at peak exercise was performed in 102 patients aged 28?±?11 years: 48 patients had severe lung disease (FEV1?exercise were independent determinants of exercise capacity (R2?=?0.67). FEV1 was the major significant predictor of VO2 peak impairment in group 1, accounting for 31% of VO2 peak alteration, whereas excessive overall hyperventilation (reduced or absent breathing reserve and VE/VCO2) accounted for 41% of VO2 alteration in group 2. Conclusion Exercise limitation in adult patients with CF is largely dependent on FEV1 in patients with severe lung disease and on the magnitude of the ventilatory response to exercise in patients with mild-to-moderate lung disease. PMID:24884656

  1. Gender-related associations of genetic polymorphisms of ?-adrenergic receptors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and bradykinin B2 receptor with treadmill exercise test responses

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Rafael Amorim Belo; Barroso, Lúcia Pereira; Pereira, Alexandre?da Costa; Krieger, José Eduardo; Mansur, Alfredo José

    2014-01-01

    Background Treadmill exercise test responses have been associated with cardiovascular prognosis in individuals without overt heart disease. Neurohumoral and nitric oxide responses may influence cardiovascular performance during exercise testing. Therefore, we evaluated associations between functional genetic polymorphisms of ?-adrenergic receptors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, bradykinin receptor B2 and treadmill exercise test responses in men and women without overt heart disease. Methods We enrolled 766 (417 women; 349 men) individuals without established heart disease from a check-up programme at the Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School. Exercise capacity, chronotropic reserve, maximum heart-rate achieved, heart-rate recovery, exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP), exercise diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and SBP recovery were assessed during exercise testing. Genotypes for the ?-adrenergic receptors ADRA1A Arg347Cys (rs1048101), ADRA2A 1780 C>T (rs553668), ADRA2B Del 301–303 (rs28365031), endothelial nitric synthase (eNOS) 786 T>C (rs2070744), eNOS Glu298Asp (rs1799983) and BK2R (rs5810761) polymorphisms were assessed by PCR and high-resolution melting analysis. Results Maximum SBP was associated with ADRA1A rs1048101 (p=0.008) and BK2R rs5810761 (p=0.008) polymorphisms in men and ADRA2A rs553668 (p=0.008) and ADRA2B rs28365031 (p=0.022) in women. Maximum DBP pressure was associated with ADRA2A rs553668 (p=0.002) and eNOS rs1799983 (p=0.015) polymorphisms in women. Exercise capacity was associated with eNOS rs2070744 polymorphisms in women (p=0.01) and with eNOS rs1799983 in men and women (p=0.038 and p=0.024). Conclusions The findings suggest that genetic variants of ?-adrenergic receptors and bradykinin B2 receptor may be involved with blood pressure responses during exercise tests. Genetic variants of endothelial nitric oxide synthase may be involved with exercise capacity and blood pressure responses during exercise tests. These responses may be gender-related. PMID:25544888

  2. Measurement of coronary calcium scores or exercise testing as initial screening tool in asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on the resting ECG: an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Geluk, Christiane A; Dikkers, Riksta; Kors, Jan A; Tio, René A; Slart, Riemer HJA; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Hillege, Hans L; Willems, Tineke P; de Jong, Paul E; van Gilst, Wiek H; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic subjects at intermediate coronary risk may need diagnostic testing for risk stratification. Both measurement of coronary calcium scores and exercise testing are well established tests for this purpose. However, it is not clear which test should be preferred as initial diagnostic test. We evaluated the prevalence of documented coronary artery disease (CAD) according to calcium scores and exercise test results. Methods Asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on a rest ECG were selected from the population based PREVEND cohort study and underwent measurement of calcium scores by electron beam tomography and exercise testing. With calcium scores ?10 or a positive exercise test, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPS) or coronary angiography (CAG) was recommended. The primary endpoint was documented obstructive CAD (?50% stenosis). Results Of 153 subjects included, 149 subjects completed the study protocol. Calcium scores ?400, 100–399, 10–99 and <10 were found in 16, 29, 18 and 86 subjects and the primary endpoint was present in 11 (69%), 12 (41%), 0 (0%) and 1 (1%) subjects, respectively. A positive, nondiagnostic and negative exercise test was present in 33, 27 and 89 subjects and the primary endpoint was present in 13 (39%), 5 (19%) and 6 (7%) subjects, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve, as measure of diagnostic yield, of 0.91 (95% CI 0.84–0.97) for calcium scores was superior to 0.74 (95% CI 0.64–0.83) for exercise testing (p = 0.004). Conclusion Measurement of coronary calcium scores is an appropriate initial non-invasive test in asymptomatic subjects at increased coronary risk. PMID:17629903

  3. Prognostic value of end-tidal carbon dioxide during exercise testing in heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Arena; Marco Guazzi; Jonathan Myers

    Background: The partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide production (PETCO2) at ventilatory threshold (VT) has been shown to be strongly correlated with cardiac output during exercise in patients with heart failure (HF), but few data are available regarding its prognostic utility. Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of PETCO2 to predict cardiac-related events in a

  4. Testing the recovery of stellar rotation signals from Kepler light curves using a blind hare-and-hounds exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, S.; Llama, J.; Ceillier, T.; Chagas, M. L. das; Davenport, J. R. A.; García, R. A.; Hay, K. L.; Lanza, A. F.; McQuillan, A.; Mazeh, T.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Nielsen, M. B.; Reinhold, T.

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of a blind exercise to test the recoverability of stellar rotation and differential rotation in Kepler light curves. The simulated light curves lasted 1000 d and included activity cycles, Sun-like butterfly patterns, differential rotation and spot evolution. The range of rotation periods, activity levels and spot lifetime were chosen to be representative of the Kepler data of solar-like stars. Of the 1000 simulated light curves, 770 were injected into actual quiescent Kepler light curves to simulate Kepler noise. The test also included five 1000-d segments of the Sun's total irradiance variations at different points in the Sun's activity cycle. Five teams took part in the blind exercise, plus two teams who participated after the content of the light curves had been released. The methods used included Lomb-Scargle periodograms and variants thereof, autocorrelation function and wavelet-based analyses, plus spot modelling to search for differential rotation. The results show that the `overall' period is well recovered for stars exhibiting low and moderate activity levels. Most teams reported values within 10 per cent of the true value in 70 per cent of the cases. There was, however, little correlation between the reported and simulated values of the differential rotation shear, suggesting that differential rotation studies based on full-disc light curves alone need to be treated with caution, at least for solar-type stars. The simulated light curves and associated parameters are available online for the community to test their own methods.

  5. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4370 Section 870.4370... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4360 Section 870...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. 870.4330 Section...4330 Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. 870.4260 Section 870...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. 870.4410 Section...4410 Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4370 Section 870.4370...Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4370 Section 870.4370...Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4360 Section 870.4360 Food...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4370 Section 870.4370...Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4360 Section 870.4360 Food...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4360 Section 870.4360 Food...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. 870.4260 Section 870...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. 870.4260 Section 870...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. 870.4260 Section 870...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. 870.4330 Section...4330 Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4370 Section 870.4370... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. 870.4410 Section...4410 Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. 870.4260 Section 870...Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870.4360 Section 870...Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a...

  9. Updates on Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ristagno; A. Gullo; W. Tang; M. H. Weil

    Cardiac arrest is a dramatic clinical event that can occur suddenly, often without premonitory signs. The condition is characterized\\u000a by sudden loss of consciousness due to the lack of cerebral blood flow, which occurs when the heart ceases to pump. This phenomenon\\u000a is potentially reversible if cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedures are started early, but it becomes irreversible\\u000a without interventions or

  10. The clinical translation gap in child health exercise research: a call for disruptive innovation.

    PubMed

    Ashish, Naveen; Bamman, Marcas M; Cerny, Frank J; Cooper, Dan M; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ericson, Dawn; Fahey, John; Falk, Bareket; Gabriel, Davera; Kahn, Michael G; Kemper, Han C G; Leu, Szu-Yun; Liem, Robert I; McMurray, Robert; Nixon, Patricia A; Olin, J Tod; Pianosi, Paolo T; Purucker, Mary; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Taylor, Amy

    2015-02-01

    In children, levels of play, physical activity, and fitness are key indicators of health and disease and closely tied to optimal growth and development. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides clinicians with biomarkers of disease and effectiveness of therapy, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response that is hidden when the child is at rest. Yet the growth of clinical trials utilizing CPET in pediatrics remains stunted despite the current emphasis on preventative medicine and the growing recognition that therapies used in children should be clinically tested in children. There exists a translational gap between basic discovery and clinical application in this essential component of child health. To address this gap, the NIH provided funding through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program to convene a panel of experts. This report summarizes our major findings and outlines next steps necessary to enhance child health exercise medicine translational research. We present specific plans to bolster data interoperability, improve child health CPET reference values, stimulate formal training in exercise medicine for child health care professionals, and outline innovative approaches through which exercise medicine can become more accessible and advance therapeutics across the broad spectrum of child health. PMID:25109386

  11. Relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male patients

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xizheng; Liu, Jinming; Luo, Yanrong; Xu, Xiaowen; Han, Zhiqing; Li, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nutritional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with their exercise capacity. In the present study, we have explored the relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe male COPD patients. Methods A total of 58 severe COPD male patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to no nutritional risk group (n=33) and nutritional risk group (n=25) according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, 2002) criteria. Blood gas analysis, conventional pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed on all the patients. Results Results showed that the weight and BMI of the patients in the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than in the no nutritional risk group (P<0.05). The pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide of the no nutritional risk group was significantly higher than that of the nutritional risk group (P<0.05). Besides, the peak VO2 (peak oxygen uptake), peak O2 pulse (peak oxygen pulse), and peak load of the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than those of the no nutritional risk group (P<0.05) and there were significantly negative correlations between the NRS score and peak VO2, peak O2 pulse, or peak load (r<0, P<0.05). Conclusion The association between exercise capacity and nutritional risk based on NRS 2002 in severe COPD male patients is supported by these results of this study. PMID:26150712

  12. Exercise and Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

  13. 21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary...e.g., an oxygenator mounting bracket or system-priming equipment. (b)...

  14. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Artery Hypertension in a Patient with Compensated Cardiac Disease: Hemodynamic and Functional Response to Sildenafil Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Lazaros; Memon, Nabeel

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with exertional dyspnea and fatigue that had worsened over the preceding 2 years, despite a normally functioning bioprosthetic aortic valve and stable, mild left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction, 0.45). His symptoms could not be explained by physical examination, an extensive biochemical profile, or multiple cardiac and pulmonary investigations. However, abnormal cardiopulmonary exercise test results and a right heart catheterization—combined with the use of a symptom-limited, bedside bicycle ergometer—revealed that the patient's exercise-induced pulmonary artery hypertension was out of proportion to his compensated left heart disease. A trial of sildenafil therapy resulted in objective improvements in hemodynamic values and functional class. PMID:25873799

  15. Exploratory studies of physiological components of motion sickness: Cardiopulmonary differences between high and low susceptibles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naifeh, K.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of cardiovascular autonomic response to motion sickness was studied and whether differences in cardiopulmonary function exist in high and low susceptibility groups were determined. Measurement techniques were developed as was test equipment for its ability to provide accurately new measures of interest and to test the adequately of these new measures in differentiating between susceptibility groups. It was concluded that these groups can be differentiated using simple, brief stressors and measurements of cardiodynamic function.

  16. Psychophysiologic effects of Hatha Yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Raub, James A

    2002-12-01

    Yoga has become increasingly popular in Western cultures as a means of exercise and fitness training; however, it is still depicted as trendy as evidenced by an April 2001 Time magazine cover story on "The Power of Yoga." There is a need to have yoga better recognized by the health care community as a complement to conventional medical care. Over the last 10 years, a growing number of research studies have shown that the practice of Hatha Yoga can improve strength and flexibility, and may help control such physiological variables as blood pressure, respiration and heart rate, and metabolic rate to improve overall exercise capacity. This review presents a summary of medically substantiated information about the health benefits of yoga for healthy people and for people compromised by musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:12614533

  17. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Kenjale, Aarti A.; Ham, Katherine L.; Stabler, Thomas; Robbins, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Johanna L.; VanBruggen, Mitch; Privette, Grayson; Yim, Eunji; Kraus, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results in a failure to adequately supply blood and oxygen (O2) to working tissues and presents as claudication pain during walking. Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is essential for vascular health and function. Plasma nitrite (NO2?) is a marker of vascular NO production but may also be a protected circulating “source” that can be converted to NO during hypoxic conditions, possibly aiding perfusion. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of inorganic nitrate in the form of beetroot (BR) juice would increase plasma NO2? concentration, increase exercise tolerance, and decrease gastrocnemius fractional O2 extraction, compared with placebo (PL). This was a randomized, open-label, crossover study. At each visit, subjects (n = 8) underwent resting blood draws, followed by consumption of 500 ml BR or PL and subsequent blood draws prior to, during, and following a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) test. Gastrocnemius oxygenation during the CPX was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. There were no changes from rest for [NO2?] (152 ± 72 nM) following PL. BR increased plasma [NO2?] after 3 h (943 ± 826 nM; P ? 0.01). Subjects walked 18% longer before the onset of claudication pain (183 ± 84 s vs. 215 ± 99 s; P ? 0.01) and had a 17% longer peak walking time (467 ± 223 s vs. 533 ± 233 s; P ? 0.05) following BR vs. PL. Gastrocnemius tissue fractional O2 extraction was lower during exercise following BR (7.3 ± 6.2 vs. 10.4 ± 6.1 arbitrary units; P ? 0.01). Diastolic blood pressure was lower in the BR group at rest and during CPX testing (P ? 0.05). These findings support the hypothesis that NO2?-related NO signaling increases peripheral tissue oxygenation in areas of hypoxia and increases exercise tolerance in PAD. PMID:21454745

  18. Increasing combat realism: the effectiveness of stun belt use on soldiers for the enhancement of live training and testing exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schricker, Bradley C.; Antalek, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    The ability to make correct decisions while operating in a combat zone enables American and Coalition warfighters to better respond to any threats they may encounter due to the minimization of negative training the warfighter encountered during their live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) training exercises. By increasing the physical effects encountered by one's senses during combat scenarios, combat realism is able to be increased, which is a key component in the reduction in negative training. The use of LVC simulations for training and testing augmentation purposes depends on a number of factors, not the least of which is the accurate representation of the training environment. This is particularly true in the realm of tactical engagement training through the use of Tactical Engagement Simulation Systems (TESS). The training environment is perceived through human senses, most notably sight and hearing. As with other haptic devices, the sense of touch is gaining traction as a viable medium through which to express the effects of combat battle damage from the synthetic training environment to participants within a simulated training exercise. New developments in this field are promoting the safe use of an electronic stun device to indicate to a trainee that they have been hit by a projectile, from either direct or indirect fire, through the course of simulated combat. A growing number of examples suggest that this added output medium can greatly enhance the realism of a training exercise and, thus, improve the training value. This paper serves as a literature survey of this concept, beginning with an explanation of TESS. It will then focus on how the electronic stun effect may be employed within a TESS and then detail some of the noted pros and cons of such an approach. The paper will conclude with a description of potential directions and work.

  19. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Monitoring in the Context of the National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise (NPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyne, John; Kitov, Ivan; Krysta, Monika; Becker, Andreas; Brachet, Nicolas; Mialle, Pierrick

    2010-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the CTBT. In order to fulfill this mission, the CTBTO is building the International Monitoring System (IMS), which consists of 337 seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide monitoring facilities. Data from the IMS are collected, processed and reviewed by the International Data Centre (IDC). Event listings are formed and subsequently communicated to authorized users designated by States Signatories, which are ultimately responsible of characterizing the CTBT relevance of each event. To be better prepared for this some States Signatories have established National Data Centers (NDCs). In coordination with the CTBTO, NDCs have agreed to organize and conduct annual preparedness exercises to provide for an opportunity for staff from CTBTO and the NDCs to collaborate to gain a better understanding of how IDC data and products may fulfill verification needs. In doing so an in-depth examination of a selected seismo-acoustic event, automatically formed at the IDC, is made. The NDC leading the exercise chooses the event that best mimics a realistic CTBT relevant event. For the related analysis it may also add data from other sources. The NPE 2009 was to-date the most comprehensive exercise as for the first time the event was chosen from an IDC list comprising, three types of observations: Seismic, infrasound and virtual radionuclide. The latter is inferred from atmospheric transport modeling calculations for a hypothetical release from the event location. The presentation will describe the sequence of coordinated actions at NDCs and IDC from seismo-acoustic observation and event formation down to event selection and joint analysis.

  20. Best evidence topic - Cardiopulmonary bypass Is prophylactic haemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass of benefit during cardiac surgery?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satish Das; Joel Dunning

    2010-01-01

    Summary A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether prophylactic haemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass is of benefit during cardiac surgery? Altogether 273 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication,

  1. Detection of Autonomic Dysfunction in Hemodialysis Patients Using the Exercise Treadmill Test: The Role of the Chronotropic Index, Heart Rate Recovery, and R-R Variability

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Maria Angela M. Q.; Nogueira, André B.; Pena, Felipe M.; Kiuchi, Marcio G.; Rodrigues, Ronaldo C.; Rodrigues, Rodrigo R.; Matos, Jorge P. S.; Lugon, Jocemir R.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients and has been implicated in their increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Objective To evaluate the ability of different parameters of exercise treadmill test to detect autonomic dysfunction in hemodialysis patients. Methods Cross-sectional study involving hemodialysis patients and a control group. Clinical examination, blood sampling, echocardiogram, 24-hour Holter, and exercise treadmill test were performed. A ramp treadmill protocol symptom-limited with active recovery was employed. Results Forty-one hemodialysis patients and 41 controls concluded the study. There was significant difference between hemodialysis patients and controls in autonomic function parameters in 24h-Holter and exercise treadmill test. Probability of having autonomic dysfunction in hemodialysis patients compared to controls was 29.7 at the exercise treadmill test and 13.0 in the 24-hour Holter. Chronotropic index, heart rate recovery at the 1st min, and SDNN at exercise were used to develop an autonomic dysfunction score to grade autonomic dysfunction, in which, 83% of hemodialysis patients reached a scoring ?2 in contrast to 20% of controls. Hemodialysis was independently associated with either altered chronotropic index or autonomic dysfunction scoring ?2 in every tested model (OR=50.1, P=0.003; and OR=270.9, P=0.002, respectively, model 5). Conclusion The exercise treadmill test was feasible and useful to diagnose of the autonomic dysfunction in hemodialysis patients. Chronotropic index and autonomic dysfunction scoring ?2 were the most effective parameters to differentiate between hemodialysis patients and controls suggesting that these variables portrays the best ability to detect autonomic dysfunction in this setting. PMID:26042678

  2. Development and preliminary testing of a novel wheelchair integrated exercise/ rehabilitation system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2013-06-01

    The people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) or post stroke hemiplegia are easily exposed to secondary problems due to limited mobility. A new wheelchair integrated lower limb exercise/rehabilitation system is proposed to help their daily living and rehabilitation. The system consists of three main modules: 1) an electric wheelchair, 2) a lifter which raises and supports the subject's body weight, and 3) a lower limb exoskeleton. This paper describes the concept of the entire system and configurations of the prototype. In the design of the lower limb exoskeleton, the ergonomic joint mechanisms are introduced to assist the natural daily motions based on the biomechanics of each hip, knee and ankle joint. PMID:24187166

  3. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammod Monirul; Watanabe, Ryuji; Taaffe, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE). Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years) were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n = 32) or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n = 20). Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG) test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P < 0.05) interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9%) and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9%) while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%). Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities. PMID:24616808

  4. Quantitative angiographic assessment of coronary anastomoses performed without cardiopulmonary bypass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy C. Poirier; Michel Carrier; Jacques Lespérance; Gilles Côté; Michel Pellerin; Louis P. Perrault; L. Conrad Pelletier

    1999-01-01

    Background: The quality of the anastomosis performed during coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass is a current concern, and myocardial wall restraining devices have been designed to optimize results. A quantitative angiographic analysis was performed to assess coronary anastomoses performed on beating hearts. Methods: We studied 34 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass between February

  5. MEASUREMENT OF CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION BY REBREATHING METHODOLOGY IN PIGLETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of a multiple gas rebreathing method for the measurement of cardiopulmonary function in mechanically ventilated neonates was evaluated. The following indices of cardiopulmonary function were assessed in 20 piglets (mean weight, 2.3 kg): (1) pulmonary capillary blood flow ...

  6. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... swimming, and cross-country skiing. What is weight-bearing exercise? The term “weight-bearing” is used to describe exercises that work against the force of gravity. Weight-bearing exercise is important for building strong bones. Having ...

  7. Posture Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search You are here Home » Posture Exercises Posture Exercises When a person develops kyphosis, the posture becomes ... and strengthen the back. Try the following two exercises to keep your spine more limber and flexible. ...

  8. Cardiopulmonary bypass: development of John Gibbon's heart-lung machine

    PubMed Central

    Passaroni, Andréia Cristina; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a brief review of the development of cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods A review of the literature on the development of extracorporeal circulation techniques, their essential role in cardiovascular surgery, and the complications associated with their use, including hemolysis and inflammation. Results The advancement of extracorporeal circulation techniques has played an essential role in minimizing the complications of cardiopulmonary bypass, which can range from various degrees of tissue injury to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Investigators have long researched the ways in which cardiopulmonary bypass may insult the human body. Potential solutions arose and laid the groundwork for development of safer postoperative care strategies. Conclusion Steady progress has been made in cardiopulmonary bypass in the decades since it was first conceived of by Gibbon. Despite the constant evolution of cardiopulmonary bypass techniques and attempts to minimize their complications, it is still essential that clinicians respect the particularities of each patient's physiological function.

  9. [Fundamental features on percutaneous cardiopulmonary support].

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

    2014-07-01

    The fundamental features on percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) were reviewed. The number of PCPS installation in Japan has been increasing especially in the area of emergency medicine and cardiology. All-in-one package for PCPS system is becoming a mainstream in clinical practice. It is considered to be crucial to understand the details in characteristics and pitfalls on respective products. The results of nation-wide questionnaire indicate that the detailed criteria for PCPS usage in clinical practice appear to be variable among facilities in Japan;therefore, the formulation of guideline and educational system for PCPS installation is required. PMID:25138934

  10. A Simple New Visualization of Exercise Data Discloses Pathophysiology and Severity of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James E.; Sun, Xing-Guo; Stringer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The complexity of cardiopulmonary exercise testing data and their displays tends to make assessment of patients, including those with heart failure, time consuming. Methods and Results We postulated that a new single display that uses concurrent values of oxygen uptake / ventilation versus carbon dioxide output / ventilation ratios (–versus–), plotted on equal X–Y axes, would better quantify normality and heart failure severity and would clarify pathophysiology. Consecutive –versus– values from rest to recovery were displayed on X–Y axes for patients with Class II and IV heart failure and for healthy subjects without heart failure. The displays revealed distinctive patterns for each group, reflecting sequential changes in cardiac output, arterial and mixed venous O2 and CO2 content differences, and ventilation (). On the basis of exercise tests of 417 healthy subjects, reference formulas for highest and , which normally occur during moderate exercise, are presented. Absolute and percent predicted values of highest and were recorded for 10 individuals from each group: Those of healthy subjects were significantly higher than those of patients with Class II heart failure, and those of patients with Class II heart failure were higher than those of patients with Class IV heart failure. These values differentiated heart failure severity better than peak , anaerobic threshold, peak oxygen pulse, and slopes. Resting –versus– values were strikingly low for patients with Class IV heart failure, and with exercise, increased minimally or even decreased. With regard to the pathophysiology of heart failure, high values during milder exercise, previously attributed to ventilatory inefficiency, seem to be caused primarily by reduced cardiac output rather than increased . Conclusion –versus– measurements and displays, extractable from future or existing exercise data, separate the 3 groups (healthy subjects, patients with Class II heart failure, and patients with Class IV heart failure) well and confirm the dominant role of low cardiac output rather than excessive in heart failure pathophysiology. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001883 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001883.) PMID:23130146

  11. Cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest increase endothelin-1 production and receptor expression in the lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Kirshbom; Stella O. Page; M. Todd Jacobs; Steven S. L. Tsui; Elizabeth Bello; Ross M. Ungerleider; Debra A. Schwinn; J. William Gaynor

    1997-01-01

    Background: Endothelin-1 has been shown to be a mediator of pulmonary hypertension after cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. It is not known whether the mechanism is increased production of endothelin-1 or alterations in expression of endothelin-1 receptors in the lung. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that circulatory arrest increases endothelin-1 mRNA levels and endothelin-1 receptor

  12. Gastroenterology case report of mesalazine-induced cardiopulmonary hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ferrusquía, José; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Gómez de la Torre, Ricardo; Fernández-Almira, María Luisa; de Francisco, Ruth; Rodrigo, Luis; Riestra, Sabino

    2015-04-01

    Mesalazine is a 5-aminosalicylic acid derivative that has been widely used to treat patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that mesalazine has a very low rate of adverse drug reactions and is well tolerated by patients. However, a few cases of pulmonary and cardiac disease related to mesalazine have been reported in the past, though infrequently, preventing clinicians from diagnosing the conditions early. We describe the case of a 32-year-old man with ulcerative colitis who was admitted with a two-month history of persistent fever following mesalazine treatment initiated 14 mo earlier. At the time of admission, mesalazine dose was increased from 1.5 to 3.0 g/d, and antibiotic therapy was started with no improvement. Three weeks after admission, the patient developed dyspnea, non-productive cough, and chest pain. Severe eosinophilia was detected in laboratory tests, and a computed tomography scan revealed interstitial infiltrates in both lungs, as well as a large pericardial effusion. The bronchoalveolar lavage reported a CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.5, and an increased eosinophil count. Transbronchial biopsy examination showed a severe eosinophilic infiltrate of the lung tissue. Mesalazine-induced cardiopulmonary hypersensitivity was suspected after excluding other possible etiologies. Consequently, mesalazine treatment was suspended, and corticosteroid therapy was initiated, resulting in resolution of symptoms and radiologic abnormalities. We conclude that mesalazine-induced pulmonary and cardiac hypersensitivity should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained cardiopulmonary symptoms and radiographic abnormalities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25852295

  13. Exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Belman, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Sporadic visits to the local doctor followed sometimes by changes in oral and inhaled bronchodilators and occasionally by the addition of steroids frequently does little to significantly improve symptoms and function in the disabled patient with COPD. As in other chronic diseases, the management of these patients is facilitated by a team approach in conjunction with general rehabilitation principles. The rationale and practical implementation of such a programme has recently been outlined by the American Association of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation. These are multifaceted programmes but a key component, as outlined above, is exercise training. In this brief review the various approaches available have been described. Controversy still reigns regarding the optimal modes of training and there are important differences among the several approaches. Two main groups can be delineated. One emphasises the detailed definition of the impaired physiology with therapeutic measures targeted to specific defects. There is good documentation that, conversely, unstructured programmes that use treadmill and free range walking and cycling also improve endurance for walking. Upper extremity training is of additional benefit. Programmes with as little as three sessions per week of 1-2 hours of low intensity activity have achieved success so we know that simple programmes can be helpful. Moreover, without the necessity for complex testing and training methods these programmes can be implemented with relatively low costs. Future investigations to examine the relationship between improved exercise capacity for walking and arm exercise on the one hand, and the ease of performance of activities of daily living on the other, will help to reinforce the effectiveness of exercise programmes. Images PMID:8236079

  14. Detection and measurement of the P-wave and T-wave during exercise testing using combined heuristic and statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Froning, J N; Froelicher, V F

    1987-10-01

    Accurate detection and measurement of the P-wave and T-wave components of the ECG complex have been difficult and often avoided in computerized ECG analysis. This is particularly so during exercise testing where T-P fusion occurs during higher heart-rates. By combining advanced pattern-recognition techniques, statistical measurements and empirically based heuristic decision-making logic, our ECG Analysis program has been able to reliably detect, measure and track these components during exercise testing to a degree surpassing visual detection by highly experienced readers. Complete analysis of each consecutive record gathered during the exercise test is performed and a data-base of measurements and parameters is created for reference comparison of previous results at each analysis step to current measurements. Thus, evaluation of each current record for appropriate and accurate analysis is based on an expert system approach which is constantly updated and can adjust itself to individual ECG morphology as the test progresses. Preliminary attempts are also being made to separate, extract and normalize the P-wave and T-wave during fusion for better understanding and comparison of changes which occur at high heart-rates. Theoretical and clinical reasons related to the detection and measurements of the P-wave and T-wave during exercise testing are also discussed. PMID:3694095

  15. Unique Testing Capabilities of the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, an Exercise in Aeroelastic Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is the world's most capable aeroelastic test facility. Its large size, transonic speed range, variable pressure capability, and use of either air or R-134a heavy gas as a test medium enable unparalleled manipulation of flow-dependent scaling quantities. Matching these scaling quantities enables dynamic similitude of a full-scale vehicle with a sub-scale model, a requirement for proper characterization of any dynamic phenomenon, and many static elastic phenomena. Select scaling parameters are presented in order to quantify the scaling advantages of TDT and the consequence of testing in other facilities. In addition to dynamic testing, the TDT is uniquely well-suited for high risk testing or for those tests that require unusual model mount or support systems. Examples of recently conducted dynamic tests requiring unusual model support are presented. In addition to its unique dynamic test capabilities, the TDT is also evaluated in its capability to conduct aerodynamic performance tests as a result of its flow quality. Results of flow quality studies and a comparison to a many other transonic facilities are presented. Finally, the ability of the TDT to support future NASA research thrusts and likely vehicle designs is discussed.

  16. A system for automatic testing of embedded software in undergraduate study exercises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Voin Legourski; Christian Trödhandl; Bettina Weiss

    2005-01-01

    As student numbers in embedded systems lab courses increase, it becomes more and more time-consuming to verify the correctness of their homework and exam programs. Automatic verification can vastly improve the speed and quality of such tests. This paper describes a system that can carry out black-box tests to verify whether the embedded software running on a target system meets

  17. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  18. Post-exercise oxygen uptake kinetics in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, W; Kumada, T; Kohno, F; Noda, M; Ishikawa, N; Kambayashi, M; Kawai, C

    1993-01-01

    We assessed the kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2) after symptom-limited maximal exercise by use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing with a bicycle ergometer in normal subjects and patients with left ventricular dysfunction due to dilated cardiomyopathy. During the first few minutes after the cessation of exercise, the VO2-time relationship showed an exponential-like decrease. A monoexponential curve was fitted to this relationship of the first 3 min after exercise to obtain the time constant of the decrease in VO2 (T(VO2)). The results of exercise testing in 37 normal subjects (25 male and 12 female) revealed that T(VO2) was relatively independent of age and gender. Then, 30 male patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (10 in New York Heart Association functional class I, 12 in class II, and 8 in class III) were evaluated and the results were compared with those of 16 age-matched male control normal subjects. Although the amount of the estimated oxygen debt was smaller in the patient group, the time constant T(VO2) was 117 +/- 8 s for the controls as compared with 130 +/- 14 s for the patients in class I, 153 +/- 13 s for those in class II, and 219 +/- 49 s for those in class III. There were significant correlations between T(VO2) and anaerobic threshold (r = -0.68, p < 0.001), peak VO2 (r = -0.74, p < 0.001), and the increase in VO2 per work rate (r = -0.88, p < 0.001). T(VO2) also correlated with the ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2) at peak exercise (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) and the time course of minute ventilation during the early phase of the post-exercise period (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). Thus, the time course of VO2 decrease after symptom-limited exercise is considered to be closely related to exercise capacity and also to the degree of exercise-induced hyperpnea in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:8444503

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Impaired Exercise Capacity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Beitler, Jeremy R.; Awad, Karim M.; Bakker, Jessie P.; Edwards, Bradley A.; DeYoung, Pam; Djonlagic, Ina; Forman, Daniel E.; Quan, Stuart F.; Malhotra, Atul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Because cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) aids in prognostic assessment of heart disease, there is rising interest in its utility for cardiovascular risk stratification of patients with OSA. However, the relationship between OSA and exercise capacity is unclear. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that OSA is associated with impaired exercise capacity. Methods: Fifteen subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA (apneahypopnea index [AHI] ? 15 events/h) and 19 controls with mild or no OSA (AHI < 15 events/h) were enrolled. Subjects underwent standard polysomnography to determine AHI and exclude other sleep disorders. Resting metabolic rate was measured via indirect calorimetry, followed by maximum, symptom-limited CPET. Subjects completed a sleep diary and physical activity questionnaire characterizing behaviors in the week prior to testing. Results: Percent predicted peak oxygen uptake (V?O2) was significantly lower in OSA subjects than controls (70.1% ± 17.5% vs 83.8% ± 13.9%; p = 0.02). Each 1-unit increase in log-transformed AHI was associated with a decrease in percent predicted peak O2 of 3.20 (95% CI 0.53-5.88; p = 0.02). After adjusting for baseline differences, this association remained significant (p < 0.01). AHI alone explained 16.1% of the variability observed in percent predicted peak O2 (p = 0.02). Conclusions: OSA is associated with impaired exercise capacity. Further study is needed to evaluate the utility of CPET for prognostic assessment of patients with OSA. Citation: Beitler JR, Awad KM, Bakker JP, Edwards BA, DeYoung P, Djonlagic I, Forman DE, Quan SF, Malhotra A. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with impaired exercise capacity: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1199-1204. PMID:25325602

  20. Laboratory Exercises An Hypothesis-driven, Molecular Phylogenetics Exercise for

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    after hypothesis generation. * This laboratory was designed and tested with the assistance of grantsLaboratory Exercises An Hypothesis-driven, Molecular Phylogenetics Exercise for College Biology State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 This hypothesis-driven laboratory exercise teaches how DNA

  1. USE OF A PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR IN CARDIOPULMONARY PERFUSION

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J. David; Tallent, Jerome H.

    1978-01-01

    This study describes a hand-held, battery-powered, programmable instrument (Calculator Model SR-52) that can be taken directly into the operating room by cardiopulmonary perfusionists. Three programs are described in detail: 1) Cardiopulmonary perfusion parameters and estimated blood volume; 2) blood gas parameters and saturations, with temperature corrections; and 3) cardiopulmonary oxygen transfer and oxygenator efficiency. This inexpensive calculator allows perfusion personnel to manipulate easily-derived data into values which heretofore have required elaborate nomograms or special slide rules—or were not available within a reasonable computational time. PMID:15216068

  2. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control condition (-0.83 +/- 0.14 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1). CONCLUSION: Expansion of vascular volume after acute exercise is associated with altered operational range for CVP and reduced HR response to arterial baroreceptor stimulation.

  3. [Prone position: effect on gas exchange and functional capacity for exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Bastidas-L, Andrea Carolina; Colina-Chourio, José A; Guevara, Jesnel M; Nunez, Alexis

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate gas exchange and cardiopulmonary functional behavior in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) before, during and after the change to a prone position. Thirty patients with PH and alterations in gas exchange were included in the study. Gas exchange measurements were performed in four stages: at the baseline supine position and after 30, 120 and 240 minutes in prone position. Also, the patients were evaluated by the six minutes walking test (6MWT) after 30 days in prone position during night's sleep. After four hours in prone position, all patients showed an increase of PaO2 and arterial saturation of oxygen (SaO2), with a decrease of intrapulmonary shunts, improving the gas exchange and therefore the physiological demand imposed by exercise in patients with PH. PMID:25920183

  4. Longitudinal exercise capacity of patients with repaired tetralogy of fallot.

    PubMed

    Kipps, Alaina K; Graham, Dionne A; Harrild, David M; Lewis, Erik; Powell, Andrew J; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2011-07-01

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot have a reduced percentage of predicted peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and percentage of oxygen pulse (O(2)P%) compared to healthy controls. Because data regarding the progression of exercise intolerance in these patients is limited, we sought to analyze the serial exercise data from patients with Tetralogy of Fallot to quantify the changes in their exercise capacity over time and to identify associations with clinical and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables. The data from cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPXs) from 2002 to 2010 for patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot with ?2 CPXs separated by ?12 months were analyzed. Tests occurring after interventional catheterization or surgery were excluded. A total of 70 patients had 179 CPXs. They had a median age at the initial study of 23.6 years and an interval between the first and last CPX of 2.8 years. At the initial CPX, the peak VO(2) was 27.6 ± 8.8 ml/kg/min (78 ± 19% of predicted), and the peak O(2)P% was 89 ± 22% of predicted. At the most recent study, the peak VO(2) averaged 25.0 ± 7.4 ml/kg/min (73 ± 16% of predicted), and the peak O(2)P% averaged 83 ± 20% (p <0.01) for each versus the initial CPX. The decrease in the peak VO(2) was strongly associated with a decrease in O(2)P% and an increase (worsening) in the slope of the minute ventilation-versus-carbon dioxide production relation. Changes in the peak VO(2) did not correlate with concomitant changes in any other CPX variable. The rate of decrease was not related to a history of shunt palliation, age at CPX, or any other baseline clinical parameter, including cardiac magnetic resonance measurements. In conclusion, the exercise capacity of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot tends to decrease over time. This deterioration is variable and unpredictable and is primarily related to a decrease in the forward stroke volume at peak exercise. PMID:21529748

  5. Educational aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, S J

    1990-03-01

    The knowledge and skills surrounding the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have become essential to intensive care nurses and to nurses in general. With formalized training and refresher courses becoming more common in this country, it is evident that after relatively short periods of time the knowledge and skills acquired at such courses may be lost. While much consideration has been given to the content of both Basic and Advanced Cardiac Life Support (BCLS and ACLS) courses, relatively little attention has been paid to the educational issues surrounding CPR training. This paper explores some of these issues from the perspective of adult learning (andragogy). Research is cited from a wide range of sources to illustrate that CPR skill and knowledge deterioration is not unique to nursing, and that educational techniques exist which may improve current educational practices. PMID:2329270

  6. Endarterectomy and surgical angioplasty without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Sai Krishna, Cheemalapati; Naresh Kumar, Palli Venkata; Ramesh Babu, Vedangi; Ram Mohan, Kanteti

    2008-01-01

    Surgical angioplasty for ostial stenosis of the major coronary arteries is a well-established treatment modality. Management of discrete stenoses of distal coronary arteries in the presence of mild proximal disease is a challenging task. Percutaneous intervention or grafting beyond the diseased segment may be limited by size of the target vessel, whereas endarterectomy followed by graft placement may result in graft occlusion due to competitive native flow. Patch angioplasty with or without endarterectomy is an effective option in this setting, which can be performed without cardiopulmonary bypass in the appropriate group of patients. A patient with triple vessel coronary artery disease and a discrete lesion in the posterior descending artery underwent off-pump endarterectomy with vein patch angioplasty in combination with bypass grafting to left anterior descending and obtuse marginal arteries. Operative technique and intraoperative strategies are discussed. PMID:18384576

  7. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK TEST CYCLES: COMBINING DRIVEABILITY WITH REALISTIC ENGINE EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy-duty engine certification testing uses a cycle that is scaled to the capabilities of each engine. As such, every engine should be equally challenged by the cycle's power demands. It would seem that a chassis cycle, similarly scaled to the capabilities of each vehicle, could...

  8. AB 1. Prevalence and etiology of reduced exercise capacity among patients with scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Boutou, Afroditi K.; Siakka, Panagiota; Pitsiou, Georgia; Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Chavouzis, Nikolaos; Paspala, Asimina; Boura, Panagiota; Garyfallos, Alexandros; Argyropoulou, Paraskevi; Stanopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Background Scleroderma is a connective tissue disorder characterized by reduced exercise tolerance. The aim of the study is: (I) to estimate the prevalence of decreased maximum exercise capacity, (II) to investigate the cause of this functional limitation (respiratory or cardiovascular disorders) and (III) to study potential differences of clinical, radiological, functional characteristics and blood serology among scleroderma patients with functional limitation of different etiology. Material and methods A consecutive population of 82 scleroderma patients (11.9% male; 49.8 years old and 88.1% female; 54.9 years old), who were evaluated at the respiratory physiology laboratory of the Respiratory Failure Unit, constituted the study population. Patients underwent spirometry, measurement of diffusion capacity, resting Doppler echocardiography and maximum cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer. Data on previous thorax computed tomography and blood serology were also recorded. Breathing Reserve at the end of exercise was calculated as: BR = (FEV1 ×40) - peak minute ventilation. Patients with BR <11 lt presented with respiratory limitation, the ones with peak oxygen uptake (VO2 max%) <75% predicted presented with circulatory limitation, while the ones with both BR ?11 lt and VO2 max% ?75% presented with normal maximum exercise capacity. Results Exercise capacity was normal in 37.8% of patients (group N), reduced exercise capacity due to respiratory limitation in 12.2% (group R) and reduced exercise capacity due to circulatory limitation in 50% (group C). Patients of group R, compared to those of group C, were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 years old; P=0.018), had a more severe respiratory restriction (measured by TLC%) (61.3 vs. 84.5; P<0.001), presented with pulmonary hypertension less often (P=0.048) and reached a lower VO2 max% (67.8% vs. 71.1%). Neither autoantibodies subtype (Anti sc70 or ACA), nor systemic arterial pressure during exercise differed between the two groups. Conclusions: Reduced exercise capacity occurs very often among patients with scleroderma. The most common cause is circulatory limitation, while the less frequent respiratory limitation occurs among older patients with more severe lung involvement.

  9. The use of step tests for the assessment of exercise capacity in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Carlos Henrique Silva de; Cianci, Reinaldo Giovanini; Malaguti, Carla; Corso, Simone Dal

    2012-01-01

    Step tests are typically used to assess exercise capacity. Given the diversity of step tests, the aim of this review was to describe the protocols that have been used in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease. Step tests for use in healthy subjects have undergone a number of modifications over the years. In most step tests, the duration is variable (90 s-10 min), but the step height (23.0-50.8 cm) and stepping rate (22.5-35.0 steps/min) remain constant throughout the test. However, the use of a fixed step height and constant stepping rate might not provide adequate work intensity for subjects with different levels of fitness, the workload therefore being above or below individual capacity. Consequently, step test protocols have been modified by introducing changes in step heights and stepping rates during the test. Step tests have been used in patients with chronic lung diseases since the late 1970s. The protocols are quite varied, with adjustments in step height (15-30 cm), pacing (self-paced or externally paced), and test duration (90 s-10 min). However, the diversity of step test protocols and the variety of outcomes studied preclude the determination of the best protocol for use in individuals with chronic lung disease. Shorter protocols with a high stepping rate would seem to be more appropriate for assessing exercise-related oxygen desaturation in chronic lung disease. Symptom-limited testing would be more appropriate for evaluating exercise tolerance. There is a need for studies comparing different step test protocols, in terms of their reliability, validity, and ability to quantify responses to interventions, especially in individuals with lung disease. PMID:22407048

  10. Reliability of 31 P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy during an exhaustive incremental exercise test in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Barker; Joanne Welsman; Deborah Welford; Jonathan Fulford; Craig Williams; Neil Armstrong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the reliability of 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure parameters of muscle metabolic function in children. On separate days, 14 children (7 boys and 7 girls) completed three knee-extensor incremental tests to exhaustion inside a whole-body scanner (1.5 T, Phillips). The dynamic changes in the ratio of inorganic phosphate to phosphocreatine (Pi\\/PCr) and intracellular muscle pH were resolved

  11. Endogenous angiotensin II and the reflex response to stimulation of cardiopulmonary serotonin 5HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Veelken, R; Hilgers, K F; Scrogin, K E; Mann, J F E; Schmieder, R E

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II modulates cardiovascular baroreflexes; whether or not the peptide influences chemosensitive cardiovascular reflexes is not known. We tested the hypothesis that Ang II modulates the reflex control of sympathetic nerve activity exerted by 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5HT3) cardiopulmonary receptors.The 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (PBG), infused intravenously for 15?min, elicited a sustained reflex decrease of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) but only transient (<3?min) changes of arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in methohexital-anaesthesized rats.Infusion of Ang II at a dose that did not affect baseline BP, HR and RSNA enhanced the PBG-evoked reflex decrease of RSNA (?54±5% in Ang II treated versus ?33±6% in control rats after 15?min PBG, P<0.05, n=6 each) in methohexital-anaesthetized rats.The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril blunted the reflex responses to PBG in anaesthetized as well as conscious animals. The effect of the ACE inhibitor was abolished by concomitant infusion of Ang II.The reflex response to stimulation of cardiopulmonary 5HT3 afferents was also impaired by the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker ZD7155 but not by the type 2 (AT2) blocker PD 123319.Infusion of a volume load to stimulate cardiopulmonary baroreceptors induced a gradual decrease of RSNA which was impaired by exogenous Ang II (RSNA ?26±6% in Ang II treated versus ?47±6% in control rats after volume load, P<0.05, n=6 each) but unaffected by ACE inhibition.The reflex control of RSNA by cardiopulmonary 5HT3 receptors is enhanced by Ang II via AT1 receptors. Thus, Ang II facilitates a chemosensitive cardiovascular reflex, in contrast to its inhibitory influences on mechanosensitive reflexes. PMID:9886768

  12. A Reliable Method for Rhythm Analysis during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, U.; Irusta, U.; Ruiz, J.; Eftestøl, T.; Kramer-Johansen, J.; Alonso-Atienza, F.; Alonso, E.; González-Otero, D.

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) compromise defibrillation success. However, CPR must be interrupted to analyze the rhythm because although current methods for rhythm analysis during CPR have high sensitivity for shockable rhythms, the specificity for nonshockable rhythms is still too low. This paper introduces a new approach to rhythm analysis during CPR that combines two strategies: a state-of-the-art CPR artifact suppression filter and a shock advice algorithm (SAA) designed to optimally classify the filtered signal. Emphasis is on designing an algorithm with high specificity. The SAA includes a detector for low electrical activity rhythms to increase the specificity, and a shock/no-shock decision algorithm based on a support vector machine classifier using slope and frequency features. For this study, 1185 shockable and 6482 nonshockable 9-s segments corrupted by CPR artifacts were obtained from 247 patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The segments were split into a training and a test set. For the test set, the sensitivity and specificity for rhythm analysis during CPR were 91.0% and 96.6%, respectively. This new approach shows an important increase in specificity without compromising the sensitivity when compared to previous studies. PMID:24895621

  13. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories.

    PubMed

    Koenen, F; Uttenthal, A; Meindl-Böhmer, A

    2007-12-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning contingency plans. These plans should ensure that in the event of an outbreak access to facilities, equipment, resources, trained personnel, and all other facilities needed for the rapid and efficient eradication of the outbreak is guaranteed, and that the procedures to follow are well rehearsed. It is essential that these plans are established during 'peace-time' and are reviewed regularly. This paper provides suggestions on how to perform laboratory exercises to test preparedness and describes the experiences of two national reference laboratories for CSF. The major lesson learnt was the importance of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those involved in order to reduce the administrative load, is also discussed. PMID:18293611

  14. PREDICTION OF VO2PEAK USING OMNI RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION FROM A SUBMAXIMAL CYCLE EXERCISE TEST

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Ryan J.; Goss, Fredric L.; Nagle-Stilley, Elizabeth F.; Gallagher, Michael; Schafer, Mark A.; Kim, Kevin H.; Robertson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The primary aim of this study was to develop statistical models to predict peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) using OMNI Ratings of Perceived Exertion measured during submaximal cycle ergometry. Men (mean ± standard error: 20.90 ± 0.42 yrs) and women (21.59 ± 0.49 yrs) participants (n = 81) completed a load-incremented maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Simultaneous multiple linear regression was used to develop separate VO2peak statistical models using submaximal ratings of perceived exertion for the overall body, legs, and chest/breathing as predictor variables. VO2peak (L·min?1) predicted for men and women from ratings of perceived exertion for the overall body (3.02 ± 0.06; 2.03 ± 0.04), legs (3.02 ± 0.06; 2.04 ± 0.04) and chest/breathing (3.02 ± 0.05; 2.03 ± 0.03) were similar with measured VO2peak (3.02 ± 0.10; 2.03 ± 0.06, ps > .05). Statistical models based on submaximal OMNI Ratings of Perceived Exertion provide an easily administered and accurate method to predict VO2peak. PMID:25068750

  15. Autonomic adjustments to exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Autonomic nervous system adjustments to the heart and blood vessels are necessary for mediating the cardiovascular responses required to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle during exercise. These demands are met by precise exercise intensity-dependent alterations in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. The purpose of this review is to examine the contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in mediating specific cardiovascular and hemodynamic responses to exercise. These changes in autonomic outflow are regulated by several neural mechanisms working in concert, including central command (a feed forward mechanism originating from higher brain centers), the exercise pressor reflex (a feed-back mechanism originating from skeletal muscle), the arterial baroreflex (a negative feed-back mechanism originating from the carotid sinus and aortic arch), and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors (a feed-back mechanism from stretch receptors located in the heart and lungs). In addition, arterial chemoreceptors and phrenic afferents from respiratory muscles (i.e., respiratory metaboreflex) are also capable of modulating the autonomic responses to exercise. Our goal is to provide a detailed review of the parasympathetic and sympathetic changes that occur with exercise distinguishing between the onset of exercise and steady-state conditions, when appropriate. In addition, studies demonstrating the contributions of each of the aforementioned neural mechanisms to the autonomic changes and ensuing cardiac and/or vascular responses will be covered. PMID:25880502

  16. LISP Exercises

    E-print Network

    Hart, Timothy P.

    1964-01-01

    The following exercises are carefully graded to mesh with the sections in Chapter I, "The LISP Language", in the LISP 1.5 Programmer's Manual. Each exercise should be worked immediately after reading the manual section indicated.

  17. Effect of thoracotomy and lung resection on exercise capacity in patients with lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A-M Nugent; I C Steele; A M Carragher; K McManus; J A McGuigan; J R P Gibbons; M S Riley; D P Nicholls

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDResection is the treatment of choice for lung cancer, but may cause impaired cardiopulmonary function with an adverse effect on quality of life. Few studies have considered the effects of thoracotomy alone on lung function, and whether the operation itself can impair subsequent exercise capacity.METHODSPatients being considered for lung resection (n = 106) underwent full static and dynamic pulmonary function

  18. Respiratory function dynamics in individuals with increased motor activity during standard exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Andziulis, A; Gocentas, A; Jascaniniene, N; Jaszczanin, J; Juozulynas, A; Radzijewska, M

    2005-01-01

    Functional diagnostics is one of the most important areas of sports medicine, which plays an increasingly role in selection of athletes, optimisation of training, early diagnostics and prophylaxis of sports pathology. Functional condition of the body undergoes constant changes under the influence of a number of factors. The differences may be considerable and pose problems related to the recruitment of athletes to teams in game sports and in individual sports. Physical ability is determined by the quality of external breathing and cardiovascular functions and by peculiarities of metabolism related to the tissue breathing and transport of substrates. In qualitative assessment of these phenomena one must relate the parameters of the individual's functional conditions to the required or desired values, i.e. norms. On the other hand, there exist no norms for a comprehensive evaluation of the Lithuanian persons' physical capacity and breathing system and metabolic function capacity including residents going in for sports. It is not clear whether one may rely upon the nomograms drawn up by foreign authors because they may not be applicable to Lithuanian athletes for a number of possible reasons: differences in training methods, regional cultural environment (differences in energy requirements in daily life), nutritional aspects, even demographic peculiarities taking into account limited assimilation level and small number of inhabitants. It has been established that the maximum oxygen uptake indicators reflecting the body's dynamic potential are different in elite athletes when evaluated during a standard ergo metric test. The aerobic capacity is determined by all links in the oxygen transport chain, since both heart rate (HR) and breathing indicators (VE-ventilation volume, PEF-peak expiratory flow and RR-respiratory rate) are characterised by equally good correlation with the oxygen uptake indicators and high determination coefficients (all r > 0.95, R2 > 95%, p < 0.01). PMID:16201157

  19. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Obesity is a global health problem and is associated with a multitude of complications. This study was designed to determine changes in cardiopulmonary functions after aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty obese subjects, whose ages ranged between 18 and 25?years, were divided into 2 equal groups: group A received aerobic exercise training in addition to dietary measures, and group B received anaerobic exercise training for 3 months in addition to dietary measures. Measurements of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen consumption, and body mass index were obtained for both groups before and after the exercise program. [Results] The mean body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal oxygen consumption decreased significantly, whereas the mean maximum voluntary ventilation increased significantly after treatment in group A. The mean maximum voluntary ventilation also increased significantly after treatment in group B. There were significant differences between the mean levels of the investigated parameters in groups A and B after treatment. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise reduces weight and improves cardiopulmonary fitness in obese subjects better than anaerobic exercise. PMID:26180300

  20. Effects of Exercise Training versus Attention on Plasma B-type Natriuretic Peptide, 6-Minute Walk Test and Quality of Life in Individuals with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Joseph F.; Pozehl, Bunny J.; Duncan, Kathleen A.; Hertzog, Melody A.; Krueger, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare an Exercise Training Group (EX) with an Attention-Control Group (AT-C) to more specifically assess the impact of exercise training on individuals with heart failure (HF). Methods Forty-two individuals with HF were randomized to AT-C or EX that met with the same frequency and format of investigator interaction. Baseline, 12- and 24-week measurements of B-type naturetic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), and the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) were obtained. Results BNP tended to increase in the AT-C while remaining stable in the EX over time. A clinically significant increase in 6-MWT was demonstrated by the EX but not the AT-C. The EX achieved a clinically significant change on the KCCQ at 12 weeks, with further improvement by 24 weeks, while the AT-C demonstrated a clinically significant change at 24 weeks. Conclusions Attention alone was inadequate to positively impact BNP levels or 6-MWT distances, but did have a positive impact on quality of life after 24 weeks. Although exercise offers enhanced benefits, individuals with HF unable to participate in an exercise program may still gain quality of life benefits from participation in a peer-support group that discusses topics pertinent to HF. PMID:23304096

  1. Significance of a negative exercise thallium test in the presence of a critical residual stenosis after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, J.M.; Topol, E.J. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1991-04-01

    After thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction, increasing emphasis is placed on early submaximal exercise testing, with further intervention advocated only for demonstrable ischemia. Although significant residual coronary artery lesions after successful thrombolysis are common, many patients paradoxically have no corresponding provokable ischemia. The relation between significant postthrombolytic residual coronary artery disease and a negative early, submaximal exercise thallium-201 tomogram was studied among 101 consecutive patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction and at least 70% residual stenosis of the infarct artery. A negative test occurred in 49 (48.5%) patients with a mean 88% residual infarct artery stenosis. Further characteristics of the group were as follows: mean time to treatment was 3.1 hours; mean age was 54 +/- 10 years; 80% were male; 47% had anterior infarction; 39% had multivessel disease; mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 53 +/- 14%; and mean peak creatine kinase level was 3,820 +/- 3,123 IU/ml. A similar group of 52 (51.5%) patients, treated within 3.3 hours from symptom onset, with a mean postthrombolysis stenosis of 90%, had a positive exercise test. Characteristics of this group were as follows: age was 58 +/- 10 years; 92% were male; 56% had anterior infarction; 40% had multivessel disease; and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 54 +/- 15%. The peak creatine kinase level associated with the infarction, however, was lower: 2,605 +/- 1,805 IU/ml (p = 0.04). There was no difference in performance at exercise testing with respect to peak systolic pressure, peak heart rate, or time tolerated on the treadmill between the two groups. By multivariate logistic regression, only peak creatine kinase level predicted a negative stress result in the presence of a significant residual stenosis.

  2. Left ventricular support adjustment to aortic valve opening with analysis of exercise capacity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background LVAD speed adjustment according to a functioning aortic valve has hypothetic advantages but could lead to submaximal support. The consequences of an open aortic valve policy on exercise capacity and hemodynamics have not yet been investigated systematically. Methods Ambulatory patients under LVAD support (INCOR®, Berlin Heart, mean support time 465?±?257 days, average flow 4.0?±?0.3 L/min) adjusted to maintain a near normal aortic valve function underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and right heart catheterization (RHC) at rest and during constant work rate exercise (20 Watt). Results Although patients (n?=?8, mean age 45?±?13 years) were in NYHA class 2, maximum work-load and peak oxygen uptake on CPET were markedly reduced with 69?±?13 Watts (35% predicted) and 12?±?2 mL/min/kg (38% predicted), respectively. All patients showed a typical cardiac limitation pattern and severe ventilatory inefficiency with a slope of ventilation to carbon dioxide output of 42?±?12. On RHC, patients showed an exercise-induced increase of mean pulmonary artery pressure (from 16?±?2.4 to 27?±?2.8 mmHg, p?exercise capacity and hemodynamics, which is not reflected by NYHA-class. Unknown compensatory mechanisms can be suspected. Further studies comparing higher vs. lower support are needed for optimization of LVAD adjustment strategies. PMID:24884921

  3. Pulmonary circulation and gas exchange at exercise in Sherpas at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Faoro, Vitalie; Huez, Sandrine; Vanderpool, Rebecca; Groepenhoff, Herman; de Bisschop, Claire; Martinot, Jean-Benot; Lamotte, Michel; Pavelescu, Adriana; Guénard, Hervé; Naeije, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Tibetans have been reported to present with a unique phenotypic adaptation to high altitude characterized by higher resting ventilation and arterial oxygen saturation, no excessive polycythemia, and lower pulmonary arterial pressures (Ppa) compared with other high-altitude populations. How this affects exercise capacity is not exactly known. We measured aerobic exercise capacity during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) and nitric oxide (DL(NO)) at rest, and mean Ppa (mPpa) and cardiac output by echocardiography at rest and at exercise in 13 Sherpas and in 13 acclimatized lowlander controls at the altitude of 5,050 m in Nepal. In Sherpas vs. lowlanders, arterial oxygen saturation was 86 ± 1 vs. 83 ± 2% (mean ± SE; P = nonsignificant), mPpa at rest 19 ± 1 vs. 23 ± 1 mmHg (P < 0.05), DL(CO) corrected for hemoglobin 61 ± 4 vs. 37 ± 2 ml · min(-1) · mmHg(-1) (P < 0.001), DL(NO) 226 ± 18 vs. 153 ± 9 ml · min(-1) · mmHg(-1) (P < 0.001), maximum oxygen uptake 32 ± 3 vs. 28 ± 1 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) (P = nonsignificant), and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide at anaerobic threshold 40 ± 2 vs. 48 ± 2 (P < 0.001). Maximum oxygen uptake was correlated directly to DL(CO) and inversely to the slope of mPpa-cardiac index relationships in both Sherpas and acclimatized lowlanders. We conclude that Sherpas compared with acclimatized lowlanders have an unremarkable aerobic exercise capacity, but with less pronounced pulmonary hypertension, lower ventilatory responses, and higher lung diffusing capacity. PMID:23869067

  4. Rhythm Analysis during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Irusta, Unai; Ruiz, Jesus; Ayala, Unai; Aramendi, Elisabete; Eftestøl, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest depends largely on two factors: early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation. CPR must be interrupted for a reliable automated rhythm analysis because chest compressions induce artifacts in the ECG. Unfortunately, interrupting CPR adversely affects survival. In the last twenty years, research has been focused on designing methods for analysis of ECG during chest compressions. Most approaches are based either on adaptive filters to remove the CPR artifact or on robust algorithms which directly diagnose the corrupted ECG. In general, all the methods report low specificity values when tested on short ECG segments, but how to evaluate the real impact on CPR delivery of continuous rhythm analysis during CPR is still unknown. Recently, researchers have proposed a new methodology to measure this impact. Moreover, new strategies for fast rhythm analysis during ventilation pauses or high-specificity algorithms have been reported. Our objective is to present a thorough review of the field as the starting point for these late developments and to underline the open questions and future lines of research to be explored in the following years. PMID:24527445

  5. Cardiopulmonary consequences of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Shepard, J W

    1990-09-01

    During sleep, oxygen consumption and systemic blood pressure decrease in normal subjects; during rapid eye movement sleep, irregular ventilation can be accompanied by brief periods of apnea. In patients with obstructive sleep apnea, alveolar ventilation during an apneic episode is immediately reduced to zero, and the metabolic demands for oxygen must be met from oxygen stores within the body. As the stores of oxygen within the lung are diminished, the rate of arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation increases. The development of alveolar hypoventilation during wakefulness seems to be based on a balance between central ventilatory drives to breathe and mechanical loads placed on the respiratory system. Coexistent cardiopulmonary or neuromuscular disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea contributes to the development of alveolar hypoventilation. During apneic episodes, the systemic blood pressure increases while the heart rate and cardiac output decrease. Both bradycardias and increased ventricular ectopic activity have been associated with these disordered breathing episodes. Because of the possibility of apnea-associated arrhythmias, patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. The influence of these recurrent nocturnal episodes of asphyxia on cardiovascular longevity needs further investigation. PMID:2205763

  6. Possible SARS Coronavirus Transmission during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; McDonald, L. Clifford; Martinez, Kenneth F.; Ofner, Mariana; Wong, Tom; Wallington, Tamara; Gold, Wayne L.; Mederski, Barbara; Green, Karen; Low, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of healthcare workers with the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to occur primarily by either contact or large respiratory droplet transmission. However, infrequent healthcare worker infections occurred despite the use of contact and droplet precautions, particularly during certain aerosol-generating medical procedures. We investigated a possible cluster of SARS-CoV infections in healthcare workers who used contact and droplet precautions during attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a SARS patient. Unlike previously reported instances of transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, the index case-patient was unresponsive, and the intubation procedure was performed quickly and without difficulty. However, before intubation, the patient was ventilated with a bag-valve-mask that may have contributed to aerosolization of SARS-CoV. On the basis of the results of this investigation and previous reports of SARS transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, a systematic approach to the problem is outlined, including the use of the following: 1) administrative controls, 2) environmental engineering controls, 3) personal protective equipment, and 4) quality control. PMID:15030699

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and management of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Jerry P; Soar, Jasmeet; Wenzel, Volker; Paal, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The best chance of survival with a good neurological outcome after cardiac arrest is afforded by early recognition and high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), early defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation (VF), and subsequent care in a specialist center. Compression-only CPR should be used by responders who are unable or unwilling to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilations. After the first defibrillator shock, further rhythm checks and defibrillation attempts should be performed after 2 min of CPR. The underlying cause of cardiac arrest can be identified and treated during CPR. Drugs have a limited effect on long-term outcomes after cardiac arrest, although epinephrine improves the success of resuscitation, and amiodarone increases the success of defibrillation for refractory VF. Supraglottic airway devices are an alternative to tracheal intubation, which should be attempted only by skilled rescuers. Care after cardiac arrest includes controlled reoxygenation, therapeutic hypothermia for comatose survivors, percutaneous coronary intervention, circulatory support, and control of blood-glucose levels and seizures. Prognostication in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest needs a careful, multimodal approach using clinical and electrophysiological assessments after at least 72 h. PMID:22665327

  8. [Ethics of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation decisions].

    PubMed

    Monzón, J L; Saralegui, I; Molina, R; Abizanda, R; Cruz Martín, M; Cabré, L; Martínez, K; Arias, J J; López, V; Gràcia, R M; Rodríguez, A; Masnou, N

    2010-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) must be attempted if indicated, not done if it is not indicated or if the patient does not accept or has previously rejected it and withdrawn it if it is ineffective. If CPR is considered futile, a Do-Not-Resuscitate Order (DNR) will be recorded. This should be made known to all physicians and nurses involved in patient care. It may be appropriate to limit life-sustaining-treatments for patients with severe anoxic encephalopathy, if the possibility of clinical evolution to brain death is ruled out. After CPR it is necessary to inform and support families and then review the process in order to make future improvements. After limitation of vital support, certain type of non-heart-beating-organ donation can be proposed. In order to acquire CPR skills, it is necessary to practice with simulators and, sometimes, with recently deceased, always with the consent of the family. Research on CPR is essential and must be conducted according to ethical rules and legal frameworks. PMID:20542599

  9. Advances in clinical studies of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shou-quan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The survival rate of patients after cardiac arrest (CA) remains lower since 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) was published. In clinical trials, the methods and techniques for CPR have been overly described. This article gives an overview of the progress in methods and techniques for CPR in the past years. DATA SOURCES: Original articles about cardiac arrest and CPR from MEDLINE (PubMed) and relevant journals were searched, and most of them were clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RESULTS: Forty-two articles on methods and techniques of CPR were reviewed, including chest compression and conventional CPR, chest compression depth and speed, defibrillation strategies and priority, mechanical and manual chest compression, advanced airway management, impedance threshold device (ITD) and active compression-decompression (ACD) CPR, epinephrine use, and therapeutic hypothermia. The results of studies and related issues described in the international guidelines had been testified. CONCLUSIONS: Although large multicenter studies on CPR are still difficult to carry out, progress has been made in the past 4 years in the methods and techniques of CPR. The results of this review provide evidences for updating the 2015 international guidelines.

  10. Ergometric exercise testing and sensitivity of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) in diagnosing asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, G.; Mair, J.; Pichler, M.; Puschendorf, B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Increased plasma concentrations of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) have been reported in patients with manifest heart failure. At rest, however, cGMP concentrations in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I do not differ significantly from those of healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether graded exercise on an ergometer improves the sensitivity of cGMP in diagnosing asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. PATIENTS--Plasma cGMP concentrations were compared in 17 healthy controls and 98 patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction or congestive heart failure of different stages (asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction or NYHA functional class I, 56 patients; NYHA class II, 31 patients; NYHA class III, 11 patients). RESULTS--Before exercise plasma cGMP concentrations in patients with clinical heart failure (NYHA functional classes II and III) were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. In patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure of functional class I plasma cGMP concentrations were not significantly different from those in healthy subjects. Thirty minutes after exercise, however, cGMP concentrations in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction or class I heart failure were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. CONCLUSION--Measurement of plasma cGMP concentrations 30 minutes after ergometric exercise testing allows better discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with symptomless left ventricular dysfunction or mild heart failure (NYHA class I) than measurement of such concentrations before exercise. PMID:7696024

  11. Dynamics of chest wall volume regulation during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Takara, L.S.; Cunha, T.M.; Barbosa, P.; Rodrigues, M.K.; Oliveira, M.F.; Nery, L.E.; Neder, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the dynamic behavior of total and compartmental chest wall volumes [(VCW) = rib cage (VRC) + abdomen (VAB)] as measured breath-by-breath by optoelectronic plethysmography during constant-load exercise in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty males (GOLD stages II-III) underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test to the limit of tolerance (Tlim) at 75% of peak work rate on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation was considered to be present when end-expiratory (EE) VCW increased in relation to resting values. There was a noticeable heterogeneity in the patterns of VCW regulation as EEVCW increased non-linearly in 17/30 “hyperinflators” and decreased in 13/30 “non-hyperinflators” (P < 0.05). EEVAB decreased slightly in 8 of the “hyperinflators”, thereby reducing and slowing the rate of increase in end-inspiratory (EI) VCW (P < 0.05). In contrast, decreases in EEVCW in the “non-hyperinflators” were due to the combination of stable EEVRC with marked reductions in EEVAB. These patients showed lower EIVCW and end-exercise dyspnea scores but longer Tlim than their counterparts (P < 0.05). Dyspnea increased and Tlim decreased non-linearly with a faster rate of increase in EIVCW regardless of the presence or absence of dynamic hyperinflation (P < 0.001). However, no significant between-group differences were observed in metabolic, pulmonary gas exchange and cardiovascular responses to exercise. Chest wall volumes are continuously regulated during exercise in order to postpone (or even avoid) their migration to higher operating volumes in patients with COPD, a dynamic process that is strongly dependent on the behavior of the abdominal compartment. PMID:23250012

  12. Impaired exercise capacity following atrial septal defect closure: an invasive study of the right heart and pulmonary circulation

    PubMed Central

    Systrom, David; Epstein, Stephen E.; John, Anitha; Ruiz, George; Landzberg, Michael J.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Patients with early repair of an isolated atrial septal defect (ASD) are expected to have unremarkable right ventricular (RV) and pulmonary circulation physiology. Some studies, however, suggest persistent functional impairment. We aimed to examine the role of abnormal RV and pulmonary vascular response to exercise in patients who had undergone ASD closure. Using a previously published data set, we reviewed invasive exercise cardiopulmonary testing with right-sided hemodynamic data for 12 asymptomatic patients who had undergone ASD closure. The 5 (42%) patients with impaired maximal oxygen uptake () were older and exhibited a lower peak cardiac index (5.6 ± 0.8 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 L/min/m2; P = .005) because of abnormal stroke volume augmentation (+3.2 ± 3.9 vs. +17.4 ± 10.2 mL/m2; P = .02). While all resting hemodynamic variables were similar, patients with low tended to have abnormal total pulmonary vascular resistance change during exercise (+11% ± 41% vs. ?28% ± 26%; P = .06) and had a steeper relation between mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac index (5.8 ± 0.6 vs. 2.2 ± 0.1 L/min/m2; P = .02). The increase in peak mean RV power during exercise was also significantly lower in the impaired- patients (4.7 ± 1.6 vs. 7.6 ± 2.1 J/s; P = .04). As described in the original study, despite normal resting hemodynamics, a subset of asymptomatic patients with repaired ASD had diminished exercise capacity. Our analysis allows us to conclude that this is due to a combination of abnormal pulmonary vascular response to exercise and impaired RV function. PMID:25610599

  13. Predictive value of rotational thromboelastometry during cardiopulmonary bypass for thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after weaning of cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Sung-Mi; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Nam, Jae-Sik; Yun, Hye-Joo; Choi, Jeong-Hyun; Choi, In-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Background The early detection of coagulopathy helps guide decisions regarding optimal transfusion management during cardiac surgery. This study aimed to determine whether rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) analysis during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) could predict thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after CPB. Methods We analyzed 138 cardiac surgical patients for whom ROTEM tests and conventional laboratory tests were performed simultaneously both during and after CPB. An extrinsically activated ROTEM test (EXTEM), a fibrin-specific ROTEM test (FIBTEM) and PLTEM calculated by subtracting FIBTEM from EXTEM were evaluated. Correlations between clot amplitude at 10 min (A10), maximal clot firmness, platelet count, and fibrinogen concentrations at each time point were calculated. A receiver operating characteristic analysis with area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess the thresholds of EXTEM, PLTEM and FIBTEM parameters during CPB and for predicting thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after weaning of CPB. Results The A10 on EXTEM, PLTEM, and FIBTEM during CPB showed a good correlation with platelet counts (r = 0.622 on EXTEM and r = 0.637 on PLTEM; P < 0.0001 for each value) and fibrinogen levels (r = 0.780; P < 0.0001) after CPB. A10 on a FIBTEM threshold of 8 mm during the CPB predicted a fibrinogen concentration < 150 mg/dl (AUC = 0.853) after CPB. Additionally, the threshold level of A10 on EXTEM during CPB for predicting platelet counts < 100,000 /µl after CPB was 42 mm (AUC = 0.768). Conclusions EXTEM, PLTEM, and FIBTEM parameters during CPB may be useful for predicting thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after weaning of CPB.

  14. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Advances in Science, Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

    2009-01-01

    More than 25% of children survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrests, and 5% to 10% survive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. This review of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation addresses the epidemiology of pediatric cardiac arrests, mechanisms of coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the 4 phases of cardiac arrest resuscitation, appropriate interventions during each phase, special resuscitation circumstances, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The key elements of pathophysiology that impact and match the timing, intensity, duration, and variability of the hypoxic-ischemic insult to evidence-based interventions are reviewed. Exciting discoveries in basic and applied-science laboratories are now relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (eg, ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Improving the quality of interventions is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving outcomes. Evolving training strategies include simulation training, just-in-time and just-in-place training, and crisis-team training. The difficult issue of when to discontinue resuscitative efforts is addressed. Outcomes from pediatric cardiac arrests are improving. Advances in resuscitation science and state-of-the-art implementation techniques provide the opportunity for further improvement in outcomes among children after cardiac arrest. PMID:18977991

  15. Comparison of W(peak), VO2(peak) and the ventilation threshold from two different incremental exercise tests: relationship to endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Bentley, D J; McNaughton, L R

    2003-12-01

    This report presents data comparing the peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2(peak)), peak power output (W(peak)) and the ventilation threshold (VT) obtained from two different incremental cycle exercise tests performed by nine well trained triathletes (Mean +/- SD age 32 +/- 3 yrs; body mass 77.4 +/- 4.9 kg and height 185 +/- 3 cm). Furthermore, the relationship between these variables and the average sustained power output (W) during a 90 min cycle time trial (TT) was also determined. The two incremental exercise tests involved a 'short' test, which commenced at 150 W with 30 W increments every 60 s until exhaustion. The second ('long') incremental test commenced at a power output representing 50% of the W(peak) obtained in the short test. The subjects were then required to increase the power output by 5% every 3 min until exhaustion. The results showed the W(peak) (W) in the short test was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than in the long test. However, there was no significant difference in the VO2(peak) (1 x min(-1)) between the two tests. There was a weak but significant correlation between W(peak) (W) and VO2(peak) (l x min(-1)) (r = 0.72: p < 0.05) in the short (60 s stage) test but not the long (3 min stage) test (r = 0.52). There were no significant differences and good agreement between for the heart rate (HR) (b x min(-1)) and oxygen consumption (VO2) corresponding to the VT. In contrast, the power output (W) corresponding to the VT was significantly different and not comparable between the long and short incremental tests. The cycle TT performance was most correlated to the W(peak) (W) (r = 0.94; p < 0.01) and the VT (W) (r = 0.75; p < 0.05) from the long test as well as the VO2(peak) (l x min(-1)) obtained from the short incremental test (r = 0.75; p < 0.01). These data suggest that the length of stages during incremental cycle exercise may influence the W(peak) and in turn the relationship of this variable to VO2(peak). Furthermore, the W(peak) obtained from a test incorporating 3 min stage increments represents the best indicator of 90 min cycle performance in well-trained triathletes. PMID:14723392

  16. Colorado State University Emergency Response and Evacuation Exercise

    E-print Network

    Colorado State University Emergency Response and Evacuation Exercise Summary Date of Exercise: March 14, 2012 TimeLine of Exercise: Start: 9 a.m. End: About 11:15 am Announced or Unannounced Exercise?: This exercise was announced to the public. Contain drill? A drill is an activity that tests

  17. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A RELAX Trial Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Rosita; Borlaug, Barry A.; McNulty, Steven; Mohammed, Selma F.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Semigran, Marc J.; Deswal, Anita; LeWinter, Martin; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Braunwald, Eugene; Redfield, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common among patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) but its clinical profile and impact on exercise capacity remains unclear. RELAX was a multicenter randomized trial testing the impact of sildenafil on peak VO2 in stable outpatients with chronic HFpEF. We sought to compare clinical features and exercise capacity among HFpEF patients who were in sinus rhythm (SR) or AF. Methods and Results RELAX enrolled 216 HFpEF patients with 79 (37%) in AF, 124 (57%) in SR and 13 in other rhythms. Participants underwent baseline cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPXT), echocardiogram, biomarker and rhythm status assessment prior to randomization. AF patients were older than those in SR but had similar symptom severity, co-morbidities and renal function. Betablocker use and chronotropic indices were also similar. Despite comparable LV size and mass, AF was associated with worse systolic (lower EF, stroke volume and cardiac index) and diastolic (shorter deceleration time and larger left atria) function compared to SR. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure was higher in AF. AF patients had higher NT-proBNP, aldosterone, endothelin-1, troponin I and CITP levels suggesting more severe neurohumoral activation, myocyte necrosis and fibrosis. Peak VO2 was lower in AF, even after adjustment for age, sex, and chronotropic response, and VE/VCO2 was higher. Conclusions AF identifies an HFpEF cohort with more advanced disease and significantly reduced exercise capacity. These data suggest that evaluation of the impact of different rate or rhythm control strategies on exercise tolerance in HFpEF patients with AF is warranted. PMID:24162898

  18. Role of cytokine hemoadsorption in cardiopulmonary bypass-induced ventricular dysfunction in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Vocelka, Craig R; Jones, Krystal M; Mikhova, Krasimira M; Ebisu, Ryan M; Shar, Ashley; Kellum, John A; Verrier, Edward D; Rabkin, David G

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass alone on cardiac function; in an attempt to illuminate this relationship and test a possible mechanism, we used Cytosorb, a device capable of removing virtually all types of circulating cytokines to test the hypothesis that hemoadsorption of cytokines during bypass attenuates bypass-induced acute organ dysfunction. Twelve Yorkshire pigs (50-65 kg) were instrumented with a left ventricular conductance catheter. Baseline mechanics and cytokine expression (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and interleukin-10) were measured before and hourly after 1 hour of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Animals underwent bypass without (cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB], n = 6) or with (CPB+HA, n = 6) the CytosorbTM device. Data were compared with "historical" controls (n = 6) that were similarly instrumented but underwent observation instead of bypass. Five hours after separation from bypass (or observation), animals were euthanized. Myocardial water content was determined postmortem. Neither TNF nor IL-6 was significantly elevated in either experimental group versus controls at any time point. Preload recruitable stroke work and dP/dtmax were significantly depressed immediately after separation from bypass in both CPB+HA and CPB and remained depressed for the duration of the experiment. Although Tau remained unchanged, dP/dTmin was significantly diminished in both bypass groups at all time points after separation from bypass. Cytokine hemoadsorption had no effect on any measurable index of function. Differences in postmortem data were not evident between groups. One hour of normothermic CPB results in a significant and sustained decline in left ventricular function that appears unrelated to changes in cytokine expression. Because we did not appreciate a significant change in cytokine concentrations postbypass, the capacity of cytokine hemoadsorption to attenuate CPB-induced ventricular dysfunction could not be assessed. PMID:24649569

  19. Value of measuring end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide as an adjunct to treadmill exercise testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B Chambers; Peter J Kiff; William N Gardner; Graham Jackson; Christopher Bass

    1988-01-01

    The end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) was measured during treadmill exercise in 30 normal controls and 113 patients referred for assessment of chest pain. Among the 92 patients without significant ST depression hypocapnia occurred more often in those reporting “typical” than “atypical” chest pain (17 of 22 patients compared with 29 of 70; p<0·01). Hypocapnia was uncommon

  20. Examining the use of forceful language when designing exercise persuasive messages for adults: a test of conceptualizing reactance arousal as a two-step process.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Considine, Jennifer R

    2008-09-01

    This investigation tests a conceptualization of reactance as a two-step process. This conceptualization was recently tested with college students, but research testing this conceptualization among primarily adult samples does not currently exist. Psychological reactance theory (PRT) states that individuals exposed to a threat or elimination of a freedom will experience reactance and subsequently be motivated to restore the freedom. Specifically, it is hypothesized that individuals will perceive persuasive messages containing forceful language as a threat to their personal freedom, which will be followed by reactance, manifested in a latent variable composed of anger and negative cognitions. This hypothesis was tested within the context of persuasive messages aimed at encouraging members (N = 247) to participate in weight lifting or group exercise programs at a health and fitness center. Results support conceptualizing reactance as a 2-step process. In addition, results indicate that a primarily adult sample responds unfavorably to forceful persuasive messages advocating the aforementioned exercise activities. In finding support for conceptualizing reactance as a two-step process, we encourage health campaigners and PRT researchers to employ this measure to provide consistency to future PRT studies. PMID:18850395

  1. Use of an inspiratory impedance threshold device on a facemask and endotracheal tube to reduce intrathoracic pressures during the decompression phase of active compression???decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Plaisance; Christian Soleil; Keith G. Lurie; Eric Vicaut; Laurent Ducros; Didier Payen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Use of an inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD) significantly increases coronary perfusion pressures and survival in patients ventilated with an endotracheal tube (ETT) during active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary re- suscitation. We tested the hypothesis that the ITD could lower intratracheal pressures when attached to either a facemask or ETT. Methods: An active and sham ITD were randomly applied first to

  2. Application of a new parameter in the 6-minute walk test for manifold analysis of exercise capacity in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Naoki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Hirata, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Background New parameters in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) are required for comprehensive analysis of exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to apply a novel index, the desaturation distance ratio (DDR), to clinical research on COPD as an estimate of exercise capacity and to examine whether DDR is a potential parameter for manifold analysis of exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Methods A total of 41 patients with COPD (median age [interquartile range] =75 [68–79] years; and body mass index [BMI] =22.3 [19.4–23.8] kg/m2) participated in the study. The 6MWT was performed along with anthropometric measurements and a pulmonary function test. The “desaturation area” was measured as the total area above the curve created using peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) values observed at each minute during the 6MWT. Then the DDR was calculated as the ratio of the desaturation area to the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Results The 6MWD was 370 (328–445) m, and the decline in SpO2 values (?SpO2) was ?5.0% (?8.0% to ?1.5%). The DDR correlated modestly with baseline pulmonary function in patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [% of predicted value]: r=?0.658, P<0.001; and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide [DLCO]: r=?0.470, P=0.002), comparable with the findings of the 6MWD. The DDR correlated well with ?SpO2 (r=?0.656, P<0.001) and with the increase in subjective sense of dyspnea during the 6MWT, as assessed by Borg scale scores (?Borg) (r=0.486, P=0.001), in contrast with the 6MWD, which was not significantly correlated with ?SpO2 and ?Borg scale scores. Conclusion The DDR is more informative for manifold analysis of exercise capacity associated with oxygen desaturation and subsequent sense of dyspnea by exercise in patients with COPD. PMID:25395845

  3. Monitoring microemboli during cardiopulmonary bypass with the EDAC quantifier.

    PubMed

    Lynch, John E; Wells, Christopher; Akers, Tom; Frantz, Paul; Garrett, Donna; Scott, M Lance; Williamson, Lisa; Agnew, Barbara; Lynch, John K

    2010-09-01

    Gaseous emboli may be introduced into the bypass circuit both from the surgical field and during perfusionist interventions. While circuits provide good protection against massive air embolism, they do not remove gaseous microemboli (GME) from the bypass circuit. The purpose of this preliminary study is to assess the incidence of GME during bypass surgery and determine if increased GME counts were associated with specific events during bypass surgery. In 30 cases divided between 15 coronary artery bypass grafts and 15 valve repairs, GME were counted and sizedt the three locations on the bypass circuit using the EDAC" Quantifier (Luna Innovations, Roanoke, VA). A mean of 45,276 GME were detected after the arterial line filter during these 30 cases, with significantly more detected (p = .04) post filter during valve cases (mean = 72,137 +/- 22,113) than coronary artery bypass graft cases (mean = 18,416 +/- 7831). GME detected post filter were significantly correlated in time with counts detected in the venous line (p < .001). Specific events associated with high counts included the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, heart manipulations, insertion and removal of clamps, and the administration of drugs. Global factors associated with increased counts post filter included higher venous line counts and higher post reservoir/bubble trap counts. The mean number of microemboli detected during bypass surgery was much higher than reported in other studies of emboli incidence, most likely due to the increased sensitivity of the EDAC Quantifier compared to other detection modalities. The results furthermore suggest the need for further study of the clinical significance of these microemboli and what practices may be used to reduce GME incidence. Increased in vitro testing of the air handling capability of different circuit designs, along with more clinical studies assessing best clinical practices for reducing GME activity, is recommended. PMID:21114224

  4. Neurodevelopmental outcome after cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Aymen N.; Winch, Peter D.; Tobias, Joseph D.; Yeates, Keith O.; Miao, Yongjie; Galantowicz, Mark; Hoffman, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Modulating the stress response and perioperative factors can have a paramount impact on the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who undergo cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. Materials and Methods: In this single center prospective follow-up study, we evaluated the impact of three different anesthetic techniques on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 19 children who previously underwent congenital cardiac surgery within their 1st year of life. Cases were done from May 2011 to December 2013. Children were assessed using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th edition). Multiple regression analysis was used to test different parental and perioperative factors that could significantly predict the different neurodevelopmental outcomes in the entire cohort of patients. Results: When comparing the three groups regarding the major cognitive scores, a high-dose fentanyl (HDF) patients scored significantly higher than the low-dose fentanyl (LDF) + dexmedetomidine (DEX) (LDF + DEX) group in the quantitative reasoning scores (106 ± 22 vs. 82 ± 15 P = 0.046). The bispectral index (BIS) value at the end of surgery for the -LDF group was significantly higher than that in LDF + DEX group (P = 0.011). For the entire cohort, a strong correlation was seen between the standard verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) score and the baseline adrenocorticotropic hormone level, the interleukin-6 level at the end of surgery and the BIS value at the end of the procedure with an R2 value of 0.67 and P < 0.04. There was an inverse correlation between the cardiac Intensive Care Unit length of stay and the full-scale IQ score (R = 0.4675 and P 0.027). Conclusions: Patients in the HDF group demonstrated overall higher neurodevelopmental scores, although it did not reach statistical significance except in fluid reasoning scores. Our results may point to a possible correlation between blunting the stress response and improvement of the neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25558192

  5. Influence of exercise modality on agreement between gas exchange and heart rate variability thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, F.A.; Montenegro, R.A.; Midgley, A.W.; Vasconcellos, F.; Soares, P.P.; Farinatti, P.

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) using three different exercise modalities. A further aim was to establish whether there was a 1:1 relationship between the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) and percentage oxygen uptake reserve (%V?O2?R) at intensities corresponding to GET and HRVT. Sixteen apparently healthy men 17 to 28 years of age performed three maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running). Mean heart rate and V?O2 at GET and HRVT were 16 bpm (P<0.001) and 5.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 (P=0.001) higher in running than cycling, but no significant differences were observed between running and walking, or cycling and walking (P>0.05). There was a strong relationship between GET and HRVT, with R2 ranging from 0.69 to 0.90. A 1:1 relationship between %HRR and %V?O2?R was not observed at GET and HRVT. The %HRR was higher during cycling (GET mean difference=7%; HRVT mean difference=11%; both P<0.001), walking (GET mean difference=13%; HRVT mean difference=13%; both P<0.001), or running (GET mean difference=11%; HRVT mean difference=10%; both P<0.001). Therefore, using HRVT to prescribe aerobic exercise intensity appears to be valid. However, to assume a 1:1 relationship between %HRR and %V?O2?R at HRVT would probably result in overestimation of the energy expenditure during the bout of exercise. PMID:25003546

  6. Effect of Sildenafil on Ventilatory Efficiency and Exercise Tolerance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Oudiz, Ronald J.; Roveran, Giorgio; Hansen, James E.; Sun, Xing-Guo; Wasserman, Karlman

    2007-01-01

    Background The pulmonary vasculopathy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) results in increased resistance to pulmonary blood flow, limiting the cardiac output required for the increased O2 demands of exercise. Aims We sought to determine the physiologic basis for clinical improvement in PAH patients receiving sildenafil, hypothesizing that the key mechanisms of improvement are improved blood flow and ventilatory efficiency, leading to improved exercise capacity and O2 pulse over time. Methods We studied 28 PAH patients with (n=14) and without (n=14) sildenafil treatment. All received warfarin and diuretic therapy, and 13/14 sildenafil-treated patients were already receiving specific PAH drugs. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed before and after sildenafil. Results Peak V?O2, peak O2 pulse, V?E/V?CO2 and PetCO2, were 0.84 ± 0.1 L/min, 6.1 ± 0.7 ml • beat?1, 49 ± 2 and 26 ± 1.5 mmHg, and improved after adding sildenafil to 0.91 ± 0.1 L/min, 6.8 ± 0.8 ml • beat?1, 43 ± 2, and 30 ± 1.9, respectively, whereas control patients worsened (p = 0.012, 0.008, 0.008 and 0.0002, treated vs. controls, respectively). Conclusions Sildenafil improves PetCO2, V?E/V?CO2, peak O2 pulse and peak V?O2 during exercise compared to controls. A prospective, placebo-controlled study is needed to validate these findings. PMID:17707133

  7. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    PubMed Central

    Lin, MingDe; Marshall, Craig T.; Qi, Yi; Johnston, Samuel M.; Badea, Cristian T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations—they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml?min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100×100 ?m2). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick’s method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0±5.1 ml?min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick’s absolute measurements was found to be 18.90×CODSA=COFick. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat. PMID:19994543

  8. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    PubMed

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior. PMID:25602145

  9. 16 CFR 1204.4 - Electric shock protection tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...should be followed: (1) At least one test operator and one test observer (preferably one with cardiopulmonary resusitation (CPR) training) should be present at every test. (2) The test area (outdoors or indoors) should secure against...

  10. 16 CFR 1204.4 - Electric shock protection tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...should be followed: (1) At least one test operator and one test observer (preferably one with cardiopulmonary resusitation (CPR) training) should be present at every test. (2) The test area (outdoors or indoors) should secure against...

  11. 16 CFR 1204.4 - Electric shock protection tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...should be followed: (1) At least one test operator and one test observer (preferably one with cardiopulmonary resusitation (CPR) training) should be present at every test. (2) The test area (outdoors or indoors) should secure against...

  12. 16 CFR 1204.4 - Electric shock protection tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...should be followed: (1) At least one test operator and one test observer (preferably one with cardiopulmonary resusitation (CPR) training) should be present at every test. (2) The test area (outdoors or indoors) should secure against...

  13. 16 CFR 1204.4 - Electric shock protection tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...should be followed: (1) At least one test operator and one test observer (preferably one with cardiopulmonary resusitation (CPR) training) should be present at every test. (2) The test area (outdoors or indoors) should secure against...

  14. Cardiopulmonary bypass induced inflammation: pathophysiology and treatment. An update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Paparella; T. M. Yau; E. Young

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces an acute phase reaction that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several postoperative complications. Recent data indicate that a complex sequence of events leads to the final activation of leukocytes and endothelial cells (EC), which is responsible for cell dysfunction in different organs. Activation of the contact system, endotoxemia, ischemia and reperfusion

  15. Release of endogenous vasopressors during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Lindner; T. Haak; A. Keller; U. Bothner; K. G. Lurie

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether plasma endothelin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol concentrations were higher during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients in whom resuscitation was successful than in those in whom it failed, and to measure the concentrations of these hormones in the immediate post-resuscitation phase. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Emergency medical service at a university hospital. PATIENTS: 60

  16. Peripheral Cardiopulmonary Bypass under Local Anaesthesia for Tracheal Tumour Resection.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Claudia; Milder, David; Manganas, Con

    2015-07-01

    A 63 year-old female was diagnosed with an adenoid cystic carcinoma causing near total tracheal lumen obstruction. The tumour was successfully resected using cardiopulmonary bypass via femoral vessels under local anaesthetic before induction to secure the airway and facilitate the operation. PMID:25813390

  17. Inflammatory response after coronary revascularization with or without cardiopulmonary bypass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimondo Ascione; Clinton T Lloyd; Malcolm J Underwood; Attilio A Lotto; Antonis A Pitsis; Gianni D Angelini

    2000-01-01

    Background. We sought to investigate the effect of multiple coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the perioperative inflammatory response.Methods. Sixty patients undergoing CABG were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (A) on pump with conventional CPB and cardioplegic arrest, and (B) off pump on the beating heart. Serum samples were collected for estimation

  18. Cardiopulmonary transplantation: experience of a lung transplant group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Morales; L Almenar; J. J Torres; A Solé; R Vicente; F Ramos; P Morant; C Lozano; V Calvo

    2003-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary transplantation (CPT) is indicated for patients eligible for heart transplantation (HT) or lung transplantation (LT) who have severe concomitant lung or heart disease. Only 2 groups perform CPT in Spain. We report our experience with 18 CPTs representing 8.2% and 5% compared with LT (220) and HT (362), respectively, from February 13, 1990 to October 15, 2002. The mean

  19. Cerebral Response to Hemodilution During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hulya Sungurtekin; David J. Cook; Thomas A. Orszulak; Richard C. Daly; Charles J. Mullany

    1999-01-01

    We examined the cerebral response to changing hemat- ocrit during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in 18 adults. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), and cerebral oxy- gen delivery (CDO2) were determined using the nitrous oxide saturation technique. Measurements were ob- tained before CPB at 36°C, and twice during 27°C CPB: first with a hemoglobin (Hgb) of

  20. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills by Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossel, Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study of preclinical medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills showed students had a very recent CPR course had a significantly lower failure rate than those with courses one or two years previously. The most frequent errors were in chest compression rate and inability to adhere to the single-rescuer compression-to-ventilation…

  1. Axillary artery cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass reduces cerebral microemboli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasim Hedayati; J. Timothy Sherwood; Steve J. Schomisch; Joseph L. Carino; Alan H. Markowitz

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundAortic cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is linked to cerebral microemboli emanating from the ascending aorta. Aortic calcification or disease requiring replacement precludes aortic cannulation. Clinical experience with axillary artery cannulation led to the hypothesis that axillary cannulation may be cerebroprotective.

  2. Axillary artery cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass reduces cerebral microemboli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasim Hedayati; J. Timothy Sherwood; Steve J. Schomisch; Joseph L. Carino; Alan H. Markowitz

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aortic cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is linked to cerebral microemboli emanating from the ascending aorta. Aortic calcification or disease requiring replacement precludes aortic cannulation. Clinical experience with axillary artery cannulation led to the hypothesis that axillary cannulation may be cerebroprotective. Methods: Five mongrel dogs underwent a median sternotomy and isolation of the right axillary artery. The canine bicarotid

  3. Laparoscopic insufflation of the abdomen depresses cardiopulmonary function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Williams; Peter C. Murr

    1993-01-01

    Recently we have used the laparoscope to remove the gallbladder in critically ill patients in order to spare them the operative trauma of laparotomy. However, increased intraperitoneal pressure may have deleterious cardiopulmonary effects. This was investigated in a dog model. Insufflation of the abdomen with carbon dioxide decreased the mean cardiac output to less than 80% of baseline (PPCO2 and

  4. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in prehospital cardiac arrest patients in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatimah Lateef; Venkataraman Anantharaman

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. The chain of survival emphasizes the importance of the four links associated with survival after cardiac arrest (CA). The involvement of laypersons has been increasing over the years. They have been contributing toward “early access,” “early cardiopulmonary resuscitation” (CPR), and, of late, “early defibrillation,” with the advent of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Bystander CPR rates are difficult to assess

  5. Effect of the exercise test on albuminuria, blood pressure and blood glucose in type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Pon?uch; Juraj Vozár; Helena Kratochvíl’ová

    1988-01-01

    Summary  Twenty-nine male type I diabetic patients (age range 16–46 years) and thirteen healthy men (age range 18–43 years) were exercised\\u000a on a cycling ergometer at 75 W and 100 W after having achieved a steady state of water diuresis. Diabetic patients were subdivided\\u000a into Group A (n=19, resting urinary albumin excretion rate — UAER ? 16 µg\\/min) and Group B

  6. Hereditary spherocytosis in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass--a case report.

    PubMed

    Spegar, J; Riha, H; Kotulak, T; Vanek, T

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetically determined abnormality of red blood cells. It is the most common cause of inherited haemolysis in Europe and North America within the Caucasian population. We document a patient who underwent an aortocoronary bypass procedure on cardiopulmonary bypass. In view of the uncertain tolerance of the abnormal red cells in hereditary spherocytosis to cardiopulmonary bypass, we reviewed the patient's chart and analyzed recorded values of these parameters: free plasma haemoglobin, renal parameters, cystatin C, bilirubin, liver tests, urine samples. From the results, we can see that slight haemolysis-elevated bilirubin in the blood sample and elevated bilirubin and urobilinogen in the urine sample occurred on the first postoperative day. The levels of these parameters slowly decreased during the next postoperative days. There was no real clinical effect of this haemolysis on renal functions. PMID:24714521

  7. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Information > Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  8. Exercise and age

    MedlinePLUS

    Age and exercise ... It's never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you've never exercised, or if you stopped exercising for some reason. Being physically ...

  9. Metabolic and hemodynamic responses to concurrent voluntary arm crank and electrical stimulation leg cycle exercise in quadriplegics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Hooker; Stephen F. Figoni; Mary M. Rodgers; Roger M. Glaser; Thomas Mathews; Agaram G. Suryaprasad; Satyendra C. Gupta

    1992-01-01

    This study determined the metabolic and rately. Therefore, hybrid exercise may provide more hemodynamic responses in eight spinal cord injured (SCI) advantageous central cardiovascular training effects in quadriplegics (C5-C8\\/T1) performing subpeak arm crank quadriplegics than either ACE or FES-LCE alone. exercise (ACE) alone, subpeak functional electrical stimu- lation 1% cycle c~ercise (FES-LCE) alone, and subpeak Key words: aerobic metabolism, cardiopulmonary,

  10. Depressed Adolescents Treated with Exercise (DATE): A pilot randomized controlled trial to test feasibility and establish preliminary effect sizes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Carroll W.; Barnes, Shauna; Barnes, Conrad; DeFina, Laura F.; Nakonezny, Paul; Emslie, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    The Depressed Adolescents Treated with Exercise (DATE) study evaluated a standardized aerobic exercise protocol to treat nonmedicated adolescents that met DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive disorder. From an initial screen of 90 individuals, 30 adolescents aged 12-18 years were randomized to either vigorous exercise (EXER) (>12 kg/kcal/week [KKW]) or a control stretching (STRETCH) activity (< 4 KKW) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the blinded clinician rating of the Children's Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) to assess depression severity and Actical (KKW) accelerometry 24hr/7days a week to assess energy expenditure and adherence. Follow-up evaluations occurred at weeks 26 and 52. The EXER group averaged 77% adherence and the STRETCH group 81% for meeting weekly target goals for the 12 week intervention based on weekly sessions completed and meeting KKW requirements. There was a significant increase in overall weekly KKW expenditures (p < .001) for both groups with the EXER group doubling the STRETCH group in weekly energy expenditure. Depressive symptoms were significantly reduced from baseline for both groups with the EXER group improving more rapidly than STRETCH after six weeks (p < .016) and nine weeks (p < .001). Both groups continued to improve such that there were no group differences after 12 weeks (p = .07). By week 12, the exercise group had a 100% response rate (86% remission), whereas the stretch group response rate was 67% (50% remission) (p = .02). Both groups had improvements in multiple areas of psychosocial functioning related to school and relationships with parents and peers. Anthropometry reflected decreased waist, hip and thigh measurements (p = .02), more so for females than males (p = .05), but there were no weight changes for either gender. The EXER group sustained 100% remission at week 26 and 52. The STRETCH group had 80% response and 70% remission rates at week 26 and by week 52 only one had not fully responded. The study provides support for the use of exercise as a non-medication intervention for adolescents with major depressive disorders when good adherence and energy expenditure (KKW) are achieved. PMID:24244220

  11. Evaluation of an Exercise Field Test Using Heart Rate Monitors to Assess Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Heart Rate Recovery in an Asymptomatic Population

    PubMed Central

    Coolbaugh, Crystal L.; Anderson, Ivan B.; Wilson, Machelle D.; Hawkins, David A.; Amsterdam, Ezra A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and heart rate recovery (HRR) can improve risk stratification for cardiovascular disease, but these measurements are rarely made in asymptomatic individuals due to cost. An exercise field test (EFT) to assess CRF and HRR would be an inexpensive method for cardiovascular disease risk assessment in large populations. This study assessed 1) the predictive accuracy of a 12-minute run/walk EFT for estimating CRF () and 2) the accuracy of HRR measured after an EFT using a heart rate monitor (HRM) in an asymptomatic population. Methods Fifty subjects (48% women) ages 18–45 years completed a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test (ETT) (Bruce protocol) and an EFT on separate days. During the ETT, was measured by a metabolic cart, and heart rate was measured continuously by a HRM and a metabolic cart. Results EFT distance and sex independently predicted. The average absolute difference between observed and predicted was 0.26±3.27 ml·kg?1·min?1 for our model compared to 7.55±3.64 ml·kg?1·min?1 for the Cooper model. HRM HRR data were equivalent to respective metabolic cart values during the ETT. HRR at 1 minute post-exercise during ETT compared to the EFT had a moderate correlation (r?=?0.75, p<0.001). Conclusion A more accurate model to estimate CRF from a 12-minute run/walk EFT was developed, and HRR can be measured using a HRM in an asymptomatic population outside of clinical settings. PMID:24848378

  12. Seismological Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Nelson

    This homework exercise, which was designed for an undergraduate level geology class at Tulane University, asks the student to make evaluations about the Loma Prieta Earthquake and other earthquakes using seismograms, time travel curves, maps and other information.

  13. Estimation of arterial and cardiopulmonary total peripheral resistance baroreflex gain values: validation by chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation.

    PubMed

    Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Kim, Jong-Kyung; Li, Ying; Sala-Mercado, Javier; Hammond, Robert L; Scislo, Tadeusz J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2006-05-01

    Feedback control of total peripheral resistance (TPR) by the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex systems is an important mechanism for short-term blood pressure regulation. Existing methods for measuring this TPR baroreflex mechanism typically aim to quantify only the gain value of one baroreflex system as it operates in open-loop conditions. As a result, the normal, integrated functioning of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of TPR remains to be fully elucidated. To this end, the laboratory of Mukkamala et al. (Mukkamala R, Toska K, and Cohen RJ. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 284: H947-H959, 2003) previously proposed a potentially noninvasive technique for estimating the closed-loop (dimensionless) gain values of the arterial TPR baroreflex (GA) and the cardiopulmonary TPR baroreflex (GC) by mathematical analysis of the subtle, beat-to-beat fluctuations in arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume. Here, we review the technique with additional details and describe its experimental evaluation with respect to spontaneous hemodynamic variability measured from seven conscious dogs, before and after chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation. The technique was able to correctly predict the group-average changes in GA and GC that have previously been shown to occur following chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation. That is, reflex control by the arterial TPR baroreflex was virtually abolished (GA = -2.1 +/- 0.6 to 0.3 +/- 0.2; P < 0.05), while reflex control by the cardiopulmonary TPR baroreflex more than doubled (GC = -0.7 +/- 0.4 to -1.8 +/- 0.2; P < 0.05). With further successful experimental testing, the technique may ultimately be employed to advance the basic understanding of TPR baroreflex functioning in both humans and animals in health and disease. PMID:16306216

  14. Do exercise motives predict obligatory exercise?

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Mary E; Beaver, Jessica L

    2012-04-01

    Few studies have examined whether factors predicting obligatory exercise differ by gender. 303 participants completed the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire and the Reason for Exercise Inventory. All variables correlated significantly. However, the correlation between exercising for fitness and obligatory exercise was significantly stronger in women than men. In women, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, fitness, and to enhance mood; in men, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, enjoyment, and perceived attractiveness. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:22365798

  15. Screening for cardiopulmonary events in neonates: a review of the infant car seat challenge.

    PubMed

    Davis, N L

    2015-04-01

    The infant car seat challenge (ICSC), or period of observation in a car safety seat before discharge to monitor for episodes of apnea, bradycardia and desaturation, is one of the most common tests performed on preterm neonates in the United States. However, the utility of the ICSC to identify infants at risk for adverse cardiopulmonary events in the car seat remains unclear. Minimal evidence exists to guide clinicians in performance of this test including appropriate inclusion criteria and failure criteria. In this article, the origins of the ICSC are discussed as well as potential etiologies of desaturations and bradycardia in the car seat position. Current literature on implementation, inclusion and failure criteria, incidence of failure and data on the meaning of a 'passed' vs 'failed' ICSC are discussed. Emphasis is made on minimizing time in car seats and seated devices given concern over the risk of desaturations. PMID:25675050

  16. Role of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in the postural regulation of renin

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.A.; Marco, E.J.; Oliveri, C.; Otero, F.J.; Degrossi, O.; Moledo, L.I.; Julius, S.

    1987-04-01

    To change the stretch on cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors, large shifts of blood in the capacity space were elicited by tilting and by exerting positive lower body pressure in the tilted position. Twelve volunteers underwent invasive hemodynamic studies and in 10 other subjects cardiac size was determined by radionuclide cardiography. In all 22 subjects tilting caused the expected increase of renin, which was abolished by lower body compression. Decompression caused renin to increase again. Right atrial pressure in invasive studies and end-systolic and end-diastolic counts in noninvasive studies showed a significant and strong negative correlation with renin and norepinephrine levels. Thus, the degree of stretch of the cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors is a major determinant of reflex regulation of renin release in humans.

  17. Management of patients with carotid bruit undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Ivey, T D; Strandness, E; Williams, D B; Langlois, Y; Misbach, G A; Kruse, A P

    1984-02-01

    During a 31 month period, 1,433 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac procedures were screened for carotid bruit. A total of 94 patients with carotid bruit were identified who had ultrasonic carotid duplex scans. Nine patients had a history of transient ischemic attack, carotid bruit, and reduction in internal carotid artery diameter by greater than or equal to 50% according to ultrasonic carotid duplex scanning. All nine patients underwent carotid angiography followed by thromboendarterectomy prior to or simultaneous with cardiopulmonary bypass. There was one neurological complication leading to death in this subset. Sixteen patients with asymptomatic carotid bruit had ultrasonic carotid duplex scanning revealing an internal carotid artery lesion of greater than or equal to 50% but did not undergo arteriography or thromboendarterectomy prior to the cardiac procedure. Perfusion pressure was maintained at greater than or equal to 70 mm Hg during bypass. There were no focal neurological events in this subset. Sixty-six patients with internal carotid artery stenosis of less than 50% diameter reduction and asymptomatic bruits had no further work-up or modification in perfusion technique, and there were no focal neurological events in this group. Thus there were no focal neurological events in any of the 82 patients with asymptomatic carotid bruit. An additional group of three patients with a previous stroke and internal carotid artery occlusion by ultrasonic carotid duplex scanning had transient exacerbation of neurological symptoms after cardiopulmonary bypass. The remaining 1,339 patients without carotid bruit had nine (0.7%) focal neurological events postoperatively. We believe that asymptomatic patients with or without hemodynamically significant stenosis can safely undergo cardiopulmonary bypass procedures without carotid thromboendarterectomy. Patients with asymptomatic bruits can be safely screened with ultrasonic carotid duplex scanning and do not require arteriography prior to cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:6694409

  18. Outcome of infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation before extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J Doski; T. Jeffrey Butler; David S Louder; Lorraine A Dickey; Henry W Cheu

    1997-01-01

    Background\\/Purpose: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is reported to be used in a significant number of neonates before initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This report establishes the incidence of infants who require CPR before initiation of ECMO and elucidates survival rates and long-term neurological outcomes. In addition, the authors sought prognostic factors that could reliably predict survival or long-term neurological outcome

  19. Recall of intraoperative events after general anaesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew A. Phillips; Richard E. McLean; J. Hugh Devitt; Ellen M. Harrington

    1993-01-01

    We wished to identify patients able to recall intraoperative events after general anaesthesia involving cardiopulmonary bypass\\u000a (CPB). A balanced anaesthetic technique consisting of benzodiazepines, low dose fentanyl (15.9 ± 8.5 ?g· kg? 1) and a volatile agent was employed. Perioperative recall was sought utilizing a structured interview on the fourth or fifth\\u000a postoperative day. During 20 mo 837 patients underwent

  20. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two) did not have a significant effect on any outcomes. Conclusions There was no consistent evidence for the superiority of novel refreshers as compared with a traditional mailed brochure, but the low degree of actual exposure to the materials does not allow a definitive conclusion. An online web-based approach seems to have the most promise for future research on electronic CPR refreshers. PMID:23170816

  1. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  2. Exercise and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 802 Exercise and HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ... may prevent you from losing lean body mass. Exercise with Weights Weight training (resistance exercise) is one ...

  3. Determinants of exercise peak arterial blood pressure, circulatory power, and exercise cardiac power in a population based sample of Finnish male and female aged 30 to 47 years: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel parameters derived from peak maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and exercise arterial blood pressure, such as peak circulatory power (CP) and exercise cardiac power (ECP), can be used in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, the determinants of these factors are poorly characterized in the general population. Methods We assessed peak arterial blood pressure, CP and ECP with standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on 281 female and 257 male participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The subjects were aged 30–47 years. Peak VO2 as well as systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures were measured to calculate peak mean arterial pressure, CP and ECP. These parameters were assessed for correlation with sex, age, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, physical activity index (PAI), fasting insulin and glucose levels as well as the use of antihypertensive treatment. Results Sex, age and weight explained 36% of the variation in peak systolic blood pressure, and these factors in combination with height and the use of antihypertensive treatment explained 13% of the variation in peak diastolic blood pressure. Sex, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, PAI and smoking explained 49%???52% of the variation in peak CP. Sex, age, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, PAI, smoking and insulin levels explained 21%???49% of variation in ECP. Conclusions Subject demographics and lifestyle-related factors should be taken into account when exercise blood pressure response, CP and ECP are used to evaluate patients’ cardiac function in CPET. PMID:24621399

  4. Cardiorespiratory Optimal Point: A Submaximal Exercise Variable to Assess Panic Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Plínio Santos; Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares

    2014-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) patients often report respiratory symptoms and tend to perform poorly during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX), at least partially, due to phobic anxiety. Thus, we hypothesized that a submaximal exercise variable, minimum VE/VO2 - hereafter named cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP) -, may be useful in their clinical assessment. Data from 2,338 subjects were retrospectively analyzed and 52 (2.2%) patients diagnosed with PD (PDG) (70% women; aged 48±13 years). PD patients were compared with a healthy control group (CG) precisely matched to number of cases, age and gender profiles. PDG was further divided into two subgroups, based on having achieved a maximal or a submaximal CPX (unwilling to continue until exhaustion). We compared COP, VO2 max, maximum heart rate (HR max) between PDG and CG, and also COP between maximal and submaximal PD subgroups. COP was similar between PDG and CG (21.9±0.5 vs. 23.4±0.6; p?=?0.07), as well as, for PD subgroups of maximal and submaximal CPX (22.0±0.5 vs. 21.6±1.3; p?=?0.746). Additionally, PD patients completing a maximal CPX obtained VO2 max (mL.kg?1.min?1) (32.9±1.57 vs 29.6±1.48; p?=?0.145) and HR max (bpm) similar to controls (173±2.0 vs 168±2.7; p?=?0.178). No adverse complications occurred during CPX. Although clinically safe, it is sometimes difficult to obtain a true maximal CPX in PD patients. Normalcy of cardiorespiratory interaction at submaximal effort as assessed by COP may contribute to reassure both patients and physicians that there is no physiological substrate for exercise-related respiratory symptoms often reported by PD patients. PMID:25157496

  5. Plasma antioxidant depletion after cardiopulmonary bypass in operations for congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pyles, L A; Fortney, J E; Kudlak, J J; Gustafson, R A; Einzig, S

    1995-07-01

    We describe the use of two in vitro tests to characterize plasma antioxidant capacity at the time of cardiac bypass in operations for congenital heart disease in 30 patients aged 3 days to 16 years (average 4.4 +/- 0.9 years [standard error]). Bypass and crossclamp time, circuit volume, and type of operation were recorded for each patient. First, a test of plasma radical antioxidant power measured chain breaking (secondary) antioxidant capacity of plasma to prevent oxidation of linoleic acid in vitro. Second, overall ability of plasma to prevent lipid peroxidation was assessed by a classic test of plasma inhibition of malondialdehyde formation in a beef brain homogenate. Plasma total radical antioxidant power level at baseline was 0.74 +/- 0.03 mumol/ml plasma, which decreased to 0.15 +/- 0.05 mumol/ml plasma after bypass (p < 0.001) and 0.26 +/- 0.08 mumol/ml plasma with recovery (n = 18, p < 0.001). Analysis of variance of postbypass total radical antioxidant power value showed age (p = 0.0002, r = 0.63) and bypass time (p = 0.009, r = 0.4677) to be significant factors. Pump prime volume in milliliters per kilogram and preoperative hemoglobin value were not significant factors. Beef brain malondialdehyde formation in vitro was limited 92% +/- 3% by normal plasma before operation versus 53% +/- 5% after operation (p < 0.001) and 51% +/- 5% at recovery after arrival in the pediatric intensive care unit (p < 0.001). Analysis of variance of the changes from before to after operation showed age p = 0.0015, r = 0.55) and bypass time (p = 0.033, r = 0.39) to be significant factors. Thus antioxidant capacity of plasma is significantly diminished after cardiopulmonary bypass in children. Young patient age and long duration of cardiopulmonary bypass are identified as factors that correlate positively with depletion of antioxidant capacity with bypass. PMID:7609540

  6. A randomized controlled trial undertaken to test a nurse-led weight management and exercise intervention designed for people with serious mental illness who take second generation antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Foster, Kim; Buettner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test the effect of a nurse-led intervention on weight gain in people with serious mental illness prescribed and taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Background Weight gain and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population with the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome reaching 20–25% of the global population. People with serious mental illness are at even higher risk, particularly those taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Design An experimental randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Method The control group received a 12-week healthy lifestyle booklet. In addition to the booklet, the intervention group received weekly nutrition and exercise education, exercise sessions, and nurse support. Participants (n = 101) were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Data were collected between March 2008–December 2010. Seven outcome measures were used: body measurements included girth (cm), weight (kg), height (cm), and body mass index (kg/m2); questionnaires included the medication compliance questionnaire, the Drug Attitude Inventory, the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36. Differences in primary outcome measures between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were compared between intervention and control groups using standard bi-variate statistical tests. The study was conducted between 2008–2010. Results The analysis of outcome measures for the control group (n = 50) and intervention group (n = 51) was not statistically significant. There was a mean weight change of ?0·74 kg at 12 weeks for the intervention group (n = 51), while the control group (n = 50) had a mean weight change of ?0·17 kg at 12 weeks. Conclusion The results were not statistically significant. PMID:22973945

  7. Prediction of maximal oxygen uptake from submaximal ratings of perceived exertion and heart rate during a continuous exercise test: the efficacy of RPE 13.

    PubMed

    Lambrick, Danielle M; Faulkner, James A; Rowlands, Ann V; Eston, Roger G

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the utility of a single, continuous exercise protocol in facilitating accurate estimates of maximal oxygen uptake V(O)(2max) from submaximal heart rate (HR) and the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in healthy, low-fit women, during cycle ergometry. Eleven women estimated their RPE during a continuous test (1 W 4 s(-1)) to volitional exhaustion (measured V(O)(2max)). Individual gaseous exchange thresholds (GETs) were determined retrospectively. The RPE and HR values prior to and including an RPE 13 and GET were extrapolated against corresponding oxygen uptake to a theoretical maximal RPE (20) and peak RPE (19), and age-predicted HRmax, respectively, to predict V(O)(2max)). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between measured (30.9 +/- 6.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and predicted V(O)(2max) from all six methods. Limits of agreement were narrowest and intraclass correlations were highest for predictions of V(O)(2max) from an RPE 13 to peak RPE (19). Prediction of V(O)(2max) from a regression equation using submaximal HR and work rate at an RPE 13 was also not significantly different to actual V(O)(2max) (R( 2 ) = 0.78, SEE = 3.42 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P > 0.05). Accurate predictions of V(O)(2max) may be obtained from a single, continuous, estimation exercise test to a moderate intensity (RPE 13) in low-fit women, particularly when extrapolated to peak terminal RPE (RPE(19)). The RPE is a valuable tool that can be easily employed as an adjunct to HR, and provides supplementary clinical information that is superior to using HR alone. PMID:19488778

  8. Flooding Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Nelson

    This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

  9. Eating & Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This PheT interactive, downloadable simulation allows students to Explore issues such as calories in food, how to burn calories, and the relationship between calories and weight by choosing diet and exercise and keeping an eye on your weight.Sample earning goals, teaching ideas, and translated versions are available.

  10. Effects of elevated plasma adrenaline levels on substrate metabolism, effort perception and muscle activation during low-to-moderate intensity exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sacha J. West; Julia H. Goedecke; Lizl van Niekerk; Malcolm Collins; Alan St Clair Gibson; Ian A. Macdonald; Timothy D. Noakes; Estelle V. Lambert

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to differentiate the role of raised plasma adrenaline (Adr) concentrations from sympathoadrenal activation associated with moderate-intensity exercise, on muscle activation, cardiopulmonary responses, fuel metabolism, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-intensity exercise. Two groups of subjects (MOD, n=6; LOW, n=7) cycled on two occasions for 90 min. MOD cycled at 68% VO2max with saline

  11. Usefulness of Right-to-Left Shunting and Poor Exercise Gas Exchange for Predicting Prognosis in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Oudiz, Ronald J.; Midde, Raghu; Hovenesyan, Arsen; Sun, Xing-Guo; Roveran, Giorgio; Hansen, James E; Wasserman, Karlman

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that longitudinal changes in peak oxygen uptake (V?O2), ventilatory efficiency, and exercise-induced right-to-left shunting in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients would predict outcomes better than baseline measurements alone. Patients with PAH die prematurely. Identifying prognostic markers is critical for managing PAH patients, however longitudinal prognostic information in PAH is limited. We enrolled 103 PAH patients into a long-term, prospective outcome study using serial cardiopulmonary exercise testing to measure peak V?O2, ventilatory efficiency (ratio of ventilation to CO2 output at the anaerobic threshold), right-to-left shunting, and other factors in patients treated with optimal therapy. Patients were followed for a mean of 4.7 years. During the study period, 20 patients died, and 3 underwent lung transplantation. Baseline peak V?O2 and ventilatory efficiency were 0.79 L/min and 49 (normal <34), respectively, reflecting severe disease. Poorer ventilatory efficiency and higher New York Heart Association classification were associated with poor outcome both at baseline and at follow-up. In multivariate analysis, the persistence or development of an exercise-induced right-to-left shunt strongly predicted death or transplantation (p <0.0001) independent of hemodynamics and all other exercise measures, including peak V?O2, and ventilatory efficiency. The absence of a shunt at baseline was associated with a 20% rate of non-survival, which decreased to 7% at follow-up. Poorer ventilatory efficiency appeared to be associated with poor outcome in patients without a shunt. In conclusion, a persistent exercise-induced right-to-left shunt and poor ventilatory efficiency are highly predictive of poor outcome in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:20381675

  12. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pumps for cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pumps for temporary ventricular support. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump (NRP) devices for cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) for NRP devices for temporary ventricular support. FDA is also revising the title and identification of the regulation for NRP devices in this order. PMID:26054096

  13. Exercise capacity in pediatric heart transplant candidates: is there any role for the 14 ml/kg/min guideline?

    PubMed

    Das, B B; Taylor, A L; Boucek, M M; Wolfe, R W; Yetman, A T

    2006-01-01

    A peak oxygen consumption (VO2) of < 14 ml/kg/min has been identified as a predictor of l-year mortality in adults with congestive heart failure (CHF) and is used as a criterion for listing for cardiac transplantation (OHT). The role of VO2 measurement in children awaiting OHT has not been thoroughly evaluated. We sought to assess the degree of exercise impairment and the clinical applicability of the 14 ml/kg/min rule in children awaiting OHT. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPT) and cardiac catheterization data in all patients listed for OHT during the period of 1995-2003 were reviewed. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 15.5 +/- 2.9 years underwent CPT with no serious adverse events at an interval of 6.6 +/- 5.1 months prior to OHT. The etiology of CHF was multifactorial. Patients had impaired aerobic capacity with a mean peak VO2 of 20.4 +/- 6.8 ml/kg/min. Eleven of 14 patients (79%) had a peak VO2 higher than the adult cutoff value of 14 ml/kg/min. Pediatric ambulatory patients with CHF can safely undergo CPT. Because of age-related differences in oxygen consumption and varied etiologies of CHF a peak VO2 of < 14 ml/kg/min is not a useful criterion for listing for OHT in this population. PMID:16391994

  14. Automatic test factoring for java

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Saff; Shay Artzi; Jeff H. Perkins; Michael D. Ernst

    2005-01-01

    Test factoring creates fast, focused unit tests from slow system-wide tests; each new unit test exercises only a subset of the functionality exercised by the system test. Augment- ing a test suite with factored unit tests should catch errors earlier in a test run. One way to factor a test is to introduce mock objects. If a test exercises a

  15. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bente Kühn Madsen; Verner Rasmussen; Jørgen Fischer Hansen

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart Association class II and 44% in III. Total mortality after 1 year was 21%, after 2 years 32%. Of 60

  16. Negative stress echocardiographic responses in normotensive and hypertensive patients with angina pectoris, positive exercise stress testing, and normal coronary arteriograms

    PubMed Central

    Zouridakis, E; Cox, I; Garcia-Moll, X; Brown, S; Nihoyannopoulos, P; Kaski, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To systematically compare the results of dobutamine stress echocardiography in matched groups of hypertensive and normotensive patients with anginal chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms (CPNA).?SETTING—University hospital.?SUBJECTS—33 patients with exertional anginal chest pain, a positive exercise stress ECG, and a completely normal coronary arteriogram; 17 had a history of systemic hypertension (14 women; mean (SD) age 57 (6) years), and 16 had no hypertensive history (12 women; age 54 (9) years).?METHODS—Ambulatory ECG monitoring, dobutamine stress echocardiography, and thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in all subjects.?RESULTS—All patients had normal left ventricular systolic function at rest and none fulfilled the criteria for ventricular hypertrophy. Eight normotensive patients and 10 hypertensive patients had perfusion abnormalities on thallium SPECT (p = 0.61). Dobutamine infusion reproduced anginal pain in seven normotensive and seven hypertensive patients (p = 0.88). ST segment depression was also recorded in eight normotensive patients and seven hypertensive patients (p = 0.61). No patient in either group developed regional wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine stress echocardiography.?CONCLUSIONS—Neither hypertensive nor normotensive CPNA patients developed regional wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine stress echocardiography, despite the high prevalence of scintigraphic perfusion defects in both groups and the presence of chest pain and ST segment depression. Thus myocardial ischaemia was not present in either group, or else dobutamine stress echocardiography is insensitive to ischaemia caused by microvascular dysfunction.???Keywords: dobutamine stress echocardiography; microvascular angina; hypertension; syndrome X PMID:10648483

  17. Radiogram No. 1661u Form 24 for 03/01/2013 Hydraulic Loop 1 Coolant Pump Flow Regulator Test. LBNP Exercise

    E-print Network

    Exercise TIME CREW ACTIVITY 06:00-06:10 CDR, FE-5, FE-6 Morning Inspection 06:00-06:10 FE-1 Morning:35-10:05 CDR Physical Exercise (ARED) 08:40-08:50 FE-4 MAI-75. Transmitter Activation and Monitoring 08 and Monitoring 10:30-10:40 FE-4 MAI-75. Transmitter Activation and Monitoring 10:35-11:35 CDR Physical Exercise T

  18. Cardiopulmonary Failure Requiring ECMO Bypass Resulting from Leukemia Cell Lysis in a Patient with Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Michael; Owen, Erin; Myers, Scott; Raj, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Childhood AML patients are at increased risk for early fatal pulmonary complications. Pulmonary leukostasis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following leukemia cell lysis are the likely etiologies. Observation. Soon after initiation of AML chemotherapy, an 18-month-old female who met SIRS criteria sustained cardiopulmonary failure requiring ECMO support. Upon recovery, the patient went on to complete therapy and remains in remission without permanent neurologic or cardiac sequelae. Conclusion. Cytokine release syndrome from rapid cell lysis was the likely cause as infectious workup failed to reveal a definitive etiology and drug hypersensitivity testing to the chemotherapy agents was negative.

  19. Occupational affiliation does not influence practical skills in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for in-hospital healthcare professionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Louise Södersved Källestedt; Anders Berglund; Ann-Britt Thoren; Johan Herlitz; Mats Enlund

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: D-CPR (Defibrillator Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) is a technique for optimal basic life support during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Guidelines recommend that healthcare professionals can perform CPR with competence. How CPR training and provision is organized varies between hospitals, and it is our impression that in Sweden this has generally improved during the last 15-20 years. However, some hospitals still do not

  20. Contrast MR of the brain after high-perfusion cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, T.M.; Yuh, W.T.C.; Hindman, B.J.; Embrey, R.P.; Halloran, J.I.; Behrendt, D.M. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    To study the efficacy of contrast MR imaging in the evaluation of central nervous system complications in the cardiopulmonary bypass patient and attempt to explain their pathophysiology based on the MR appearance and the cardiopulmonary bypass protocol. Nineteen patients were prospectively studied with contrast MR examinations the day before and 3 to 7 days after cardiopulmonary bypass, to determine the nature, extent, and number of new postoperative MR abnormalities. Cardiopulmonary bypass parameters used in our institution included: membrane oxygenation, arterial filtration with a pore size of 25 [mu]m, and a relatively high perfusion rate to produce a cardiac index of 2.0 to 2.5 L min per m[sup 2]. The preoperative noncontrast MR examination showed age-related changes and/or signs of ischemia in 60% of patients on the day before surgery. However, there was no abnormal enhancement or new T2 abnormalities on any postoperative MR examination to suggest hypoperfusion or emboli. None of the 19 patients developed overt neurologic deficits postoperatively. Review of the cardiopulmonary bypass protocol used indicated significant variations in technique at different institutions. Contrast MR imaging demonstrated no new abnormalities in patients after cardiopulmonary bypass performed with strict in-line arterial filtration and relatively high perfusion. MR imaging is feasible in the early postoperative period after cardiopulmonary bypass and may offer a convenient method for evaluation of the neurologic impact of technical factors associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. 17 refs.

  1. Hemodilution and whole body oxygen balance during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beng-Ling Liam; Walter Plöchl; David J. Cook; Thomas A. Orszulak; Richard C. Daly

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum hematocrit value that can support whole body oxygen consumption during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. The effect of hemodilution on peripheral resistance, whole body oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption was determined over a range of hematocrit values. Methods: Measurements were obtained during 38° C cardiopulmonary bypass with progressive normovolemic hemodilution (hematocrit

  2. Inflammatory reaction and capillary leak syndrome related to cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates undergoing cardiac operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Christine Seghaye; Ralph G. Grabitz; Jean Duchateau; Sabine Busse; Sabine Däbritz; Dieter Koch; Gerhard Alzen; Helmut Hörnchen; Bruno J. Messmer; Götz von Bernuth

    1996-01-01

    We studied the inflammatory reaction related to cardiopulmonary bypass in 24 neonates (median age 6 days) undergoing the arterial switch operation for simple transposition of the great arteries, with respect to the development of postoperative capillary leak syndrome. Complement proteins, leukocyte count, tumor necrosis factor-?, and histamine levels were determined before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Additionally, protein movement from

  3. Minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegic arrest: A closed chest technique with equivalent myocardial protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Schwartz; Greg H. Ribakove; Eugene A. Grossi; John H. Stevens; Lawrence C. Siegel; Frederick G. St. Goar; William S. Peters; David McLoughlin; F. Gregory Baumann; Stephen B. Colvin; Aubrey C. Galloway

    1996-01-01

    Thoracoscopic cardiac surgery is presently under intense investigation. This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of closed chest cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest in comparison with standard open chest methods in a dog model. The minimally invasive closed chest group (n = 6) underwent percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac venting, as well as antegrade cardioplegic arrest through use of a

  4. Children and Adults in Cardiopulmonary Arrest: Are Advanced Life Support Guidelines Followed in the Prehospital Setting?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veena R Kumar; David T Bachman; R. Todd Kiskaddon

    1997-01-01

    See related editorialStudy objective: To compare the proportions of children and adults in whom advanced life support (ALS) guidelines for prehospital management of cardiopulmonary arrest. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of an urban EMS system and an urban ED. We studied 141 consecutive patients (47 children and 94 adults, matched by date of presentation) in cardiopulmonary arrest who

  5. Ca(2+)-independent nitric oxide synthase activity in human lung after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, R.; Rojas, A.; Glaría, L. A.; Torres, M.; Duarte, F.; Shill, R.; Nafeh, M.; Santin, E.; González, N.; Palacios, M.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Because surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass induces a systemic inflammatory response, the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on nitric oxide (NO) generation was investigated in human lung tissue. METHODS--Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured by the conversion of 14C-L-arginine to 14C-L-citrulline in tissue biopsy samples obtained before and after cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS--The Ca(2+)-independent production of NO found before cardiopulmonary bypass was extremely low (1.5 (0.5) pmol citrulline/mg/min), but was increased after the bypass operation (23.6 (11) pmol/mg/min). CONCLUSIONS--Ca(2+)-independent NOS activity was detected in human lung after cardiopulmonary bypass. This finding may provide an important insight into the pathogenesis of the tissue damage and acute phase response observed after such surgery. PMID:7540321

  6. Ethics in the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Kevin R; Becker, Lance B; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) promises to be an important advance in the treatment of cardiac arrest. However, ECPR involves ethical challenges that should be addressed as it diffuses into practice. Benefits and risks are uncertain, so the evidence base needs to be further developed, at least through outcomes registries and potentially with randomized trials. To inform decision making, patients' preferences regarding ECPR should be obtained, both from the general population and from inpatients at risk for cardiac arrest. Fair and transparent appropriate use criteria should be developed and could be informed by economic analyses. PMID:25866287

  7. A multimedia intervention on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and advance directives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Yamada; Andrzej T. Galecki; Susan Dorr Goold; Robert V. Hogikyan

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a multimedia educational intervention about advance directives (ADs) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation\\u000a (CPR) on the knowledge, attitude and activity toward ADs and life-sustaining treatments of elderly veterans.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled, single blind study of educational interventions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: General medicine clinic of a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: One hundred seventeen Veterans, 70

  8. Potential wrist ligament injury in rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Robert; Sorr, Sasha; Aquino, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Wrist pain in rescuers performing chest compressions as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been reported anecdotally and recently in the literature. Studies have indicated that rescuers apply as much as 644 N of force to the victim's chest with each compression, while standards require one hundred compressions per minute. Recent research suggests that forces transmitted through the rescuers’ wrists of less than 10% of those seen during the performance of chest compressions significantly strain the scapholunate ligament. Biomechanical research should be performed to further evaluate this possible correlation. Compensation for worker injury maybe involved. PMID:23723622

  9. Neurogenic Cardiopulmonary Complications Associated with Spontaneous Cerebellar Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yui-Rwei Young; Chien-Chang Lee; Bor-Fuh Sheu; Shy-Shin Chang

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Neurogenic cardiopulmonary complications associated with acute brain injury other then subarachnoid hemorrhage were seldom\\u000a reported, especially in the pediatric population. We report a child who developed cardiac arrhythmia, severe myocardial injury\\u000a and neurogenic pulmonary edema after cerebellar hemorrhage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and results  An 11-year-old girl had abrupt onset of spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage presented with a fulminant picture of hypertension,\\u000a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, markedly

  10. Challenges encountered with argatroban anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shvetank; Ullom, Beth; Al-Baghdadi, Yasser; Okumura, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Use of argatroban as an alternative to heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia has gained some attention in the past two decades. Dosing of argatroban during CPB is complex due to lack of complete understanding of its pharmacokinetic profile and the various elements during CPB that may alter its plasma levels. We report a case where the challenges in dosing argatroban led to failure to provide adequate anticoagulation during CPB, as evidenced by clot formation in the oxygenator, and extensive bleeding in the postoperative period. PMID:22345956

  11. [New recommendations in European cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines (Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care 2000: an International Consensus on Science].

    PubMed

    Jakubaszko, Juliusz; Smereka, Jacek; Sehn, Marek

    2002-01-01

    The article presents most important changes in international guidelines for adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In this article guideline changes in basic and advanced life support published in Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care--a Consensus on Science are discussed. Major changes in guidelines presented in this article include: pulse check, ventilation technique for rescue breathing, compression technique, abdominal thrust recommendations, precordial thump, universal algorithm changes. PMID:12715725

  12. An overview of the applied definitions and diagnostic methods to assess exercise oscillatory ventilation--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Justien; Beckers, Paul; Vanroy, Christel; Volckaerts, Tess; Vrints, Christiaan; Vissers, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    The variable "exercise oscillatory ventilation" (EOV), assessed during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), recently became a fundamental prognostic parameter in patients with heart failure. In literature, various definitions are suggested, but an uniformly accepted description to identify EOV still lacks. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to determine the different definitions and diagnostic techniques to assess EOV. A systematic search strategy was established and executed in seven databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Clinical Trials, Science Direct, Pedro, Web Of Science library and Medline (Ovid)) resulting in 605 citations after de-duplication. Full-text articles (n=124) were assessed for eligibility, resulting in 75 citations. The review accounted 17,440 patients of whom 4,638 subjects presented EOV. Seven studies described EOV in a non-heart failure population accounting 168 EOV subjects. The definitions could be categorized in nine subdivisions of which four (n=43) referred to an original description. The other subdivisions were combinations of the original definitions (n=11), quantifications (n=4), computational (n=3), vaguely described (n=8) or not defined (n=6). Symptom limited maximal exercise tests were conducted to assess EOV, however the modes, protocols, software and data sampling were divers. Heterogeneity in the numerous definitions to identify EOV and the vaguely described assessment methods are hindering the evolution to a standardized uniformly accepted definition and technique to identify this abnormal breathing pattern. Unity in definition and international adopted assessment is warranted to strengthen its validity as a prognostic marker and could promote communication. It may facilitate clinical trials on pathophysiology and origin of EOV. PMID:25918072

  13. Influence of a custom-made maxillary mouthguard on gas exchange parameters during incremental exercise in amateur road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Piero, Malpezzi; Simone, Uliari; Jonathan, Myers; Maria, Spiridonova; Giulio, Grossi; Francesco, Terranova; Gabriella, Collini; Laura, Amabile; Eva, Bernardi; Gianni, Mazzoni; Francesco, Conconi; Giovanni, Grazzi

    2015-03-01

    Mouthguards are frequently used for protection purposes, particularly by athletes competing in contact sports. However, there is increasing evidence supporting their use for improving performance. Studies have focused their use in athletes who do not traditionally use mouthguards and who may be looking for a performance edge. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of a custom-made mouthguard (Parabite Malpezzi, PM) on maximal and submaximal physiological parameters related to performance in road cycling. Ten well-trained amateur road cyclists (34 ± 6 years) performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test to exhaustion on a frictional braked cycle ergometer. Work rate (WR), heart rate, oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production, and ventilation at the lactate threshold, at the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and at maximal exercise (MAX) were determined in normal conditions (C) and wearing PM. Cycling economy was also evaluated by analyzing the slope of the (Equation is included in full-text article.)/WR (?(Equation is included in full-text article.)/?WR, in milliliters per watt per minute) relationship during the test. Wearing the PM compared with C resulted in significant increases in WR at RCP (281 ± 32 vs. 266 ± 19 W, p = 0.04) and at MAX (353 ± 44 vs. 339 ± 38 W, p = 0.004). The PM also resulted in an average 8% lower ?(Equation is included in full-text article.)/?WR (9.5 ± 1.1 vs. 10.3 ± 1.1 ml·W·min, p = 0.06) but did not significantly modify any of the other measured parameters at LT, RCP and MAX. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the effects of a dentistry-designed mouthguard on physical performance of road cyclists. These results provide support for cyclists to correct jaw posture that may improve their exercise performance. PMID:25226314

  14. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    PubMed

    Wylon, K; Hompes, S; Worm, M

    2013-02-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a mast cell dependent reaction, which is induced by allergen exposure in combination with physical activity. Typically, the reaction occurs within 2 hours after allergen exposure followed by physical activity. Not only food allergens but all kinds of allergens including drugs can induce this form of anaphylaxis. The clinical symptoms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis are the same as in any other type of anaphylaxis. Thus not only the skin and mucosa but also other organ systems like the lungs, cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract can be affected. The diagnostic work up should cover a detailed clinical history including the assessment of symptoms and possible trigger factors including suspected allergens. Besides classical allergy diagnostics like skin prick tests and specific IgE determination, tryptase should be measured for the differential diagnosis to exclude mast cell dependent diseases. The diagnosis of exercise-induced anaphylaxis is made by the means of a double-blind placebo-controlled provocation test. Both, a sufficient amount of allergen and of physical activity must be achieved for a valid test. After the diagnosis is made, patients should be extensively counseled and provided with an emergency kit including an epinephrine auto injector. PMID:23385620

  15. Microprocessor-based cardiopulmonary monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The system uses a dedicated microprocessor for transducer control and data acquisition and analysis. No data will be stored in this system, but the data will be transmitted to the onboard data system. The data system will require approximately 12 inches of rack space and will consume only 100 watts of power. An experiment specific control panel, through a series of lighted buttons, will guide the operator through the test series providing a smaller margin of error. The experimental validity of the system was verified, and the reproducibility of data and reliability of the system checked. In addition, ease of training, ease of operator interaction, and crew acceptance were evaluated in actual flight conditions.

  16. Protease Inhibitor Profile of Black Americans With and Without Chronic Cardiopulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Young, Roscoe C.; Headings, Verle E.; Henderson, Anita L.; Bose, Sikta; Hackney, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of protease inhibitor (alpha1-antitrypsin) was undertaken among 599 ambulatory and hospitalized black American patients with chronic cardiopulmonary disease referred for pulmonary function testing, and 115 ethnically matched, healthy control subjects. Clinical evaluation consisted of respiratory questionnaire completion, physical examination, chest radiograph, and spirography. Protease inhibitor evaluation consisted of measurement of serum trypsin inhibitory capacity in all subjects corrected by comparison with control sera, while 200 of these subjects were phenotyped for alpha1-antitrypsin electrophoretic variants. Results showed mean serum trypsin inhibitory capacity for all subjects was 1.56, SD ± 0.47 mg/ml, while corrected values were 111.2, SD ± 30.5 percent of control. Acute phase reactivity was present for patients with heart disease, pulmonary malignancy, p<0.01 for both, and pulmonary fibrosis, p<0.05, when compared with controls. Prevalence of protease inhibitor variants in 29 controls was two heterozygotes for the Z variant (seven percent), and one homozygote for the S variant. Among 94 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, prevalence was 1.1 percent each for ZZ and SZ phenotypes, and 2.1 percent for MZ. Suprprisingly, the sole ZZ patient had asthmatic bronchitis rather than emphysema. Computed allele frequencies for Pi M and Z were comparable to those for a random sample of black Americans in St. Louis, but differed from a sample of black infants in Brooklyn, NY. These results indicate that protease inhibitor deficiency variants are not as uncommon among black Americans as the literature suggests. Furthermore, the heterozygous state is not necessarily a risk factor in development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Protease inhibitor deficiency states therefore appear to play less important a role in etiology of chronic cardiopulmonary disease in black Americans than among their Caucasian counterparts. Preliminary work was published in abstract form.1 PMID:309951

  17. Measurement of ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ornato, J P; Bryson, B L; Donovan, P J; Farquharson, R R; Jaeger, C

    1983-02-01

    Determining adequacy of mechanical ventilation is as important during CPR as in a more stable situation (such as, a patient on a ventilator in an ICU). Yet, such assessment during CPR usually only means listening for breath sounds, checking chest excursion, and blood gases. Exhaled tidal volume (VT) was measured on 45 intubated adult patients during resuscitation using a Wright's spirometer attached to a T-valve above the endotracheal tube. Ten patients had aspiration prior to intubation; 15 received advanced cardiac life support in the field, including esophageal airway insertion. CPR was performed in all cases with a mechanical compression device (Thumper). The pressure ventilator on this device was calibrated (peak inspiratory pressure, VT vs compliance) using a Dixie Test Lung, allowing indirect assessment of pulmonary compliance during CPR. Our findings suggest that lung compliance is markedly reduced within a short time after cardiac arrest. Fifty-five % of patients in this series could not be adequately oxygenated (PaO2 less than 50 torr) despite an FIO2 of 0.8 and adequate ventilation. Due to the reduced cardiac output during CPR causing venoarterial shunting, it is speculated that pulmonary edema is the most plausible explanation for this observation. PMID:6822084

  18. Catastrophic chest pain: blinded by cardiopulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Timothy John; Asiimwe, Denis D; Gemmel, David; Brine, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with a history of diabetic foot ulcer, osteomyelitis, coronary artery disease, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, presented with chest pain of 3?weeks duration. Eleven days earlier, the patient had had a drug-eluting stent (DES) placed in a branch of the right coronary artery (RCA) after similar chest pain, leading to the findings of a positive nuclear stress test. Since discharge, he was not compliant with taking clopidegrel (Plavix), a concern for in-stent thrombosis with recurrent myocardial ischaemia; but work up was negative and medications were restarted. Within 24?h of admission, he developed bilateral flaccid leg weakness, urine retention and loss of sensation from the umbilicus level down. MRI revealed a T4-T6 epidural abscess. Emergent decompression laminectomy and abscess drainage was completed. Neurological symptoms improved hours after surgery with complete resolution of sensory deficits. Cultures grew Streptococcus sp., treated with intravenous nafcillin for 8?weeks. He regained leg strength with continued improvement seen in rehabilitation. PMID:26135489

  19. Continuity Plan Exercise Form

    E-print Network

    Derisi, Joseph

    Continuity Plan Exercise Form 1 of 2 The purpose of this form is to document a Continuity Plan Exercise Exercises An exercise is an activity that is designed to: Practice and improve the procedures available when needed. There are many approaches to exercising a continuity plan but we recommend

  20. Exercise prescription and thrombogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Shyan Wang

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Lifestyle habits, such as exercise, may significantly influence risk of major vascular thrombotic events. The risk of primary cardiac arrest has been shown to transiently increase during vigorous exercise, whereas regular moderate-intensity exercise is associated with an overall reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. What are the mechanisms underlying these paradoxical effects of vigorous exercise versus exercise training on thrombotic modification?

  1. Evaluation of an interlaboratory proficiency-testing exercise for total mercury in environmental samples of soils, sediments and fish tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rocha; S RODRIGUES; M OTERO; M VALEGA; C LOPES; P PATO; J COELHO; A LILLEBO; A DUARTE; M PARDAL

    2008-01-01

    A proficiency-testing scheme concerning total mercury determination in soils and sediments (with different levels of contamination) and fish tissue involved 25 European laboratories as participants, who used their regular in-house analytical methods, and reference values were determined from the results obtained. The most precise results were obtained for the fish matrix. The majority of participants obtained satisfactory Z-scores, and laboratories

  2. Cardiopulmonary Circuit Models for Predicting Injury to the Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Richard; Wing, Sarah; Bassingthwaighte, James; Neal, Maxwell

    2004-11-01

    Circuit models have been used extensively in physiology to describe cardiopulmonary function. Such models are being used in the DARPA Virtual Soldier (VS) Project* to predict the response to injury or physiological stress. The most complex model consists of systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a four-chamber heart sub-model. This model also includes baroreceptor feedback, airway mechanics, gas exchange, and pleural pressure influence on the circulation. As part of the VS Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been evaluating various cardiopulmonary circuit models for predicting the effects of injury to the heart. We describe, from a physicist's perspective, the concept of building circuit models, discuss both unstressed and stressed models, and show how the stressed models are used to predict effects of specific wounds. *This work was supported by a grant from the DARPA, executed by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command/TATRC Cooperative Agreement, Contract # W81XWH-04-2-0012. The submitted manuscript has been authored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed for the U.S. DOE by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purpose.

  3. Complement activation before, during and after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Bonser, R S; Dave, J R; John, L; Gademsetty, M K; Carter, P G; Davies, E; Taylor, P; Gaya, H; Lennox, S C; Vergani, D

    1990-01-01

    Plasma levels of the complement parent molecules C3, C4, and factor B and their split products, C3d, C4d, and Ba were measured in 12 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery surgery. Alternative and common complement pathway activation, demonstrated by statistically significant rising levels of Ba (P less than 0.05), and C3d (P less than 0.05) and by elevated Ba:B (P less than 0.05) and C3d:C3 (P less than 0.05) ratios were found before the institution of cardiopulmonary bypass but following heparin administration suggesting that heparin may itself initiate alternative pathway activation. In addition, significant depletion of parent complement components and elevation of split product concentrations was seen during bypass suggesting classical and alternate pathway activation (P less than 0.01). This study clarifies the pathways of complement activation during bypass and presents evidence that heparin administration may initially activate the complement cascade. PMID:2361017

  4. Regulation of acute phase response after cardiopulmonary bypass by immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Markewitz, A; Faist, E; Lang, S; Endres, S; Hültner, L; Reichart, B

    1993-02-01

    The object of this prospective, randomized trial was to study the dysregulation effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on the synthesis pattern of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6, which have been identified as the key mediators of acute phase response. In addition, the counterregulation achieved by administration of indomethacin, which blocks the downregulating mediator prostaglandin E2, or indomethacin combined with thymopentin, which enhances T-lymphocytic reactivity, was investigated. Sixty patients who had undergone open heart operations were included in the study. These patients were divided into three groups: group A (n = 20) received both indomethacin and thymopentin, and group C (n = 20) served as control. In control patients interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor synthesis were suppressed postoperatively. This effect was significantly counteracted by indomethacin with no further improvement by adding thymopentin. Interleukin-6 synthesis increased in all groups. Although indomethacin treatment alone had little effect on this phenomenon, additional administration of thymopentin significantly reduced elevated interleukin-6 synthesis. Corresponding differences in clinical outcome could not be detected due to small patient numbers. This study was, however, able to demonstrate that an immunomodulatory therapy can influence alterations in immune mechanisms after cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:8431048

  5. Current status of extracorporeal life support (ECMO) for cardiopulmonary failure.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, R H; Gattinoni, L

    2010-07-01

    Extracorporeal life support with artificial heart and lung for cardiopulmonary failure is commonly called extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO can provide partial or total support, is temporary, and requires systemic anticoagulation. ECMO controls gas exchange and perfusion, stabilizes the patient physiologically, decreases the risk of ongoing iatrogenic injury, and allows ample time for diagnosis, treatment, and recovery from the primary injury or disease. ECMO is used in a variety of clinical circumstances and the results depend on the primary indication. ECMO provides life support but is not a form of treatment. Survival ranges from 30% in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation to 95% for neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome. The major limitations to widespread applications are the need for anticoagulation and bleeding complications. However, nowadays, the new devices allow only minor bleeding that is rarely a fatal complication. Research on non-thrombogenic surfaces holds the promise of prolonged extracorporeal circulation without anticoagulation and without bleeding. The next decade may bring routine application of ECMO to all advanced Intensive Care Units where patients with profound respiratory and cardiac failure are treated. PMID:20613694

  6. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V A Cornelissen; B Verheyden; A E Aubert; R H Fagard

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation among mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alwan, Ali; Ehlenbach, William J.; Menon, Prema R.; Young, Michael P.; Stapleton, Renee D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes, including long term survival, after CPR in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods We analyzed Medicare data from 1994-2005 to identify beneficiaries who underwent in-hospital CPR. We then identified a subgroup receiving CPR one or more days after mechanical ventilation was initiated (defined by ICD-9 procedure code for intubation [96.04] or mechanical ventilation [96.7x] one or more days prior to procedure code for CPR [99.60 or 99.63]). Results We identified 471,962 patients who received in-hospital CPR with an overall survival to hospital discharge of 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.3-18.5%). Of those, 42,163 received CPR one or more days after mechanical ventilation initiation. Survival to hospital discharge after CPR in ventilated patients was 10.1% (95% CI 9.8%-10.4%), compared to 19.2% (95% CI 19.1%-19.3%) in non-ventilated patients (p<0.001). Among this group, older age, race other than white, higher burden of chronic illness, and admission from a nursing facility were associated with decreased survival in multivariable analyses. Among all CPR recipients, those who were ventilated had 52% lower odds of survival (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.46-0.49, p<0.001). Median long term survival in ventilated patients receiving CPR who survived to hospital discharge was 6.0 months (95% CI 5.3-6.8 months), compared to 19.0 months (95% CI 18.6-19.5 months) among the non-ventilated survivors (p=<0.001 by logrank test). Of all patients receiving CPR while ventilated, only 4.1% were alive at one year. Conclusions Survival after in-hospital CPR is decreased among ventilated patients compared to those who are not ventilated. This information is important for clinicians, patients, and family members when discussing CPR in critically ill patients. PMID:24570267

  8. An Exercise to Introduce Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Edith; Liu, Yali

    2013-01-01

    In introductory statistics courses, the concept of power is usually presented in the context of testing hypotheses about the population mean. We instead propose an exercise that uses a binomial probability table to introduce the idea of power in the context of testing a population proportion. (Contains 2 tables, and 2 figures.)

  9. Gender differences in myocardial function and arterio-ventricular coupling in response to maximal exercise in adolescent floor-ball players

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The hemodynamic and cardiac responses to exercise have been widely investigated in adults. However, little is known regarding myocardial performance in response to a short bout of maximal exercise in adolescents. We therefore sought to study alterations in myocardial function and investigate sex-influences in young athletes after maximal cardiopulmonary testing. Methods 51 adolescent (13-19 years old) floor-ball players (24 females) were recruited. All subjects underwent a maximal exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and cardiac output. Cardiac performance was investigated using conventional and tissue velocity imaging, as well as 2D strain echocardiography before and 30 minutes following exercise. Arterio-ventricular coupling was evaluated by means of single beat ventricular elastance and arterial elastance. Results Compared to baseline the early diastolic myocardial velocity (E?LV) at the basal left ventricular (LV) segments declined significantly (females: E?LV: 14.7 +/- 2.6 to 13.6 +/- 2.9 cm/s; males: 15.2 +/- 2.2 to 13.9 +/- 2.3 cm/s, p?exercise (2D strain LV: from 21.5 +/- 2.4 to 20.2 +/- 2.7% in females, and from 20 +/- 1 to 17.9 +/- 1.5% in males, p?exercise (p?>?0.05). Arterial elastance) Ea) at baseline was identified as the only predictor of VO2max in males (r?=?0.76, p??0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that vigorous exercise of short duration results in a significant decrease of longitudinal myocardial motion in both sexes. However, in view of unaltered end systolic LV elastance (Ees), these reductions most probably reflect changes in the loading conditions and not an attenuation of myocardial function per se. Importantly, we show that arterial load at rest acts as a strong predictor of VO2max in males but not in female subjects. PMID:25045524

  10. Exercise-Induced Urticaria

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Exercise-induced Urticaria Overview What is exercise-induced urticaria? Exercise-induced urticaria is a condition that causes hives and other allergic symptoms. It can occur during ...

  11. Resting Ventricular-Vascular Function and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A RELAX Trial Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Selma F.; Borlaug, Barry A.; McNulty, Steven; Lewis, Gregory D.; Lin, Grace; Zakeri, Rosita; Semigran, Marc J.; LeWinter, Martin; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Braunwald, Eugene; Redfield, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a hallmark of heart failure (HF), but factors associated with impaired exercise capacity in HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) are unclear. We hypothesized that in HFpEF, the severity of resting ventricular and vascular dysfunction are associated with impairment in exercise tolerance as assessed by peak oxygen consumption (pVO2). Methods and Results Subjects with HFpEF enrolled in the PhosphodiesteRasE-5 Inhibition to Improve CLinical Status And EXercise Capacity in Diastolic Heart Failure (RELAX) clinical trial (n=216) underwent baseline Doppler echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. RELAX participants were elderly (median age 69 years) and 48% were women. EF (60%) and stroke volume (77 ml) were normal, while diastolic dysfunction (medial E/e? 16, deceleration time 185 msec, left atrial volume 44 ml/m2) and increased arterial load (arterial elastance (Ea) 1.51 mmHg/ml) were evident. PVO2 was reduced (11.7 ml/kg/min, 1141 ml/min) and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin and chronotropic response collectively explained 64% of the variance in raw pVO2 (ml/min). After adjustment for these variables, LV structure (diastolic dimension (1.5%, p=0.008) and LV mass (1.6%, p=0.008)), resting stroke volume (2.0%, p=0.002), LV diastolic dysfunction (deceleration time (0.9%, p=0.03) and E/e? (1.4%, p=0.009), and arterial function (Ea (2.1%, p=0.002) and systemic arterial compliance (1.5%, p=0.007)), each explained only a small additional portion of the variance in pVO2. Conclusions In HFpEF, potentially modifiable factors (obesity, anemia and chronotropic incompetence) are strongly associated with exercise capacity whereas resting measures of ventricular and vascular structure and function are not. Clinical Trial Registration ;URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00763867. PMID:24833648

  12. An alternative approach for the safety evaluation of new and existing chemicals, an exercise in integrated testing.

    PubMed

    Gubbels-van Hal, W M L G; Blaauboer, B J; Barentsen, H M; Hoitink, M A; Meerts, I A T M; van der Hoeven, J C M

    2005-08-01

    Various in vitro and in silico methods without animals were applied to 10 substances listed on ELINCS with a complete VIIA base-set available at NOTOX. The hazard assessment for these substances was performed on basis of available non-animal data, QSAR, PBBK-modelling and additional, new in vitro testing was applied. Based on these data predictions on fish toxicity, acute toxicity, skin- and eye-irritation, sensitisation, and toxicity after repeated dosing were made. The predictions were compared with the outcome of the in vivo tests. Nine out of ten predictions on fish LC(50) proved to be correct. For skin- and eye-irritation 70% was predicted correctly. Sensitisation was predicted correctly for 7 out of 10 substances, but three false negatives were found. Acute oral toxicity (LD(50)) and repeated dose toxicity were less successful (5 out of 10 and 2 out of 10 correct predictions, respectively); application of the PBBK model proved successful. Acute dermal toxicity was predicted correctly in 9 out of 10 cases. In general an over-estimation of systemic toxicity was found, which can be explained by an over-prediction of cytotoxicity and worst case assumptions on absorption and binding to (plasma) proteins. This integrated approach leads to a 38% reduction of laboratory animals. PMID:15979772

  13. Exercising with Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... everyone. In fact, studies show that people with osteoarthritis benefit from regular exercise and physical activity. For people with osteoarthritis, regular exercise can help: l Maintain healthy and ...

  14. High tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels are associated with exercise intolerance and neurohormonal activation in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Cicoira, M; Bolger, A P; Doehner, W; Rauchhaus, M; Davos, C; Sharma, R; Al-Nasser, F O; Coats, A J; Anker, S D

    2001-07-21

    Immune activation plays an important role in the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). We sought to investigate whether different degrees of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activation are associated with exercise intolerance, neurohormonal activation and alterations in muscle mass and function in patients with CHF without cardiac cachexia. Patients were divided into quartiles according to their TNF levels (first quartile: 0.98-4.90 pg/ml, second quartile: 5.00-6.60 pg/ml; third quartile 6.80-9.00 pg/ml; fourth quartile 9.80-32.00 pg/ml). Patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, quadriceps muscle strength test, quadriceps fatigue test, and assessment of thigh muscle and fat cross-sectional area (CSA) by computerized tomography scanning. Patients in the highest TNF quartile had the lowest peak oxygen consumption [13.1 (+/-4.1) ml/kg/min vs 18.1 (+/-5.3), 18.8 (+/-4.8) and 18.7 (+/-5.6) ml/kg/min, P<0.01] the greatest relation of ventilation and dioxide production (VE/VCO(2)) slope (P<0.05) and the most elevated catecholamine levels (P<0.05) compared to patients in the first three quartiles. Patients with the lowest TNF levels had preserved thigh muscle size and quadriceps strength. Strength/muscle CSA was similar in the four groups. Muscle strength during fatigue testing was significantly lower in the fourth quartile (P=0.01) compared with the other three groups. In CHF patients only the highest levels of TNF are associated with poor functional status and neurohormonal activation. This group of patients may represent the appropriate target population for TNF antagonism. PMID:11500083

  15. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  16. Comparison of clinical efficacy and cost of a cardiac imaging strategy versus a traditional exercise test strategy for the investigation of patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ozan M; Bashir, Abdullah; Marshall, Kathy; Douglas, Martina; Wasan, Balvinder; Plein, Sven; Alfakih, Khaled

    2015-06-15

    We evaluated the clinical efficacy and cost of a cardiac imaging strategy versus a traditional exercise tolerance test (ETT) strategy for the investigation of suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We retrospectively collected data of consecutive patients seen in rapid access chest pain clinics at 2 UK hospitals for a period of 12 months. Hospital A investigated patients by performing ETT. Hospital B investigated patients using cardiac imaging test; 483 patients from hospital A and 295 from hospital B were included. In hospital A, 209 patients (43.3%) had contraindication to ETT. Of those who had ETT, 151 (55.1%) had negative ETT, 68 (24.8%) had equivocal ETT, and 55 (20.1%) had positive ETT, of which 53 (96.4%) had invasive coronary angiography (ICA), and of these 23 (43.4%) had obstructive CAD. In hospital B, 26 patients (8.8%) with low pretest probability had calcium score and 3 (11.5%) were positive leading to computed tomography coronary angiography; 98 patients (33.2%) with intermediate pretest probability had computed tomography coronary angiography and 5 (5.1%) were positive; 77 patients (26.1%) had stress echocardiogram and 6 (7.8%) were positive; and 57 patients (19.3%) had myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and 11 (19.3%) were positive. Hospital A performed 127 ICA (26.3% of population) and 52 (40.9%) had obstructive CAD. Hospital B performed 63 ICA (21.4% of population) and 32 (50.8%) had obstructive CAD. The average cost per patient in hospital A was £566.6 ± 490.0 ($875 ± 758) and in hospital B was £487.9 ± 469.6 ($750 ± 725) (p <0.001). In conclusion, our results suggest that a cardiac imaging pathway leads to fewer ICA and a higher yield of obstructive CAD at lower cost per patient. PMID:25910528

  17. Comparison of the usefulness of heart rate variability versus exercise stress testing for the detection of myocardial ischemia in patients without known coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Goldkorn, Ronen; Naimushin, Alexey; Shlomo, Nir; Dan, Ariella; Oieru, Dan; Moalem, Israel; Rozen, Eli; Gur, Ilan; Levitan, Jacob; Rosenmann, David; Mogilewsky, Yakov; Klempfner, Robert; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2015-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be attenuated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and may, therefore, be possibly used for the early detection of myocardial ischemia. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of a novel short-term HRV algorithm for the detection of myocardial ischemia in subjects without known CAD. We prospectively enrolled 450 subjects without known CAD who were referred to tertiary medical centers for exercise stress testing (EST) with single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). All subjects underwent 1-hour Holter testing with subsequent HRV analysis before EST with MPI. The diagnostic yield of HRV analysis was compared with EST, using MPI as the gold standard for the noninvasive detection of myocardial ischemia. All subjects had intermediate pretest probability for CAD. Mean age was 62 years, 38% were women, 51% had hypertension, and 25% diabetes mellitus. HRV analysis showed superior sensitivity (77%) compared with standard EST (27%). After multivariate adjustment, HRV was independently associated with an 8.4-fold (p <0.001) increased likelihood for the detection of myocardial ischemia by MPI, whereas EST did not show a statistically significant association with a positive MPI (odds ratio 2.1; p = 0.12). Of subjects who were referred for subsequent coronary angiography, the respective sensitivities of HRV and EST for the detection of significant CAD were 73% versus 26%. Our data suggest that HRV can be used as an important noninvasive technique for the detection of myocardial ischemia in subjects without known CAD, providing superior sensitivity to conventional EST in this population. PMID:25872904

  18. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  19. Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

  20. Teaching and Learning with Individually Unique Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerding, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the pedagogical benefits of giving students individually unique homework exercises from an exercise template. Evidence from a test of this approach shows statistically significant improvements in subsequent exam performance by students receiving unique problems compared with students who received traditional…

  1. Sequestration of fentanyl by the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPBP).

    PubMed

    Koren, G; Crean, P; Klein, J; Goresky, G; Villamater, J; MacLeod, S M

    1984-01-01

    Immediately following the connection of pediatric patients to cardiopulmonary bypass we have consistently observed a steep decrease in fentanyl plasma concentration (74 +/- 8.7%) (mean +/- SD), much greater than would have been expected from hemodilution alone (50.6% +/- 12.0%) (p less than 0.0001). Priming of the pump with 20 ng/ml of fentanyl before connection to the patients did not prevent this phenomenon. In order to study the possibility that fentanyl is sequestered by the bypass, levels of the primed drug in the bypass were assessed before connecting the pump to the children and a steep fall from 20 ng/ml to zero was shown before initiation of bypass. Pharmacokinetic assessment of fentanyl in a closed pump circuit showed that levels of 120 ng/ml fall to 2 ng/ml within 3 min and remain stable at the lower concentration for at least 30 min. Further studies have identified the membrane oxygenator as the major site of fentanyl sequestration. Concentrations across the membrane fall from 120 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml. The attached siliconized tubing is associated with a minor binding effect sufficient to reduce concentrations from 110 to 84 ng/ml. The pvc tubing, aluminium heat exchanger and plastic reservoir had no binding effect on fentanyl. The possibility that a decrease in fentanyl protein binding caused the fall in serum concentration was checked in 5 patients undergoing open heart surgery. After initiation of the cardiopulmonary bypass, there was a significant decrease in albumin serum concentrations from 32.0 +/- 2.3 mM to 15.0 +/- 1.6 mM (p less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6489427

  2. Testing the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention for adults with venous leg ulcers: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise and adequate self-management capacity may be important strategies in the management of venous leg ulcers. However, it remains unclear if exercise improves the healing rates of venous leg ulcers and if a self-management exercise program based on self-efficacy theory is well adhered to. Method/design This is a randomised controlled in adults with venous leg ulcers to determine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention. Participants with venous leg ulcers are recruited from 3 clinical sites in Australia. After collection of baseline data, participants are randomised to either an intervention group or control group. The control group receive usual care, as recommended by evidence based guidelines. The intervention group receive an individualised program of calf muscle exercises and walking. The twelve week exercise program integrates multiple elements, including up to six telephone delivered behavioural coaching and goal setting sessions, supported by written materials, a pedometer and two follow-up booster calls if required. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weekly steps and lower limb exercises. The control group are supported by a generic information sheet that the intervention group also receive encouraging lower limb exercises, a pedometer for self-management and phone calls at the same time points as the intervention group. The primary outcome is the healing rates of venous leg ulcers which are assessed at fortnightly clinic appointments. Secondary outcomes, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks: functional ability (range of ankle motion and Tinetti gait and balance score), quality of life and self-management scores. Discussion This study seeks to address a significant gap in current wound management practice by providing evidence for the effectiveness of a home-based exercise program for adults with venous leg ulcers. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies that can improve an individual’s exercise self-efficacy and self-management capacity could have a significant impact in improving the management of people with venous leg ulcers. Information gained from this study will provide much needed information on management of this chronic disease to promote health and independence in this population. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000475842. PMID:25277416

  3. Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular variables. Plasma volume (% delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P < 0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training for all regimens indicating no effect of these training regimens on the level of vascular fluid shifts.

  4. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... any changes with your child's breathing problems. Recommended Activities for Kids With EIA Exercise is a great idea for ... With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ... activity, in addition to stretching or flexibility exercises.) Take ...

  5. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  6. Exercise in pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nahed M Ezmerli

    2000-01-01

    Exercise has become an integral part of the life styles of many women. However, many women stop exercising during pregnancy because of concerns regarding the well-being of the fetus. Although pregnancy is associated with several physiologic changes and response to exercise is different in the pregnant state than in the nonpregnant state, exercise can be beneficial to the pregnant woman

  7. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  8. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  9. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  10. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  11. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  12. Exercise and Cardiac Complications: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Barry A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In a roundtable discussion, a panel of experts address how physicians can identify active patients for whom exercise poses the risk of serious heart complications, how useful stress tests are, what exercise intensity is best, and what physicians can tell patients about the risks of exercise versus its benefits. (SM)

  13. Stress Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Stress Testing? Stress testing provides information about how your heart works during ... is working hard and beating fast. During stress testing, you exercise (walk or run on a treadmill ...

  14. Acute vigorous exercise primes enhanced NO release in human platelets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natsuko Kasuya; Yukio Kishi; Shin-ya Sakita; Fujio Numano; Mitsuaki Isobe

    2002-01-01

    Activation of platelets by acute vigorous exercise has been demonstrated by various parameters, including an increase in agonist-induced platelet [Ca2+]i levels. However, direct evidence is lacking regarding how acute exercise affects platelet-derived NO. Twenty-three healthy male non-smokers (21–59 years) underwent a symptom-limited treadmill exercise test. Washed platelets were prepared from blood samples obtained before and immediately after exercise. All subjects

  15. 76 FR 22809 - Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY...support of the Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise, a multi-agency exercise that tests the proficiency of teams called...

  16. Effect of bystander initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation on ventricular fibrillation and survival after witnessed cardiac arrest outside hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Herlitz; L Ekström; B Wennerblom; A Axelsson; A Bång; S Holmberg

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the proportion of patients who were discharged from hospital after witnessed cardiac arrest outside hospital in relation to whether a bystander initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PATIENTS--All patients with witnessed cardiac arrest outside hospital before arrival of the ambulance and in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation was attempted by the emergency medical service in Gothenburg during 1980-92. RESULTS--Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated by

  17. Planning and Conducting a Functional Exercise. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    A key component of comprehensive school and school district emergency management plans is an exercise program that includes the five types of exercises: (1) orientation seminars; (2) drills; (3) tabletop exercises; and (4) functional exercises. Functional exercises are excellent tools for testing the extent to which an existing emergency…

  18. A Twin-Sibling Study on the Relationship Between Exercise Attitudes and Exercise Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Meike; Jansen, Iris E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive models of health behavior propose that individual differences in leisure time exercise behavior are influenced by the attitudes towards exercise. At the same time, large scale twin-family studies show a significant influence of genetic factors on regular exercise behavior. This twin–sibling study aimed to unite these findings by demonstrating that exercise attitudes can be heritable themselves. Secondly, the genetic and environmental cross-trait correlations and the monozygotic (MZ) twin intrapair differences model were used to test whether the association between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior can be causal. Survey data were obtained from 5,095 twins and siblings (18–50 years). A genetic contribution was found for exercise behavior (50 % in males, 43 % in females) and for the six exercise attitude components derived from principal component analysis: perceived benefits (21, 27 %), lack of skills, support and/or resources (45, 48 %), time constraints (25, 30 %), lack of energy (34, 44 %), lack of enjoyment (47, 44 %), and embarrassment (42, 49 %). These components were predictive of leisure time exercise behavior (R2 = 28 %). Bivariate modeling further showed that all the genetic (0.36 <|rA| <0.80) and all but two unique environmental (0.00 <|rE| <0.27) correlations between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior were significantly different from zero, which is a necessary condition for the existence of a causal effect driving the association. The correlations between the MZ twins’ difference scores were in line with this finding. It is concluded that exercise attitudes and exercise behavior are heritable, that attitudes and behavior are partly correlated through pleiotropic genetic effects, but that the data are compatible with a causal association between exercise attitudes and behavior. PMID:24072598

  19. Using Electromyography to Detect the Weightings of the Local Muscle Factors to the Increase of Perceived Exertion During Stepping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Ju; Liu, Chin-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Hsiang; Tsaih, Peih-Ling; Hsu, Miao-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) is a clinically convenient indicator for monitoring exercise intensity in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. It might not be sensitive enough for clinicians to determine the patients' physiological status because its association with the cardiovascular system and local muscle factors is unknown. This study used the electromyographic sensor to detect the local muscle fatigue and stabilization of patella, and analyzed the relationship between various local muscle and cardiovascular factors and the increase of RPE during stepping exercise, a common exercise program provided in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. Ten healthy adults (4 males and 6 females) participated in this study. Each subject used their right bare foot to step up onto a 23-cm-high step at a constant speed until the RPE score reached 20. The RPE, heart rate (HR), and surface EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis were recorded at 1-minute intervals during the stepping exercise. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis indicated that the increase in RPE significantly correlated with the increase in HR, and decrease in median frequency (MF) of the EMG power spectrum of the RF. Experimental results suggest that the increase in RPE during stepping exercise was influenced by the cardiovascular status, localized muscle fatigue in the lower extremities. The weighting of the local muscle factors was more than half of the weighting of the cardiovascular factor.

  20. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Chest Compression Only and Teamwork From the Perspective of Medical Doctors, Surgeons and Anesthesiologists

    PubMed Central

    Krajina, Irena; Kvolik, Slavica; Steiner, Robert; Kovacevic, Kristina; Lovric, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background: New resuscitation guidelines that were proposed by the European Resuscitation Council in 2010 have introduced a new method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by chest compressions only for untrained individuals. Objectives: We conducted this study to evaluate differences in attitudes towards CPR among medical doctors, surgeons and anesthesiologists in Osijek University Hospital. A call for help, chest-compression-only resuscitation, mouth-to-mouth ventilation and team-work were recognized as critical points that may influence the outcome. Unfamiliarity with these methods may be indicative of a lack of education in resuscitation and may result in poor outcomes for victims. Patients and Methods: An anonymous survey was conducted on 190 medical professionals: 93 medical doctors, 70 surgeons, and 27 anesthesiologists during year 2012 (mean age 41.9 years). The questions were related to previous education in resuscitation, current resuscitation practices and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher exact test. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The only difference between groups was regarding the male and female ratio, with more male surgeons (45, 55, and 11, P < 0.001). All doctors considered CPR as important, but only anesthesiologists knew how often guidelines in CPR change. Approximately 45% of medical doctors, 48% of surgeons and 77% of anesthesiologists reported that they have renewed their knowledge in CPR within the last five years, whereas 34%, 25% and 22% had never renewed their knowledge in the CPR (P = 0.01 between surgeons anesthesiologists). Furthermore, chest-compression-only was recognized as a valuable CPR technique by 25.8% of medical doctors, 14.3% of surgeons and 59.3% of anesthesiologists (P < 0.001). Anesthesiologists estimated a high risk of infection transmission (62%) and were more likely to refuse mouth-to-mouth ventilation when compared to surgeons (25% vs.10%, P = 0.01). Anesthesiologists are most often called for help by their colleagues, only rarely surgeons call their departmental colleagues and nurses to help in CPR. Conclusions: An insufficient formal education in CPR was registered for all groups, reflecting the lack of familiarity with new CPR methods. A team education, involving doctors and nurses may improve familiarity with CPR and patient outcomes. PMID:26019895

  1. Pharmacological postconditioning with sevoflurane after cardiopulmonary resuscitation reduces myocardial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we sought to examine whether pharmacological postconditioning with sevoflurane (SEVO) is neuro- and cardioprotective in a pig model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods Twenty-two pigs were subjected to cardiac arrest. After 8 minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 2 minutes of basic life support, advanced cardiac life support was started. After successful return of spontaneous circulation (N = 16), animals were randomized to either (1) propofol (CONTROL) anesthesia or (2) SEVO anesthesia for 4 hours. Neurological function was assessed 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation. The effects on myocardial and cerebral damage, especially on inflammation, apoptosis and tissue remodeling, were studied using cellular and molecular approaches. Results Animals treated with SEVO had lower peak troponin T levels (median [IQR]) (CONTROL vs SEVO = 0.31 pg/mL [0.2 to 0.65] vs 0.14 pg/mL [0.09 to 0.25]; P < 0.05) and improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function compared to the CONTROL group (P < 0.05). SEVO was associated with a reduction in myocardial IL-1? protein concentrations (0.16 pg/?g total protein [0.14 to 0.17] vs 0.12 pg/?g total protein [0.11 to 0.14]; P < 0.01), a reduction in apoptosis (increased procaspase-3 protein levels (0.94 arbitrary units [0.86 to 1.04] vs 1.18 arbitrary units [1.03 to 1.28]; P < 0.05), increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? protein expression (P < 0.05) and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (P < 0.05). SEVO did not, however, affect neurological deficit score or cerebral cellular and molecular pathways. Conclusions SEVO reduced myocardial damage and dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the early postresuscitation period. The reduction was associated with a reduced rate of myocardial proinflammatory cytokine expression, apoptosis, increased HIF-1? expression and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9. Early administration of SEVO may not, however, improve neurological recovery. PMID:22011328

  2. Blood viscosity and hemodynamics during exercise.

    PubMed

    Connes, Philippe; Pichon, Aurélien; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Waltz, Xavier; Lamarre, Yann; Simmonds, Michael J; Tripette, Julien

    2012-01-01

    We tested the effects of submaximal exercise on blood viscosity (?(b)), nitric oxide production (NO) and hemodynamics. Relationships between the exercise-induced changes that occurred in these parameters were investigated. Nine subjects performed exercise for 15 min at 105% of the first ventilatory threshold. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (Qc) were measured, allowing the determination of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Blood was sampled at rest and at the end of exercise. The ?(b) was determined at high shear rate and was used to calculate systemic vascular hindrance (VH). NO production was estimated by measuring plasma concentrations of NO stable end products (NOx). Qc, MAP, ?(b) and NOx, increased with exercise, whereas SVR and VH decreased. The changes between rest and exercise were calculated and tested for correlations. We observed: 1) a positive correlation between the increase in ?(b) and the increase in NOx; 2) a negative correlation between the increase in NOx and the decrease in VH; 3) a negative correlation between the increase in ?(b) and the decrease in SVR. Although the increase in Qc and blood flow during exercise probably promoted NO production due to shear dependent stimulation of the endothelium, the present results also support that the rise in ?(b) during exercise may be necessary for NO production and adequate vasodilation. PMID:22240371

  3. [Exercise ECG as a screening test in the early diagnosis of coronary heart disease. Result of a trial study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, J; Christl, H L; Hausen, W; Rau, G

    1978-04-21

    1500 men (aged 30-55 years) volunteered in a trial of early recognition of cardiovascular disease. History and clinical as well as biochemical data were obtained and compared with results of exercise ECGs. In the group as a whole abnormal ECGs were obtained in 6.2%, in a subgroup of those without exercise-dependent pain in the thorax, without hypertension and noraml resting ECG it was 3.8%, while in the presence of one or several of these risk factors it was as high as 17.8%. It is concluded that in any screening programme it is not reasonable to perform exercise ECGs in asymptomatic persons without risk factors, because in this group there is likely to be only a small percentage of abnormal findings and the number of false-positive ones is higher than that or correct positive ones. In connection with the known risk factors and risk indicators it would be best to define the risk group and, using selective indications, to go step-by-step from exercise ECG to additional invasive diagnostic measures such as coronary angiography. PMID:639717

  4. [The correlation between flow pattern during cardiopulmonary bypass and patency of the coronary artery bypass grafts].

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, H; Shirakawa, M; Nakayama, T; Asai, T; Nakayama, M; Ito, T; Yano, Y

    2005-07-01

    Recently the availability of transit time flow measurement (TTFM) is reported especially in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). But little is known about TTFM findings in on-pump CABG. We examined the correlation between the TTFM flow pattern and the angiography findings in on-pump CABG. The subjects consisted of 52 patients who underwent on-pump CABG and angiography early after operation. In these patients, 55 internal thoracic artery (ITA), 17 gastroepiploic artery (GEA), 13 saphenous vein graft (SVG) and 41 radial artery (RA) were tested with TTFM during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). TTFM demonstrated a diastolic filling pattern in 53 ITA, 16 GEA, 13 SVG and 36 RA. The angiography revealed that all these grafts were perfectly patent with the exception of a GEA with a flow competition pattern. TTFM revealed an abnormal flow pattern in 2 ITA (these 2 grafts were revised during CPB and the angiography demonstrated their perfect patency), 1 GEA (to and fro pattern), 0 SVG and 5 RA (the abnormal pattern was due to graft spasm in 3 of 5, and the angiography revealed their perfect patency, however, the angiography detected stenosis in the remaining 2 grafts). The present study found that the TTFM flow pattern during CPB correlated well with the angiography findings. TTFM during CPB was useful to detect graft failure, and grafts were revised safely during CPB. PMID:16004331

  5. Significant reduction of air microbubbles with the dynamic bubble trap during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Schönburg, M; Urbanek, P; Erhardt, G; Kraus, B; Taborski, U; Mühling, A; Hein, S; Roth, M; Tiedtke, H J; Klövekorn, W P

    2001-01-01

    Air microbubbles mostly occur unnoticed during cardiopulmonary bypass and are predominantly responsible for serious postoperative psychoneurological dysfunction. A dynamic bubble trap (DBT), which removes air microbubbles from the arterial blood, was tested in a clinical study. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of microbubble removal under clinical conditions. As blood passes through the DBT, which is placed in the arterial line between the arterial filter and arterial cannula, it is converted into a rotating stream. The bubbles are directed to the centre of the blood flow and are collected in the distal end of the DBT, from where they are returned to the cardiotomy reservoir. Doppler ultrasonography was used to detect the microbubbles before and after the DBT, and also the number of high-intensity transient signals (HITS) in the right and left middle cerebral artery during extracorporeal circulation. A significant reduction of microbubbles in the arterial line (3,990 before DBT, 537 after, p < 0.001) and HITS in the brain (51 in the DBT group, 77 in the placebo group, p = 0.04) was measured. PMID:11192303

  6. Microemboli from cardiopulmonary bypass are associated with a serum marker of brain injury.

    PubMed

    Groom, Robert C; Quinn, Reed D; Lennon, Paul; Welch, Janine; Kramer, Robert S; Ross, Cathy S; Beaulieu, Peter A; Brown, Jeremiah R; Malenka, David J; O'Connor, Gerald T; Likosky, Donald S

    2010-03-01

    An increasing number of reports surrounding neurologic injury in the setting of cardiac surgery has focused on utilizing biomarkers as intermediate outcomes. Previous research has associated cerebral microemboli and neurobehavioral deficits with biomarkers. A leading source of cerebral microemboli is the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit. This present study seeks to identify a relationship between microemboli leaving the CPB circuit and a biomarker of neurologic injury. We enrolled 71 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting at a single institution from October 14, 2004 through December 5, 2007. Microemboli were monitored using Power-M-Mode Doppler in the inflow and outflow of the CPB circuit. Blood was sampled before and within 48 hours after surgery. Neurologic injury was measured using S100beta (microg/L). Significant differences in post-operative S100beta relative to microemboli leaving the circuit were tested with analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis. Most patients had increased serum levels of S100beta (mean .25 microg/L, median .15 microg/L) following surgery. Terciles of microemboli measured in the outflow (indexed to the duration of time spent on CPB) were associated with elevated levels of S100beta (p = .03). Microemboli leaving the CPB circuit were associated with increases in postoperative S100beta levels. Efforts aimed at reducing microembolic load leaving the CPB circuit should be adopted to reduce brain injury. PMID:20437790

  7. Cardiorespiratory responses to 6-minute walk test in interstitial lung disease: not always a submaximal test

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is used to measure exercise capacity and assess prognosis in interstitial lung disease (ILD). Although the 6MWT is usually considered to be a test of submaximal exercise capacity in ILD, the physiological load imposed by this test is not well described and 6MWT outcomes are poorly understood. This study aimed to compare cardiorespiratory responses to 6MWT and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in people with ILD. Methods 47 participants with ILD (27 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), mean age 71 (SD 12) years, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (TLCO) 49(15) %predicted) undertook CPET and 6MWT on the same day in random order. Oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were assessed during each test using a portable metabolic cart. Results The VO2peak during the 6MWT was lower than during CPET (1.17(0.27) vs 1.30(0.37) L.min?1, p?=?0.001), representing an average of 94% (range 62-135%) of CPET VO2peak. Achieving a higher percentage of CPET VO2peak on 6MWT was associated with lower TLCO %predicted (r?=??0.43, p?=?0.003) and more desaturation during walking (r?=??0.46, p?=?0.01). The VEpeak and VCO2peak were significantly lower during 6MWT than CPET (p?test of submaximal exercise capacity in people with ILD. PMID:25113781

  8. Potential Renal Sequelae in Survivors of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pergam, Steven A.; Schmidt, Darren W.; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Hunt, William C.; Harford, Antonia H.; Goade, Diane E.

    2009-01-01

    Although other hantaviruses are associated with renal manifestations, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has not been associated with such sequelae. The HCPS survivors were prospectively evaluated for renal complications. Subjects underwent yearly evaluation, laboratory studies, and 24-hour urine collection. Thirty subjects were evaluated after recovery from HCPS with the first follow-up at a median of 7.4 months after discharge. Subjects were a wide age range (18–51) but had an equal gender composition. Eighteen of 30 (60%) returned for > 1 evaluation. Half (15/30) had a 24-hour urine collection with > 150 mg of total protein and 6 had > 300 mg. Seven had a Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (CrClCG) < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 2 were < 60. Fifty-three percent met the definition of chronic kidney disease. Those treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation had less renal sequelae (P = 0.035). Our data suggest that renal sequelae may occur in HCPS. Further study of renal complications of New World hantavirus infections are needed. PMID:19190227

  9. Development of a hemodynamically optimized outflow cannula for cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Tim A S; Schlanstein, Peter; Moritz, Anton; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    The jet of the outflow cannula is a potential risk for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), because increased jet velocities lead to altered flow conditions and might furthermore mobilize atherosclerotic plaques from calcified aortas. The cannula jet is therefore among the main reasons for cerebral hypoxia and stroke in CPB patients. In the past, we developed a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to analyze flow conditions during CPB as dependent on cannulation and support modalities. This model is now applied to develop a novel CPB outflow cannula to reduce the jet effect and increase cerebral blood flow. The Multi-Module Cannula (MMC) is based on a generic elbow cannula that was iteratively improved. It features an inner wall to smoothly guide the blood as well as an elliptically shaped outlet diffuser. During standard CPB conditions of 5 L/min, the pressure drop over the MMC is 61 mm Hg, compared with 68 mm Hg with a standard cannula. The maximum velocities are decreased from 3.7 m/s to 3.3 m/s. In the cannula jet of the MMC, the velocities are reduced further, down to 1.6 m/s. The cerebral blood flow is typically reduced during CPB. Using the MMC, however, it reaches almost physiological values at 715 mL/min. These results suggest that the MMC outperforms standard CPB cannulas. Further design improvements and improved insertion techniques are under consideration. PMID:24533575

  10. Arterial hyperoxia during cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Monique T.; McDonagh, David L.; Phillips-Bute, Barbara; Welsby, Ian J.; Podgoreanu, Mihai V.; Fontes, Manuel L.; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Newman, Mark F.; Mathew, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of arterial normobaric hyperoxia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on postoperative neurocognitive function. We hypothesized that arterial hyperoxia during CPB is associated with neurocognitive decline at 6 weeks after cardiac surgery. Design Retrospective study of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. Setting A university hospital. Participants One thousand eighteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or CABG + valve surgery with CPB who had previously been enrolled in prospective cognitive trials. Interventions A battery of neurocognitive measures was administered at baseline and 6 weeks post-surgery. CPB was managed by the anesthesia care team as clinically indicated. Measurements and Main Results Arterial hyperoxia was assessed primarily as the area under the curve (AUC) for the duration that PaO2 exceeded 200 mmHg during CPB and secondarily as the mean PaO2 during bypass, as a PaO2 ? 300 mmHg at any point and as AUC > 150 mmHg. Cognitive change was assessed both as a continuous change score and a dichotomous deficit rate. Multivariable regression accounting for age, years of education, baseline cognition, date of surgery, baseline post-intubation PaO2, duration of CPB, and percent change in hematocrit level from baseline to lowest level during CPB revealed no significant association between hyperoxia during CPB and postoperative neurocognitive function. Conclusions Arterial hyperoxia during CPB is not associated with neurocognitive decline at 6-weeks in cardiac surgical patients. PMID:23972739

  11. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on vancomycin and netilmicin disposition.

    PubMed Central

    Klamerus, K J; Rodvold, K A; Silverman, N A; Levitsky, S

    1988-01-01

    The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the disposition of vancomycin (15 mg/kg) and of netilmicin (3 mg/kg) was studied in 10 adults. The concentration-time profile of the drug in serum and renal clearance were characterized pre-CPB, during CPB, and post-CPB. Vancomycin and netilmicin exhibited initial decreases in mean concentrations in serum of 4.0 mg/liter (16.8%) and 2.2 mg/liter (29.1%), respectively, upon initiation of CPB. Netilmicin concentrations in serum rebounded to a mean of 0.6 mg/liter (15.4%) within 90 min on CPB and then continuously decreased. Vancomycin concentrations in serum demonstrated a rebound increase of 2.3 mg/liter (23.5%) at the end of CPB when the aorta was unclamped. Mean renal clearance throughout CPB was decreased for vancomycin (58.4 to 43.4 ml/min per m2) and netilmicin (53.4 to 31.5 ml/min per m2). The rebound in vancomycin concentration in serum strongly correlated with the length of time between unclamping the aorta and coming off CPB (r = 0.94), as well as with the increase in temperature upon rewarming (r = 0.92). PMID:3395099

  12. Rupture of extra-corporeal circuit tubing during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Sai Krishna, Cheemalapati; Naresh Kumar, Palli Venkata; Satpathy, Soumya Kanta; Ram Mohan, Kanteti; Ramesh Babu, Vedangi

    2008-03-01

    Roller pumps are widely used for cardiopulmonary bypass in developing nations by virtue of proven safety during several years of institutional use and cost effectiveness. However, careful adjustment of roller occlusion is needed because they are known to cause spallation, tubing wear, and the occasional incident of rupture of tubing in the extracorporeal circuit. Rupture of polyvinylchloride tubing in the pump raceway during repair of a ventricular septal defect in a 4-year-old child is discussed. The event was managed by exclusion and replacement of the defective tubing during a short period of arrest. Use of an inappropriate boot pump and failure to detect its inclusion in the bypass circuit was a significant departure from protocol. However, because occlusion settings and duration of perfusion were within acceptable limits, a manufacturing flaw could also have contributed to tubing failure, and the event may or may not have been averted by the use of larger tubing. In conclusion, this incident reiterates the need for adherence to established protocol during assembly of the pump and draws attention to the fact that tubing integrity is not a guarantee and vigilance is warranted to handle its failure. PMID:18389670

  13. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePLUS

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    MedlinePLUS

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    MedlinePLUS

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    MedlinePLUS

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    MedlinePLUS

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  20. Home-Based Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

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